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Sample records for crotonic acid

  1. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. A copolymer of vinyl acetate and crotonic acid may be safely used as a coating or as a component of a...

  2. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components...

  3. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS...

  4. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS...

  5. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS...

  6. Tannic acid mitigates the DMBA/croton oil-induced skin cancer progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Majed, Ferial; Rashid, Summya; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Nafees, Sana; Ali, Nemat; Ali, Rashid; Khan, Rehan; Hasan, Syed Kazim; Mehdi, Syed Jafar; Sultana, Sarwat

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and also one of the major causes of death worldwide. The toxic environmental pollutant 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) is a skin-specific carcinogen. Tannic acid (TA) is reported to be effective against various types of chemical-induced toxicities and carcinogenesis as well. In the present study, we have evaluated the therapeutic potential of tannic acid in DMBA + croton oil-induced skin cancer in Swiss albino mice. Protective effect of TA against skin cancer was evaluated in terms of antioxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation, histopathological changes and expression of inflammation and early tumour markers. DMBA + croton oil causes depletion of antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.001) and elevation of early inflammatory and tumour promotional events. TA prevents the DMBA + croton oil-induced toxicity through a protective mechanism that involves the reduction of oxidative stress as well as COX-2, i-NOS, PCNA protein expression and level of proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-6 release at a very significant level (p < 0.001). It could be concluded from our results that TA attenuates DMBA + croton oil-induced tumour promotional potential possibly by inhibiting oxidative and inflammatory responses and acts as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative agent.

  7. Mild pyrolysis of P3HB/Switchgrass blends for the production of bio-oil enriched with crotonic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mild pyrolysis of switchgrass/poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) blends that mimic P3HB-producing switchgrass lines was studied in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor with the goal of simultaneously producing crotonic acid and switchgrass-based bio-oil. Factors such as pyrolysis temperature, residenc...

  8. Solid-state 13C NMR and molecular modeling studies of acetyl aleuritolic acid obtained from Croton cajucara Benth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva San Gil, Rosane Aguiar; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; do Espírito Santo Gomes, Fabiano; de Castro Dantas, Tereza Neuma; Maciel, Maria Aparecida Medeiros

    2008-08-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) and with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to obtain structural data from a sample of acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA) extracted from the stem bark of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) and recrystallized from acetone. Since solid-state 13C NMR results suggested the presence of more than one molecule in the unitary cell for the AAA, DSC analysis and molecular modeling calculations were used to access this possibility. The absence of phase transition peaks in the DSC spectra and the dimeric models of AAA simulated using the semi-empirical PM3 method are in agreement with that proposal.

  9. Chemomodulatory Potential of Bartogenic Acid Against DMBA/Croton Oil Induced Two-Step Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chandragouda R.; Sonara, Bhavin M.; Mahajan, Umesh B.; Patil, Kalpesh R.; Patil, Dipak D.; Jadhav, Ramchandra B.; Goyal, Sameer N.; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-01-01

    Barringtonia racemosa fruits are believed to be useful in cancer treatment in Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine. In present study, bartogenic acid (BA), a triterpenoid constituent of Barringtonia fruits was evaluated for its cytotoxicity property using the human skin carcinoma cell line (SCC-13) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The chemopreventive efficacy of BA was evaluated against the DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.BA was orally administered at the doses of 1, 2 or 4 mg/kg/day or applied topically every day for 12 weeks following DMBA application. The in vitro data from cell lines revealed that BA induces cytotoxicity against the SCC-13 cells (IC50=7.5 µM). It was found 4.05 times more selective to exert cytotoxicity against SCC-13 as compared to the PBMC (IC50=30.4 µM). The in vivo datacollected from mice model of DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis revealed that BA administered orally or applied topically, both reduced the precancerous skin lesions andthe incidence of tumor bearing. The oral doses of BA (2 and 4 mg/kg) and topical treatment significantly reduced the incidence and number of skin papillomas. At these doses, BA also increased the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase and induced an increase in glutathionecontent and inhibited lipid peroxidation in the skin. These findings reveal the chemopreventive efficacy of BA and also demonstrate that it contributes to the cytotoxic and antioxidative effects of Barringtonia racemosa fruits. The study also validates the traditional claims of Barringtonia fruits and provides a scientific basis of its chemopreventive property. PMID:27877231

  10. New cis-clerodane diterpenoids from Croton schiedeanus.

    PubMed

    Puebla, Pilar; Correa, Sofía Ximena; Guerrero, Mario; Carron, Rosalía; San Feliciano, Arturo

    2005-03-01

    The acid fraction of extracts from the aerial part of Croton schiedeanus afforded six cis-clerodane type diterpenoids. Two of them (1 and 4) are new natural compounds. Structural elucidation was achieved on the basis of their spectral data.

  11. Near-infrared and ultraviolet induced isomerization of crotonic acid in N2 and Xe cryomatrices: first observation of two high-energy trans C-O conformers and mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Kuş, Nihal; Fausto, Rui

    2014-12-21

    E-crotonic acid was isolated in cryogenic solid N2 and xenon matrices, and subjected to Laser ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. In the deposited matrices, the two low-energy cis C-O E-cc and E-ct conformers, which are the only forms significantly populated in the gas phase, were observed. UV irradiation (λ= 250 nm) of the compound in N2 matrix allows for experimental detection, not just of the two low-energy cis C-O isomers of Z-crotonic acid previously observed in the experiments carried out in argon matrix [Z-cc and Z-ct; R. Fausto, A. Kulbida, and O. Schrems, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 91, 3755-3770 (1995)] but also of the never observed before high-energy forms of both E- and Z-crotonic acids bearing the carboxylic acid group in the trans arrangement (E-tc and Z-tc conformers). In turn, NIR irradiation experiments in the N2 matrix allow to produce the high-energy E-tc trans C-O conformer in a selective way, from the initially deposited E-cc form. The vibrational signatures of all the 6 rotameric structures of the crotonic acids experimentally observed, including those of the new trans C-O forms, were determined and the individual spectra fully assigned, also with support of theoretically obtained data. On the other hand, as found before for the compound isolated in argon matrix, the experiments performed in xenon matrix failed to experimental detection of the trans C-O forms. This demonstrates that in noble gas matrices these forms are not stable long enough to allow for their observation by steady state spectroscopy techniques. In these matrices, the trans C-O forms convert spontaneously into their cis C-O counterparts, by tunnelling. Some mechanistic details of the studied processes were extracted and discussed.

  12. Near-infrared and ultraviolet induced isomerization of crotonic acid in N{sub 2} and Xe cryomatrices: First observation of two high-energy trans C–O conformers and mechanistic insights

    SciTech Connect

    Kuş, Nihal; Fausto, Rui

    2014-12-21

    E-crotonic acid was isolated in cryogenic solid N{sub 2} and xenon matrices, and subjected to Laser ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. In the deposited matrices, the two low-energy cis C–O E-cc and E-ct conformers, which are the only forms significantly populated in the gas phase, were observed. UV irradiation (λ= 250 nm) of the compound in N{sub 2} matrix allows for experimental detection, not just of the two low-energy cis C–O isomers of Z-crotonic acid previously observed in the experiments carried out in argon matrix [Z-cc and Z-ct; R. Fausto, A. Kulbida, and O. Schrems, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 91, 3755–3770 (1995)] but also of the never observed before high-energy forms of both E- and Z-crotonic acids bearing the carboxylic acid group in the trans arrangement (E-tc and Z-tc conformers). In turn, NIR irradiation experiments in the N{sub 2} matrix allow to produce the high-energy E-tc trans C–O conformer in a selective way, from the initially deposited E-cc form. The vibrational signatures of all the 6 rotameric structures of the crotonic acids experimentally observed, including those of the new trans C–O forms, were determined and the individual spectra fully assigned, also with support of theoretically obtained data. On the other hand, as found before for the compound isolated in argon matrix, the experiments performed in xenon matrix failed to experimental detection of the trans C–O forms. This demonstrates that in noble gas matrices these forms are not stable long enough to allow for their observation by steady state spectroscopy techniques. In these matrices, the trans C–O forms convert spontaneously into their cis C–O counterparts, by tunnelling. Some mechanistic details of the studied processes were extracted and discussed.

  13. Chemical constituents of Croton oligandrum (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Abega, Destaing F; Kapche, Deccaux W F G; Ango, Patrick Y; Mapitse, Renameditswe; Yeboah, Samuel O; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T

    2014-01-01

    A new clerodane diterpene derivative named crotonoligaketone was obtained from the stem bark of Croton oligandrum along with eight known compounds including crotonadiol, imbricatadiol, crotonzambefuran B, 7-acetoxytrachiloban-18-oic acid, 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of their spectral data and by comparison with those reported in the literature.

  14. Characterisation of the Poly-(Vinylpyrrolidone)-Poly-(Vinylacetate-Co-Crotonic Acid) (PVP:PVAc-CA) Interpolymer Complex Matrix Microparticles Encapsulating a Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 Probiotic Strain.

    PubMed

    Mamvura, C I; Moolman, F S; Kalombo, L; Hall, A N; Thantsha, M S

    2011-06-01

    The method of producing poly-(vinylpyrrolidone)-poly-(vinylacetate-co-crotonic acid) (PVP:PVAc-CA) interpolymer complex matrix microparticles in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), encapsulating bacteria, has recently been developed. This study was aimed at probing the external and internal structure of these microparticles, which can be used in food. The encapsulation efficiency and distribution of encapsulated Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 within these microparticles were also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed irregular, mostly small, smooth microparticles with no visible bacterial cells on the surface. However, some of the microparticles appeared to have porous surfaces. The results of a Microtrac S3500 particle size analyzer showed that the PVP:PVAc-CA interpolymer complex matrix microparticles encapsulating B. lactis Bb12 had an average particle size of 166.1 μm (<350 μm designated standard size for microparticles). The D 10, D 50 and D 90 values for these microparticles were 48.16, 166.06 and 382.55 μm, respectively. Both SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a high density of bacterial cells within the microparticles. An average encapsulation efficiency of 96% was achieved. Consequently, the microparticles have the potential to be evenly distributed in foods, deliver adequate amounts of probiotics and produce minimal adverse effects on the texture and mouth feel of the foods into which they are incorporated.

  15. Oral administration of whole dihomo-γ-linolenic acid-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae suppresses cutaneous inflammatory responses induced by croton oil application in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naoko; Masubuchi, Daiki; Itoh, Maki; Teradu, Soichiro; Yazawa, Hisashi; Uemura, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been attracting considerable interest because of their many biological activities and important roles in human health and nutrition. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA; C20: 3n-6) is known to have an anti-inflammatory activity, but its range of effects was not well studied because of its limited natural sources. Taking advantage of genetic tractability and increasing wealth of accessible data of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have previously constructed a DGLA-producing yeast strain by introducing two types of desaturase and one elongase genes to convert endogenous oleic acid (C18:1n-9) to DGLA. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of oral intake of heat-killed whole DGLA-producing yeast cells in the absence of lipid purification on cutaneous inflammation. Topical application of croton oil to mouse ears induces ear swelling in parallel with the increased production of chemokines and accumulation of infiltrating cells into the skin sites. These inflammatory reactions were significantly suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by oral intake of the DGLA-producing yeast cells for only 7 days. This suppression was not observed by the intake of the γ-linolenic acid-producing (C18:3n-6, an immediate precursor of DGLA) yeast, indicating DGLA itself suppressed the inflammation. Further analysis demonstrated that DGLA exerted an anti-inflammatory effect via prostaglandin E1 formation because naproxen, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, attenuated the suppression. Since 25-fold of purified DGLA compared with that provided as a form of yeast was not effective, oral administration of the whole DGLA-producing yeast is considered to be a simple but efficient method to suppress inflammatory responses.

  16. Diterpenoid derivatives of Kenyan Croton sylvaticus.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Midiwo, Jacob O; Omosa, Leonidah K

    2015-04-01

    Kenyan Croton sylvaticus Hochst. ex Krauss gave four clerodane diterpenoids, the new ent-3,13E-clerodadiene-15-formate (1), the known 15-acetoxy-ent-3,13E-clerodadiene (2), ent-3,13E-clerodadien-15-ol (3) and hardwickiic acid (4), two known halimane diterpenoids, penduliflaworosin (5) and crotohalimaneic acid (6) and one labdane diterpenoid, labda-13E-ene-8a,15-diol (7). The compounds, when tested for their anti-microbial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Xanthomonas campestris and Candida albicans, were found to be inactive.

  17. New 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from Croton micans.

    PubMed

    Mateu, Elsa; Chavez, Katiuska; Riina, Ricarda; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Delle Monache, Franco; Suárez, Alírica I

    2012-01-01

    From the stems of Croton micans Sw., five new 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers: micansinoic acid (1), isomicansinoic acid (2), and the dimethyl (3), monomethyl (4) and monoethyl ester (5) of micansinoic acid were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS. These compounds are the first 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from a Croton species.

  18. Crotofolane diterpenoids from Croton caracasanus.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Katiuska; Compagnoneb, Reinaldo S; Riina, Ricarda; Briceño, Alexander; González, Teresa; Squitieri, Emilio; Landaetab, Carlos; Soscrún, Humberto; Suáreza, Alírica I

    2013-12-01

    Four new crotofolane-type diterpenoids, crotocarasin (A-D) (1-4), together with the known crotofolin E, were isolated from a dichloromethane extract of the stems of Croton caracasanus Pittier. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, and the structure of 3 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray data analyses.

  19. [GC-MS analysis of chemical components in seeds oil from Croton tiglium].

    PubMed

    Lan, Mei; Wan, Ping; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Huang, Xiao-Lan

    2012-07-01

    To identify the chemical components and their relative content in seeds oil from Croton tiglium. The oil obtained by extracting of the seeds of Croton tiglium with petroleum ether was subjected to methyl-esterification or dilution with ethylether. GC-MS were used to identify the components in croton oil,peak area normalization method was used to determine the relative content of these substances in the sample. Seventeen fat acid components were identified from croton oil. The main components were linoleic acid, oleic acid, and eicosenoic acid in methyl-esterified sample, whose quantities accouted for 77.33%. In addition, five aromatic compounds were also found in the sample diluted with ethylether, such as isoborneol, fenchyl alcohol, etc. Phorbol esters, having carcinogenesis and anti-HIV-1 effects, were not been identified. There are abundant of linoleic acid, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid in the seeds oil extracted from Chinese Croton tiglium. In contrast, the active component with carcinogenesis and anti-HIV-1 might be very rare in the samples and difficult to be obtained by ordinary separating and extracting methods.

  20. Diterpenes and other constituents from Croton draco (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Murillo, R M; Jakupovic, J; Rivera, J; Castro, V H

    2001-03-01

    Croton draco (Euphorbiaceae) from Guadalupe, San José, Costa Rica was collected in July 1992 and phytochemically studied (leaves, seeds, wood, bark, sap and flowers separately). Commonly known compounds such as 1-hydroxyjunenol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamyl alcohol, the coumarin scopoletin, the nor-terpenoids 9-dehydrovomifoliol and 2,3-dihydrovomifoliol were obtained. Taspine, two aporphinic alkaloids, the diterpenes 9(11)-dehydrokaurenic acid, hardwikiic acid, the corresponding new 12-oxo derivative as well as five clerodanes and a phorbol ester were also isolated. Three clerodanes were not previously described and their NMR spectroscopical data and MS fragmentation patterns are reported.

  1. Chemical composition and amoebicidal activity of Croton pallidulus, Croton ericoides, and Croton isabelli (Euphorbiaceae) essential oils.

    PubMed

    Vunda, Sita Luvangadio Lukoki; Sauter, Ismael Pretto; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Bordignon, Sérgio A Loreto; Rott, Marilise Brittes; Apel, Miriam A; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2012-09-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoebae genus that causes amoebic keratitis which is a painful sight-threatening disease of the eyes. Its treatment is difficult, and the search for new drugs is very important. Here, essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Croton pallidulus, Croton isabelli, and Croton ericoides (Euphorbiaceae), native plants of Southern Brazil, were tested against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oils of C. pallidulus and C. isabelli were characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenes: germacrene D (15.5 %), terpinen-4-ol (13.2 %), and β-caryophyllene (13.1 %) in C. pallidulus and bicyclogermacrene (48.9 %) in C. isabelli. The essential oil of C. ericoides presented mainly monoterpenes, β-pinene (39.0 %) being the main component. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the effect of the essential oils against A. polyphaga trophozoites. The essential oil of C. ericoides was the most active, killing 87 % of trophozoites at the concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The essential oil of C. pallidulus killed only 29 % of the trophozoites at the same concentration. The essential oil of C. isabelli presented the lowest activity, killing only 4 % of the trophozoites at the concentration of 10 mg/mL. The essential oils of the three species showed cytotoxic effect by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method in Vero cells. The oil of C. ericoides, which showed the highest amoebicidal activity, was the most cytotoxic on these mammalian cells.

  2. A new triterpenoid saponin from the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Lei; Pan, Bo; Li, Dian-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl spathodic acid (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth., together with four known compounds. These compounds were characterised on the basis of their spectral data and compatible with values in the literature. Compound 1 was the first triterpenoid glucoside isolated from the genus Croton. The known compound myriaboric acid (2) showed cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line with an IC50 value of 42.2 μM.

  3. Neo-clerodane diterpenoids from Croton schiedeanus.

    PubMed

    Puebla, Pilar; López, Jose L; Guerrero, Mario; Carrón, Rosalía; Martín, M Luisa; San Román, Luis; San Feliciano, Arturo

    2003-02-01

    Two new neo-clerodane type furano diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial part of Croton schiedeanus, besides the clerodane diterpenes cis- and trans-dehydrocrotonin, previously isolated from other species of Croton. Structural elucidation was achieved on basis of extensive NMR experiments, including X-ray diffraction analysis and molecular mechanics calculations. The previously known flavonoids ayanin and quercetin-3,7-dimethyl ether were also obtained from the extract of this plant.

  4. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Croton malambo bark aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Alírica I; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Salazar-Bookaman, Maria M; Tillett, Stephen; Delle Monache, Franco; Di Giulio, Camilo; Bruges, Gustavo

    2003-09-01

    Croton malambo (K.) bark aqueous extract, popularly known in Venezuela as "palomatias" or "torco" was tested for acute toxicity and for its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects using tail flick and writhing syndrome tests models, respectively. Croton malambo aqueous extract (6.15 mg/kg i.p.) administered intraperitoneally had a significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects compared to acetylsalicylic acid (200mg/kg p.o.) and sodium diclofenac (5.64 mg/kg p.o.). Studies to determine correlation between chemical composition and pharmacological activity are underway.

  5. Cytotoxic Orbitide from the Latex of Croton urucurana.

    PubMed

    Cândido-Bacani, Priscila de M; Figueiredo, Patrícia de O; Matos, Maria de F C; Garcez, Fernanda R; Garcez, Walmir S

    2015-11-25

    The bioactive ethyl acetate phase obtained from the latex of Croton urucurana Baillon afforded a novel orbitide (1), [1-9-NαC]-crourorb A1, that proved active against NCI-ADR/RES (ovary, multidrug-resistance phenotype) cells with the same potency as doxorubicin (positive control) and inactive up to the highest concentration tested against nontumor NIH/3T3 cells. The structure elucidation was based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, further supported by HRESIMS data and by application of Marfey's method for determination of the absolute configuration of its amino acid residues. This is the first orbitide obtained from C. urucurana.

  6. Bioactive diterpenoids from Croton laevigatus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Sheng; Tang, Ya-Qi; Huang, Jia-Luo; Li, Wei; Zou, Yi-Hong; Tang, Gui-Hua; Liu, Bo; Yin, Sheng

    2017-09-18

    Eight previously undescribed diterpenoids, crolaevinoids A-H, including two halimanes, four clerodanes, and two laevinanes, along with six known analogues were isolated from the twigs of Croton laevigatus. The structures of the previously undescribed were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by combination of a single crystal X-ray diffraction and CD analysis (exciton chirality and Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced methods). Crolaevinoids A and B represent the first halimane diterpenoids with a unique lactone bridge between C-12 and C-17. All compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Furocrotinsulolide A and 3,4,15,16-diepoxy-cleroda-13(16),14-diene-12,17-olide exhibited pronounced inhibition of NO production with IC50 values of 10.4 ± 0.8 and 6.0 ± 1.0 μM, respectively, being more potent than the positive control, quercetin (IC50 = 13.1 ± 1.9 μM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 16. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. SECTION OF THE CROTON AQUEDUCT, PLATE V, PAGE 86. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  8. 33. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT CLENDINNING VALLEY, PLATE XXI, PAGE 113. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  9. 10. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. SECTIONS OF THE CROTON AQUEDUCT, PLATES I, II, III, IV, PAGE 84 - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  10. Complete nucleotide sequence of a begomovirus and associated betasatellite infecting croton (Croton bonplandianus) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Khadim; Hussain, Mazhar; Mansoor, Shahid; Briddon, Rob W

    2011-06-01

    The complete sequences of a begomovirus and an associated betasatellite isolated from Croton bonplandianus originating from Pakistan were determined. The sequence of the begomovirus showed the highest level of nucleotide sequence identity (88.9%) to an isolate of papaya leaf curl virus and thus represents a new species, for which we propose the name Croton yellow vein virus (CYVV). The sequence of the betasatellite showed the highest levels of sequence identity (82 to 98.4%) to six sequences in the databases that have yet to be reported, followed by isolates of tomato leaf curl Joydebpur betasatellite (48.7 to 52.5%). This indicates that the betasatellite identified here (and the six sequences in the databases) is an isolate of a newly identified species for which the name Croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite (CroYVMB) is proposed. For the begomovirus, an analysis of the sequence indicates that it has a recombinant origin.

  11. Detoxification of Croton tiglium L. seeds by Ayurvedic process of Śodhana

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Prince Kumar; Nandi, Manmath Kumar; Singh, Narendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Croton tiglium seeds, known as Jamālgoṭa in Hindi, Marathi, and Urdu is well-known for its toxicity (severe purgative action). In Ayurvedic texts, the plant is known as Kumbhinī and is used for the treatment of constipation after Śodhana (detoxification process) of the seeds with Godugdha (cow milk). Material and Methods: In the present study, C. tiglium seeds were purified with cow milk as reported in Ayurvedic classics. Phorbol esters equivalent to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and crotonic acid contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography method in the seeds of C. tiglium before and after the purification process. Results: The content of the phorbol ester equivalent to PMA in unpurified and purified sample was found to be 5.2 mg/100 g and 1.8 mg/100 g of dried seeds of C. tiglium, respectively. The quantity of crotonic acid in unpurified seeds of C. tiglium was found to be 0.102 mg/100 g of dried seeds while it was absent in the purified seed extract of C. tiglium. Conclusion: The toxicity of C. tiglium seeds may be due to the presence of phorbol esters and crotonic acid along with other constituents. These constituents are oil soluble and may be removed by cow milk during the process of Śodhana. Reduction in the level of these constituents after the purification decreases the toxicity of C. tiglium seeds. Reduction in the oily content from the seeds of C. tiglium during the purification process is also supported by the results obtained from the physiochemical parameters. PMID:25538350

  12. New clerodane diterpenoids from Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Maosong; Cao, Di; Gao, Youheng; Li, Shuhua; Zhu, Jinping; Yang, Bao; Zhou, Lian; Zhou, Yuan; Jin, Jing; Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Two new clerodane diterpenoids (1-2), one new clerodane diterpenoid alkaloid (3), as well as thirteen known compounds were isolated from Croton crassifolius. The structures of new compounds were established by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including HRMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (1)H (1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 3 is firstly reported as the clerodane-type diterpenoid alkaloid in natural products. All of the compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against CT26.WT cell using the MTT method.

  13. New Cytotoxic Tigliane Diterpenoids from Croton caudatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Yang, Kun-Xian; Yang, Xing-Wei; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Lu; Wang, Bei; Zhao, Yun-Li; Liu, Ya-Ping; Li, Yan; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Three new tigliane-type diterpenoids were isolated from the methanolic extract of the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus, trivially named crotusins A-C (1-3). The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral methods. These new compounds were highly oxygenated and heavily substituted. Cytotoxic activity against five human tumor cell lines was assessed for compounds 1-3 of which compound 3 showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.49 to 4.19 µM against these cells, while crotusins A and B exhibited moderate activity.

  14. 40 CFR 180.341 - 2,4-Dinitro-6-octylphenyl crotonate and 2,6-dinitro-4-octylphenyl crotonate; tolerances for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.341 2,4-Dinitro-6-octylphenyl...-octylphenyl crotonate and 2,6-dinitro-4-octylphenyl crotonate in or on raw agricultural commodities as...

  15. An improved preparation of phorbol from croton oil.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Alberto; Gaeta, Simone; Savchenko, Andrei I; Williams, Craig M; Appendino, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Background: Croton oil is the only commercial source of the diterpenoid phorbol (1a), the starting material for the semi-synthesis of various diesters extensively used in biomedical research to investigate cell function and to evaluate in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. While efficient chemoselective esterification protocols have been developed for phorbol, its isolation from croton oil is technically complicated, and involves extensive manipulation of very toxic materials like the oil or its native diterpenoid fraction. Results: The preparation of a crude non-irritant phorboid mixture from croton oil was telescoped to only five operational steps, and phorbol could then be purified by gravity column chromatography and crystallization. Evidence is provided that two distinct phorboid chemotypes of croton oil exist, differing in the relative proportion of type-A and type-B esters and showing different stability to deacylation. Conclusion: The isolation of phorbol from croton oil is dangerous because of the toxic properties of the oil, poorly reproducible because of differences in its phorboid profile, and time-consuming because of the capricious final crystallization step. A solution for these issues is provided, suggesting that the poor-reproducibility of croton oil-based anti-inflammatory assays are the result of poor quality and/or inconsistent composition of croton oil.

  16. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Brasil, Davi Do Socorro Barros; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum. PMID:26246738

  17. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Barros Brasil, Davi Do Socorro; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum. PMID:27041867

  18. 40 CFR 180.341 - 2,4-Dinitro-6-octylphenyl crotonate and 2,6-dinitro-4-octylphenyl crotonate; tolerances for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and 2,6-dinitro-4-octylphenyl crotonate; tolerances for residues. 180.341 Section 180.341 Protection... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.341 2,4-Dinitro-6-octylphenyl crotonate and 2,6-dinitro-4-octylphenyl crotonate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances...

  19. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Chien; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Wen-Ju; Yap, Hui-Yi; Wang, Shao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing.

  20. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  1. 26. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. ENTABLATURE OVER THE ENTRANCE TO THE AQUEDUCT, PLATE X, PAGE 96 - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  2. 34. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. AQUEDUCT BRIDGE AT CLENDINNING VALLEY, PLAE XXII, PAGE 114. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  3. 29. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. AQUEDUCT BRIDGE FOR ROADWAY, PROBABLY JUST NORTH OF TARRYTOWN, PLATE XIV, PAGE 103. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  4. Bio-based n-butanol prepared from poly-3-hydroxybutyrate: optimization of the reduction of n-butyl crotonate to n-butanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using metabolic engineering approaches, the biopolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) can be over-produced in organisms such as bacteria and plants such as switchgrass. Thermolysis of P3HB, either in isolated form or within biomass, yields crotonic acid. It is a potential bio-derived platform chemic...

  5. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as “copalchi” in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  6. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract.

  7. Bioactive constituents from Croton sparsiflorus Morong.

    PubMed

    Shahwar, Durre; Ahmad, Naeem; Yasmeen, Asma; Khan, Muhammad Akmal; Ullah, Sami; Rahman, Atta-ur

    2015-02-01

    Whole plant extracts of Croton sparsiflorus in methanol have shown significant enzyme inhibition and antioxidant activities. Bioassay-guided isolation of chloroform fraction at pH 3 resulted in the identification of crotsparinine (1) and crotsparine (2), while sparsiflorine (3) was purified from the chloroform fraction at pH 9. The structures of the compounds were confirmed through spectral analyses (EI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR). The isolated compounds 1-3 exhibited remarkable enzyme inhibition activity with IC50 values 27.01 ± 1.1, 22.26 ± 1.0 and 18.02 ± 1.3 μM in xanthine oxidase and 48.42 ± 1.5, 48.05 ± 1.4 and 7.42 ± 1.0 μM in acetylcholine esterase assays, respectively. These compounds also showed potent radical scavenging and reducing properties in DPPH and FRAP assays, respectively. The present results suggest the validity of the traditional uses of C. sparsiflorus in rheumatism and gout. Furthermore, the isolated noraporphine alkaloids can be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Crotogossamide, a cyclic nonapeptide from the latex of Croton gossypifolius.

    PubMed

    Quintyne-Walcott, Simone; Maxwell, Anderson R; Reynolds, William F

    2007-08-01

    A new cyclic nonapeptide, crotogossamide (1), was isolated from the latex of Croton gossypifolius. Its structure was elucidated by use of 1D and 2D NMR and MS and by hydrolysis followed by GC-MS analysis as cyclo(-Gly(1)-Ala(2)-Ser(3)-Gly(4)-Leu(5)-Asn(6)-Gly(7)-Ile(8)-Phe(9)-). This is the first report of a cyclic peptide from a Croton species. The known flavonoids kaempferol 3-O-rhamnopyranoside, quercitrin, and myricitrin were also isolated from the plant latex.

  9. Cytotoxic 3,4-seco-Atisane Diterpenoids from Croton barorum and Croton goudotii.

    PubMed

    Rakotonandrasana, Olga L; Raharinjato, Fanja H; Rajaonarivelo, Mialy; Dumontet, Vincent; Martin, Marie-Thérèse; Bignon, Jérôme; Rasoanaivo, Philippe

    2010-10-22

    In a screening program directed to the discovery of new anticancer agents from Madagascan plants, ethyl acetate extracts of Croton barorum and C. goudotii showed strong cytotoxic activity, with 100% inhibition at 10 μg/mL in a primary screen using the murine lymphocytic leukemia P388 cell line. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new 3,4-seco-atisane diterpenoids, crotobarin (1) and crotogoudin (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. Compounds 1 and 2 produced a net progression in the number of cells arrested at the G2/M growth stage in the cell cycle of the K562 human leukemia cell line at 4 μM.

  10. Dragon's blood Croton palanostigma induces genotoxic effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Maistro, Edson Luis; Ganthous, Giulia; Machado, Marina da Silva; Zermiani, Tailyn; Andrade, Sérgio Faloni de; Rosa, Paulo Cesar Pires; Perazzo, Fabio Ferreira

    2013-05-20

    Dragon's blood is a dark-red sap produced by species from the genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae), which has been used as a famous traditional medicine since ancient times in many countries, with scarce data about its safe use in humans. In this research, we studied genotoxicity and clastogenicity of Croton palanostigma sap using the comet assay and micronucleus test in cells of mice submitted to acute treatment. HPLC analysis was performed to identify the main components of the sap. The sap was administered by oral gavage at doses of 300 mg/kg, 1,000 mg/kg and 2,000 mg/kg. For the analysis, the comet assay was performed on the leukocytes and liver cells collected 24h after treatment, and the micronucleus test (MN) on bone marrow cells. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring 200 consecutive polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes (PCE/NCE ratio). The alkaloid taspine was the main compound indentified in the crude sap of Croton palanostigma. The results of the genotoxicity assessment show that all sap doses tested produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes and liver cells and also produced clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells of mice at the two higher doses tested. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. The data obtained suggest caution in the use of Croton palanostigma sap by humans considering its risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enzymes involved in crotonate metabolism in Syntrophomonas wolfei

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.; Wofford, N.Q.

    1992-12-31

    Cell-free extracts of Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. wolfei grown with crotonate in pure culture or in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei contained crotonyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase activity. This activity was not detected in cell-free extracts from the butyrate-grown coculture which suggests that the long lag times observed before S. wolfei grew with crotonate were initially due to the inability to activate crotonate. Cell-free extracts of S. wolfei grown in pure culture contained high specific activities of hydrogenase and very low levels of formate dehydrogenase. The low levels suggest a biosynthetic rather than a catabolic role for the latter enzyme when S. wolfei is grown in pure culture. CO dehydrogenase activity was not detected. S. wolfei can form butyrate using a CoA transferase activity, but not by a phosphotransbutyrylase or enoate reductase activity. A c-type cytochrome was detected in S. wolfei grown in pure culture or in coculture indicating the presence of an electron transport system. This is a characteristic which separates S. wolfei from other known crotonate-using bacteria.

  12. Why are the Wetland and Surface Waters Sometimes Colored in the Croton Watershed (New York)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, D. I.; Otz, M.; Otz, I.; McKenzie, J. M.; Hassett, J.; Bartos, J.; Tedorov, S.; Flusche, M. A.; Lesniak, K. A.; Tasillo, J.; Cuomo, D.

    2001-05-01

    The Croton Reservoir that provides water to New York City periodically has color problems in late fall. Consequently, a synoptic sampling of 92 streams draining wetlands in the watershed was done to determine whether water color is related to dissolved organic carbon, iron and manganese concentrations. In addition, major solute concentrations were measured to evaluate overall surface-water quality. Gelbstoff color (at 440nm wavelength) and platinum-cobalt color are well correlated. These measures of color also correlate to dissolved organic carbon and dissolved iron concentrations. Proportions of sodium and chloride in surface waters are identical to that of road salt. The tight covariance between Na and Cl reflects simple dilution. A plot of chloride and nitrate concentrations also shows a direct relationship, but with substantial scatter. This scatter probably reflects biochemical processing of nitrate and different amounts of nitrate and salt contributed to subwatersheds at different scales. The Croton watershed is underlain by metasedimentary and crystalline rocks, and minor marble overlain by thin glacial drift. Concentrations of Ca and Mg are greater than that predicted by alkalinity equivalence, based on simple dissolution of carbonate minerals by carbonic acid. These greater base cation concentrations supports the hypothesis that silicate minerals provide most of the base cations in the watershed, except for the sodium released by dissolving road salt.

  13. Gas-phase oxidation of methyl crotonate and ethyl crotonate. kinetic study of their reactions toward OH radicals and Cl atoms.

    PubMed

    Teruel, Mariano A; Benitez-Villalba, Julio; Caballero, Norma; Blanco, María B

    2012-06-21

    Rate coefficients for the reactions of hydroxyl radicals and chlorine atoms with methyl crotonate and ethyl crotonate have been determined at 298 K and atmospheric pressure. The decay of the organics was monitored using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and the rate constants were determined using the relative rate method with different reference compounds. Room temperature rate coeficcients were found to be (in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): k(1)(OH + CH(3)CH═CHC(O)OCH(3)) = (4.65 ± 0.65) × 10(-11), k(2)(Cl + CH(3)CH═CHC(O)OCH(3)) = (2.20 ± 0.55) × 10(-10), k(3)(OH + CH(3)CH═CHC(O)OCH(2)CH(3)) = (4.96 ± 0.61) × 10(-11), and k(4)(Cl + CH(3)CH═CHC(O)OCH(2)CH(3)) = (2.52 ± 0.62) × 10(-10) with uncertainties representing ±2σ. This is the first determination of k(1), k(3), and k(4) under atmospheric pressure. The rate coefficients are compared with previous determinations for other unsaturated and oxygenated VOCs and reactivity trends are presented. In addition, a comparison between the experimentally determined k(OH) with k(OH) predicted from k vs E(HOMO) relationships is presented. On the other hand, product identification under atmospheric conditions has been performed for the first time for these unsaturated esters by the GC-MS technique in NO(x)-free conditions. 2-Hydroxypropanal, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and formic acid were positively observed as degradation products in agreement with the addition of OH to C2 and C3 of the double bond, followed by decomposition of the 2,3- or 3,2-hydroxyalkoxy radicals formed. Atmospheric lifetimes, based on of the homogeneous sinks of the unsaturated esters studied, are estimated from the kinetic data obtained in the present work.

  14. Two new natural products from Croton kongensis Gagnep.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Meng, Zhaoqing; Li, Zhaoliang; Yang, Biao; Wang, Zhenzhong; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A new diterpenoid, 14β-hydroxy-3-oxo-ent-kaur-16-ene (1), and a new nor-lignan, 8S-( - )-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl)-dihydrofuran-8(8'H)-one (4), along with five known compounds were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Croton kongensis Gagnep. Their isolations were clarified and structures were elucidated by the extensive spectroscopic analyses, especially 2D NMR experiments.

  15. A Novel Norclerodane Diterpenoid from the Roots of Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan-Xin; Li, Hui-Hong; Fan, Gai-Xia; Li, Zheng-Yu; Dong, Le-Le; Li, Hong-Yu; Fei, Dong-Qing

    2015-11-01

    A chemical investigation of Croton crassifolius afforded a novel norclerodane diterpenoid (1) with an unprecedented six-membered oxygen ring between C-1 and C-12, together with three known compounds. The structure of the new compound was elucidated based on spectroscopic (IR, 1D, and 2D NMR) and HR-ESI-MS techniques. This report describes the first example of a natural norclerodane with a 4H-chromene ring system.

  16. Pyran-2-one Derivatives from the Roots of Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weihuan; Wang, Jiajian; Liang, Yeyin; Li, Yaolan; Wang, Guocai

    2016-06-01

    One new pyran-2-one derivative [crotonpyrone C (1)] and two known ones (2-3) were isolated from the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of the roots of Croton crassifolius. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic (IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR) and HRESIMS methods. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-angiogenic activity using a zebrafish model, but showed little activity.

  17. Structure elucidation of casbane diterpenes from Croton argyrophyllus.

    PubMed

    e Silva-Filho, Francisco Artur; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Lima, Mary Anne Sousa

    2011-06-01

    Two novel casbane diterpenes 1-hydroxy-(2E,6Z,12E)-casba-2,6,12-triene-4,5-dione (1) and 6E,12E-casba-1,3,6,12-tetraen-1,4-epoxy-5-one (2) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the stems of Croton argyrophyllus. Structural characterization including the relative stereochemistry of all compounds was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS.

  18. New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M. G. Gilbert.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Mulholland, Dulcie A; Eastman, Harry; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Walker, Larry A; Muhammad, Ilias; Kerubo, Leonidah O; Midiwo, Jacob O

    2016-07-01

    The roots of the endangered medicinal plant Croton megalocarpoides collected in Kenya were investigated and twenty-two compounds isolated. Among them were twelve new ent-clerodane (1-12) and a new abietane (13) diterpenoids, alongside the known crotocorylifuran (4 a), two known abietane and four known ent-trachylobane diterpenoids, and the triterpenoids, lupeol and acetyl aleurotolic acid. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, HRMS and ECD. The isolated compounds were evaluated against a series of microorganisms (fungal and bacteria) and also against Plasmodium falciparum, however no activity was observed.

  19. 2. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f smithIllistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f smithIllistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. TITLE PAGE. SHOWS N.Y.C. FOUNTAIN MADE POSSIBLE BY THE AQUEDUCT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  20. 27. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. TUNNEL AND GATE CHAMBER AT THE HEAD OF THE AQUEDUCT, PLATE VII, PAGE 92. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  1. Environmental Impact Research Program. Doveweeds (Croton supp.) Section 7.4.2, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    woolly croton (C. capitatus), common or tropic croton (C. glandutosus), one- seed croton or prairie tea (C. monanthogynus), Texas doveweed (C. texensis...Distribution and distinguishing characteristics of woolly croton (Croton capitatus): (a) flowering branch, (b) fruit, and (c) seeds 4 ovary is 3-celled...and the capsule is 3-celled and 3- seeded except for C. monanthogynus, which is 1- seeded . When seeds mature in late fall, they are forcefully ejected

  2. Complement inhibiting properties of dragon's blood from Croton draco.

    PubMed

    Tsacheva, Ivanka; Rostan, Joerg; Iossifova, Tania; Vogler, Bernhard; Odjakova, Mariela; Navas, Hernan; Kostova, Ivanka; Kojouharova, Michaela; Kraus, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The latex of Croton draco, its extracts and several latex components have been investigated for their influence on both classical (CP) and alternative (AP) activation pathways of the complement system using a hemolytic assay. The best inhibition was found for the classical pathway. The latex, ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extracts exhibited extremely high inhibition on the CP (94, 90 and 77%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The flavonoid myricitrin, the alkaloid taspine and the cyclopeptides P1 and P2 showed high inhibition on CP (83, 91, 78 and 63%, respectively) at a concentration of 0.9 mM.

  3. Diterpenoids from Croton laui and their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-Ping; Xu, Jin-Biao; Zhao, Jin-Xin; Xu, Cheng-Hui; Dong, Lei; Ding, Jian; Yue, Jian-Min

    2014-04-25

    Fourteen new diterpenoids including clerodane (1-12), labdane (13), and norlabdane (14) types, as well as nine known analogues were isolated from the aerial parts of Croton laui. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, and that of crotonolide H (11) was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Crotonolide A (1) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against two tumor cell lines, HL-60 (human premyelocytic leukemia, IC50 9.42 μM) and P-388 (murine leukemia, IC50 7.45 μM), and crotonolide G (10) displayed significant antibacterial activity against a panel of Gram-positive bacteria.

  4. Conversion of polyhydroxyalkanoates to methyl crotonate using whole cells.

    PubMed

    Spekreijse, J; Holgueras Ortega, J; Sanders, J P M; Bitter, J H; Scott, E L

    2016-07-01

    Isolated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be used to produce biobased bulk chemicals. However, isolation is complex and costly. To circumvent this, whole cells containing PHA may be used. Here, PHA containing 3-hydroxybutyrate and small amounts of 3-hydroxyvalerate was produced from wastewater and used in the conversion of the 3-hydroxybutyrate monomer to methyl crotonate. Due to the increased complexity of whole cell reaction mixtures compared to pure PHA, the effect of 3-hydroxyvalerate content, magnesium salts and water content was studied in order to evaluate the need for downstream processing. A water content up to 20% and the presence of 3-hydroxyvalerate have no influence on the conversion of the 3-hydroxybutyrate to methyl crotonate. The presence of Mg(2+)-ions resulted either in an increased yield or in byproduct formation depending on the counter ion. Overall, it is possible to bypass a major part of the downstream processing of PHA for the production of biobased chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its major constituent anethole display gastroprotective effect by increasing the surface mucous layer.

    PubMed

    Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina N; Lahlou, Saad; Barreto, João E F; Yum, Maria E M; Oliveira, Ariclécio C; Oliveira, Hermógenes D; Celedônio, Nathalia R; Feitosa, Roney G F; Duarte, Gloria P; Santos, Cláudia F; de Albuquerque, Aline A C; Leal-Cardoso, José H

    2013-06-01

    Croton zehntneri, a plant native to northeastern Brazil, is widely used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal problems and has rich essential oil content. The effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (EOCZ) and its main constituent anethole on several models of gastric lesions were studied in mice and rats. Oral treatment with EOCZ and anethole, both at doses of 30-300 mg/kg, caused similar and dose-dependent gastroprotection against ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric damage, but did not change cold-restraint stress-induced ulcers in rats. Furthermore, EOCZ and anethole (both at 30 and 300 mg/kg) similarly and significantly increased the mucus production by the gastric mucosa, measured by Alcian blue binding, in ethanol-induced ulcer model. However, at the same doses, neither EOCZ nor anethole promoted significant alteration in gastric production of non-protein sulfhydryl groups. In pylorus-ligated model, neither EOCZ nor anethole (both at 30 and 300 mg/kg) had a significant effect on the volume of gastric juice, pH, or total acidity. The results of this study show for the first time that EOCZ possesses a gastroprotective potential, an effect mostly attributed to the action of anethole. This activity is related predominantly to the ability of EOCZ and anethole to enhance the production of gastric wall mucus, an important gastroprotective factor. Furthermore, they suggest that EOCZ has potential therapeutic application for the treatment of gastric ulcers.

  6. Low anti-ulcerogenic potentials of essential oils and methanolic extract of Croton zambesicus leaves

    PubMed Central

    Akinlolu, Adelaja Abdulazeez; Kamaldeen, Ghazali Olaide; Francis, Deborah; Ameen, Mubarak Oloduowo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the anti-ulcer properties of Croton zambesicus leaves. Materials and Methods: Group I was control. 40 mg/kg/bodyweight of indomethacin (the ulcerogen) was administered to rats of Groups II-VII. 4 h after administrations of ulcerogen; rats of Groups III-VII were treated daily with oral administrations of 40 mg/kg/bodyweight of omeprazole, 5 and 10 mg/kg/bodyweight of essential oils, 250 and 500 mg/kg bodyweight of methanolic extract of C. zambesicus leaves respectively for 4 days. Rats were euthanized on day 1 (Group II) and day 5 (Groups I and III-VII); thereafter, stomach and liver samples were removed for evaluations of gastric acidity, histopathological and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) status. Results: Analyses of gastric acid assays and histopathological examinations showed dose-dependent statistically significant higher levels (P ≤ 0.05) of gastric acidity and non-restorations of the gastric mucosa layer to pre-ulceration states in rats of Groups IV-VII treated with extract doses when compared to Group III. Statistically non-significant (Group IV) or significant (Groups V-VII) higher ALT levels (P ≤ 0.05) were observed in liver samples of rats treated with doses of essential oils and methanolic extract of C. zambesicus leaves when compared to Group II. Conclusion: Our study observed low anti-ulcerogenic potentials of doses of essential oils and methanolic extracts of C. zambesicus leaves. PMID:26401355

  7. Two new cembranoids from the leaves of Croton longissimus Airy Shaw.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Susumu; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Lhieochaiphant, Duangporn; Lhieochaiphant, Sorasak

    2013-04-01

    Two new cembrane-type diterpenoids (1 and 2) along with five known compounds (3-7) were isolated from leaves of Croton longissimus collected in Thailand. Their structures were elucidated from spectroscopic evidence and compound 4 was found by HPLC analysis to be identical to oblongionoside B-a compound isolated from Croton oblongifolius-including the absolute configuration at the C-9 position.

  8. "Ray-intrusive" laticifers in species of Croton section Cyclostigma (Euphorbiaceae)

    Treesearch

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Ricarda Riina; Paul E. Berry

    2009-01-01

    A description of the occurrence and structure of “ray-intrusive” laticifers in the rays of species of Croton section Cyclostigma is provided. The systematic significance of laticifers within Croton section Cyclostigma is briefly discussed in relation to the section’s known production of red latex, commonly called “dragon’s blood”. A developmental hypothesis is offered...

  9. An examination of the phenol-croton oil peel: Part II. The lay peelers and their croton oil formulas.

    PubMed

    Hetter, G P

    2000-01-01

    From the turn of the century, lay face peelers, known as "skinners," ran "beautifier" salons. Beginning in the 1920s, lay peelers were using croton oil-phenol formulas in Hollywood. These persons were renowned, made a good living, and treated many, if not most, of the leading "stars" of the day. They had a treatment, a "secret," that physicians did not. Physicians brought their own wives to the peelers for their expertise. The leading lay peel personalities from the 1920s through to our time are presented. The lay peelers dominated the field until the 1960s, when legal attacks on them, often directly instigated by the newly educated physician peelers, put them at a legal disadvantage. Nevertheless, there was considerable interaction with many plastic surgeons along the way. Some plastic surgeons came into possession of the techniques and some also into knowledge of the ingredients in a formula. The author has presented the recipes of four of the renowned lay peelers, two from Hollywood, Gradé and Kelsen, and two from Miami, Coopersmith and Maschek. These recipes all have 80 to 90 percent less croton oil than the "classic" Baker formula and, therefore, wound less deeply. The Hollywood formulas were used on many celebrities both inside and outside the film world from the 1920s to the early 1990s. These lay recipes are cumbersome to prepare. The author has simplified the preparation of these lay recipes by using USP liquid phenol instead of crystals. These simple formulas are provided in a table and are as easy to prepare as the Baker formula.

  10. Antispasmodic effects of a new kaurene diterpene isolated from Croton argyrophylloides on rat airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Liza Araújo; Porto, Romulo Sousa; Lahlou, Saad; Ceccatto, Vânia Marilande; Barbosa, Roseli; Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; dos Santos, Hélcio Silva; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; Zin, Walter Araújo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2012-08-01

    The effects of rel-(1S,4aS,7S,8aS)-7-(1-vinyl)-tetradecahydro-1,4a-dimethylphenanthrene-7,8a-carbolactone-1-carboxylic acid (TCCA), a new ent-kaurene diterpene isolated from Croton argyrophylloides, on rat tracheal preparations were investigated. Tracheae were removed and cut into two-cartilage segments that were mounted in organ baths containing Tyrode's solution. TCCA reduced the contractions induced by electrical field stimulation, relaxed K(+)-induced contractions, and inhibited both phasic and tonic components of the K(+)- and ACh-induced contractions. TCCA reduced the serotonin-induced contraction, abolished that evoked by K(+) in the presence of epinephrine, and also reduced the ACh-induced contractions under Ca(2+)-free conditions. TCCA blocked contractions that depend on divalent cation inflow through voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels (VOCCs) and receptor-operated Ca(2+) channels (ROCCs), but had greater potency to block VOCC- than ROCC-dependent contractions or contractions induced by ACh in Ca(2+)-free conditions. TCCA relaxed the phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate (1 µm) induced contraction, but with slight potency. TCCA induces an antispasmodic effect through several mechanisms including blockade of either VOCCs (with greater potency) or ROCCs, blockade of IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (with intermediate potency) and reduction of the sensitivity of contractile proteins to Ca(2+). © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Germination of Croton urucurana L. seeds exposed to different storage temperatures and pre-germinative treatments.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Mussury, Rosilda M; Lima, Andréa A

    2012-03-01

    The present work evaluated the germinability and vigor of Croton urucurana seeds. 1) Seeds were sorted by color (caramel, gray and black) and were subjected to seven different pre-germination treatments followed by incubation at 20ºC, 25°C or 20/30°C. 2) Seeds were stored in cold chambers or at room temperature for up to 300 days and were subsequently incubated at 20/30ºC in a germination chamber or under greenhouse conditions. Only gray seeds showed significant germination rates. The highest first count percentages of total germination and the highest germination speed indices were observed in control seeds and in those which were treated with water or 200 mg.L(-1) gibberellic acid for 12 hours. Seeds stored under refrigeration showed the highest values for all of the characteristics examined, as well as less electrical conductivity of the imbibing solution. Seedlings were more vigorous when seeds were stored for 300 days in a cold chamber. The seedlings production can be increased by incubating the seeds at alternating temperatures (20/30°C). The seeds do not need pre-germination treatments.

  12. Corrosion inhibition of Eleusine aegyptiaca and Croton rottleri leaf extracts on cast iron surface in 1 M HCl medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswari, Velayutham; Kesavan, Devarayan; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Poonkuzhali, Kaliyaperumal; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2014-09-01

    The adsorption and corrosion inhibition activities of Eleusine aegyptiaca (E. aegyptiaca) and Croton rottleri (C. rottleri) leaf extracts on cast iron corrosion in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution were studied first time by weight loss and electrochemical techniques viz., Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the weight loss and electrochemical methods showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with inhibitor concentrations. It was found that the extracts acted as mixed-type inhibitors. The addition of halide additives (KCl, KBr, and KI) on the inhibition efficiency has also been investigated. The adsorption of the inhibitors on cast iron surface both in the presence and absence of halides follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The inhibiting nature of the inhibitors was supported by FT-IR, UV-vis, Wide-angle X-ray diffraction and SEM methods.

  13. Phytochemical analysis and anti-inflammatory evaluation of compounds from an aqueous extract of Croton cajucara Benth.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Adamara M; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Dal Lin, Fernando T; Kimura, Alexandre; de Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Cipriani, Thales R; de Souza, Lauro M

    2017-10-25

    Croton cajucara Benth. is a medicinal plant popularly used in the Brazilian Amazonia, where it is known as sacaca, being consumed as tea, decoction or infusion of the leaves and stem bark. From a decoction of the leaves, a comprehensive phytochemical analysis was developed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Many compounds were identified for the first time in C. cajucara, such as O-glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin, flavonoid-C-glycosides, tannins and cinnamic acid derivatives. These compounds were fractionated by polarity and assayed for their anti-inflammatory activity, using a model of mice edema, induced by an intraplantar injection of carrageenan. All fractions exhibited anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p < 0.05). Also CHE, Hex, EA and vitexin but not quinic acid inhibited TNF-α and IL-17 levels (p < 0.05). C. antisyphiliticus caused anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activated leukocytes, exudate concentrations, NOx, TNF-α, and IL-17 levels. The compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action.

  15. Sectional rearrangement of arborescent clades of Croton (Euphorbiaceae) in South America : evolution of arillate seeds and a new species, Croton domatifer

    Treesearch

    Ricarda Riina; Benjamin van Ee; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Alfonso Cardozo; Paul E. Berry

    2010-01-01

    Most of the arborescent Croton species in the New World were treated by Webster as belonging either to C. sect. Cyclostigma Griseb. or C. sect. Luntia (Neck. ex Raf.) G.L. Webster. The circumscription of C. sect. Cyclostigma has been treated recently. In this paper we focus on C. sect. Luntia, which was subdivided by Webster into two subsections, C. subsect....

  16. HET-CAM bioassay as in vitro alternative to the croton oil test for investigating steroidal and non-steroidal compounds.

    PubMed

    Brantner, Adelheid H; Quehenberger, Franz; Chakraborty, Asima; Polligger, Jutta; Sosa, Silvio; Della Loggia, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    In this study the irritation phenomena at the chorioallantoic membrane of incubated hen's eggs as an in vitro model (HET-CAM assay) were investigated in comparison to the in vivo croton oil test by including hydrocortisone, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, acetylsalicylic acid, rutin, quercetin, apigenin, and p-coumaric acid as steroidal and non-steroidal test substances. For the first time the two methods were compared in a valid way with the perspective of a realistic reduction of animal experiments. It should be investigated whether an in vitro-in vivo correlation exists and, if there is any possibility, to replace the in vivo model by an in vitro test system. Both bioassays were able to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory potency of the constituents tested. The determination of the anti-inflammatory activity of all compounds in the two test systems showed individual trends of inhibitory effects. However, the in vitro HET-CAM test was much more sensitive in comparison to the in vivo croton oil test. The croton oil test gave dose-effect correlations in the anti-inflammatory substances investigated. The modified HET-CAM assay did not provide clear dose-effect ratios. The HET-CAM assay is an inexpensive test being easy to manage after a short practical training. Because of its sensitivity the HET-CAM assay could be considered a suitable tool for qualitative testing of the anti-inflammatory activity of substances if no appropriate dose-effect curves are required. From these results it can be concluded that the different courses of the dose-effect curves may be primarily due to different mechanisms of action.

  17. Antibacterial activity of extracts of three Croton species collected in Mpumalanga region in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Selowa, S C; Shai, L J; Masoko, P; Mokgotho, M P; Magano, S R

    2009-12-30

    The antibacterial activities of three Croton species were compared using bioautography and the serial microdilution methods. The methanolic extracts of all the species had low activity against Escherichia coli. The highest activity was observed with Croton megalobotrys against Enterococcus faecalis with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.02 mg/ml. Croton steenkapianus extracts were the least active of the species investigated, only managing an MIC value of 0.625 mg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Croton megalobotrys leaf powder was serially extracted using solvents of various polarities. The lowest MIC value (0.06 mg/ml) of the serially extracted fractions was observed with acetone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The liquid-liquid fractions of the methanol extract of Croton megalobotrys were also tested. The lowest MIC value of 0.02 mg/ml was observed with n-hexane fraction against Enterococcus faecalis. The carbon tetrachloride fraction was further fractionated using column chromatography with silica as the immobile phase. The resulting seven fractions were tested for activity following the bioassay-guided practice, and it emerged that the first three fractions had active compounds against Staphylococcus aureus when the bioautography method was used.

  18. Further insecticidal activities of essential oils from Lippia sidoides and Croton species against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Glauber Pacelli Gomes; de Souza, Terezinha Maria; de Paula Freire, Gabrielle; Farias, Davi Felipe; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; de Morais, Selene Maia; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed new insecticidal activities of essential oils from Lippia sidoides and Croton species (Croton zehntneri, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton argyrophylloides, and Croton sonderianus) against Aedes aegypti mosquito. In addition, the acute toxicity upon mice was determined. All essential oils showed inhibition of egg hatching, with IC50 values ranging from 66.4 to 143.2 μg mL(-1), larvicidal activity with LC50 ranging from 25.5 to 94.6 μg mL(-1), and pupicidal action with PC50 ranging from 276.8 to over 500 μg mL(-1). Only L. sidoides, C. zehntneri, and C. argyrophylloides essential oils were able to inhibit the oviposition of female gravid mosquitoes with OD50 values of 35.3, 45.3, and 45.8 μg mL(-1), respectively. Oral acute toxicity in mice showed that C. sonderianus and C. argyrophylloides oils are nontoxic (LD50 > 6,000 mg.kg(-1)) while C. nepetaefolius, C. zehntneri, and L. sidoides oils are moderately toxic (LD50 3,840; 3,464, and 2,624 mg.kg(-1), respectively). The results indicate that these oils are promising sources of bioactive compounds, showing low or no toxicity to mammals.

  19. Bark anatomy in Croton draco var. draco (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Farías, Feliza Ramón; Williamson, June Simpson; Rodríguez, Silvia Valdés; Angeles, Guillermo; Portugal, Victor Olalde

    2009-12-01

    Many arboreal forms of the genus Croton (ca. 800 spp.), amply distributed in the Americas, have latex-producing cells in their bark, which is widely used in traditional medicine to treat skin infections and some forms of cancer. Studies validate its ethnomedicinal use-more than 20 pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites have been reported for its latex and bark-but anatomical and ecological studies are scarce. Given this species' ample distribution, laticifer abundance could be affected by the environment. We tested this for genetically similar trees growing in two types of vegetation in Veracruz, Mexico at sites commonly visited by traditional doctors. We describe the bark anatomy of C. draco, focusing on the laticifers, histochemically characterize the bark and the latex extracted from it, and document differences in laticifer abundance in the two environments. We have also identified another cell type (what we call type B) in the secretory latex system and describe it histochemically and microscopically. The location of bark cells that contain essential oils is reported here for the first time. Given the genetic similarity of the trees at both sites, the between-site variation in the number of laticifers in stem and branch bark appears to be an effect of the environment.

  20. Antiproliferative activity of flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Kátia Pereira; Motta, Lucimar B; Santos, Deborah Y A C; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio; Ferreira, Marcelo J Pena; Lago, João Henrique G; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; de Carvalho, João E; Furlan, Cláudia M

    2015-01-01

    Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days), was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1-F5) containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1-F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and U251 (glioma). The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54) higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.). F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung) (GI50 1.2 μg/mL), which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05), while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36). It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes.

  1. Essential oils composition of croton species from the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Turiel, Nathalie A; Ribeiro, Alcy F; Carvalho, Elisangela Elena N; Domingos, Vanessa D; Lucas, Flávia Cristina A; Carreira, Léa Maria M; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2013-10-01

    The essential oils of leaves and twigs from the Euphorbiaceous Croton draconoides, C. urucurana and Julocroton triqueter were obtained and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In total, 101 volatile constituents were identified, comprising an average of 90% of the oil, mostly made up of mono- and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene hydrocarbons varied from 1.2 to 40.2%, the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons from 34.0 to 49.6% and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes from 11.5 to 51.3%. The main compounds found in the oil of C. draconoides were beta-pinene (16.9%), alpha-pinene (16.5%), curzerene (12.8%), germacrene D (9.0%), gamma-elemene (4.7%), and elemol (4.4%). The oil of C. urucurana showed sesquicineole (23.0%), dehydro-sesquicineole (13.8%), beta-caryophyllene (7.9%), beta-bisabolol (5.0%), germacrene D (4.2%) and beta-elemene (4.1%) as the chief compounds. The oil of J. triqueter was dominated by beta-caryophyllene (16.3%), beta-phellandrene (10.2%), spathulenol (5.1%), caryophyllene oxide (5.0%), delta-cadinene (4.3%), (E)-nerolidol (4.3%), and alpha-copaene (4.1%).

  2. Effects of urbanization on stream chemistry in the Croton Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. N.; Boyer, E. W.; Curry, D. S.; Hassett, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    We studied the impacts of urbanization on flow paths and water quality in the Croton Watershed, a forested area east of the Hudson River that supplies about 10% of the drinking water to residents of New York City. We focused on three small sub-catchments along an urban gradient: one that is forested and undeveloped, one that is developing a residential base, and one that is fully developed with homes. To evaluate the effects of urbanization on concentration/discharge relationships, we monitored longitudinal profiles of streamflow and chemistry (cations, anions, nutrients, pH) in each catchment under varying flow conditions. Our work shows that urbanization impacts stream chemistry in several ways: by altering flow paths of water and by providing anthropogenic sources of solutes to streamflow. The urbanized catchments had a much higher fraction of quick flow contributing to the stream than the forested catchment. Solutes associated with residential development, such as road salt and septic systems, affected stream chemistry in the developed catchments. Total dissolved solids (TDS) were highest in the urban catchment and lowest in the forested catchment. Chloride, sodium, and calcium were the largest components of TDS in the urban and developing catchments, while calcium, silica, and sulfate were the largest components of TDS in the forested catchment.

  3. Geophysical characterisation of Carlo's V Castle (Crotone, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Giocoli, A.; Rizzo, E.; Lapenna, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Carlo's V Castle, located in Crotone Town, on the Ionian coast of the Calabria Region (Italy), date back to the 13th century d.C. (Fig. 1). During its long life, the building changed several owners and sustained the damages and the consequent reconstructions due to the innumerable naval battles. Moreover, the castle suffered the action of the earthquakes which always afflict the region. With the principal aim of detecting the location, depth and geometry of the rests of destroyed structures, a systematic Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was carried out in the area inside the boundary walls. The results are sixty-two one-meter-spaced, filtered and migrated radargrams arranged in four 3D data-sets. From each data-set, the most significant time-slice was extracted. To reduce the ambiguity in the GPR data interpretation, additional geophysical techniques, such as Magnetic (M), and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), were carried out with a partial superimposition with the GPR data. A comparison and a joint interpretation amongst different geophysical data pointed out some very remarkable features associated to buried remains and possible buried cannonballs. With the secondary aim to check the presence of an old military walkway linking two bastions a GPR profile was carried out on the sea side boundary wall. The GPR results are in agreement with an ERT survey carried out on the same profile and consistent with the presence of an underground passage.

  4. Antiproliferative Activity of Flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Kátia Pereira; Motta, Lucimar B.; Santos, Deborah Y. A. C.; Salatino, Maria L. F.; Salatino, Antonio; Ferreira, Marcelo J. Pena; Lago, João Henrique G.; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T. G.; de Carvalho, João E.; Furlan, Cláudia M.

    2015-01-01

    Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days), was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1–F5) containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1–F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and U251 (glioma). The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54) higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.). F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung) (GI50 1.2 μg/mL), which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05), while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36). It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes. PMID:26075219

  5. Hydrogeology of the Croton-Ossining area, Westchester County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The hydrogeology of a 29-sq-mi area surrounding the village of Croton-on-Hudson, New York, is summarized on 6 sheets at 1:12 ,000 scale that show locations of wells and test holes, surficial geology, geologic sections, bedrock geology, land use, and soil permeability. The primary stratified-drift aquifer in this area is the Croton River aquifer, which consists of outwash sand and gravel that partly fills the Croton River valley from the New Croton Dam to the Hudson River--a distance of approximately 3 miles. The valley is narrow and ranges in width from 100 to 1,900 ft, and its v-notch bedrock floor ranges from 30 to 50 ft below sea level. Detailed hydrogeologic studies during 1936-38 showed the stratigraphy to consist of an upper water-table aquifer with a saturated thickness of about 35 ft, underlain by a silt and clay confining unit 8 to o0 ft in thickness that in turn is underlain by a lower confined outwash aquifer up to 40 ft thick. Aquifer-test data and laboratory permeability tests show that the average hydraulic conductivity of the upper outwash aquifer is 475 ft/d, and that of the lower confined aquifer is about 300 ft/d. The aquifer is recharged through direct precipitation, runoff from adjacent hillsides, and leakage under the new Croton Dam. Previous studies estimate the average leakage under the dam to be 0.65 Mgal/d and the total average daily recharge to the aquifer between New Croton Dam and Quaker Bridge to be 1.73 Mgal/d. (USGS)

  6. Phytomining of heavy metals from soil by Croton bonplandianum using phytoremediation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, K. J.; Dave, B. R.; Parmar, P. P.; Subramanian, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Metal ions are not only valuable intermediates in metal extraction, but also important raw materials for technical applications. They possess some unique but, identical physical and chemical properties, which make them useful probes of low temperature geochemical reactions. Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. Metal concentration in soil typically ranges from less than one to as high as 100,000 mg/kg. Heavy metal contaminations of land resources continue to be the focus of numerous environmental studies and attract a great deal of attention worldwide. This is attributed to no--biodegradability and persistence of heavy metals in soils. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Complexation, separation, and removal of metal ions have become increasingly attractive areas of research and have led to new technical developments like phytoremediation that has numerous biotechnological implications of understanding of plant metal accumulation. Croton bonplandianum is newly identified as a potential heavy metal hypreaccumulator. In this study Croton bonplandianum was subjected for in vitro heavy metal accumulation, to explore the accumulation pattern of four heavy metals viz Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Zinc in various parts of Croton bonplandianum plant parts. It was found that the efficiency of Croton bonplandianum to accumulate heavy metals is Cd>Pb>Zn>Ni. The absorption of these heavy metals in plant parts revealed that the highest translocation of metals from ground to root was ground to be in the order of Pb (1.12) > Zn (0.26) > Ni (0.18) > Cd (0.15). The distribution of Cd in Croton bonplandianum followed the trend Root>Stem>Leaf; with Ni it was Root>Leaf>Stem, while Pb showed leaf>stem>root. Translocation of metals in Croton bonplandianum plant parts

  7. Treatment with aqueous extract from Croton cajucara Benth reduces hepatic oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Eder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery.

  8. Treatment with Aqueous Extract from Croton cajucara Benth Reduces Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Éder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery. PMID:22811599

  9. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) Shows Antidiarrheal Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Anne Dayse Soares; de Melo e Silva, Karoline; Neto, José Clementino; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna F.; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ± 4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility. Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect PMID:27365990

  10. Laevinoids A and B: two diterpenoids with an unprecedented backbone from Croton laevigatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Cai; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Hong-Bing; Yue, Jian-Min

    2013-09-20

    Chemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract of a Chinese herbal plant, Croton laevigatus, yielded laevinoids A (1) and B (2) with a new rearranged ent-clerodane scaffold named as laevinane. The structures of 1 and 2 were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses with their absolute configurations being established via single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  11. Molecular cloning and catalytic activity of a membrane-bound prenyl diphosphate phosphatase from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    PubMed

    Nualkaew, Natsajee; Guennewich, Nils; Springob, Karin; Klamrak, Anuwatchakit; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Kutchan, Toni M

    2013-07-01

    Geranylgeraniol (GGOH), a bioactive acyclic diterpene with apoptotic induction activity, is the immediate precursor of the commercial anti-peptic, plaunotol (18-hydroxy geranylgeraniol), which is found in Croton stellatopilosus (Ohba). From this plant, a cDNA encoding a prenyl diphosphate phosphatase (CsPDP), which catalyses the dephosphorylation of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to GGOH, was isolated using a PCR approach. The full-length cDNA contained 888bp and encoded a 33.6 kDa protein (295 amino acids) that was phylogenetically grouped into the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme family. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 6 hydrophobic transmembrane regions with 57-85% homology to the sequences of other plant PAPs. The recombinant CsPDP and its 4 truncated constructs exhibited decreasing dephosphorylation activities relative to the lengths of the N-terminal deletions. While the full-length CsPDP successfully performed the two sequential monodephosphorylation steps on GGPP to form GGOH, the larger N-terminal deletion in the truncated enzymes appeared to specifically decrease the catalytic efficiency of the second monodephosphorylation step. The information presented here on the CsPDP cDNA and factors affecting the dephosphorylation activity of its recombinant protein may eventually lead to the discovery of the specific GGPP phosphatase gene and enzyme that are involved in the formation of GGOH in the biosynthetic pathway of plaunotol in C. stellatopilosus.

  12. Antinociceptive Effect of the Essential Oil Obtained from the Leaves of Croton cordiifolius Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lenise de Morais; da Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; dos Santos, Simone Maria; de Albuquerque, Julianna Ferreira Cavalcanti; Ferraz, Igor Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Thaíse Torres; Mota, Carlos Renato França de Carvalho; Araújo, Renata Mendonça; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Martins, René Duarte; Ximenes, Rafael Matos

    2015-01-01

    Croton cordiifolius Baill. is a shrub known as “quebra-faca” and is used to treat inflammation, pain, wounds, and gastrointestinal disturbances in the semiarid region in the northeast of Brazil. In an ethnobotanical survey in the state of Pernambuco, “quebra-faca” use was cited in 33% of the interviews. Thus, we decided to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of the essential oil from C. cordiifolius (CcEO). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 1,8-cineole (25.09%) and α-phellandrene (15.43%) as major constituents. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using murine models of chemically induced pain (writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests). Opioid and central nervous systems (CNS) involvement were also investigated. Regarding antinociceptive activity, CcEO (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the number of writhing responses induced by acetic acid and decreased the licking times in both phases of the formalin test. CcEO also was evaluated in capsaicin- and glutamate-induced nociception. While no effect was observed in the capsaicin test, CcEO (100 mg/kg) was effective in the glutamate test. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, did not affect the antinociceptive activity of CcEO in writhing test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive effect of CcEO could be explained, at least in part, by inhibition of the glutamatergic system. PMID:25821494

  13. Energetics of end product excretion in anaerobic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei: Progress report, November 16, 1986-November 15, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the growth and metabolism of Syntrophomonas wolfei in pure culture with crotonate as the energy source. S. wolfei grows in crotonate mineral salts medium without rumen fluid with cobalamin, thymine, lipoic acid and biotin added. However, after four to six transfers in this medium, growth ceases, indicating that another vitamin is required. The chemically defined medium allows large batches of S. wolfei to be grown for enzyme purification. All the enzymes involved in the oxidation of crotonyl-CoA to acetate have been detected. The pure culture of S. wolfei or coculture of S. wolfei grown with crotonate contain high activities of a crotonate: acetyl-CoA CoA-transferase activity. This activity is not detected in cocultures grown with butyrate. Thus, we believe that the reason why S. wolfei can now grow with crotonate is that an alteration or mutation occurred which allows the organism to activate this crotonate. S. wolfei also makes small amounts of H/sub 2/ when grown in pure culture with crotonate. A methyl viologen-dependent hydrogenase activity was found. We have also demonstrated the production of H/sub 2/ from 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA in cell-free extracts of S. wolfei by coupling H/sub 2/ production to CH/sub 4/ production with the addition of Methanobacterium bryantii and directly using a hydrogen electrode. These results clearly show that S. wolfei makes H/sub 2/. S. wolfei does not contain formate dehydrogenase or CO dehydrogenase activities.

  14. Anaerobaculum mobile sp. nov., a novel anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, peptide-fermenting bacterium that uses crotonate as an electron acceptor, and emended description of the genus Anaerobaculum.

    PubMed

    Menes, Rodolfo Javier; Muxí, Lucía

    2002-01-01

    A novel anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, peptide-fermenting bacterium, strain NGA(T), was isolated from an anaerobic wool-scouring wastewater treatment lagoon. The cells were gram-negative, straight rods of 0.5-1.0 x 2.0-4.0 microm, motile by means of a single flagellum. The DNA G+C content was 51.5 mol%. The optimum pH and temperature range for growth were 6.6-7.3 and 55-60 degrees C, respectively. The optimum NaCl concentration was 0.08 g l(-1). The bacterium fermented organic acids (malate, tartrate, pyruvate, glycerol and fumarate), a few carbohydrates (starch, glucose, fructose and gluconate), Casamino acids, tryptone and yeast extract. Carbohydrates and organic acids were converted to acetate, hydrogen and CO2. The bacterium oxidized leucine to isovalerate with crotonate as an electron acceptor, but not in co-culture with Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus DSM 3720T. Thiosulfate, sulfur and cystine were reduced to sulfide and crotonate was reduced to butyrate with glucose and tryptone-yeast extract as electron donors. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain NGA(T) was related to Anaerobaculum thermoterrenum (98% similarity), the only described species of the genus. The DNA-DNA hybridization value for strain NGA(T) and A. thermoterrenum ACM 5076T was 40.8%. On the basis of these results, strain NGA(T) is proposed as a novel species of the genus Anaerobaculum, namely Anaerobaculum mobile sp. nov. The type strain is NGA(T) (= DSM 13181T =ATCC BAA-54T).

  15. Molecular phylogenetics and character evolution of the "sacaca" clade: novel relationships of Croton section Cleodora (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Caruzo, Maria Beatriz R; van Ee, Benjamin W; Cordeiro, Inês; Berry, Paul E; Riina, Ricarda

    2011-08-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Croton section Cleodora (Klotzsch) Baill. were evaluated using the nuclear ribosomal ITS and the chloroplast trnL-F and trnH-psbA regions. Our results show a strongly supported clade containing most previously recognized section Cleodora species, plus some other species morphologically similar to them. Two morphological synapomorphies that support section Cleodora as a clade include pistillate flowers in which the sepals overlap to some degree, and styles that are connate at the base to varying degrees. The evolution of vegetative and floral characters that have previously been relied on for taxonomic decisions within this group are evaluated in light of the phylogenetic hypotheses. Within section Cleodora there are two well-supported clades, which are proposed here as subsections (subsection Sphaerogyni and subsection Spruceani). The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis identifies the closest relatives of the medicinally important and essential oil-rich Croton cajucara Benth. as candidates for future screening in phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

  16. RNAi mediated gene silencing against betasatellite associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Anurag Kumar; Marwal, Avinash; Nehra, Chitra; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar; Sharma, Pradeep; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Plant viruses encode suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing, an adaptive antiviral defense responses that confines virus infection. Previously, we identified single-stranded DNA satellite (also known as DNA-β) of ~1,350 nucleotides in length associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus (CYVMV) in croton plants. The expression of genes from DNA-β requires the begomovirus for packaged, replication, insect transmission and movement in plants. The present study demonstrates the effect of the βC1 gene on the silencing pathway as analysed by using both transgenic systems and transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens based delivery. Plants that carry an intron-hairpin construct covering the βC1 gene accumulated cognate small-interfering RNAs and remained symptom-free after exposure to CYVMV and its satellite. These results suggest that βC1 interferes with silencing mechanism.

  17. Studies on the antidiarrhoeal effect of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana.

    PubMed

    Gurgel, L A; Silva, R M; Santos, F A; Martins, D T; Mattos, P O; Rao, V S

    2001-06-01

    The red sap obtained by slashing the bark of Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae), also known as dragon's blood, was screened for a possible antidiarrhoeal activity on castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats, cholera toxin-induced intestinal secretion in mice and on small intestinal transit in mice. Dragon's blood at an oral dose of 600 mg/kg caused in marked inhibition of the diarrhoeal response following castor oil administration as well as the intestinal fluid accumulation promoted by cholera toxin. At a similar dose the red sap significantly inhibited the small intestinal transit which was, however, found to be independent of the opioid mechanism. These results suggest a potential usefulness of the red sap from Croton urucurana Baill. in the control of secretory diarrhoea associated pathologies. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae), a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton

    PubMed Central

    Cheek, Martin; Challen, Gill; Lebbie, Aiah; Banks, Hannah; Barberá, Patricia; Riina, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae), a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon. PMID:27049519

  19. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae), a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Martin; Challen, Gill; Lebbie, Aiah; Banks, Hannah; Barberá, Patricia; Riina, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae), a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon.

  20. Antileishmanial activity and trypanothione reductase effects of terpenes from the Amazonian species Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lima, Gerson S; Castro-Pinto, Denise B; Machado, Gerzia C; Maciel, Maria A M; Echevarria, Aurea

    2015-11-15

    Leishmaniasis comprises several infectious diseases caused by protozoa parasites of Leishmania genus. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products to treat parasitic diseases. Among them Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant found in the Amazonian region with a history of safe use in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of clerodane diterpenes, trans-dehydrocrotonin (DCTN), trans-crotonin (CTN) and acetylaleuritolic acid (AAA) obtained from powdered bark of C. cajucara against promastigotes, axenic and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, the effects of DCTN and CTN on the trypanotiona reductase enzyme were also investigated. The extraction of the terpenes was carried out as previously reported (Maciel et al., 1998; 2003). The effect of the isolated compounds (DCTN, CTN and AAA) from the bark of C. cajucara was assessed in vitro against promastigotes, axenic amastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis by counting of remaining parasites in a Neubauer chamber in comparison to pentamidine used as standard drug. The action of natural products on trypanothione reductase was assessed using soluble protein fraction of promastigotes. The assays were performed by incubation with HEPES, EDTA, NADPH and trypanothione disulfide to quantify the NAPH consumption by TryR. The results showed very high efficacy, especially of the diterpene DCTN, against promastigotes (IC50 = 6.30 ± 0.06 µg/ml) and axenic amastigotes (IC50 = 19.98 ± 0.05 µg/ml) of L. amazonenesis. The cytotoxic effect of the best active natural product was evaluated on mouse peritoneal infected macrophages (IC50 = 0.47 ± 0.03 µg/ml in 24 h of culture), and the treatment revealed that DCTN never reaches toxic concentrations while reducing the infection and, most importantly, with no toxicity (>100 µg/ml with 0% of macrophage kill) when compared to

  1. DOC, Color and Disinfection By-Product Precursor Dynamics along an Urbanization Gradient, Croton Water Supply System, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassett, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.; Burns, D. A.; Heisig, P. M.

    2005-05-01

    Hydrologic processes in suburban watersheds and their effects on water quality warrant investigation. Biweekly and storm samples were collected and analyzed for base cations, selected anions, and DOC over a one-year period at the outlet of three small (37 - 55 ha) watersheds (one forested, two with different degrees of suburban development) in the Croton Watershed, southeastern New York. Less frequent sampling for Pt/Co color and disinfection by-product precursors (DBPs) were also conducted. Median baseflow concentrations (>3 days since rainfall) of DOC were similar, ranging from 2.1 to 1.8 to 1.7 mg L -1 for the most urbanized to the forested watershed, respectively. On a unit area load basis (kg ha-1 yr-1), the range was from 8.9 to 6.4 to 5.1, again from most urbanized to forested watershed. All three watersheds showed similar storm responses, with evidence for a flushing mechanism in that DOC concentration increased with increasing discharge. Pt/Co color and DBPs (determined as both total trihalomethane and total haloacetic acid formation potentials) showed similar storm behavior, although the range of response was greater than observed for DOC, suggesting a labile DOC fraction was mobilized during storm events. The more urbanized watersheds tended to favor brominated over chlorinated forms of DBPs; the reasons for this are unclear.

  2. Identification of (-)(E)-N-[2(S)-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl]ferulamide, a natural product isolated from Croton pullei: theoretical and experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Silvana de O; Peixoto, Rosana N S; Silva, José Rogério A; Alves, Cláudio N; Guilhon, Giselle M S P; Santos, Lourivaldo S; Brasil, Davi do S B

    2011-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) and its derivatives (FADs) are known for a variety of biological activities, such as photo-protective agent, antioxidant, antiatherogenic and antiplasmodial activities. During structural definition of a FAD isolated from Croton pullei, the possibility of a heterologous series made this definition difficult. In this regard, computational simulations were performed using theoretical calculations at DFT level to predict Infrared (IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. The IR and NMR (13)C and (1)H data were compared with the theoretical calculations performed for three structural possibilities of a heterologous series. The theoretical results were compared with the experimental data through linear regression in order to define the most probable structure and showed satisfactory values.

  3. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Croton lobatus L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Fasola, Taiye Remi; Ukwenya, Blessing; Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Croton lobatus contains a high amount of antioxidant phytochemicals that probably account for its wide use as food and medicine in the traditional communities of West Africa. Methods: The study evaluated the modulatory role of methanol extract of Croton lobatus leaf on alloxan-induced diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications. Male rats were randomly selected and assigned to one of six groups (A to F) of eight animals each: A (distilled water); B (corn oil); C (Alloxan); D (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 Croton lobatus); E: (Alloxan + 200 mg kg-1 C. lobatus); and F (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 glibenclamide). Results: Acute toxicity studies revealed no mortality of rats at the administration of different doses of extract up to the 5,000 mg kg-1 dose. Histology of the pancreas showed focal area of necrosis, and fatty infiltration in diabetic untreated rats, but these lesions were absent in pancreas of rats treated with C. lobatus extract. Conclusion: Methanol leaf extract of C. lobatus reduced arteriogenic risk factors, improved antioxidant status, restored the observable pathological lesions associated with experimental diabetes in rats, and thus offers a new therapeutic window as herbal therapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular complications. PMID:27757266

  4. Ethanol extract of Angelica gigas inhibits croton oil-induced inflammation by suppressing the cyclooxygenase - prostaglandin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sunhee; Joo, Seong Soo; Park, Dongsun; Jeon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Jeong Seon; Park, Sung Kyeong

    2010-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanol extract of Angelica gigas (EAG) were investigated in vitro and in vivo using croton oil-induced inflammation models. Croton oil (20 µg/mL) up-regulated mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-I and COX-II in the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, resulting in the release of high concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). EAG (1~10 µg/mL) markedly suppressed croton oil-induced COX-II mRNA expression and PGE2 production. Application of croton oil (5% in acetone) to mouse ears caused severe local erythema, edema and vascular leakage, which were significantly attenuated by oral pre-treatment with EAG (50~500 mg/kg). Croton oil dramatically increased blood levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and PGE2 without affecting tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO) levels. EAG pre-treatment remarkably lowered IL-6 and PGE2, but did not alter TNF-α or NO concentrations. These results indicate that EAG attenuates inflammatory responses in part by blocking the COX-PGE2 pathway. Therefore, EAG could be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:20195064

  5. Isolation of a dihydrobenzofuran lignan from South American dragon's blood (Croton spp.) as an inhibitor of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pieters, L; de Bruyne, T; Claeys, M; Vlietinck, A; Calomme, M; vanden Berghe, D

    1993-06-01

    Dragon's blood is a red viscous latex extracted from the cortex of various Croton spp. (Euphorbiaceae), most commonly Croton lechleri, Croton draconoides (or Croton palanostigma), and Croton erythrochilus. It is used in South American popular medicine for several purposes, including wound healing. Bioassay-guided fractionation of dragon's blood, using an in vitro test system for the stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, has resulted in the isolation of a dihydrobenzofuran lignan, 3',4-O-dimethylcedrusin or 4-O-methyldihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol [2-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dihydro-7-methoxybenzo furan-5- propan-1-ol] [1] as the biologically active principle. A related compound, 4-O-methylcedrusin [2-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxybenzo furan-5- propan-1-ol] [2], and the alkaloid taspine [3], also isolated from dragon's blood, were not active in the same assay. A cell proliferation assay, measuring the incorporation of tritiated thymidine in endothelial cells, showed that compound 1 did not stimulate cell proliferation, but rather inhibited thymidine incorporation, while protecting cells against degradation in a starvation medium.

  6. Croton membranaceus Improves Some Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in Genetic Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Adjei, Samuel; Afriyie, Daniel; Appiah-Danquah, Akua Bempomaa; Asia, Jonas; Asiedu, Bernice; Santa, Sheila; Doku, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 17.3 million deaths per year globally. In Ghana, CVD accounts for 22.2% of deaths. Croton membranaceus (CM) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), a medicinal plant in Ghana is mainly used traditionally for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and measles. However, some hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects have recently been reported but not scientifically examined. Aim The study aimed at establishing whether Croton membranaceus (CM) used for prostatitis had any effect on CVD markers. Materials and Methods In experiment 1, lipid profile changes were determined. Twenty four male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) were divided into 4 groups. Low (LD), intermediate (ID) and high dose (HD) groups received 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. CM aqueous root extracts (CMARE) for 60 days, respectively, the controls received distilled water. In experiment 2, blood glucose levels (BGL) were determined. 21 db/db mice were divided into 3 groups of 7 mice each alongside db/+ mice (7) (negative control). Groups 1 and 2 received 250 mg/kg b.wt CMARE and metformin, respectively. Group 3 (positive control) and db/+ mice (negative control) received distilled water. Mice were monitored for 15 hours. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 20. Results Hypotriglyceridaemic effect was observed (p=0.005). High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) showed significant increases (p=0.013) and decreases (p=0.003), respectively. A significant CRP reduction was observed for ID and HD groups (p = 0.010, p = 0.011, respectively). BGL was reduced in Metformin and Croton groups (p=0.000; p= 0.006, respectively) after 3 hours. Conclusion In conclusion, CMARE has positive effects on some CVD biomarkers and a hypoglycaemic effect. PMID:26816938

  7. Synergy effects of the antibiotics gentamicin and the essential oil of Croton zehntneri.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Fabíola F G; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2009-11-01

    The leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Euphorbiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to antibacterial and antibiotic modifying activity by gaseous contact. The gaseous component of the oil inhibited the bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MID of 0.5 and<1mg/l air, respectively. The activity of the antibiotic gentamicin was increased by 42,8% against P. aeruginosa after contact with the gaseous component, showing that this oil influences the activity of the antibiotic and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.

  8. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Croton bonplandianus from India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-02-01

    The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Croton bonplandianus Baill. was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 37 compounds have been identified, representing 96.2% of the total oil. The main constituents were identified as beta-caryophyllene (16.7%), germacrene D (14.7%), borneol (8.3%), Z-beta-damascenone (6.(%), isobornyl acetate (6.2%), alpha-humulene (6.1%), germacrene A (5.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.5%). The oil was rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (60.1%).

  9. New clerodane diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton euryphyllus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhenghong; Ning, Desheng; Wu, Xingde; Huang, Sisi; Li, Dianpeng; Lv, Shihong

    2015-03-15

    Three new nor-clerodane diterpenoids, crotoeurins A-C (1-3), together with four known ones were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Croton euryphyllus. Among them, crotoeurin A (1) is a new nor-clerodane diterpenoid dimer with a unique cyclobutane ring via a [2+2] cycloaddition. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and the stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited neurite outgrowth-promoting activity on NGF-mediated PC12 cells at concentration of 10μM.

  10. Diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus var. tomentosus.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Tong; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2015-12-01

    One new 9,10-seco-abietane derivative, crotontomentosin A (1), four new abietane-type diterpenoids, crotontomentosins B-E (2-5), one new ent-halimane-type diterpenoid, crotontomentosin F (6), along with five known diterpenoids (7-11) and one known sesquiterpenoid (12) were obtained from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 and 11 exhibited moderate to weak inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the Hela, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, or A549 cell lines selectively.

  11. In vitro antifungal activity of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Gurgel, Luilma A; Sidrim, J J C; Martins, Domingos T; Cechinel Filho, V; Rao, Vietla S

    2005-02-28

    Based on ethnobotanical approach, the dragon's blood collected from Croton urucurana Baill. bark (Euphorbiaceae) was tested for antifungal activity against five dermatophytes by paper disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) showing no visible fungal growth was also determined, using tube dilution technique. The test dermatophytes were Tricophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccossum. The dragon's blood (0.175-3.0 mg/ml) exhibited an inhibition zone range of 7.6-26.9 mm against all the tested fungi with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 1.25-2.5 mg/ml.

  12. The flavonoid apigenin from Croton betulaster Mull inhibits proliferation, induces differentiation and regulates the inflammatory profile of glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo L C; Oliveira, Mona N; da Silva, Alessandra B; Pitanga, Bruno P S; Silva, Victor D A; Faria, Giselle P; Sampaio, Geraldo P; Costa, Maria de Fatima D; Braga-de-Souza, Suzana; Costa, Silvia L

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antitumor and immunomodulatory properties of the flavonoid apigenin (5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone), which was extracted from Croton betulaster Mull, in glioma cell culture using the high-proliferative rat C6 glioma cell line as a model. Apigenin was found to have the ability to reduce the viability and proliferation of C6 cells in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 22.8 µmol/l, 40 times lower than that of temozolomide (1000 µmol/l), after 72 h of apigenin treatment. Even after C6 cells were treated with apigenin for 48 h, high proportions of C6 cells entered apoptosis (39.56%) and autophagy (22%) as shown by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide and acridine orange staining, respectively. In addition, the flavonoid apigenin induced cell accumulation in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and inhibited glioma cell migration efficiently. Moreover, apigenin induced astroglial differentiation and morphological changes in C6 cells, characterized by increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and decreased expression of nestin protein, a typical marker of neuronal precursors. The immunomodulating effects of apigenin were also characterized by a change in the inflammatory profile as evidenced by a significant decrease in interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor production and increased nitric oxide levels. Because apigenin can induce differentiation, apoptosis, and autophagy, can alter the profile of cytokines involved in regulating the immune response, and can reduce the survival, growth, proliferation, and migration of C6 cells, this flavonoid may be considered a potential antitumor drug for the adjuvant treatment of malignant gliomas.

  13. Methanol Extract of Croton Pycnanthus Benth. Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing the MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts are differentiated from monocytes/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Croton pycnanthus Benth. (CPB) is a herbal plant that belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CPB on osteoclastogenesis and RANKL-dependent signaling pathways. Methods Methanol extract of CPB was obtained from International Biological Material Research Center. Osteoclast differentiation was achieved by culturing mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with M-CSF and RANKL. Osteoclast numbers were evaluated by counting multinuclear cells positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The activation of signaling molecules were assessed after acute stimulation of cells with high dose of RANKL by Western blotting with phospho-specific antibodies. Results CPB reduced the generation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling pathways. The induction of the expression of c-Fos, nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) by RANKL was also suppressed. Conclusions CPB exerts negative effects on osteoclast differentiation in response to the RANKL. The inhibitory mechanism involves the suppression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and subsequently the down-regulation of c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors. PMID:25489576

  14. Croton insularis introduces the seco-casbane class with EBC-329 and the first casbane endoperoxide EBC-324.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Lidiya A; Savchenko, Andrei I; Krenske, Elizabeth H; Gordon, Victoria A; Reddell, Paul W; Pierce, Carly J; Parsons, Peter G; Williams, Craig M

    2014-10-21

    Investigation of Croton insularis afforded the first in class seco-casbane diterpene, EBC-329. A highly oxidised casbane, EBC-324, was also isolated. The structural motif within EBC-324, which consists of an epoxidised hemi-acetal endoperoxide, is new to the casbane family.

  15. Water Residence Times and Runoff Sources Across an Urbanizing Gradient (Croton Water Supply Area, New York)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2002-12-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets were measured in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different levels of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on impervious surfaces and slow flow through the subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes). Throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were sampled bi-weekly during a period of up to 2 years and analyzed for major chemical constituents, oxygen-18 content, and nitrogen species. Mean residence times of the stream water of about 30 weeks were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes for all 3 watersheds. There was no significant difference in mean residence times among the three study watersheds, despite their different levels of urbanization. However, residence times from a few weeks up to ca 2 years vary within the watersheds, depending on the local runoff sources and their geographical conditions (riparian and hillslope topography, aquifer type). The runoff sources were quantified for selected streamwater and groundwater sampling sites using the end member mixing analysis technique (EMMA). The mixing analysis shows the impact of the runoff sources on runoff generation in the selected watersheds, i.e. it shows how big is the impact of urbanization on the runoff generation and how big is the natural control. These results may be useful in watershed management and planning of further urbanization in the Croton water supply area.

  16. Essential oil of Croton argyrophylloides: toxicological aspects and vasorelaxant activity in rats.

    PubMed

    de França-Neto, Aldair; Cardoso-Teixeira, Ana Carolina; Medeiros, Thiago Coutinho; Quinto-Farias, Maria do Socorro; Sampaio, Celia Maria de Souza; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Lahlou, Saad; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2012-10-01

    Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg. is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat diabetes and venereal diseases. This study examined the acute toxicity and cytotoxicity of the essential oil of C. argyrophylloides (EOCA). In addition, vascular effects of the EOCA have been examined. In mice, an oral acute toxicity test revealed that EOCA could be considered as a non toxic essential oil since it showed a very high LD50 (9.84 +/- 0.01 g/kg). In the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) cytotoxic assay, the LC50 value of EOCA was 275 [165-534] microg/mL. EOCA (1-1000 microg/mL) relaxed isolated endothelium-intact aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine with an IC50 value of 126.7 [89.8-163.7] microg/mL. In rat mesenteric bed preparations precontracted with phenylephrine, EOCA (1-300 microg/mL) also induced a reversible, vasodilator effect with an IC50 value of 46.0 [33.3-58.7] micro/mL. It is concluded that EOCA is a very interesting agent from the point of view of the possibility of therapeutic application. This is because, whilst showing a very small acute toxicity, EOCA also showed maximal efficacy as a vascular antispasmodic agent with a pharmacological potency similar to that of other Croton species essential oils.

  17. Dragon's blood from Croton urucurana (Baill.) attenuates visceral nociception in mice.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vietla S; Gurgel, Luilma A; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C P; Martins, Domingos T O; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Santos, Flávia A

    2007-09-05

    Dragon's blood, the red sap from Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) has a profound history of traditional use in conditions such as inflammation, diarrhoea and gastrointestinal distress. Previous studies established its anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal and analgesic properties and in this study we verified its potential to suppress visceral pain, using capsaicin- and cyclophosphamide-induced models of visceral nociception. Mice that received intra-colonic capsaicin (0.3%, 50 microl/animal) or intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg) manifested spontaneous nociceptive behaviors or crises, which were significantly suppressed in animal groups treated with red sap (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) or that received N-acetylcysteine (750 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (7.5 mg/kg, s.c.), as positive controls. In capsaicin model, the antinociception produced by 200 mg/kg red sap was found to be naloxone-sensitive (2 mg/kg, i.p.), suggesting an opioid mechanism. In tests of open-field and pentobarbital-sleeping time, mice received 200mg/kg red sap showed no significant alterations in either locomotion frequency or on sleeping time, indicating that the observed antinociception is not a consequence of sedation or motor abnormality. These findings highlight the visceral antinociceptive property of Croton urucurana sap and further support its ethno-medical use to alleviate pain associated with gastrointestinal and other related disorders.

  18. Crotonis Fructus and Its Constituent, Croton Oil, Stimulate Lipolysis in OP9 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Seong; Kim, Ha-Rim; So, Hong-Seob; Lee, Young-Rae; Moon, Hyoung-Chul; Ryu, Do-Gon; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Lee, Guem-San; Song, Je-Ho; Kwon, Kang-Beom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Crotonis fructus (CF) is the mature fruit of Croton tiglium L. and has been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbance in Asia. It is well known that the main component of CF is croton oil (CO). The present study is to investigate the effects of CF extracts (CFE) and CO on lipolysis in OP9 adipocytes. Methods. Glycerol release to the culture supernatants was used as a marker of adipocyte lipolysis. Results. Treatment with various concentrations of CFE and CO stimulates glycerol release in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in glycerol release by CFE is more potent than isoproterenol, which is a β-adrenergic agonist as a positive control in our system. The increased lipolysis by CFE and CO was accompanied by an increase of phosphorylated hormone sensitive lipase (pHSL) but not nonphosphorylated HSL protein and mRNA. Pretreatment with H89, which is a protein kinase A inhibitor, significantly abolished the CFE- and CO-induced glycerol release in OP9 adipocytes. These results suggest that CFE and CO may be a candidate for the development of a lipolysis-stimulating agent in adipocytes. PMID:25435891

  19. Crotonis Fructus and Its Constituent, Croton Oil, Stimulate Lipolysis in OP9 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Seong; Kim, Ha-Rim; So, Hong-Seob; Lee, Young-Rae; Moon, Hyoung-Chul; Ryu, Do-Gon; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Lee, Guem-San; Song, Je-Ho; Kwon, Kang-Beom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Crotonis fructus (CF) is the mature fruit of Croton tiglium L. and has been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbance in Asia. It is well known that the main component of CF is croton oil (CO). The present study is to investigate the effects of CF extracts (CFE) and CO on lipolysis in OP9 adipocytes. Methods. Glycerol release to the culture supernatants was used as a marker of adipocyte lipolysis. Results. Treatment with various concentrations of CFE and CO stimulates glycerol release in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in glycerol release by CFE is more potent than isoproterenol, which is a β-adrenergic agonist as a positive control in our system. The increased lipolysis by CFE and CO was accompanied by an increase of phosphorylated hormone sensitive lipase (pHSL) but not nonphosphorylated HSL protein and mRNA. Pretreatment with H89, which is a protein kinase A inhibitor, significantly abolished the CFE- and CO-induced glycerol release in OP9 adipocytes. These results suggest that CFE and CO may be a candidate for the development of a lipolysis-stimulating agent in adipocytes.

  20. Lamotriginium crotonate and lamotriginium salicylate ethanol monosolvate: the role of solvent molecules in the packing organization.

    PubMed

    Freire, Eleonora; Echeverría, Gustavo A; Baggio, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    Two lamotriginium salts, namely lamotriginium crotonate [systematic name: 3,5-diamino-6-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazin-2-ium but-2-enoate, C9H8Cl2N5(+)·C4H5O2(-), (III)] and lamotriginium salicylate [systematic name: 3,5-diamino-6-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazin-2-ium 2-hydroxybenzoate ethanol monosolvate, C9H8Cl2N5(+)·C7H5O3(-)·C2H5OH, (IV)] present extremely similar centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded A...L...L...A packing building blocks (L is lamotriginium and A is the anion). The fact that salicylate salt (IV) is (ethanol) solvated, while crotonate salt (III) is not, has a profound effect on the way these elemental units aggregate to generate the final crystal structure. Possible reasons for this behaviour are analyzed and the hypothesis raised checked against similar structures in the literature.

  1. Immunomodulatory activity and chemical characterisation of sangre de drago (dragon's blood) from Croton lechleri.

    PubMed

    Risco, Ester; Ghia, Felipe; Vila, Roser; Iglesias, José; Alvarez, Elida; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2003-09-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of the latex from Croton lechleri (sangre de drago) was determined by in vitro assays. Classical (CP) and alternative (AP) complement pathways activities were determined in human serum. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes, and phagocytosis of opsonised fluorescent microspheres were measured by flow cytometry. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Activity on proliferation of murine lymphocytes was also investigated. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was assayed in vivo by carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. Some of the activities were compared with those of the isolated alkaloid taspine. Sangre de drago from Croton lechleri showed immunomodulatory activity. It exhibited a potent inhibitory activity on CP and AP of complement system and inhibited the proliferation of activated T-cells. The latex showed free radical scavenging capacity. Depending on the concentration, it showed antioxidant or prooxidant properties, and stimulated or inhibited the phagocytosis. Moreover, the latex has strong anti-inflammatory activity when administered i. p. Taspine cannot be considered the main responsible for these activities, and other constituents, probably proanthocyanidins, should be also involved.

  2. Enhancement of the Norfloxacin Antibiotic Activity by Gaseous Contact with the Essential Oil of Croton zehntneri

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, HDM; Matias, EFF; Santos, KKA; Tintino, SR; Souza, CES; Guedes, GMM; Santos, FAD; Costa, JGM; Falcão-Silva, VS; Siqueira-Júnior, JP

    2010-01-01

    This is the first on the modulation of norfloxacin antibiotic activity by the volatile compounds of an essential oil. We report the chemical composition and antibiotic modifying activity of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (variety estragole), using the minimal inhibitory dose method and gaseous contact. The leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Euphorbiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and to inhibitory activity of efflux pump by gaseous contact. The main component of the essential oil of C. zehntneri was estragole (76,8%). The gaseous components of the oil enhanced the inhibition zone of norfloxacin in 39,5%. This result shows that this oil influences the antibiotic activity of norfloxacin, possibly affecting the bacterial NorA efflux system, and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of multidrug resistant pathogens. PMID:21264094

  3. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  4. Force of habit: shrubs, trees and contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity using Croton (Euphorbiaceae) as a model system.

    PubMed

    Arévalo, Rafael; van Ee, Benjamin W; Riina, Ricarda; Berry, Paul E; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2017-03-01

    Wood is a major innovation of land plants, and is usually a central component of the body plan for two major plant habits: shrubs and trees. Wood anatomical syndromes vary between shrubs and trees, but no prior work has explicitly evaluated the contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity in the context of these plant habits. Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to test for contingent evolution of habit, habitat and wood anatomy in the mega-diverse genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae), across the largest and most complete molecular phylogeny of the genus to date. Plant habit and habitat are highly correlated, but most wood anatomical features correlate more strongly with habit. The ancestral Croton was reconstructed as a tree, the wood of which is inferred to have absent or indistinct growth rings, confluent-like axial parenchyma, procumbent ray cells and disjunctive ray parenchyma cell walls. The taxa sampled showed multiple independent origins of the shrub habit in Croton , and this habit shift is contingent on several wood anatomical features (e.g. similar vessel-ray pits, thick fibre walls, perforated ray cells). The only wood anatomical trait correlated with habitat and not habit was the presence of helical thickenings in the vessel elements of mesic Croton . Plant functional traits, individually or in suites, are responses to multiple and often confounding contexts in evolution. By establishing an explicit contingent evolutionary framework, the interplay between habit, habitat and wood anatomical diversity was dissected in the genus Croton . Both habit and habitat influence the evolution of wood anatomical characters, and conversely, the wood anatomy of lineages can affect shifts in plant habit and habitat. This study hypothesizes novel putatively functional trait associations in woody plant structure that could be further tested in a variety of other taxa.

  5. Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton crassifolius and their anti-angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Jian; Chung, Hau Yin; Zhang, Yu-Bo; Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Huang, Wei-Huan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2016-02-01

    Six diterpenoids [crassifolin J, K, L, M, N and O] along with eleven known ones were isolated from the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of the roots of Croton crassifolius (Euphorbiaceae). Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). The structure and stereochemistry of crassifolin J was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and the absolute configurations of crassifolin K-M were determined by CD spectra. Twenty-three diterpenoids from this plant were screened for their anti-angiogenic activity using a wild-type zebrafish in vivo model. Four of the known compounds were active, of which penduliflaworosin possessed the best activity relative to the positive control (SU5416). Further study demonstrated that penduliflaworosin could inhibit vessel formation on Tg(fli1a:EGFP)y1-type zebrafish embryos.

  6. Larvicidal and nematicidal activities of the leaf essential oil of Croton regelianus.

    PubMed

    Torres, Maria Conceição M; Assunção, João Carlos; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria P; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto R; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Bezerra, Daniel P; Marinho Filho, José Delano B; Viana, Francisco Arnaldo; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L

    2008-12-01

    The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil of Croton regelianus collected from wild plants growing in two different sites at Ceará State (Brazil) was analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. Twenty monoterpenoids, representing more than 96% of the chemical composition of the oils, were identified and quantified. The oils showed similar chemical composition but considerable variation in the levels of each constituent. Ascaridole (33.9-17.0%), p-cymene (22.3-21.6%), and camphor (13.0-3.1%) were the predominant constituents. The monoterpene ascaridole was isolated and characterized by spectroscopic data. The essential oils and the isolated compounds were tested against Aedes aegypti and Artemia sp. larvae, and the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The bioassay results show that the essential oil of C. regelianus and ascaridole were moderately active against the M. incognita, but strongly effective against both A. aegypti and Artemia sp. larvae.

  7. Tigliane diterpenes from Croton mauritianus as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.

    PubMed

    Corlay, Nina; Delang, Leen; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Neyts, Johan; Clerc, Patricia; Smadja, Jacqueline; Guéritte, Françoise; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided purification of an EtOAc extract of the leaves of Croton mauritianus using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of 12-O-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1) and the new 12-O-decanoyl-7-hydroperoxy-phorbol-5-ene-13-acetate (2), along with loliolide, vomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, annuionone D and bluemol C. The planar structure and the relative configuration of compound 2 were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited chikungunya virus-induced cell death in cell culture with EC50s of 2.4±0.3 and 4.0±0.8 μM, respectively.

  8. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Croton kimosorum, an endemic species to Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Ihandriharison, Harilala; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Benja, Rakotonirina; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, Suzanne; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Croton kimosorum Leandri is an endemic species to Madagascar. The chemical composition of aerial parts, leaf and stem oils is reported for the first time. Analysis was carried out by combination of chromatographic (CC, GC), spectroscopic and spectrometric (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 76 compounds have been identified. Essential oil isolated from aerial parts contained mainly linalool (21.6%), sabinene (10.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.3%), beta-pinene (6.2%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (5.9%), terpinen-4-ol (4.8%), geraniol (4,5%) and germacrene D (2.3%). In comparison with the first sample, the composition of leaf and stem oils varied slightly, while essential oil isolated by vapor distillation from a semi-industrial still exhibited similar composition.

  9. Two novel clerodane diterpenenes with NGF-potentiating activities from the twigs of Croton yanhuii.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yihang; Wang, Meicheng; Ren, Quanhui; Li, Shen; Xu, Jing; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Da-Qing; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2014-06-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and analog reagents to promote the neurite outgrowth of nerve cells against the neuron degeneration are expected to be potentially useful for the medical treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In our focus on the discovery of bioactive diterpenes, we investigated the chemical constituents of the plant Croton yanhuii. This investigation led to the isolation and identification of two novel clerodane diterpenes (1 and 2). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and mass (ESIMS and HR-ESIMS) spectroscopic data analyses. Further biological screenings showed that both of the compounds enhanced NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells.

  10. Tectonosedimentary evolution of the Crotone basin, Italy: Implications for Calabrian Arc geodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Smale, J.L. ); Rio, D. ); Thunell, R.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Analysis of outcrop, well, and offshore seismic data has allowed the Neogene tectonosedimentary evolution of an Ionian Sea satellite basin to be outlined. The Crotone basin contains a series of postorogenic sediments deposited since Serravallian time atop a complex nappe system emplaced in the early Miocene. The basin's evolution can be considered predominantly one of distension in a fore-arc setting punctuated by compressional events. The earliest sediments (middle-late Miocene) consist of conglomerates, marls, and evaporites infilling a rapidly subsiding basin. A basin-wide Messinian unconformity and associated intraformational folding mark the close of this sedimentary cycle. Reestablishment of marine conditions in the early Pliocene is documented by sediments which show a distinct color banding and apparent rhythmicity, which may represent the basin margin to lowermost Pliocene marl/limestone rhythmic couplets present in southern Calabria. A bounding unconformity surface of middle Pliocene age (3.0 Ma), which corresponds to a major northwest-southeast compressional event, closes this depositional sequence. The basin depocenter shifted markedly toward the southeast, and both chaotic and strong subparallel reflector seismic facies of wide-ranging thicknesses fill the depositional topography created during this tectonic episode. Basin subsidence decreases dramatically in the late Pliocene and cessates in response to basin margin uplift in the early Pleistocene. The chronostratigraphic hierarchy of these depositional sequences allows them to constrain the deformational history of the basin. In addition, similar depositional hierarchies in adjacent basins (i.e., Paola, Cefalu, and Tyrrhenian Sea) allow them to tie the stratigraphy and evolution of the Crotone basin to the geodynamic evolution of the Calabrian arc system.

  11. Antimicrobial, modulatory and chemical analysis of the oil of Croton limae.

    PubMed

    Leite, Tiago Rodrigues; Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa da; Santos, Antônio Carlito Bezerra Dos; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Costa, José Galberto Martins da

    2017-12-01

    Croton sp. are plants with a well-reported antimicrobial activity. Croton limae A.P. Gomes, M.F. Sales P.E. Berry (Euphorbiaceae), known as 'marmeleiro-prateado', is commonly used to manage abdominal pain in Brazil. This work evaluates the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of C. limae leaves (EOCL). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the modulation of the antibiotic activity were determined using a microdilution method. The concentration of EOCL ranged between 512 and 8 μg/mL. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans strains were used in the MIC and modulation assays. The antibiotics, amikacin, gentamicin and neomycin, and the antifungals, amphotericin B, benzoylmetronidazole and nystatin, were used in concentrations ranging between 2500 and 2.5 μg/mL. The phytochemical analysis of the EOCL was performed through gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Only Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by a clinically relevant concentration of EOCL (MIC 512 μg/mL). Synergism between the EOCL and amikacin against S. aureus (9.76 μg/mL) and E. coli (39.062 μg/mL); neomycin against E. coli (2.44 μg/mL); and benzoylmetronidazole against C. krusei (256 μg/mL) were observed. The GC/MS analysis identified cedrol, eucalyptol and α-pinene as the main compounds of EOCL. EOCL inhibited the growth of S. aureus and potentiated the antibiotic and antifungal effects of drugs against all bacterial and Candida strains, respectively.

  12. Acanthoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Suwancharoen, Sunisa; Tommeurd, Wantanee; Phurat, Chuttree; Muangsin, Nongnuj; Pornpakakul, Surachai

    2010-01-01

    The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aR,7S,8aS,10aS)-1,4a,7-trimethyl-7-vinyl-1,2,3,4,4a,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10a-dodeca­hydro­phenanthrene-1-carb­oxy­lic acid], C20H30O2, is a pimarane-type diterpene extracted from Croton oblongifolius. There are two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. In both of these, the six-membered rings A, B and C adopt chair, boat and half-chair conformations, respectively. Rings A and B are trans-fused. The two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit form O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonded R 2 2(8) dimers. The absolute configuration was assigned on the basis of the published literature on analogous structures. PMID:21587780

  13. Anthropometric variables, lifestyle and sports in school-age children: comparison between the cities of Bologna and Crotone.

    PubMed

    Toselli, S; Brasili, P; Iuliano, T; Spiga, F

    2014-12-01

    Weight disorders are rapidly increasing in childhood. In Italy a strong geographic North-South gradient of overweight and obesity has been reported. The purpose of this study is to examine anthropometric variables, physical activity and lifestyles in school-age children in the cities of Bologna and Crotone. The sample consists of 963 children attending primary schools, aged 6-10 years. Height, weight, triceps, and subscapular skinfolds were measured for each child; body mass index (BMI) and percentage of fat mass were calculated. Physical activity was determined through an interview with each child. Another questionnaire was submitted to parents, in order to obtain information on sleep duration, means of transport and type of physical activity. In the city of Bologna, the mean values of anthropometric variables were: height (boys - 1,335 mm, girls - 1,332 mm), BMI (boys - 17.8 kg/m(2), girls - 17.3 kg/m(2)), and the proportion of overweight and obese individuals was: boys - 20.6%, girls - 12.7%. In Crotone the mean values were: height (boys - 1,275 mm, girls - 1,265 mm), BMI (boys - 19.4 kg/m(2), girls - 19.3 kg/m(2)), and the proportion of overweight and obese individuals was: boys - 46.7%, girls - 49.0%. The results have demonstrated significant correlations of lifestyle and physical activity with children's weight status. In Crotone there is a larger variation of weight disorders with higher percentages of overweight children than in Bologna. The children in Crotone are engaged in sedentary activities for a significantly longer time than children in Bologna, who are more physically active. The data show a strong North-South gradient concerning not only distribution of weight status, but also lifestyles especially including participation in sports and sedentary behavior. Our study also provides meaningful suggestions how to define lifestyles in order to achieve an optimal health status during growth.

  14. Larvicidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Croton macrostachyus Del. against Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Ilango, K

    2010-01-01

    Methanol leaf extracts of two Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants viz., Lomisar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] and Bisana [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Croton macrostachyus Del. (Euphorbiaceae)] were screened for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector in Ethiopia. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of post treatment. Both plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis. Cymbopogon citratus extract has exhibited potent larvicidal activity than Croton macrostachyus at lower concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of Cymbopogon citratus were 74.02 and 158.20 ppm, respectively. From this data, a chi-square value 2.760 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. While, the LC50 and LC90 values of Croton macrostachyus were 89.25 and 224.98 ppm, respectively and the chi-square value 1.035 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present investigation establishes that these plant extracts could serve as potent mosquito larvicidal agents against Anopheles arabiensis. However, their mode of actions and larvicidal efficiency under the field conditions should be scrutinized and determined in the near future.

  15. Host range and genetic diversity of croton yellow vein mosaic virus, a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causing leaf curl disease in tomato.

    PubMed

    Pramesh, D; Mandal, Bikash; Phaneendra, Chigurupati; Muniyappa, V

    2013-03-01

    Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CYVMV) is a widely occurring begomovirus in Croton bonplandianum, a common weed in the Indian subcontinent. In this study, CYVMV (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) was transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) to as many as 35 plant species belonging to 11 families, including many vegetables, tobacco varieties, ornamentals and weeds. CYVMV produced bright yellow vein symptoms in croton, whereas in all the other host species, the virus produced leaf curl symptoms. CYVMV produced leaf curl in 13 tobacco species and 22 cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum and resembled tobacco leaf curl virus (TobLCV) in host reactions. However, CYVMV was distinguished from TobLCV in four differential hosts, Ageratum conyzoides, C. bonplandianum, Euphorbia geniculata and Sonchus bracyotis. The complete genome sequences of four isolates originating from northern, eastern and southern India revealed that a single species of DNA-A and a betasatellite, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite (CroYVMB) were associated with the yellow vein mosaic disease of croton. The sequence identity among the isolates of CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB occurring in diverse plant species was 91.8-97.9 % and 83.3-100 %, respectively. The CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB generated through rolling-circle amplification of the cloned DNAs produced typical symptoms of yellow vein mosaic and leaf curling in croton and tomato, respectively. The progeny virus from both the croton and tomato plants was transmitted successfully by B. tabaci. The present study establishes the etiology of yellow vein mosaic disease of C. bonplandianum and provides molecular evidence that a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causes leaf curl in tomato.

  16. Refining DNA Barcoding Coupled High Resolution Melting for Discrimination of 12 Closely Related Croton Species

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Ounjai, Sarawut; Rora, Jantarika A.; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding coupled high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) is an emerging method for species discrimination based on DNA dissociation kinetics. The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of different primer sets, derived from selected DNA regions, for Bar-HRM analysis of species in Croton (Euphorbiaceae), one of the largest genera of plants with over 1,200 species. Seven primer pairs were evaluated (matK, rbcL1, rbcL2, rbcL3, rpoC, trnL and ITS1) from four plastid regions, matK, rbcL, rpoC, and trnL, and the nuclear ribosomal marker ITS1. The primer pair derived from the ITS1 region was the single most effective region for the identification of the tested species, whereas the rbcL1 primer pair gave the lowest resolution. It was observed that the ITS1 barcode was the most useful DNA barcoding region overall for species discrimination out of all of the regions and primers assessed. Our Bar-HRM results here also provide further support for the hypothesis that both sequence and base composition affect DNA duplex stability. PMID:26406615

  17. Five new phorbol esters with cytotoxic and selective anti-inflammatory activities from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Feng; Yang, Sheng-Hui; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Din-Xiang; He, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Yong-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Five new phorbol esters, (four phorbol diesters, 1-4, and one 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol diester, 5), as well as four known phorbol esters analogues (6-9) were isolated and identified from the branches and leaves of Croton tiglium. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic, and mass spectrometric analysis. Among them, compound (1) was the first example of a naturally occurring phorbol ester with the 20-aldehyde group. Compounds 2-5, and 7-9 showed potent cytotoxicity against the K562, A549, DU145, H1975, MCF-7, U937, SGC-7901, HL60, Hela, and MOLT-4 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.0 to 43 μM, while none of the compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects on normal human cell lines 293T and LX-2, respectively. In addition, compound 3 exhibited moderate COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition, with IC50 values of 0.14 and 8.5 μM, respectively.

  18. Antinociceptive and wound healing activities of Croton adamantinus Müll. Arg. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Morais Nogueira, Lenise; Cassundé, Nathalia Maria Rodrigues; Jorge, Roberta Jeane Bezerra; dos Santos, Simone Maria; Magalhães, Lucimere Paulino Machado; Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; de Barros Viana, Glauce Socorro; Araújo, Renata Mendonça; de Sena, Kêsia Xisto da Fonseca Ribeiro; de Albuquerque, Julianna Ferreira Cavalcanti; Martins, René Duarte

    2013-10-01

    Leaves of Croton adamantinus have been used to treat inflammation and skin wounds in the semi-arid area of the Northeast of Brazil. In order to evaluate if the essential oil (EO) was responsible for the claimed activities; antinociceptive, wound healing and antimicrobial tests were carried out. Twenty constituents were identified in C. adamantinus EO by GC-MS, ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR, the major compounds being methyl-eugenol (14.81%) and 1,8-cineol (13.74%). Antinociceptive activity was evaluated by the formalin test and the abdominal contortion assay in mice. The EO (50 and 100 mg/kg) decreased the licking time of both phases of the formalin test when compared to the vehicle, but not to morphine (7.5 mg/kg). In the abdominal contortion assay, the EO (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the number of contortions compared to the vehicle and to indometacin (10 mg/kg). The wound healing activity was verified also using two experimental models: excisional wound and dead space. Topical treatment with the EO (1%) increased the wound contraction from the third day of treatment (compared with nitrofurazone 0.2%), while systemic treatment (50 mg/kg/day) increased granulation tissue formation and reduced the water content. C. adamantinus EO also showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus in disk diffusion method. These results corroborate the ethnobotanical use of this specie by Brazilian population.

  19. Water residence times and nutrient budgets across an urbanizing gradient (Croton water supply area, NY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY, were examined. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different level of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes) . Measurements of the comprehensive chemical suite incl. components of nitrogen budget in the throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were performed bi-weekly over a period up to 2 years. Mean water residence times of the stream water were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes. There are significant differences in the chemical composition and decrease of nitrification intensity and of mean streamwater residence time along the increasing watershed development. Within each watershed, longer water residence times (up to over 2 years) were estimated in the wetland zones without direct communication with streams in comparison to hillslope areas (up to over 1 year). The results can be used in watershed management and planning of the further urbanization of this water supply area.

  20. Prostate-specific targeting of the aqueous root extract of Croton membranaceus in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Afriyie, D K; Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Asiedu-Gyekye, I J; Tackie, R; Adjei, S

    2014-09-01

    Croton membranaceus Müll.Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is used for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) treatment. The study aimed at investigating organs that the aqueous root extracts of C. membranaceus (CMARE) target, which is absent in literature. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (100-140 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1, the control group received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 30, 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) b.wt CMARE respectively (oral gavage). Rats fed 90 days the standard chow diet ad libitum. Upon sacrifice, major organs were histologically examined and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biochemically determined. Only the prostate was abnormal. Histologically, H&E staining revealed thickness and infoldings of the epithelial cells shrinking with increasing dose. The 30 mg kg(-1) group showed low columnar or flattened epithelium cells, whereas the columnar epithelium infoldings of the 150 mg kg(-1) b.wt and 300 mg kg(-1) b.wt groups were virtually nonexistent. The acini of the control, 30 mg kg(-1) b.wt group and the 150 mg kg(-1) b.wt groups showed clear pinkish secretion. However, secretion of the high-dose group appeared light pink in colour and the stroma cells appeared much darker than all the treated and control group. C. membranaceus targets the prostate with significant PSA reduction (P < 0.01).

  1. Leaf uptake of methyl ethyl ketone and croton aldehyde by Castanopsis sieboldii and Viburnum odoratissimum saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Akira; Tobe, Seita; Shimizu, Sachie

    2013-05-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is an abundant ketone in the urban atmosphere and croton aldehyde (CA) is a strong irritant to eye, nose, and throat. The use of plants able to absorb these compounds is one suggested mitigation method. In order to investigate this method, we determined the uptake rate of these compounds by leaves of two tree species, Castanopsis sieboldii and Viburnum odoratissimum var. awabuki. Using a flow-through chamber method, we found that these species were capable of absorbing both compounds. We also confirmed that the uptake rate of these compounds normalized to the fumigated concentration (AN) was higher at higher light intensities and that there was a linear relationship between AN and stomatal conductance (gS) for both tree species. In concentration-varying experiments, the uptake of MEK and CA seemed to be restricted by partitioning of MEK between leaf water and air. The ratio of the intercellular VOC concentration (Ci) to the fumigated concentration (Ca) for CA was zero, and the ratio ranged from 0.63 to 0.76 for MEK. The more efficient CA uptake ability may be the result of higher partitioning of CA into leaf water. Our present and previous results also suggest that plant MEK uptake ability was different across plant species, depending on the VOC conversion speed inside leaves.

  2. Effects of Croton rhamnifolioides essential oil on Aedes aegypti oviposition, larval toxicity and trypsin activity.

    PubMed

    Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Lira, Camila S; Lima, Bheatriz N; Napoleão, Thiago H; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Maranhão, Claudia A; Brandão, Sofia S F; Navarro, Daniela M A F

    2014-10-14

    Although numerous reports are available concerning the larvicidal potential of essential oils, very few investigations have focused on their mechanisms of action. In the present study, we have investigated the chemical composition of the leaf oil of Croton rhamnifolioides during storage and its effects on oviposition and survival of larvae of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. In addition, we have established a possible mechanism of action for the larvicidal activity of the essential oil. GC-MS analyses revealed marked differences in the composition of oil that had been freshly isolated and that of a sample that had been stored in a sealed amber-glass vial under refrigeration for three years. However, both fresh and stored oil exhibited substantial larvicidal activities with LC50 values of 122.35 and 89.03 ppm, respectively, and oviposition deterrent effects against gravid females at concentrations of 50 and 100 µg·mL-1. These results demonstrate that the larvicidal effect of the essential oil was unchanged during three years of storage even though its chemical composition altered. Hence, the essential oil could be used in the preparation of commercial products. In addition, we observed that the trypsin-like activity of mosquito larvae was inhibited in vitro by the essential oil of C. rhamnifolioides, suggesting that the larvicidal effect may be associated with inhibition of this enzyme.

  3. Cytogenetics and characterization of microsatellite loci for a South American pioneer tree species, Croton floribundus.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, Milene; Pinto-Maglio, Cecília A F; Zucchi, Maria I; dos Santos, Flavio A M

    2013-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in plant population genetic studies, the lack of information regarding pedigree, ploidy level, or mode of inheritance for many polyploids can compromise the analysis of the molecular data produced. The aim of this study was to examine both microsatellite and cytogenetic characteristics of the pioneer tree Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) to test for the occurrence of polyploidy in the species and to evaluate its implications for the appropriate use of SSR markers. Seven microsatellite markers were developed and screened for 62 individuals from a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Brazil. Chromosome number, meiotic behavior, and pollen viability were evaluated from male flower buds. All SSR loci were highly polymorphic. The number of bivalents observed in meiosis n = 56 (2n = 8× = 112) and the maximum number of alleles per individual (Ni = 8) demonstrated the occurrence of polyploidy in C. floribundus. The normal meiotic pairing and the high pollen viability suggested that C. floribundus is a regular and stable polyploid, most likely an allopolyploid. The combined SSR and cytogenetic data provided new evidence on the origin and evolution of the species as well as assured the accurate use of SSR loci for population genetic studies of the polyploid pioneer species.

  4. In vitro antituberculosis activity of diterpenoids from the Vietnamese medicinal plant Croton tonkinensis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woong Sik; Jyoti, Md Anirban; Kim, Sukyung; Nam, Kung-Woo; Ha, Thi Kim Quy; Oh, Won Keun; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Diterpenoids from the Vietnamese medicinal plant Croton tonkinensis are rich in ent-kaurane, kaurane and the grayanane class and are valuable intermediate plant metabolites with different bioactivities. In this study, we report the antituberculosis activity of these diterpenoids against both susceptible and resistant strains of M. tuberculosis for the first time. All of the ent-kaurane, kaurane and grayanane diterpenoids showed high to moderate activity against Mycobacterium. The highest antituberculosis activity was observed for ent-1β,7α,14β-triacetoxykaur-16-en-15-one (cpp604), with MIC values of 0.78, 1.56 and 3.12-12.5 µg/ml against H37Ra, H37Rv and all other resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis examined. In addition, other ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids also showed very high activities against mycobacterium, including cpp609 (1.56 µg/ml), cpp610 (1.56 µg/ml), cpp601 (3.12-6.25 µg/ml), cpp602 (3.12-6.25 µg/ml), cpp607 (3.12-6.25 µg/ml) and cpp608 (3.12-6.25 µg/ml). From the structure-activity relationship, functional groups R3 and R5 of the ent-kaurane skeleton were found to modulate the antimycobacterial activity.

  5. Refining DNA Barcoding Coupled High Resolution Melting for Discrimination of 12 Closely Related Croton Species.

    PubMed

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Ounjai, Sarawut; Rora, Jantarika A; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding coupled high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) is an emerging method for species discrimination based on DNA dissociation kinetics. The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of different primer sets, derived from selected DNA regions, for Bar-HRM analysis of species in Croton (Euphorbiaceae), one of the largest genera of plants with over 1,200 species. Seven primer pairs were evaluated (matK, rbcL1, rbcL2, rbcL3, rpoC, trnL and ITS1) from four plastid regions, matK, rbcL, rpoC, and trnL, and the nuclear ribosomal marker ITS1. The primer pair derived from the ITS1 region was the single most effective region for the identification of the tested species, whereas the rbcL1 primer pair gave the lowest resolution. It was observed that the ITS1 barcode was the most useful DNA barcoding region overall for species discrimination out of all of the regions and primers assessed. Our Bar-HRM results here also provide further support for the hypothesis that both sequence and base composition affect DNA duplex stability.

  6. Isolation and characterisation of novel antioxidant constituents of Croton zambesicus leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Aderogba, M A; McGaw, L J; Bezabih, M; Abegaz, B M

    2011-08-01

    A 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-activity-directed fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract of Croton zambesicus leaf. Repeated column chromatography of the fraction on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 led to the isolation of a new natural product, identified as quercetin-3-O-β-6″(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether, helichrysoside-3'-methyl ether (1), along with kaempferol-3-O-β-6″(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside, tiliroside (2) and apigenin-6-C-glucoside, isovitexin (3) as the antioxidant constituents. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques, namely NMR (1D and 2D) and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1 and 2 are reported from this species for the first time. In the qualitative antioxidant assay, the three isolated compounds instantly bleached the DPPH (0.2% MeOH) purple colour indicating antioxidant activity. In the quantitative antioxidant assay, all the isolated compounds demonstrated weak antioxidant activity compared to quercetin and rutin used as positive control antioxidant agents. The compounds displayed little to no cytotoxicity against Vero cells in an in vitro assay. The presence of these antioxidant compounds in the leaf extract of C. zambesicus could provide a rationale for the ethnomedicinal use of the plant in the management of oxidative-stress-related diseases in folk medicine.

  7. Taspine is the cicatrizant principle in Sangre de Grado extracted from Croton lechleri.

    PubMed

    Vaisberg, A J; Milla, M; Planas, M C; Cordova, J L; de Agusti, E R; Ferreyra, R; Mustiga, M C; Carlin, L; Hammond, G B

    1989-04-01

    Sangre de Grado extract used by Peruvian natives as a cicatrizant agent, was collected from trees of the species Croton lechleri growing in the Peruvian jungle. The Sangre de Grado was found to contain one alkaloid identified as taspine and which was shown to be the active cicatrizant principle by an in vivo test in mice. This alkaloid exhibited a dose-related cicatrizant effect and an ED50 of 0.375 mg/kg. Experiments with taspine hydrochloride in order to study its mechanism of action in cell culture systems showed that the alkaloid was non-toxic to human foreskin fibroblasts at concentrations below 150 ng/ml and that it had no effect on cell proliferation. On the other hand, taspine hydrochloride was found to increase the migration of human foreskin fibroblasts. This effect on the migration of fibroblasts is probably the mechanism by which Sangre de Grado and taspine hydrochloride accelerate the wound healing process. Using the two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis system, we have been able to show that neither Sangre de Grado nor taspine hydrochloride had carcinogenic or tumour promoter activity after 17 months of treatment.

  8. Sangre de grado Croton palanostigma induces apoptosis in human gastrointestinal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Manuel; Okuhama, Nataly N; Clark, Melinda; Angeles, Fausto M; Lao, Juan; Bustamante, Sergio; Miller, Mark J S

    2002-05-01

    Sangre de grado is an ethnomedicinal red tree sap obtained from Croton spp. that is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers, cancer and to promote wound healing. To evaluate the potential role of sangre de grado (SdG) in cancer we examined its effects on human cancer cells, AGS (stomach), HT29 and T84 (colon). Viability of cells treated with SdG (10-200 microg/ml) decreased (P<0.01) in a dose dependent manner measured over a 24-h period. Cell proliferation at 48 h decreased (P<0.01) in all cells treated with SdG (>100 microg/ml). When cells in suspension were treated with SdG (100 microg/ml) cell adherence was severely compromised (>85%). Cells treated with SdG (100 microg/ml) underwent apoptosis as detected by nucleus condensation and DNA fragmentation determined by ELISA, and flow cytometry. Morphological changes as assessed by acridine orange. These effects were similar to that observed with Taxol (30 microM). A significant alteration of microtubular architecture was equally observed in both stomach and colon cancer cells exposed to SdG (100 microg/ml). The induction of apoptosis and microtubule damage in AGS, HT29 and T84 cells suggest that sangre de grado should be evaluated further as a potential source of anti-cancer agents.

  9. Genetic diversity analysis of Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. using AFLP molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T G; Pereira, A M S; Coppede, J S; França, S C; Ming, L C; Bertoni, B W

    2016-02-19

    Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. is a medicinal plant native to Cerrado vegetation in Brazil, and it is popularly used to treat urogenital tract infections. The objective of the present study was to assess the genetic variability of natural C. antisyphiliticus populations using AFLP molecular markers. Accessions were collected in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Goiás. The genotyping of individuals was performed using a LI-COR® DNA Analyzer 4300. The variability within populations was found to be greater than the variability between them. The F(ST) value was 0.3830, which indicated that the populations were highly structured. A higher percentage of polymorphic loci (92.16%) and greater genetic diversity were found in the population accessions from Pratinha-MG. Gene flow was considered restricted (N(m) = 1.18), and there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The populations of C. antisyphiliticus exhibited an island-model structure, which demonstrates the vulnerability of the species.

  10. Antileishmanial Activity of a Linalool-Rich Essential Oil from Croton cajucara

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Rodrigues, Igor de Almeida; Soares, Rosangela Maria A.; Souto-Padrón, Thais; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Lopes, Angela Hampshire C. S.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of a linalool-rich essential oil from the leaves of Croton cajucara against Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. Morphological changes in L. amazonensis promastigotes treated with 15 ng of essential oil per ml were observed by transmission electron microscopy; leishmanial nuclear and kinetoplast chromatin destruction, followed by cell lysis, was observed within 1 h. Pretreatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these macrophages and L. amazonensis, with a concomitant increase by 220% in the level of nitric oxide production by the infected macrophages. Treatment of preinfected macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these cells and the parasites, which led to a 60% increase in the amount of nitric oxide produced by the preinfected macrophages. These results provide new perspectives on the development of drugs with activities against Leishmania, as linalool-rich essential oil is a strikingly potent leishmanicidal plant extract (50% lethal doses, 8.3 ng/ml for promastigotes and 8.7 ng/ml for amastigotes) which inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis promastigotes at very low concentrations (MIC, 85.0 pg/ml) and which presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian cells. PMID:12760864

  11. Natural diterpenes from Croton ciliatoglanduliferus as photosystem II and photosystem I inhibitors in spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Morales-Flores, Félix; Aguilar, María Isabel; King-Díaz, Beatriz; de Santiago-Gómez, Jesús-Ricardo; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2007-01-01

    In our search for new natural photosynthetic inhibitors that could lead to the development of "green herbicides" less toxic to environment, the diterpene labdane-8alpha,15-diol (1) and its acetyl derivative (2) were isolated for the first time from Croton ciliatoglanduliferus Ort. They inhibited photophosphorylation, electron transport (basal, phosphorylating and uncoupled) and the partial reactions of both photosystems in spinach thylakoids. Compound 1 inhibits the photosystem II (PS II) partial reaction from water to Na(+) Silicomolibdate (SiMo) and has no effect on partial reaction from diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP), therefore 1 inhibits at the water splitting enzyme and also inhibits PS I partial reaction from reduced phenylmetasulfate (PMS) to methylviologen (MV). Thus, it also inhibits in the span of P(700) to Iron sulfur center X (F(X)). Compound 2 inhibits both, the PS II partial reactions from water to SiMo and from DPC to DCPIP; besides this, it inhibits the photosystem I (PS I) partial reaction from reduced PMS to MV. With these results, we concluded that the targets of the natural product 2 are located at the water splitting enzyme, and at P(680) in PS II and at the span of P(700) to F(X) in PS I. The results of compounds 1 and 2 on PS II were corroborated by chlorophyll a fluorescence.

  12. [On the specifity and stereospecificity of the conversion of different 2,3-unsaturated acids by Clostridium kluyveri (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, H; Günther, H; Simon, H

    1975-08-01

    Further 2,3-unsaturated acids are revealed which can be reduced by Clostridium kluyveri with crotonate or butyrate as hydrogen donors. Unsaturated and saturated 3-halogenated acids are transformed into the saturated halogen-free acids. The following reaction sequence is proposed: a) hydrogenation, b) elumination of HX and c) again hydrogenation. Tiglinate ((E)-2-methyl-2-butenoate) and (E)-2-methyl-2-pentenoate are stereospecifically reduced to the (S)-2-methyl substituted acids. C. kluyveri contains endogenous material; in the presence of hydrogen acceptors such as 2,3-unsaturated acids this is degraded to acetate, and the reducing equivalents liberated hydrogenate the unsaturated acid. In a transient phase the hydration products of the unsaturated acids are present in the non-activated form in appreciable amounts. Tiglinate as well as crotonate is partially converted to ethyl methyl ketone and aceton and/or propanol, respectively.

  13. Seasonal Variability and Effects of Stormflow on Concentrations of Pesticides and their Degradates in Kisco River and Middle Branch Croton River Surface Water, Croton Reservoir System, New York, May 2000-February 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Bode, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Seven herbicides (2,4-D, 2,4-D methyl ester, bromacil, dicamba, diuron, imazaquin, and sulfometuron), four insecticides (carbaryl, diazinon, imidacloprid, and malathion), two fungicides (metalaxyl and myclobutanil), and caffeine (an indicator of wastewater) were detected in at least one sample from the Kisco River at concentrations above 0.1 ug/L (micrograms per liter). Four of these compounds - 2,4-D, 2,4-D methyl ester, dicamba, and metalaxyl - were detected in at least one sample from the Kisco River at a concentration above 1 ug/L. Only three herbicides (2,4-D, imazethapyr, and prometon) and caffeine were detected at concentrations above 0.1 ug/L in one or more of the Middle Branch Croton River samples, and no compounds were detected above 0.4 ug/L in Middle Branch Croton River samples. No samples contained concentrations of pesticides that exceeded human health-based water-quality standards. However, samples from the Kisco River contained four insecticides (carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion) and one herbicide (2,4-D) in concentrations that exceeded water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Aquatic-life protection criteria were generally exceeded only in stormflow samples collected in June, September, and December 2000. No samples from the Middle Branch Croton River contained target compounds that exceeded water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Pesticide concentrations were generally higher, and the numbers of compounds generally larger in samples from the Kisco River than in samples from the Middle Branch Croton River, probably because the Kisco River watershed has a greater population density and is more extensively developed. The highest concentrations of most compounds in both streams were detected in stormflow samples collected in June, September, and December 2000. This indicates that stormflow sampling is essential in assessments of pesticide occurrence in streams that drain developed lands. The lowest

  14. Studies on the proteins from the seeds of Croton tiglium and of Jatropha curcas. Toxic properties and inhibition of protein synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Stirpe, F; Pession-Brizzi, A; Lorenzoni, E; Strocchi, P; Montanaro, L; Sperti, S

    1976-01-01

    1. Proteins extracted from the seeds of the Euphorbiaceae croton tiglium and Jatropha curcas were separated into three major peaks (I,II,and III) by Sephadex chromatography. 2. The crude protein from both seeds and peaks I and II from Croton and peak I from Jatropha were toxic to mice, to different extents. 3. The crude protein and peak I and peak II from both seeds, inhibited protein synthesis by a reticulocyte lysate; maximum inhibition was exerted by peak II from both seeds. None of these preparations affected protein synthesis in vitro by Ehrlich ascites cells. PMID:942394

  15. Toxic effects of crotocaudin extracted from the medicinal plant Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    The compound crotocaudin extracted from the stem bark of the medicinal plant Croton tiglium Linn. was administered for 24 h or 96 h to the freshwater vector snail Lymnaea (Radix) acuminata Lamarck in order to test its toxicity. L. acuminata is the intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica which cause immense harm to man and his domestic animals. It was observed that the molluscicidal activity of crotocaudin against L. acuminata is time- as well as dose-dependent. There was a significant negative correlation among LC50 values and exposure periods, i.e. increasing the exposure time, the LC50 value of crotocaudin decreased from 5.37 microM (24 h) > 2.08 microM (48 h) > 1.36 microM (72 h) to 1.01 microM (96 h), respectively, against L. acuminata. The toxicological experiments to proof for environmental toxicity, if any, have also been carried out on the non-target freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) [Channidae (Ophicephalidae)], which shares the habitat with L. acuminata. The sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of LC50) administered over 24 h caused significant changes in the carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolisms in nervous, hepatopancreas, and ovotestis tissues of Lymnaea acuminata. Channa punctatus was also exposed to sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of 24-h LC50 of L. acuminata) for 96 h which showed significant alterations in the metabolism in muscle, liver, and gonad tissues. After withdrawal of crotocaudin the snail tissues recovered in part after 7 days and the fish tissues completely.

  16. Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, D.; Vitvar, T.; McDonnell, J.; Hassett, J.; Duncan, J.; Kendall, C.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of impervious area, septic leach-field effluent, and a riparian wetland on runoff generation were studied in three small (0.38-0.56 km 2) headwater catchments that represent a range of suburban development (high density residential, medium density residential, and undeveloped) within the Croton River basin, 70 km north of New York City. Precipitation, stream discharge, and groundwater levels were monitored at 10-30 min intervals for 1 year, and stream water and groundwater samples were collected biweekly for ??18O, NO3-, and SO42- analysis for more than 2 years during an overlapping period in 2000-2002. Data from 27 storms confirmed that peak magnitudes increased and recession time decreased with increasing development, but lags in peak arrival and peak discharge/mean discharge were greatest in the medium density residential catchment, which contains a wetland in which storm runoff is retained before entering the stream. Baseflow during a dry period from Aug. 2001-Feb. 2002 was greatest in the high-density residential catchment, presumably from the discharge of septic effluent through the shallow groundwater system and into the stream. In contrast, moderate flows during a wet period from Mar.-Aug. 2002 were greatest in the undeveloped catchment, possibly as a result of greater subsurface storage or greater hydraulic conductivity at this site. The mean residence time of baseflow was about 30 weeks at all three catchments, indicating that human influence was insufficient to greatly affect the groundwater recharge and discharge properties that determine catchment residence time. These results suggest that while suburban development and its associated impervious surfaces and storm drains accelerate the transport of storm runoff into streams, the combined effects of remnant natural landscape features such as wetlands and human alterations such as deep groundwater supply and septic systems can change the expected effects of human development on storm runoff

  17. Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Douglas; Vitvar, Tomas; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Hassett, James; Duncan, Jonathan; Kendall, Carol

    2005-09-01

    The effects of impervious area, septic leach-field effluent, and a riparian wetland on runoff generation were studied in three small (0.38-0.56 km 2) headwater catchments that represent a range of suburban development (high density residential, medium density residential, and undeveloped) within the Croton River basin, 70 km north of New York City. Precipitation, stream discharge, and groundwater levels were monitored at 10-30 min intervals for 1 year, and stream water and groundwater samples were collected biweekly for δ 18O, NO 3-, and SO 42- analysis for more than 2 years during an overlapping period in 2000-2002. Data from 27 storms confirmed that peak magnitudes increased and recession time decreased with increasing development, but lags in peak arrival and peak discharge/mean discharge were greatest in the medium density residential catchment, which contains a wetland in which storm runoff is retained before entering the stream. Baseflow during a dry period from Aug. 2001-Feb. 2002 was greatest in the high-density residential catchment, presumably from the discharge of septic effluent through the shallow groundwater system and into the stream. In contrast, moderate flows during a wet period from Mar.-Aug. 2002 were greatest in the undeveloped catchment, possibly as a result of greater subsurface storage or greater hydraulic conductivity at this site. The mean residence time of baseflow was about 30 weeks at all three catchments, indicating that human influence was insufficient to greatly affect the groundwater recharge and discharge properties that determine catchment residence time. These results suggest that while suburban development and its associated impervious surfaces and storm drains accelerate the transport of storm runoff into streams, the combined effects of remnant natural landscape features such as wetlands and human alterations such as deep groundwater supply and septic systems can change the expected effects of human development on storm

  18. Chemopreventive effect of Lagenaria siceraria in two stages DMBA plus croton oil induced skin papillomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Navneet; Kale, Raosaheb K; Tiku, Ashu B

    2013-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is a dietary or therapeutic strategy to prevent, suppress, or delay carcinogenesis either at initiation or progression level with nontoxic agents. Use of natural dietary compounds has been a major chemopreventive approach to modulate tumorigenic pathways. In the present study, we have evaluated Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd), a common vegetable of Indian household for its chemomodulatory potential. The fruit has been used in traditional medicine for a very long time for health benefits and to cure pain, ulcers, fever, cough, asthma, and other bronchial disorders. However, despite its reported beneficial effect the chemo modulatory potential of this plant has not been reported. Therefore chemopreventive effect of bottle gourd juice (BGJ) was studied against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) plus croton oil induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. The effect was studied both at antiinitiation and antiinitiation/promotion level followed by histopathological study. A dose of 2.5% and 5% given in drinking water showed significant decrease in papilloma number, papilloma incidence, papilloma multiplicity, papilloma latency, papilloma volume, and papilloma size in different size range. Histopathological study showed chemopreventive effect by minimizing loss of stratification, a decrease in number of epithelial layers, reducing dermal infiltration and protection for various cytoplasmic changes. Higher dose of BGJ was found to be more effective than lower dose and the chemopreventive effect was maximum for antiinitiation/promotion treatment. Altogether, this study reports the chemopreventive effect of Lagenaria siceraria on skin papillomagenesis for the first time and suggests that its consumption may help in suppression of skin cancer.

  19. Quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether: a vasorelaxant flavonoid isolated from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M F; Puebla, P; Carrón, R; Martín, M L; San Román, L

    2002-10-01

    The vasorelaxant profile of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether, a flavonoid isolated from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht (Euphorbiaceae), was assessed in aortic rings isolated from Wistar rats. To gain insight into its structure-activity relationship, we compared this substance with quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether (ayanin), another flavonoid isolated from this plant, quercetin 3,3',4',7-tetramethyl ether, a flavonoid synthesized by us, and quercetin. In addition we examined the interaction of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether with the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. According to their pEC50 values (concentration producing a 50% inhibition of the maximal contractile response) to phenylephrine-induced precontraction in rat isolated aorta, the potency order was quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether > quercetin > quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether > quercetin 3,3',4',7-tetramethyl ether (4.70+/-0.18; 3.96+/-0.07; 3.64+/-0.02; 3.11+/-0.16). The relaxant effect of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether was significantly decreased by the removal of endothelium as well as by methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase, and by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), an NO-synthase inhibitor. Therefore, quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether has a NO/cGMP pathway-related profile, with increased vasorelaxant activity due to hydroxylation at positions 3 and 4 of the B ring. In addition, methylation at positions 3 and 7 with respect to quercetin of the C and A rings, respectively, seems to further enhance the vasorelaxant activity of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether.

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 7-hydroxy-calamenene-rich essential oils from Croton cajucara Benth.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Mariana M B; Chaves, Francisco C M; Almeida, Catia A; Bizzo, Humberto R; Duarte, Rafael S; Campos-Takaki, Galba M; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S

    2013-01-16

    Croton cajucara is a shrub native to the Amazon region locally known as "sacaca". Two morphotypes are known: white and red "sacaca". The essential oils (EO) obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%-37.5%). The effectiveness of these EO regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. Among the microorganisms tested, the essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the oils were determined using the broth dilution assay. It was possible to observe that 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich oils presented high antimicrobial activity, with MIC of 4.76 × 10⁻³ μg/mL for MRSA, 4.88 μg/mL for M. tuberculosis, 39.06 μg/mL for M. smegmatis, and 0.152 μg/mL for R. oryzae and 3.63 × 10⁻⁸ μg/mL for M. circinelloides. The antioxidant activity of this EO suggests that 7-hydroxycalamenene provides more antioxidant activity according with EC(50) less than 63.59 μg/mL. Considering the bioactive potential of EOs and 7-hydroxycalamenene could be of great interest for development of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in humans and/or veterinary practice.

  1. SP-303, an antiviral oligomeric proanthocyanidin from the latex of Croton lechleri (Sangre de Drago).

    PubMed

    Ubillas, R; Jolad, S D; Bruening, R C; Kernan, M R; King, S R; Sesin, D F; Barrett, M; Stoddart, C A; Flaster, T; Kuo, J; Ayala, F; Meza, E; Castañel, M; McMeekin, D; Rozhon, E; Tempesta, M S; Barnard, D; Huffman, J; Smee, D; Sidwell, R; Soike, K; Brazier, A; Safrin, S; Orlando, R; Kenny, P T; Berova, N; Nakanishi, K

    1994-09-01

    SP-303, a large proanthocyanidin oligomer isolated from the latex of the plant species Croton lechleri (Eupborbiaceae) has demonstrated broad activity against a variety of DNA and RNA viruses. In cell culture, SP-303 exhibits potent activity against isolates and laboratory strains of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A virus (FLU-A) and parainfluenza virus (PIV). Parallel assays of SP-303 and ribavirin showed comparable activity against these viruses. SP-303 also exhibits significant inhibitory activity against herpesvirus (HSV) types 1 and 2, including herpesviruses resistant to acyclovir and foscarnet. Inhibition was also observed against hepatitis A and B viruses. The antiviral mechanism of SP-303 seems to derive from its direct binding to components of the viral envelope, resulting in inhibition of viral attachment and penetration of the plasma membrane. Antiviral effects of SP-303 were measured by three distinct methods: CPE, MTT and precursor uptake/incorporation. Cytotoxicity endpoints were markedly greater than the respective antiviral endpoints. SP-303 exhibited activity in RSV-infected cotton rats and African green monkeys, PIV-3-infected cotton rats, HSV-2 infected mice and guinea pigs and FLU-A-infected mice. The most successful routes of SP-303 administration for producing efficacy were: topical application to HSV-2- genital lesions in mice and guinea pigs, aerosol inhalation to FLU-A-infected mice and PIV-3-infected cotton rats, and oral dosage to RSV-infected cotton rats. A variety of toxicological evaluations demonstrated the safety of SP-303, particularly orally, which was predictable, since condensed tannins are a common dietary component. It is notable that the larger proanthocyanidins as a class have high antiviral activity, whereas most of the monomers are inactive. Clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate SP-303 as a therapeutic antiviral agent. Copyright © 1994 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of Croton macrostachyus Stem Bark Extracts against Several Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Obey, Jackie K.; von Wright, Atte; Orjala, Jimmy; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1 ± 0.6 mm and 16.0 ± 1.2 mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6 ± 1.0 mm). The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime) showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4 ± 0.7–22.1 ± 0.9 mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125–250 mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500 mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens. PMID:27293897

  3. Active tectonics and mud diapirism in the Gulf of Squillace (Crotone Basin, Calabrian Arc, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artoni, A.; Capozzi, R.; Lorenzini, S.; Oppo, D.; Polonia, A.; Torelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Calabrian arc is a prominent accretionary prism in the Mediterranean sea that contains alpine metamorphic rocks and connects the southern Apennine chain of Calabria, to the north, with the Maghrebian chain of Sicily, to the southwest. Recent active deformation inside the prism is testified by the earthquakes records and by submarine mud volcanism. The latter, not yet well defined within the accretionary prism, is generally associated to deeper active tectonic structures. In order to unravel the relationships between mud volcanoes and deeper deformations a study has been carried out in the Gulf of Squillace, located in the central portion of the backstop zone of the Calabrian arc and inside the Crotone basin. The deeper tectono-stratigraphic frame has been defined by using 10 well logs, 330 kms of public seismic reflection lines and three CROP seismic lines (the project for deep crust of Italy) recently processed with prestack depth migration. The study has been carried out within the Italian PRIN 2006 Project: "Tectonic and Sedimentation in the Accretionary Complex at the Front of the Calabrian Arc (Ionian Sea)". Three major tectonic units could be distinguished; from the top to the bottom, they are: 1) a metamorphic basement nappe (Alpine/Calabrian units); 2) a complex and east-verging Apenninic-Maghrebian prism, that can be subdivided in an outer prism sealed by middle Eocene(?)/Oligocene deposits and an inner prism sealed by middle/late Miocene deposits; 3) a deeper Mesozoic to Neogene relatively undeformed block interpreted as a thinned block of continental crust that preserves Mesozoic extensional fault. Subsurface mapping of Alpine/Calabrian and Apenninic-Maghrebian units show that their leading edges are oriented NNE-SSW and their tectonic stack was completed at least in the late Miocene; since then, WNW-ESE trending Catanzaro-Squillace transcurrent faults system and out-of-sequence thrusting started to locally reshape the backstop. The Cantanzaro

  4. Comparison of methods for estimates of molecular genetic diversity in genus Croton: influence of coefficients, clustering strategies and data projection.

    PubMed

    Scaldaferri, M M; Freitas, J S; Vieira, J G P; Gonçalves, Z S; Souza, A M; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M

    2014-07-25

    We investigated 10 similarity (and disimilarity) coefficients in a set of 40 wild genotypes of Croton linearifolius subjected to analyses using hierarchical grouping methods, grouping methods by optimization and data projection in two-dimensional space. Genotypes were characterized by analyzing DNA polymorphism with the use of 15 ISSR and 12 RAPD markers. The distance measurements were compared by the Spearman correlation test, projection in two-dimensional space and grouping efficiency evaluation. The Spearman correlation coefficients between the 10 coefficients evaluated were significant (P < 0.001) and indicated significant changes in genotype ranking due to type of coefficient used (0.76 ≤ rs ≤ 1). Wide variation was also observed in the efficiency of clustering methods, where the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean was the most suitable (0.3 ≤ D ≤ 1.5 ; 0.41 ≤ rc ≤ 0.77; 5.99 ≤ S ≤ 12.61). Projection efficiencies in two-dimensional space showed high-stress values (65 < S < 89%). Similar to the results observed for hierarchical clustering methods and for projection in two-dimensional space, the formation of groups with grouping methods by optimization showed variations when using different coefficients. We believe that the results confirm the influence of coefficients in studies of genetic diversity, showing the need to use criteria and standards for selecting appropriate methods for genetic studies of the genus Croton.

  5. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its main constituent anethole block excitability of rat peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Albuquerque, Aline Alice Cavalcante; do Vale, Otoni Cardoso; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2015-03-01

    Croton zehntneri is an aromatic plant native to Northeast Brazil and employed by local people to treat various diseases. The leaves of this plant have a rich content of essential oil. The essential oil of C. zehntneri samples, with anethole as the major constituent and anethole itself, have been reported to have several pharmacological activities such as antispasmodic, cardiovascular, and gastroprotective effects and inducing the blockade of neuromuscular transmission and antinociception. Since several works have demonstrated that essential oils and their constituents block cell excitability and in view of the multiple effects of C. zehntneri essential oil and anethole on biological tissues, we undertook this investigation aiming to characterize and compare the effects of this essential oil and its major constituent on nerve excitability. Sciatic nerves of Wistar rats were used. They were mounted in a moist chamber, and evoked compound action potentials were recorded. Nerves were exposed in vitro to the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole (0.1-1 mg/mL) up to 180 min, and alterations in excitability (rheobase and chronaxie) and conductibility (peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity) parameters of the compound action potentials were evaluated. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole blocked, in a concentration-dependent manner with similar pharmacological potencies (IC50: 0.32 ± 0.07 and 0.22 ± 0.11 mg/mL, respectively), rat sciatic nerve compound action potentials. Strength-duration curves for both agents were shifted upward and to the right compared to the control curve, and the rheobase and chronaxie were increased following essential oil and anethole exposure. The time courses of the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole effects on peak-to-peak amplitude of compound action potentials followed an exponential decay and reached a steady state. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole caused a similar reduction in

  6. Anti-oxidative and cholinesterase inhibitory effects of leaf extracts and their isolated compounds from two closely related Croton species.

    PubMed

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Croton gratissimus and Croton zambesicus (subgratissimus) and compounds isolated from the extracts was carried out to determine their potential and suitability or otherwise as a substitute for each other in the management of oxidative and neurodegenerative conditions. Different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, β-carotene-linoleic and the lipid peroxidation models) and the microplate assay for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition were carried out separately to study the activities of the crude leaf extracts and four solvent fractions from each of the two Croton species. Bioassay guided fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the crude extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of 20% aqueous methanol extract of C. gratissimus on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns resulted in the isolation of kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2), apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3) and kampferol (4). The extract of C. zambesicus yielded quercetin-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether (helichrysoside- 3'-methyl ether, 1), kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2) and apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3). Three of the isolated compounds and their different combinations were also included in the bioassays. In all the assays performed, the antioxidant capacity and AChE inhibitory effects of C. zambesicus extracts were weaker than those of C. gratissimus. This suggests that C. gratissimus may not be substituted by C. zambesicus, despite the similarity in some of their constituents. Generally, the combinations made from the isolated compounds showed better activities in most of the assays compared to the individual isolated compounds. This suggests mechanisms such as synergism and/or additive effects to be taking place. This study established low, moderate and high antioxidant

  7. Antimicrobial and selected in vitro enzyme inhibitory effects of leaf extracts, flavonols and indole alkaloids isolated from Croton menyharthii.

    PubMed

    Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-10-11

    Croton species are used in folk medicine in the management of infections, inflammation and oxidative stress-related diseases. In order to isolate, characterize and evaluate the bioactive constituents of Croton menyharthii Pax leaf extracts, repeated column fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract afforded three flavonols identified by NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic methods as myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (myricetrin, 1), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2) and quercetin (3) along with an indole alkaloid, (E)-N-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-5-hydroxytryptamine, [trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin, 4]. All the compounds are reported from the leaf extract of this plant for the first time. The crude extracts, four solvent fractions (hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate and butanol) and isolated compounds obtained from the leaves were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on selected bacteria, a fungus (Candida albicans), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Amongst the compounds, quercetin (3) was the most active against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans while myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin (4) were the most active compounds against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibitory activity of myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) against COX-2 was insignificant while that of the other three compounds 2-4 was low. The AChE inhibitory activity of the alkaloid, trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin was high, with a percentage inhibitory activity of 72.6% and an IC50 value of 15.0 µg/mL. The rest of the compounds only had moderate activity. Croton menyharthii leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit α-glucosidase at very low IC50 values compared to the synthetic drug acarbose. Structure activity relationship of the isolated flavonols 1-3 is briefly outlined. Compounds 1-4 and the leaf extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of activities. This validates the

  8. Antiulcerogenic Activity of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves of Croton campestris A. St.-Hill in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Francisco E. B.; de Oliveira, Dayanne R.; Bento, Elizângela B.; Leite, Laura H. I.; Souza, Daniele O.; Siebra, Ana Luiza A.; Sampaio, Renata S.; Martins, Anita O. P. B.; Ramos, Andreza G. B.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Lacerda-Neto, Luiz J.; Figueiredo, Patricia R. L.; Oliveira, Larissa R.; Rodrigues, Cristina K. S.; Sales, Valterlúcio S.; Figueiredo, Francisco R. S. D. N.; Nascimento, Emmily P.; Monteiro, Alefe B.; Amaro, Érika N.; Costa, José G. M.; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Kerntopf, Marta R.

    2013-01-01

    Croton campestris A. St.-Hill., popularly known as “velame do campo,” is a species native to the savannah area of Northeast Brazil, which is used by traditional communities in folk medicine for variety of health problems, especially detoxification, inflammation, and gastritis. The hydroalcoholic extract of C. campestris leaves (HELCC) was assessed for its antiulcerogenic effect in gastric lesion models and effect on intestinal motility in mice, and possible mechanisms of action were examined. HELCC showed significant gastroprotective action in all models of gastric ulcer evaluated; the results suggest that this action probably involves the nitric oxide pathway. HELCC did not show alteration of intestinal motility in mice. It was also found that C. campestris represents a promising natural source with important biological potential, justifying some of its uses in folk medicine. PMID:23864894

  9. Effect of Suburban Development and Landscape Position on Water Quality in Three Small Watersheds Within the Croton System, New York.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassett, J. M.; Endreny, T. A.; Wolosoff, S.; Adam, M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Internal hydrological processes in suburban watersheds and their effects on water quality warrant investigation. Instrument clusters (throughfall collectors, suction lysimeters, monitoring wells, and shallow and deep piezometers) were installed at several locations within three small (50 - 70 ha) watersheds (one forested, two with different degrees of suburban development) in the Croton Watershed, southeastern New York. Biweekly and storm samples were analyzed for base cations, selected anions, and DOC over a one-year period. The topographic index (TI) quantified landscape position; flowpath analyses determined degree of development at each cluster, using % impervious cover as the metric. Water quality degradation was observed in sites with medium and high TI values; no such effect was observed along the ridges, i.e., low TI values. At medium TI values, areas with more than 5% impervious had degraded water quality. At high TI values, the water chemistry degradation appeared at 10% or greater impervious surface

  10. Gas phase kinetics for the ozonolysis of n-butyl methacrylate, ethyl crotonate and vinyl propionate under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona Colmán, Elizabeth; Blanco, María B.; Barnes, Ian; Teruel, Mariano A.

    2013-07-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions of ozone with n-butyl methacrylate, ethyl crotonate and vinyl propionate have been determined at 298 ± 1 K and atmospheric pressure. The following room temperature rate coefficients (in cm3 molecule-1 s-1 units) were obtained: k1(O3 + CH2dbnd C(CH3)C(O)OC4H9) = (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10-17, k2(O3 + CH3CHdbnd CHC(O)OCH2CH3) = (8.0 ± 1.8) × 10-18 and k3(O3 + CH3CH2C(O)OCHdbnd CH2) = (5.3 ± 1.3) × 10-18. This is the first kinetic study for these reactions at atmospheric pressure. The effect of substituent groups on the overall rate coefficients is analyzed. Free energy relationships are presented and atmospheric lifetimes are discussed.

  11. Phylogeny and biogeography of Croton alabamensis (Euphorbiaceae), a rare shrub from Texas and Alabama, using DNA sequence and AFLP data.

    PubMed

    van Ee, Benjamin W; Jelinski, Nicolas; Berry, Paul E; Hipp, Andrew L

    2006-09-01

    Croton alabamensis (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) is a rare plant species known from several populations in Texas and Alabama that have been assigned to var. texensis and var. alabamensis, respectively. We performed maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5.8S regions and chloroplast trnL-trnF regions from collections of the two varieties of C. alabamensis and from outgroup taxa. C. alabamensis emerges alone on a long branch that is sister to Croton section Corylocroton and the Cuban endemic genus Moacroton. Molecular clock analysis estimates the split of C. alabamensis from its closest relatives in sect. Corylocroton at 41 million years ago, whereas the split of the two varieties of C. alabamensis occurred sometime in the Quaternary. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses were performed using two selective primer pairs on a larger sampling of accessions (22 from Texas, 17 from Alabama) to further discriminate phylogenetic structure and quantify genetic diversity. Using both neighbour joining and minimum evolution, the populations from the Cahaba and Black Warrior watersheds in Alabama form two well-separated groups, and in Texas, geographically distinct populations are recovered from Fort Hood, Balcones Canyonlands, and Pace Bend Park. Most of the molecular variance is accounted for by variance within populations. Approximately equal variance is found among populations within states and between states (varieties). Genetic distance between the Texas populations is significantly less than genetic distance between the Alabama populations. Both sequence and AFLP data support the same relationships between the varieties of C. alabamensis and their outgroup, while the AFLP data provide better resolution among the different geographical regions where C. alabamensis occurs. The conservation implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities of leaf extract of Croton bonplandianus Baill. against lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Bhavana, J; Kalaivani, M K; Sumathy, A

    2016-06-01

    The acetone extract (AcE) of the Croton bonplandianus Baill., an exotic weed of the Euphorbiaceae family was studied for cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in A549 cell line and antioxidant capacities using MTT assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining), cell cycle analysis and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Based on the cytotoxic activity, the extract was tested for the apoptotic effect using AO/EB and Hoechst 33258 staining. The apoptosis was characterized by chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Further, to determine the stage of cell death, cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and AcE was found to arrest G2/M phase in a dose dependent manner. The number of cells in G2/M phase increases with concurrent accumulation of cells in sub G₀/G₁phase indicates the induction of apoptosis at G2M phase. The free radical scavenging activity of the AcE against DPPH was considerably significant. The cytotoxic, apoptotic and antioxidant effect of the AcE could be well correlated with the presence of potent free radical scavenging secondary metabolites such as phenols (43 ± 0.05 µg/mL), flavonoids (3.5 ± 0.07 µg/mL) and tannin (0.36 ± 0.1 µg/mL). Our study has shown that A549 cells were more sensitive to AcE with an IC₅₀ of 15.68 ± 0.006 µg/mL compared to the standard drug 2.20 ± 0.008 µg/mL (cisplatin). The results suggest that Croton bonplandianus could serve as a potential source of alternative therapeutic agent for treating cancer. Further research is required to isolate the active principle compound and determination of its anticancer property.

  13. Assignment of fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria to Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, H.; Yang, D.; Woese, C. R.; Bryant, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    After enrichment from Chinese rural anaerobic digestor sludge, anaerobic, sporing and nonsporing, saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria were isolated as cocultures with H2- and formate-utilizing Methanospirillum hungatei or Desulfovibrio sp. strain G-11. The syntrophs degraded C4 to C8 saturated fatty acids, including isobutyrate and 2-methylbutyrate. They were adapted to grow on crotonate and were isolated as pure cultures. The crotonate-grown pure cultures alone did not grow on butyrate in either the presence or the absence of some common electron acceptors. However, when they were reconstituted with M. hungatei, growth on butyrate again occurred. In contrast, crotonate-grown Clostridium kluyveri and Clostridium sticklandii, as well as Clostridium sporogenes, failed to grow on butyrate when these organisms were cocultured with M. hungatei. The crotonate-grown pure subcultures of the syntrophs described above were subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Several previously documented fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophs grown in pure cultures with crotonate were also subjected to comparative sequence analyses. The sequence analyses revealed that the new sporing and nonsporing isolates and other syntrophs that we sequenced, which had either gram-negative or gram-positive cell wall ultrastructure, all belonged to the phylogenetically gram-positive phylum. They were not closely related to any of the previously known subdivisions in the gram-positive phylum with which they were compared, but were closely related to each other, forming a new subdivision in the phylum. We recommend that this group be designated Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov.; a description is given.

  14. Assignment of fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria to Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, H.; Yang, D.; Woese, C. R.; Bryant, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    After enrichment from Chinese rural anaerobic digestor sludge, anaerobic, sporing and nonsporing, saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria were isolated as cocultures with H2- and formate-utilizing Methanospirillum hungatei or Desulfovibrio sp. strain G-11. The syntrophs degraded C4 to C8 saturated fatty acids, including isobutyrate and 2-methylbutyrate. They were adapted to grow on crotonate and were isolated as pure cultures. The crotonate-grown pure cultures alone did not grow on butyrate in either the presence or the absence of some common electron acceptors. However, when they were reconstituted with M. hungatei, growth on butyrate again occurred. In contrast, crotonate-grown Clostridium kluyveri and Clostridium sticklandii, as well as Clostridium sporogenes, failed to grow on butyrate when these organisms were cocultured with M. hungatei. The crotonate-grown pure subcultures of the syntrophs described above were subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Several previously documented fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophs grown in pure cultures with crotonate were also subjected to comparative sequence analyses. The sequence analyses revealed that the new sporing and nonsporing isolates and other syntrophs that we sequenced, which had either gram-negative or gram-positive cell wall ultrastructure, all belonged to the phylogenetically gram-positive phylum. They were not closely related to any of the previously known subdivisions in the gram-positive phylum with which they were compared, but were closely related to each other, forming a new subdivision in the phylum. We recommend that this group be designated Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov.; a description is given.

  15. Assignment of fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria to Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Yang, D; Woese, C R; Bryant, M P

    1993-04-01

    After enrichment from Chinese rural anaerobic digestor sludge, anaerobic, sporing and nonsporing, saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria were isolated as cocultures with H2- and formate-utilizing Methanospirillum hungatei or Desulfovibrio sp. strain G-11. The syntrophs degraded C4 to C8 saturated fatty acids, including isobutyrate and 2-methylbutyrate. They were adapted to grow on crotonate and were isolated as pure cultures. The crotonate-grown pure cultures alone did not grow on butyrate in either the presence or the absence of some common electron acceptors. However, when they were reconstituted with M. hungatei, growth on butyrate again occurred. In contrast, crotonate-grown Clostridium kluyveri and Clostridium sticklandii, as well as Clostridium sporogenes, failed to grow on butyrate when these organisms were cocultured with M. hungatei. The crotonate-grown pure subcultures of the syntrophs described above were subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Several previously documented fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophs grown in pure cultures with crotonate were also subjected to comparative sequence analyses. The sequence analyses revealed that the new sporing and nonsporing isolates and other syntrophs that we sequenced, which had either gram-negative or gram-positive cell wall ultrastructure, all belonged to the phylogenetically gram-positive phylum. They were not closely related to any of the previously known subdivisions in the gram-positive phylum with which they were compared, but were closely related to each other, forming a new subdivision in the phylum. We recommend that this group be designated Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov.; a description is given.

  16. Crotofolane-Type Diterpenoids, Crotocascarins L-Q, and a Rearranged Crotofolane-Type Diterpenoid, Neocrotocascarin, from the Stems of Croton cascarilloides.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Susumu; Inagaki, Masanori; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    From the stems of Croton cascarilloides, further crotofolane-type diterpenoids, named crotocascarins L-Q (1-6), and a rearranged one (7), named neocrotocascarin were isolated. Their structures were elucidated from spectroscopic evidence. Also, the structures of crotocascarin O (4) and neocrotocascarin (7) were determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses. As a result, neocrotocascarin (7) was found to possess a new carbon framework. A plausible mechanism for the formation of neocrotocascarin (7) is also discussed.

  17. Energetics of end product excretion in anaerboic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.

    1989-10-01

    Anaerobic syntrophic bacteria degrade fatty acids which are important intermediates in anaerobic degradation and methanogenesis. These bacteria grow very slowly and require the presence of a hydrogen/formate-using organism to degrade fatty acids. Thus, these bacteria serve as models to study the biochemical aspects of mutualism and the energetics of slow growing organisms. We developed methods to physically separate cells of the anaerobic, fatty acid degrader, Syntrophomonas wolfei, from cells of the hydrogen user by Percoll gradient centrifugation and to selectively lyse S. wolfei cells using lysozyme. These methods allowed the study of the physiology of S. wolfei without significant contamination by cellular components of the hydrogen user. We also obtained pure cultures of S. wolfei by adapting the organism to grow on crotonate. Fatty acids were degraded by the {beta}-oxidation pathway using a coenzyme A (CoA) transferase activity to activate the fatty acid and substrate-level phosphorylation reactions to synthesize adenosine-5{prime}-triphosphate (ATP). The substrate specificity of the CoA transferase activity in the pure culture of S. wolfei differed from that found in the coculture suggesting that the ability to use crotonate resulted from an alteration of this enzyme. S. wolfei grown alone degraded crotonate in a manner similar to that of other crotonate-fermenting anaerobes, but the molar growth yields of S. wolfei were 2 to 3 times higher than those organisms. This suggests that the reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA is energy yielding. S. wolfei contained a c-type cytochrome which may be involved in this reaction. S. wolfei synthesized large amounts of the storage polymer, poly-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). Radioisotopic incorporation experiments showed that PHB was synthesized directly from the {beta}-oxidation intermediate rather than from the condensation of two acetyl-CoA molecules.

  18. Concentrations of pesticides and pesticide degradates in the Croton River Watershed in southeastern New York, July-September 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Bode, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-seven pesticides and (or) pesticide degradates were detected in baseflow samples collected from 47 stream sites in the Croton River Watershed (374 square miles) in southeastern New York in the summer of 2000. The Croton Reservoir provides about 10 percent of New York City's water supply. Maximum concentrations of most pesticides detected did not exceed 0.1 μg/L (micrograms per liter). This study, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, was conducted from July through September 2000 and entailed analysis of the samples for more than 150 pesticides and their degradates. Nine compounds were detected at a concentration greater than 0.10 μg/L; three of these were insecticides (diazinon, carbaryl, and imidacloprid), one was a fungicide (mycobutanil), and five were herbicides (simazine, 2,4-D, diuron, hexazinone, and 2,4-D methyl esther). Only two of these compounds (simazine and 2,4-D) were detected at a concentration exceeding 1 μg/L; the simazine concentration exceeded the New York State surface-water standard of 0.5 μg/L. Two insecticides (diazinon and azinphos-methyl) exceeded aquatic-life-protection standard in one sample each. Concentrations of three insecticides (chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and malathion) were more than 50 percent of the aquatic-life-protection standards in one sample each.Total concentrations of insecticides and herbicides (the sum of the concentrations, whereby all concentrations below the detection limit were set to zero), and the concentrations of the herbicide prometon and the insecticide diazinon, were highest in samples from watersheds with population densities greater than 510 per square mile (21 sites); therefore, the presence of these compounds is attributable to urban, residential, and other developed land uses.The data obtained in this study are useful for making general comparisons among watersheds with differing land uses, but the concentrations represent

  19. Concentrations of pesticides and pesticide degradates in the Croton River Watershed in southeastern New York, July-September 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Bode, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-seven pesticides and (or) pesticide degradates were detected in baseflow samples collected from 47 stream sites in the Croton River Watershed (374 square miles) in southeastern New York in the summer of 2000. The Croton Reservoir provides about 10 percent of New York City's water supply. Maximum concentrations of most pesticides detected did not exceed 0.1 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). This study, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, was conducted from July through September 2000 and entailed analysis of the samples for more than 150 pesticides and their degradates. Nine compounds were detected at a concentration greater than 0.10 ?g/L; three of these were insecticides (diazinon, carbaryl, and imidacloprid), one was a fungicide (mycobutanil), and five were herbicides (simazine, 2,4-D, diuron, hexazinone, and 2,4-D methyl esther). Only two of these compounds (simazine and 2,4-D) were detected at a concentration exceeding 1 ?g/L; the simazine concentration exceeded the New York State surface-water standard of 0.5 ?g/L. Two insecticides (diazinon and azinphos-methyl) exceeded aquatic-life-protection standard in one sample each. Concentrations of three insecticides (chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and malathion) were more than 50 percent of the aquatic-life-protection standards in one sample each. Total concentrations of insecticides and herbicides (the sum of the concentrations, whereby all concentrations below the detection limit were set to zero), and the concentrations of the herbicide prometon and the insecticide diazinon, were highest in samples from watersheds with population densities greater than 510 per square mile (21 sites); therefore, the presence of these compounds is attributable to urban, residential, and other developed land uses. The data obtained in this study are useful for making general comparisons among watersheds with differing land uses, but the concentrations represent

  20. Acaricidal activity against Tetranychus urticae and essential oil composition of four Croton species from Caatinga biome in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ilzenayde Araújo; da Camara, Claudio Augusto Gomes

    2011-06-01

    Volatile components of essential oils from the leaves and stems of Croton jacobinensis, C. rhamnifolius, C. muscicapa and C. micans, which are medicinal plants found in the Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil, were analyzed using GC and GC/MS. The acaricidal activity of these oils against Tetranychus urticae was evaluated using the fumigation method. Oil yields from the Croton species ranged from 1.1 +/- 0.0 to 0.6 +/- 0.0%, w/w, for leaves and 0.7 +/- 0.0 to 0.1 +/- 0.0% for stems. Sesquiterpenoids were dominant in all oils, except the stem oil from C. rhamnifolius, which exhibited a high monoterpene content, and the leaf and stem oils from C. muscicapa, which were rich in phenylpropanoids. The major volatile components of the leaf and stem oils from C. jacobinensis were (Z)-alpha-atlantone (24.3 +/- 0.4%) and trans-isolongifolanone (22.8 +/- 0.5%), respectively. The most abundant constituents detected in C. rhamnifolius were alpha-cedrene epoxide (23.3 +/- 0.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (21.9 +/- 0.0%) in the leaf oil, and camphor (16.6 +/- 0.5%) and tricyclene (12.8 +/- 0.1%) in the stem oil. Foenicolin was the main compound identified in the leaf (50.6 +/- 0.2%) and stem (72.7 +/- 0.6%) oils of C. muscicapa, while alpha-bulnesene (32.9 +/- 0.2%) and guaiol (17.9 +/- 0.7%) were the principal components of C. micans oils. These oils exhibited a high degree of toxicity in the fumigation assay. The stem oils from C. jacobinensis and C. rhamnifolius exhibited high lethality rates, with LC50 values of 0.3 and 0.2 microL/L of air after 24 h, respectively. The results suggest the potential use of stem essential oil, especially from C. rhamnifolius and C. jacobinensis, for the integrated control of Tetranychus urticae.

  1. Water Residence Times and Their Relation to Soil and Aquifer Properties and Degree of Urbanization (Croton Water Supply Area, NY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D.; Kendall, C.; McDonnell, J.

    2002-05-01

    Water residence times were determined in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1 km2 drainage area) have different amounts of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wetlands, hillslopes) . Measurements of the Oxygen-18 content of throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were performed bi-weekly over a period of 2 years. Mean water residence times of the stream water, soil water and groundwater were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes. There are small but significant differences in the isotopic content of waters in each watershed, along with soil and aquifer properties as a function of the level of urbanization. Longer groundwater residence times (up to more than 2 years) were estimated in wetland zones without direct communication with streams in comparison to hillslope areas (up to more than 1 year). In highly urbanized areas, mixing of natural runoff generation processes with urbanization effects such as the influence of septic plumes results in a complex spectrum of residence times in soil waters and groundwaters. We illustrate the possibilities of using stable isotope measurements to describe small-scale complex runoff generation processes in watersheds.

  2. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Croton sparsiflorus morong leaf extract and their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, V; Ravi, S; Ashokkumar, S; Velmurugan, S; Elumalai, K; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad

    2015-03-15

    Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely used in the field of medicine. Especially, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by the leaf extract lead the biological activity. In the present work, the synthesized Ag NPs by using the leaf extract of Croton sparsiflorus morong Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) along with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy and Fourier Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, respectively. UV-Vis peak at 457 nm confirmed the Ag NPs due to the absorption. Cubic structural analysis and 16 nm particle size of the Ag NPs were calculated by using XRD analysis. The surface morphology along with the presence of Ag NPs was identified by using FE-SEM and EDX, respectively. The FT-IR study revealed with the functional groups of the Ag NPs. Finally, the present research has been explored to exhibit the significant antimicrobial activities.

  3. Croton argenteus preparation inhibits initial growth, mitochondrial respiration and increase the oxidative stress from Senna occidentalis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rech, Katlin S; Silva, Cristiane B; Kulik, Juliana D; Dias, Josiane F G; Zanin, Sandra M W; Kerber, Vitor A; Ocampos, Fernanda M M; Dalarmi, Luciane; Santos, Gedir O; Simionatto, Euclésio; Lima, Cristina P; Miguel, Obdúlio G; Miguel, Marilis D

    2015-01-01

    Senna ocidentalis is a weed, native to Brazil, considered to infest crops and plantations, and is responsible for yield losses of several crops, particularly soybean. The aim of this work was to evaluate if the Croton argenteus extract and fractions possess phytotoxic activity on S. ocidentalis. The crude ethanolic extract (CEE) and its hexanic (HF), chloroformic (CLF) and ethyl acetate (EAF) fractions were tested in germination, growth, oxidative stress increase, Adenosine triphosphate, L-malate and succinate synthesis. The crude extract and its fractions slowed down the germination of S. ocidentalis and decreased the final percentage of germination. Oxidative stress was also increased in the seedlings, by an increase of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation; and it became clear that the ethyl acetate fraction was more phytotoxic. The results indicate that the crude extract and fractions of C. argenteus compromise the mitochondrial energy metabolism, by the inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production, with a decrease in the production of L-malate and succinate. The ethyl acetate fraction of C. argenteus showed high activity on germination and growth, and these effects take place by means of mitochondrial metabolism alterations and increase the oxidative stress, leading the seedling death.

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Croton sparsiflorus morong leaf extract and their antibacterial and antifungal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Elumalai, K.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad

    2015-03-01

    Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely used in the field of medicine. Especially, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by the leaf extract lead the biological activity. In the present work, the synthesized Ag NPs by using the leaf extract of Croton sparsiflorus morong Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) along with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy and Fourier Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, respectively. UV-Vis peak at 457 nm confirmed the Ag NPs due to the absorption. Cubic structural analysis and 16 nm particle size of the Ag NPs were calculated by using XRD analysis. The surface morphology along with the presence of Ag NPs was identified by using FE-SEM and EDX, respectively. The FT-IR study revealed with the functional groups of the Ag NPs. Finally, the present research has been explored to exhibit the significant antimicrobial activities.

  5. Isolation, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of estragole, obtained from the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Andrade, Thallita C B; De Lima, Sidney G; Freitas, Rivelilson M; Rocha, Márcio S; Islam, Torequl; Da Silva, Teresinha G; Militão, Gardenia C G

    2015-03-01

    Croton zehntneri (Euphorbiaceae) is a native aromatic plant from Northeast region of Brazil. The monoterpenoid estragole (ESL) has been isolated by classical chromatographic methods from the essential oil (EO) of C. zehnteneri leaves and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS, its antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials being assessed. The analysis of the EO enabled the identification of 100% of the integrated constituents, of which yield was about 1.8%. The main components identified were: eucalyptol, estragole (84.7%) and spathulenol. The dosage of 50 μg/disk of ESL presented fairly significant zones of inhibition against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The ESL presented toxicity against Artemia salina with LC50 and LC90 of 4,54 and 8,47 μg mL-1. However, in tumor inhibition assays (human cells), there were no rewarding inhibition in any of the human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HEP-2 and NCI-H292).

  6. Effects of Sangre de Drago from Croton lechleri Muell.-Arg. on the production of active oxygen radicals.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, C; Witting Schaus, F; Coussio, J; Cicca, G

    1997-10-01

    The total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) of 'Sangre de Drago' from Croton lechleri (Euphorbiaceae) was determined by monitoring the intensity of luminol enhanced chemiluminescence enhanced by peroxyl radicals derived from thermolysis of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane). The TRAP index was calculated as 935.4 +/- 141 microM, measured as equivalents of Trolox concentration. On the other hand, the additive incorporation of lower concentrations yielded an instantaneous increase in chemiluminescence, suggesting a prooxidant activity at these levels. DNA sugar damage induced by Fe(II) salts was also used to determine the capacity of the latex to suppress hydroxyl radical-mediated degradation of DNA. As in the case of luminol enhanced chemiluminescence, Sangre de Drago was highly effective in reducing oxidation of DNA at higher concentrations, but showed an increase in the production of TBARS at lower doses, as compared to the control. Finally, antioxidant activity was tested using hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence in rat liver homogenates, and the latex showed an increase in light emission, suggesting the presence of prooxidant compounds.

  7. In vivo wound healing activity of Dragon's Blood (Croton spp.), a traditional South American drug, and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Pieters, L; De Bruyne, T; Van Poel, B; Vingerhoets, R; Totté, J; Vanden Berghe, D; Vlietinck, A

    1995-07-01

    The wound healing activity of dragon'sblood (Croton spp.), in Spanish 'sangre de drago‛ or 'sangre de grado‛, a traditional South American drug, and some of its constituents, including the alkaloid taspine (1), the dihydrobenzufuran lignan 3',4-O-dimethylcedrusin (2) and proantho-cyanidins, was evaluated in vivo on rats, and compared with the wound healing actitivy of synthetic proanthocyanidins. The beneficial effect of dragon's blood on wound healing was confirmed. Dragon's blood stimulated contraction of the wound, formation of a crust, formation of new collagen, and regeneration of the epithelial layer. 3',4-O-Dimethylcedrusin also improved wound healing in vivo by stimulating the formation of fibroblasts and collagen, but crude dragon's blood was more effective. This was due to the proanthocyanidins, present in dragon's blood, which stimulate contraction of the wound and precipitate with proteins forming a dark crust covering the wound, but which delay wound repair by a decreased formation of new fibroblasts. Copyright © 1995 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Struttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  9. Cardiovascular Effects of the Essential Oil of Croton argyrophylloides in Normotensive Rats: Role of the Autonomic Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Santos, Thayane Rebeca; de Siqueira, Rodrigo José Bezerra; Duarte, Gloria Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg. (EOCA) were investigated in normotensive rats. In saline-pretreated anesthetized or conscious rats, intravenous (i.v.) injection of the EOCA induced dose-dependent hypotension. Dose-dependent tachycardia was observed only in conscious rats. In anesthetized rats, cervical bivagotomy failed to enhance EOCA-induced hypotension but unmasked significant bradycardia. In conscious rats, i.v. pretreatment with methylatropine, but not with atenolol or L-NAME, reduced both hypotensive and tachycardiac responses to EOCA. However, hexamethonium pretreatment reverted the EOCA-induced tachycardia into significant bradycardia without affecting the hypotension. In aortic ring preparations precontracted with phenylephrine, EOCA induced a concentration-dependent relaxation that was significantly reduced by vascular endothelium removal and pretreatment with atropine, indomethacin, or glibenclamide but remained unaffected by pretreatment with L-NAME or TEA. It is concluded that i.v. treatment with EOAC decreased blood pressure probably through an active vascular relaxation rather than withdrawal of sympathetic tone. Muscarinic receptor stimulation, liberation of the endothelium-derived prostacyclin, and opening KATP channels are partially involved in the aortic relaxation induced by EOCA and in turn in the mediation of EOCA-induced hypotension. EOCA-induced tachycardia in conscious rats appears to be mediated reflexly through inhibition of vagal drive to the heart. PMID:27956919

  10. Effects of 7-hydroxycalamenene isolated from Croton cajucara essential oil on growth, lipid content and ultrastructural aspects of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Mariana M B; Almeida, Catia A; Chaves, Francisco C M; Campos-Takaki, Galba M; Rozental, Sonia; Bizzo, Humberto R; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S

    2014-05-01

    The leaves and bark of Croton cajucara, a shrub from the Amazon region, have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, malaria, and gastrointestinal and liver disorders. The essential oil from the leaves, rich in linalool, presented antileishmanial and antimicrobial activities. A chemotype of this species was found with an essential oil rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene. During our studies of the C. cajucara essential oil, we isolated 7-hydroxycalamenene at > 98 % purity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of 7-hydroxycalamenene against Absidia cylindrospora, Cunninghamella elegans, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides, Mucor mucedo, Mucor plumbeus, Mucor ramosissimus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Syncephalastrum racemosum ranged from 19.53 to 2500 µg/mL. The reference drug used, amphotericin B, presented a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.085 µg/mL to 43.87 µg/mL. 7-Hydroxycalamenene also altered spore differentiation and total lipid content. Ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy showed significant alterations in the cellular structure of R. oryzae.

  11. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius in rats: role of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, S; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Magalhães, P J; Coelho-de-Souza, A N; Duarte, G P

    1999-08-01

    Cardiovascular effects of intravenous (i.v.) treatment with the essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius (EOCN) were investigated in rats. Additionally, this study examined the importance of the autonomic nervous system in mediation of the EOCN-induced changes in mean aortic pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). In both pentobarbitone-anaesthetised and conscious rats, i.v. bolus injections of EOCN (1 to 50 mg/kg) elicited dose-dependent decreases in MAP and HR. Both decreases were of the same order of magnitude or duration, irrespective of whether the animal was under general anaesthesia. Pretreatment of anaesthetised rats with bilateral vagotomy reduced the magnitude of EOCN-induced bradycardia without affecting hypotension. Likewise, i.v. pretreatment of conscious rats with either methylatropine (1 mg/kg) or hexamethonium (30 mg/kg) significantly decreased the bradycardic effects of EOCN by the same order of magnitude. Neither compound influenced the hypotensive effects elicited by EOCN. This is the first physiological evidence that i.v. treatment with EOCN in either anaesthetised or conscious rats elicits hypotension and bradycardia. EOCN-induced bradycardia appears dependent upon the presence of an intact and functional parasympathetic nerve drive to the heart. However, EOCN-induced hypotension appears independent of the presence of an operational sympathetic nervous system. This suggests that EOCN may be a direct vasorelaxant agent.

  12. Functional expression of a putative geraniol 8-hydroxylase by reconstitution of bacterially expressed plant CYP76F45 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase CPR I from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    PubMed

    Sintupachee, Siriluk; Promden, Worrawat; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2015-10-01

    While attempting to isolate the enzyme geranylgeraniol 18-hydroxylase, which is involved in plaunotol biosynthesis in Croton stellatopilosus (Cs), the cDNAs for a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase(designated as CYP76F45) and an NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (designated as CPR I based on its classification) were isolated from the leaf. The CYP76F45 and CsCPR I genes have open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 507- and 711-amino acid proteins with predicted relative molecular weights of 56.7 and 79.0 kDa,respectively. Amino acid sequence comparison showed that both CYP76F45 (63–73%) and CsCPR I (79–83%) share relatively high sequence identities with homologous proteins in other plant species.Phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed that CYP76F45 belongs to the CYP76 family and that CsCPR I belongs to Class I of dicotyledonous CPRs, with both being closely related to Ricinus communis genes. Functional characterization of both enzymes, each expressed separately in Escherichia coli as recombinant proteins,showed that only simultaneous incubation of the membrane bound proteins with the substrate geraniol (GOH) and the coenzyme NADPH could form 8-hydroxygeraniol. The enzyme mixture could also utilize acyclic sesquiterpene farnesol (FOH) with a comparable substrate preference ratio (GOH:FOH) of 54:46. The levelsof the CYP76F45 and CsCPR I transcripts in the shoots, leaves and twigs of C. stellatopilosus were correlated with the levels of a major monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, identified tentatively as 19-Evallesamine,that accumulated in these plant parts. These results suggested that CYP76F45 and CPR I function as the enzyme geraniol-8-hydroxylase (G8H), which is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the indole alkaloid in C. stellatopilosus [corrected].

  13. Molecular cloning, bacterial expression and functional characterisation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP97C27, and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, CPR I, from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    PubMed

    Sintupachee, Siriluk; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2014-12-01

    The cDNAs for cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (designated as CYP97C27 by D. Nelson's group) and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (designated as CPR I based on its classification) were isolated from Croton stellatopilosus leaves, which actively biosynthesise plaunotol (18-OH geranylgeraniol). CYP97C27 and CPR I contain open reading frames encoding proteins of 471 and 711 amino acids with predicted molecular masses of 53 and 79kDa, respectively. By aligning the deduced sequences of CYP97C27 and CPR I with other plant species, all functional domains of CYP97C27 (heme and oxygen binding) and CPR I (CYP- and FMN, FAD, and NADPH cofactor binding) were identified. Amino acid sequence comparison indicated that both CYP97C27 (85-93%) and CPR I (79-83%) share high sequence identities with homologous proteins in other plant species, suggesting that CYP97C27 belongs to the CYP97C subfamily and that CPR I belongs to class I of the dicotyledonous CPR. Functional characterisation of both enzymes, produced in Escherichia coli (pET32a/BL21(DE3)) as recombinant proteins, showed that simultaneous incubation of CYP97C27 and CPR I with the substrate geranylgeraniol (GGOH) and coenzyme NADPH led to formation of the product plaunotol. In C. stellatopilosus, the levels of the CYP97C27 and CPR I transcripts were highly correlated with those of several mRNAs involved in the plaunotol biosynthetic pathway, suggesting that CYP97C27 and CPR I are the enzymes that catalyse the last hydroxylation step of the pathway.

  14. The Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the Crotone Basin (southern Italy): Interplay between sedimentation, tectonics and eustasy in the frame of Calabrian Arc migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Civile, Dario; Critelli, Salvatore; Di Stefano, Agata; Maniscalco, Rosanna; Muto, Francesco; Sturiale, Giovanni; Roda, Cesare

    2012-12-01

    The Crotone Basin is the exposed part of a larger Neogene forearc basin developed in the Ionian Sea in the frame of the SE-ward migration of the Calabrian Arc, which led to the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere and the spreading of the Tyrrhenian back-arc Basin (central Mediterranean). Taking into account the geologic context that accompanied its accumulation, the Plio-Pleistocene part of the Crotone Basin succession is exceptionally well preserved, and consists of a suite of continental, paralic, shallow-marine and deep-marine deposits organized to form unconformity bounded stratal units that in turn compose two main tectono-stratigraphic cycles. The unconformities separating these units are well recognizable along the basin margin and tend to vanish basinwards, and they record phases of basin reorganization linked to large-scale tectonics. In particular, the basin evolution was characterized by a cyclic pattern consisting of an alternation between longer subsidence phases, that favored the accumulation of stratal units, and uplift phases that led to base-level falls and the generation of unconformities. These phases were strictly related to an alternation between active subduction of the Ionian lithosphere below the Calabrian Arc, accompanied by the spreading of the Tyrrhenian back-arc Basin and by extension and subsidence in the forearc basin, and regional-scale compressional and transpressional events, during which the Arc migration temporarily stopped. The younger uplift of the basin, started during middle Pleistocene and still active, was characterized by extensional tectonics, and its interplay with glacio-eustasy controlled the formation of marine terraces. Since the Plio-Pleistocene tectonic episodes affecting the Calabrian Arc during its SE-ward migration seem to be all recorded in the Crotone Basin, the recognition of their effects on the basin fill and their time constraint become both critical, representing a reference to develop a clearer picture

  15. Crotocascarins I-K: Crotofolane-Type Diterpenoids, Crotocascarin γ, Isocrotofolane Glucoside and Phenolic Glycoside from the Leaves of Croton cascarilloides.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Susumu; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Inagaki, Masanori; Takeda, Yoshio; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    From the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a methanol (MeOH) extract of the leaves of Croton cascarilloides, crotofolanes: crotocascarins I-K, nor-crotofolane: crotocascarin γ, isocrotofolane glucoside and phenolic glycoside were isolated by a combination of various separation techniques. Their structures were elucidated mainly from the NMR spectroscopic evidence. The structure of crotocascarin K was first elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and then was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Its absolute structure was finally determined by the modified Mosher's method. Isocrotofolane glucoside was found to possess a new skeleton, however, its absolute structure remains to be determined.

  16. Unprecedented 1,14-seco-crotofolanes from Croton insularis: oxidative cleavage of crotofolin C by a putative homo-Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Lidiya A; Savchenko, Andrei I; Pierce, Carly J; Gordon, Victoria A; Reddell, Paul W; Parsons, Peter G; Williams, Craig M

    2014-10-27

    EBC-162 isolated from Croton insularis, obtained from the northern rainforest of Australia, was structurally affirmed as crotofolin C (4). Novel oxidative degradation products, EBC-233 and EBC-300, which are the first crotofolane endoperoxides, were also isolated. Both endoperoxides were found to be stable intermediates, which are proposed to undergo an unprecedented homo-Baeyer-Villiger biosynthetic rearrangement to give a new class of 1,14-seco-crotofolane diterpenes. Prolonged storage of all isolates assisted in authenticating their natural product status. Anticancer activities of reported compounds are presented.

  17. Alienusolin, a new 4α-deoxyphorbol ester derivative, and crotonimide C, a new glutarimide alkaloid from the Kenyan Croton alienus.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Wanjohi, John M; Midiwo, Jacob O; Kerubo, Leonidah O

    2013-12-01

    Two novel compounds, alienusolin, a 4α-deoxyphorbol ester (1), crotonimide C, a glutarimide alkaloid derivative (2), and ten known compounds, julocrotine (3), crotepoxide (4), monodeacetyl crotepoxide (5), dideacetylcrotepoxide, (6), β-senepoxide (7), α-senepoxide (8), (+)-(2S,3R-diacetoxy-1-benzoyloxymethylenecyclohex-4,6-diene (9), benzyl benzoate (10), acetyl aleuritolic (11), and 24-ethylcholesta-4,22-dien-3-one (12) were isolated from the Kenyan Croton alienus. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, GCMS, and HRESIMS studies.

  18. Mitochondria-dependent apoptogenic activity of the aqueous root extract of Croton membranaceus against human BPH-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Afriyie, D K; Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Lin, J; Peng, J; Hong, Z

    2015-01-15

    Croton membranaceus aqueous root extract (CMARE) is among the widely used phytotherapeutics in Ghana for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. However, the mechanism of action of CMARE remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to establish whether apoptosis is involved in the antiproliferative effect of CMARE on human BPH-1 cells. We determined the effect of treatment with 0, 1, 3, and 5 mg/mL CMARE for 24, 48, and 72 h on the viability and morphology of BPH-1 cells using the MMT assay and phase-contrast microscopy, respectively. We examined the apoptosis-inducing effects of CMARE after 48 h at the cellular level using Hoescht 33258 and JC-1 dye staining and flow cytometry analysis. We performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to confirm the apoptotic effects of CMARE at the molecular level. CMARE induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition in the proliferation of BPH-1 cells (P < 0.05) and an alteration in their morphology and a reduction their density. Furthermore, CMARE induced dose-dependent staining of the nuclear chromatin, significant DNA fragmentation with G₀/G₁ sub-diploid cells (P < 0.01), and loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated cells compared to the controls after 48 h (P < 0.01). Additionally, while CMARE induced a significant upregulation of the mRNA and protein levels of Bax, those of Bcl2 did not change significantly. Therefore, induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of BPH-1 cells may be a possible mechanism of action of CMARE.

  19. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri leaves in DOCA-salt hypertensive, conscious rats.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Rodrigo José Bezerra; Duarte, Gloria Pinto; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; Lahlou, Saad

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (EOCZ) in deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Furthermore, in vitro experiments using isolated thoracic aortic rings were performed to assess the vascular effects of the EOCZ. In conscious hypertensive rats, intravenous (i.v.) injections of EOCZ (1-20 mg/kg) induced rapid (2-4 s) and dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia (phase 1). The hypotension was followed by a significant pressor effect that was more evident at the higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) of EOCZ. Hypotension and bradycardia of EOCZ (phase 1) were abolished and respectively reversed into pressor and tachycardiac effects by methylatropine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) pretreatment. In isolated endothelium-intact aortic preparations, increasing concentrations (1-1000 microg/mL) of EOCZ relaxed the potassium-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 (geometric mean [95% confidence interval]) value of 202.0 [92.0-443.7] microg/mL. This vasorelaxant effect remained unaffected by either mechanical removal of functional vascular endothelium (IC50 = 189.0 [159.4-224.7] microg/mL) or the addition of atropine (1 microM) (IC50 = 158.6 [79.8-316.2] microg/mL) in the perfusion medium. These data show that i.v. administration of EOCZ in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats induces a vago-vagal reflex decreases in heart rate and blood pressure (phase 1). EOCZ may induce a second and delayed hypotension due to its direct endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effects, but it seems to be buffered by the pressor component (subsequent to phase 1) of EOCZ. This pattern of blood pressure and heart rate responses to EOCZ seems unaltered by DOCA-salt hypertension, as was similar to that previously reported in conscious normotensive rats.

  20. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    PubMed

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (p<0.05) and both presented the highest viability values. For MTT, the dragon's blood sap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (p<0.05). It was concluded that the dragon's blood sap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  1. Shrinkage of Prostate and Improved Quality of Life: Management of BPH Patients with Croton membranaceus Ethanolic Root Extract

    PubMed Central

    Asare, George Awuku; Afriyie, Daniel; Ngala, Robert A.; Appiah, Alfred A.; Anang, Yvonne; Musah, Iddi; Adjei, Samuel; Bamfo-Quaicoe, Kwabena; Sule, Derick; Gyan, Ben A.; Arhin, Peter; Edoh, Dominic A.

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate. The study aimed at validating the use of freeze-dried Croton membranaceus ethanolic root extract for BPH management. Thirty-three patients were observed before and after 3-month administration of 20 mg t.i.d orally. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires were used. Total/free PSA (tPSA, fPSA), renal, liver function, lipid tests, and ultrasonographic imaging were performed. Thirty (30) patients (66 ± 11 years) completed the study. IPSS results showed 37% had severe, 40% moderate, and 23% mild symptoms before; 57% and 43% had moderate and mild symptoms, respectively, after treatment. IIED of patients' results showed 30% with severe, 40% moderate, 24% mild-moderate, 3% mild, and 3% no erectile dysfunction before treatment and 20% severe, 43% moderate, and 37% mild-moderate dysfunction, after treatment. Quality of life (QoL) improved (P = 0.001). Significant but non-pathological increases in total and indirect bilirubin as well as apolipoprotein A occurred. Mean tPSA reduced from 27.9 ± 19.0 to 16.2 ± 11.8 ng/mL (P = 0.002); fPSA from 6.1 ± 4.8 to 3.9 ± 2.9 ng/mL (P = 0.045); and prostate volume from 101.8 ± 41.3 to 54.5 ± 24.8 cm3  (P = 0.023). C. membranaceus shrinks the prostate and improves QoL. PMID:26106434

  2. NaH promoted [4+3] annulation of crotonate-derived sulfur ylides with thioaurones: synthesis of 2,5-dihydrobenzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-b]oxepines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youquan; Yu, Aimin; Jia, Jiru; Ma, Shanshan; Li, Ke; Wei, Yin; Meng, Xiangtai

    2017-09-26

    The [4+3] annulation reaction of crotonate-derived sulfur ylides with thioaurones has, for the first time, been reported using NaH as the base. A diverse array of 2,5-dihydrobenzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-b]oxepines is obtained in good to excellent yields. The proposed mechanism is investigated and supported by DFT calculations.

  3. Croton megalocarpus oil-fired micro-trigeneration prototype for remote and self-contained applications: experimental assessment of its performance and gaseous and particulate emissions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dawei; Roskilly, Anthony P; Yu, Hongdong

    2013-02-06

    According to the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook 2011, 60 per cent of the population in Africa, some 587 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, lacked access to electricity in 2009. We developed a 6.5 kWe micro-trigeneration prototype, on the basis of internal combustion engine with pure Croton megalocarpus oil (CMO) fuelling, which configures a distributed energy system to generate power, heating and cooling from a single sustainable fuel source for remote users. Croton megalocarpus is an indigenous tree in East and South Africa which has recently attracted lots of interests as a biofuel source because of its high oil-yield rate. The direct and local use of CMO, instead of CMO biodiesel converted by the transesterification process, minimizes the carbon footprints left behind because of the simple fuel production of CMO. The experimental assessment proves that the prototype fuelled with CMO achieves similar efficiency as with diesel. Also, with the elevation of the oil injection temperature, the gaseous and particulate emissions of CMO could be ameliorated to some extent as improvement of the atomization in the spray and the combustion in the engine cylinder.

  4. Interplay between regional uplift and glacio-eustasy in the Crotone Basin (Calabria, southern Italy) since 0.45 Ma: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During the last 0.45 Ma, the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria, southern Italy, experienced a phase of uplift that persists today. The transition from subsidence to uplift occurred close to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (ca. 0.4 Ma). The subsequent progressive emergence of the area was punctuated by several marine transgressions linked to high-frequency, high-magnitude glacio-eustatic changes, which are recorded as coastal terraces. These high-frequency sequences show a variable stacking pattern due to the interplay between glacio-eustasy, uplift and local physiography. In particular, a progressive SE-ward migration of the shoreline is documented in the study area since MIS 11. This trend was enhanced during the MIS 5.5 to MIS 2 time interval, due to the combined effect of uplift and lowering glacio-eustatic sea level until the Last Glacial Maximum. Moreover, the regional uplift also led to a physiographic change from relatively low-gradient to high-gradient settings between MIS 7.1 and MIS 5.5. A comparison between the late Quaternary geological record of the Crotone Basin and that of other basins is crucial to improve the present knowledge on past sea levels related to MISs. This ultimately will help to better understand the Holocene sea-level history and the human contribution to sea-level change, in order to predict future scenarios.

  5. Croton megalocarpus oil-fired micro-trigeneration prototype for remote and self-contained applications: experimental assessment of its performance and gaseous and particulate emissions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dawei; Roskilly, Anthony P.; Yu, Hongdong

    2013-01-01

    According to the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook 2011, 60 per cent of the population in Africa, some 587 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, lacked access to electricity in 2009. We developed a 6.5 kWe micro-trigeneration prototype, on the basis of internal combustion engine with pure Croton megalocarpus oil (CMO) fuelling, which configures a distributed energy system to generate power, heating and cooling from a single sustainable fuel source for remote users. Croton megalocarpus is an indigenous tree in East and South Africa which has recently attracted lots of interests as a biofuel source because of its high oil-yield rate. The direct and local use of CMO, instead of CMO biodiesel converted by the transesterification process, minimizes the carbon footprints left behind because of the simple fuel production of CMO. The experimental assessment proves that the prototype fuelled with CMO achieves similar efficiency as with diesel. Also, with the elevation of the oil injection temperature, the gaseous and particulate emissions of CMO could be ameliorated to some extent as improvement of the atomization in the spray and the combustion in the engine cylinder. PMID:24427514

  6. Energetics of end product excretion in anaerobic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei: Progress report, March 15, 1985--June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    We developed methods to physically separate cells of the anaerobic, fatty acid degrade, Syntrophomonas wolfei, from cells of the hydrogen user by Percoll gradient centrifugation and to selectively lyse S. wolfei cells using lysozyme. These methods allowed the study of the physiology of S. wolfei without significant contamination. Fatty acids were degraded by the B-oxidation pathway using a coenzyme A (CoA) transferase activity to activate the fatty acid and substrate- level phosphorylation reactions to synthesize. The substrate specificity of the CoA transferase activity in the pure culture of S. wolfei differed from that found in the coculture suggesting that the ability to use crotonate resulted from an alteration of this enzyme. S. wolfei grown alone degraded crotonate in a manner similar to that of other crotonate-fermenting anaerobes, but the molar growth yields of S. wolfei were 2 to 3 times higher than those organisms. This suggests that the reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA is energy yielding. S. wolfei contained a c-type cytochrome which may be involved in this reaction. S. wolfei synthesized large amounts of the storage polymer, poly-B-hydroxybutyrate.

  7. Protective effect of Croton caudatus Geisel leaf extract against experimental visceral leishmaniasis induces proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dey, Somaditya; Mukherjee, Debarati; Chakraborty, Sondipon; Mallick, Suvadip; Dutta, Aritri; Ghosh, Joydip; Swapana, Ningombam; Maiti, Swatilekha; Ghorai, Narayan; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; Pal, Chiranjib

    2015-01-01

    In the present state of overwhelming emergence of drug-unresponsive phenotypes of Leishmania donovani and persistent severe toxicity in conventional anti-leishmanial therapy, in search for novel leads, the aim of this study has been fixed to identify the active extract(s) of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook effective against the parasitic protozoans in vitro and in vivo. C. caudatus Geisel. is often used by Chakma and Hmar community, the local tribes of north-east India for medicinal and veterinary purposes. Among the five semi-purified extracts tested, C. caudatus leaves, extracted in hexane and subsequently semi-purified in a column packed with silica gel (70-130 µM; mesh size 60 A°) using ethyl acetate-hexane solvent (9:1), was found to be the most effective growth inhibitor (JDHex) against the Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes. JDHex significantly altered the biochemical parameters (protein, lipid and carbohydrates) in promastigotes followed by the morphological changes, DNA condensation and subsequent apoptosis in L. donovani. In consequent steps, it has been also proved that JDHex reduced the replication of intracellular amastigotes with concomitant release of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and TNF-α in vitro. Significantly, the 50% inhibitory concentration of JDHex was estimated much lower against the intracellular amastigotes (2.5 µg/mL) in comparison to promastigotes (10 µg/mL). JDHex was also found efficient in reducing parasite burden in spleen and liver when treated in vivo and increased the intracellular IFN-γ and decreased the IL-10 in CD4+ T cells in splenocytes of orally treated animals. The results of this study support the importance in exploration of novel anti-leishmanial leads from C. caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. against the L. donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) infection. Partial chemical characterization of JDHex revealed the presence of terpenoids. However, the further chemical

  8. Identification and modulatory activity assessment of 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone isolated from croton anisodontus müll. Arg.(euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria T A; Teixeira, Alexandre M R; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Sena, Diniz M; Santos, Hélcio S; de Mesquita, Bruna M; Albuquerque, Maria R J R; Bandeira, Paulo N; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2014-05-01

    The n-hexane extract of the stem bark of Croton anisodontus yielded 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone, a well-known substance, but isolated from this species for the first time. The antimicrobial and modulatory activities of the compound towards Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, C. krusei and C. tropicalis strains were assessed. Antibiotics such as amikacin, gentamicin and neomycin were used in a sub-inhibitory concentration. Significant activity was observed towards P. aeruginosa and S. aureus 358, with p < 0.001 in association with amikacin. The present results place C anisodontus as an alternative source of 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone with antibacterial potential.

  9. Longitudinal Strain in the Forearc of a Rollback-Subduction System Forced to Change Length: Structural evolution of the Crotone Basin in NE Calabria, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, M. A.; Seeber, L.

    2009-12-01

    Calabria is a continental fragment incorporated into a forearc overriding the WNW directed subduction system. This system rolled back toward ESE across the central Mediterranean during the Neogene to form the Tyrrhenian Basin. Riding above the megathrust, forearcs seek a dynamic equilibrium between boundary stresses (drag below and lateral containments) with body stress (gravity acting on the shape of the forearc). Changes in boundary conditions are balanced by changes in the shape. The internal deformation history of the forearc, therefore, is expected to reflect changes in subduction tectonics during the evolution of the arc. We analyzed the structure of the Crotone Basin, located in northeastern Calabria, which is located in the exposed part of the forearc closest to the deformation front and to the Apennines. The main purpose was to compare the successive phases of deformation in the basin to the known evolution of the arc. We found four distinct events from the late Tortonian to the present. A widespread unconformity correlated with the onset of rollback marks a regional foundering with multidirectional normal growth faults. Following this pervasive and deeply rooted extension, the Crotone Basin experiences a period of parallel and distal sedimentation (Ponda clay). These sediments mark a relative long period (~5ma) of remarkable tectonic quiescence, even though subduction-rollback is moving the arc rapidly (3-5cm/yr) to the ESE. In addition, the forearc is shortening by progressive collision with Apulia (the Apennines) and Africa (the Maghrebides) during this time, but our study area is still far from the oblique collisions occurring at the ends of the forearc. The Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.3-6Ma) causes major instabilities in the accretion by loading it with evaporite deposits first and then removing the water load. Landward (westward) thrusting of the accretionary complex correlates with the Messinian in the Crotone basin and elsewhere along eastern

  10. Slow-Moving Landslide Monitoring with Multi-Temporal TerraSAR-X Data by Means of DInSAR Techniques in Crotone Province (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Confuorto, P.; Plank, S.; Di Martire, D.; Ramondini, M.; Thuro, K.; Calcaterra, D.

    2015-05-01

    The Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is one of the most powerful devices for monitoring deformation processes on the Earth surface. Here, a dataset of TerraSAR-X StripMap imagery covering almost the whole Crotone province territory, located in the south of the Italian peninsula, has been selected and processed. The time span goes from April 2008 to June 2010. In this work, two different multitemporal interferometry (MTI) approaches and two different software packages have been used and compared in order to identify benefits/constraints of each MTI approach and each software. Such approaches are: the ‘permanent’ (or ‘persistent’, or ‘point-like’) scatterers [1] implemented on the SARscape® software [2], and the Temporal Sublook Spectral Coherence (TSSC), derived from Coherent Pixel Technique algorithm and works on SUBSOFT processor, developed by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSLab) group, from the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) [3-5].

  11. Spectroscopic investigation on interaction of biogenic, Croton bonplandianum leaves extract mediated potential bactericidal silver nanoparticles with human hemoglobin and human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Beg, Maidul; Maji, Anukul; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Das, Somnath; Jha, Pradeep K; Hossain, Maidul

    2017-02-28

    The green synthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due to the growing demand to produce safe, cost-effective, and eco-friendly technology for nanomaterials synthesis. We report on the use of aqueous Croton bonplandianum (Family: Euphorbiaceae, Genus: Croton) leaves extract for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) without using any external reducing and stabilizing agent. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 446 nm due to surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. Energy dispersive X-ray spectra also supported the existence of AgNPs. An average diameter (d = ~17.4 nm) of the spherical AgNPs was determined from the transmission electron microscopic images. Hydrodynamic size (d = ~21.1 nm) was determined by dynamic light scattering. Fourier transform infrared analysis designed that the functional groups like O-H, N-H, [Formula: see text], CONH2, and COOH participated in the AgNPs formation. The negative zeta potential value (-19.3 mV) of the AgNPs indicated its dispersion and stability. The AgNPs exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and 1.5 nM proved to be minimum inhibitory concentration for it. Hemolysis assay demonstrated the blood compatibility of the AgNPs toward human RBCs. The binding affinity of the AgNPs toward human hemoglobin and human serum albumin (HSA) was also determined by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. The circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the native structures of human hemoglobin and HSA remain unchanged, but its secondary structures were slightly changed upon interaction with AgNPs. Overall, it can be concluded that the AgNPs may be applied in the area of nanomedicines.

  12. Raman spectroscopic analysis of dragon's blood resins-basis for distinguishing between Dracaena(Convallariaceae), Daemonorops(Palmae) and Croton(Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz F C; Prendergast, Hew D V

    2004-02-01

    "Dragon[prime or minute]s blood" is the name applied to the deep-red coloured resin obtained from various plants. The original source in Roman times, used by many cultures and esteemed for its depth of colour and mystical association, was the dragon tree Dracaena cinnabari(Convallariaceae), found only on the Indian Ocean island of Socotra, (Yemen). Additional sources emerged later, including another species of Dracaena, D. draco, from the Canary Islands and Madeira, and species in the genera Daemonorops(Palmae) from South East Asia and Croton(Euphorbiaceae) from tropical parts of both the New and Old Worlds. In this study, examples of dragon's blood resins from the Economic Botany Collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, dating from 1851 to 1993, have been analysed non-destructively using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of well-documented, provenanced specimens have been used to establish the source of specimens of questionable or unknown origin. It has also been possible from the Raman spectra to indicate whether processing of the resins has been undertaken in the preparation of the specimens before their deposition at Kew.

  13. Involvement of glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and heat-shock protein-70 in the gastroprotective mechanism of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Rozza, Ariane Leite; de Mello Moraes, Thiago; Kushima, Hélio; Nunes, Domingos Sávio; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective mechanism of action of the essential oil of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and its in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. The involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, nitric oxide, and nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds in the gastroprotective effect was determined in male Wistar rats. The minimum inhibitory concentration against H. pylori was determined in vitro. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Dunnett test, and a P value less than 0.05 was considered to represent a statistically significant difference. C. cajucara decreased ethanol-induced ulcer area in 100% of ulcers and decreased the histologic lesions. In the C. cajucara group, the area marked by heat-shock protein-70 was significantly higher than the area in the control group; this finding was not seen for vasoactive intestinal peptide. C. cajucara could not maintain glutathione levels close to those in the sham group. The gastric ulcer area of rats treated with the sulfhydryl compound blocker was decreased, but the ulcer area of rats treated with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor showed no alteration. The minimum inhibitory concentration obtained for C. cajucara was 125 μg/mL. These findings suggest that sulfhydryl compounds and heat-shock protein-70, but not nitric oxide, glutathione, or vasoactive intestinal peptide, are involved in the C. cajucara gastroprotective effect against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers.

  14. Relocation of Croton sonderianus (Euphorbiaceae) seeds by Pheidole fallax Mayr (Formicidae): a case of post-dispersal seed protection by ants?

    PubMed

    Lôbo, D; Tabarelli, M; Leal, I R

    2011-01-01

    Although seed dispersal by ants might reduce seed predation near the parent plants, predation on discarded seeds clustered on nest refuse piles may reduce any initial benefit provided by seed removal. Here we examine the fate of Croton sonderianus seeds that were discarded by Pheidole fallax Mayr ants on their nest refuses in caatinga vegetation of northeast Brazil. We collected all seeds discarded in refuse piles of 20 nests and within a radius of 50 cm from their borders, and examined them for evidence of predation. A total of 3,017 seeds were recorded either located in the P. fallax refuse piles (89.1%) or nest vicinity (10.9%). Predation was three fold higher in nest vicinity as compared to refuse piles. By removing seeds from beneath parent plants and relocating then to refuse piles, P. fallax is possibly providing double protection services for C. sonderianus seeds. Our findings represent the first evidence for predator-avoidance as benefit for plants resulting from ant seed-dispersal in the neotropics.

  15. Radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of Croton zehntneri, Pterodon emarginatus and Schinopsis brasiliensis essential oils and their major constituents: estragole, trans-anethole, β-caryophyllene and myrcene.

    PubMed

    Donati, Maddalena; Mondin, Andrea; Chen, Zheng; Miranda, Fabricio Mendes; do Nascimento, Baraquizio Braga; Schirato, Giulia; Pastore, Paolo; Froldi, Guglielmina

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils (EOs) from the Brazilian species Croton zehntneri, Pterodon emarginatus and Schinopsis brasiliensis were examined for their chemical constituents, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The composition of EOs was determined by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity was investigated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (both Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Candida parapsilosis (fungus). The main components of C. zehntneri, P. emarginatus and S. brasiliensis were identified as estragole, trans-anethole, β-caryophyllene and myrcene. Among the EOs, P. emarginatus showed the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 of 7.36 mg/mL and a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 3748 μmol/g determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, respectively. All EOs showed low activities against the bacterial strains tested, whereas the C. zehntneri oil and its main constituent estragole exhibited an appreciable antifungal activity against C. parapsilosis.

  16. Improvement of skin condition in striae distensae: development, characterization and clinical efficacy of a cosmetic product containing Punica granatum seed oil and Croton lechleri resin extract.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Cătălina; Iurian, Sonia; Tomuta, Ioan; Moldovan, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Striae distensae are a frequent skin condition associated with pregnancy, weight change or lack of skin elasticity. The aim of this research was to obtain a topical product containing herbal active ingredients with documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity (Punica granatum seed oil and Croton lechleri resin extract) and demonstrate its positive effect on prevention and treatment of striae distensae. First, the cream base formulation was optimized through experimental design. Secondly, the cream containing the two active ingredients was investigated in an interventional nonrandomized clinical trial. The clinical outcome was assessed through biophysical parameters and ultrasonographic evaluation. The state of the skin was evaluated by biophysical measurements and ultrasonography at the beginning of the study and after 3 and 6 weeks. The experimental design was successfully used to set the best ranges for the technological and formulation factors to obtain a cosmetic formulation with optimal characteristics. The study of clinical efficacy on the optimal formulation revealed an increase in the dermis thickness, hydration and elasticity values in both groups after 6 weeks of cream application. The new oil-in-water cream containing P. granatum seed oil and C. lechleri resin extract can be helpful in the prevention or improving of skin changes associated with striae.

  17. Improvement of skin condition in striae distensae: development, characterization and clinical efficacy of a cosmetic product containing Punica granatum seed oil and Croton lechleri resin extract

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Cătălina; Iurian, Sonia; Tomuta, Ioan; Moldovan, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Striae distensae are a frequent skin condition associated with pregnancy, weight change or lack of skin elasticity. The aim of this research was to obtain a topical product containing herbal active ingredients with documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity (Punica granatum seed oil and Croton lechleri resin extract) and demonstrate its positive effect on prevention and treatment of striae distensae. First, the cream base formulation was optimized through experimental design. Secondly, the cream containing the two active ingredients was investigated in an interventional nonrandomized clinical trial. The clinical outcome was assessed through biophysical parameters and ultrasonographic evaluation. The state of the skin was evaluated by biophysical measurements and ultrasonography at the beginning of the study and after 3 and 6 weeks. The experimental design was successfully used to set the best ranges for the technological and formulation factors to obtain a cosmetic formulation with optimal characteristics. The study of clinical efficacy on the optimal formulation revealed an increase in the dermis thickness, hydration and elasticity values in both groups after 6 weeks of cream application. The new oil-in-water cream containing P. granatum seed oil and C. lechleri resin extract can be helpful in the prevention or improving of skin changes associated with striae. PMID:28280300

  18. Sulfide-Sulfate Mineralizations in Verzino Area (Crotone Basin, Southern Italy): New insights on localized hydrothermal fluid circulations and their relationship with tectonics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardi, Gabriele; Lucci, Federico; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Pizzino, Luca; Cantucci, Barbara; Quattrocchi, Fedora

    2010-05-01

    In this early stage of the work we present a preliminary study of hydrothermal mineralizations found in Verzino locality, Crotone Basin, Southern Appennines, (Calabria, Italy). Both geochemical and petrographic investigations were developed with the aim of understanding the genesis of the sulfide-sulfate associations present in the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" formation, deepening their relationship with fluids circulation. These mineralizations have been recognized only in two "Calanchi" morphostructures - Badlands like morphology developed by the differential erosional pattern of the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" fm. - and constituting the northwestern flank of a little valley evolved in the Miocene sedimentary sequence from "Conglomerato di S.Nicola" fm. to "Evaporiti Superiori" fm. The mineralizations are distributed along isooriented centimetric veins (with mean direction of N120) and in nodules diffused close to the veins. These hydrothermal mineralizations are constituted by an associations of Pyrite spherical nodules (millimetric to centimetric in radius with occurrences of well developed octahedral habit single crystals), sulphate crystals (Gypsum, Jarosite, NatroJarosite), Oxides (Goethite mainly), millimetric veins of Barite and micrometric Ankerite specimens. The data (mineral habits, semiquantitative compositions and x-Ray spectra), obtained by an integration of S.E.M and XRD investigations, permit us, at the current stage of the study, to hypothesize a possible hydrothermal origin (whose temperature range estimate needs further investigations) for the sulfide-sulfate mineral phases. At the moment, we exclude their primary or secondary sedimentary provenance. The comparison of our results with the previous scientific literature focused on hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate systems (Vinogradov and Stephanov, 1964; Kostov, 1968; Plummer 1971; Boles, 1978; Ferrini and Moretti 1998) allows us to propose a possible "thermal window" ranging in the interval 50°C-230

  19. Solid state NMR methods for coal science. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1985. [(CH/sub 2/O)n; crotonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1985-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project during the last quarter. Areas that we have concentrated on in the last three months include carbon-13/proton chemical shift correlation in model systems, some crucial decoupling experiments, and setting up our high field /sup 2/D NMR capability. 6 figs.

  20. Toxicological Evaluation of Essential Oil From the Leaves of Croton argyrophyllus (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, R C D; Silva, S L C E; Souza, I A; Gualberto, S A; Carvalho, K S; Santos, F R; Carvalho, M G

    2017-07-01

    Plant-derived essential oils can be used as insecticides for vector control. However, to establish their safety, it is necessary to perform toxicological studies. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Croton argyrophyllus on the third- and fourth-instar larvae and adult Aedes aegypti (L., 1762). We also evaluated the acute toxicity of the essential oil in adult female Mus musculus. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and 90 (LC90) of C. argyrophyllus essential oil on larvae of Ae. aegypti were 0.31 and 0.70 mg ml-1, respectively, and 5.92 and 8.94 mg ml-1, respectively, on Ae. aegypti adults. The major components of the essential oil were spathulenol (22.80%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.41%), α-pinene (14.07%), and bicyclogermacrene (10.43%). It also displayed acute toxicity in adults of Mus musculus; the intraperitoneal and oral lethal dose 50 (LD50) were 2,000 mg kg-1 and 2,500 mg kg-1, respectively. The results showed that the essential oil from C. argyrophyllus leaves has insecticidal activity on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults at an average lethal concentration below the median lethal dose needed to cause acute toxicity in the common mouse. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by proanthocyanidin-rich fraction from Croton celtidifolius (Euphorbiaceae): involvement of extracellular calcium influx in rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    DalBó, Silvia; Goulart, Suelen; Horst, Heros; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria

    2008-06-01

    The present study investigates the mechanisms related to the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in the relaxant effects of a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF), obtained from Croton celtidifolius Baill barks, in rat thoracic aorta rings with endothelium. In vessels pre-contracted with phenylephrine (Phe), PRF (0.1 - 100 microg/mL) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation. This effect was significantly reduced by endothelium denudation, by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine, and by 1H[1,2,3]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin. However, the vasorelaxant effect was not altered by indomethacin, atropine, tetraethylammonium, and charybdotoxin plus apamin. In thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted with phorbol-12,13-dibuyrate, PRF also induced a concentration-dependent relaxation. The PRF-induced relaxation disappeared in the absence of extracellular calcium in the medium and decreased significantly in the presence of lanthanum. A sulfhydryl alkylating agent, N-ethylmaleimide, and a phospholipase C (PLC) blocker, neomycin, significantly decreased PRF-induced vasorelaxation. In vessels pre-contracted with Phe, the PRF-induced vasorelaxant effect was not altered by quinacrine and ONO-RS-082, genistein and thyrphostin A-23, GF109203, and pertussis toxin and cholera toxin. The results suggest that the PRF-induced vasorelaxant effect is endothelium-dependent and involves the NO/cGMP pathway. We hypothesize that the activation of eNOS is due to an increase of intracellular calcium derived from PLC activation and an N-ethylmaleimide sensitive pathway.

  2. Vasorelaxation induced by the essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius and its constituents in rat aorta are partially mediated by the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; Lahlou, Saad; Jucá, Davi Matthews; Coelho-de-Souza, Lívia Noronha; da Frota, Pedro Thiago Tibúrcio; da Costa, Adriana Maria Gurgel; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2008-04-01

    Previously, we reported that essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius (EOCN) decreases blood pressure in normotensive rats, an effect that seems resulting from its vasodilatory action directly upon vascular smooth muscle. In the present study, we aimed to study the role of endothelium-nitric oxide pathway in the mediation of vasodilatory effects of EOCN and two of its constituents, methyleugenol and alpha-terpineol, using rat isolated thoracic aorta and mesenteric vascular bed preparations. EOCN (1-300 microg/mL), in a concentration-dependent manner, relaxed isolated endothelium-intact aortic rings precontracted with KCl 60 mM, with an IC(50) value of 26.7 (14.7-48.2) microg/mL. Either pretreatment of the tissue with L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, or mechanical endothelium removal increased significantly the IC(50) value to 66.6 (52.7-84.1) or 105.6 (91.3-122.2) microg/mL, respectively. In endothelium-intact aortic rings precontracted with norepinephrine, EOCN (10-200 microg/mL) produced a vasorelaxant action which was decreased by the pretreatment of the aortic rings with methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor. In mesenteric bed preparations perfused under constant pressure, EOCN reverted the reduction of mesenteric flow caused by KCl (60 mM), an effect that was attenuated by L-NAME. Vasodilator responses to EOCN in mesenteric bed preparations were mimicked by methyleugenol and alpha-terpineol, and were also significantly reduced in the presence of L-NAME. In conclusion, EOCN has vasorelaxant effects in both a resistance vascular bed and in a conduit artery. They seem attributed, at least in part, to the actions of its main constituents methyleugenol and alpha-terpineol and appear partially dependent upon the integrity of a functional vascular endothelium. Inhibition of other transduction pathways may be involved in the mediation of these effects.

  3. Ozone-Induced Responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): Metabolic Cross-Talk between Volatile Organic Compounds and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  4. Ozone-induced responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): metabolic cross-talk between volatile organic compounds and calcium oxalate crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3.

  5. A novel extract SB-300 from the stem bark latex of Croton lechleri inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Machen, Terry E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Carlson, Thomas J S; King, Steven R; Chow, John W S; Illek, Beate

    2004-08-01

    An oligomeric proanthocyanidin (SP-303) extracted from the bark latex of the tree Croton lechleri (family Euphorbiaceae) is a potent inhibitor of cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation and chloride secretion. The manufacturing process for SP-303 was optimized and simplified to produce an increased yield of the herbal extract. The novel extract (named SB-300) contained on average 70.6+/-7.2% SP-303 by weight (mean +/- S.D.; n=56 lots). Here, we describe the effectiveness of SB-300 on cAMP-regulated chloride secretion, which is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) in human colonic T84 cells. Exposure of the apical surface to SB-300 blocked forskolin-stimulated Cl- secretion by 92.2+/-3.0% with a half-maximal inhibition constant (KB) of 4.8+/-0.8 microM. For SP-303, stimulated Cl- currents were decreased by 98.0+/-7.2 % and KB averaged 4.1+/-1.3 microM. There was no significant difference between the blocking kinetics of SP-303 and SB-300. Forskolin-stimulated whole cell Cl- currents were effectively blocked by extracellular addition of SB-300 (63+/-8.5%; n=3) and to a similar extent by SP-303 (83 +/- 0.6%; n=2; at 50 microM each). Both extracts inhibited a time- and voltage-independent Cl- conductance, which indicated the involvement of CFTR Cl- channels. We conclude that both SP-303 (used in Provir) and SB-300 (used in NSF Normal Stool Formula) are novel natural products that target the CFTR Cl- channel. SB-300 is a low cost herbal extract and may present a complementary and alternative medicine approach for the treatment of fluid loss in watery diarrhea.

  6. [1-9-NαC]-crourorb A1 isolated from Croton urucurana latex induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    de Matos Cândido-Bacani, Priscila; Ezan, Frédéric; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Patrícia; Matos, Maria de Fátima Cepa; Rodrigues Garcez, Fernanda; Silva Garcez, Walmir; Baffet, Georges

    2017-05-05

    [1-9-NαC]-crourorb A1 is a cyclic peptide isolated from Croton urucurana Baillon latex, found in midwestern Brazil, that has been shown to exert cytotoxic effects against a panel of cancer cell lines. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the crourorb A1-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells remain unknown. In this study, the effects of crourorb A1 on the viability, apoptosis, cell cycle and migration of Huh-7 (human hepatocarcinoma) cells were investigated. We evaluated the viability of Huh-7 cells treated with crourorb A1 in 2D and 3D collagen cultures and found that cells in 3D culture exhibited increased resistance to crourorb A1 compared to cells in 2D culture (IC50: 62μg/ml versus 35.75μg/ml). Crourorb A1 treatment decreases the viability of Huh-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and is associated with the induction of apoptosis, in the absence of necrotic cells, through the activation of caspase-3/7 and increased expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak, Bid, Bax, Puma, Bim, and Bad. The effects of crourorb A1 are also associated with G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and increases in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1) and cyclin B1 expression. A significant reduction in Huh-7 cell migration induced by crourorb A1 was also observed in the presence of mitomycin C. Finally, we showed that the JNK/MAP pathway, but not ERK signaling, is involved in crourorb A1-induced hepatocarcinoma cell mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro cytocidal effects of the essential oil from Croton cajucara (red sacaca) and its major constituent 7- hydroxycalamenene against Leishmania chagasi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most serious form of leishmaniasis and can be lethal if left untreated. Currently available treatments for these parasitic diseases are frequently associated to severe side effects. The leaves of Croton cajucara are used as an infusion in popular medicine to combat several diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that the linalool-rich essential oil from C. cajucara (white sacaca) is extremely efficient against the tegumentary specie Leishmania amazonensis. In this study, we investigated the effects of the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from the leaves of C. cajucara (red sacaca) against Leishmania chagasi, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Methods Promastigotes were treated with different concentrations of the essential oil for determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effects of the essential oil on parasite ultrastructure were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate its efficacy against infected cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi promastigotes were treated with the inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil. Results The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil and its purified component 7-hydroxycalamenene against L. chagasi were 250 and 15.6 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed important nuclear and kinetoplastic alterations in L. chagasi promastigotes. Pre-treatment of macrophages and parasites with the essential oil reduced parasite/macrophage interaction by 52.8%, while it increased the production of nitric oxide by L. chagasi-infected macrophages by 80%. Conclusion These results indicate that the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from C. cajucara is a promising source of leishmanicidal compounds. PMID:24088644

  8. Study on prevention of two-stage skin carcinogenesis by Hibiscus rosa sinensis extract and the role of its chemical constituent, gentisic acid, in the inhibition of tumour promotion response and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Khan, N; Sultana, S

    2004-02-01

    We designed the present study to investigate the role of gentisic acid in the chemopreventive activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis extract on 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/croton oil-mediated carcinogenesis in mouse skin via 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumour promotion response and oxidative stress. Single topical application of DMBA followed by twice weekly applications of croton oil after one week for 20 weeks resulted in 100% incidence of tumours in animals in 15 weeks. However, application of H. rosa sinensis extract 30 minutes prior to the application of croton oil twice weekly for 20 weeks caused significant reduction in the number of tumours per mouse and the percentage of tumour-bearing mice. Also, the latency period for the appearance of the first tumour was delayed on H. rosa sinensis pretreatment. A single topical application of TPA caused significant depletion in reduced glutathione (GSH) content, activities of its metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, while malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, H2O2 content, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and DNA synthesis were significantly increased. Interestingly, pretreatment of H. rosa sinensis extract (3.5 mg and 7 mg/kg body weight) and gentisic acid (2.0 microg and 4.0 microg/0.2 ml acetone per animal) restored the levels of GSH, and its metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes (P<0.05). There was also a statistically significant reduction in MDA formation and H2O2 content (P<0.05) at both doses. Although inhibition of ODC activity by gentisic acid was not dose-dependent, thymidine incorporation in DNA (P<0.05) was dose-dependently recovered by the plant extract and its chemical constituent. We therefore propose that gentisic acid has a role in the modulatory activity of H. rosa sinensis extract.

  9. Mechanistic Insights into the Catalytic Oxidation of Carboxylic Acids on Au/TiO2: Partial Oxidation of Propionic and Butyric Acid to Gold Ketenylidene through Unsaturated Acids

    DOE PAGES

    McEntee, Monica; Tang, Wenjie; Neurock, Matthew; ...

    2014-12-12

    Here, the partial oxidation of model C2–C4 (acetic, propionic, and butyric) carboxylic acids on Au/TiO2 catalysts consisting of Au particles ~3 nm in size was investigated using transmission infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory. All three acids readily undergo oxidative dehydrogenation on Au/TiO2. Propionic and butyric acid dehydrogenate at the C2–C3 positions, whereas acetic acid dehydrogenates at the C1–C2 position. The resulting acrylate and crotonate intermediates are subsequently oxidized to form β-keto acids that decarboxylate. All three acids form a gold ketenylidene intermediate, Au2C=C=O, along the way to their full oxidation to form CO2. Infrared measurements of Au2C=C=O formation asmore » a function of time provides a surface spectroscopic probe of the kinetics for the activation and oxidative dehydrogenation of the alkyl groups in the carboxylate intermediates that form.« less

  10. Syntrophus aciditrophicus sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids and benzoate in syntrophic association with hydrogen-using microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B. E.; Bhupathiraju, V. K.; Tanner, R. S.; Woese, C. R.; McInerney, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Strain SBT is a new, strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonmotile, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium that degrades benzoate and certain fatty acids in syntrophic association with hydrogen/formate-using microorganisms. Strain SBT produced approximately 3 mol of acetate and 0.6 mol of methane per mol of benzoate in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF1. Saturated fatty acids, some unsaturated fatty acids, and methyl esters of butyrate and hexanoate also supported growth of strain SBT in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. Strain SBT grew in pure culture with crotonate, producing acetate, butyrate, caproate, and hydrogen. The molar growth yield was 17 +/- 1 g cell dry mass per mol of crotonate. Strain SBT did not grow with fumarate, iron(III), polysulfide, or oxyanions of sulfur or nitrogen as electron acceptors with benzoate as the electron donor. The DNA base composition of strain SBT was 43.1 mol% G+C. Analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene sequence placed strain SBT in the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain SBT was most closely related to members of the genus Syntrophus. The clear phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain SBT and the two described species in the genus Syntrophus justify the formation of a new species, Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

  11. Syntrophus aciditrophicus sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids and benzoate in syntrophic association with hydrogen-using microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B E; Bhupathiraju, V K; Tanner, R S; Woese, C R; McInerney, M J

    1999-01-01

    Strain SBT is a new, strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonmotile, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium that degrades benzoate and certain fatty acids in syntrophic association with hydrogen/formate-using microorganisms. Strain SBT produced approximately 3 mol of acetate and 0.6 mol of methane per mol of benzoate in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF1. Saturated fatty acids, some unsaturated fatty acids, and methyl esters of butyrate and hexanoate also supported growth of strain SBT in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. Strain SBT grew in pure culture with crotonate, producing acetate, butyrate, caproate, and hydrogen. The molar growth yield was 17 +/- 1 g cell dry mass per mol of crotonate. Strain SBT did not grow with fumarate, iron(III), polysulfide, or oxyanions of sulfur or nitrogen as electron acceptors with benzoate as the electron donor. The DNA base composition of strain SBT was 43.1 mol% G+C. Analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene sequence placed strain SBT in the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain SBT was most closely related to members of the genus Syntrophus. The clear phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain SBT and the two described species in the genus Syntrophus justify the formation of a new species, Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

  12. Energetics of end product excretion in anaerobic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei. Progress report, January 31-December 15, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    This work addresses the metabolism of fatty acids and the energetics of growth of the anaerobic, syntrophic, fatty acid-degrading bacterium, Syntrophomonas wolfei. S. wolfei degrades C/sub 4/ to C/sub 8/ straight chain fatty acids to acetate and H/sub 2/ or acetate, propionate and H/sub 2/; isoheptanoate is degraded to isovalerate, acetate, and H/sub 2/. S. wolfei can not use any common bacterial energy source that will allow it to grow in pure culture. A significant breakthrough in the cultivation of S. wolfei was achieved. Long term (3 months) incubation of S. wolfei cocultures in medium with crotonate selects for a population of S. wolfei cells that can use this compound. These cultures contain large numbers of S. wolfei cells and very few cells of the methanogen. Pure cultures of S. wolfei do not use butyrate. However, when pure cultures of S. wolfei are incubated in the presence of H/sub 2/-using bacteria, butyrate is degraded to acetate and H/sub 2/. These data show that the cells present in the pure cultures are in fact S. wolfei. Growth of S. wolfei with crotonate is faster and much higher cell densities are obtained. Thus, large amounts of cell material will be available for biochemical studies. 3 refs.

  13. Syntrophus aciditrophicus sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids and benzoate in syntrophic association with hydrogen-using microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B. E.; Bhupathiraju, V. K.; Tanner, R. S.; Woese, C. R.; McInerney, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Strain SBT is a new, strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonmotile, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium that degrades benzoate and certain fatty acids in syntrophic association with hydrogen/formate-using microorganisms. Strain SBT produced approximately 3 mol of acetate and 0.6 mol of methane per mol of benzoate in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF1. Saturated fatty acids, some unsaturated fatty acids, and methyl esters of butyrate and hexanoate also supported growth of strain SBT in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. Strain SBT grew in pure culture with crotonate, producing acetate, butyrate, caproate, and hydrogen. The molar growth yield was 17 +/- 1 g cell dry mass per mol of crotonate. Strain SBT did not grow with fumarate, iron(III), polysulfide, or oxyanions of sulfur or nitrogen as electron acceptors with benzoate as the electron donor. The DNA base composition of strain SBT was 43.1 mol% G+C. Analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene sequence placed strain SBT in the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain SBT was most closely related to members of the genus Syntrophus. The clear phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain SBT and the two described species in the genus Syntrophus justify the formation of a new species, Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

  14. Croton lechleri Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark essential oil as possible mutagen-protective food ingredient against heterocyclic amines from cooked food.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Damiano; Guerrini, Alessandra; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo; Maietti, Silvia; Poppi, Irene; Tacchini, Massimo; Sacchetti, Gianni

    2013-08-15

    The Amazonian Croton lechleri stem bark essential oil was tested for its anti-mutagenic potential by performing the Ames test against heterocyclic amines (HCAs), in continuing research on applicative functional profile of this phytocomplex as food ingredient (Rossi et al., 2011). Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was used with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). The anti-mutagenic properties was assayed with the following HCAs: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), the imidazoles 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) and 2-aminodipirydo-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2). All HCAs with S9 induced mutagenicity at 10(-10) mol/plate. Without S9, IQ and MeIQ showed mutagenicity at 10(-8) mol/plate, MeIQx and Glu-P-1 at 10(-5) mol/plate, while Glu-P-2 was inactive. In presence of HACs (10(-9) mol/plate), C. lechleri essential oil was tested for mutagen-protective properties (concentration range: 0.01-0.10 mg/plate) taking the Highest Uneffective Dose (HUD) as threshold reference. With S9 mix, C. lechleri essential oil displayed a significant reduction of revertants at 0.05 mg/plate, from 21% to 34%. The essential oil showed mutagen-protective efficacy against IQ and MeIQ tested as direct mutagens (10(-7) mol/plate), with a revertants percentage reduction of 39% and 40%, respectively. No anti-mutagen capacity was noted for MeIQx and Glu-P-1 (10(-5) mol/plate). Since HACs are known as possible colon and liver cancer inducers, C. lechleri essential oil was tested for its cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative capacity against LoVo and HepG2 cancer cell lines showing IC50 of 74.95±0.05 μg/ml (LoVo) and 82.28±0.03 μg/ml (HepG2), displaying a promising role of this essential oil as a functional food ingredient with interesting mutagen preventing properties.

  15. Essential oil of croton nepetaefolius and its main constituent, 1,8-cineole, block excitability of rat sciatic nerve in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lima-Accioly, P M; Lavor-Porto, P R; Cavalcante, F S; Magalhães, P J C; Lahlou, S; Morais, S M; Leal-Cardoso, J H

    2006-12-01

    1. The effects of the essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius (EOCN) and its major constituent, 1,8-cineole, on the compound action potential (CAP) of nerve were investigated. 2. Experiments were performed in sciatic nerves dissected from Wistar rats, mounted in a moist chamber and stimulated at a frequency of 0.2 Hz, with electric pulses of 100 micros duration at 20-40 V. Evoked CAP were displayed on an oscilloscope and recorded on a computer. The CAP control parameters were as follows: peak-to-peak amplitude 8.1 +/- 0.6 mV (n = 15); conduction velocity 83.3 +/- 4.2 m/s (n = 15); chronaxie 58.0 +/- 6.8 msec (n = 6); and rheobase 2.8 +/- 0.1 V (n = 6). 3. Lower concentrations of EOCN (100 and 300 microg/mL) and 1,8-cineole (153 and 307 microg/mL; i.e. 1 and 2 mmol/L, respectively) had no significant effects on CAP control parameters throughout the entire recording period. However, at the end of 180 min exposure of the nerve to the drug, peak-to-peak amplitude was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced to 27.4 +/- 6.7 and 1.7 +/- 0.8% of control values by 500 and 1000 microg/mL EOCN, respectively (n = 6), and to 76.5 +/- 4.4, 70.0 +/- 3.9 and 14.8 +/- 4.1% of control values by 614, 920 and 1227 microg/mL (i.e. 4, 6 and 8 mmol/L) 1,8-cineole, respectively (n = 6). Regarding conduction velocity, at the end of the 180 min exposure period, this parameter was significantly reduced to 85.8 +/- 7.3 and 48.7 +/- 12.3% (n = 6) of control values by 500 and 1000 microg/mL EOCN, respectively, and to 86.4 +/- 4.5 and 76.1 +/- 5.2% (n = 6) by 920 and 1227 microg/mL 1,8-cineole, respectively. Chronaxie and rheobase were significantly increased by the higher concentrations of both EOCN and 1,8-cineole. 4. It is concluded that EOCN and its main constituent 1,8-cineole block nerve excitability in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect that was totally reversible with 1,8-cineole but not with EOCN. This suggests that other constituents of EOCN, in addition to 1,8-cineole, may contribute

  16. Nutrients, Dissolved Organic Carbon, Color, and Disinfection Byproducts in Base Flow and Stormflow in Streams of the Croton Watershed, Westchester and Putnam Counties, New York, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    The Croton Watershed is unique among New York City's water-supply watersheds because it has the highest percentages of suburban development (52 percent) and wetland area (6 percent). As the City moves toward filtration of this water supply, there is a need to document water-quality contributions from both human and natural sources within the watershed that can inform watershed-management decisions. Streamwater samples from 24 small (0.1 to 1.5 mi2) subbasins and three wastewater-treatment plants (2000-02) were used to document the seasonal concentrations, values, and formation potentials of selected nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), color, and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during stormflow and base-flow conditions. The subbasins were categorized by three types of drainage efficiency and a range of land uses and housing densities. Analyte concentrations in subbasin streams differed in response to the subbasin charateristics. Nutrient concentrations were lowest in undeveloped, forested subbasins that were well drained and increased with all types of development, which included residential, urban commercial/industrial, golf-course, and horse-farm land uses. These concentrations were further modified by subbasin drainage efficiency. DOC, in contrast, was highly dependent on drainage efficiency. Color intensity and DBP formation potentials were, in turn, associated with DOC and thus showed a similar response to drainage efficiency. Every constituent exhibited seasonal changes in concentration. Nutrients. Total (unfiltered) phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and nitrate were associated primarily with residential development, urban, golf-course, and horse-farm land uses. Base-flow and stormflow concentrations of the TP, SRP, and nitrate generally increased with increasing housing density. TP and SRP concentrations were nearly an order of magnitude higher in stormflow than in base flow, whereas nitrate concentrations showed little difference

  17. Greetings from the planet croton.

    PubMed

    Evans, Allyson

    2015-04-16

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Sabari et al. (2015) discover that levels of intracellular crotonyl-CoA impact the histone acylation landscape, providing deeper insight into the exotic histone modification, crotonylation, and exploring new avenues by which cellular metabolism can influence gene expression.

  18. FT-Raman and FTIR-ATR spectroscopies and DFT calculations of triterpene acetyl aleuritolic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, I. R. S.; Teixeira, A. M. R.; Sena Junior, D. M.; Santos, H. S.; Albuquerque, M. R. J. R.; Bandeira, P. N.; Rodrigues, A. S.; Braz-Filho, R.; Gusmão, G. O. M.; Silva, J. H.; Faria, J. L. B.; Bento, R. R. F.

    2014-01-01

    Triterpenoids comprise an important class of compounds presenting a wide range of biologically important properties. Acetyl aleutitolic acid (AAA) is a triterpenoid isolated from Croton zehntneri, with molecular formula C32H50O4. Its structure has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, however, there are no papers available regarding its vibrational properties. The Fourier-Transform Infrared with Attenuated Total Reflectance and Fourier-Transform Raman spectra, together with Density Functional Theory calculations of AAA are reported. Vibrational spectra were recorded at 300 K in the regions 600 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 and 40 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1, for IR and Raman, respectively. Vibrational wavenumbers were predicted using Density Functional Theory calculations with the hybrid functional B3LYP and the basis set 6-31 G(d,p). A complete assignment of vibrational modes is given.

  19. Mechanistic Insights into the Catalytic Oxidation of Carboxylic Acids on Au/TiO2: Partial Oxidation of Propionic and Butyric Acid to Gold Ketenylidene through Unsaturated Acids

    SciTech Connect

    McEntee, Monica; Tang, Wenjie; Neurock, Matthew; Yates, Jr., John T.

    2014-12-12

    Here, the partial oxidation of model C2–C4 (acetic, propionic, and butyric) carboxylic acids on Au/TiO2 catalysts consisting of Au particles ~3 nm in size was investigated using transmission infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory. All three acids readily undergo oxidative dehydrogenation on Au/TiO2. Propionic and butyric acid dehydrogenate at the C2–C3 positions, whereas acetic acid dehydrogenates at the C1–C2 position. The resulting acrylate and crotonate intermediates are subsequently oxidized to form β-keto acids that decarboxylate. All three acids form a gold ketenylidene intermediate, Au2C=C=O, along the way to their full oxidation to form CO2. Infrared measurements of Au2C=C=O formation as a function of time provides a surface spectroscopic probe of the kinetics for the activation and oxidative dehydrogenation of the alkyl groups in the carboxylate intermediates that form.

  20. Boswellic acids: A leukotriene inhibitor also effective through topical application in inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Khajuria, A; Taneja, S C; Johri, R K; Singh, J; Qazi, G N

    2008-06-01

    Boswellic acids (BA), a natural mixture isolated from oleo gum resin of Boswellia serrata comprised of four major pentacyclic triterpene acids: beta-boswellic acid (the most abundant), 3-acteyl-beta-boswellic acid, 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, and 3-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid, is reported to be effective as anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, anti-asthmatic and in Chron's disease. It inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators in the body, specifically leukotrienes via inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase, the key enzyme of leukotriene synthesis, is the scientifically proved mechanism for its anti-inflammatory/anti-arthritic activity. All previous work on BA for its biological activity has been done through the systemic application but no pre-clinical data reported for its anti-inflammatory activity by topical application. We here by report anti-inflammatory activity of BA through this route by applying different acute and chronic models of inflammation i.e., arachidonic acid and croton oil-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rats paw edema and adjuvant-induced developing arthritis in rats. The results of the study revealed that the effect observed through this route is in accordance to the study conducted with the systemic route, thus establishing that BA when used through topical application is as effective as through the systemic route.

  1. Cytotoxic, apoptotic, and sensitization properties of ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis Gagnep on human liver cancer HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pham, Minh Quan; Iscache, Anne Laure; Pham, Quoc Long; Gairin, Jean Edouard

    2016-04-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer, the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. A very poor prognosis and a lack of effective treatments make liver cancer a major public health problem, notably in less developed regions, particularly in eastern Asia. This fully justifies the search of new molecules and therapeutic strategies against HCC. Ent-kaurane diterpenoids are natural compounds displaying a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects including anticancer activity. In this study, we analyzed the pharmacological properties of a family of ent-kaurane diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis Gagnep in human HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines, used as cellular reference models for in vitro evaluation of new molecules active on HCC. A structure-related cytotoxicity was observed against both HCC cell lines, enlighting the role of the 16-en-15-one skeleton of ent-kaurane diterpenoids. Cytotoxicity was closely correlated to apoptosis, evidenced by concentration-dependent subG1 cell accumulation, and increased annexin V expression. In addition, subtoxic concentration of ent-kaurane diterpenoid dramatically enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to doxorubicin. All together, our data bring strong support to the potential interest of ent-kaurane diterpenoids, alone or in combination with a cytotoxic agent, in cancer and more precisely against HCC.

  2. Review of sangre de drago (Croton lechleri)--a South American tree sap in the treatment of diarrhea, inflammation, insect bites, viral infections, and wounds: traditional uses to clinical research.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the pharmacologic evidence that may or may not support clinical and ethnomedical uses of the sap of sangre de drago (dragon's blood; Croton lechleri Müll. Arg.). Data sources used were BIOSIS, EMBASE, PubMed, TOXLIT, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, manual searches, papers on file from peer-reviewed journals, textbooks available at Armana Research, Inc., and researchers in the field of South American botanical medicine. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies largely support the majority of ethnomedical uses of sangre de drago including the treatment of diarrhea, wounds, tumors, stomach ulcers, herpes infection, the itching, pain and swelling of insect bites, and other conditions. Clinical studies of sangre de drago products have reported positive results in the treatment of traveler's and watery diarrhea and the symptoms of insect bites. Because the sap has shown low toxicity and preparations used in clinical studies were well tolerated, further clinical and pharmacologic studies are anticipated. Acknowledgment of the diversity in the chemical makeup of the sap from one geographic area to another and the recent characterization of alkaloid chemotypes of sangre de drago will require that materials developed for clinical use are standardized.

  3. The tsunami-like sea level disturbance in Crotone harbor, Italy, after the Mw6.5 strike-slip earthquake of 17 November 2015 in Lefkada Isl., Ionian Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, Tatyana; Annunziato, Alessandro; Charalampakis, Marinos; Romano, Fabrizio; Volpe, Manuela; Tonini, Roberto; Gerardinger, Andrea; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.

    2016-04-01

    On 17 November 2015 an Mw6.5 earthquake ruptured offshore Lefkada Isl. in Ionian Sea, Greece, causing two human victims, minor damage and several ground failures including coastal landslides. Fault plane solutions released by CMT/Harvard, NOA and other institutes have indicated that the faulting style was strike-slip right-lateral, which is quite typical for the area, as for example, the Mw6.3 event that occurred on August 14, 2003, in exactly the same fault zone. In spite of the very low tsunami potential commonly associated to this faulting mechanism, a tsunami-like sea level change was recorded after the earthquake by one tide-gauge in the Crotone harbor, Italy. Preliminary tsunami numerical simulations were performed to reproduce the observed signal. The spectral analysis of the synthetic mareograms close to the entrance of the harbor shows the presence of some peaks that could justify the relation between the natural port resonance and the observed wave amplification. Of particular interest is the coupling between the tsunami energy and the natural modes of basin oscillation enhancing tsunami wave amplitude in harbors through resonance, as shown in some historical events in the Mediterranean Sea and elsewhere. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 tsunami research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.

  4. Foraging behaviour of the african honey bee (Apis mellifera adansonii) on Annona senegalensis, Croton macrostachyus, Psorospermum febrifugum and Syzygium guineense var. guineense flowers at Ngaoundéré (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Fohouo, Fernand-Nestor Tchuenguem; Djonwangwe, Denis; Brückner, Dorothea

    2008-03-01

    To determine the apicultural value of Annona senegalensis Pers. 1806 (Annonaceae), Croton macrostachyus Hochst. Ex Del. 1847 (Euphorbiaceae), Psorospermum febrifugum Spach 1836 (Hypericaceae) and Syzygium guineense (Will.) DC var. guineense 1828 (Myrtaceae), Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) activity was observed on their flowers in the area of Ngaoundéré, from January to May, in 2002 and 2003. Flowers of each plant species were prospected at least four days per month, between 7 am and 6 pm, for the registration of the nectar and/or pollen foraging behaviour of A. m. adansonii workers. Results show that A. m. adansonii harvested nectar and pollen of each plant species. The greatest number of workers foraging simultaneously on a plant varied from 9 in P. febrifugum to 3600 in S. g. guineense. A. m. adansonii workers were faithful to each plant species. A. senegalensis, C. macrostachyus, P. febrifugum and S. g. guineense could be cultivated and protected to increase honey production. A. senegalensis could enable beekeepers to increase their pollen production as a hive product. During foraging, A. m. adansonii workers increased pollination possibilities of each plant species.

  5. Methylene-carbonyl condensations of some CH acids with aldehydes under the conditions of phase-transfer catalysis or catalysis by the fluoride ion

    SciTech Connect

    Beletskaya, I.P.; Gulyukina, N.S.; Muhamed Ali Ali; Solov'yanov, A.A.; Reutov, O.A.

    1987-09-10

    The condensation of a series of CH acids (fluorene, phenylacetonitrile, ethene) with aromatic aldehydes was realized in the aqueous sodium hydroxide-organic solvent-phase-transfer catalyst system. 9-Substituted fluorenesdo not enter into condensation under the indicated conditions. The condensation of fluorene, PhCH/sub 2/CN, CH/sub 2/(CN)/sub 2/, and CH/sub 2/(CN)COOEt with benzaldehyde and also of CH/sub 2/(CN)COOEt with cyclohexanone was realized in the presence of tetrabutylammonium fluoride, deposited on silica gel. It was shown that the yield of the product from crotonic condensation in the reaction of CH/sub 2/(COOEt)/sub 2/ with benzaldehyde is small, and this is due to the instability of PhCh = C(COOEt)/sub 2/ under the reaction conditions. Sodiomalonic ester was condensed with benzaldehyde in the presence of titanium tetrachloride or aluminum chloride.

  6. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  7. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: Legumes such as ...

  8. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  9. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  10. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  11. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of salicylic acid-derivative organoselenium: 2-hydroxy-5-selenocyanatobenzoic acid as an anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive compound.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Pietro Maria; Rosa, Suzan Gonçalves; Sari, Marcel Henrique Marcondes; Oliveira, Carla Elena Sartori; Canto, Rômulo Faria Santos; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Braga, Antonio Luiz; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of per oral (p.o.) administration of salicylic acid-derivative organoselenium compounds in chemical models of nociception in mice. The compounds (50 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered 30 and 60 min before the nociceptive behavior and compared to the positive-control, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 200 mg/kg; p.o.). In addition, a dose-response curve (25-100 mg/kg) for compounds was carried out in the formalin test. When assessed in the chemical models, acetic acid-induced writhing behavior, formalin and glutamate tests, the compounds showed the following antinociceptive profile 1B>2B>1A>2A, suggesting a chemical structure-dependent relationship. Then, the anti-inflammatory properties and toxicological potential of compound 1B were investigated. Compound 1B, similar to the positive-control, ASA, diminished the edema formation and decreased the myeloperoxidase activity induced by croton oil (2.5%) in the ear tissue. The results also indicate that a single oral administration of 1B caused neither signs of acute toxicity nor those of gastrointestinal injury. The administration of 1B did not alter the water and food intakes, plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities or urea levels and cerebral or hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity. Salicylic acid-derivative organoseleniums, mainly compound 1B, have been found to be novel compounds with antinociceptive/anti-inflammatory properties; nevertheless, more studies are required to examine their therapeutic potential for pain treatment.

  12. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Stensland, G.J.

    1983-11-01

    A series of definitions for the field of acid rain studies are presented. Protocols for acid rain sampling and monitoring are also presented. A procedure for calculatory precipitation pH is discussed. 11 references, 1 table.

  13. Folic acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... of childhood cancer of the white blood cells. Iron deficiency. Taking folic acid with iron supplements is not ... supplements without folic acid for treating and preventing iron deficiency and anemia caused by too little iron in ...

  14. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  15. Obeticholic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Obeticholic acid is used alone or in combination with ursodiol (Actigall, Urso) to treat primary biliary cholangitis (PBC; a ... were not treated successfully with ursodiol alone. Obeticholic acid is in a class of medications called farnesoid ...

  16. Acid mucopolysaccharides

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003368.htm Acid mucopolysaccharides To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acid mucopolysaccharides is a test that measures the amount ...

  17. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  18. Ascorbic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  19. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  20. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  1. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

  2. Valproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

  3. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  4. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  5. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  6. Acid clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Keesee, R.G.; Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1986-04-01

    Molecular clusters can be considered to be the smallest size range of an aerosol particle size distribution. Nucleation from the gas phase to particles or droplets involves the formation of clusters in the initial stages. Consequently, knowledge of the properties and formation of clusters containing acids contribute to an understanding of acid rain. This paper presents an overview of results obtained in the laboratory on the formation and stability of both neutral and ionized acid clusters. With free jet expansion techniques, the authors have produced clusters of aqueous nitric acid, aqueous hydrochloric acid, aqueous sulfuric acid, acetic acid and aqueous sulfur dioxide. For analogy to buffering, the formation of clusters containing ammonia have also been examined. These have included ammonia with aqueous nitric acid, hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide. The basic experiment involves expansion of vapor through a nozzle, collimation of the jet with a skimmer to form a well-directed molecular beam, and detection of clusters via electron impact ionization and mass spectrometry. Some variations include the introduction of a reactive gas into vacuum near the expansion as described elsewhere and the implementation of an electrostatic quadrupolar field to examine the polarity of the neutral clusters.

  7. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  8. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications.

  9. Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a lipolytic, anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium utilizing short- and long-chain fatty acids in syntrophic coculture with a methanogenic archaeum.

    PubMed

    Svetlitshnyi, V; Rainey, F; Wiegel, J

    1996-10-01

    Three strains of an anaerobic thermophilic organoheterotrophic lipolytic alkalitolerant bacterium, Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/VS-265T; DSM 11003), were isolated from alkaline hot springs of Lake Bogoria (Kenya). The cells were nonmotile, non-spore forming, straight or slightly curved rods. At 60 degrees C the pH range for growth determined at 25 degrees C [pH25 degrees C] was 7.15 to 9.5, with an optimum between 8.1 and 8.9 (pH60 degrees C of 7.6 and 8.1). At a pH25 degrees C of 8.5 the temperature range for growth was from 52 to 70 degrees C, with an optimum between 60 and 66 degrees C. The shortest doubling time was around 1 h. In pure culture the bacterium grew in a mineral base medium supplemented with yeast extract, tryptone, Casamino Acids, betaine, and crotonate as carbon sources, producing acetate as a major product and constitutively a lipase. During growth in the presence of olive oil, free long-chain fatty acids were accumulated in the medium but the pure culture could not utilize olive oil, triacylglycerols, short- and long-chain fatty acids, and glycerol for growth. In syntrophic coculture (Methanobacterium strain JW/VS-M29) the lipolytic bacteria grew on triacylglycerols and linear saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with 4 to 18 carbon atoms, but glycerol was not utilized. Fatty acids with even numbers of carbon atoms were degraded to acetate and methane, while from odd-numbered fatty acids 1 mol of propionate per mol of fatty acid was additionally formed. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified Syntrophospora and Syntrophomonas spp. as closest phylogenetic neighbors.

  10. STIMULATION OF REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF TETRA- CHLOROETHENE (PCE) IN ANAEROBIC AQUIFER MICROCOSMS BY ADDITION OF SHORT-CHAIN ORGANIC ACIDS OR ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of the addition of common fermentation products on the dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene was studied in methanogenic slurries made with aquifer solids. Lactate, propionate, crotonate, butyrate, and ethanol stimulated dehalogenation activity, while acetate, methanol, ...

  11. STIMULATION OF REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF TETRA- CHLOROETHENE (PCE) IN ANAEROBIC AQUIFER MICROCOSMS BY ADDITION OF SHORT-CHAIN ORGANIC ACIDS OR ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of the addition of common fermentation products on the dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene was studied in methanogenic slurries made with aquifer solids. Lactate, propionate, crotonate, butyrate, and ethanol stimulated dehalogenation activity, while acetate, methanol, ...

  12. Acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Hileman, B.

    1983-03-01

    Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

  13. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  14. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid can hide signs that you lack vitamin B12, which can cause nerve damage. 10 Do I ... Rosenberg, I.H., et al. (2007). Folate and vitamin B12 status in relation to anemia, macrocytosis and cognitive ...

  15. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  16. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  17. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  18. Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov., a lipolytic, anaerobic, alkalitolerant, thermophilic bacterium utilizing short- and long-chain fatty acids in syntrophic coculture with a methanogenic archaeum

    SciTech Connect

    Svetlitshnyi, V.; Wiegel, J.; Rainey, F.

    1996-10-01

    Three strains of an anaerobic thermophilic organoheterotrophic lipolytic alkalitolerant bacterium, Thermosyntropha lipolytica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type strain JW/VS-264{sup T}; DSM 11003) were isolated from alkaline hot springs of Lake Bogoria (Kenya). The cells were nonmotile, non-spore forming, straight or slightly curved rods. At 60{degrees}C, the pH range for growth determined at 25{degrees}C [pH{sup 25{degrees}C}] was 7.15 to 9.5, with an optimum between 8.1 and 8.9 (pH{sup 60{degrees}C} of 7.6 and 8.1). At a pH{sup 25{degrees}C} of 8.5 temperature range for growth was from 52 to 70{degrees}C, with an optimum between 60 and 66{degrees}C. The shortest doubling time was around 1 h. In pure culture the bacterium grew in a mineral base medium supplemented with yeast extract, tryptone, Casamino Acids, betaine, and crotonate as carbon sources, producing acetate as a major product and constitutively a lipase. During growth in the presence of olive oil, free long-chain fatty acids were accumulated in the medium but the pure culture syntrophic coculture (Methanobacterium strain JW/VS-M29) the lipolytic bacteria grew on triacylglycerols and linear saturated and unsaturated fatty acids with 4 to 18 carbon atoms, but glycerol was not utilized. Fatty acids with even numbers of carbon atoms were degraded to acetate and methane, while from odd-numbered fatty acids 1 mol of propionate per mol of fatty acid was additionally formed. 16S rDNA sequence analysis identified Syntrophospora and Syntrophomonas spp. as closest phylogenetic neighbors.

  19. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1993-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  20. Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison

    1997-01-01

    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  1. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  2. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

  3. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  4. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  5. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 003F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 76 - 03 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2011 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This document has

  6. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  7. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  8. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  9. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  10. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 03 / 007 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF DICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 79 - 43 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) August 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been

  11. Azelaic acid.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro-Porro, M

    1987-12-01

    This review is an update on the literature accumulated over the past 10 years following the original observation that azelaic acid, a naturally occurring and nontoxic C9 dicarboxylic acid, possesses significant biologic properties and a potential as a therapeutic agent. These studies have shown that azelaic acid is a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase and other oxidoreductases in vitro and that it inhibits mitochondrial respiration. It can also inhibit anaerobic glycolysis. Both in vitro and in vivo it has an antimicrobial effect on both aerobic and anaerobic (Propionibacterium acnes) microorganisms. In tissue culture it exerts a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on malignant melanocytes, associated with mitochondrial damage and inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis. Tumoral cell lines not containing tyrosinase are equally affected. Normal cells in culture exposed to the same concentrations of the diacid that are toxic for tumoral cells are in general not damaged. Radioactive azelaic acid has been shown to penetrate tumoral cells at a higher level than normal cells of the corresponding line. Topically applied (a 20% cream), it has been shown to be of therapeutic value in skin disorders of different etiologies. Its beneficial effect on various forms of acne (comedogenic, papulopustular, nodulocystic) has been clearly demonstrated. Particularly important is its action on abnormal melanocytes, which has led to the possibility of obtaining good results on melasma and highly durable therapeutic responses on lentigo maligna. It is also capable of causing regression of cutaneous malignant melanoma, but its role in melanoma therapy remains to be investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Carbonate acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Daccord, G.; Touboul, E.; Lenormand, R.

    1989-02-01

    The authors present the first quantitative study and complete model of the wormholing phenomenon, leading to a means of predicting and optimizing carbonate acidizing treatments. Laboratory experiments on a gypsum model system and computer simulations show that for a given geometry, wormholes can be quantified by a unique parameter, their equivalent hydraulic length. The behavior of this quantifying parameter vs. all the system parameters is studied and allows the quantitative prediction of the efficiency of an acidizing treatment. This study highlights the fractal nature of the phenomenon, which is accounted for in the equations, and the strong effect of the sample geometry. Three types of etching can be obtained: compact, wormhole type, or homogeneous. The optimum conditions for achieving the best skin decrease correspond to the creation of wormholes and can then be defined in terms of fluid reactivity and injection rate.

  13. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    DOEpatents

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  14. Acidic domains around nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, G; Pack, G R

    1990-01-01

    The hydrogen ion concentration in the vicinity of DNA was mapped out within the Poisson-Boltzmann approximation. Experimental conditions were modeled by assuming Na-DNA to be solvated in a buffer solution containing 45 mM Tris and 3 mM Mg cations at pH 7.5. Three regions of high H+ concentration (greater than 10 microM) are predicted: one throughout the minor groove of DNA and two localized in the major groove near N7 of guanine and C5 of cytosine for a G.C base pair. These acidic domains correlate well with the observed covalent binding sites of benzo[a]pyrene epoxide (N2 of guanine) and of aflatoxin B1 epoxide (N7 of guanine), chemical carcinogens that presumably undergo acid catalysis to form highly reactive carbocations that ultimately bind to DNA. It is suggested that these regions of high H+ concentration may also be of concern in understanding interactions involving proteins and noncarcinogenic molecules with or near nucleic acids. PMID:2123348

  15. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > For Parents > Folic Acid and ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

  16. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  17. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  18. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  19. New bioactive fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  20. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  1. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

  2. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, K.

    1983-01-01

    Deposition of acidic substances from the atmosphere is considered by many to be, along with increasing CO/sub 2/ concentrations in the atmosphere, one of the most serious environmental problems of this generation. Despite the limited title of this small book, it touches, in a nontechnical and elementary way, on all of the important aspects of this subject: definitions, history, suspected causes and harmful effects, proposed remedial actions, the case for additional research, and political and economic impacts. The material is presented largely as statements and opinions of scientists and governmental officials. The book is reportorial in style and reasonably balanced in its presentation of contrasting and opposing opinions about causes, effects, and remedies, although the final chapter, What Citizens Can Do, includes the names and addresses of organizations involved in efforts to protect clean air, forestry and wilderness areas. Also included are school projects and examples of what individuals and groups have done to help us understand the problem and/or to promote action.

  3. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  4. Organic acids tunably catalyze carbonic acid decomposition.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Busch, Daryle H; Subramaniam, Bala; Thompson, Ward H

    2014-07-10

    Density functional theory calculations predict that the gas-phase decomposition of carbonic acid, a high-energy, 1,3-hydrogen atom transfer reaction, can be catalyzed by a monocarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid, including carbonic acid itself. Carboxylic acids are found to be more effective catalysts than water. Among the carboxylic acids, the monocarboxylic acids outperform the dicarboxylic ones wherein the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond hampers the hydrogen transfer. Further, the calculations reveal a direct correlation between the catalytic activity of a monocarboxylic acid and its pKa, in contrast to prior assumptions about carboxylic-acid-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer reactions. The catalytic efficacy of a dicarboxylic acid, on the other hand, is significantly affected by the strength of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Transition-state theory estimates indicate that effective rate constants for the acid-catalyzed decomposition are four orders-of-magnitude larger than those for the water-catalyzed reaction. These results offer new insights into the determinants of general acid catalysis with potentially broad implications.

  5. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  6. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... other health conditions > Fatty acid oxidation disorders Fatty acid oxidation disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... these disorders, go to genetests.org . What fatty acid oxidation disorders are tested for in newborn screening? ...

  7. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  8. Uric acid - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The uric acid urine test measures the level of uric acid ...

  9. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  10. Determinants of acid secretion.

    PubMed

    Khanna, M U; Abraham, P

    1990-09-01

    Acid secretion is regulated by hormonal factors acting peripherally and centrally, as well as neural factors. Gastrin and histamine are the two most important peripheral hormonal stimulants, while the vagus is the predominant nerve affecting acid secretion. Meal related acid secretion occurs in three phases: cephalic, gastric and intestinal. Acid secretion is stimulated in the first two phases while it is inhibited in the intestinal phase. Proteins are potent acid stimulants but carbohydrates and fats are inhibitors. Tea, coffee, milk and alcohol are acid stimulants; on the other hand the damaging influence of spices on the stomach may not be related to increased acid secretion. Psychological stress has a variable effect. The effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on acid secretion is being elucidated. Many drugs modifying acid secretion are available and are useful in the treatment of acid peptic disease.

  11. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  12. Gas-phase acidities of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and their amino acid amides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong; Matus, Myrna H.; Velazquez, Hector Adam; Dixon, David A.; Cassady, Carolyn J.

    2007-09-01

    Gas-phase acidities (GA or [Delta]Gacid) for the two most acidic common amino acids, aspartic acid and glutamic acid, have been determined for the first time. Because of the amide linkage's importance in peptides and as an aid in studying side chain versus main chain deprotonation, aspartic acid amide and glutamic acid amide were also studied. Experimental GA values were measured by proton transfer reactions in an electrospray ionization/Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Calculated GAs were obtained by density functional and molecular orbital theory approaches. The best agreement with experiment was found at the G3MP2 level; the MP2/CBS and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ results are 3-4 kcal/mol more acidic than the G3MP2 results. Experiment shows that aspartic acid is more acidic than glutamic acid by ca. 3 kcal/mol whereas the G3MP2 results show a smaller acidity difference of 0.2 kcal/mol. Similarly, aspartic acid amide is experimentally observed to be ca. 2 kcal/mol more acidic than glutamic acid amide whereas the G3MP2 results show a correspondingly smaller energy difference of 0.7 kcal/mol. The computational results clearly show that the anions are all ring-like structures with strong hydrogen bonds between the OH or NH2 groups and the CO2- group from which the proton is removed. The two amino acids are main-chain deprotonated. In addition, use of the COSMO model for the prediction of the free energy differences in aqueous solution gave values in excellent agreement with the most recent experimental values for pKa. Glutamic acid is predicted to be more acidic than aspartic acid in aqueous solution due to differential solvation effects.

  13. Toxicity of adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Gerald L

    2002-05-01

    Adipic acid has very low acute toxicity in rats with an LD50 > 5000 mg/kg. Adipic acid produced mild to no skin irritation on intact guinea pig skin as a 50% concentration in propylene glycol; it was not a skin sensitizer. Adipic acid caused mild conjunctival irritation in washed rabbit eyes; in unwashed rabbit eyes, there was mild conjunctival irritation, minimal iritis, but no corneal effects. Adipic acid dust may irritate the mucous membranes of the lungs and nose. In a 2-year feeding study, rats fed adipic acid at concentrations up to 5% in the diet exhibited only weight loss. Adipic acid is not genetically active in a wide variety of assay systems. Adipic acid caused no developmental toxicity in mice, rats, rabbits, or hamsters when administered orally. Adipic acid is partially metabolized in humans; the balance is eliminated unchanged in the urine. Adipic acid is slightly to moderately toxic to fish, daphnia, and algae in acute tests.

  14. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  15. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

  16. Purification of oleic acid and linoleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arudi, R.L.; Sutherland, M.W.; Bielski, B.H.J.

    1983-01-01

    To permit kinetic studies of the reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids towards oxygen radicals, it is essential to remove traces of hydroperoxides and other conjugated lipid impurities commonly present in commercial samples. Removal of these impurities has been satisfactorily achieved for oleic and linoleic acids by anaerobic low temperature recrystallization from acetonitrile. The uv spectra of commercial and purified samples are compared.

  17. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  18. Acid-fast stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003766.htm Acid-fast stain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines ...

  19. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Valproic Acid and Pregnancy Wednesday, 01 July 2015 In every ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to valproic acid may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  20. Azelaic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  1. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Uric Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , ...

  3. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

  4. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  5. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  6. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  7. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  8. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  9. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  10. Omega-3 fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine evidence for the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed was searched for articles on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease. Level I and II evidence indicates that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial in improving cardiovascular outcomes. MAIN MESSAGE Dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids has declined by 80% during the last 100 years, while intake of omega-6 fatty acids has greatly increased. Omega-3 fatty acids are cardioprotective mainly due to beneficial effects on arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and thrombosis. There is also evidence that they improve endothelial function, lower blood pressure, and significantly lower triglycerides. CONCLUSION There is good evidence in the literature that increasing intake of omega-3 fatty acids improves cardiac outcomes. Physicians need to integrate dietary recommendations for consumption of omega-3 fatty acids into their usual cardiovascular care. PMID:16812965

  11. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... button beside the question. Good Luck! 1. Folic acid is: A a B vitamin B a form ...

  12. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Lactate test ... test. Exercise can cause a temporary increase in lactic acid levels. ... not getting enough oxygen. Conditions that can increase lactic acid levels include: Heart failure Liver disease Lung disease ...

  13. The Croton-Yorktown Model of Individualized Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthias, George F.; Snyder, Edward B.

    1980-01-01

    The individualized learning model, discussed in this article, uses an efficient feedback mechanism which incorporates an innovative student evaluation program and a unique system of classroom management. The design provides a model for monitoring student progress. (Author/SA)

  14. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  15. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  16. Toxicology of Perfluorodecanoic Acid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    the Problem: 1. The pattern of acute toxicity of PFDA and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) including lethality, is identical when extremely high doses...Andersen, M.E. (1983). The acute toxicity of perfluorooctanoic and perfluorodecanoic acids in male rats and effects on tissue fatty acids . Toxicol. Appl...L.A. and Peterson, R.E. (1989). Isolation and purification of perfluorodecanoic and perfluorooctanoic acids from rat tissues. Lipids, 2, 526-531. Van

  17. Refining Lurgi tar acids

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, N.P.

    1984-04-17

    There is disclosed a process for removing tar bases and neutral oils from the Lurgi tar acids by treating the tar acids with aqueous sodium bisulfate to change the tar bases to salts and to hydrolyze the neutral oils to hydrolysis products and distilling the tar acids to obtain refined tar acid as the distillate while the tar base salts and neutral oil hydrolysis products remain as residue.

  18. Quantity of acid in acid fog

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

  19. Acid Lipase Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Acid Lipase Disease Information Page What research is being ... research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency. Additional research studies hope to identify ...

  20. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  1. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  2. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  3. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  4. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  5. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  6. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  7. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  8. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  10. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  11. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  12. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  13. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  14. Natural sources of salinity in the Brazos River, Texas with particular reference to the Croton and salt Croton Creek basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, R.C.; Hughes, Leon S.; Yost, I.D.

    1964-01-01

    The salt water may be disposed of by impounding it in reservoirs for evaporation or by injecting it underground through oil wells, oil tests, or wells drilled for saltwater disposal. Sediments in which the salt water possibly could be injected underlie the. Dove Creek Salt Flats at depths of less than 7,000 feet.

  15. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  16. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-09-30

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain. This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer. Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02500

  17. [Biosynthesis of adipic acid].

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-10-01

    Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production.

  18. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  19. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  20. Biotransformation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid by plant cell cultures of Eucalyptus perriniana.

    PubMed

    Katsuragi, Hisashi; Shimoda, Kei; Kubota, Naoji; Nakajima, Nobuyoshi; Hamada, Hatsuyuki; Hamada, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformations of phenylpropanoids such as cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid were investigated with plant-cultured cells of Eucalyptus perriniana. The plant-cultured cells of E. perriniana converted cinnamic acid into cinnamic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, p-coumaric acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid. p-Coumaric acid was converted into 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid, p-coumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcoumaric acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, a new compound, caffeic acid, and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid. On the other hand, incubation of caffeic acid with cultured E. perriniana cells gave 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 3-O-(6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, a new compound, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylcaffeic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, ferulic acid, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid. 4-O-β-D-Glucopyranosylferulic acid, ferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester, and 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylferulic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester were isolated from E. perriniana cells treated with ferulic acid.

  1. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  2. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  3. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  4. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  5. Acid-Base Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hamm, L Lee; Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S

    2015-12-07

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3(-) and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3(-) is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Nitrogen Lewis Acids.

    PubMed

    Pogoreltsev, Alla; Tulchinsky, Yuri; Fridman, Natalia; Gandelman, Mark

    2017-03-22

    Being a major conception of chemistry, Lewis acids have found countless applications throughout chemical enterprise. Although many chemical elements can serve as the central atom of Lewis acids, nitrogen is usually associated with Lewis bases. Here, we report on the first example of robust and modifiable Lewis acids centered on the nitrogen atom, which provide stable and well-characterized adducts with various Lewis bases. On the basis of the reactivity of nitrogen Lewis acids, we prepared, for the first time, cyclic triazanes, a class of cyclic organic compounds sequentially bearing three all-saturated nitrogen atoms (N-N-N motif). Reactivity abilities of these N-Lewis acids were explained by theoretical calculations. Properties and future applications of nitrogen Lewis acids are intriguing.

  7. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  8. Neutralization of acid waters

    SciTech Connect

    Simonin, H.A.

    1988-10-01

    In this article, the author reviews the positive and the negative aspects of liming and its practical application of the problem of acidic deposition. One primary concern is that liming does not mitigate many of the problems that result from acidic deposition. Although lake neutralization is a useful practice, it is not presented as a solution to the acid rain problem. Liming is a means of restoring or protecting a few systems affected by acidic deposition while legislators pass a fair and equitable program to control the source of the problem - excessive emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

  9. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  10. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  11. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W [Menlo Park, CA; Eggeman, Timothy J [Lakewood, CO

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  12. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  13. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness. PMID:28287411

  14. Diterpenoid acids from Grindelia nana.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, A A; Ahmed, A A; Tanaka, T; Iinuma, M

    2000-03-01

    Two new norditerpenoid acids of the labdane-type (norgrindelic acids), 4,5-dehydro-6-oxo-18-norgrindelic acid (1) and 4beta-hydroxy-6-oxo-19-norgrindelic acid (2), as well as a new grindelic acid derivative, 18-hydroxy-6-oxogrindelic acid (3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Grindelia nana. In addition, the known compounds, 6-oxogrindelic acid, grindelic acid, methyl grindeloate, 7alpha,8alpha-epoxygrindelic acid, and 4alpha-carboxygrindelic acid were also isolated. The structures of the new compounds were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis.

  15. Nucleic Acid Immunity.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, G

    2017-01-01

    Organisms throughout biology need to maintain the integrity of their genome. From bacteria to vertebrates, life has established sophisticated mechanisms to detect and eliminate foreign genetic material or to restrict its function and replication. Tremendous progress has been made in the understanding of these mechanisms which keep foreign or unwanted nucleic acids from viruses or phages in check. Mechanisms reach from restriction-modification systems and CRISPR/Cas in bacteria and archaea to RNA interference and immune sensing of nucleic acids, altogether integral parts of a system which is now appreciated as nucleic acid immunity. With inherited receptors and acquired sequence information, nucleic acid immunity comprises innate and adaptive components. Effector functions include diverse nuclease systems, intrinsic activities to directly restrict the function of foreign nucleic acids (e.g., PKR, ADAR1, IFIT1), and extrinsic pathways to alert the immune system and to elicit cytotoxic immune responses. These effects act in concert to restrict viral replication and to eliminate virus-infected cells. The principles of nucleic acid immunity are highly relevant for human disease. Besides its essential contribution to antiviral defense and restriction of endogenous retroelements, dysregulation of nucleic acid immunity can also lead to erroneous detection and response to self nucleic acids then causing sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. Even mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which are not established in vertebrates are relevant for human disease when they are present in pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, or helminths or in pathogen-transmitting organisms such as insects. This review aims to provide an overview of the diverse mechanisms of nucleic acid immunity which mostly have been looked at separately in the past and to integrate them under the framework nucleic acid immunity as a basic principle of life, the understanding of which has great potential to

  16. Structure of Acid phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Araujo, César L; Vihko, Pirkko T

    2013-01-01

    Acid phosphatases are enzymes that have been studied extensively due to the fact that their dysregulation is associated with pathophysiological conditions. This characteristic has been exploited for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. As an example, prostatic acid phosphatase was the first marker for metastatic prostate cancer diagnosis and the dysregulation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase is associated with abnormal bone resorption linked to osteoporosis. The pioneering crystallization studies on prostatic acid phosphatase and mammalian tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase conformed significant milestones towards the elucidation of the mechanisms followed by these enzymes (Schneider et al., EMBO J 12:2609-2615, 1993). Acid phosphatases are also found in nonmammalian species such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and plants, and most of them share structural similarities with mammalian acid phosphatase enzymes. Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters following the general equation. Phosphate monoester + H2O -->/<-- alcohol + phosphate. The general classification "acid phosphatase" relies only on the optimum acidic pH for the enzymatic activity in assay conditions using non-physiological substrates. These enzymes accept a wide range of substrates in vitro, ranging from small organic molecules to phosphoproteins, constituting a heterogeneous group of enzymes from the structural point of view. These structural differences account for the divergence in cofactor dependences and behavior against substrates, inhibitors, and activators. In this group only the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a metallo-enzyme whereas the other members do not require metal-ion binding for their catalytic activity. In addition, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and erythrocytic acid phosphatase are not inhibited by L-(+)-tartrate ion while the prostatic acid phosphatase is tartrate-sensitive. This is an important

  17. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  18. Bile acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-12-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na(+) taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTalpha-OSTbeta. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers.

  19. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  1. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  2. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  3. Proteins and Amino Acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteins are the most abundant substances in living organisms and cells. All proteins are constructed from the same twenty amino acids that are linked together by covalent bonds. Shorter chains of two or more amino acids can be linked by covalent bonds to form polypeptides. There are twenty amino...

  4. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  5. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  6. Iodinated humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jesper V.; Carlsen, Lars

    Humic acids are iodinated by elemental iodine and, if the iodine is present as iodide, by peroxidase-mediated reactions. It is demonstrated that iodination of humic acids leads to a product with a uniform distribution of iodine. It could not be unambiguously verified whether the enzymatically mediated iodination is a direct reaction between a peroxidase-iodine complex and the humic acid molecule or a two-step reaction in which the enzyme creates elemental iodine, which consecutively reacts with the humic acid. Based on a simple model of a reaction between sites in the humic acids available for iodination and the electrophilic iodinating species, it was concluded that the reaction should be described as an equilibrium with a logarithmic equilibrium constant of approximately 4. The number of sites available for iodination was, in the humic acids studied, determined to be approximately 4×10-4 per gram humic acid. The different parameters influencing the enzymatically controlled iodination of humic acids are discussed.

  7. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  8. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  9. Characterization of acid tars.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A; Roy, Amitava

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Folic Acid ... > For Parents > Folic Acid and Pregnancy A A A What's ...

  11. History of fatty acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  12. Acid rain information book

    SciTech Connect

    Bubenick, D.V.

    1984-01-01

    The potential consequences of widespread acid precipitation demand that this phenomenon be carefully evaluated. Review of the literature shows a rapidly growing body of knowledge, but also reveals major gaps in understanding that need to be narrowed. This document discusses major aspects of the acid rain phenomenon, points out areas of uncertainty, and summarizes current and projected research by responsible government agencies and other concerned organizations. It follows the logical progression from sources of pollutants affecting acid rain formation to the atmospheric transport and transformation of those pollutants and finally to the deposition of acid rain, the effects of that deposition, and possible mitigative measures. This information is followed by a discussion of uncertainties in the understanding of the acid rain phenomenon and a description of current and proposed research.

  13. Production of shikimic acid.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saptarshi; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, Uttam C

    2012-01-01

    Shikimic acid is a key intermediate for the synthesis of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu®). Shikimic acid can be produced via chemical synthesis, microbial fermentation and extraction from certain plants. An alternative production route is via biotransformation of the more readily available quinic acid. Much of the current supply of shikimic acid is sourced from the seeds of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum). Supply from star anise seeds has experienced difficulties and is susceptible to vagaries of weather. Star anise tree takes around six-years from planting to bear fruit, but remains productive for long. Extraction and purification from seeds are expensive. Production via fermentation is increasing. Other production methods are too expensive, or insufficiently developed. In the future, production in recombinant microorganisms via fermentation may become established as the preferred route. Methods for producing shikimic acid are reviewed.

  14. Acid rain trends summarized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the northeastern United States, the acidity of precipitation has changed little in recent years, although the acidity is increasing in other regions. That's the latest word from a comprehensive review by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of more than 200 published reports of acid rain research from the past 30 years. The report contributes to the controversy over whether increased sulfur emissions from Midwest powerplants increase the acidity of precipitation in the Northeast.“When the results of the many individual studies are combined, they show that acidification of precipitation in the Northeast, which has the most damaging level of acidity on a regional basis, occurred primarily before the mid-1950's and has been largely stabilized since the mid-1960s,” said John T. Turk, a research hydrologist at the USGS Denver office and author of the 18-page summary report.

  15. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2017-08-21

    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  16. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  17. Fatty acid production from amino acids and alpha-keto acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C

    2004-11-01

    Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and alpha-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of alpha-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and alpha-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from alpha-keto acids only. BL2 also converted alpha-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and alpha-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event.

  18. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ω-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers.

  19. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  20. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  1. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes.

  2. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  3. Understanding Acid Base Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Hernando; Kellum, John A

    2015-10-01

    The concentration of hydrogen ions is regulated in biologic solutions. There are currently 3 recognized approaches to assess changes in acid base status. First is the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, also called the physiologic approach, which uses the relationship between HCO3(-) and Pco2; the second is the standard base excess approach based on the Van Slyke equation. The third approach is the quantitative or Stewart approach, which uses the strong ion difference and the total weak acids. This article explores the origins of the current concepts framing the existing methods to analyze acid base balance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  5. [Hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Holla, Robin; Gorter, Ramon R; Tenhagen, Mark; Vloemans, A F P M Jos; Breederveld, Roelf S

    2016-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid is increasingly used as a rust remover and detergent. Dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid results in a chemical burn characterized by severe pain and deep tissue necrosis. It may cause electrolyte imbalances with lethal consequences. It is important to identify high-risk patients. 'High risk' is defined as a total affected body area > 3% or exposure to hydrofluoric acid in a concentration > 50%. We present the cases of three male patients (26, 31, and 39 years old) with hydrofluoric acid burns of varying severity and describe the subsequent treatments. The application of calcium gluconate 2.5% gel to the skin is the cornerstone of the treatment, reducing pain as well as improving wound healing. Nails should be thoroughly inspected and possibly removed if the nail is involved, to ensure proper healing. In high-risk patients, plasma calcium levels should be evaluated and cardiac monitoring is indicated.

  6. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, including infections of the ears, lungs, sinus, skin, ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications ...

  7. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  8. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  9. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

  10. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  11. Lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Lead/acid batteries are produced in sizes from less than 1 to 3000 Ah for a wide variety of portable, industrial and automotive applications. Designs include Planté, Fauré or pasted, and tubular electrodes. In addition to the traditional designs which are flooded with sulfuric acid, newer 'valve-regulated" designs have the acid immolibized in a silica gel or absorbed in a porous glass separator. Development is ongoing worldwide to increase the specific power, energy and deep discharge cycle life of this commercially successful system to meet the needs of new applications such as electric vehicles, load leveling, and solar energy storage. The operating principles, current status, technical challenges and commercial impact of the lead/acid battery are reviewed.

  12. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. Normal Results The normal range is 320 ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  13. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider ...

  14. The linoleic acid and trans fatty acids of margarines.

    PubMed

    Beare-Rogers, J L; Gray, L M; Hollywood, R

    1979-09-01

    Fifty brands of margarine were analysed for cis-polyunsaturated acids by lipoxidase, for trans fatty acid by infared spectroscopy, and for fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. High concentrations of trans fatty acids tended to be associated with low concentrations of linoleic acid. Later analyses on eight of the brands, respresenting various proportions of linoleic to trans fatty acids, indicated that two of them contained still higher levels of trans fatty acids (greater than 60%) and negligible amounts of linoleic acid. It is proposed that margarine could be a vehicle for the distribution of some dietary linoleic acid and that the level of linoleic acid and the summation of the saturated plus trans fatty acids be known to ascertain nutritional characteristics.

  15. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination.

  16. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  17. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  18. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  19. The second acidic constant of salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Porto, Raffaella; De Tommaso, Gaetano; Furia, Emilia

    2005-01-01

    The second dissociation constant of salicylic acid (H2L) has been determined, at 25 degrees C, in NaCl ionic media by UV spectrophotometric measurements. The investigated ionic strength values were 0.16, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 M. The protolysis constants calculated at the different ionic strengths yielded, with the Specific Interaction Theory, the infinite dilution constant, log beta1(0) = 13.62 +/- 0.03, for the equilibrium L2- + H+ <==> HL-. The interaction coefficient between Na+ and L2-, b(Na+, L2-) = 0.02 +/- 0.07, has been also calculated.

  20. Differential activation of pregnane X receptor by carnosic acid, carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Seow, Chun Ling; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2017-03-10

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) regulates the expression of many genes, including those involved in drug metabolism and transport, and has been linked to various diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease. In the present study, we determined whether carnosic acid and other chemicals in rosemary extract (carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid) are PXR activators. As assessed in dual-luciferase reporter gene assays, carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, activated human PXR (hPXR) and mouse PXR (mPXR), whereas carnosol and ursolic acid, but not carnosic acid or rosmarinic acid, activated rat PXR (rPXR). Dose-response experiments indicated that carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid activated hPXR with EC50 values of 0.79, 2.22, and 10.77μM, respectively. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, transactivated the ligand-binding domain of hPXR and recruited steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), SRC-2, and SRC-3 to the ligand-binding domain of hPXR. Carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, increased hPXR target gene expression, as shown by an increase in CYP3A4, UGT1A3, and ABCB1 mRNA expression in LS180 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Rosmarinic acid did not attenuate the extent of hPXR activation by rifampicin, suggesting it is not an antagonist of hPXR. Overall, carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid, but not rosmarinic acid, are hPXR agonists, and carnosic acid shows species-dependent activation of hPXR and mPXR, but not rPXR. The findings provide new mechanistic insight on the effects of carnosic acid, carnosol, and ursolic acid on PXR-mediated biological effects.

  1. Inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase by alpha-keto acids analogs of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Moreno, J A; Montes, F J; Catalán, J; Galán, M A

    1996-04-01

    The inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase by certain alpha-keto acids products of the reaction with D-amino acids, in particular alpha-keto acids that are analogs of the amino acids alanine, valine, leucine, phenylanaline, phenylglycine, tyrosine and tryptophan, is reported. All the alpha-keto acids assayed behaved as substrate competitive inhibitors of the enzyme. The relationship between the degree of inhibition and the structure of the inhibitor is discussed.

  2. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  3. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  4. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  5. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  6. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  7. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  8. Recurrent uric acid stones.

    PubMed

    Kamel, K S; Cheema-Dhadli, S; Shafiee, M A; Davids, M R; Halperin, M L

    2005-01-01

    A 46-year-old female had a history of recurrent uric acid stone formation, but the reason why uric acid precipitated in her urine was not obvious, because the rate of urate excretion was not high, urine volume was not low, and the pH in her 24-h urine was not low enough. In his discussion of the case, Professor McCance provided new insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stone formation. He illustrated that measuring the pH in a 24-h urine might obscure the fact that the urine pH was low enough to cause uric acid to precipitate during most of the day. Because he found a low rate of excretion of NH(4)(+) relative to that of sulphate anions, as well as a high rate of citrate excretion, he speculated that the low urine pH would be due to a more alkaline pH in proximal convoluted tubule cells. He went on to suspect that there was a problem in our understanding of the function of renal medullary NH(3) shunt pathway, and he suggested that its major function might be to ensure a urine pH close to 6.0 throughout the day, to minimize the likelihood of forming uric acid kidney stones.

  9. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  10. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  11. Hydrogen production by fermentation using acetic acid and lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Microbial hydrogen production from sho-chu post-distillation slurry solution (slurry solution) containing large amounts of organic acids was investigated. The highest hydrogen producer, Clostridium diolis JPCC H-3, was isolated from natural environment and produced hydrogen at 6.03+/-0.15 ml from 5 ml slurry solution in 30 h. Interestingly, the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid in the slurry solution decreased during hydrogen production. The substrates for hydrogen production by C. diolis JPCC H-3, in particular organic acids, were investigated in an artificial medium. No hydrogen was produced from acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, or citric acid on their own. Hydrogen and butyric acid were produced from a mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid, showing that C. diolis. JPCC H-3 could produce hydrogen from acetic acid and lactic acid. Furthermore, calculation of the Gibbs free energy strongly suggests that this reaction would proceed. In this paper, we describe for the first time microbial hydrogen production from acetic acid and lactic acid by fermentation.

  12. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  13. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  14. Biodegradation of Cyanuric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Saldick, Jerome

    1974-01-01

    Cyanuric acid biodegrades readily under a wide variety of natural conditions, and particularly well in systems of either low or zero dissolved-oxygen level, such as anaerobic activated sludge and sewage, soils, muds, and muddy streams and river waters, as well as ordinary aerated activated sludge systems with typically low (1 to 3 ppm) dissolved-oxygen levels. Degradation also proceeds in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Consequently, there are degradation pathways widely available for breaking down cyanuric acid discharged in domestic effluents. The overall degradation reaction is merely a hydrolysis; CO2 and ammonia are the initial hydrolytic breakdown products. Since no net oxidation occurs during this breakdown, biodegradation of cyanuric acid exerts no primary biological oxygen demand. However, eventual nitrification of the ammonia released will exert its usual biological oxygen demand. PMID:4451360

  15. [Aristolochic acid nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Witkowicz, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Aristolochic acid nephropathy is a chronic, fibrosing, interstitial nephritis caused by aristolochic acid (AA), which is a component of the plants of Aristolochiacae family. It was first reported in 1993, in Belgium as a Chinese herb nephropathy, in patients who received a slimming regimen containing AA. The term aristolochic acid nephropathy also includes Balcan endemic nephropathy and other endemic tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Moreover, AA is a human carcinogen which induces urothelial cancer. The AA-containing herbs are banned in many countries and FDA published the warnings concerning the safety of AA-containing botanical remedies in 2000. Regarding the increasing interest in herbal medicines, uncontrolled access to botanical remedies and replacement of one herb by another AA-containing compounds makes thousands of people all around the world at risk of this grave disease.

  16. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  17. Calorimetry of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Rozners, Eriks; Pilch, Daniel S; Egli, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (C(p)(ex)) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution. From a single curve of C(p)(ex) versus T, one can derive the following information: the transition enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS), free energy (ΔG), and heat capacity (ΔCp); the state of the transition (two-state versus multistate); and the average size of the molecule that melts as a single thermodynamic entity (e.g., the duplex). ITC is used to study the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules at constant temperature. In an ITC experiment, small aliquots of a titrant nucleic acid solution (strand 1) are added to an analyte nucleic acid solution (strand 2), and the released heat is monitored. ITC yields the stoichiometry of the association reaction (n), the enthalpy of association (ΔH), the equilibrium association constant (K), and thus the free energy of association (ΔG). Once ΔH and ΔG are known, ΔS can also be derived. Repetition of the ITC experiment at a number of different temperatures yields the ΔCp for the association reaction from the temperature dependence of ΔH.

  18. Acid rain information clearinghouse

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Twenty-one research institutions, environmental organizations, trade associations and government agencies from the United States and Canada are co-sponsoring Acid Rain: The Relationship Between Sources and Receptors, a conference to be held December 3-4, 1986 at the Sheraton National Hotel in Arlington, Virginia. The conference, designed for a nontechnical audience as well as specialists in acid rain research, will cover the nature and scope of scientific understanding and research programs, identify areas of consensus and disagreement, and assess policy options in the light of current understanding. A special session on December 3 will address the legal aspects of source-receptor relationships.

  19. Whither acid rain?

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, P

    2001-04-04

    Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  20. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

  1. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  2. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented.

  3. [Omega-3 fatty acids].

    PubMed

    Huyghebaert, C

    2007-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been drawing the interest of researchers for quite a number of years. The study of the impact of fish consumption on health and particularly on a cardiovascular level is the subject of much research. Some encouraging results have led to the study of omega-3 fatty acids in various other diseases. The interest in 'omega-3' has been widely relayed by the media and a huge market has developed with several allegations in its favour. This article is an attempt to shed light on these health claims, based on currently available scientific data.

  4. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  5. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  6. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration

    PubMed Central

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A.; Miller, Wilson H.; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L. John

    2012-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at –30°C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function. PMID:19154961

  7. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A; Miller, Wilson H; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L John

    2009-02-01

    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at -30 degrees C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function.

  8. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  9. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  10. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  11. Hydrofluoric acid poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Chemical Emergencies: Case Definition: Hydrofluoric Acid . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Dept of Health and Human Services; 2005. Goldfrank LR, ed. Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2006. Wax PM, Young A. ...

  12. Valproic Acid: second generation.

    PubMed

    Bialer, Meir; Yagen, Boris

    2007-01-01

    The manuscript focuses on structure-activity relationship studies of CNS-active compounds derived from valproic acid (VPA) that have the potential to become second-generation VPA drugs. Valproic acid is one of the four most widely prescribed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and is effective (and regularly approved) in migraine prophylaxis and in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Valproic acid is also currently undergoing clinical trials in cancer patients. Valproic acid is the least potent of the established AEDs and its use is limited by two rare but potentially life-threatening side effects, teratogenicity and hepatotoxicity. Because AEDs treat the symptoms (seizure) and not the cause of epilepsy, epileptic patients need to take AEDs for a long period of time. Consequently, there is a substantial need to develop better and safer AEDs. To become a successful second-generation VPA, the new drug should possess the following characteristics: broad-spectrum antiepileptic activity, better potency than VPA, lack of teratogenicity and hepatotoxicity, and a favorable pharmacokinetic profile compared with VPA including a low potential for drug interactions.

  13. Water surface is acidic

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Victoria; Milet, Anne; Vácha, Robert; Jungwirth, Pavel; Devlin, J. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Water autoionization reaction 2H2O → H3O− + OH− is a textbook process of basic importance, resulting in pH = 7 for pure water. However, pH of pure water surface is shown to be significantly lower, the reduction being caused by proton stabilization at the surface. The evidence presented here includes ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations of water slabs with solvated H3O+ and OH− ions, density functional studies of (H2O)48H+ clusters, and spectroscopic isotopic-exchange data for D2O substitutional impurities at the surface and in the interior of ice nanocrystals. Because H3O+ does, but OH− does not, display preference for surface sites, the H2O surface is predicted to be acidic with pH < 4.8. For similar reasons, the strength of some weak acids, such as carbonic acid, is expected to increase at the surface. Enhanced surface acidity can have a significant impact on aqueous surface chemistry, e.g., in the atmosphere. PMID:17452650

  14. Docosahexaenoic acid and lactation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important component of membrane phospholipids in the retina, and brain, and accumulates rapidly in these tissues during early infancy. DHA is present in human milk, but the amount varies considerably and is largely dependent on maternal diet. This article reviews dat...

  15. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  16. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  17. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  18. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  19. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  20. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  1. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  2. Acid rain sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, T.C.; Schwieger, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the problem of acid rain and how it can be controlled. The book is divided into seven key sections: the problem and the legislative solutions; international mitigation programs; planning the US program; emissions reduction-before combustion; emissions/reduction-during combustion; emissions reduction-after combustion and engineering solutions under development. 13 papers have been abstracted separately.

  3. The acid rain sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, T.C.; Schwieger, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    A reference collection of specialized information discussions on areas critical to the acid rain issue: problem definition, impact of legislation, emissions standards, international perspective, cost scenarios, and engineering solutions. The text is reinforced with 130 illustrations and about 50 tables. Contents: International mitigation programs. Emissions reduction: before combustion; during combustion; after combustion. Engineering solutions under development.

  4. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  5. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  6. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  7. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  8. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  9. Brain amino acid sensing.

    PubMed

    Tsurugizawa, T; Uneyama, H; Torii, K

    2014-09-01

    The 20 different amino acids, in blood as well as in the brain, are strictly maintained at the same levels throughout the day, regardless of food intake. Gastric vagal afferents only respond to free glutamate and sugars, providing recognition of food intake and initiating digestion. Metabolic control of amino acid homeostasis and diet-induced thermogenesis is triggered by this glutamate signalling in the stomach through the gut-brain axis. Rats chronically fed high-sugar and high-fat diets do not develop obesity when a 1% (w/v) monosodium glutamate (MSG) solution is available in a choice paradigm. Deficiency of the essential amino acid lysine (Lys) induced a plasticity in rats in response to Lys. This result shows how the body is able to identify deficient nutrients to maintain homeostasis. This plastic effect is induced by activin A activity in the brain, particularly in certain neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) which is the centre for amino acid homeostasis and appetite. These neurons respond to glutamate signalling in the oral cavity by which umami taste is perceived. They play a quantitative role in regulating ingestion of deficient nutrients, thereby leading to a healthier life. After recovery from malnutrition, rats prefer MSG solutions, which serve as biomarkers for protein nutrition. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  11. Chapter 5: Acid deposition

    Treesearch

    Cliff F. Hunt; Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides information about the atmospheric conditions in and near the national forest in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark and St. Francis in Arkansas. This report includes information about particulate matter, visibility, ozone concentrations, and acid deposition in the Ozark...

  12. Effect of domoic acid on brain amino acid levels.

    PubMed

    Durán, R; Arufe, M C; Arias, B; Alfonso, M

    1995-03-01

    The administration of Domoic Acid (Dom) in a 0.2 mg/kg i.p. dose induces changes in the levels of amino acids of neurochemical interest (Asp, Glu, Gly, Tau, Ala, GABA) in different rat brain regions (hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, cortex and midbrain). The most affected amino acid is the GABA, the main inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter, whereas glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid, is not affected. The rat brain regions that seem to be the main target of the Dom action belong to the limbic system (hippocampus, amygdala). The possible implication of the amino acids in the actions of Dom is also discussed.

  13. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  14. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  15. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  16. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations.

  17. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  18. Acid diffusion through polyaniline membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Su, T.M.; Huang, S.C.; Conklin, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    Polyaniline membranes in the undoped (base) and doped (acid) forms are studied for their utility as pervaporation membranes. The separation of water from mixtures of propionic acid, acetic acid and formic acid have been demonstrated from various feed compositions. Doped polyaniline displays an enhanced selectivity of water over these organic acids as compared with undoped polyaniline. For as-cast polyaniline membranes a diffusion coefficient (D) on the order of 10{sup -9} cm{sup 2}/sec has been determined for the flux of protons through the membranes using hydrochloric acid.

  19. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  20. Radioenzymatic assay for quinolinic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, A.C.; Okuno, E.; Brougher, D.S.; Schwarcz, R.

    1986-10-01

    A new and rapid method for the determination of the excitotoxic tryptophan metabolite quinolinic acid is based on its enzymatic conversion to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and, in a second step utilizing (/sup 3/H)ATP, further to (/sup 3/H) deamido-NAD. Specificity of the assay is assured by using a highly purified preparation of the specific quinolinic acid-catabolizing enzyme, quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase, in the initial step. The limit of sensitivity was found to be 2.5 pmol of quinolinic acid, sufficient to conveniently determine quinolinic acid levels in small volumes of human urine and blood plasma.

  1. Progress in engineering acid stress resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chongde; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used for the production of a variety of fermented foods, and are considered as probiotic due to their health-promoting effect. However, LAB encounter various environmental stresses both in industrial fermentation and application, among which acid stress is one of the most important survival challenges. Improving the acid stress resistance may contribute to the application and function of probiotic action to the host. Recently, the advent of genomics, functional genomics and high-throughput technologies have allowed for the understanding of acid tolerance mechanisms at a systems level, and many method to improve acid tolerance have been developed. This review describes the current progress in engineering acid stress resistance of LAB. Special emphasis is placed on engineering cellular microenvironment (engineering amino acid metabolism, introduction of exogenous biosynthetic capacity, and overproduction of stress response proteins) and maintaining cell membrane functionality. Moreover, strategies to improve acid tolerance and the related physiological mechanisms are also discussed.

  2. Effect of phenolic acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by lactic acid bacteria from wine.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francisco M; Figueiredo, Ana R; Hogg, Tim A; Couto, José A

    2009-06-01

    The influence of phenolic (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic, gallic and protocatechuic) acids on glucose and organic acid metabolism by two strains of wine lactic acid bacteria (Oenococcus oeni VF and Lactobacillus hilgardii 5) was investigated. Cultures were grown in modified MRS medium supplemented with different phenolic acids. Cellular growth was monitored and metabolite concentrations were determined by HPLC-RI. Despite the strong inhibitory effect of most tested phenolic acids on the growth of O. oeni VF, the malolactic activity of this strain was not considerably affected by these compounds. While less affected in its growth, the capacity of L. hilgardii 5 to degrade malic acid was clearly diminished. Except for gallic acid, the addition of phenolic acids delayed the metabolism of glucose and citric acid in both strains tested. It was also found that the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic) increased the yield of lactic and acetic acid production from glucose by O. oeni VF and not by L. hilgardii 5. The results show that important oenological characteristics of wine lactic acid bacteria, such as the malolactic activity and the production of volatile organic acids, may be differently affected by the presence of phenolic acids, depending on the bacterial species or strain.

  3. [Determination of scopolin, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B and isochlorogenic acid C in plants of Erycibe].

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-kun; Chen, Zhi-yong; Liao, Li-ping; Zhang, Zi-jia; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2015-03-01

    An accurate and reliable analytical method for-simultaneous determination of six active components (scopolin, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B and isochlorogenic acid C) in plants of Erycibe was developed. Scopolin, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B and isochlorogenic acid C in the samples were well separated in analytical HPLC by gradual elution with methanol-0.1% formic acid solution. The chromatographic condictions: Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column, flowing rate being 1 mL x min(-1), detecting wavelength at 345 nm. Good linearities of scopolin, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B and isochlorogenic acid C were in the range of 0.026 8-2.68, 0.027 0-2.70, 0.008 1-0.81, 0.018 8-1.88, 0.017 6-1.76, 0.019 6-1.96 μg, respectively (r > 0.999 6). The average recoveries of the six components were 98.1%, 98.7%, 100.8%, 100.4%, 99.7%, 101.1%; the relative standard deviations were 2.67%, 2.86%, 2.62%, 1.98%, 2.76%, 2.19%. The method is simple, feasible and reproducible and can be used for the quality control of plants of Erycibe.

  4. NAPAP (National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program) results on acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) was mandated by Congress in 1980 to study the effects of acid rain. The results of 10 years of research on the effect of acid deposition and ozone on forests, particularly high elevation spruce and fir, southern pines, eastern hardwoods and western conifers, will be published this year.

  5. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  6. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  7. Circulating folic acid in plasma: relation to folic acid fortification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The implementation of folic acid fortification in the United States has resulted in unprecedented amounts of this synthetic form of folate in the American diet. Folic acid in circulation may be a useful measure of physiologic exposure to synthetic folic acid, and there is a potential for elevated co...

  8. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  9. Boric/sulfuric acid anodize - Alternative to chromic acid anodize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop, Rodney; Moji, Yukimori

    1992-04-01

    The suitability of boric acid/sulfuric acid anodizing (BSAA) solution as a more environmentally acceptable replacement of the chromic acid anodizing (CAA) solution was investigated. Results include data on the BSAA process optimization, the corrosion protection performance, and the compatibility with aircraft finishing. It is shown that the BSSA implementation as a substitude for CAA was successful.

  10. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  11. Autohydrolysis of phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Hull, S R; Gray, J S; Montgomery, R

    1999-09-10

    The autohydrolysis of phytic acid at 120 degrees C resulted in the formation of most of the phosphate esters of myo-inositol in varying amounts depending upon the reaction time. Eighteen of the 39 chromatographically distinct myo-inositol mono-, bis-, tris-, tetrakis-, pentakis-, and hexakisphosphates have been characterized using two different HPLC systems. These myo-inositol phosphates were partially purified by preparative anion-exchange chromatography under acidic and alkaline elution conditions. The combination of these two methods provides a two-tiered chromatographic approach to the rapid and sensitive identification of inositol phosphates in complex mixtures. Identification of the products was confirmed by 1D and 2D (1)H NMR analysis. The analytical procedure was applied to the autohydrolysis of the mixture of inositol phosphates from corn steep water.

  12. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  13. Eucomic acid methanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Liang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Ren-Wang

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound [systematic name: 2-hy­droxy-2-(4-hy­droxy­benz­yl)butane­dioic acid methanol monosolvate], C11H12O6·CH3OH, the dihedral angles between the planes of the carboxyl groups and the benzene ring are 51.23 (9) and 87.97 (9)°. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the hy­droxy and carb­oxy­lic acid groups and the methanol solvent mol­ecule give a three-dimensional structure. PMID:22091200

  14. Lipoic Acid Synthase (LASY)

    PubMed Central

    Padmalayam, Indira; Hasham, Sumera; Saxena, Uday; Pillarisetti, Sivaram

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Lipoic acid synthase (LASY) is the enzyme that is involved in the endogenous synthesis of lipoic acid, a potent mitochondrial antioxidant. The aim of this study was to study the role of LASY in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We studied expression of LASY in animal models of type 2 diabetes. We also looked at regulation of LASY in vitro under conditions that exist in diabetes. Additionally, we looked at effects of LASY knockdown on cellular antioxidant status, inflammation, mitochondrial function, and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. RESULTS—LASY expression is significantly reduced in tissues from animal models of diabetes and obesity compared with age- and sex-matched controls. In vitro, LASY mRNA levels were decreased by the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high glucose. Downregulation of the LASY gene by RNA interference (RNAi) reduced endogenous levels of lipoic acid, and the activities of critical components of the antioxidant defense network, increasing oxidative stress. Treatment with exogenous lipoic acid compensated for some of these defects. RNAi-mediated downregulation of LASY induced a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. In endothelial cells, downregulation of LASY aggravated the inflammatory response that manifested as an increase in both basal and TNF-α–induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokine, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Overexpression of the LASY gene ameliorated the inflammatory response. CONCLUSIONS—Deficiency of LASY results in an overall disturbance in the antioxidant defense network, leading to increased inflammation, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:19074983

  15. Optimize acid gas removal

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, D.M.; Wilkins, J.T.

    1983-09-01

    Innovative design of physical solvent plants for acid gas removal can materially reduce both installation and operating costs. A review of the design considerations for one physical solvent process (Selexol) points to numerous arrangements for potential improvement. These are evaluated for a specific case in four combinations that identify an optimum for the case in question but, more importantly, illustrate the mechanism for use for such optimization elsewhere.

  16. Ideas about Acids and Alkalis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplis, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Investigates students' ideas, conceptions, and misconceptions about acids and alkalis before and after a teaching sequence in a small-scale research project. Concludes that student understanding of acids and alkalis is lacking. (DDR)

  17. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  18. Novel renal amino acid transporters.

    PubMed

    Verrey, François; Ristic, Zorica; Romeo, Elisa; Ramadan, Tamara; Makrides, Victoria; Dave, Mital H; Wagner, Carsten A; Camargo, Simone M R

    2005-01-01

    Reabsorption of amino acids, similar to that of glucose, is a major task of the proximal kidney tubule. Various amino acids are actively transported across the luminal brush border membrane into proximal tubule epithelial cells, most of which by cotransport. An important player is the newly identified cotransporter (symporter) B0AT1 (SLC6A19), which imports a broad range of neutral amino acids together with Na+ across the luminal membrane and which is defective in Hartnup disorder. In contrast, cationic amino acids and cystine are taken up in exchange for recycled neutral amino acids by the heterodimeric cystinuria transporter. The basolateral release of some neutral amino acids into the extracellular space is mediated by unidirectional efflux transporters, analogous to GLUT2, that have not yet been definitively identified. Additionally, cationic amino acids and some other neutral amino acids leave the cell basolaterally via heterodimeric obligatory exchangers.

  19. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.

  20. Perfluorooctanoic acid and environmental risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) family of chemicals, which consist of a carbon backbone typically four to fourteen carbons in length and a charged functional moiety.