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Sample records for cruciferous vegetables shows

  1. Behavior of glucosinolates in pickling cruciferous vegetables.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Chise; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Sasaki, Keisuke; Murata, Takashi; Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2006-12-13

    Crucifer species, which include widely consumed vegetables, contain glucosinolates as secondary metabolites. Cruciferous vegetables are consumed in Japan in salt-preserved or pickled form as well as cooked and raw fresh vegetables. In this study, changes in contents of glucosinolates during the pickling process were investigated. 4-Methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate, a major glucosinolate in the root of Japanese radish, daikon (Raphanus sativus L.), was detected in pickled products with a short maturation period but not in those with a long maturation period. As a model pickling experiment, fresh watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and blanched watercress were soaked in 3% NaCl solution for 7 days. The results showed that the ratio of indole glucosinolates to total glucosinolates increased during the pickling process, whereas total glucosinolates decreased. Myrosinase digestion of glucosinolates in nozawana (Brassica rapa L.) indicated that indole glucosinolates, especially 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, were relatively resistant to the enzyme. The effect of pickling on glucosinolate content and the possible mechanism are discussed in view of degradation by myrosinase and synthetic reaction in response to salt stress or compression during the pickling process.

  2. Are whole extracts and purified glucosinolates from cruciferous vegetables antioxidants?

    PubMed

    Plumb, G W; Lambert, N; Chambers, S J; Wanigatunga, S; Heaney, R K; Plumb, J A; Aruoma, O I; Halliwell, B; Miller, N J; Williamson, G

    1996-07-01

    Fruits and vegetables contain several classes of compounds that can potentially contribute to antioxidant activity, including vitamins, simple and complex phenolics, sulphur-containing compounds and glucosinolates. The glucosinolates are found in high concentration in many cruciferous vegetables, and it is well established that their breakdown products induce endogenous antioxidant defences such as quinone reductase and glutathione S-transferase in cells and in vivo. Despite the anticarcinogenic effect of these compounds in animal models, the direct antioxidant properties of this class of compounds have not been systematically studied. We therefore examined the free radical-scavenging properties of representative extracts and of purified glucosinolates from cruciferous vegetables, by measuring their effect on ascorbate- or NADPH/iron-induced peroxidation of human liver microsomes, ascorbate/iron-induced peroxidation on phospholipid liposomes, iron chelation and hydroxyl radical scavenging using the deoxyribose assay, total antioxidant potential using ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)) and the bleomycin assay. Most of the extracts from cruciferous vegetables exhibited some antioxidant properties, although extracts from cooked Brussels sprouts increased the rate of microsomal lipid peroxidation. The effects in these assays were dependent upon processing and species of crucifer, and the glucosinolate content appeared to play a minor role in these effects, since purified glucosinolates exhibited only weak antioxidant properties. The total antioxidant activities of extracts from cooked and autolysed Brussels sprouts were identical within experimental error. This is probably due to the content of phenolics which is unaltered by autolysis, despite the differences between these samples in other assays especially NADPH-iron-induced lipid peroxidation of human liver microsomes. The results demonstrate that glucosinolates are unlikely to account for

  3. Cruciferous vegetable supplementation in a controlled diet study alters the serum peptidome in a GSTM1-genotype dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with the risk of several cancers. Isothiocyanates (ITC) are hypothesized to be the major bioactive constituents contributing to these cancer-preventive effects. The polymorphic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) gene family encodes several enzymes which catalyze ITC degradation in vivo. Methods We utilized high throughput proteomics methods to examine how human serum peptides (the "peptidome") change in response to cruciferous vegetable feeding in individuals of different GSTM1 genotypes. In two randomized, crossover, controlled feeding studies (EAT and 2EAT) participants consumed a fruit- and vegetable-free basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with cruciferous vegetables. Serum samples collected at the end of the feeding period were fractionated and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry spectra were obtained. Peak identification/alignment computer algorithms and mixed effects models were used to analyze the data. Results After analysis of spectra from EAT participants, 24 distinct peaks showed statistically significant differences associated with cruciferous vegetable intake. Twenty of these peaks were driven by their GSTM1 genotype (i.e., GSTM1+ or GSTM1- null). When data from EAT and 2EAT participants were compared by joint processing of spectra to align a common set, 6 peaks showed consistent changes in both studies in a genotype-dependent manner. The peaks at 6700 m/z and 9565 m/z were identified as an isoform of transthyretin (TTR) and a fragment of zinc α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), respectively. Conclusions Cruciferous vegetable intake in GSTM1+ individuals led to changes in circulating levels of several peptides/proteins, including TTR and a fragment of ZAG. TTR is a known marker of nutritional status and ZAG is an adipokine that plays a role in lipid mobilization. The results of this study present evidence that the GSTM1-genotype modulates the

  4. Cruciferous Vegetable Intake Is Inversely Correlated with Circulating Levels of Proinflammatory Markers in Women

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Wu, Sheng-Hui; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Ji, Bu-Tian; Milne, Ginger L.; Cai, Qiuyin; Zhang, Xianglan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Gong

    2014-01-01

    Background Higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables or their constituents have been shown to lower inflammation in animal studies. However, evidence for this anti-inflammatory effect of cruciferous vegetable consumption in humans is scarce. Objective/Design In this cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated associations of vegetable intake with a panel of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers among 1,005 middle-aged Chinese women. Dietary intake of foods was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Results Multivariable-adjusted circulating concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were lower among women with higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables. The differences in concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers between extreme quintiles of cruciferous vegetable intake were 12.66% for TNF-α (Ptrend=0.01), 18.18% for IL-1β (Ptrend=0.02), and 24.68% for IL-6 (Ptrend=0.02). A similar, but less apparent, inverse association was found for intakes of all vegetables combined but not for noncruciferous vegetables. Levels of the urinary oxidative stress markers F2-isoprostanes and their major metabolite, 2,3-dinor-5,6-dihydro-15-F2t-IsoP, were not associated with intakes of cruciferous vegetables or all vegetables combined. Conclusions This study suggests that the previously observed health benefits of cruciferous vegetable consumption may be partly associated with the anti-inflammatory effects of these vegetables. PMID:24630682

  5. Cruciferous vegetables consumption and the risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To quantify the effect of cruciferous vegetable consumption on the incidence of ovarian cancer by meta-analyzing the existing observational studies and provides quantitative and high-level evidence. Methods A detailed literature search of Medline and EMBASE for all relevant papers published. A meta-analysis was conducted for the association between cruciferous vegetable consumption and risk of ovarian cancer. Results A total of 4,306 cases in 375,562 controls in 11 independent studies were identified in this current meta-analysis. The result of this current meta-analysis, including 6 case-control and 5 cohort studies, indicated that cruciferous vegetable intake was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Cruciferous vegetable consumption was associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer in case-control studies (RR=0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.94) but not in cohort studies (RR=1.00; 95% CI, 0.85-1.11). Conclusions The results from this meta-analysis of observational studies demonstrate that cruciferous vegetable consumption is a prospective factor of the ovarian cancer. However, more in-depth studies are warranted to report more detailed results, including other specific vegetables within the cruciferous vegetable family. Virtual slides The virtual slide (s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1116708293115581. PMID:24444040

  6. Phytochemicals from cruciferous vegetables, epigenetics, and prostate cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    W Watson, Gregory; M Beaver, Laura; E Williams, David; H Dashwood, Roderick; Ho, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence has demonstrated a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with cruciferous vegetable intake. Follow-up studies have attributed this protective activity to the metabolic products of glucosinolates, a class of secondary metabolites produced by crucifers. The metabolic products of glucoraphanin and glucobrassicin, sulforaphane, and indole-3-carbinol respectively, have been the subject of intense investigation by cancer researchers. Sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol inhibit prostate cancer by both blocking initiation and suppressing prostate cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. Research has largely focused on the anti-initiation and cytoprotective effects of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol through induction of phases I and II detoxification pathways. With regards to suppressive activity, research has focused on the ability of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol to antagonize cell signaling pathways known to be dysregulated in prostate cancer. Recent investigations have characterized the ability of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol derivatives to modulate the activity of enzymes controlling the epigenetic status of prostate cancer cells. In this review, we will summarize the well-established, "classic" non-epigenetic targets of sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol, and highlight more recent evidence supporting these phytochemicals as epigenetic modulators for prostate cancer chemoprevention.

  7. PROP taster status not related to reported cruciferous vegetable intake among ethnically diverse children

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice C; Watson, Kathleen B; Jago, Russell; Islam, Noemi; Beltran, Alicia; Martin, Shelby J; Nguyen, Nga; Tepper, Beverly J

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity to the taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) (a bitter tasting chemical related to the phenylthiocarbamide found in cruciferous vegetables) has been related to dietary intake or preferences of cruciferous vegetables among adults and young children, but not middle aged children or adolescents. We hypothesized that PROP taste sensitivity is related to lower reported dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables, primarily among younger children (i.e. a moderating effect of child age). This study examined the relationship of PROP sensitivity to reported dietary intake across three days in two age groups of youth (9–10 years and 17–18 year), while statistically controlling for physical activity, social desirability and reporting bias. Cross sectional design was employed with a multi-ethnic (White, African American, Hispanic, and Other) sample of 843 males and females. Children were recruited from and data were collected in local elementary and high schools that had at least 30% ethnic minority enrollment. Children providing nonplausible reports of dietary intake were deleted from the analyses. BMI was calculated and expressed in z-scores. Energy intake and physical activity were measured by three telephone conducted 24-hour dietary recalls with the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR) and 5 days of Actigraph activity monitor. The primary analyses included 347 students. PROP sensitivity was not related to intake of cruciferous vegetables. Intakes of the cruciferous vegetables were low, which may explain the lack of relationship. PMID:21925344

  8. Cruciferous vegetables reduce morphological markers of colon cancer risk in dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Andrea Y; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2008-03-01

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with reduced colon cancer risk in human populations. However, little experimental evidence exists to support this association. Here, we report the effects of diets containing cruciferous vegetables on colon cancer risk. In Expt. 1, rats were fed a vegetable-free (basal) diet or diets containing different lyophilized cruciferous vegetables in concentrations between 4 and 10%. In Expt. 2, rats were fed the basal diet or diets containing 10-22.6% fresh cruciferous vegetables. Diets were fed for 2 wk (Expt. 1) or 3 wk (Expt. 2) before and 7 wk (Expt. 1) or 12 wk (Expt. 2) after administration of the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Rats fed fresh vegetables were also injected with a low dose of carcinogen 18-24 h prior to termination. Groups fed lyophilized vegetables did not differ in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), sialomucin-producing foci, or mucin-depleted foci (MDF) numbers. However, all fresh vegetable diets significantly decreased ACF (approximately 40%) and MDF numbers. Activities of the hepatic phase I enzyme CYP2E1 did not differ among groups in either experiment. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and quinone reductase activities did not differ among groups fed fresh vegetables, whereas the lyophilized cabbage diets decreased GST activity compared with the basal diet. Groups did not differ in apoptosis and cell proliferation labeling indices in colonic mucosa. This study indicates that fresh but not lyophilized cruciferous vegetables reduce colon cancer risk in rats. These results do not support changes in hepatic carcinogen metabolism or colonic crypt cytokinetics as a mechanism.

  9. 6-n-propylthiouracil taster status not related to reported cruciferous vegetable intake among ethnically diverse children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sensitivity to the taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) (a bitter chemical related to the phenylthiocarbamide found in cruciferous vegetables) has been related to dietary intake or preferences of cruciferous vegetables among adults and young children but not middle-aged children or adolescents. We h...

  10. Cruciferous vegetables and colorectal cancer prevention through microRNA regulation: A review.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jeong Hoon; Abernathy, Breann; Kim, Young Jun; Lee, Jin Hyup; Kim, Jun Ho; Shin, Eui Cheol; Kim, Jae Kyeom

    2017-04-10

    Diets rich in fruits and vegetables may lower colorectal cancer risk. In particular, a number of in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that cruciferous vegetables and their active compounds elicit chemopreventive potency through multiple mechanisms. However, it is relatively unexplored whether these vegetables modulate the risk of cancer development through epigenetic mechanisms including noncoding RNAs. Therefore, the objective of the present review is to report and discuss existing evidence with regards to modulation of microRNAs (miRNAs), one variety of noncoding RNAs, by cruciferous vegetables and their chemo-preventive effects against colorectal cancers. As results, it seems clear, considering accumulating evidence regarding their interactions with cancer related genes and relevant signaling pathways, that miRNA modulation via cruciferous vegetables is an attractive target for the prevention of colorectal cancer. In addition, miRNAs have been characterized as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and utilized in cancer therapeutics. Thus, it is very possible that natural agents (not limited to those in cruciferous vegetables) enhance cancer therapeutic efficacy and elicit chemopreventive effects through modulating key miRNAs.

  11. Extraction from soil of apterous Pemphigus populitransversus (Hemiptera: Pemphigidae) feeding on cruciferous vegetable roots.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong-Xian; Zhang, Yongmei; Yue, Bisong

    2011-06-01

    The poplar petiolegall aphid, Pemphigus populitransversus Riley (Hemiptera: Pemphigidae), is a gall-forming aphid attacking leaf petioles of Populus spp., its primary hosts. Its secondary hosts are the roots of cruciferous (Brassicaceae) plants, where it is also commonly known as the "cabbage root aphid." The apterous forms are destructive pests of cruciferous vegetables in many parts of the world. In our experiments, the root-feeding apterous forms were extracted from the soil using a Berlese funnel, which drives the aphids downward by using light and heat. The results show that a majority of apterous aphids (96.9%) were extracted from the soil in 2 h by using a 15-W light bulb in the Berlese funnels, whereas only 18.2% of aphids were extracted using a 25-W light bulb in a similar time period. The 25-W light bulb in the funnel generated too much heat (40-44 degrees C), which dried the soil too fast so that the aphids were unable to crawl downward to the collecting jars or killed the aphids directly. The advantages of using a Berlese funnel equipped with a 15-W light bulb as the light and heat source for sampling and extraction of the root feeding aphids include a uniform handling of each sample, less time spent, extraction of many samples at the same time, and storage of the aphids in containers for later counting in the laboratory. This technique seems to also be useful for extracting other mobile, small soil-dwelling arthropods.

  12. Cruciferous Vegetables and Human Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic Evidence and Mechanistic Basis

    PubMed Central

    Higdon, Jane V.; Delage, Barbara; Williams, David E.; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2009-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a rich source of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products, including indoles and isothiocyanates, and high intake of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with lower risk of lung and colorectal cancer in some epidemiological studies. Glucosinolate hydrolysis products alter the metabolism or activity of sex hormones in ways that could inhibit the development of hormone-sensitive cancers, but evidence of an inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and breast or prostate cancer in humans is limited and inconsistent. Organizations such as the National Cancer Institute recommend the consumption of 5–9 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, but separate recommendations for cruciferous vegetables have not been established. Isothiocyanates and indoles derived from the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, such as sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinol (I3C), have been implicated in a variety of anticarcinogenic mechanisms, but deleterious effects also have been reported in some experimental protocols, including tumor promotion over prolonged periods of exposure. Epidemiological studies indicate that human exposure to isothiocyanates and indoles through cruciferous vegetable consumption may decrease cancer risk, but the protective effects may be influenced by individual genetic variation (polymorphisms) in the metabolism and elimination of isothiocyanates from the body. Cooking procedures also affect the bioavailability and intake of glucosinolates and their derivatives. Supplementation with I3C or the related dimer 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) alters urinary estrogen metabolite profiles in women, but the effects of I3C and DIM on breast cancer risk are not known. Small preliminary trials in humans suggest that I3C supplementation may be beneficial in treating conditions related to human papilloma virus infection, such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, but larger randomized controlled

  13. Cruciferous vegetable consumption is associated with a reduced risk of total and cardiovascular disease mortality1234

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Gao, Jing; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background: Asian populations habitually consume a large amount of cruciferous vegetables and other plant-based foods. Few epidemiologic investigations have evaluated the potential health effects of these foods in Asian populations. Objective: We aimed to examine the associations of cruciferous vegetables, noncruciferous vegetables, total vegetables, and total fruit intake with risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design: The analysis included 134,796 Chinese adults who participated in 2 population-based, prospective cohort studies: the Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline through in-person interviews by using validated food-frequency questionnaires. Deaths were ascertained by biennial home visits and linkage with vital statistics registries. Results: We identified 3442 deaths among women during a mean follow-up of 10.2 y and 1951 deaths among men during a mean follow-up of 4.6 y. Overall, fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with risk of total mortality in both women and men, and a dose-response pattern was particularly evident for cruciferous vegetable intake. The pooled multivariate hazard ratios (95% CIs) for total mortality across increasing quintiles of intake were 1 (reference), 0.91 (0.84, 0.98), 0.88 (0.77, 1.00), 0.85 (0.76, 0.96), and 0.78 (0.71, 0.85) for cruciferous vegetables (P < 0.0001 for trend) and 0.88 (0.79, 0.97), 0.88 (0.79, 0.98), 0.76 (0.62, 0.92), and 0.84 (0.69, 1.00) for total vegetables (P = 0.03 for trend). The inverse associations were primarily related to cardiovascular disease mortality but not to cancer mortality. Conclusion: Our findings support recommendations to increase consumption of vegetables, particularly cruciferous vegetables, and fruit to promote cardiovascular health and overall longevity. PMID:21593509

  14. Pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake and lung cancer survival among Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Yang, Gong; Zheng, Wei; Li, Hong-Lan; Gao, Jing; Wang, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-01-01

    No study to date has prospectively evaluated the association between pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake and lung cancer survival among women. This analysis included 547 incident lung cancer cases identified from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) during the follow-up period of 1997-2011. Dietary intake was assessed for all SWHS participants at enrollment and reassessed 2-3 years later. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Of the 547 lung cancer patients, 412 patients died during the follow-up. A total of 393 (95.4%) deaths from lung cancer were documented with median survival time of 10.3 months (interquartile range, 3.6-21.1 months). High cruciferous vegetables intake was significantly associated with improved lung cancer-specific survival after adjusting for all nonclinical prognostic factors (n = 547, HR = 0.69; 95%CI = 0.49-0.95; P trend = 0.02) for the highest versus lowest quartile. A slightly stronger association of cruciferous vegetables intake with lung cancer-specific survival was observed in analyses restricted to patients with known clinical prognostic factors (n = 331, HR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.41-0.97; P trend = 0.03) or never smokers (n = 308, HR = 0.58; 95%CI = 0.37-0.91; P trend = 0.02). In conclusion, pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake is associated with better survival of lung cancer in Chinese women. PMID:25988580

  15. Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Inverse associations between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk have been consistently reported. However, associations within smoking status subgroups have not been consistently addressed. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study with lung cancer cases and controls matched on smoking status, and further adjusted for smoking status, duration, and intensity in the multivariate models. A total of 948 cases and 1743 controls were included in the analysis. Results Inverse linear trends were observed between intake of fruits, total vegetables, and cruciferous vegetables and risk of lung cancer (ORs ranged from 0.53-0.70, with P for trend < 0.05). Interestingly, significant associations were observed for intake of fruits and total vegetables with lung cancer among never smokers. Conversely, significant inverse associations with cruciferous vegetable intake were observed primarily among smokers, in particular former smokers, although significant interactions were not detected between smoking and intake of any food group. Of four lung cancer histological subtypes, significant inverse associations were observed primarily among patients with squamous or small cell carcinoma - the two subtypes more strongly associated with heavy smoking. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the smoking-related carcinogen-modulating effect of isothiocyanates, a group of phytochemicals uniquely present in cruciferous vegetables. Our data support consumption of a diet rich in cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of lung cancer among smokers. PMID:20423504

  16. Post-diagnosis Cruciferous Vegetable Consumption and Breast Cancer Outcomes: a Report from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project

    PubMed Central

    Nechuta, Sarah; Caan, Bette J.; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; Lu, Wei; Cai, Hui; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Zheng, Wei; Pierce, John P.; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2013-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables are a major source of glucosinolate-derived bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates, which have been shown in animal and in vitro studies to inhibit cancer growth and progression. Few studies have investigated cruciferous vegetable intake after diagnosis and breast cancer outcomes. Using data from the After Breast Cancer Pooling Project, which includes prospective data from US and Chinese breast cancer survivors, we evaluated the association of cruciferous vegetables with breast cancer outcomes. Analyses included 11,390 women diagnosed with stage I–III invasive breast cancer (1990–2006) from four cohorts. Cruciferous vegetable intake (g/day) was assessed using food frequency questionnaires (mean of 22 months post-diagnosis). Study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Q statistic; hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using delayed-entry Cox regression models stratified by study. After a median follow-up of 9.0 years, 1,725 deaths and 1,421 recurrences were documented. In pooled analyses using study-specific quartiles, cruciferous vegetable intake was not associated with breast cancer outcomes, adjusting for known clinical prognostic factors and selected lifestyle factors. HRs (95%CIs) by increasing quartiles (reference=lowest quartile) were 1.08 (0.93–1.25), 1.01 (0.87–1.18), and 1.10 (0.95–1.28) for recurrence (Ptrend=0.34) and 1.01 (0.88–1.15), 0.97 (0.84–1.11), and 0.99 (0.86–1.13) for total mortality (Ptrend=0.84). No associations were observed for subgroups defined by ER status, stage, or tamoxifen therapy. Cruciferous vegetable intake at approximately two years after diagnosis was not associated with recurrence or mortality. Our results do not support an association between post-diagnosis cruciferous vegetable intake and breast cancer outcomes. PMID:23765086

  17. The contribution of alliaceous and cruciferous vegetables to dietary sulphur intake.

    PubMed

    Doleman, Joanne F; Grisar, Katrijn; Van Liedekerke, Lena; Saha, Shikha; Roe, Mark; Tapp, Henri S; Mithen, Richard F

    2017-11-01

    Despite its importance in many areas of human metabolism, there are no recommended daily intake guide lines for sulphur. It is generally assumed that most dietary sulphur originates from intake of methionine and cysteine. We estimated sulphur intake from food diaries, and validated the results with the use of a duplicate diet analyses. Sulphur intake estimations were highly correlated with that obtain through an elemental analysis of duplicate diets, with a mean±sd daily intakes of 956±327.9mg estimated from diet diary analyses and 935±329.9mg estimated by a duplicate diet analyses. Sulphur intake from alliaceous and cruciferous vegetables contributed up to 42% of total sulphur intake. Daily intake estimation comparisons through diet diary analyses and duplicate diet for other elements showed good agreement, except for sodium and zinc, in which analyses of 24h diet dairies overestimated intake by 35% and 52%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Cruciferous vegetables intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Q. J.; Yang, Y.; Vogtmann, E.; Wang, J.; Han, L. H.; Li, H. L.; Xiang, Y. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent associations between cruciferous vegetable (CV) intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. To our knowledge, a comprehensive and quantitative assessment of the association between CV intake and CRC has not been reported. Methods Relevant articles were identified by searching MEDLINE. We pooled the relative risks (RR) from individual studies using a random-effect model and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. Results Twenty-four case–control and 11 prospective studies were included in our analysis. When all studies were pooled, we yielded a significantly inverse association between CV (RR: 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.75–0.90) intake and CRC risk. Specific analysis for cabbage and broccoli yielded similar result. When separately analyzed, case–control studies of CV intake yield similar results, and the results from the prospective studies showed borderline statistical significance. Moreover, significant inverse associations were also observed in colon cancer and its distal subsite both among prospective and case–control studies. Conclusions Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence that high intake of CV was inversely associated with the risk of CRC and colon cancer in humans. Further analysis on other specific CV, food preparation methods, stratified results by anatomic cancer site, and subsite of colon cancer should be extended in future study. PMID:23211939

  19. 6-n-propylthiouracil taster status not related to reported cruciferous vegetable intake among ethnically diverse children.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice C; Watson, Kathleen B; Jago, Russell; Islam, Noemi; Beltran, Alicia; Martin, Shelby J; Nguyen, Nga; Tepper, Beverly J

    2011-08-01

    Sensitivity to the taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) (a bitter chemical related to the phenylthiocarbamide found in cruciferous vegetables) has been related to dietary intake or preferences of cruciferous vegetables among adults and young children but not middle-aged children or adolescents. We hypothesized that PROP taste sensitivity is related to lower reported dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables, primarily among younger children (ie, a moderating effect of child age). This study examined the relationship of PROP sensitivity to reported dietary intake across 3 days in 2 age groups of youth (9-10 and 17-18 years) while statistically controlling for physical activity, social desirability, and reporting bias. Cross-sectional design was used with a multiethnic (white, African American, Hispanic, etc) sample of 843 men and women. Children were recruited from and data were collected in local elementary and high schools that had at least 30% ethnic minority enrollment. Children providing nonplausible reports of dietary intake were deleted from the analyses. Body mass index was calculated and expressed in z scores. Energy intake and physical activity were measured by 3 telephone-conducted 24-hour dietary recalls with the Nutrient Data System for Research and 5 days of Actigraph (ActiGraph, Shalimar, Florida) activity monitor. The primary analyses included 347 students. 6-n-Propylthiouracil sensitivity was not related to intake of cruciferous vegetables. Intakes of the cruciferous vegetables were low, which may explain the lack of relationship.

  20. Cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk: a nested case-control study matched on cigarette smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Tram Kim; Ruczinski, Ingo; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Shugart, Yin Yao; Caulfield, Laura E.; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Due predominantly to cigarette smoking, lung cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death worldwide. Cruciferous vegetables may reduce lung cancer risk. The association between intake of cruciferous vegetables and lung cancer risk was investigated in the CLUE II study, a community-based cohort established in 1989. Methods We matched 274 incident cases of lung cancer diagnosed from 1990–2005 to 1089 cancer-free controls on age, sex, and cigarette smoking. Dietary information was collected at baseline. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Results Intake of cruciferous vegetables were inversely associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest fourth: OR Q4vsQ1=0. 57; 95%CI = 0.38–0.85; p-trend=0.01). The inverse associations held true for former smokers (ORQ4vsQ1=0.49; 95%CI = 0.27–0.92; p-trend=0.05) and current smokers (ORQ4vsQ1)= 0.52; 95%CI = 0.29–0.95; p-trend=0.02). Conclusions After careful control of cigarette smoking, higher intake of cruciferous vegetable was associated with lower risk of lung cancer. Impact The observed inversed association coupled with the accumulating evidence suggests that cruciferous vegetables are inversely associated lung cancer risk and this association seems to hold true beyond the confounding effects of cigarette smoking. PMID:20841387

  1. The synergistic upregulation of phase II detoxification enzymes by glucosinolate breakdown products in cruciferous vegetables.

    PubMed

    Nho, C W; Jeffery, E

    2001-07-15

    Cruciferous vegetables contain secondary metabolites termed glucosinolates that break down to products that upregulate hepatic detoxification enzymes. We have previously shown that a mixture of four major glucosinolate breakdown products from Brussels sprouts interact to produce synergistic induction of phase II detoxification enzymes. Here we tested the hypothesis that this synergism is at the level of transcription and is due to the interaction between the oral bifunctional inducer, indole-3-carbinol (I3C), and monofunctional inducer, crambene (1-cyano 2-hydroxy 3-butene). Adult male rats were treated by gavage with either corn oil (vehicle); crambene (50 mg/kg), I3C (56 mg/kg), or a mix of crambene and I3C at the doses shown. Given orally, I3C alone and crambene with I3C caused significant induction of CYP1A activity and CYP1A1 mRNA levels, whereas crambene alone had no significant effect on CYP1A activity or mRNA levels. Crambene and I3C individually caused induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and quinone reductase (QR) activity. The mixture of crambene and I3C caused induction of GST and QR that was significantly greater than the sum of the induction by individual treatments. Upregulation of total GST activity was not as great as that of QR, possibly because some subunits did not show this effect. GST Ya2 mRNA showed a synergistic upregulation by crambene and I3C, while Yc1 and Yc2 showed only an additive response. We speculate that this different regulation is partly due to differences in gene sequences within the antioxidant response element and xenobiotic response element in the regulatory region of GST Ya2 compared to those within the regulatory region of the Yc1/Yc2 subunits. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Biological Profile of Erucin: A New Promising Anticancer Agent from Cruciferous Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Melchini, Antonietta; Traka, Maria H.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk in the development of various types of cancer. This has been attributed to the bioactive hydrolysis products that are derived from these vegetables, namely isothiocyanates. Erucin is one such product derived from rocket salads, which is structurally related to sulforaphane, a well-studied broccoli-derived isothiocyanate. In this review, we present current knowledge on mechanisms of action of erucin in chemoprevention obtained from cell and animal models and relate it to other isothiocyanates. These mechanisms include modulation of phase I, II and III detoxification, regulation of cell growth by induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, induction of ROS-mechanisms and regulation androgen receptor pathways. PMID:22069601

  3. Biological profile of erucin: a new promising anticancer agent from cruciferous vegetables.

    PubMed

    Melchini, Antonietta; Traka, Maria H

    2010-04-01

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk in the development of various types of cancer. This has been attributed to the bioactive hydrolysis products that are derived from these vegetables, namely isothiocyanates. Erucin is one such product derived from rocket salads, which is structurally related to sulforaphane, a well-studied broccoli-derived isothiocyanate. In this review, we present current knowledge on mechanisms of action of erucin in chemoprevention obtained from cell and animal models and relate it to other isothiocyanates. These mechanisms include modulation of phase I, II and III detoxification, regulation of cell growth by induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, induction of ROS-mechanisms and regulation androgen receptor pathways.

  4. Sinigrin, a major glucosinolate from cruciferous vegetables restrains non-enzymatic glycation of albumin.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-02-01

    Sinigrin is a major component of cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, Brussels sprout, mustard greens and broccoli. The present study demonstrates the protective effects of sinigrin against the non-enzymatic glycation of albumin and lens crystallin based on fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism and molecular interaction studies. Sinigrin was found to be a potent inhibitor for both the early (Amadori product) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In addition, the in vitro glycation studies of lens crystallin demonstrated the strong antiglycation activity of sinigrin. Computational studies using molecular docking approach revealed the interaction pattern of sinigrin with BSA and the binding affinity of sinigrin was found to be greater than the other potent natural inhibitors of glycation such as quercetin, apigenin, and curcumin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlates of self-reported dietary cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate from two cohorts in China

    PubMed Central

    Vogtmann, Emily; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Wang, Jing; Han, Li-Hua; Wu, Qi-Jun; Xie, Li; Cai, Quiyin; Li, Guo-Liang; Waterbor, John W.; Levitan, Emily B.; Zhang, Bin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary ITC level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors. Design This study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and total dietary ITC was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC according to GST genotype. Setting Urban city in China Subjects This study included 3,589 women and 1,015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies. Results Median urinary ITC level was 1.61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs = 0.1149; p < 0.0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs = 0.2591; p < 0.0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level. Conclusions This study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups. PMID:25098275

  6. Human Gut Bacterial Communities Are Altered by Addition of Cruciferous Vegetables to a Controlled Fruit- and Vegetable-Free Diet1–3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Hullar, Meredith A. J.; Schwarz, Yvonne; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2009-01-01

    In the human gut, commensal bacteria metabolize food components that typically serve as energy sources. These components have the potential to influence gut bacterial community composition. Cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage, contain distinctive compounds that can be utilized by gut bacteria. For example, glucosinolates can be hydrolyzed by certain bacteria, and dietary fibers can be fermented by a range of species. We hypothesized that cruciferous vegetable consumption would alter growth of certain bacteria, thereby altering bacterial community composition. We tested this hypothesis in a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study. Fecal samples were collected from 17 participants at the end of 2 14-d intake periods: a low-phytochemical, low-fiber basal diet (i.e. refined grains without fruits or vegetables) and a high (“double”) cruciferous vegetable diet [basal diet + 14 g cruciferous vegetables/(kg body weight⋅d)]. Fecal bacterial composition was analyzed by the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (tRFLP) method using the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene and nucleotide sequencing. Using blocked multi-response permutation procedures analysis, we found that overall bacterial community composition differed between the 2 consumption periods (δ = 0.603; P = 0.011). The bacterial community response to cruciferous vegetables was individual-specific, as revealed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination analysis. Specific tRFLP fragments that characterized each of the diets were identified using indicator species analysis. Putative species corresponding to these fragments were identified through gene sequencing as Eubacterium hallii, Phascolarctobacterium faecium, Burkholderiales spp., Alistipes putredinis, and Eggerthella spp. In conclusion, human gut bacterial community composition was altered by cruciferous vegetable consumption, which could ultimately influence gut metabolism of bioactive food components and host

  7. Role of dietary iodine and cruciferous vegetables in thyroid cancer: a countrywide case-control study in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thérèse; Baron-Dubourdieu, Dominique; Rougier, Yannick; Guénel, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Exceptionally high incidence rates of thyroid cancer have been reported in New Caledonia, particularly in Melanesian women. To clarify the reasons of this elevated incidence, we conducted a countrywide population-based case-control study in the multiethnic population of Caledonian women. The study included 293 cases of thyroid cancer and 354 population controls. Based on a food frequency questionnaire, we investigated the role in thyroid cancer of food items rich in iodine – such as seafood – and of vegetables containing goitrogens – such as cruciferous vegetables. A measure of total daily iodine intake based on a food composition table was also used. Our findings provided little support for an association between thyroid cancer and consumption of fish and seafood. We found that high consumption of cruciferous vegetables was associated with thyroid cancer among women with low iodine intake (OR=1.86; 95% CI: 1.01–3.43 for iodine intake < 96 μg/day). The high consumption of cruciferous vegetables among Melanesian women, a group with mild iodine deficiency, may contribute to explain the exceptionally high incidence of thyroid cancer in this group. PMID:20361352

  8. [Simultaneous determination of organophosphorus pesticides in cruciferous vegetables by dual-column GC with pulsed FPD and FTD].

    PubMed

    Ueno, Eiji; Oshima, Harumi; Saito, Isao; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated simultaneous analytical methods for organophosphorus pesticides in cruciferous vegetables by gas chromatography (GC). Firstly, 36 pesticides were selected on the basis of monitoring data (April 1996-March 2003) in Aichi Prefecture. A sample was extracted with acetonitrile and the acetonitrile layer was separated by salting-out. The extract was cleaned up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and then with a tandem silica-gel/PSA mini-column. The test solution was subjected to dual-column GC equipped with a pulsed FPD (P mode, Rtx-OPPesticides column) and a FTD (Rtx-OPPesticides 2 column). Organophosphorus pesticides in such sulfur-rich matrices as cabbage and radish were determined without any serious interfering peaks on the pulsed FPD chromatograms after diluting the extracts 10- to 20-fold (0.25-0.5 mg/L of sample). The method was applied to cruciferous vegetables to demonstrate its usefulness in routine analysis.

  9. [Sulforaphane (1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)-butane) content in cruciferous vegetables].

    PubMed

    Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; Bueno-Solano, Carolina; Martínez-Ibarra, Diana M; Camacho-Gil, Francisco; Villa-Lerma, Alma G; Rodríguez-Núñez, Jesús R; Lóez-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I

    2009-03-01

    Sulforaphane (1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)-butane) content in cruciferous vegetables. Sulforaphane is an isothiocyanate which has antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties, this compound is found in a wide variety of plants from genus Brassica oleracea, being the most important broccoli and cabbage. The objective of this research was to quantify sulforaphane in the edible parts of broccoli and cabbage leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sample preparation for the quantification of sulforaphane include the conversion of glucoraphanin to sulforaphane (45 +/- 2 degrees C for 2.5 h), extracted with dichloromethane, purification of the extract in columns of solid phase extraction and detection by HPLC- UV. Sulforaphane concentration in broccoli is in the range of 214 microg/g DW (stems) to 499 microg/g DW (inflorescences). The purple cabbage (101.99 microg/g DW) has values greater than the green cabbage (7.58 microg/g DW). The inflorescences of broccoli and red cabbage leaves are rich in sulforaphane.

  10. Cruciferous vegetables, glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer among Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Vogtmann, Emily; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Li, Hong-Lan; Cai, Quiyin; Wu, Qi-Jun; Xie, Li; Li, Guo-Liang; Yang, Gong; Waterbor, John W.; Levitan, Emily B.; Zhang, Bin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the associations between cruciferous vegetable (CV) intake, GST gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) in a population of Chinese men. Methods Using incidence density sampling, CRC cases (N = 340) diagnosed prior to December 31, 2010 within the Shanghai Men’s Health Study were matched to non-cases (N = 673). CV intake was assessed from a food frequency questionnaire and by isothiocyanate (ITC) levels from spot urine samples. GSTM1 and GSTT1 were categorized as null (0 copies) versus non-null (1 or 2 copies). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between CV intake and GST gene variants with CRC and statistical interactions were evaluated. Results CRC risk was not associated with CV intake, whether measured by self-report or by urinary ITC, nor with GST gene variants. No statistical interactions were detected between CV intake and GST gene variants on the odds of CRC. Stratifying by timing of urine sample collection and excluding CRC cases diagnosed in the first two years did not materially alter the results. Conclusions This study provides no evidence supporting the involvement of CV intake in the development of CRC in Chinese men. PMID:24238877

  11. Interaction between plants and bacteria: glucosinolates and phyllospheric colonization of cruciferous vegetables by Enterobacter radicincitans DSM 16656.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Monika; Krumbein, Angelika; Ruppel, Silke

    2009-01-01

    For determining interactive plant-bacterial effects between glucosinolates and phyllospheric colonization by a plant growth-promoting strain, Enterobacter radicincitans DSM 16656, in cruciferous vegetables, the extent of bacterial colonization was assessed in 5 cruciferous vegetables (Brassica juncea, Brassica campestris, Brassica oleracea var. capitata, Brassica rapa var. alboglabra, Nasturtium officinale) using a species-specific TaqMan probe and quantitative real-time PCR. Colonization ability of inoculated E. radicincitans in the phyllosphere of these species varied from inability to colonize B. rapa up to a very good colonization rate of B. campestris. In addition to morphological factors and other plant compounds, the colonization rate was affected by different individual aromatic and aliphatic glucosinolates and their concentration, revealing that both plant pathogens and plant growth-promoting bacteria were affected by glucosinolates in their colonization behavior. In contrast, after E. radicincitans inoculation neither the total nor the individual glucosinolate concentrations in the phyllosphere of the 5 cruciferous species were affected, indicating that the nonpathogenic E. radicincitans might cause only poor cell damage by metabolizing plant cell components and does not induce a plant defense response and thus subsequently an increased glucosinolate concentration in the phyllosphere. Moreover, E. radicincitans induced no stimulation of indole glucosinolate biosynthesis by additional bacterial auxin supply.

  12. Transfer of radiocesium from rhizosphere soil to four cruciferous vegetables in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain and root exudation.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Mensah, Akwasi Dwira; Aye, Yi Swe; Djedidi, Salem; Oikawa, Yosei; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Dorothea Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to assess the effect of Bacillus pumilus on the roots of four cruciferous vegetables with different root structures in regard to enhancement of (137)Cs bioavailability in contaminated rhizosphere soil. Results revealed that B. pumilus inoculation did not enhance the plant biomass of vegetables, although it increased root volume and root surface areas of all vegetables except turnip. The pH changes due to rhizosphere acidification by B. pumilus inoculation and root exudation did not affect the bioavailability of (137)Cs. However, concentrations of (137)Cs in plant tissues and soil-to-plant transfer values increased as a result of the larger root volume and root surface area of vegetables due to inoculation. Moreover, leafy vegetables, which possessed larger root volume and root surface areas, had a higher (137)Cs transfer value than root vegetables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cruciferous Vegetables Have Variable Effects on Biomarkers of Systemic Inflammation in a Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Young Adults12

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Schwarz, Yvonne; Song, Xiaoling; Wang, Ching-Yun; Chen, Chu; Trudo, Sabrina P.; Kristal, Alan R.; Kratz, Mario; Eaton, David L.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Isothiocyanates in cruciferous vegetables modulate signaling pathways critical to carcinogenesis, including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a central regulator of inflammation. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1 and GSTT1 metabolize isothiocyanates; genetic variants may result in differences in biologic response. Objective: The objective of this study was to test whether consumption of cruciferous or cruciferous plus apiaceous vegetables altered serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, and soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR) I and II, and whether this response was GSTM1/GSTT1 genotype dependent. Methods: In a randomized crossover trial, healthy men (n = 32) and women (n = 31) aged 20–40 y consumed 4 14-d controlled diets: basal (vegetable-free), single-dose cruciferous (1xC) [7 g vegetables/kg body weight (BW)], double-dose cruciferous (2xC) (14 g/kg BW), and cruciferous plus apiaceous (carrot family) (1xC+A) vegetables (7 and 4 g/kg BW, respectively), with a 21-d washout period between each intervention. Urinary isothiocyanate excretion was also evaluated as a marker of systemic isothiocyanate exposure. Fasting morning blood and urine samples were collected on days 0 and 14 and analyzed. Results: IL-6 concentrations were significantly lower on day 14 of the 2xC and 1xC+A diets than with the basal diet [−19% (95% CI: −30%, −0.1%) and −20% (95% CI: −31%, -0.7%), respectively]. IL-8 concentrations were higher after the 1xC+A diet (+16%; 95% CI: 4.2%, 35.2%) than after the basal diet. There were no effects of diet on CRP, TNF-α, or sTNFRI or II. There were significant differences between GSTM1-null/GSTT1+ individuals for several biomarkers in response to 1xC+A compared with basal diets (CRP: −37.8%; 95% CI: −58.0%, −7.4%; IL-6: −48.6%; 95% CI: −49.6%, −12.0%; IL-8: 16.3%; 95% CI: 6.7%, 57.7%) and with the 2xC diet compared with the

  14. Cruciferous vegetable feeding alters UGT1A1 activity: diet- and genotype-dependent changes in serum bilirubin in a controlled feeding trial1

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Peterson, Sabrina; Chen, Chu; Makar, Karen W.; Schwarz, Yvonne; King, Irena B; Li, Shuying S.; Li, Lin; Kestin, Mark; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2009-01-01

    Chemoprevention by isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables occurs partly through up-regulation of phase-II conjugating enzymes, such as UDP-glucuronosyl-transferases (UGT). UGT1A1 glucuronidates bilirubin, estrogens, and several dietary carcinogens. The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism reduces transcription compared to the wild-type, resulting in decreased enzyme activity. Isothiocyanates are metabolized by glutathione-S-transferases (GST); variants may alter isothiocyanate clearance, such that response to crucifers may vary by genotype. We evaluated, in a randomized, controlled, cross-over feeding trial in humans (n=70), 3 test diets, (single- and double-“dose” cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous) compared to a fruit-and-vegetable-free basal diet. We measured serum bilirubin concentrations on days 0, 7, 11 and 14 of each 2-week feeding period to monitor UGT1A1 activity, and determined effects of UGT1A1*28 and GSTM1/GSTT1-null variants on response. Aggregate bilirubin response to all vegetable-containing diets was statistically significantly lower compared to the basal diet (p<0.03 for all). Within each UGT1A1 genotype, lower bilirubin concentrations were seen in: *1/*1 in both single and double-dose cruciferous diets compared to basal (p<0.03 for both); *1/*28 in double-dose cruciferous and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared to basal, and cruciferous plus apiaceous compared to single-dose cruciferous (p<0.02 for all); and *28/*28 in all vegetable-containing diets compared to basal (p<0.02 for all). Evaluation of the effects of diet stratified by GST genotype revealed some statistically significant genotypic differences however, the magnitude was similar and not statistically significant between genotypes. These results may have implications for altering carcinogen metabolism through dietary intervention, particularly among UGT1A1*28/*28 individuals. PMID:19336732

  15. Prevention of mammary carcinogenesis in MMTV-neu mice by cruciferous vegetable constituent benzyl isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Warin, Renaud; Chambers, William H; Potter, Douglas M; Singh, Shivendra V

    2009-12-15

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a constituent of edible cruciferous vegetables, inhibits growth of human breast cancer cells in culture. The present study provides in vivo evidence for efficacy of BITC for prevention of mammary cancer in MMTV-neu mice. Administration of BITC at 1 and 3 mmol/kg diet for 25 weeks markedly suppressed the incidence and/or burden of mammary hyperplasia and carcinoma in female MMTV-neu mice without causing weight loss or affecting neu protein level. For example, cumulative incidence of hyperplasia/carcinoma was significantly lower in mice fed BITC-supplemented diets compared with control mice (P = 0.01 by Fisher's test). The BITC-mediated prevention of mammary carcinogenesis correlated with suppression of cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. The average number of Ki-67-positive cells in the carcinoma lesions of 3 mmol BITC group was lower by approximately 21% (P < 0.05) compared with tumors from control mice. Apoptotic bodies in the mammary tumor were higher by about 2- to 2.5-fold in the 1 and 3 mmol BITC treatment groups (P < 0.05) compared with control group. The BITC administration also resulted in overexpression of E-cadherin and infiltration of CD3(+) T-cells in the tumor. Although BITC treatment increased cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells in vitro, dietary feeding of BITC failed to augment NK cell lytic activity in an ex vivo assay. The present study demonstrating efficacy of BITC against mammary cancer in an animal model provides impetus to determine its activity in a clinical setting.

  16. Inhibition of human breast cancer xenograft growth by cruciferous vegetable constituent benzyl isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Warin, Renaud; Xiao, Dong; Arlotti, Julie A; Bommareddy, Ajay; Singh, Shivendra V

    2010-05-01

    Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables such as garden cress, inhibits growth of human breast cancer cell lines in culture. The present study was undertaken to determine in vivo efficacy of BITC against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts. The BITC administration retarded growth of MDA-MB-231 cells subcutaneously implanted in female nude mice without causing weight loss or any other side effects. The BITC-mediated suppression of MDA-MB-231 xenograft growth correlated with reduced cell proliferation as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis for Ki-67 expression. Analysis of the vasculature in the tumors from BITC-treated mice indicated smaller vessel area compared with control tumors based on immunohistochemistry for angiogenesis marker CD31. The BITC-mediated inhibition of angiogenesis in vivo correlated with downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 protein levels in the tumor. Consistent with these results, BITC treatment suppressed VEGF secretion and VEGF receptor 2 protein levels in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, the BITC-treated MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited reduced capacity for migration compared with vehicle-treated control cells. In contrast to cellular data, BITC administration failed to elicit apoptotic response as judged by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of BITC against MDA-MB-231 xenografts in association with reduced cell proliferation and suppression of neovascularization. These preclinical observations merit clinical investigation to determine efficacy of BITC against human breast cancers. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Antiproliferative activity of the dietary isothiocyanate erucin, a bioactive compound from cruciferous vegetables, on human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Melchini, Antonietta; Traka, Maria H; Catania, Stefania; Miceli, Natalizia; Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Maimone, Patrizia; Francisco, Marta; Mithen, Richard F; Costa, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that many dietary agents, such as isothiocyanates (ITCs) from cruciferous vegetables, can retard or prevent the process of prostate carcinogenesis. Erucin (ER) is a dietary ITC, which has been recently considered a promising cancer chemopreventive phytochemical. The potential protective activity of ER against prostate cancer was investigated using prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC3), to analyze its effects on pathways involved in cell growth regulation, such as the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKs) inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1) (p21), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/AKT, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 signaling pathways. We have shown for the first time that ER increases significantly p21 protein expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner to inhibit PC3 cell proliferation (P ≤ 0.01). Compared to the structurally related sulforaphane, a well-studied broccoli-derived ITC, ER showed lower potency in inhibiting proliferation of PC3 cells, as well as in modulating p21 and pERK1/2 protein levels. Neither of the naturally occurring ITCs was able to affect significantly pAKT protein levels in prostate cells at all concentrations tested (0-25 μM). It is clearly important for the translation of laboratory findings to clinical approaches to investigate in animal and cell studies the molecular mechanisms by which ITCs may exert health promoting effects.

  18. Sulforaphane, a cruciferous vegetable-derived isothiocyanate, inhibits protein synthesis in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wiczk, Aleksandra; Hofman, Dagmara; Konopa, Grażyna; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna

    2012-08-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a compound derived from cruciferous plants. Its anticancer properties have been demonstrated both, in cancer cell lines as well as tumors in animal models. It has been shown that SFN inhibits cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, autophagy, and sensitizes cancer cells to therapies. As induction of catabolic processes is often related to perturbation in protein synthesis we aimed to investigate the impact of SFN on this process in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. In the present study we show that SFN inhibits protein synthesis in PC-3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner which is accompanied by a decreased phosphorylation of mTOR substrates. Translation inhibition is independent of mitochondria-derived ROS as it is observed in PC-3 derivatives devoid of functional mitochondrial respiratory chain (Rho0 cells). Although SFN affects mitochondria and slightly decreases glycolysis, the ATP level is maintained on the level characteristic for control cells. Inhibition of protein synthesis might be a protective response of prostate cancer cells to save energy. However, translation inhibition contributes to the death of PC-3 cells due to decreased level of a short-lived protein, survivin. Overexpression of this anti-apoptotic factor protects PC-3 cells against SFN cytotoxicity. Protein synthesis inhibition by SFN is not restricted to prostate cancer cells as we observed similar effect in SKBR-3 breast cancer cell line. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of green leafy and cruciferous vegetable intake on the incidence of cardiovascular disease: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Does the consumption of green leafy vegetables including cruciferous vegetables significantly reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease? This research question was answered via employing the statistical methods of meta-analysis by synthesizing relevant worldwide studies that address the association between the consumption of green leafy vegetables and risk of incidence of said diseases. All meta-analysis calculations included determination of effect sizes of relative risk, and their respective 95% confidence intervals, heterogeneity of the studies, relative weights for each study, and significance (p) for each study. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria, which investigated the relationship between the incidences of total cardiovascular disease with the intake of green leafy vegetables. The overall effect size (random effect model) was: RR = 0.842 (95% CI = 0.753 to 0.941), p = 0.002, which indicates a significant 15.8% reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27540481

  20. Strategy for dual production of bioethanol and d-psicose as value-added products from cruciferous vegetable residue.

    PubMed

    Song, Younho; Nguyen, Quynh Anh; Wi, Seung Gon; Yang, Jianming; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, fermentable sugars and d-fructose were produced from cruciferous vegetable residue by enzymatic method without the use of either chemical or mechanical mechanisms. Production of d-psicose was effectively converted from hydrolyzed d-fructose in cabbage residue by d-psicose-3 epimerase; the presence of the borate increased the conversion rate by about two fold, and ethanol production yield was 85.7% of the theoretical yield. Both products, bioethanol and d-psicose, were successfully separated and purified by pervaporation and cation exchange chromatography, and their recovery yields were approximately 87% and 86.2%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemopreventative potential of the cruciferous vegetable constituent phenethyl isothiocyanate in a mouse model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Powolny, Anna A; Bommareddy, Ajay; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Normolle, Daniel P; Beumer, Jan H; Nelson, Joel B; Singh, Shivendra V

    2011-04-06

    This study was undertaken to determine the chemopreventative efficacy of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a bioactive constituent of many edible cruciferous vegetables, in a mouse model of prostate cancer, and to identify potential biomarker(s) associated with PEITC response. The chemopreventative activity of dietary PEITC was investigated in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate mice that were fed a control diet or one containing 3 μmol PEITC/g (n = 21 mice per group) for 19 weeks. Dorsolateral prostate tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic evaluations and subjected to immunohistochemistry for analysis of cell proliferation (Ki-67 expression), autophagy (p62 and LC3 protein expression), and E-cadherin expression. Autophagosomes were visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Apoptotic bodies were detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling. Plasma proteomics was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry to identify potential biomarkers of PEITC activity. All statistical tests were two-sided. Administration of PEITC (3 μmol/g diet) decreased incidence (PEITC diet vs control diet, mean = 21.65 vs 57.58%, difference = -35.93%, 95% confidence interval = -45.48% to -13.10%, P = .04) as well as burden (affected area) (PEITC diet vs control diet, mean = 18.53% vs 45.01%, difference = -26.48%, 95% confidence interval = -49.78% to -3.19%, P = .02) of poorly differentiated tumors in the dorsolateral prostate of transgenic mice compared with control mice, with no toxic effects. PEITC-mediated inhibition of prostate carcinogenesis was associated with induction of autophagy and overexpression of E-cadherin in the dorsolateral prostate. However, PEITC treatment was not associated with a decrease in cellular proliferation, apoptosis induction, or inhibition of neoangiogenesis. Plasma proteomics revealed distinct changes in the expression of several

  2. Cruciferous vegetable phytochemical sulforaphane affects phase II enzyme expression and activity in rat cardiomyocytes through modulation of Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Emanuela; Malaguti, Marco; Angeloni, Cristina; Motori, Elisa; Fabbri, Daniele; Hrelia, Silvana

    2011-09-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SF), abundant in Cruciferous vegetables, is known to induce antioxidant/detoxification enzymes in many cancer cell lines, but studies focused on its cytoprotective action in nontransformed cells are just at the beginning. Since we previously demonstrated that SF elicits cardioprotection through an indirect antioxidative mechanism, the aim of this study was to analyze the signaling pathways through which SF exerts its protective effects. Using cultured rat cardiomyocytes, we investigated the ability of SF to activate Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways, which are implicated in cardiac cell survival, and to increase the phosphorylation of Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its binding to the antioxidant response element. By means of specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that the Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway represents a mechanism through which SF influences both expression and activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, thioredoxin reductase, and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, analyzed by western immunoblotting and spectrophotometric assay, respectively, and modulates Nrf2 binding and phosphorylation resulting in a cytoprotective action against oxidative damage. Results of this study confirm the importance of phase II enzymes modulation as cytoprotective mechanism and support the nutritional assumption of Cruciferous vegetables as source of nutraceutical cardioprotective agents. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Cruciferous Vegetable Intake Is Inversely Associated with Lung Cancer Risk among Current Nonsmoking Men in the Japan Public Health Center Study.

    PubMed

    Mori, Nagisa; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Nozue, Miho; Mutoh, Michihiro; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Inoue, Manami; Takachi, Ribeka; Sunami, Ayaka; Ishihara, Junko; Sobue, Tomotaka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-04-05

    Background: Cruciferous vegetables, a rich source of isothiocyanates, have been reported to lower the risk of several types of cancer, including lung cancer. However, evidence from prospective observations of populations with a relatively high intake of cruciferous vegetables is sparse.Objective: We investigated the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk in a large-scale population-based prospective study in Japan.Methods: We studied 82,330 participants (38,663 men; 43,667 women) aged 45-74 y without a past history of cancer. Participants were asked to respond to a validated questionnaire that included 138 food items. The association between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer incidence was assessed with the use of Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to estimate HRs and 95% CIs (with adjustments for potential confounding factors).Results: After 14.9 y of follow-up, a total of 1499 participants (1087 men; 412 women) were diagnosed with lung cancer. After deleting early-diagnosed cancer and adjusting for confounding factors, we observed a nonsignificant inverse trend between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk in men in the highest compared with the lowest quartiles (multivariate HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.69, 1.06; P-trend = 0.13). Stratified analysis by smoking status revealed a significant inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and lung cancer risk among those who were never smokers and those who were past smokers after deleting lung cancer cases in the first 3 y of follow-up [multivariate HR for never smokers: 0.49 (95% CI: 0.27, 0.87; P-trend = 0.04); multivariate HR for past smokers: 0.59 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.99; P-trend = 0.10)]. No association was noted in men who were current smokers and women who were never smokers.Conclusion: This study suggests that cruciferous vegetable intake may be associated with a reduction in lung cancer risk among men who are currently nonsmokers.

  4. Gene expression profiling in Caco-2 human colon cells exposed to TCDD, benzo[a]pyrene, and natural Ah receptor agonists from cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    de Waard, W J; Aarts, J M M J G; Peijnenburg, A A C M; Baykus, H; Talsma, E; Punt, A; de Kok, T M C M; van Schooten, F J; Hoogenboom, L A P

    2008-03-01

    Cruciferous vegetables and citrus fruits are reported to possess health-beneficial properties, but also have been shown to contain natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (NAhRAs). Binding to the AhR is widely assumed to activate the main pathway by which dioxins, like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exert their toxicity. To establish whether or not activation of the AhR pathway by NAhRAs and dioxin-like substances results in similar cellular responses, gene expression profiles induced in Caco-2 cells were studied using microarray analysis. Cells were exposed to indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), an acid reaction product from cruciferous vegetables, and to extracts of citrus pulp and grapefruit juice. Gene expression profiles induced by these NAhRAs were compared to those of the xenobiotic AhR agonists TCDD and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Over 20 genes were found more than 1.5 times up- or down-regulated by TCDD, and the expression of most of these genes was modulated in the same direction and to a similar extent by B[a]P and the NAhRAs. Results were confirmed by RT-PCR, and many of these genes may be involved in dioxin-related toxic effects. In conclusion, this in vitro study showed similar effects induced by NAhRAs, TCDD and B[a]P at the transcriptome level in a human intestinal cell line.

  5. Berteroin Present in Cruciferous Vegetables Exerts Potent Anti-Inflammatory Properties in Murine Macrophages and Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yoo Jin; Jung, Jae In; Cho, Han Jin; Choi, Myung-Sook; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Yu, Rina; Kang, Young-Hee; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Berteroin (5-methylthiopentyl isothiocyanate) is a sulforaphane analog present in cruciferous vegetables, including Chinese cabbage, rucola salad leaves, and mustard oil. We examined whether berteroin exerts anti-inflammatory activities using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse skin inflammation models. Berteroin decreased LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Raw 264.7 macrophages. Berteroin inhibited LPS-induced degradation of inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and nuclear factor-κB p65 translocation to the nucleus and DNA binding activity. Furthermore, berteroin suppressed degradation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase and phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1. Berteroin also inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, and AKT. In the mouse ear, berteroin effectively suppressed TPA-induced edema formation and down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression as well as phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. These results demonstrate that berteroin exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties and suggest that berteroin can be developed as a skin anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:25393510

  6. Suppression of inflammatory mediators by cruciferous vegetable-derived indole-3-carbinol and phenylethyl isothiocyanate in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jo-Ting; Liu, Hui-Ching; Chen, Yue-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the effects of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and beta-phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), bioactive components present in cruciferous vegetable, on the production of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Possible mechanisms of the NO-inhibitory effects were also explored. The results indicated that I3C and PEITC inhibited NO production, and this suppression was associated with decreased production of TNF-alpha and IL-10 by activated macrophages. In addition, I3C suppressed NO production even after the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein had been produced, but such an inhibitory effect was not observed in cells treated with PEITC. Furthermore, both compounds reduced the NO contents generated from an NO donor in a cell-free condition, suggesting that the increased NO clearance may have contributed to the NO-inhibitory effects. In summary, both I3C and PEITC possessed antiinflammatory effects by inhibiting the productions of NO, TNF-alpha, and IL-10, although the NO-inhibitory effects may have involved in different mechanisms.

  7. Berteroin present in cruciferous vegetables exerts potent anti-inflammatory properties in murine macrophages and mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yoo Jin; Jung, Jae In; Cho, Han Jin; Choi, Myung-Sook; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Yu, Rina; Kang, Young-Hee; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2014-11-11

    Berteroin (5-methylthiopentyl isothiocyanate) is a sulforaphane analog present in cruciferous vegetables, including Chinese cabbage, rucola salad leaves, and mustard oil. We examined whether berteroin exerts anti-inflammatory activities using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse skin inflammation models. Berteroin decreased LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in Raw 264.7 macrophages. Berteroin inhibited LPS-induced degradation of inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and nuclear factor-κB p65 translocation to the nucleus and DNA binding activity. Furthermore, berteroin suppressed degradation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase and phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1. Berteroin also inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2, and AKT. In the mouse ear, berteroin effectively suppressed TPA-induced edema formation and down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression as well as phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2. These results demonstrate that berteroin exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties and suggest that berteroin can be developed as a skin anti-inflammatory agent.

  8. Transfer of radiocesium to four cruciferous vegetables as influenced by organic amendment under different field conditions in Fukushima Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Djedidi, Salem; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Sohzoh; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-02-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in four cruciferous vegetables as influenced by cattle manure-based compost amendment was investigated. Komatsuna, mustard, radish and turnip were cultivated in three different (137)Cs-contaminated fields at Nihonmatsu City in Fukushima Prefecture from June to August 2012. Results revealed that organic compost amendments stimulated plant biomass production and tended to induce higher (137)Cs concentration in the cruciferous vegetables in most cases. Among the studied sites, Takanishi soil possessing low exchangeable potassium (0.10 cmolc kg(-1)) was associated with an increased concentration of (137)Cs in plants. Radiocesium transfer factor (TF) values of the vegetables ranged from 0.025 to 0.119. The increase in (137)Cs TFs was dependent on larger plant biomass production, high organic matter content, and high sand content in the studied soils. Average (137)Cs TF values for all study sites and compost treatments were higher in Komatsuna (0.072) and radish (0.059), which exhibited a higher biomass production compared to mustard and turnip. The transferability of (137)Cs to vegetables from soils was in the order Komatsuna > radish > mustard > turnip. The highest (137)Cs TF value (0.071) of all vegetables was recorded for a field where the soil had high organic matter content and a high clay proportion of 470 g kg(-1) consisting of Al-vermiculite clay mineral.

  9. Modulation of mouse gastrointestinal motility by allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae): evidence for TRPA1-independent effects

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, Raffaele; Aviello, Gabriella; Romano, Barbara; Borrelli, Francesca; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil), a constituent of many common cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae), activates transient receptor potential of ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1) channels, claimed to regulate gastrointestinal contractility. In this study, we have investigated the effect of AITC on intestinal motility. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Effects of AITC were investigated in vivo on upper gastrointestinal transit in mice and in mouse isolated ileum [contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS), acetylcholine and spontaneous contractility]. The contractor activity of AITC was studied in mouse isolated colon. The ability of TRPA1 channel antagonists to block AITC-induced elevation of intracellular Ca2+[Ca2+]i was assessed in HEK293 cells transfected with rat TRPA1 channels. KEY RESULTS AITC increased [Ca2+]i in HEK293 cells, reduced ileal contractility (acetylcholine-, EFS-induced contractions and spontaneous contractility), but contracted the isolated colon. Gentamicin and camphor (non-selective TRPA1 channel antagonists), HC-030031 and AP18 (selective TRPA1 channel agonists) inhibited AITC-induced effects in HEK293 cells but not in the ileum or colon. AITC-induced contractions were reduced by tetrodotoxin and strongly reduced by nifedipine, cyclopiazonic acid and ryanodine. In vivo, AITC reduced (following i.p. administration) or increased (following intragastric administration) upper gastrointestinal transit in mice These effects were not affected by HC-030031. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS AITC, depending, in vitro, on the regions of gut examined and, in vivo, on the route of administration, exerted both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on intestinal motility, which were not sensitive to TRPA1 channel antagonists. The proposition that TRPA1 channels are the primary targets for AITC to induce contraction should be revised. PMID:21955242

  10. Modulation of mouse gastrointestinal motility by allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae): evidence for TRPA1-independent effects.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Aviello, Gabriella; Romano, Barbara; Borrelli, Francesca; De Petrocellis, Luciano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2012-03-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, mustard oil), a constituent of many common cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae), activates transient receptor potential of ankyrin type-1 (TRPA1) channels, claimed to regulate gastrointestinal contractility. In this study, we have investigated the effect of AITC on intestinal motility. Effects of AITC were investigated in vivo on upper gastrointestinal transit in mice and in mouse isolated ileum [contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS), acetylcholine and spontaneous contractility]. The contractor activity of AITC was studied in mouse isolated colon. The ability of TRPA1 channel antagonists to block AITC-induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) [Ca(2+)](i) was assessed in HEK293 cells transfected with rat TRPA1 channels. AITC increased [Ca(2+)](i) in HEK293 cells, reduced ileal contractility (acetylcholine-, EFS-induced contractions and spontaneous contractility), but contracted the isolated colon. Gentamicin and camphor (non-selective TRPA1 channel antagonists), HC-030031 and AP18 (selective TRPA1 channel agonists) inhibited AITC-induced effects in HEK293 cells but not in the ileum or colon. AITC-induced contractions were reduced by tetrodotoxin and strongly reduced by nifedipine, cyclopiazonic acid and ryanodine. In vivo, AITC reduced (following i.p. administration) or increased (following intragastric administration) upper gastrointestinal transit in mice These effects were not affected by HC-030031. AITC, depending, in vitro, on the regions of gut examined and, in vivo, on the route of administration, exerted both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on intestinal motility, which were not sensitive to TRPA1 channel antagonists. The proposition that TRPA1 channels are the primary targets for AITC to induce contraction should be revised. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. In Vitro Bile Acid Binding Capacities of Red Leaf Lettuce and Cruciferous Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Yang, Isabelle F; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2017-09-13

    In the present study, we tested the bile acid binding capacity of red leaf lettuce, red cabbage, red kale, green kale, and Brussels sprouts through in vitro digestion process by simulating mouth, gastric, and intestinal digestion using six bile acids at physiological pH. Green and red kale exhibited significantly higher (86.5 ± 2.9 and 89.7 ± 0.9%, respectively) bile acid binding capacity compared to the other samples. Further, three different compositions of bile acids were tested to understand the effect on different health conditions. To predict the optimal dose for bile acid binding, we established a logistic relationship between kale dose and bile acid binding capacity. The results indicated that kale showed significantly higher bile acid binding capacity (82.5 ± 2.9% equivalent to 72.06 mg) at 1.5 g sample and remained constant up to 2.5 g. In addition, minimally processed (microwaved 3 min or steamed 8 min) green kale showed significantly enhanced bile acid binding capacity (91.1 ± 0.3 and 90.2 ± 0.7%, respectively) compared to lyophilized kale (85.5 ± 0.24%). Among the six bile acids tested, kale preferentially bound hydrophobic bile acids chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid. Therefore, regular consumption of kale, especially minimally processed kale, can help excrete more bile acids and, thus, may lower the risk of hypercholesterolemia.

  12. Ingestion of an isothiocyanate metabolite from cruciferous vegetables inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cell xenografts by apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Jen Wei; Wu, Hongyan; Ramaswamy, Gita; Conaway, C Clifford; Chung, Fung-Lung; Wang, Longgui; Liu, Delong

    2004-08-01

    Epidemiological surveys indicate that intake of cruciferous vegetables is inversely related to prostate cancer incidence, although the responsible dietary factors have not been identified. Our studies demonstrated that exposure of human prostate cancer cells in culture to the N-acetylcysteine (NAC) conjugate of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC-NAC), the major metabolite of PEITC that is abundant in watercress, inhibited proliferation and tumorigenesis. The PEITC-NAC is known to mediate cytoprotection at initiation of carcinogenesis. The relevance of PEITC-NAC in diets on the growth of prostate tumor cells has been evaluated in immunodeficient mice with xenografted tumors of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The daily PEITC-NAC (8 micromol/g) supplemented diet group showed a significant reduction in tumor size in 100% of the mice during the 9-week treatment period. Tumor weight at autopsy was reduced by 50% compared with mice on the diet without PEITC-NAC (P = 0.05). Mitosis and in vivo 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeled proliferating cells were reduced in these tumors. The PEITC-NAC diet up-regulated the inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases p21WAF-1/Cip-1 and p27Kip1, and reduced the expression of cyclins D and E, indicating they were potential molecular targets. As a result, phosphorylated Rb was significantly decreased and the G1- to S-phase transition retarded. The treated tumors also showed a significant increase in apoptosis as determined by in situ end-labeling, and by poly ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage. This study demonstrates the first in vivo evidence of dietary PEITC-NAC inhibiting tumorigenesis of prostate cancer cells. PEITC-NAC may prevent initiation of carcinogenesis and modulate the post-initiation phase by targeting cell cycle regulators and apoptosis induction.

  13. Growth inhibition of a spectrum of bacterial and fungal pathogens by sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate product found in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Noelle L; Pavia, Charles S; Chiao, Jen Wei

    2008-06-01

    In addition to its documented antitumor effects, previous in vitro and in vivo infectivity experiments have shown that sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate compound found abundantly in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables, inhibits the growth of the bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori. No recent evidence exists, however, on the possible microbial activity of SFN against a broader range of microorganisms, including those that may develop resistance to conventional antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility patterns of SFN against a wide variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Sensitivity testing was done on 28 different microbial species using a modified Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method and results were interpreted based on guidelines established by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The broad-spectrum antibiotic, ceftriaxone (CTX), was used as a positive control for antimicrobial inhibition. It was found that 23 out of 28 different microbial species were inhibited by SFN with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranging from 1-4 microg/mL. Five pathogens--Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 3 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates and Candida albicans--were considered resistant to SFN, having MICs >or= 16-32 microg/mL. These findings suggest that, with the dual action of SFN against a select group of microorganisms and its ability to inhibit tumor growth, SFN (or the consumption of SFN-containing vegetables) might be especially helpful in preventing certain types of infections in both cancer and non-cancer patients.

  14. Harnessing the power of cruciferous vegetables: developing a biomarker for Brassica vegetable consumption using urinary 3,3′-diindolylmethane

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Naomi; Ransom, Benjamin W.; Carmella, Steven G.; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Roper-Batker, Astia; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Fritz, Vincent A.; Rohwer, Charles; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2017-01-01

    Glucobrassicin in Brassica vegetables gives rise to indole-3-carbinol, a compound with potent anti-cancer effects in preclinical models. We previously showed that the urinary metabolite 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM) could discriminate between volunteers fed high and low doses of Brassica vegetables. However, the quantitative relationship between glucobrassicin exposure and urinary DIM level is unclear. We conducted a clinical trial to examine the hypotheses that a range of glucobrassicin exposure from Brassica vegetables is reflected in urinary DIM, and that this effect plateaus. Forty-five subjects consumed vegetables, a mixture of Brussels sprouts and/or cabbage, at 1 of 7 discrete dose levels of glucobrassicin ranging from 25 to 500 μmol, once daily for two consecutive days. All urine was collected for 24 hours after each vegetable-eating session. Urinary DIM was measured using our published liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (LC/ESI-MS/MS-SRM) method. Urinary DIM excretion increased predictably with increasing glucobrassicin dose and plateaued between 200 and 300 μmol of glucobrassicin. The association between glucobrassicin dose and urinary DIM was strong and positive (R2=0.68). The majority of DIM was excreted in the first 12 hours after vegetable consumption. We conclude that urinary DIM is a reliable biomarker of glucobrassicin exposure and I3C uptake, and that feeding glucobrassicin beyond 200 μmol did not consistently lead to more urinary DIM, suggesting a plateau in potential chemopreventive benefit. PMID:27538743

  15. Cruciferous Vegetables Intake Is Associated with Lower Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Zhao, Long

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have evaluated the association between cruciferous vegetables(CV) intake and the risk of renal cell carcinoma(RCC); however, the existing results are controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the association between CV intake and RCC risk. Methods A literature search was carried out using PUBMED and EMBASE database between January 1966 and March 2013. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analysis and cumulative meta-analysis were also performed. Results A total of 12 studies (six cohorts, six case–control) contributed to the analysis, involving 1,228,518 participants and 5,773 RCC cases. When all studies were pooled, we observed a significantly inverse association between CV intake and RCC risk (RR = 0.81, 95% CI [0.72, 0.91]). This association was also significant when analyses were restricted to six high-quality studies (RR = 0.89, 95% CI [0.82, 0.98]). In subgroup analyses, CV intake was significantly associated with reduced RCC risk among studies conducted in America (RR = 0.77, 95%CI [0.70, 0.86]); however, CV intake had no significant association with RCC risk among studies conducted in Europe (RR = 0.87, 95%CI [0.71, 1.07]). Furthermore, sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of results. Conclusions The findings of this meta-analysis suggested that high intake of CV was inversely associated with RCC risk among Americans. More studies, especially high quality cohort studies with larger sample size, well controlled confounding factors are warranted to confirm this association. PMID:24204579

  16. Frequent consumption of milk, yogurt, cold breakfast cereals, peppers, and cruciferous vegetables and intakes of dietary folate and riboflavin but not vitamins B-12 and B-6 are inversely associated with serum total homocysteine concentrations in the US population.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Vijay; Kafai, Mohammad R

    2004-12-01

    Elevated circulating total homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. We investigated the relation between dietary intakes and serum tHcy in the US population. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were used to investigate the associations between food consumption frequency and dietary B vitamin intakes and serum tHcy in 5996 persons. Multivariate-adjusted tHcy concentrations were approximately 15.2% higher in subjects who never consumed milk than in those who consumed milk >30 times/mo, approximately 6.4% higher in subjects who never consumed yogurt than in those who consumed yogurt >15 times/mo, approximately 7.4% higher in subjects who never consumed cold breakfast cereals than in those who consumed cold breakfast cereals >30 times/mo, approximately 6.3% higher in subjects who never consumed peppers (includes red, yellow, green, and hot chili peppers) than in those who consumed peppers >30 times/mo, and approximately 16.5% higher in subjects who never consumed cruciferous vegetables than in those who consumed cruciferous vegetables >30 times/mo. Consumption of citrus fruit and juices, cheese, meats, coffee, or tea had no significant association with tHcy. Folate (beta=-0.0017, P for trend=0.004) and riboflavin (beta=-0.2851, P for trend=0.027), but not vitamin B-6 (beta=0.0505, P for trend=0.70) and cobalamin (beta=-0.0035, P for trend=0.58), were inversely related to serum tHcy after adjustment for confounders. In this population-based study, milk, yogurt, cold breakfast cereals, peppers, and cruciferous vegetables were inversely related to serum tHcy. This association may be explained by increased intakes of folate and riboflavin.

  17. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health ... Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health ...

  18. FRONT, STREETSIDE ELEVATION OF RESIDENCE SHOWING LUSH VEGETATION AND LANDSCAPING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT, STREET-SIDE ELEVATION OF RESIDENCE SHOWING LUSH VEGETATION AND LANDSCAPING. SIDEWALK SHOWN IN FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Three-Bedroom Single-Family Type 9, Birch Circle, Elm Drive, Elm Circle, and Date Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. Development of validated high-temperature reverse-phase UHPLC-PDA analytical method for simultaneous analysis of five natural isothiocyanates in cruciferous vegetables.

    PubMed

    Robin; Arora, Rohit; Arora, Saroj; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2018-01-15

    In the present study reverse-phase UHPLC-PDA technique was developed at 60°C for simultaneous quantification of allyl, 3-butenyl, 4-(methylthio)butyl, benzyl and phenethyl isothiocyanates. The validation parameter showed a very good linearity, with a correlation coefficient of 1.00 for all detected standard analytes. Also, high precision and accuracy were observed with lowest obtained values of 1.39% and 99.1%, respectively. Different varieties of three plants, viz. Brassica rapa var. rapa L., Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers. and Eruca sativa Mill., were analyzed with this method. After analysis, 4-(methylthio)butyl isothiocyanate was observed to be the major component in the varieties of arugula. Allyl, benzyl and phenethyl isothiocyanates were detected in turnip varieties and, in addition, 3-butenyl isothiocyanate was detected in radish varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards engineering glucosinolates into non-cruciferous plants.

    PubMed

    Geu-Flores, Fernando; Olsen, Carl Erik; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2009-01-01

    Glucosinolates are amino acid-derived secondary metabolites present in cruciferous plants. Glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products are involved in defence against insects and pathogens, but are also known for their characteristic flavor and their cancer-preventive and antibacterial properties. This wide range of bioactivities has prompted a desire to engineer glucosinolates into non-cruciferous plants. We report the one-step transfer of the last three steps of the benzylglucosinolate pathway (comprising the C-S lyase, glycosyltransferase and sulfotransferase) from Arabidopsis to tobacco. This was achieved using an expression construct consisting of a single 2A polycistronic open reading frame, which allowed the expression of the three coding-sequences from a single promoter. When compared to wildtype plants, transgenic tobacco lines showed increased ability to convert the intermediate phenylacetothiohydroxamate to benzylglucosinolate upon in vivo feeding. Enzymatic assays using plant extracts demonstrated that the individual activities required for this conversion were enhanced in the transgenic plants. The relatively high conversion by wildtype plants in feeding assays supports the hypothesis that the last part of the glucosinolate pathway was recruited from existing detoxification reactions. Immunoblots confirmed that individual proteins were being successfully produced from the 2A polycistronic open reading frame, albeit fusion proteins could also be detected. In summary, we transferred the last three steps of the benzylglucosinolate pathway to tobacco as a first step towards engineering glucosinolates into non-cruciferous plants.

  1. Vegetable cost metrics show that potatoes and beans provide most nutrients per penny.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are important sources of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals in the diets of children. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National School Lunch Program has new requirements for weekly servings of vegetable subgroups as well as beans and peas. This study estimated the cost impact of meeting the USDA requirements using 2008 national prices for 98 vegetables, fresh, frozen, and canned. Food costs were calculated per 100 grams, per 100 calories, and per edible cup. Rank 6 score, a nutrient density measure was based on six nutrients: dietary fiber; potassium; magnesium; and vitamins A, C, and K. Individual nutrient costs were measured as the monetary cost of 10% daily value of each nutrient per cup equivalent. ANOVAs with post hoc tests showed that beans and starchy vegetables, including white potatoes, were cheaper per 100 calories than were dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables. Fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables had similar nutrient profiles and provided comparable nutritional value. However, less than half (n = 46) of the 98 vegetables listed by the USDA were were consumed >5 times by children and adolescents in the 2003-4 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. For the more frequently consumed vegetables, potatoes and beans were the lowest-cost sources of potassium and fiber. These new metrics of affordable nutrition can help food service and health professionals identify those vegetable subgroups in the school lunch that provide the best nutritional value per penny.

  2. Vegetable Cost Metrics Show That Potatoes and Beans Provide Most Nutrients Per Penny

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are important sources of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals in the diets of children. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National School Lunch Program has new requirements for weekly servings of vegetable subgroups as well as beans and peas. This study estimated the cost impact of meeting the USDA requirements using 2008 national prices for 98 vegetables, fresh, frozen, and canned. Food costs were calculated per 100 grams, per 100 calories, and per edible cup. Rank 6 score, a nutrient density measure was based on six nutrients: dietary fiber; potassium; magnesium; and vitamins A, C, and K. Individual nutrient costs were measured as the monetary cost of 10% daily value of each nutrient per cup equivalent. ANOVAs with post hoc tests showed that beans and starchy vegetables, including white potatoes, were cheaper per 100 calories than were dark-green and deep-yellow vegetables. Fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables had similar nutrient profiles and provided comparable nutritional value. However, less than half (n = 46) of the 98 vegetables listed by the USDA were were consumed >5 times by children and adolescents in the 2003–4 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. For the more frequently consumed vegetables, potatoes and beans were the lowest-cost sources of potassium and fiber. These new metrics of affordable nutrition can help food service and health professionals identify those vegetable subgroups in the school lunch that provide the best nutritional value per penny. PMID:23691007

  3. Host finding and acceptance preference of the yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), on cruciferous crops.

    PubMed

    Balusu, Rammohan R; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2011-12-01

    The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an introduced pest of cruciferous crops in the southern United States, and arguably the most damaging pest of organic crucifer vegetable production in the region. Studies were conducted in the greenhouse and laboratory to investigate host finding and acceptance preference of M. ochroloma on four commonly grown cruciferous crops: cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata), collards (B. oleracea L. variety acephala), napa cabbage [B. pekinensis (Lour.)], and turnip (B. rapa L.) First, adult beetles were allowed to choose among the four plants in a multiple-choice greenhouse cage experiment and host preference was evaluated by using three parameters: number of beetles on each plant, number of larvae on each plant, and plant damage ratings. The results showed that M. ochroloma adults actively discriminated among the four host plants, with significantly higher numbers recorded on turnip and napa cabbage than on cabbage or collards. Significantly higher numbers of larvae also were recorded on turnip and napa cabbage starting on day 10. Similarly, higher damage ratings were recorded on turnip and napa cabbage than on the remaining two hosts. Results of four-choice olfactometer experiments, which compared attraction of M. ochroloma to headspace volatiles of the four host plants, demonstrated that host preference is mediated primarily by plant volatiles. Both sexes were significantly more attracted to napa cabbage than to the remaining treatments, with turnip being the second most attractive plant. These results confirm that turnip and napa cabbage are two preferred host plants of M. ochroloma, and may support the development of a trap crop system and attractant-based strategies for managing M. ochroloma in crucifer production.

  4. Map showing vegetation distribution in the central part of the East Tintic Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milton, Nancy; Madura, Daryl P.

    1981-01-01

    This study in part of a broader program to determine the usefulness of multispectral scanner aircraft and satellite images for mapping lithologic units and vegetation communities (Rowan and others, 1974; 1977; Abrams and others, 1997; Rowan and Abrams, 1978a; 1978b; Kahle and Rowan, 1979, written commun.).

  5. Tenualexin, other phytoalexins and indole glucosinolates from wild cruciferous species.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Yaya, Estifanos E

    2014-06-01

    In general, the chemodiversity of phytoalexins, elicited metabolites involved in plant defense mechanisms against microbial pathogens, correlates with the biodiversity of their sources. In this work, the phytoalexins produced by four wild cruciferous species (Brassica tournefortii, Crambe abyssinica (crambe), Diplotaxis tenuifolia (sand rocket), and Diplotaxis tenuisiliqua (wall rocket)) were identified and quantified by HPLC with photodioarray and electrospray mass detectors. In addition, the production of indole glucosinolates, biosynthetic precursors of cruciferous phytoalexins, was evaluated. Tenualexin, (=2-(1,4-dimethoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)acetonitrile), the first cruciferous phytoalexin containing two MeO substituents in the indole ring, was isolated from D. tenuisiliqua, synthesized, and evaluated for antifungal activity. The phytoalexins cyclobrassinin and spirobrassinin were detected in B. tournefortii and C. abyssinica, whereas rutalexin and 4-methoxybrassinin were only found in B. tournefortii. D. tenuifolia, and D. tenuisiliqua produced 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetonitriles as phytoalexins. Because tenualexin appears to be one of the broad-range antifungals occurring in crucifers, it is suggested that D. tenuisiliqua may have disease resistance traits important to be incorporated in commercial breeding programs.

  6. Bioavailability and new biomarkers of cruciferous sprouts consumption.

    PubMed

    Baenas, Nieves; Suárez-Martínez, Clara; García-Viguera, Cristina; Moreno, Diego A

    2017-10-01

    The evaluation of the bioavailability of bioactive compounds from cruciferous foods is one challenge in the design of clinical trials for studying their functionality. Currently, studies of bioavailability are mainly based of the analysis of total isothiocyanates and indoles, and sulforaphane metabolites after broccoli consumption. However, as far as we are aware, there are not any biomarkers studied or established for the intake of radish sprouts. In this work, a 7-days-cross-over study with fourteen women was undertaken to compare the bioavailability of glucosinolates from broccoli and radish sprouts. The urinary excretion of isothiocyanates, indoles and their metabolites was analysed by UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS. For the first time, sulforaphene, sulforaphane-N-acetyl-l-cysteine (SFN-NAC) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), were studied as biomarkers of dietary exposure to radish. The SFN-NAC and DIM were already considered biomarkers of broccoli consumption. Higher excretion of conjugated isothiocyanates and constant excretion of indoles were found during the first 12h after ingestion. Metabolites were excreted homogeneously during the study, suggesting no accumulation. The different urinary biomarker profiles provided new information to distinguish between the consumption of broccoli or radish sprouts. The results provide valuable information to better understand the bioavailability of cruciferous bioactives. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Ragweed pollen collected along high-traffic roads shows a higher allergenicity than pollen sampled in vegetated areas.

    PubMed

    Ghiani, A; Aina, R; Asero, R; Bellotto, E; Citterio, S

    2012-07-01

    Pollutants may affect pollen allergenicity and thus the prevalence of allergies. Although a few studies are available in literature, the connection between pollution and the allergenic potential of pollen has yet to be clearly defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of traffic-related pollution on the allergenicity of ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen through a field-based experiment. Mature pollen grains were collected from ragweed plants grown along main roadsides and in vegetated areas of Po river plain. The percentage of sub-pollen particle-releasing grains (SPPGs) was evaluated immediately after sampling by microscope and image analysis. Immunochemistry and LC-MS/MS were applied to assess the whole allergenicity and the allergen pattern characterizing the different pollen samples. No statistical difference was detected in the percentage of SPPGs among pollen samples. Specifically, after hydration, the mean percentage was very low (<4%) in all the samples, regardless of the site of origin. On the contrary, pollen collected along high-traffic roads showed a higher whole allergenicity than pollen from low-traffic roads and vegetated areas which showed a reactivity similar to that of the commercial pollen 'Allergon', used as a standard. The detected higher allergenicity levels were attributed to both quantitative and qualitative differences in allergen pattern. Our findings show that pollen collected at different sites contains different amount and number of allergens and suggest that traffic-related pollution enhances ragweed pollen allergenicity, which may contribute to the increasing prevalence of ragweed allergy in Lombardy plain. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Marker-free transgenic rice expressing the vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) of Bacillus thuringiensis shows broad insecticidal properties.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Subrata; Chakraborty, Anirban; Sikdar, Narattam; Chakraborty, Saikat; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Mitra, Joy; Manna, Anulina; Dutta Gupta, Snehasish; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Genetically engineered rice lines with broad insecticidal properties against major lepidopteran pests were generated using a synthetic, truncated form of vegetative insecticidal protein (Syn vip3BR) from Bacillus thuringiensis. The selectable marker gene and the redundant transgene(s) were eliminated through Cre/ lox mediated recombination and genetic segregation to make consumer friendly Bt -rice. For sustainable resistance against lepidopteran insect pests, chloroplast targeted synthetic version of bioactive core component of a vegetative insecticidal protein (Syn vip3BR) of Bacillus thuringiensis was expressed in rice under the control of green-tissue specific ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit gene promoter. The transgenic plants (in Oryza sativa indica Swarna cultivar) showed high insect mortality rate in vitro against major rice pests, yellow stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulas), rice leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and rice horn caterpillar (Melanitis leda ismene) in T1 generation, indicating insecticidal potency of Syn vip3BR. Under field conditions, the T1 plants showed considerable resistance against leaf folders and stem borers. The expression cassette (vip-lox-hpt-lox) as well as another vector with chimeric cre recombinase gene under constitutive rice ubiquitin1 gene promoter was designed for the elimination of selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII) gene. Crossing experiments were performed between T1 plants with single insertion site of vip-lox-hpt-lox T-DNA and one T1 plant with moderate expression of cre recombinase with linked bialaphos resistance (syn bar) gene. Marker gene excision was achieved in hybrids with up to 41.18 % recombination efficiency. Insect resistant transgenic lines, devoid of selectable marker and redundant transgene(s) (hptII + cre-syn bar), were established in subsequent generation through genetic segregation.

  9. Family Members' Influence on Family Meal Vegetable Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J.; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Design: Eight focus groups, 2 with each segment (men/women vegetable…

  10. Impacts of tourism hotspots on vegetation communities show a higher potential for self-propagation along roads than hiking trails.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Isabelle D; Croft, David B

    2014-10-01

    Vegetation communities along recreational tracks may suffer from substantial edge-effects through the impacts of trampling, modified environmental conditions and competition with species that benefit from disturbance. We assessed impacts on trackside vegetation by comparing high and low usage tourism sites at a 1-10 m distance from recreational tracks in a popular arid-lands tourism destination in South Australia. The central aim was quantification of the strengths and spatial extent of tourism impacts along recreational tracks with a qualitative comparison of roads and trails. Track-distance gradients were most prevalent at high usage sites. There, species community composition was altered, total plant cover decreased, non-native species cover increased, plant diversity increased or decreased (depending on the distance) and soil compaction increased towards recreational tracks. Roadside effects were greater and more pervasive than trailside effects. Further, plant diversity did not continuously increase towards the road verge as it did along trails but dropped sharply in the immediate road shoulder which indicated high disturbance conditions that few species were able to tolerate. To our knowledge, we are the first to demonstrate that the access mode to a recreation site influences the potential of certain impacts, such as the increase of non-native species, to self-perpetuate from their points of introduction to disjointed sites with a predisposition to disturbance. Due to this propulsion of impacts, the overall spatial extent of roadside impacts was far greater than initially apparent from assessments at the road verge. We discuss possible means of mitigating these impacts.

  11. Use of reverse micelles for the simultaneous extraction of oil, proteins, and glucosinolates from cruciferous oilseeds.

    PubMed

    Ugolini, Luisa; De Nicola, Gina; Palmieri, Sandro

    2008-03-12

    Cruciferous oilseeds are important sources of oil, proteins, and glucosinolates (GLs), potentially available when biorefinery processes are used. The proposed extraction technology is based on the use of reverse micelles (RMs) made with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) dispersed in organic solvent. The physicochemical properties of this extraction system and the good water solubility of many high value compounds, such as GLs and some proteins, permit the simultaneous extraction of oil, and these products from cruciferous oilseed meals. This procedure is based on three main steps: (i) seed conditioning; (ii) solid-liquid extraction by RM solution; and (iii) back-transfer of the RM solution for recovery of the extracted compounds. The method makes it possible to simultaneously extract almost the same amount of oil as with pure organic solvents used in the current extraction plants and more than 90% of soluble proteins and GLs. It is a promising biorefinery technology alternative to traditional oil extraction processes.

  12. The mitochondrial genome of Raphanus sativus and gene evolution of cruciferous mitochondrial types.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shengxin; Chen, Jianmei; Wang, Yankun; Gu, Bingchao; He, Jianbo; Chu, Pu; Guan, Rongzhan

    2013-03-20

    To explore the mitochondrial genes of the Cruciferae family, the mitochondrial genome of Raphanus sativus (sat) was sequenced and annotated. The circular mitochondrial genome of sat is 239,723 bp and includes 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes and 17 tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome also contains a pair of large repeat sequences 5.9 kb in length, which may mediate genome reorganization into two sub-genomic circles, with predicted sizes of 124.8 kb and 115.0 kb, respectively. Furthermore, gene evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Cruciferae family was analyzed using sat mitochondrial type (mitotype), together with six other reported mitotypes. The cruciferous mitochondrial genomes have maintained almost the same set of functional genes. Compared with Cycas taitungensis (a representative gymnosperm), the mitochondrial genomes of the Cruciferae have lost nine protein-coding genes and seven mitochondrial-like tRNA genes, but acquired six chloroplast-like tRNAs. Among the Cruciferae, to maintain the same set of genes that are necessary for mitochondrial function, the exons of the genes have changed at the lowest rates, as indicated by the numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The open reading frames (ORFs) of unknown function in the cruciferous genomes are not conserved. Evolutionary events, such as mutations, genome reorganizations and sequence insertions or deletions (indels), have resulted in the non-conserved ORFs in the cruciferous mitochondrial genomes, which is becoming significantly different among mitotypes. This work represents the first phylogenic explanation of the evolution of genes of known function in the Cruciferae family. It revealed significant variation in ORFs and the causes of such variation.

  13. Impact of a Community-Based Intervention on Serving and Intake of Vegetables among Low-Income, Rural Appalachian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Wilson, Robin Taylor; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention promoting the serving and eating of deep-orange, cruciferous, and dark-green leafy vegetables. Design: Randomized, parallel-group, community-based intervention with a baseline/postintervention/3-month follow-up design. Setting and Participants: Low-income food preparers (n…

  14. Impact of a Community-Based Intervention on Serving and Intake of Vegetables among Low-Income, Rural Appalachian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenrich, Tionni R.; Brown, J. Lynne; Wilson, Robin Taylor; Lengerich, Eugene J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based intervention promoting the serving and eating of deep-orange, cruciferous, and dark-green leafy vegetables. Design: Randomized, parallel-group, community-based intervention with a baseline/postintervention/3-month follow-up design. Setting and Participants: Low-income food preparers (n…

  15. Vegetable and fruit intake after diagnosis and risk of prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Erin L.; Carroll, Peter R.; Chan, June M.

    2011-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetables, tomato sauce, and legumes have been associated with reduced risk of incident advanced prostate cancer. In vitro and animal studies suggest these foods may inhibit progression of prostate cancer, but there are limited data in men. Therefore, we prospectively examined whether intake of total vegetables, and specifically cruciferous vegetables, tomato sauce, and legumes, after diagnosis reduce risk of prostate cancer progression among 1,560 men diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer and participating in the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor, a United States prostate cancer registry. As a secondary analysis, we also examined other vegetable sub-groups, total fruit, and subgroups of fruits. The participants were diagnosed primarily at community-based clinics and followed from 2004–2009. We assessed vegetable and fruit intake via a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and ascertained prostate cancer outcomes via urologist report and medical records. We observed 134 events of progression (53 biochemical recurrences, 71 secondary treatments likely due to recurrence, six bone metastases, four prostate cancer deaths) during 3,171 person-yrs. Men in the fourth quartile of post-diagnostic cruciferous vegetable intake had a statistically significant 59% decreased risk of prostate cancer progression compared to men in the lowest quartile (hazard ratio (HR): 0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22, 0.76; p-trend: 0.003). No other vegetable or fruit group was statistically significantly associated with risk of prostate cancer progression. In conclusion, cruciferous vegetable intake after diagnosis may reduce risk of prostate cancer progression. PMID:21823116

  16. Dietary intake of vegetables and fruits and the modification effects of GSTM1 and NAT2 genotypes on bladder cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie; Kamat, Ashish; Gu, Jian; Chen, Meng; Dinney, Colin P; Forman, Michele R; Wu, Xifeng

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed the association between intakes of vegetables and fruits as defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture pyramid food groups and bladder cancer risk using data collected in a large case-control study. The study included 884 histologically confirmed bladder cancer cases and 878 healthy controls matched to cases by age (+/-5 years), gender, and ethnicity. Significant inverse associations were observed for intakes of total vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, orange vegetables, dark green vegetables, and bladder cancer risk. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of total vegetable intake, the odds ratios for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles of total vegetable intake were 0.84 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.64-1.10], 0.71 (95% CI, 0.54-0.95), and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.50-0.90), respectively (P for trend = 0.004). Compared with those in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of cruciferous vegetable intake had an odds ratio of 0.69 (95% CI, 0.52-0.92; P for trend = 0.001) and those in the highest quartile of orange vegetable intake had an odds ratio of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.52-0.91; P for trend = 0.006). Furthermore, the protective effect of cruciferous vegetables was more evident in subjects carrying GSTM1-null (odds ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.73 for the 4th quartile of intake) and NAT2-slow genotypes (odds ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33-0.97 for the 4th quartile of intake). No association was observed for intakes of total fruits or citrus fruits. Our data strongly support that high vegetable consumption, especially cruciferous vegetable intake, may protect against bladder cancer and that genetic variants of GSTM1 and NAT2 may modify the association.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Repeated Exposure to Cruciferous Allyl Nitrile in Sensitizer-Induced Ear Edema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tanii, Hideji; Sugitani, Kayo; Saijoh, Kiyofumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin sensitizers induce allergic reactions through the induction of reactive oxygen species. Allyl nitrile from cruciferous vegetables has been reported to induce antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes in various tissues. We assessed the effects of repeated exposure to allyl nitrile on sensitizer-induced allergic reactions. Material/Methods Mice were dosed with allyl nitrile (0–200 μmol/kg), and then received a dermal application of 1 of 3 sensitizers on the left ear or 1 of 2 vehicles on the right ear. Quantitative assessment of edema was carried out by measuring the difference in weight between the portions taken from the right and left ears. We tested enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in ears. Results Repeated exposure to allyl nitrile reduced edemas induced by glutaraldehyde and by 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), but not by formaldehyde. The repeated exposure decreased levels of TBARS, a marker of oxidative stress, induced by glutaraldehyde and by DNCB, but not by formaldehyde. Allyl nitrile elevated SOD levels for the 3 sensitizers, and CAT levels for formaldehyde and DNCB. Allyl nitrile also increased GPx levels for formaldehyde and DNCB, but not for glutaraldehyde. The reduced edemas were associated with changes in oxidative stress levels and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions Repeated exposure to allyl nitrile reduced allergic reactions induced by glutaraldehyde and by DNCB, but not by formaldehyde. This reduction was associated with changes in ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. PMID:26932717

  18. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Repeated Exposure to Cruciferous Allyl Nitrile in Sensitizer-Induced Ear Edema in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tanii, Hideji; Sugitani, Kayo; Saijoh, Kiyofumi

    2016-02-29

    Skin sensitizers induce allergic reactions through the induction of reactive oxygen species. Allyl nitrile from cruciferous vegetables has been reported to induce antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes in various tissues. We assessed the effects of repeated exposure to allyl nitrile on sensitizer-induced allergic reactions. Mice were dosed with allyl nitrile (0-200 µmol/kg), and then received a dermal application of 1 of 3 sensitizers on the left ear or 1 of 2 vehicles on the right ear. Quantitative assessment of edema was carried out by measuring the difference in weight between the portions taken from the right and left ears. We tested enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in ears. Repeated exposure to allyl nitrile reduced edemas induced by glutaraldehyde and by 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), but not by formaldehyde. The repeated exposure decreased levels of TBARS, a marker of oxidative stress, induced by glutaraldehyde and by DNCB, but not by formaldehyde. Allyl nitrile elevated SOD levels for the 3 sensitizers, and CAT levels for formaldehyde and DNCB. Allyl nitrile also increased GPx levels for formaldehyde and DNCB, but not for glutaraldehyde. The reduced edemas were associated with changes in oxidative stress levels and antioxidant enzymes. Repeated exposure to allyl nitrile reduced allergic reactions induced by glutaraldehyde and by DNCB, but not by formaldehyde. This reduction was associated with changes in ROS levels and antioxidant enzyme activities.

  19. Vegetable and Fruit Intake and Fracture-Related Hospitalisations: A Prospective Study of Older Women.

    PubMed

    Blekkenhorst, Lauren C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Lewis, Joshua R; Devine, Amanda; Woodman, Richard J; Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Zhu, Kun; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ward, Natalie C; Prince, Richard L

    2017-05-18

    The importance of vegetable and fruit intakes for the prevention of fracture in older women is not well understood. Few studies have explored vegetable and fruit intakes separately, or the associations of specific types of vegetables and fruits with fracture hospitalisations. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of vegetable and fruit intakes, separately, and specific types of vegetables and fruits with fracture-related hospitalisations in a prospective cohort of women aged ≥70 years. Vegetable and fruit intakes were assessed at baseline (1998) in 1468 women using a food frequency questionnaire. The incidence of fracture-related hospitalisations over 14.5 years of follow-up was determined using the Hospital Morbidity Data Collection, linked via the Western Australian Data Linkage System. Fractures were identified in 415 (28.3%) women, of which 158 (10.8%) were hip fractures. Higher intakes of vegetables, but not fruits, were associated with lower fracture incidence. In multivariable-adjusted models for vegetable types, cruciferous and allium vegetables were inversely associated with all fractures, with a hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval) of 0.72 (0.54, 0.95) and 0.66 (0.49, 0.88), respectively, for the highest vs. lowest quartiles. Increasing vegetable intake, with an emphasis on cruciferous and allium vegetables, may prevent fractures in older postmenopausal women.

  20. Four TFL1/CEN-like genes on distinct linkage groups show different expression patterns to regulate vegetative and reproductive development in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Mimida, Naozumi; Kotoda, Nobuhiro; Ueda, Takanori; Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Iwanami, Hiroshi; Moriya, Shigeki; Abe, Kazuyuki

    2009-02-01

    Recent molecular analyses in several plant species revealed that TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) and CENTRORADIALIS (CEN) homologs are involved in regulating the flowering time and/or maintaining the inflorescence meristem. In apple (Malusxdomestica Borkh.), four TFL1/CEN-like genes, MdTFL1, MdTFL1a, MdCENa and MdCENb, were found and mapped by a similar position on putatively homoeologous linkage groups. Apple TFL1/CEN-like genes functioned equivalently to TFL1 when expressed constitutively in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting that they have a potential to complement the TFL1 function. Because MdTFL1 and MdTFL1a were expressed in the vegetative tissues in both the adult and juvenile phases, they could function redundantly as a flowering repressor and a regulator of vegetative meristem identity. On the other hand, MdCENa was mainly expressed in fruit receptacles, cultured tissues and roots, suggesting that it is involved in the development of proliferating tissues but not in the control of the transition from the juvenile to the adult phase. In contrast, MdCENb was silenced in most organs probably due to gene duplication by the polyploid origin of apple. The expression patterns of MdTFL1 and MdCENa in apple were also supported by the heterologous expression of beta-glucuronidase fused with their promoter regions in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results suggest that functional divergence of the roles in the regulation of vegetative meristem identity may have occurred among four TFL1/CEN-like genes during evolution in apple.

  1. Intake of fruit and vegetables and risk of bladder cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Yao, Baodong; Yan, Yujie; Ye, Xianwu; Fang, Hong; Xu, Huilin; Liu, Yinan; Li, Sheran; Zhao, Yanping

    2014-12-01

    Observational studies suggest an association between fruit and vegetables intake and risk of bladder cancer, but the results are controversial. We therefore summarized the evidence from observational studies in categorical, linear, and nonlinear, dose-response meta-analysis. Pertinent studies were identified by searching EMBASE and PubMed from their inception to August 2013. Thirty-one observational studies involving 12,610 cases and 1,121,649 participants were included. The combined rate ratio (RR, 95 % CI) of bladder cancer for the highest versus lowest intake was 0.83 (0.69-0.99) for total fruit and vegetables, 0.81 (0.70-0.93) for total vegetables, 0.77 (0.69-0.87) for total fruit, 0.84 (0.77-0.91) for cruciferous vegetables, 0.79 (0.68-0.91) for citrus fruits, and 0.74 (0.66-0.84) for yellow-orange vegetables. Subgroup analysis showed study design and gender as possible sources of heterogeneity. A nonlinear relationship was found of citrus fruits intake with risk of bladder cancer (P for nonlinearity = 0.018), and the RRs (95 % CI) of bladder cancer were 0.87 (0.78-0.96), 0.80 (0.67-0.94), 0.79 (0.66-0.94), 0.79 (0.65-0.96), and 0.79 (0.64-0.99) for 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 g/day. A nonlinear relationship was also found of yellow-orange vegetable intake with risk of bladder cancer risk (P for nonlinearity = 0.033). Some evidence of publication bias was observed for fruit, citrus fruits, and yellow-orange vegetables. This meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of bladder cancer. Future well-designed studies are required to confirm this finding.

  2. Applying neural networks to hyperspectral and multispectral field data for discrimination of cruciferous weeds in winter crops.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Ana-Isabel; Jurado-Expósito, Montserrat; Gómez-Casero, María-Teresa; López-Granados, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    In the context of detection of weeds in crops for site-specific weed control, on-ground spectral reflectance measurements are the first step to determine the potential of remote spectral data to classify weeds and crops. Field studies were conducted for four years at different locations in Spain. We aimed to distinguish cruciferous weeds in wheat and broad bean crops, using hyperspectral and multispectral readings in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. To identify differences in reflectance between cruciferous weeds, we applied three classification methods: stepwise discriminant (STEPDISC) analysis and two neural networks, specifically, multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF). Hyperspectral and multispectral signatures of cruciferous weeds, and wheat and broad bean crops can be classified using STEPDISC analysis, and MLP and RBF neural networks with different success, being the MLP model the most accurate with 100%, or higher than 98.1%, of classification performance for all the years. Classification accuracy from hyperspectral signatures was similar to that from multispectral and spectral indices, suggesting that little advantage would be obtained by using more expensive airborne hyperspectral imagery. Therefore, for next investigations, we recommend using multispectral remote imagery to explore whether they can potentially discriminate these weeds and crops.

  3. Applying Neural Networks to Hyperspectral and Multispectral Field Data for Discrimination of Cruciferous Weeds in Winter Crops

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Ana-Isabel; Jurado-Expósito, Montserrat; Gómez-Casero, María-Teresa; López-Granados, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    In the context of detection of weeds in crops for site-specific weed control, on-ground spectral reflectance measurements are the first step to determine the potential of remote spectral data to classify weeds and crops. Field studies were conducted for four years at different locations in Spain. We aimed to distinguish cruciferous weeds in wheat and broad bean crops, using hyperspectral and multispectral readings in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. To identify differences in reflectance between cruciferous weeds, we applied three classification methods: stepwise discriminant (STEPDISC) analysis and two neural networks, specifically, multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF). Hyperspectral and multispectral signatures of cruciferous weeds, and wheat and broad bean crops can be classified using STEPDISC analysis, and MLP and RBF neural networks with different success, being the MLP model the most accurate with 100%, or higher than 98.1%, of classification performance for all the years. Classification accuracy from hyperspectral signatures was similar to that from multispectral and spectral indices, suggesting that little advantage would be obtained by using more expensive airborne hyperspectral imagery. Therefore, for next investigations, we recommend using multispectral remote imagery to explore whether they can potentially discriminate these weeds and crops. PMID:22629171

  4. Fruits and Vegetables Intake and Risk of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chang; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Liu, Tong-Zu; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Zhong-Hua; Li, Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Clinical practice recommends eating ≥2.5 cups of fruits and vegetables (FVs) each day for cancer prevention, in which the evidence from epidemiological studies for the association between FVs intake and bladder cancer (BC) prevention is inconsistent. We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Willy online Library for relevant studies published up to September 27, 2014. Prospective cohort studies investigated FVs intake, and the risk of BC with ≥3 categories of exposure was included. A dose-response meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the association between FVs intake and risk of BC. Fourteen cohorts with 17 studies including 9447 cases were identified. No evidence of nonlinear association was examined between FVs intake and risk of BC. The summarized relevant risk (RR) of every 0.2 serving increment a day was 1.00 (95%CI: 0.99, 1.00; P = 0.17; I2 = 41.7%; n = 14) for total fruits; 0.99 (95%CI: 0.96, 1.01; P = 0.28; I2 = 37.0%; n = 13) for total vegetables; and 0.99 (95%CI: 0.97, 1.01; P = 0.24; I2 = 57.5%; n = 8) for both FVs. In further analysis, we observed inverse association between every 0.2 serving increment of green leafy vegetables intake a day and risk of BC (RR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.99; I2 = 0.0%; P < 0.01; Power = 0.76; n = 6), but neither for cruciferous vegetables (RR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.93, 1.01; P = 0.19; I2 = 55.8%; n = 8) nor for citrus (RR = 1.00, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.00; P = 0.83; I2 = 0.0%; n = 7). Subgroup analysis showed consistent results. Little evidence supports a beneficial effect for total fruits, vegetables, both FVs, and citrus intake against bladder cancer. Green leafy vegetables may help prevent bladder cancer. PMID:25929912

  5. Family members' influence on family meal vegetable choices.

    PubMed

    Wenrich, Tionni R; Brown, J Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2010-01-01

    Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Eight focus groups, 2 with each segment (men/women vegetable likers/dislikers based on a screening form). Participants completed a vegetable intake form. Rural Appalachian Pennsylvania. Sixty-one low-income, married/cohabiting men (n = 28) and women (n = 33). Thematic analysis within Exchange Theory framework for qualitative data. Descriptive analysis, t tests and chi-square tests for quantitative data. Exchange Theory proved useful for understanding that regardless of sex or vegetable liker/disliker status, meal preparers see more costs than rewards to serving vegetables. Experience plus expectations of food preparer role and of deference to family member preferences supported a family norm of serving only vegetables acceptable to everyone. Emphasized vegetables are largely ignored because of unfamiliarity; family norms prevented experimentation and learning through exposure. Interventions to increase vegetable consumption of this audience could (1) alter family norms about vegetables served, (2) change perceptions of experiences, (3) reduce social and personal costs of serving vegetables, and (4) increase tangible and social rewards of serving vegetables. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Indole-3-carbinol, a vegetable phytochemical, inhibits adipogenesis by regulating cell cycle and AMPKα signaling.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Jeon, Hui-Jeon; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2014-09-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a phytochemical present mainly in cruciferous vegetables. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which I3C blocks adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, and evaluated the anti-adipogenic effect of I3C in zebrafish. Our data showed that I3C mainly inhibits early differentiation of adipocyte through cell cycle arrest. Inhibition of early differentiation was reflected by down-regulation of early adipogenic factors such as CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins β and δ (C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ), followed by down-regulation of late adipogenic factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and C/EBPα, and regulation of signaling molecules. This result was supported by a reduction in triglyceride (TG) levels and TG synthetic enzymes. I3C activated AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) to inhibit fatty acid synthesis. In addition, an anti-adipogenic effect of I3C was found in zebrafish study. Our data suggest that vegetables-derived I3C could reduce lipid accumulation via various molecular mechanisms in cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. An 8000-yr Record of Vegetation and Sedimentation Change from Kaau Crater, Hawaii Shows Mid-Holocene Climate Variability in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, O.; Beilman, D.

    2014-12-01

    Kaau Crater is located on Oahu, Hawaii, and was formed about 1 million years ago. The crater is a wetland about 450 m in diameter, which has been accumulating sediment since at least 25,866 cal yr BP. Sediment accumulation environments suitable for stratigraphic paleoscience studies in tropical mountaintop locations, relatively unaffected by humans, are scarce. This research aims to provide a comprehensive multi-millennial record of environmental change over time, including a reconstruction of precipitation and temperature. A continuous 450 cm organic sediment core was raised from Kaau Crater and analyzed for bulk density, organic matter (OM), stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and sediment accumulation rate as well as fossil pollen. Thirteen radiocarbon measurements show that the profile represents 14,087 years of sedimentation, and continuous sedimentation since ~8000 cal yr BP. Bulk density was typically about 0.17 g cm-3, but is particularly high (0.56 g cm-3) in sediments deposited between 5800 and 4400 cal yr BP. High variability during this time period is also seen in OM, stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and sediment accumulation rate. The OM content varies greatly throughout the core, from 12 to 94%. The 13C and 15N range -28.3 to -26.1‰ and 0.7 to 5.7‰. Maximum sedimentation and organic matter accumulation is between 6810-3942 cal yr BP, during which time, the organic C accumulation rate is 46.1 g m-2 yr-1. The C:N ratio is most variable during the mid-Holocene and the maximum is at 6326 cal yr BP. Thirty-eight pollen types were identified representing a mixture of dry- to wet-tolerant taxa. A reconstruction of annual precipitation suggests substantial variation on multi-centennial and shorter scales, particularly during the mid-Holocene (-643.4-5654 mm anomaly), but a lack of Holocene-scale wetting or drying. A reconstruction of mean annual temperature shows an overall multi-millennial cooling trend at the crater more pronounced after 5400

  8. Degradation of acephate by Enterobacter asburiae, Bacillus cereus and Pantoea agglomerans isolated from diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (L), a pest of cruciferous crops.

    PubMed

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Murthy, Kottilingam Srinivasa; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Varghese, Abraham

    2016-07-01

    Acephate-degrading bacterial isolates were isolated from the larval gut of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella, a notorious pest of cruciferous crops worldwide that has developed resistance to insecticides. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified the isolates as Bacillus cereus (PX-B.C.Or), Enterobacter asburiae (PXE), and Pantoae agglomerans (PX-Pt.ag.Jor). All isolates grew on minimal media (MM) in the presence of acephate at 100 and 200 ppm, with maximum growth at 200 ppm. LC-MS analyses of spent medium showed that E. asburiae degraded acephate to methamidophos and O, O-dimethyl phosporamidate and B. cereus O,S-dimethyl to phosphorothioate but P. agglomerans to an unnamed compound. All three isolates used acephate as a source of carbon and energy for growth; however, P. agglomerans used it also as source of sulphur. Strong evidence revealed that the bacterial communities present in the gut of diamondback moth might aid in acephate degradation and play a role in the development of insecticide resistance.

  9. Non-indolyl cruciferous phytoalexins: Nasturlexins and tridentatols, a striking convergent evolution of defenses in terrestrial plants and marine animals?

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; To, Q Huy

    2015-05-01

    Highly specialized chemical defense pathways are a particularly noteworthy metabolic characteristic of sessile organisms, whether terrestrial or marine, providing protection against pests and diseases. For this reason, knowledge of the metabolites involved in these processes is crucial to producing ecologically fit crops. Toward this end, the elicited chemical defenses of the crucifer watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), i.e. phytoalexins, were investigated and are reported. Almost three decades after publication of cruciferous phytoalexins derived from (S)-Trp, phytoalexins derived from other aromatic amino acids were isolated; their chemical structures were determined by analyses of their spectroscopic data and confirmed by synthesis. Nasturlexin A, nasturlexin B, and tridentatol C are hitherto unknown phenyl containing cruciferous phytoalexins produced by watercress under abiotic stress; tridentatol C is also produced by a marine animal (Tridentata marginata), where it functions in chemical defense against predators. The biosynthesis of these metabolites in both a terrestrial plant and a marine animal suggests a convergent evolution of unique metabolic pathways recruited for defense. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Lung cancer and vegetable consumption in Asturias, Spain. A case control study].

    PubMed

    Caicoya, Martín

    2002-07-13

    Lung cancer in Asturias (Northern Spain) exceeds the Spanish average by 1.4 times. While the proportion of smokers is similar, consumption of vegetables is the lowest of Spain. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between lung cancer and vegetable consumption in Asturias. This was an incident, hospital-based, case-control study. Cases were newly diagnosed lung cancer patients and controls were patients from surgical wards. Diet habits were obtained by means of a food frequency questionnaire with one year recall time. Information was also sought on smoking, occupational exposure and demographic variables. 197 cases and 196 controls were included in the study. Those at the 80th percentile of cruciferous (e.g, cabbage, broccoli) consumption had half the risk of lung cancer, other than adenocarcinoma, as compared to those at the 20th percentile [OR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.23-0.95 in the crude analysis]. However, when adjusting for smoking and social class, the association was no longer significant, possibly due to a low power of the study. A high vegetable, vitamin A or betacarotene consumption was not associated with a lower risk of lung cancer. This study points towards a protective effect of cruciferous vegetables in lung cancer, other than adenocarcinoma. However, even in the case such a vegetable were protective, it could not explain by itself the existing differences in lung cancer rates between Asturias and the the rest of Spain.

  11. Erucin, a new promising cancer chemopreventive agent from rocket salads, shows anti-proliferative activity on human lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Melchini, A; Costa, C; Traka, M; Miceli, N; Mithen, R; De Pasquale, R; Trovato, A

    2009-07-01

    Erucin (ER) is a dietary isothiocyanate present in cruciferous vegetables, such as rocket salads (Erucasativa Mill., Diplotaxis sp.), that has been recently considered a promising cancer chemopreventive phytochemical. Biological activity of ER was investigated on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, analyzing its effects on molecular pathways involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, such as PARP-1 cleavage, p53 and p21 protein expression. Our results show that ER affects the A549 cell proliferation, enhancing significantly p53 and p21 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.001). PARP-1 cleavage occurs only after exposure to high concentrations of ER (50 microM), in accordance to previous studies showing similar bioactivity of other isothiocyanates (ITCs). Our study reports for the first time that the induction of p53, p21 and PARP-1 cleavage may participate in the anti-proliferative activity of ER in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Comparison of data with those obtained with the isothiocyanate sulforaphane (SF), structurally related to ER, underlines the strong relationship between structural analogy of ITCs and their biological activity. The ability of dietary compounds to modulate molecular mechanisms that affect cancer cell proliferation is certainly a key point of the cancer prevention potential by functional foods.

  12. Mobile Technology for Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Maya; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    consumption of green leafy vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and dark yellow vegetables (adjusted mean difference: 2.6, 1.6, and 0.8 servings; 95% CI 0.1-5.0, 0.1-3.2, and 0.3-1.4; P=.04, P=.04, and P=.004, respectively). Participants reported positive experiences with the app, including strong agreement with the statements “I have found Vegethon easy to use” and “I would recommend Vegethon to a friend” (mean 4.6 (SD 0.6) and 4.2 (SD 0.8), respectively, (on a 5-point scale). Conclusions Vegethon demonstrated initial efficacy and user acceptability. A mobile app intervention may be useful for increasing vegetable consumption among overweight adults. The small sample size prevented precise estimates of effect sizes. Given the improved health outcomes associated with increases in vegetable consumption, these findings indicate the need for larger, longer-term evaluations of Vegethon and similar technologies among overweight adults and other suitable target groups. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01826591; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01826591 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6hYDw2AOB) PMID:27193036

  13. Intake of fruits and vegetables and polymorphisms in DNA repair genes in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Sacerdote, Carlotta; Matullo, Giuseppe; Polidoro, Silvia; Gamberini, Sara; Piazza, Alberto; Karagas, Margaret R; Rolle, Luigi; De Stefanis, Paolo; Casetta, Giovanni; Morabito, Francesco; Vineis, Paolo; Guarrera, Simonetta

    2007-07-01

    The objective is to investigate the relationships between fruit and vegetable intake, DNA repair gene polymorphisms and the risk of bladder cancer. We have analyzed a hospital-based case-control study of 266 individuals with incident, histologically confirmed bladder cancer diagnosed between 1994 and 2003. Controls (n = 193) were patients treated for benign diseases recruited daily in a random fashion from the same hospital as the cases. All cases and controls were interviewed face-to-face for major risk factors, along fruit and vegetable consumption. Odds ratios (ORs) for fruit and vegetable intake and DNA repair gene polymorphisms were adjusted for age and smoking status, using unconditional logistic regression. A statistically significant decreased risk was observed for fruit and vegetable intake above median (versus below the median) [unadjusted OR 0.61, confidence interval (CI) 95% 0.50-0.96 and OR 0.54, CI 95% 0.39-0.80, respectively]; the decreased risk persisted after adjustment for age and cigarette smoking (OR 0.73, CI 95% 0.49-1.01 and OR 0.86, CI 95% 0.56-1.08, respectively). The fruits and vegetables associated with decreased risks included leafy green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, apples and citrus fruits. We did not find any interactions between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and fruit and vegetable intake. This study found a reduced risk associated with fruit and vegetable intake. No interaction was observed between fruit and vegetable consumption and DNA repair gene polymorphisms.

  14. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the…

  15. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the…

  16. Show Code.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    "Let's get one thing straight: there is no such thing as a show code," my attending asserted, pausing for effect. "You either try to resuscitate, or you don't. None of this halfway junk." He spoke so loudly that the two off-service consultants huddled at computers at the end of the unit looked up… We did four rounds of compressions and pushed epinephrine twice. It was not a long code. We did good, strong compressions and coded this man in earnest until the end. Toward the final round, though, as I stepped up to do compressions, my attending looked at me in a deep way. It was a look in between willing me as some object under his command and revealing to me everything that lay within his brash, confident surface but could not be spoken. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  17. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Louise; Dragsted, Lars O; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Tjønneland, Anne; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim

    2010-07-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies have reported that a higher fruit and vegetable intake is associated with a lower risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between fruit and vegetable consumption, in particular the subgroupings citrus fruits, apples and cruciferous vegetables, and the risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). During a median follow-up of 7.7 years, 1075 incident ACS cases were identified among 53 383 men and women, aged 50-64 years at recruitment into the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study in 1993-7. Fruit and vegetable intake was estimated from a validated FFQ, and ACS incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Overall, a tendency towards a lower risk of ACS was observed for both men and women with higher fruit and vegetable consumption. For men, we found an inverse association for apple intake (IRR per 25 g/d: 0.97; 95 % CI 0.94, 0.99). This association was also seen among women, albeit borderline significant. However, a higher risk was seen among women with higher fruit juice intake (IRR per 25 g/d: 1.04; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.08). The present results provide some support for previously observed inverse associations between fresh fruit intake, particularly apples, and ACS risk.

  18. Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping-Yu; Fang, Jun-Chao; Gao, Zong-Hua; Zhang, Can; Xie, Shu-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Some previous studies reported no significant association of consuming fruit or vegetables, or fruit and vegetables combined, with type 2 diabetes. Others reported that only a greater intake of green leafy vegetables reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the relationship between them, we carried out a meta-analysis to estimate the independent effects of the intake of fruit, vegetables and fiber on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE for reports of prospective cohort studies published from 1 January 1966 to 21 July 2014 were carried out, checking reference lists, hand-searching journals and contacting experts. The primary analysis included a total of 23 (11 + 12) articles. The pooled maximum-adjusted relative risk of type 2 diabetes for the highest intake vs the lowest intake were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.96) for total fruits, 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.84) for blueberries, 0.87 (95% CI 0.81-0.93) for green leafy vegetables, 0.72 (95% CI 0.57-0.90) for yellow vegetables, 0.82 (95% CI 0.67-0.99) for cruciferous vegetables and 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.99) for fruit fiber in these high-quality studies in which scores were seven or greater, and 0.87 (95% CI 0.80-0.94) for vegetable fiber in studies with a follow-up period of 10 years or more. A higher intake of fruit, especially berries, and green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables, cruciferous vegetables or their fiber is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

  19. The selective cytotoxicity of the alkenyl glucosinolate hydrolysis products and their presence in Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kadir, Nurul H A; David, Rhiannon; Rossiter, John T; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2015-08-06

    Cruciferous vegetable consumption correlates with reduced risk of cancer. This chemopreventative activity may involve glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products. Glucosinolate-derived isothiocyanates have been studied for their toxicity and chemopreventative properties, but other hydrolysis products (epithionitriles and nitriles) have not been thoroughly examined. We report that these hydrolysis products differ in their cytotoxicity to human cells, with toxicity most strongly associated with isothiocyanates rather than epithionitriles and nitriles. We explored mechanisms of this differential cytotoxicity by examining the role of oxidative metabolism, oxidative stress, mitochondrial permeability, reduced glutathione levels, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. 2-Propenylisothiocyanate and 3-butenylisothiocyanate both inhibited cytochome P450 1A (CYP1A) enzyme activity in CYP expressing MCL-5 cells at high cytotoxic doses. Incubation of MCL-5 cells with non-cytotoxic doses of 2-propenylisothiocyanate for 24h resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, yet failed to affect CYP1A1 mRNA expression indicating interference with enzyme activity rather than inhibition of transcription. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was observed only for 2-propenylisothiocyanate treatment. 2-Propenylisothiocyanate treatment lowered reduced glutathione levels whereas no changes were noted with 3,4-epithiobutylnitrile. Cell cycle analysis showed that 2-propenylisothiocyanate induced a G2/M block whereas other hydrolysis products showed only marginal effects. We found that 2-propenylisothiocyanate and 3-butenylisothiocyanate induced cell death predominantly via necrosis whereas, 3,4-epithiobutylnitrile promoted both necrosis and apoptosis. Thus the activity of glucosinolate hydrolysis products includes cytotoxicity that is compound-class specific and may contribute to their putative chemoprotection properties.

  20. Vegetable-derived isothiocyanates: anti-proliferative activity and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuesheng; Yao, Song; Li, Jun

    2006-02-01

    Many isothiocyanates (ITC), which are available to human subjects mainly through consumption of cruciferous vegetables, demonstrate strong cancer-preventive activity in animal models. Human studies also show an inverse association between consumption of ITC and risk of cancer in several organs. Whereas earlier studies primarily focused on the ability of ITC to inhibit carcinogen-activating enzymes and induce carcinogen-detoxifying enzymes, more recent investigations have shown that ITC inhibit the proliferation of tumour cells both in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle progression. ITC cause acute cellular stress, which may be the initiating event for these effects. These findings shed new light on the mechanism of action of ITC and indicate that ITC may be useful both as cancer-preventive and therapeutic agents. ITC activate caspase 9-mediated apoptosis, apparently resulting from mitochondrial damage, and also activate caspase 8, but the mechanism remains to be defined. Cell cycle arrest caused by ITC occurs mainly in the G2/M phase, and both the G2 and M phases are targetted; critical G2-phase regulators, including cyclin B1, cell division cycle (Cdc) 2 and Cdc25C, are down regulated or inhibited, and tubulin polymerization and spindle assembly are disrupted. Moreover, ITC are metabolized in vivo through the mercapturic acid pathway, giving rise to thiol conjugates (dithiocarbamates). Studies show that these dithiocarbamates are similar to their parent ITC in exerting anti-proliferative activity. Taken together, dietary ITC are highly-promising anti-cancer agents, capable of targetting multiple cellular components that are important for tumour cell survival and proliferation.

  1. Caspase-dependent apoptosis induction by phenethyl isothiocyanate, a cruciferous vegetable-derived cancer chemopreventive agent, is mediated by Bak and Bax.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong; Zeng, Yan; Choi, Sunga; Lew, Karen L; Nelson, Joel B; Singh, Shivendra V

    2005-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induction by phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) using prostate cancer cell lines derived from transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice (TRAMP-C1 and TRAMP-C2). The viability of TRAMP-C1 and TRAMP-C2 cells was reduced significantly in the presence of PEITC in a concentration-dependent manner as determined by sulforhodamine B and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. Treatment of TRAMP-derived cells with PEITC revealed features characteristic of apoptosis induction, including appearance of subdiploid cells (determined by flow cytometry), cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation (determined by an ELISA assay), and cleavage of caspase-3 (determined by immunoblotting). The PEITC-induced apoptosis in TRAMP-derived cells was associated with a marked increase in the level of proapoptotic protein Bak and/or a decrease in the levels of antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1 or Bcl-xL and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. The SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bak and Bax double knockout mice were significantly more resistant to PEITC-induced DNA fragmentation compared with wild-type or Bak-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The PEITC-induced apoptosis in both cell lines was significantly attenuated in the presence of caspase inhibitors zVAD-fmk, zLEHD-fmk, and zIETD-fmk. Oral administration of PEITC (9 or 12 micromol PEITC/d, Monday-Friday) significantly retarded growth of TRAMP-C1 xenografts in nude mice without causing weight loss or any other side effects. The results of the present study indicate that caspase-dependent apoptosis by PEITC is mediated by Bak and Bax proteins.

  2. Vegetation and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Eisenbies, M.H.; Gartner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Characterization of bottomland hardwood vegetation in relatively undisturbed forests can provide critical information for developing effective wetland creation and restoration techniques and for assessing the impacts of management and development. Classification is a useful technique in characterizing vegetation because it summarizes complex data sets, assists in hypothesis generation about factors influencing community variation, and helps refine models of community structure. Hierarchical classification of communities is particularly useful for showing relationships among samples (Gauche 1982).

  3. Apiaceous Vegetable Consumption Decreases PhIP-Induced DNA Adducts and Increases Methylated PhIP Metabolites in the Urine Metabolome in Rats123

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Gallaher, Daniel D; Chen, Chi; Yao, Dan; Trudo, Sabrina P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heterocyclic aromatic amines, such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are carcinogenic compounds produced during heating of protein-containing foods. Apiaceous vegetables inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, whereas cruciferous vegetables induce both PhIP-activating and -detoxifying enzymes. Objective: We investigated the effects of these vegetables, either alone or combined, on PhIP metabolism and colonic DNA adduct formation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed cruciferous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), apiaceous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), or a combination of both vegetables (10.5% wt:wt of each). Negative and positive control groups were fed an AIN-93G diet. After 6 d, all groups received an intraperitoneal injection of PhIP (10 mg · kg body weight−1) except for the negative control group, which received only vehicle. Urine was collected for 24 h after the injection for LC–tandem mass spectrometry metabolomic analyses. On day 7, rats were killed and tissues processed. Results: Compared with the positive control, cruciferous vegetables increased the activity of hepatic PhIP-activating enzymes [39.5% and 45.1% for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 (P = 0.0006) and CYP1A2 (P < 0.0001), respectively] and of uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (PhIP-detoxifying) by 24.5% (P = 0.0267). Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, yet reduced colonic PhIP-DNA adducts by 20.4% (P = 0.0496). Metabolomic analyses indicated that apiaceous vegetables increased the relative abundance of urinary methylated PhIP metabolites. The sum of these methylated metabolites inversely correlated with colonic PhIP-DNA adducts (r = −0.43, P = 0.01). We detected a novel methylated urinary PhIP metabolite and demonstrated that methylated metabolites are produced in the human liver S9 fraction. Conclusions: Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit the activity of PhIP-activating enzymes in rats, suggesting that the reduction in Ph

  4. Global Enhanced Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona

  5. Global Enhanced Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona

  6. The beneficial effects of Brassica vegetables on human health.

    PubMed

    Kapusta-Duch, Joanna; Kopeć, Aneta; Piatkowska, Ewa; Borczak, Barbara; Leszczyńska, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The products of plant origin are a rich source of biologically active substances, both nutritive and referred as anti-nutritive. A large group of these compounds are substances with antioxidant activity that fights against free radicals. In the family of Brassicaceae vegetables, Brassica, is the largest and most widely consumed a group of plants in Europe and all over the world. They are characterized by different levels of nutrients. However because of their large and frequent consumption, they may become a significant source of nutrients and bioactive compounds in the daily diet. The beneficial effects of Brassica vegetables on human health have been somewhat linked to phytochemicals. They prevent oxidative stress, induce detoxification enzymes, stimulate immune system, decrease the risk of cancers, inhibit malignant transformation and carcinogenic mutations, as well as, reduce proliferation of cancer cells. Brassica vegetables contain a lot of valuable metabolites, which are effective in chemoprevention of cancer, what has been already documented by numerous studies. Due to the presence of vitamins C and E, carotenoids and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase, these vegetables are considerable source ofantioxidants, and due to the presence of polyphenols and the sulfur-organic compounds exert also antimutagenic action. Moreover, these vegetables are also rich in glucosinolates, which are unstable compounds and undergo degradation into biologically active indoles and isothiocyanates under the influence of enzyme presented in plant tissues- myrosynase. These substances through the induction of enzymatic systems I and II phase of xenobiotics metabolism may affect the elimination or neutralization of carcinogenic and mutagenic factors, and consequently inhibit DNA methylation and cancer development. Despite many healthy benefits upon eating of cruciferous vegetables, it has been also seen a negative impact of their certain

  7. Understory vegetation

    Treesearch

    Steve Sutherland; Todd F. Hutchinson; Jennifer L. Windus

    2003-01-01

    This chapter documents patterns of species composition and diversity within the understory vegetation layer and provides a species list for the four study areas in southern Ohio. Within each of 108 plots, we recorded the frequency of all vascular plant species in sixteen 2-m² quadrats. We recorded 297 species, including 187 forbs (176 perennials, 9 annuals, 2...

  8. Fermented Vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The wide variety of fermented foods of the world can be classified by the materials obtained from the fermentation, such as alcohol (beer, wine), organic acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid (vegetables, dairy), carbon dioxide (bread), and amino acids or peptides from protein (fish fermentations...

  9. Vegetation dynamics

    Treesearch

    Sammy L. King; Marianne K. Burke; Terry J. Antrobus; Sarah Billups

    2000-01-01

    A disturbance can be defined as "any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem, community, or population structure and changes resources, substrate availability, or the physical environment" (Pickett and White 1985). Vegetation dynamics are a function of the temporal and spatial patterns of the disturbance regime. Natural disturbance regimes...

  10. Vegetative regeneration

    Treesearch

    George A. Schier; John R. Jones; Robert P. Winokur

    1985-01-01

    Aspen is noted for its ability to regenerate vegetatively by adventitious shoots or suckers that arise on its long lateral roots. It also produces sprouts from stumps and root collars; but they are not common. In a survey of regeneration after clearcutting mature aspen in Utah. Baker (1918b) found that 92% of the shoots originated from roots, 7% from root collars, and...

  11. The use of new index for surface roughness of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konda, Asako; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Kajiwara, Koji; Honda, Yoshiaki

    2005-01-01

    Propose of a new Vegetation Index is purposes. Ordinal vegetation Index can show intensity of vegetation on the ground. It can not show structure of vegetation surface or texture. Proposed vegetation index utilizes BRF property. It is generated from data from 2 orbit of satellite and be able to show structure of vegetation surface or texture. Principles of this index is coming from field observation using RC helicopter. Each vegetation canopy has different texture and roughness. New index, named BSI (Bi-directional reflectance Structure Index) shows difference of vegetation canopy. It is calculated by using the data of NOAA/AVHRR, ADEOS OCTS. ADEOS-II GLI can derive BSI.

  12. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk: a review of southern European studies.

    PubMed

    Turati, Federica; Rossi, Marta; Pelucchi, Claudio; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    High intakes of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer at several sites. Evidence has been derived mainly from case-control studies. We reviewed the relationship between consumption of vegetables and fruit and the risk of several common cancers in a network of Italian and Swiss case-control studies including over 10,000 cases of fourteen different cancers and about 17,000 controls. Data were suggestive of a protective role of vegetable intake on the risk of several common epithelial cancers. OR for the highest compared with the lowest levels of consumption ranged from 0.2 (larynx, oral cavity and pharynx) to 0.9 (prostate). Inverse associations were found for both raw and cooked vegetables, although for upper digestive tract cancers the former were somewhat stronger. Similar inverse associations were found for cruciferous vegetables. Frequent consumption of allium vegetables was also associated with reduced risk of several cancers. Fruit was a favourable correlate of the risk of several cancers, particularly of the upper digestive tract, with associations generally weaker than those reported for vegetables. A reduced risk of cancers of the digestive tract and larynx was found for high consumption of citrus fruit. Suggestive protections against several forms of cancer, mainly digestive tract cancers, were found for high consumption of apples and tomatoes. High intakes of fibres, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins were inversely related to various forms of cancer. In conclusion, data from our series of case-control studies suggested a favourable role of high intakes of fruit and vegetables in the risk of many common cancers, particularly of the digestive tract. This adds evidence to the indication that aspects of the Mediterranean diet may have a favourable impact not only on CVD, but also on several common (epithelial) cancers, particularly of the digestive tract.

  13. Genetic polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase genes modify the relationship between vegetable and fruit intake and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuesong; Zheng, Tongzhang; Lan, Qing; Zhang, Yaqun; Kilfoy, Briseis A; Qin, Qin; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zahm, Shelia H; Holford, Theodore R; Leaderer, Brian; Zhang, Yawei

    2009-05-01

    Oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species and other free radicals is involved in carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that high vegetable and fruit intake may reduce the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) as vegetables and fruit are rich in antioxidants. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interaction of vegetable and fruit intake with genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress pathway genes and NHL risk. This hypothesis was investigated in a population-based case-control study of NHL and NHL histologic subtypes in women from Connecticut, including 513 histologically confirmed incident cases and 591 randomly selected controls. Gene-vegetable/fruit joint effects were estimated using unconditional logistic regression model. The false discovery rate method was applied to adjust for multiple comparisons. Significant interactions with vegetable and fruit intake were mainly found for genetic polymorphisms on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes among those with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NOS1 gene were found to significantly modify the association between total vegetable and fruit intake and risk of NHL overall, as well as the risk of follicular lymphoma. When vegetables, bean vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, red vegetables, yellow/orange vegetables, fruit, and citrus fruits were examined separately, strong interaction effects were narrowed to vegetable intake among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Our results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in oxidative stress pathway genes, especially in the NOS genes, modify the association between vegetable and fruit intake and risk of NHL.

  14. Vegetation spatial variability and its effect on vegetation indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsby, J. P.; Choudhury, B. J.; Owe, M.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat MSS data were used to simulate low resolution satellite data, such as NOAA AVHRR, to quantify the fractional vegetation cover within a pixel and relate the fractional cover to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the simple ratio (SR). The MSS data were converted to radiances from which the NDVI and SR values for the simulated pixels were determined. Each simulated pixel was divided into clusters using an unsupervised classification program. Spatial and spectral analysis provided a means of combining clusters representing similar surface characteristics into vegetated and non-vegetated areas. Analysis showed an average error of 12.7 per cent in determining these areas. NDVI values less than 0.3 represented fractional vegetated areas of 5 per cent or less, while a value of 0.7 or higher represented fractional vegetated areas greater than 80 per cent. Regression analysis showed a strong linear relation between fractional vegetation area and the NDVI and SR values; correlation values were 0.89 and 0.95 respectively. The range of NDVI values calculated from the MSS data agrees well with field studies.

  15. Fruits, vegetables, and bladder cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Ana R; Vingeliene, Snieguole; Chan, Doris S M; Aune, Dagfinn; Abar, Leila; Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah; Greenwood, Darren C; Norat, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is estimated to cause about half of all bladder cancer cases. Case–control studies have provided evidence of an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk. As part of the World Cancer Research/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to assess the dose–response relationship between fruit and vegetables and incidence and mortality of bladder cancer. We searched PubMed up to December 2013 for relevant prospective studies. We conducted highest compared with lowest meta-analyses and dose–response meta-analyses using random effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and used restricted cubic splines to examine possible nonlinear associations. Fifteen prospective studies were included in the review. The summary RR for an increase of 1 serving/day (80 g) were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95–0.99) I2 = 0%, eight studies for fruits and vegetables, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94–1.00, I2 = 10%, 10 studies) for vegetables and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96–1.00, I2 = 0%, 12 studies) for fruits. Results were similar in men and women and in current, former and nonsmokers. Amongst fruits and vegetables subgroups, for citrus fruits the summary RR for the highest compared with the lowest intake was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.76–0.99, I2 = 0%, eight studies) and for cruciferous vegetables there was evidence of a nonlinear relationship (P = 0.001). The current evidence from cohort studies is not consistent with a role for fruits and vegetables in preventing bladder cancer. PMID:25461441

  16. Fruits, vegetables, and bladder cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana R; Vingeliene, Snieguole; Chan, Doris S M; Aune, Dagfinn; Abar, Leila; Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah; Greenwood, Darren C; Norat, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is estimated to cause about half of all bladder cancer cases. Case-control studies have provided evidence of an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk. As part of the World Cancer Research/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to assess the dose-response relationship between fruit and vegetables and incidence and mortality of bladder cancer. We searched PubMed up to December 2013 for relevant prospective studies. We conducted highest compared with lowest meta-analyses and dose-response meta-analyses using random effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and used restricted cubic splines to examine possible nonlinear associations. Fifteen prospective studies were included in the review. The summary RR for an increase of 1 serving/day (80 g) were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99) I(2)  = 0%, eight studies for fruits and vegetables, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-1.00, I(2)  = 10%, 10 studies) for vegetables and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-1.00, I(2)  = 0%, 12 studies) for fruits. Results were similar in men and women and in current, former and nonsmokers. Amongst fruits and vegetables subgroups, for citrus fruits the summary RR for the highest compared with the lowest intake was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.76-0.99, I(2)  = 0%, eight studies) and for cruciferous vegetables there was evidence of a nonlinear relationship (P = 0.001). The current evidence from cohort studies is not consistent with a role for fruits and vegetables in preventing bladder cancer. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Structure and heterogeneity of urban vegetation landscape in Shenyang].

    PubMed

    He, Xingyuan; Chen, Wei; Xu, Wenduo; Liu, Changfu; Li, Haimei; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Yue

    2003-12-01

    Studies on the structure and heterogeneity of urban vegetation landscape in Shenyang city showed that the most vegetation patches were in the street corner, accounted for more than 50% of the total vegetation patch, and their area was only 4.45% of the total vegetation area. In terms of the size of the patches, the average area of shelter vegetation and park vegetation was 66.97 hm2 and 59.31 hm2, respectively, while that of street corner vegetation and garden vegetation was 0.71 hm2 and 0.38 hm2, respectively. Street corner vegetation had the highest index of landscape diversity, while park vegetation had the lowest one. In the seven districts of Shenyang city, all types of vegetation had a small landscape dominance and evenness, but patch vegetation had a more than 10 times of landscape dominance than corridor vegetation, indicating that there was somewhat imbalance in the allocation of different vegetation patch types. It's suggested that the quantity of patch vegetation should be increased, and the public vegetation should be distributed evenly. Increasing vegetation corridor is also important because it can link the downtown area to the suburb natural vegetation ecosystems. For example, the South Canal Belt Park of Shenyang is a good vegetation corridor, which can beautify Shenyang city, discharge sewage, drain flood, and improve microclimate.

  18. The Alaska vegetation classification.

    Treesearch

    L.A. Viereck; C.T. Dyrness; A.R. Batten; K.J. Wenzlick

    1992-01-01

    The Alaska vegetation classification presented here is a comprehensive, statewide system that has been under development since 1976. The classification is based, as much as possible, on the characteristics of the vegetation itself and is designed to categorize existing vegetation, not potential vegetation. A hierarchical system with five levels of resolution is used...

  19. DNA-based identification of Brassica vegetable species for the juice industry.

    PubMed

    Etoh, Kazumi; Niijima, Noritaka; Yokoshita, Masahiko; Fukuoka, Shin-Ichi

    2003-10-01

    Since kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala), a cruciferous vegetable with a high level of vitamins and functional compounds beneficial to health and wellness, has become widely used in the juice industry, a precise method for quality control of vegetable species is necessary. We describe here a DNA-based identification method to distinguish kale from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata), a closely related species, which can be inadvertently mixed with kale during the manufacturing process. Using genomic DNA from these vegetables and combinatory sets of nucleotide primers, we screened for random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments and found three cabbage-specific fragments. These RAPD fragments, with lengths of 1.4, 0.5, and 1.5 kb, were purified, subcloned, and sequenced. Based on sequence-tagged sites (STS), we designed sets of primers to detect cabbage-specific identification (CAI) DNA markers. Utilizing the CAI markers, we successfully distinguished more than 10 different local cabbage accessions from 20 kale accessions, and identified kale juices experimentally spiked with different amounts of cabbage.

  20. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food.

    PubMed

    Park, Kun-Young; Jeong, Ji-Kang; Lee, Young-Eun; Daily, James W

    2014-01-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean food manufactured by fermenting vegetables with probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Many bacteria are involved in the fermentation of kimchi, but LAB become dominant while the putrefactive bacteria are suppressed during salting of baechu cabbage and the fermentation. The addition of other subingredients and formation of fermentation byproducts of LAB promote the fermentation process of LAB to eventually lead to eradication of putrefactive- and pathogenic bacteria, and also increase the functionalities of kimchi. Accordingly, kimchi can be considered a vegetable probiotic food that contributes health benefits in a similar manner as yogurt as a dairy probiotic food. Further, the major ingredients of kimchi are cruciferous vegetables; and other healthy functional foods such as garlic, ginger, red pepper powder, and so on are added to kimchi as subingredients. As all of these ingredients undergo fermentation by LAB, kimchi is regarded as a source of LAB; and the fermentative byproducts from the functional ingredients significantly boost its functionality. Because kimchi is both tasty and highly functional, it is typically served with steamed rice at every Korean meal. Health functionality of kimchi, based upon our research and that of other, includes anticancer, antiobesity, anticonstipation, colorectal health promotion, probiotic properties, cholesterol reduction, fibrolytic effect, antioxidative and antiaging properties, brain health promotion, immune promotion, and skin health promotion. In this review we describe the method of kimchi manufacture, fermentation, health functionalities of kimchi and the probiotic properties of its LAB.

  1. Nonlinearities in vegetation functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos-Núñez, Verónika; Müller, Markus; Metzler, Holger; Sierra, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Given the current drastic changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle, there is increasing attention to the carbon allocation component in biosphere terrestrial models. Improving the representation of C allocation in models could be the key to having better predictions of the fate of C once it enters the vegetation and is partitioned to C pools of different residence times. C allocation has often been modeled using systems of ordinary differential equations, and it has been hypothesized that most models can be generalized with a specific form of a linear dynamical system. However, several studies have highlighted discrepancies between empirical observations and model predictions, attributing these differences to problems with model structure. Although efforts have been made to compare different models, the outcome of these qualitative assessments has been a conceptual categorization of them. In this contribution, we introduce a new effort to identify the main properties of groups of models by studying their mathematical structure. For this purpose, we performed a literature research of the relevant models of carbon allocation in vegetation and developed a database with their representation in symbolic mathematics. We used the Python package SymPy for symbolic mathematics as a common language and manipulated the models to calculate their Jacobian matrix at fixed points and their eigenvalues, among other mathematical analyses. Our preliminary results show a tendency of inverse proportionality between model complexity and size of time/space scale; complex interactions between the variables controlling carbon allocation in vegetation tend to operate at shorter time/space scales, and vice-versa. Most importantly, we found that although the linear structure is common, other structures with non-linearities have been also proposed. We, therefore, propose a new General Model that can accommodate these

  2. Determination of sinigrin in vegetable seeds by online microdialysis sampling coupled to reverse-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tsai-Hung; Huang, Jenn-Wen; Kumar, Ponnusamy Vinoth; Jen, Jen-Fon

    2010-04-28

    A hollow fiber microdialysis sampling coupled online to ion-pair liquid chromatography was investigated as an alternative to sample pretreatment for the direct determination of sinigrin in cruciferous vegetables without desulfation. After microdialysis, the dialysate was online injected into the chromatographic system to analyze the sinigrin with UV detection at 227 nm. Parameters affecting the microdialysis efficiency, such as flow rate, polarity modifier, pH in perfusion stream, pH, and salt added in sample solution, were studied. Through ion suppression in the donor phase and ion-pair formation in the acceptor phase, the microdialysis efficiency of sinigrin was enhanced. Experimental results revealed that the microdialysis of a sample solution (pH 2.0) using 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium (pH 12) as a perfusate at 10 microL/min flow rate maximized the extraction efficiency. Detection was linear in the concentration of 1.0-100 mg/L with a detection limit of 0.3 mg/L. Three seed samples were analyzed, with sinigrin at 49.8 (3.15% RSD), 20.0 (4.43% RSD), and 19.8 mg/g (4.22% RSD) for brussels, cauliflower, and cabbage, respectively. When 40 mg/g sinigrin was spiked in brussels seed powder, the recovery was 102.4% with 3.15% RSD (n = 3). The proposed method was proven to provide a very simple, rapid, and eco-friendly procedure to determine sinigrin in the seeds of cruciferous vegetables.

  3. Fruit and vegetable consumption and hypertriglyceridemia: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Yuan, C; Lee, H-J; Shin, H J; Stampfer, M J; Cho, E

    2015-11-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the association between intake of fruits and vegetables and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to investigate the association between total fruit and vegetable intake, as well as subgroups of fruit and vegetable intake, with hypertriglyceridemia among Korean adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7934 adults aged 19-64 years from the fourth Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Fruit and vegetable intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Subgroups of fruits and vegetables included citrus, non-citrus and carotene-rich fruits and cruciferous, green leafy and carotene-rich vegetables. Hypertriglyceridemia (plasma triglyceride ⩾150 mg/dl) was diagnosed using a blood sample drawn after 12+ hours of fasting. There were 2001 (25.2%) cases of hypertriglyceridemia among the participants. Total fruit intake was significantly inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia; the multivariate odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of hypertriglyceridemia across increasing quintiles were 1.00 (ref), 0.76 (0.62, 0.92), 0.72 (0.58, 0.90), 0.68 (0.54, 0.85) and 0.64 (0.49, 0.82; Ptrend=0.001) after controlling for survey year, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, education and income. Similar inverse associations were found for all fruit subgroups. However, we found no significant association between intakes of total or subgroups of vegetable and hypertriglyceridemia; the odds ratio for top vs bottom quintile was 1.00 (0.81-1.24) for total vegetable intake. Our findings support a potential beneficial role of fruit consumption to reduce blood triglyceride levels in Asian populations.

  4. Emergence of river dynamics through changing vegetation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oorschot, Mijke; Kleinhans, Maarten; Middelkoop, Hans; Geerling, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation interacts with morphodynamic processes in rivers to create distinct habitat mosaics supporting a large biodiversity. The aim of our work is to quantitatively investigate the emergent patterns in vegetation and river morphology at the river reach scale by dynamically modelling the processes and their interactions. Here, we coupled an advanced morphodynamic model to a novel dynamic riparian vegetation model to study the interaction between vegetation and morphodynamics. Vegetation colonizes bare substrate within the seed dispersal window, passes several growth stages with different properties and can die through flooding, desiccation, uprooting, scour or burial. We have compared river morphology and vegetation patterns of scenarios without vegetation, with static vegetation that does not grow or die and several dynamic vegetation scenarios with a range of vegetation strategies and eco-engineering properties. Results show that dynamic vegetation has a decreased lateral migration of meander bends and maintains its active meandering behavior as opposed to the scenarios without vegetation and with static vegetation. Also the patterns in vegetation and fluvial morphology and the vegetation age distribution mostly resemble the natural situation when compared to aerial photos of the study area. We find that river dynamics, specifically sinuosity and sediment transport, are very sensitive to vegetation properties that determine vegetation density, settlement location and survival. Future work will include the effects of invasive species, addition of silt and the effect of various river management strategies.

  5. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

  6. Natural vegetation inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    Unique characteristics of ERTS imagery can be used to inventory natural vegetation. While satellite images can seldom be interpreted and identified directly in terms of vegetation types, such types can be inferred by interpretation of physical terrain features and through an understanding of the ecology of the vegetation.

  7. A Pooled Analysis of 15 Prospective Cohort Studies on the Association between Fruit, Vegetable, and Mature Bean Consumption and Risk of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Petimar, Joshua; Wilson, Kathryn M; Wu, Kana; Wang, Molin; Albanes, Demetrius; van den Brandt, Piet A; Cook, Michael B; Giles, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goodman, Gary E; Goodman, Phyllis J; Håkansson, Niclas; Helzlsouer, Kathy; Key, Timothy J; Kolonel, Laurence N; Liao, Linda M; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L; Milne, Roger L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Park, Yikyung; Platz, Elizabeth A; Riboli, Elio; Sawada, Norie; Schenk, Jeannette M; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Verhage, Bas; Wang, Ying; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A

    2017-08-01

    Background: Relationships between fruit, vegetable, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk are unclear.Methods: We examined associations between fruit and vegetable groups, specific fruits and vegetables, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk overall, by stage and grade, and for prostate cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohorts, including 52,680 total cases and 3,205 prostate cancer-related deaths among 842,149 men. Diet was measured by a food frequency questionnaire or similar instrument at baseline. We calculated study-specific relative risks using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then pooled these estimates using a random effects model.Results: We did not observe any statistically significant associations for advanced prostate cancer or prostate cancer mortality with any food group (including total fruits and vegetables, total fruits, total vegetables, fruit and vegetable juice, cruciferous vegetables, and tomato products), nor specific fruit and vegetables. In addition, we observed few statistically significant results for other prostate cancer outcomes. Pooled multivariable relative risks comparing the highest versus lowest quantiles across all fruit and vegetable exposures and prostate cancer outcomes ranged from 0.89 to 1.09. There was no evidence of effect modification for any association by age or body mass index.Conclusions: Results from this large, international, pooled analysis do not support a strong role of collective groupings of fruits, vegetables, or mature beans in prostate cancer.Impact: Further investigation of other dietary exposures, especially indicators of bioavailable nutrient intake or specific phytochemicals, should be considered for prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1276-87. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. [Estimation of vegetation water content from Landsat 8 OLI data].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing-ming; Ding, Yan-ling; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao; Li, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Shi-yi; Li, Yang-yang; Wu, Li-li; Sun, Jian; Ren, Jian-hua; Zhang, Xuan-xuan

    2014-12-01

    The present paper aims to analyze the capabilities and limitations for retrieving vegetation water content from Landsat8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) sensor-new generation of earth observation program. First, the effect of soil background on canopy reflectance and the sensitive band to vegetation water content were analyzed based on simulated dataset from ProSail model. Then, based on vegetation water indices from Landsat8 OLI and field vegetation water content during June 1 2013 to August 14 2013, the best vegetation water index for estimating vegetation water content was found through comparing 12 different indices. The results show that: (1) red, near infrared and two shortwave infrared bands of OLI sensor are sensitive to the change in vegetation water content, and near infrared band is the most sensitive one; (2) At low vegetation coverage, solar radiation reflected by soil background will reach to spectral sensor and influence the relationship between vegetation water index and vegetation water content, and simulation results from ProSail model also show that soil background reflectance has a significant impact on vegetation canopy reflectance in both wet and dry soil conditions, so the optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) was used in this paper to remove the effect of soil background on vegetation water index and improve its relationship with vegetation water content; (3) for the 12 vegetation water indices, the relationship between MSI2 and vegetation water content is the best with the R-square of 0.948 and the average error of vegetation water content is 0.52 kg · m(-2); (4) it is difficult to estimate vegetation water content from vegetation water indices when vegetation water content is larger than 2 kg · m(-2) due to spectral saturation of these indices.

  9. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  10. Airphoto assessment of changes in aquatic vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Philipson, W. R.; Russel, A. E.

    1977-01-01

    Large scale, multiyear, color and color infrared aerial photographs were used to evaluate changes in aquatic vegetation that have accompanied a reduction in phosphorus inputs to a phosphorus-limited, eutrophic lake in New York State. The study showed that the distribution of emergent, floating and submersed vegetation could be determined with little or no concurrent ground data; that various emergent and floating types could be separated and, with limited field checks, identified; and that different submersed types are generally not separable. Major vegetative types are characterized by spectral and nonspectral features, and a classification is developed for compiling time-sequential vegetation maps.

  11. The vegetative index number and crop identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashburn, P. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A vegetative index number of numerical value was calculated from the digital values of the LANDSAT system to provide some measure of green growing vegetation. The usefulness of the green numbers for schemes in crop identification and acreage estimation is investigated and the Ashburn vegetation index (AVI) is compared with the Kauth-Thomas vegetation index (KVI) for crop identification schemes. Results of wheat acreage estimation using LACIE Procedure 1 and the AVI for eight sample segments are given. Tables show comparisons between the AVI and the KVI as well as visual results of the AVI.

  12. Literature Review - Vegetation on Levees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Victoria, Australia, shows that the bank- destabilizing effects of surcharge due to silver wattle ( Acacia dealbata) are minimal. Field observations...Wind-throw loads on trees were deliberately eliminated from this study. Vegetation: Silver wattle ( Acacia dealbata) Soil Properties: N/A...facultative phreatophytes (including Cathorium umbellatum (Vahl.) Kosterm. and Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth) and tended to rely more heavily

  13. Thermal modification of vegetable oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article reviews some literature, both old and recent, involving the hypothesis that the Diels-Alder reaction is operative in the thermal polymerization of vegetable oil. Both triacylglycerol oils and methyl esters are used to show that this mechanism is unlikely to be a significant contributor ...

  14. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  15. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  16. Vegetable and fruit intake and pancreatic cancer in a population-based case-control study in the San Francisco bay area.

    PubMed

    Chan, June M; Wang, Furong; Holly, Elizabeth A

    2005-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most devastating and rapidly fatal cancers, yet little is known about the primary cause and prevention of this disease. We conducted a population-based case-control study to investigate the association between vegetables and fruits and pancreatic cancer. Between 1995 and 1999, 532 cases and 1,701 age- and sex-matched controls completed direct interviews using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. No proxy interviews were conducted. We observed inverse associations between consumption of total and specific vegetables and fruits and the risk of pancreatic cancer. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for the highest versus the lowest quartile of total vegetable intake was 0.45 (0.32-0.62), trend P < 0.0001; and for total fruits and fruit juice was 0.72 (0.54-0.98), trend P = 0.06. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus the lowest quartile of specific vegetables and fruits were: 0.63 (0.47-0.83) for dark leafy vegetables, 0.76 (0.56-1.0) for cruciferous vegetables, 0.59 (0.43-0.81) for yellow vegetables, 0.56 (0.41-0.76) for carrots, 0.51 (0.38-0.70) for beans, 0.46 (0.33-0.63) for onions and garlic, and 0.78 (0.58-1.0) for citrus fruits and juice. Compared with less than five servings per day of total vegetables and fruits combined, the risk of pancreatic cancer was 0.49 (0.36-0.68) for more than nine servings per day. These results suggest that increasing vegetable and fruit consumption, already recommended for the prevention of several other chronic diseases, may impart some protection against developing pancreatic cancer.

  17. Riparian vegetation controls on braided stream dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, Karen; Paola, Chris

    2001-12-01

    Riparian vegetation can significantly influence the morphology of a river, affecting channel geometry and flow dynamics. To examine the effects of riparian vegetation on gravel bed braided streams, we conducted a series of physical experiments at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory with varying densities of bar and bank vegetation. Water discharge, sediment discharge, and grain size were held constant between runs. For each run, we allowed a braided system to develop, then seeded the flume with alfalfa (Medicago sativa), allowed the seeds to grow, and then continued the run. We collected data on water depth, surface velocity, and bed elevation throughout each run using image-based techniques designed to collect data over a large spatial area with minimal disturbance to the flow. Our results show that the influence of vegetation on overall river patterns varied systematically with the spatial density of plant stems. Vegetation reduced the number of active channels and increased bank stability, leading to lower lateral migration rates, narrower and deeper channels, and increased channel relief. These effects increased with vegetation density. Vegetation influenced flow dynamics, increasing the variance of flow direction in vegetated runs and increasing scour depths through strong downwelling where the flow collided with relatively resistant banks. This oblique bank collision also provides a new mechanism for producing secondary flows. We found it to be more important than the classical curvature-driven mechanism in vegetated runs.

  18. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  19. Masking Vegetable Bitterness to Improve Palatability Depends on Vegetable Type and Taste Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Mastaneh; Hayes, John E; Duffy, Valerie B

    2013-03-01

    Consumption of dark green vegetables falls short of recommendations, in part, because of unpleasant bitterness. A laboratory-based study of 37 adults was used to determine bitter and hedonic responses to vegetables (asparagus, Brussels sprouts, kale) with bitter masking agents (1.33 M sodium acetate, 10 and 32 mM sodium chloride, and 3.2 mM aspartame) and then characterized by taste phenotype and vegetable liking. In repeated-measures ANOVA, aspartame was most effective at suppressing bitterness and improving hedonic responses for all sampled vegetables. Among the sodium salts, 32 mM sodium chloride decreased bitterness for kale and sodium acetate reduced bitterness across all vegetables with a tendency to increase liking for Brussels sprouts, as release from mixture suppression increased perceived sweetness. Participants were nearly equally divided into three 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) phenotype groups. Those tasting the least PROP bitterness (non-tasters) reported least vegetable bitterness, and the additives produced little change in vegetable liking. Aspartame persisted as the most effective bitter blocker for the PROP tasters (medium, supertasters), improving vegetable liking for the medium tasters but too much sweetness for supertasters. The sodium salts showed some bitter blocking for PROP tasters, particularly sodium acetate, without significant gains in vegetable liking. Via a survey, adults characterized as low vegetable likers reported greater increase in vegetable liking with the maskers than did vegetable likers. These results suggest that bitter masking agents (mainly sweeteners) can suppress bitterness to increase acceptance if they are matched to perceived vegetable bitterness or to self-reported vegetable disliking.

  20. Masking Vegetable Bitterness to Improve Palatability Depends on Vegetable Type and Taste Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of dark green vegetables falls short of recommendations, in part, because of unpleasant bitterness. A laboratory-based study of 37 adults was used to determine bitter and hedonic responses to vegetables (asparagus, Brussels sprouts, kale) with bitter masking agents (1.33 M sodium acetate, 10 and 32 mM sodium chloride, and 3.2 mM aspartame) and then characterized by taste phenotype and vegetable liking. In repeated-measures ANOVA, aspartame was most effective at suppressing bitterness and improving hedonic responses for all sampled vegetables. Among the sodium salts, 32 mM sodium chloride decreased bitterness for kale and sodium acetate reduced bitterness across all vegetables with a tendency to increase liking for Brussels sprouts, as release from mixture suppression increased perceived sweetness. Participants were nearly equally divided into three 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) phenotype groups. Those tasting the least PROP bitterness (non-tasters) reported least vegetable bitterness, and the additives produced little change in vegetable liking. Aspartame persisted as the most effective bitter blocker for the PROP tasters (medium, supertasters), improving vegetable liking for the medium tasters but too much sweetness for supertasters. The sodium salts showed some bitter blocking for PROP tasters, particularly sodium acetate, without significant gains in vegetable liking. Via a survey, adults characterized as low vegetable likers reported greater increase in vegetable liking with the maskers than did vegetable likers. These results suggest that bitter masking agents (mainly sweeteners) can suppress bitterness to increase acceptance if they are matched to perceived vegetable bitterness or to self-reported vegetable disliking. PMID:23682306

  1. DEHYDRATED FRUIT AND VEGETABLES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    FRUITS , *VEGETABLES, QUALITY CONTROL, DEHYDRATED FOODS, PROCESSING, PACKAGING, STORAGE, TASTE, ODORS, COLORS, ACCEPTABILITY, IMPURITIES, MOISTURE, CONTAMINATION, PEST CONTROL, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, USSR.

  2. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  3. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  4. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  5. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  6. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  7. Chemistry Game Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Susan; Muzyka, Jennifer

    2002-04-01

    We present a technological improvement to the use of game shows to help students review for tests. Our approach uses HTML files interpreted with a browser on a computer attached to an LCD projector. The HTML files can be easily modified for use of the game in a variety of courses.

  8. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  9. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  10. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  11. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  12. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  13. Profiles of California vegetation

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1971-01-01

    This publication brings together 57 elevational profiles illustrating the dominant vegetation of much of the Sierra Nevada, southern Coast Ranges, and montane southern California as it existed in the 1930's. The profiles were drawn by Michael N. Dobrotin for the U.S. Forest Service's Vegetation Type Map survey, which mapped nearly half of the State's...

  14. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  15. Tertiary vegetation history

    Treesearch

    C. I. Millar

    1996-01-01

    The Tertiary period, from 2.5 to 65 million years ago, was the time oforigin of the modern Sierra Nevada landscape. Climates, geology,and vegetation changed drastically in the Sierra Nevada during thistime, and analyses of this period provide both context for and insightinto vegetation dynamics of the current and future Sierra. During theearly Tertiary, warm-humid,...

  16. Vegetation and Soils

    Treesearch

    Marianne K. Burke; Sammy L. King; Mark H. Eisenbies; David Gartner

    2000-01-01

    Characterization of bottomland hardwood vegetation in relatively undisturbed forests can provide critical information for developing effective wetland creation and restoration techniques and for assessing the impacts of management and development. Classification is a useful technique in characterizing vegetation because it summarizes complex data sets, assists in...

  17. Mars Slide Show

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    15 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a landslide that occurred off of a steep slope in Tithonium Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

    Location near: 4.8oS, 84.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  18. Modelling vegetated dune landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, A. C. W.; Nield, J. M.

    2007-03-01

    This letter presents a self-organising cellular automaton model capable of simulating the evolution of vegetated dunes with multiple types of plant response in the environment. It can successfully replicate hairpin, or long-walled, parabolic dunes with trailing ridges as well as nebkha dunes with distinctive deposition tails. Quantification of simulated landscapes with eco-geomorphic state variables and subsequent cluster analysis and PCA yields a phase diagram of different types of coastal dunes developing from blow-outs as a function of vegetation vitality. This diagram indicates the potential sensitivity of dormant dune fields to reactivation under declining vegetation vitality, e.g. due to climatic changes. Nebkha simulations with different grid resolutions demonstrate that the interaction between the (abiotic) geomorphic processes and the biological vegetation component (life) introduces a characteristic length scale on the resultant landforms that breaks the typical self-similar scaling of (un-vegetated) bare-sand dunes.

  19. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  20. XMM on show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-01-01

    A unique opportunity for journalists and cameramen to view Europe's next scientific satellite, XMM, will be provided at ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands on Tuesday 10 February at 10:00 a.m. On show will be the full-size development version of XMM which has completed engineering tests. Press representatives will be permitted to inspect it and take pictures at close quarters. Robert Lainé, the XMM project manager, and Fred Jansen, the XMM project scientist will present the spacecraft and mission. Roger Bonnet, Director of the ESA Science programme will present Horizons 2000, the future ESA Science programme. After the presentations they will be available to answer questions. Due for launch in 1999, XMM is an unprecedented space observatory for X-ray astronomy, with far greater sensitivity than any previous X-ray mission. It is also ESA's largest scientific spacecraft -- almost 11 metres long and with a mass of nearly 4 tonnes.

  1. Turbulent flow statistics of vegetative channel with seepage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Thokchom Bebina; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2015-12-01

    The present study is carried out for studying the impact of submerged, flexible vegetation in a channel where downward seepage occurs. Laboratory experiments on artificial vegetation of two different heights, 8 cm and 6 cm, were conducted for no-seepage, 10% seepage and 15% seepage cases. Vegetation height is an important parameter in influencing the flow characteristics in a vegetated channel, where velocity is reduced near the top of the vegetation. Results show that velocity measured at upstream vegetation section is always higher than the downstream section even with the application of downward seepage. The maximum value of Reynolds stress occurs near the top of the vegetation. When the flow enters the vegetation section, the local effect of the presence of vegetation on sediment transport is more at the upstream vegetation section and then decreases which is shown by higher Reynolds stress at the upstream as compared to downstream vegetation section highlighting the importance of vegetation in providing as an erosion control. The maximum Reynolds stress at no seepage is increased by a percentage of 17% for 10% seepage and average of 30.5% for 15% seepage. The turbulence intensities at no seepage are increased by an average value of 15% for 10% seepage and 25% for 15% seepage. The reduction of Reynolds stress and turbulent intensities along the longitudinal direction implies the importance of using vegetation as a river restoration measure providing considerable stability to channels. Third order moments highlight that downward seepage increases the streamwise flux and decreases the upward flux.

  2. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  3. 4. Building 11 north elevation oblique, showing detail of concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Building 11 north elevation oblique, showing detail of concrete landings, window treatments. Very obscured by unremovable vegetation. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 11, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Dynamics of self-organized vegetation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foti, R.; Ramirez, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation patterns are a common and well-defined characteristic of many arid and semi-arid landscapes. In this study we explore some of the physical mechanisms responsible for the establishment of self-organized, non-random vegetation patterns that arise at the hillslope scale in many areas of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In doing so we use a water and energy balance model and provide a fundamental mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of vegetation pattern formation and development. Within the modeling, reciprocal effects of vegetation on the hillslope energy balance, runoff production and run-on infiltration, root density, surface albedo and soil moisture content are analyzed. In particular, we: 1) present a physically based mechanistic description of the processes leading to vegetation pattern formation; 2) Compare simulated vegetation coverage at the hillslope scale with observations; 3) quantify the relative impact of pattern-inducing dynamics on pattern formation; and 4) describe the relationships between vegetation patterns and the climatic, hydraulic and topographic characteristic of the system. The model is validated by comparing hillslope-scale simulations with available observations for the areas of Niger near Niamey and Somalia near Garoowe, where respectively tiger bushes and banded vegetation patterns are present. The model validation includes comparison of simulated and observed vegetation coverage as well as simulated and measured water fluxes, showing both qualitative and quantitative agreement between simulations and observations. The analysis of the system suggests that the main driver of pattern establishment is climate, in terms of average annual precipitation and incoming solar radiation. In particular, decreasing precipitation or, conversely, increasing incoming radiation are responsible for the system departure from fully vegetated with indistinguishable vegetation structures to sparsely vegetated with (self

  5. Vegetation against dune mobility.

    PubMed

    Durán, Orencio; Herrmann, Hans J

    2006-11-03

    Vegetation is the most common and most reliable stabilizer of loose soil or sand. This ancient technique is for the first time cast into a set of equations of motion describing the competition between aeolian sand transport and vegetation growth. Our set of equations is then applied to study quantitatively the transition between barchans and parabolic dunes driven by the dimensionless fixation index theta which is the ratio between the dune characteristic erosion rate and vegetation growth velocity. We find a fixation index theta(c) below which the dunes are stabilized, characterized by scaling laws.

  6. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.

    2016-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed by Orbital Technologies Corp. to be a simple, easily stowed, and high growth volume yet low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to growing vegetables in space, Veggie can support a variety of experiments designed to determine how plants respond to microgravity, provide real-time psychological benefits for the crew, and conduct outreach activities. Currently, Veggie provides the largest volume available for plant growth on the ISS.

  7. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  8. Remote sensing-based vegetation indices for monitoring vegetation change in the semi-arid region of Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R. A., Majdaldin; Osunmadewa, B. A.; Csaplovics, E.; Aralova, D.

    2016-10-01

    Land degradation, a phenomenon referring to (drought) in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions as a result of climatic variations and anthropogenic activities most especially in the semi-arid lands of Sudan, where vast majority of the rural population depend solely on agriculture and pasture for their daily livelihood, the ecological pattern had been greatly influenced thereby leading to loss of vegetation cover coupled with climatic variability and replacement of the natural tree composition with invasive mesquite species. The principal aim of this study is to quantitatively examine the vigour of vegetation in Sudan through different vegetation indices. The assessment was done based on indicators such as soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Cloud free multi-spectral remotely sensed data from LANDSAT imagery for the dry season periods of 1984 and 2009 were used in this study. Results of this study shows conversion of vegetation to other land use type. In general, an increase in area covered by vegetation was observed from the NDVI results of 2009 which is a contrast of that of 1984. The results of the vegetation indices for NDVI in 1984 (vegetated area) showed that about 21% was covered by vegetation while 49% of the area were covered with vegetation in 2009. Similar increase in vegetated area were observed from the result of SAVI. The decrease in vegetation observed in 1984 is as a result of extensive drought period which affects vegetation productivity thereby accelerating expansion of bare surfaces and sand accumulation. Although, increase in vegetated area were observed from the result of this study, this increase has a negative impact as the natural vegetation are degraded due to human induced activities which gradually led to the replacement of the natural vegetation with invasive tree species. The results of the study shows that NDVI perform better than by SAVI.

  9. Predicting vegetation-stabilized dune morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchyn, T.; Hugenholtz, C.

    2012-04-01

    The morphology of vegetation-stabilized dune fields on the North American Great Plains mostly comprises parabolic dunes; stabilized barchan and transverse dunes are rare. One notable exception is the Nebraska Sand Hills (NSH), where massive grass-covered barchan and transverse dunes bear proof of former desert-like conditions. We present a hypothesis from a numerical dune field model to explain the vegetation-stabilized morphology of dunes. The model incorporates a growth curve that preferentially grows vegetation in regions of sediment deposition with a sharp drop in growth at the peak depositional tolerance of vegetation, qualitatively matching biological response to erosion and deposition. Simulations on a range of pre-stabilization dune morphologies, from large closely-spaced transverse dunes to small dispersed barchans, indicate that the stabilized morphology is largely determined by the ratio of slipface deposition rate to peak depositional tolerance of vegetation. Conceptually, slipface deposition rate is related to dune height and celerity. By keeping depositional tolerance constant (representing a constant vegetation type and climate) the model shows that large slow-moving dunes have low slipface deposition rates and essentially 'freeze' in place once vegetation is introduced, retaining their pre-vegetation morphology. Small fast-moving dunes have higher slipface deposition rates and evolve into parabolic dunes. We hypothesize that, when barchan and transverse dunes are subjected to a stabilizing climate shift that increases vegetation growth rate, they retain their pre-stabilization morphology if deposition rates are below the depositional tolerance of stabilizing vegetation, otherwise they become parabolic dunes. This could explain why NSH dunes are stabilized in barchan and transverse morphologies while elsewhere on the Great Plains dune fields are dominated by smaller parabolic dunes.

  10. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  11. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  12. Evaluation of the effect of dietary vegetable consumption on reducing risk of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder in Scottish Terriers.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Malathi; Knapp, Deborah W; Bonney, Patty L; Dawson, Marcia H; Glickman, Lawrence T

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of vegetable consumption and vitamin supplementation on the risk of developing transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder in Scottish Terriers. Case-control study. 92 adult Scottish Terriers with TCC (cases) and 83 Scottish Terriers with other conditions (controls). Owners of dogs with TCC completed a questionnaire regarding their dogs' diet and intake of vitamin supplements in the year prior to diagnosis of TCC; owners of control dogs completed the questionnaire for a comparable time period. The risk (odds ratio [OR]) of developing TCC associated with diet and vitamin supplementation was determined by use of logistic regression. After adjustment for age, weight, neuter status, and coat color, there was an inverse association between consumption of vegetables at least 3 times/wk (OR, 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.62) and risk of developing TCC. For individual vegetable types, the risk of developing TCC was inversely associated with consumption of green leafy vegetables (OR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.97) and yellow-orange vegetables (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.70). Consumption of cruciferous vegetables was not significantly associated with a similar reduction in risk of developing TCC (OR, 0.22; CI, 0.04 to 1.11). The power of the study to detect a 50% reduction in TCC risk associated with daily vitamin supplementation was considered low (25%). Results suggest that consumption of certain vegetables may prevent or slow the development of TCC in Scottish Terriers.

  13. Grains and Starchy Vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    ... farro Wild rice Buckwheat Buckwheat flour Triticale Millet Quinoa Sorghum Do you have celiac disease? Check out ... and Starchy Vegetables Protein Foods What Can I Drink? Dairy Fruits donate en -- Make Your Donation Count - ...

  14. Coma / Vegetative State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vegetative State Legal Issues Sleeping Problems Anxiety & Stress Concussion / Mild TBI Living with Traumatic Brain Injury Speech & ... Conscious States After Severe Brain Injury Brain Trauma, Concussion, and Coma What Is the Glasgow Coma Scale? ...

  15. Vegetable Oil-Biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Pudel, Frank; Wiesen, Sebastian

    2017-03-07

    Conventional vegetable oil mills are complex plants, processing oil, fruits, or seeds to vegetable fats and oils of high quality and predefined properties. Nearly all by-products are used. However, most of the high valuable plant substances occurring in oil fruits or seeds besides the oil are used only in low price applications (proteins as animal feeding material) or not at all (e.g., phenolics). This chapter describes the state-of-the-art of extraction and use of oilseed/oil fruit proteins and phyto-nutrients in order to move from a conventional vegetable oil processing plant to a proper vegetable oil-biorefinery producing a wide range of different high value bio-based products.

  16. Vegetative pyoderma gangrenosum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Randie H; Lewin, Jesse; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Stein, Jennifer; Ramachandran, Sarika

    2014-12-16

    Vegetative pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, superficial variant of pyoderma gangrenosum that is more commonly found on the trunk as single or multiple, non-painful lesions. There is typically no associated underlying systemic disease. Compared to classic pyoderma gangrenosum, vegetative lesions are more likely to heal without the use of systemic glucocorticoids, although up to 39% of patients required a short course of prednisone in a review of 46 cases. Treatments for vegetative pyoderma gangrenosum include topical and intralesional glucocorticoids, minocycline or doxycycline, dapsone, colchicine, and, rarely, alternative steroid-sparing immunosuppressants. We present a case of multiple vegetative pyoderma gangrenosum lesions arising in prior surgical sites in a patient found to have IgA monoclonal gammopathy and abnormal urinary protein electrophoresis.

  17. Monitoring global vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Houston, A. G.; Heydorn, R. P.; Botkin, D. B.; Estes, J. E.; Strahler, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to identify the need for, and the current capability of, a technology which could aid in monitoring the Earth's vegetation resource on a global scale. Vegetation is one of our most critical natural resources, and accurate timely information on its current status and temporal dynamics is essential to understand many basic and applied environmental interrelationships which exist on the small but complex planet Earth.

  18. Vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  19. Treatment of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  20. [Fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    Fruits and vegetables are particularly interesting for health for their content in minerals, antioxidant vitamins, phytochemicals and dietary fiber. All these substances are related to lower risk for the development of health probems, such as certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity, constipation or diverticolsys. The sound basis of scientific evidence led European and American scientific organizations and societies to recommend an intake up to 150-200 g of vegetables every day; ie. 2 or more portions daily and 3 or more portions of fruit; five portions of fruit and vegetables all together. According to the consumer panel from the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, between the late 80s and the end of the 90s. consumption of fruit and vegetables decreased. However, in late years this trend has slow down and even reversed. Results from food consumption studies based on individual level assessment in Spain estimate an average consumption of fruit and vegetables of 154 g/per person/day in adults aged 25-60 yr. Prevalence of inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables is high among children and young people. In this age group above 70% of the population consume less than 3 portions of fruit every day on average. Reorientation of prevailing food patterns nowadays require investment in measures aimed at increasing the consumption of plant foods and estimulate healthy food habits in families.

  1. Vegetation dynamics amplifies precessional forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claussen, Martin; Fohlmeister, Jens; Ganopolski, Andrey; Brovkin, Victor

    2006-05-01

    The astronomical theory of climate variations predicts that the climatic precession which changes the seasonal distance between Earth and Sun does not affect the annual mean irradiation at any given latitude. However, previous modeling studies suggest that during interglacials, the interaction between atmosphere, vegetation and ocean can transform the seasonal forcing by precession into an annual mean global signal. Here, we show that this result can be generalized. A distinct precessional signal emerges in a climate system model over many precessional cycles. While neither the atmosphere-ocean nor the atmosphere-vegetation model are able to produce a large amplitude of global temperature in the precessional band, only the mutual amplification of biogeophysical feedback and sea ice- albedo feedback allows a strong amplification of the precessional signal.

  2. Diesel fuels from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Bagby, M.O.; Freedman, B.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils have heat contents approximately 90% that of diesel fuel and are potential alternate fuel candidates. A major obstacle deterring their use in the direct-injection diesel engine is their inherent high viscosities which are nearly 10 times that of diesel fuel. Solution to the viscosity problem has been approached in three ways: 1) microemulsification, 2) pyrolysis, and 3) transesterification. Microemulsification with short chain alcohols such as methanol and ethanol yields fuels that are clear, thermodynamically stable liquid systems with viscosities near the ASTM specified range for number2 diesel fuel. These micellar systems may be formulated ionically or nonionically. The alcohols are attractive from an economic as well as a renewable resource viewpoint. Methanol has an economic advantage over ethanol, and it can be derived from a large variety of base stocks. These include biomass, municipal waste, natural gas being flared at refineries and from coal. Pyrolysis of vegetable oils is another approach to lowering their viscosity. Soybean and safflower oils were thermally decomposed in both air and nitrogen to obtain fuels for the diesel engine. Using standard ASTM distillation conditions, yields of pyrolysis products were about 75%. GS-MS analysis of the distillates showed the presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids with carbon numbers ranging from 4 to more than 20. Fuel properties of the thermal decomposition products were substantially improved as evaluated by lower viscosities and higher cetane numbers compared to the unpyrrolyzed vegetable oils. Simple esters from transesterification of vegetable oils perform well in engine tests, and thus show good promise as an alternative or emergency fuel for diesel engines.

  3. Vegetation: A mechanism of climate change?

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, J.F.; Barron, E.J.

    1997-11-01

    Globally averaged surface temperature has decreased over the last 60 million years and has been attributed to continental shifting, decreasing atmospheric CO2, and changing ocean circulations. However, the cooling mechanism has never been fully determined and is most likely a combination of factors. Global climate models (GCMs) of tropical deforestation have shown that vegetation can play a significant role in local, regional and even global climates through changes in surface energy budgets. Other studies have shown significant feedbacks between the Boreal forest and Northern Hemisphere warmth. These studies imply that realistic vegetation distributions in paleoclimate simulations, as opposed to a uniform distribution, may be necessary. A study using the GENESIS GCM shows that differing vegetation distributions can affect the globally averaged surface temperature by up to 1C and regional temperatures by up to 12C. Knowing the above information about globally averaged surface temperature over time, the effect of vegetation on climate, and the sensitivity of the GENESIS global climate model, what could the effect of realistic vegetation character and distribution changes in earth history have been? A model study of the effect of changes in vegetation character and distribution on climate from the early Miocene to the present was conducted. The Miocene time period was chosen because both grasslands and the tundra biome developed during this period. The effect of a reconstructed Miocene vegetation distribution is compared to a present-day vegetation distribution. The globally averaged surface temperature decreased 1.9C between the two simulations. The surface cooling effect is enhanced at high latitudes due to a stronger snow/albedo effect associated with tundra. The study indicates that changes in vegetation distribution and character caused by biological innovation contributed to cooling in the late Cenozoic, and are a mechanism of climate change. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Development of freeze dried vegetables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    The development of freeze dried vegetables to be used in the Apollo food system is discussed. After the initial selection and screening of vegetables, several types of freeze dried vegetables were prepared in small batches. From these small batches, two vegetables were judged satisfactory for further testing and evaluation. These vegetables, mashed potatoes and asparagus, were subjected to storage at 100 deg plus or minus 5 F. for two weeks and then taste tested. The vegetables were also tested to determine if they complied with the microbiological requirements for Apollo food. The space food prototype production guide for the vegetables is submitted.

  5. The use of a commercial vegetable juice as a practical means to increase vegetable intake: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recommendations for daily dietary vegetable intake were increased in the 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines as consumption of a diet rich in vegetables has been associated with lower risk of certain chronic health disorders including cardiovascular disease. However, vegetable consumption in the United States has declined over the past decade; consequently, the gap between dietary recommendations and vegetable intake is widening. The primary aim of this study is to determine if drinking vegetable juice is a practical way to help meet daily dietary recommendations for vegetable intake consistent with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. The secondary aim is to assess the effect of a vegetable juice on measures of cardiovascular health. Methods We conducted a 12-week, randomized, controlled, parallel-arm study consisting of 3 groups of free-living, healthy volunteers who participated in study visits at the Ragle Human Nutrition Research Center at the University of California, Davis. All subjects received education on the DASH diet and 0, 8 or 16 fluid ounces of vegetable juice daily. Assessments were completed of daily vegetable servings before and after incorporation of vegetable juice and cardiovascular health parameters including blood pressure. Results Without the juice, vegetable intake in all groups was lower than the 2005 Dietary Guidelines and DASH diet recommendations. The consumption of the vegetable juice helped participants reach recommended intake. In general, parameters associated with cardiovascular health did not change over time. However, in the vegetable juice intervention groups, subjects who were pre-hypertensive at the start of the study showed a significant decrease in blood pressure during the 12-week intervention period. Conclusion Including 1-2 cups of vegetable juice daily was an effective and acceptable way for healthy adults to close the dietary vegetable gap. Increase in daily

  6. Antioxidant Intake from Fruits, Vegetables and Other Sources and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: The Iowa Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Carrie A.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Wang, Alice H.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Ross, Julie A.; Cerhan, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant nutrients found in fruits, vegetables, and other foods are thought to inhibit carcinogenesis and to influence immune status. We evaluated the association of these factors with risk of NHL overall and for diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma specifically in a prospective cohort of 35,159 Iowa women aged 55–69 years when enrolled at baseline in 1986. Diet was ascertained using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Through 2005, 415 cases of NHL (including 184 DLBCL and 90 follicular) were identified. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for age and total energy. The strongest associations of antioxidants with risk of NHL (RR for highest versus lowest quartile; p for trend) were observed for dietary vitamin C (RR=0.78; p=0.044), α-carotene (RR=0.71; p=0.015), proanthocyanidins (RR=0.70; p=0.0024), and dietary manganese (RR=0.62; p=0.010). There were no associations with multivitamin use or supplemental intake of vitamins C, E, selenium, zinc, copper or manganese. From a food perspective, greater intake of total fruits and vegetables (RR=0.69; p=0.011), yellow/orange (RR=0.72; p=0.015) and cruciferous (RR=0.82; p=0.017) vegetables, broccoli (RR=0.72; p=0.018), and apple juice/cider (RR=0.65; p=0.026) were associated with lower NHL risk; there were no strong associations for other antioxidant-rich foods, including whole grains, chocolate, tea or nuts. Overall, these associations were mainly observed for follicular lymphoma, and were weaker or not apparent for DLBCL. In conclusion, these results support a role for vegetables and perhaps fruits, and associated antioxidants from food sources, as protective factors against the development of NHL and follicular lymphoma in particular. PMID:19685491

  7. Global vegetation dynamics - Satellite observations over Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malingreau, J.-P.

    1986-01-01

    The weekly global vegetation index (GVI) derived from the NOAA AVHRR instrument has been analyzed for the 1982-1985 period over a wide range of vegetation formations of Asia. Temporal development curves of the index are presented for environments ranging from the desert of central Asia to the tropical forest of Borneo. The paper shows that, despite the coarse resolution of the GVI product, a large set of useful information on ecosystem dynamics and cropping practices can be consistently derived from time series of such data. In addition, it is shown that the impact of the 1982-1983 El Nino Southern Oscillation-related drought can be detected in the GVI data through an analysis of anomalies in the development of selected vegetation formations. The relevance of such analysis for global vegetation monitoring and change detection is then underlined.

  8. Global vegetation dynamics - Satellite observations over Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malingreau, J.-P.

    1986-01-01

    The weekly global vegetation index (GVI) derived from the NOAA AVHRR instrument has been analyzed for the 1982-1985 period over a wide range of vegetation formations of Asia. Temporal development curves of the index are presented for environments ranging from the desert of central Asia to the tropical forest of Borneo. The paper shows that, despite the coarse resolution of the GVI product, a large set of useful information on ecosystem dynamics and cropping practices can be consistently derived from time series of such data. In addition, it is shown that the impact of the 1982-1983 El Nino Southern Oscillation-related drought can be detected in the GVI data through an analysis of anomalies in the development of selected vegetation formations. The relevance of such analysis for global vegetation monitoring and change detection is then underlined.

  9. Monitoring East African vegetation using AVHRR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C. O.; Holben, B. N.; Gwynne, M. D.

    1986-01-01

    NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite data are applied to regional vegetation monitoring in East Africa. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data for a one-year period from May 1983 are used to examine the phenology of a range of vegetation types. The integrated NDVI data for the same period are compared with an ecoclimatic zone map of the region and show marked similarities. Particular emphasis is placed on quantifying the phenology of the Acacia Commiphora bushlands. Considerable variation was found in the phenology of the bushlands as determined by the satellite NDVI, and is explained through the high spatial variability in the distribution of rainfall and the resulting green-up of the vegetation. The relationship between rainfall and NDVI is further examined for selected meteorological stations existing within the bushland. A preliminary estimate is made of the length of growing season using an NDVI thresholding technique.

  10. Comprehensive Understanding for Vegetated Scene Radiance Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of our fundamental understanding of the dynamics of directional scattering properties of vegetation canopies through analysis of field data and model simulation data is discussed. Directional reflectance distributions spanning the entire existance hemisphere were measured in two field studies; one using a Mark III 3-band radiometer and one using rapid scanning bidirectional field instrument called PARABOLA. Surfaces measured included corn, soybeans, bare soils, grass lawn, orchard grass, alfalfa, cotton row crops, plowed field, annual grassland, stipa grass, hard wheat, salt plain shrubland, and irrigated wheat. Some structural and optical measurements were taken. Field data show unique reflectance distributions ranging from bare soil to complete vegetation canopies. Physical mechanisms causing these trends are proposed based on scattering properties of soil and vegetation. Soil exhibited a strong backscattering peak toward the Sun. Complete vegetation exhibited a bowl distribution with the minimum reflectance near nadir. Incomplete vegetation canopies show shifting of the minimum reflectance off of nadir in the forward scattering direction because both the scattering properties or the vegetation and soil are observed.

  11. Comprehensive Understanding for Vegetated Scene Radiance Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of our fundamental understanding of the dynamics of directional scattering properties of vegetation canopies through analysis of field data and model simulation data is discussed. Directional reflectance distributions spanning the entire existance hemisphere were measured in two field studies; one using a Mark III 3-band radiometer and one using rapid scanning bidirectional field instrument called PARABOLA. Surfaces measured included corn, soybeans, bare soils, grass lawn, orchard grass, alfalfa, cotton row crops, plowed field, annual grassland, stipa grass, hard wheat, salt plain shrubland, and irrigated wheat. Some structural and optical measurements were taken. Field data show unique reflectance distributions ranging from bare soil to complete vegetation canopies. Physical mechanisms causing these trends are proposed based on scattering properties of soil and vegetation. Soil exhibited a strong backscattering peak toward the Sun. Complete vegetation exhibited a bowl distribution with the minimum reflectance near nadir. Incomplete vegetation canopies show shifting of the minimum reflectance off of nadir in the forward scattering direction because both the scattering properties or the vegetation and soil are observed.

  12. Products from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1995-12-01

    Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

  13. Vegetation causes channel erosion in a tidal landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temmerman, S.; Bouma, T. J.; van de Koppel, J.; van der Wal, D.; de Vries, M. B.; Herman, P. M. J.

    2007-07-01

    Vegetation is traditionally regarded to reduce the erosion of channels in both fluvial and tidal landscapes. We present a coupled hydrodynamic, morphodynamic, and plant growth model that simulates plant colonization and channel formation on an initially bare, flat substrate, and apply this model to a tidal landscape. The simulated landscape evolution is compared with aerial photos. Our results show that reduction of erosion by vegetation is only the local, on-site effect operating within static vegetation. Dynamic vegetation patches, which can expand or shrink, have a contrasting larger scale, off-site effect: they obstruct the flow, leading to flow concentration and channel erosion between laterally expanding vegetation patches. In contrast with traditional insights, our findings imply that in tidal landscapes, which are colonized by denser vegetation, channels are formed with a higher channel drainage density. Hence this study demonstrates that feedbacks between vegetation, flow, and landform have an important control on landscape evolution.

  14. Red and photographic infrared linear combinations for monitoring vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The relationships between various linear combinations of red and photographic infrared radiances and vegetation parameters are investigated. In situ spectrometers are used to measure the relationships between linear combinations of red and IR radiances, their ratios and square roots, and biomass, leaf water content and chlorophyll content of a grass canopy in June, September and October. Regression analysis shows red-IR combinations to be more significant than green-red combinations. The IR/red ratio, the square root of the IR/red ratio, the vegetation index (IR-red difference divided by their sum) and the transformed vegetation index (the square root of the vegetation index + 0.5) are found to be sensitive to the amount of photosynthetically active vegetation. The accumulation of dead vegetation over the year is found to have a linearizing effect on the various vegetation measures.

  15. Red and photographic infrared linear combinations for monitoring vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.

    1979-01-01

    The relationships between various linear combinations of red and photographic infrared radiances and vegetation parameters are investigated. In situ spectrometers are used to measure the relationships between linear combinations of red and IR radiances, their ratios and square roots, and biomass, leaf water content and chlorophyll content of a grass canopy in June, September and October. Regression analysis shows red-IR combinations to be more significant than green-red combinations. The IR/red ratio, the square root of the IR/red ratio, the vegetation index (IR-red difference divided by their sum) and the transformed vegetation index (the square root of the vegetation index + 0.5) are found to be sensitive to the amount of photosynthetically active vegetation. The accumulation of dead vegetation over the year is found to have a linearizing effect on the various vegetation measures.

  16. Vegetable parenting practices scale. Item response modeling analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-An; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice; Diep, Cassandra; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We also tested for differences in the ways item function (called differential item functioning) across child's gender, ethnicity, age, and household income groups. Parents of 3-5 year old children completed a self-reported vegetable parenting practices scale online. Vegetable parenting practices consisted of 14 effective vegetable parenting practices and 12 ineffective vegetable parenting practices items, each with three subscales (responsiveness, structure, and control). Multidimensional polytomous item response modeling was conducted separately on effective vegetable parenting practices and ineffective vegetable parenting practices. One effective vegetable parenting practice item did not fit the model well in the full sample or across demographic groups, and another was a misfit in differential item functioning analyses across child's gender. Significant differential item functioning was detected across children's age and ethnicity groups, and more among effective vegetable parenting practices than ineffective vegetable parenting practices items. Wright maps showed items only covered parts of the latent trait distribution. The harder- and easier-to-respond ends of the construct were not covered by items for effective vegetable parenting practices and ineffective vegetable parenting practices, respectively. Several effective vegetable parenting practices and ineffective vegetable parenting practices scale items functioned differently on the basis of child's demographic characteristics; therefore, researchers should use these vegetable parenting practices scales with caution. Item response modeling should be incorporated in analyses of parenting practice questionnaires to better assess

  17. Vegetable parenting practices scale. Item response modeling analyses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tzu-An; O’Connor, Teresia; Hughes, Sheryl; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Janice; Diep, Cassandra; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties of a vegetable parenting practices scale using multidimensional polytomous item response modeling which enables assessing item fit to latent variables and the distributional characteristics of the items in comparison to the respondents. We also tested for differences in the ways item function (called differential item functioning) across child’s gender, ethnicity, age, and household income groups. Method Parents of 3–5 year old children completed a self-reported vegetable parenting practices scale online. Vegetable parenting practices consisted of 14 effective vegetable parenting practices and 12 ineffective vegetable parenting practices items, each with three subscales (responsiveness, structure, and control). Multidimensional polytomous item response modeling was conducted separately on effective vegetable parenting practices and ineffective vegetable parenting practices. Results One effective vegetable parenting practice item did not fit the model well in the full sample or across demographic groups, and another was a misfit in differential item functioning analyses across child’s gender. Significant differential item functioning was detected across children’s age and ethnicity groups, and more among effective vegetable parenting practices than ineffective vegetable parenting practices items. Wright maps showed items only covered parts of the latent trait distribution. The harder- and easier-to-respond ends of the construct were not covered by items for effective vegetable parenting practices and ineffective vegetable parenting practices, respectively. Conclusions Several effective vegetable parenting practices and ineffective vegetable parenting practices scale items functioned differently on the basis of child’s demographic characteristics; therefore, researchers should use these vegetable parenting practices scales with caution. Item response modeling should be incorporated in analyses of parenting

  18. [Feasibility of monitoring karst standing conditions with vegetation spectra].

    PubMed

    Yue, Yue-Min; Wang, Ke-Lin; Xiong, Ying

    2012-07-01

    Karst regions are typically ecological fragile zones constrained by geological setting, which resulted in high heterogeneity of vegetation standing conditions. The karst vegetation was featured with stone, dry and high calcium carbonate content growth conditions. Based on vegetation spectral analysis and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), the present study aimed to examine the feasibility of using vegetation spectra to monitor the heterogeneous karst standing conditions. The results showed that there were significant differences between karst vegetation and non-karst vegetation within the spectral range of 1 300-2 500 nm reflectance and 400 - 680 nm first-derivative spectra. It was found that soil moisture and calcium carbonate contents had the most significant effects on vegetation spectral features in karst regions. Ordination diagrams of CCA could distinguish the differences of karst vegetation and non-karst vegetation. Our study demonstrates that vegetation spectra are highly related to karst standing conditions and it is feasible to monitor karst standing conditions with vegetation spectral features.

  19. Fruit, vegetables, fibre and micronutrients and risk of US renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brock, Kaye E; Ke, Liang; Gridley, Gloria; Chiu, Brian C-H; Ershow, Abby G; Lynch, Charles F; Graubard, Barry I; Cantor, Kenneth P

    2012-09-28

    The association between renal cell cancer (RCC) and intake of fruit, vegetables and nutrients was examined in a population-based case-control study of 323 cases and 1827 controls; dietary intake was obtained using a mailed questionnaire. Cancer risks were estimated by OR and 95 % CI, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, obesity, hypertension, proxy status, alcohol consumption and dietary fat intake and energy. Intake of vegetables was associated with a decreased risk of RCC (OR 0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·7; P trend = 0·002), (top compared to the bottom quartile of intake). When intake of individual nutrients was investigated, vegetable fibre intake was associated with decreased risks (OR 0·4; 95 % CI 0·2, 0·6; P < 0·001), but this was not the case with fruit fibre (OR 0·7; 95 % CI 0·4, 1·1) or grain fibre (OR 1·0; 95 % CI 0·6, 1·5). β-Cryptoxanthin and lycopene were also associated with decreased risks, but when both were included in a mutually adjusted backwards stepwise regression model, only β-cryptoxanthin remained significant (OR 0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·8). When other micronutrients and types of fibre were investigated together, only vegetable fibre and β-cryptoxanthin had significant trends (P < 0·01) (OR 0·6; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·9) (OR 0·5; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·9), respectively. These findings were stronger in those aged over 65 years (P interaction = 0·001). Among non-smokers, low intake of cruciferous vegetables and fruit fibre was also associated with increased risk of RCC (P interaction = 0·03); similar inverse associations were found for β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene and vitamin C. When nutrients were mutually adjusted by backwards regression in these subgroups, only β-cryptoxanthin remained associated with lower RCC risk. These findings deserve further investigation in ongoing prospective studies when sample size becomes sufficient.

  20. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Sun, Jie; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-11-06

    Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables containing high levels of phytochemicals has been recommended to prevent chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in the human body. In this study, 10 common vegetables were selected on the basis of consumption per capita data in the United States. A more complete profile of phenolic distributions, including both free and bound phenolics in these vegetables, is reported here using new and modified methods. Broccoli possessed the highest total phenolic content, followed by spinach, yellow onion, red pepper, carrot, cabbage, potato, lettuce, celery, and cucumber. Red pepper had the highest total antioxidant activity, followed by broccoli, carrot, spinach, cabbage, yellow onion, celery, potato, lettuce, and cucumber. The phenolics antioxidant index (PAI) was proposed to evaluate the quality/quantity of phenolic contents in these vegetables and was calculated from the corrected total antioxidant activities by eliminating vitamin C contributions. Antiproliferative activities were also studied in vitro using HepG(2) human liver cancer cells. Spinach showed the highest inhibitory effect, followed by cabbage, red pepper, onion, and broccoli. On the basis of these results, the bioactivity index (BI) for dietary cancer prevention is proposed to provide a simple reference for consumers to choose vegetables in accordance with their beneficial activities. The BI could be a new alternative biomarker for future epidemiological studies in dietary cancer prevention and health promotion.

  1. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  2. Fermented and Acidified Vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these along with pasteurization or refrigeration and selected additives to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, sorbic and benzoic acids along with ...

  3. Vegetative propagation [Chapter 9

    Treesearch

    Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    For the past 30 years, interest in the propagation of native plants has been growing. Many desirable and ecologically important species, however, are difficult or very time consuming to propagate by seeds. Thus, nursery growers may want to investigate how to propagate a species of interest by vegetative propagation. This can be done by combining classic horticultural...

  4. Climatic drivers of vegetation based on wavelet analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessen, Jeroen; Martens, Brecht; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Molini, Annalisa; Miralles, Diego

    2017-04-01

    Vegetation dynamics are driven by climate, and at the same time they play a key role in forcing the different bio-geochemical cycles. As climate change leads to an increase in frequency and intensity of hydro-meteorological extremes, vegetation is expected to respond to these changes, and subsequently feed back on their occurrence. This response can be analysed using time series of different vegetation diagnostics observed from space, in the optical (e.g. Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Solar Induced Fluorescence (SIF)) and microwave (Vegetation Optical Depth (VOD)) domains. In this contribution, we compare the climatic drivers of different vegetation diagnostics, based on a monthly global data-cube of 24 years at a 0.25° resolution. To do so, we calculate the wavelet coherence between each vegetation-related observation and observations of air temperature, precipitation and incoming radiation. The use of wavelet coherence allows unveiling the scale-by-scale response and sensitivity of the diverse vegetation indices to their climatic drivers. Our preliminary results show that the wavelet-based statistics prove to be a suitable tool for extracting information from different vegetation indices. Going beyond traditional methods based on linear correlations, the application of wavelet coherence provides information about: (a) the specific periods at which the correspondence between climate and vegetation dynamics is larger, (b) the frequencies at which this correspondence occurs (e.g. monthly or seasonal scales), and (c) the time lag in the response of vegetation to their climate drivers, and vice versa. As expected, areas of high rainfall volumes are characterised by a strong control of radiation and temperature over vegetation. Furthermore, precipitation is the most important driver of vegetation variability over short terms in most regions of the world - which can be explained by the rapid response of leaf development towards available water content

  5. Experiments of Flow Field Influenced by Vegetation Distribution on Floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Fu; Wang, Shun-Chang; Chen, Su-Chin

    2015-04-01

    The vegetation on floodplain can block river flow, raise flood level, and scour riverbed downstream the vegetation region. However, it can also protect the dike, reduce flood velocity, and increase the stability of channel. This experiment analyzed the relationship between vegetation distribution and flow field. We designed three vegetation arrangement pattern of unilateral vegetation, unilateral interval vegetation and no vegetation, respectively. The unilateral vegetation was defined as a 4.9 m length and 0.5 m width with vegetative area in one side of the experiment flume. The unilateral interval vegetation was defined as the same dimension of vegetative area but inserted 2 gaps with 1 m interval, and the vegetative area was separated into 3 blocks. The model of a single plant was assembled with stem and frond. The stem was a woody cylinder with 10 cm height and 2.2 cm in diameter. The other part was plastic frond with 10 cm in height. The flume was 20 m length, 1 m width and 0.7 m height with 2 kinds of bed slopes in 0.001 and 0.002, and 3 different discharges in 0.2 m3/s, 0.145 m3/s and 0.0855 m3/s. The velocity was measured by 2-D electromagnetic velocimeter (ACM2-R2). In addition, water depth was measured by Vernier calipers. The velocity distribution showed that the current were divided into two parts. In the part of inside vegetation area, water level uplifted when flow entering the vegetation area, and it declined until the current leaving vegetation area. Compared with the current in the other half part of flume, the magnitudes of uplift were about 50% in both case of unilateral vegetation and unilateral interval vegetation. Downstream the vegetation area edge, the water level dropped immediately and violently. The water depth was shallower than that in the other half non-vegetation part, and the decline magnitude were 48% and 39% in cases of unilateral vegetation and unilateral interval vegetation, respectively. To explain this phenomenon, we measured

  6. Estimating the vegetation water content using a radar vegetation index

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter. Here, the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) based on polarimetric backscatter observations was evaluated for estimating vegetation water content. Analysis utilized a data set obtained by a ground-based multi-frequency polarimetric scatterome...

  7. Pesticides on fruits and vegetables

    MedlinePlus

    To help protect yourself and your family from pesticides on fruits and vegetables: Wash your hands with soap and water before you start preparing food. Discard the outer leaves of leafy vegetables such ...

  8. Refinement of microwave vegetation indices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous investigations have established the basis for a new type of vegetation index based on passive microwave satellite observations. These microwave vegetation indices (MVIs) have been qualitatively evaluated by examining global spatial and seasonal temporal features. Limited quantitative studie...

  9. Diurnal variations of vegetation canopy structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.; Kirchner, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    The significance and magnitude of diurnal variations of vegetation canopy structure are reviewed. Diurnal leaf inclination-azimuth angle distributions of a soybean and cotton canopy were documented using a simple measurement technique. The precision of the measurements was on the order of + or -5 deg for the inclination and + or -14 deg for the azimuth. The experimental results and a review of the literature showed that this distribution can vary significantly on a diurnal basis due to vegetation type, heliotropic leaf movement, environmental conditions, and vegetation stress. The study also showed that it is erroneous to treat two separate distributions of azimuth and inclination angles rather than one three-dimensional distribution of leaf orientation. The latter distribution needs to be routinely collected in studies which document variations of diurnal spectral reflectance with changes in solar zenith angle.

  10. Vegetable oil fuels: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1999-04-01

    Using vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has economic, environmental, and energy benefits for Turkey. The present work provides insight to the status of vegetable oil fuels in Turkey. A brief historical background of the issue, as well as an up to date review of the research carried out on vegetable oil fuels, is given and the future of their production and application is discussed.

  11. Vegetable soybean tolerance to pyroxasulfone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    If registered for use on vegetable soybean, pyroxasulfone would fill an important gap in weed management systems in the crop. In order to determine the potential crop injury risk of pyroxasulfone on vegetable soybean, the objective of this work was to quantify vegetable soybean tolerance to pyroxasu...

  12. Recommendations for Constructing Roadside Vegetation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Recommendations for external partners planting roadside vegetation. Intended for broad use, but immediate use will be to provide to project partners on the RESES roadside vegetation project and as an attachment to the RESES project QAPP Provide recommendations on the physical characteristics of roadside vegetation that can provide a local air quality benefit

  13. Daily polyphenol intake in France from fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Brat, Pierre; Georgé, Stéphane; Bellamy, Annick; Du Chaffaut, Laure; Scalbert, Augustin; Mennen, Louise; Arnault, Nathalie; Amiot, Marie Josèphe

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to create a French database on the polyphenol content of fruit and vegetables as uncooked fruits and vegetables and then to evaluate polyphenol intake through fruit and vegetable consumption in France. To achieve this, we used the Folin-Ciocalteu method adapted to fruit and vegetable polyphenol quantitation (1). Vegetables with the highest polyphenol concentration were artichokes, parsley, and brussels sprouts [>250 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh edible portion (FEP)]; fruits with the highest concentrations were strawberries, lychees, and grapes (>180 mg of GAE/100 g FEP). Conversely, melons (Cantaloupe cv.) and avocados had the lowest polyphenol concentration for fruits and vegetables, respectively. Based on fruit consumption data, apples and strawberries are the main sources of polyphenols in the French diet, whereas potatoes, lettuces, and onions are the most important vegetable sources. Total polyphenol intake from fruit is about 3 times higher than from vegetables, due to the lower polyphenol concentration in vegetables. The calculation of polyphenol intake, based on both assessment methods used [(Société d'Etudes de la Communication, Distribution et Publicité (SECODIP) and Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SUVIMAX)], showed that apples and potatoes provide approximatively half of the total polyphenol intake from fruit and vegetables in the French diet.

  14. Wave Dissipation by Vegetation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    relative to conditions without vegetation. During Hurricanes Charley and Wilma, water levels recorded in two Florida mangrove ecosystems were...reduced by as much as 9.4 cm per km inland. Although water levels were reduced as the surge moved through the coastal mangroves , the relative contribution...of mangroves was still unclear (Krauss et al. 2009). Numerical simulations by Loder et al. (2009) and ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-82 September 2011 2

  15. Leaves of Raphanus sativus L. Shows Anti-Inflammatory Activity in LPS-Stimulated Macrophages via Suppression of COX-2 and iNOS Expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Jin; Song, Minjung

    2017-01-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (RS) is a cruciferous vegetable that is widely consumed in Korea. The anticancer activity of leaves of RS (RSL) extract has been investigated; however, no studies focused on its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of RSL extract. In brief, RSL powder was fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water-soluble fractions. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with each fraction for initial screening. It was found that the chloroform fraction significantly inhibited nitric oxide release in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 196 μg/mL. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, measured using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme expression decreased. Furthermore, the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), the key regulator of the transcriptional activation of the inflammatory cytokine genes, was reduced by the RSL chloroform fraction. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that RSL exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated macrophages via NF-κB inactivation. PMID:28401088

  16. Leaves of Raphanus sativus L. Shows Anti-Inflammatory Activity in LPS-Stimulated Macrophages via Suppression of COX-2 and iNOS Expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Jin; Song, Minjung

    2017-03-01

    Raphanus sativus L. (RS) is a cruciferous vegetable that is widely consumed in Korea. The anticancer activity of leaves of RS (RSL) extract has been investigated; however, no studies focused on its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of RSL extract. In brief, RSL powder was fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water-soluble fractions. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with each fraction for initial screening. It was found that the chloroform fraction significantly inhibited nitric oxide release in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value of 196 μg/mL. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase, measured using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, the inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme expression decreased. Furthermore, the expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), the key regulator of the transcriptional activation of the inflammatory cytokine genes, was reduced by the RSL chloroform fraction. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that RSL exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated macrophages via NF-κB inactivation.

  17. Applying new methodologies for quantifying total vegetation cover in arid regions using MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shreve, C.; Okin, G. S.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation in arid regions can show physical adaptations to the harsh climate such as waxy cuticles, leaf hairs, and lower chlorophyll content than vegetation in more humid regions, which results in the vegetation in arid environments appearing less green. Satellite measurements of vegetative cover currently rely primarily on a measure of greenness and serve as important inputs for climate models, thus requiring as accurate a portrayal as possible. Remotely derived metrics such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which exploit the “red edge” of vegetation that results primarily from increased chlorophyll concentration during plant growth, may not accurately reflect vegetative cover or be suitable to use in biomass estimations for arid regions. We discuss a method for deriving fractional (subpixel) cover of vegetation from MODIS imagery better suited for both hot and cold arid regions than NDVI because it minimizes soil effects, is more robust in the presence of snow than NDVI and provides a more inclusive measure of total vegetation cover. A case study of spatial and temporal trends of vegetative cover in the Tibetan Plateau is discussed and results show the vegetation dynamics differ markedly than those portrayed by NDVI alone. Applying a cosine fitting method to the timeseries of green and brown vegetation indices allows for additional vegetation metrics to be derived describing the contribution of each index to the total dynamics within a pixel. The amplitude provides information on the total amount of cyclic intraanual variability in a pixel for both green and brown vegetation indices. A simple ratio of the brown vegetation index to total vegetation cover provides the relative contribution of brown vegetation to the total cyclic intraanual variability. Examining the simple ratio and the brown vegetation index results in combination, yields information on the amount of cyclic variability within a pixel that is explained by changes in brown

  18. Effects of Vegetables on Cardiovascular Diseases and Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Guo-Yi; Meng, Xiao; Li, Ya; Zhao, Cai-Ning; Liu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that vegetable consumption is inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, research has indicated that many vegetables like potatoes, soybeans, sesame, tomatoes, dioscorea, onions, celery, broccoli, lettuce and asparagus showed great potential in preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases, and vitamins, essential elements, dietary fibers, botanic proteins and phytochemicals were bioactive components. The cardioprotective effects of vegetables might involve antioxidation; anti-inflammation; anti-platelet; regulating blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile; attenuating myocardial damage; and modulating relevant enzyme activities, gene expression, and signaling pathways as well as some other biomarkers associated to cardiovascular diseases. In addition, several vegetables and their bioactive components have been proven to protect against cardiovascular diseases in clinical trials. In this review, we analyze and summarize the effects of vegetables on cardiovascular diseases based on epidemiological studies, experimental research, and clinical trials, which are significant to the application of vegetables in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28796173

  19. Bioclimatic distribution of vegetation for general circulation model studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prentice, Katharine Culbertson

    1990-01-01

    Four global bioclimatic schemes which qualify climates on the basis of the distribution of vegetation, including the Holdridge (1947), Thornthwaite (1948), Koeppen (1936), and Troll and Paffen (1964) schemes, were applied to two global climate data sets to produce maps of global vegetation distribution: the Rand set described by Schutz and Gates (1971, 1973, and 1974) and the Shea (1986) data set. The results show that only 38 to 40 percent of the observed land surface, mapped as 31 vegetation types, could be replicated by applying the four schemes to these data sets. The simulations were significantly improved by further subdividing and regrouping the climates defined by the schemes and by regrouping the observed vegetation types. With these alterations, 77 percent of the predicted vegetative landscape coresponded with the observed distribution of vegetation.

  20. Bioclimatic distribution of vegetation for general circulation model studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prentice, Katharine Culbertson

    1990-01-01

    Four global bioclimatic schemes which qualify climates on the basis of the distribution of vegetation, including the Holdridge (1947), Thornthwaite (1948), Koeppen (1936), and Troll and Paffen (1964) schemes, were applied to two global climate data sets to produce maps of global vegetation distribution: the Rand set described by Schutz and Gates (1971, 1973, and 1974) and the Shea (1986) data set. The results show that only 38 to 40 percent of the observed land surface, mapped as 31 vegetation types, could be replicated by applying the four schemes to these data sets. The simulations were significantly improved by further subdividing and regrouping the climates defined by the schemes and by regrouping the observed vegetation types. With these alterations, 77 percent of the predicted vegetative landscape coresponded with the observed distribution of vegetation.

  1. Nutrient composition of selected medicinal leafy vegetables in Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, O Steve; Ekeh, Ogechi; Ajayi, O Philip

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the nutritional composition and consumption patterns of selected local leafy vegetables among families in Akure Township, Western Nigeria. The data collection involved administration of interviewer-structured questionnaires to the mothers. The questionnaire was designed to collect information on the medicinal and consumption pattern of vegetables. The chemical compositions of the vegetables were analyzed using standard methods. The nutrient composition of the vegetables showed that the protein content of Jathropha tanjorenses (40.94%) was significantly higher than the remaining leafy vegetable samples, whereas Curcubita pepo (8.25%) contained the least protein content. The fiber content of Solanum americanum (13.79%) was significantly higher when compared with other leafy vegetable samples. Also, the energy value of Baselia allia (401.68 kcal) was the highest, whereas that of C. pepo (285.10 kcal) was the lowest. Regarding mineral composition, J. tanjorenses had the highest contents of zinc, iron, and Na/K ratio, whereas Vernononia amygdalina and Solanum macrocarpon had the least and highest Na/K and Ca/P ratios, respectively. The consumption patterns of the respondents showed that one-quarter of the respondents consumed the vegetables regularly, whereas the remaining consumed occasionally or never consumed the vegetables. In conclusion, this study established that the leafy vegetables contained appreciable amounts of nutrients that could be of health and nutritional benefits to the consumers.

  2. Investigations in vegetation map rectification, and the remotely sensed detection and measurement of natural vegetation changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Richard Eugene

    2000-10-01

    As projected climate changes loom, the monitoring of the response of natural vegetation becomes important for both science and management. Successful monitoring requires good baseline information and vegetation change detection techniques. The research reported here involved three main tasks: (1) digital geometric rectification of a detailed historic vegetation map; (2) an analysis of high spatial resolution airborne remote sensing data for tree mortality; and (3) the development of a Landsat Thematic Mapper-based vegetation change detection procedure. These studies focused on the Sierra Nevada of California, and in particular Yosemite National Park. The Vegetation Type Maps (VTMs) (Wieslander 1935) represent some of the finest maps of their kind in the world, and cover more than 40% of California. Yosemite National Park was mapped using these techniques in the late 1930s. Geometric inaccuracies in the 19th century USGS basemaps were mitigated using newly available GIS and remote sensing tools, enabling the rectified VTMs, to be integrated into the National Park's vegetation monitoring work. In 1992, several transects of a four-band high spatial resolution airborne scanner (ADAR) were taken of mid-elevation forests in the southern Sierra Nevada, to evaluate their use for tree mortality monitoring. This analysis highlighted the difficulty of using single-date imagery for monitoring vegetation changes, but showed (1) the best measure of tree mortality (when compared with field data) was found using solely the red wavelength band; and (2) the metric most highly correlated with the field data was relative canopy mortality (%), not absolute area (ha). Lastly, based upon Principal Components Analysis, I developed an algorithm for separating spectral changes resulting from vegetation changes on the ground from other changes present but not of concern to monitoring. Three vectors were derived using 6 of 7 Thematic Mapper bands. Although few published change detection

  3. Micellization in vegetable oils: A structural characterisation.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Ophélie; Girard, Luc; Rodrigues, Donatien Gomes; Bauduin, Pierre; Le Goff, Xavier; Rossignol-Castera, Anne; L'Hermitte, Annabelle; Diat, Olivier

    2017-03-21

    The solubilisation of polar and polyphenol antioxidant in vegetable oils was studied. It was shown that the use of a polyglyceryl-3-diisostearate (PG3DS), a bio-sourced emulsifier well known in cosmetics, increases the yield of solubilisation thanks to some aggregation properties analysed using x-ray scattering technique. We show indeed that PG3DS forms reverse aggregates with a critical concentration that depends on the oil polarity. PG3DS reverse aggregates are elongated with a polar core and cannot be really swollen by addition of water. This supramolecular organisation allows however an efficient solubilisation of polar antioxidants in vegetable oils.

  4. Externally forced transitions in vegetated biogeomorphic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balke, Thorsten; Herman, Peter M. J.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2014-05-01

    The shift between bare sediment and dense vegetation cover in biogeomorphic ecosystems is often referred to as a critical transition. This means that once vegetation is present, it stabilises the sediment and creates positive feedbacks to the system, making a shift to the bare state less likely. However, new vegetation establishment or vegetation recovery is often inhibited due to lacking stabilising feedbacks in the bare state. Exposure to fluid motion by water or wind and sediment erosion or burial can hamper seed germination at otherwise suitable locations or lead to failure during subsequent seedling anchorage. However, during calm conditions such physical disturbance is absent or minimal so that temporal 'Windows of Opportunity' for seedling establishment may arise in which seedlings can gain stability against average forcing. Based on time series analyses of external forcing in a range of biogeomorphic ecosystems, we show how 'Windows of Opportunity' may explain sudden establishment/recovery of vegetation. We discuss their importance for initiating a biogeomorphic succession and for the wider critical transition theory.

  5. Resilience and recovery of Kalahari duneland vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachan, A.; D'Odorico, P.; Dintwe, K.; Okin, G. S.; Collins, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Many dune fields around the world have undergone alternating periods of mobilization and stabilization in response to changes in wind power and rainfall. In modern times disturbances associated with land use are believed to be a dominant factor contributing to the activation of stabilized vegetated dunes in drylands, while the reduction in human activities such as grazing and farming may lead to stabilization of once active dune fields. It is not clear if reduction of human activities is the only necessary factor for the recovery of vegetation and stabilization of dunes. In this study, we concentrate on the Kalahari region of Southern Africa and investigate the resilience of duneland vegetation that is currently undergoing conditions of incipient degradation with dunes becoming active in overgrazed areas close to boreholes and villages. Using field observation and soil seed bank experiments, we show that palatable perennial grass cover is reduced while the seedbank is depleted on grazed dunefields. Conversely, the interdunes generally exhibit relatively rich seed banks. Soils from grazed and ungrazed sites exhibit plant available nutrient contents that are not significantly different; therefore, soil nutrients are likely not a major factor limiting the recovery of perennial vegetation in this region. It is observed that the perennial grasses reestablish on the recovery dunes after grazers have been excluded. Therefore, changes in grass cover and grass community composition, seed bank depletion, and decline in soil nutrient content can be used as indicators of imminent regime shifts from vegetated to bare dune.

  6. Antibiotic uptake by vegetable crops from manure-applied soils.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Hee; Gupta, Satish; Rosen, Carl; Fritz, Vincent; Singh, Ashok; Chander, Yogesh; Murray, Helene; Rohwer, Charlie

    2013-10-23

    This study quantified the uptake of five antibiotics (chlortetracycline, monensin, sulfamethazine, tylosin, and virginiamycin) by 11 vegetable crops in two different soils that were fertilized with raw versus composted turkey and hog manures or inorganic fertilizer. Almost all vegetables showed some uptake of antibiotics from manure treatments. However, statistical testing showed that except for a few isolated treatments the concentrations of all antibiotics in vegetable tissues were generally less than the limits of quantification. Further testing of the significant treatments showed that antibiotic concentrations in vegetables from many of these treatments were not significantly different than the corresponding concentrations from the fertilizer treatment (matrix effect). All five antibiotic concentrations in the studied vegetables were <10 μg kg(-1). On the basis of the standards for maximum residue levels in animal tissues and suggested maximum daily intake based on body weight, this concentration would not pose any health risk unless one is allergic to that particular antibiotic.

  7. Statistics of backscatter radar return from vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, M. A.; Chen, K. S.; Fung, A. K.

    1992-01-01

    The statistical characteristics of radar return from vegetation targets are investigated through a simulation study based upon the first-order scattered field. For simulation purposes, the vegetation targets are modeled as a layer of randomly oriented and spaced finite cylinders, needles, or discs, or a combination of them. The finite cylinder is used to represent a branch or a trunk, the needle for a stem or a coniferous leaf, and the disc for a decidous leaf. For a plane wave illuminating a vegetation canopy, simulation results show that the signal returned from a layer of disc- or needle-shaped leaves follows the Gamma distribution, and that the signal returned from a layer of branches resembles the log normal distribution. The Gamma distribution also represents the signal returned from a layer of a mixture of branches and leaves regardless of the leaf shapes. Results also indicate that the polarization state does not have a significant impact on signal distribution.

  8. Stochastic Evaluation of Riparian Vegetation Dynamics in River Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, H.; Kimura, R.; Toshimori, N.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation overgrowth in sand bars and floodplains has been a serious problem for river management in Japan. From the viewpoints of flood control and ecological conservation, it would be necessary to accurately predict the vegetation dynamics for a long period of time. In this study, we have developed a stochastic model for predicting the dynamics of trees in floodplains with emphasis on the interaction with flood impacts. The model consists of the following four processes in coupling ecohydrology with biogeomorphology: (i) stochastic behavior of flow discharge, (ii) hydrodynamics in a channel with vegetation, (iii) variation of riverbed topography and (iv) vegetation dynamics on the floodplain. In the model, the flood discharge is stochastically simulated using a Poisson process, one of the conventional approaches in hydrological time-series generation. The model for vegetation dynamics includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by flood impacts, and infant tree invasion. To determine the model parameters, vegetation conditions have been observed mainly before and after flood impacts since 2008 at a field site located between 23.2-24.0 km from the river mouth in Kako River, Japan. This site is one of the vegetation overgrowth locations in Kako River floodplains, where the predominant tree species are willows and bamboos. In this presentation, sensitivity of the vegetation overgrowth tendency is investigated in Kako River channels. Through the Monte Carlo simulation for several cross sections in Kako River, responses of the vegetated channels are stochastically evaluated in terms of the changes of discharge magnitude and channel geomorphology. The expectation and standard deviation of vegetation areal ratio are compared in the different channel cross sections for different river discharges and relative floodplain heights. The result shows that the vegetation status changes sensitively in the channels with larger discharge and insensitive in the lower floodplain

  9. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative `incineration` was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material.

  10. Perceptual and lexical knowledge of vegetables in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Morizet, David; Depezay, Laurence; Masse, Pierre; Combris, Pierre; Giboreau, Agnès

    2011-08-01

    The present study investigated the visual and lexical knowledge of vegetables in children. The purpose of this was to identify both liked and disliked familiar vegetables which will be used in a further study. We explored children's lexical knowledge with a free listing test and their visual knowledge with a picture's sorting test. 145 children between the ages of 8 and 11 years from various living environments of the Rhône-Alpes Region, France, completed both tests. Overall, 54 vegetables were cited, 16 of which were cited by more than 9% of the sample. Carrots, tomatoes and lettuce were the most named vegetables and the best visually recognized by children. Lexical knowledge increased gradually with age. Children from rural areas named significantly more vegetables than those from urban areas. However, visual recognition of vegetables did not change as a function of age or living environment. This suggests that visual categorization allows easier accessing to semantic knowledge than verbal questioning. Finally, the data showed a relation between visual familiarity and liking: the majority of raw vegetables recognized visually were also classified as "liked vegetables". In addition, children declared that they did not want to try most of the unknown vegetables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Characteristics of iodine uptake and accumulation by vegetables].

    PubMed

    Hong, Chun-Lai; Weng, Huan-Xin; Yan, Ai-Lan; Xie, Ling-Li

    2007-10-01

    With seaweed iodine and KI as exogenous iodine sources, a pot experiment was conducted to study the characteristics of iodine uptake and accumulation by pakchoi cabbage, celery, capsicum, and radish. The results showed that the iodine content in the edible parts of test vegetables increased with increasing amount of exogenous iodine, but the iodine accumulation rate differed with the kinds of vegetables, in the order of pakchoi > celery > radish > capsicum. The majority of iodine was accumulated in roots, with lesser amount transferred to shoots. The distribution of iodine in vegetables was commonly in the order of root > leaf > stem > fruit, but the iodine in radish is lower in its rhizome than in its shoot. Low concentrations (0-25 mg x kg(-1)) of exogenous iodine had little effects on the growth of vegetables, while high concentrations (> or = 50 mg x kg(-1)) of it had inhibitory effects, resulting in a decreased vegetable biomass. The sensitivity of test vegetables to the adverse effect of exogenous iodine was in the order of capsicum > pachoi > celery > radish. Compared with seaweed iodine, KI decreased the biomass of first cutting significantly (P < 0.05), but for the second cutting, little difference was observed between these two iodine sources. The uptake and accumulation of these two iodine sources by vegetables also differed with cuttings, i.e., the first cutting vegetables absorbed more KI, while the second cutting vegetables absorbed more seaweed iodine (P < 0.05), suggesting that seaweed iodine had a longer efficacy than KI.

  12. Vegetated buffer management practice to improve surface water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Zhang, X.; Liu, X.

    2007-12-01

    Vegetated buffer best management practices (BMPs) installed in agricultural landscapes have been suggested as promising candidate tactics to reduce erosion and offsite transportation of agrochemicals. A wide range of vegetated buffer management practices have been installed in many areas to reduce agrochemical loss from applied fields, to filter sediments from tailwaters, and to deter their transportation to water bodies. This presentation will focus on reviewing vegetated buffers and their efficacies in reducing agrochemical offsite movements, with a discussion on the major factors influencing BMP efficacy. Percent removal by various BMPs ranged from 16.7 to 100% for sediments, 29 to 98% for nitrogen, 1 to 100% for phosphorus, and 27 to 100% for pesticides, depending on the setting. Preliminary meta-analyses on the data obtained from the literature review showed that vegetated buffers were mostly effective in removing sediment, followed by pesticides and nutrients. BMP efficacy is mainly influenced by buffer width, buffer slope, rainfall and vegetation. As for sediment reduction, the results based on the limited data showed that buffer width and buffer slope are two major factors influencing mitigation efficacy of vegetated buffers. The results also showed that a design with 10-m width and a 9% slope optimizes the sediment trapping capability of vegetated buffers. The meta-analysis results of this study could provide specific recommendations such as buffer width and slope for future vegetated buffer BMP construction to increase soil and water conservation.

  13. Level area surrounding Facility 314 showing the planted ring that ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Level area surrounding Facility 314 showing the planted ring that contains the radial ground wires, note the ring beneath the antenna circles is cleared of vegetation and covered with gravel, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Radio Station, AF/FRD-10 Circularly Disposed Antenna Array, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  15. Vegetation and acidification, Chapter 5

    Treesearch

    David R. DeWalle; James N. Kochenderfer; Mary Beth Adams; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, the impact of watershed acidification treatments on WS3 at the Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) and at WS9 on vegetation is presented and summarized in a comprehensive way for the first time. WS7 is used as a vegetative reference basin for WS3, while untreated plots within WS9 are used as a vegetative reference for WS9. Bioindicators of acidification...

  16. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Weindorf, David C; Rajan, Nithya; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2013-12-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables is a growing concern for public health. Limited studies have elucidated the heavy metal accumulation characteristics and health risk of different vegetables produced in different facilities such as greenhouses and open-air fields and under different management modes such as harmless and organic. Given the concern over the aforementioned factors related to heavy metal accumulation, this study selected four typical greenhouse vegetable production bases, short-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (SHGVB), middle-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (MHGVB), long-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (LHGVB), and organic greenhouse vegetable base (OGVB), in Nanjing City, China to study heavy metal accumulation in different vegetables and their associated health risks. Results showed that soils and vegetables from SHGVB and OGVB apparently accumulated fewer certain heavy metals than those from other bases, probably due to fewer planting years and special management, respectively. Greenhouse conditions significantly increased certain soil heavy metal concentrations relative to open-air conditions. However, greenhouse conditions did not significantly increase concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn in leaf vegetables. In fact, under greenhouse conditions, Pb accumulation was effectively reduced. The main source of soil heavy metals was the application of large amounts of low-grade fertilizer. There was larger health risk for producers' children to consume vegetables from the three harmless vegetable bases than those of residents' children. The hazard index (HI) over a large area exceeded 1 for these two kinds of children in the MHGVB and LHGVB. There was also a slight risk in the SHGVB for producers' children solely. However, the HI of the whole area of the OGVB for two kinds of children was below 1, suggesting low risk of heavy metal exposure through the food chain. Notably, the contribution rate of Cu and Zn to the HI were

  17. Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory (AVRI) accuracy assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szajgin, John; Pettinger, L.R.; Linden, D.S.; Ohlen, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    A quantitative accuracy assessment was performed for the vegetation classification map produced as part of the Arizona Vegetation Resource Inventory (AVRI) project. This project was a cooperative effort between the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center. The objective of the accuracy assessment was to estimate (with a precision of ?10 percent at the 90 percent confidence level) the comission error in each of the eight level II hierarchical vegetation cover types. A stratified two-phase (double) cluster sample was used. Phase I consisted of 160 photointerpreted plots representing clusters of Landsat pixels, and phase II consisted of ground data collection at 80 of the phase I cluster sites. Ground data were used to refine the phase I error estimates by means of a linear regression model. The classified image was stratified by assigning each 15-pixel cluster to the stratum corresponding to the dominant cover type within each cluster. This method is known as stratified plurality sampling. Overall error was estimated to be 36 percent with a standard error of 2 percent. Estimated error for individual vegetation classes ranged from a low of 10 percent ?6 percent for evergreen woodland to 81 percent ?7 percent for cropland and pasture. Total cost of the accuracy assessment was $106,950 for the one-million-hectare study area. The combination of the stratified plurality sampling (SPS) method of sample allocation with double sampling provided the desired estimates within the required precision levels. The overall accuracy results confirmed that highly accurate digital classification of vegetation is difficult to perform in semiarid environments, due largely to the sparse vegetation cover. Nevertheless, these techniques show promise for providing more accurate information than is presently available for many BLM-administered lands.

  18. Genetics and bitter taste responses to goitrin, a plant toxin found in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wooding, Stephen; Gunn, Howard; Ramos, Purita; Thalmann, Sophie; Xing, Chao; Meyerhof, Wolfgang

    2010-10-01

    The perceived bitterness of cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli varies from person to person, but the functional underpinnings of this variation are not known. Some evidence suggests that it arises, in part, from variation in ability to perceive goitrin (5-vinyloxazolidine-2-thione), a potent antithyroid compound found naturally in crucifers. Individuals vary in ability to perceive synthetic compounds similar to goitrin, such as 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PROP) and phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), as the result of mutations in the TAS2R38 gene, which encodes a bitter taste receptor. This suggests that taste responses to goitrin itself may be mediated by TAS2R38. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationships between genetic variation in TAS2R38, functional variation in the encoded receptor, and threshold taste responses to goitrin, PROP, and PTC in 50 subjects. We found that threshold responses to goitrin were associated with responses to both PROP (P = 8.9 x 10(-4); r(s) = 0.46) and PTC (P = 7.5 x 10(-4); r(s) = 0.46). However, functional assays revealed that goitrin elicits a weaker response from the sensitive (PAV) allele of TAS2R38 (EC(50) = 65.0 μM) than do either PROP (EC(50) = 2.1 μM) or PTC (EC(50) = 1.1 μM) and no response at all from the insensitive (AVI) allele. Furthermore, goitrin responses were significantly associated with mutations in TAS2R38 (P = 9.3 × 10(-3)), but the same mutations accounted for a smaller proportion of variance in goitrin response (r(2) = 0.16) than for PROP (r(2) = 0.50) and PTC (r(2) = 0.57). These findings suggest that mutations in TAS2R38 play a role in shaping goitrin perception, but the majority of variance must be explained by other factors.

  19. White vegetables: glycemia and satiety.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Soeandy, Chesarahmia Dojo; Smith, Christopher E

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss the effect of white vegetable consumption on glycemia, satiety, and food intake. White vegetables is a term used to refer to vegetables that are white or near white in color and include potatoes, cauliflowers, turnips, onions, parsnips, white corn, kohlrabi, and mushrooms (technically fungi but generally considered a vegetable). They vary greatly in their contribution to the energy and nutrient content of the diet and glycemia and satiety. As with other foods, the glycemic effect of many white vegetables has been measured. The results illustrate that interpretation of the semiquantitative comparative ratings of white vegetables as derived by the glycemic index must be context dependent. As illustrated by using the potato as an example, the glycemic index of white vegetables can be misleading if not interpreted in the context of the overall contribution that the white vegetable makes to the carbohydrate and nutrient composition of the diet and their functionality in satiety and metabolic control within usual meals. It is concluded that application of the glycemic index in isolation to judge the role of white vegetables in the diet and, specifically in the case of potato as consumed in ad libitum meals, has led to premature and possibly counterproductive dietary guidance.

  20. Arabis watsonii (P.H.Davis) F.K.Mey.: An overlooked cruciferous species from eastern Anatolia and its phylogenetic position

    PubMed Central

    Özüdoğru, Barış; Fırat, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Arabis watsonii (P.H.Davis) F.K.Mey. was initially reported as Thlaspi watsonii P.H.Davis in Flora of Turkey. Although F.K.Meyer transferred this species to Arabis L., this species has been overlooked and treated as Thlaspi L. in relevant literature for Flora of Turkey. In this study this species was evaluated using molecular (nuclear ITS and plastidic trnL-F sequences) and morphological data. Results clearly show that Arabis watsonii is sister to the Arabis hirsuta aggregate and its relatives. In conclusion, our results increased the number of known Arabis species in Turkey to 23. Furthermore, detailed description and distribution of the species are given and a new IUCN threat category for Arabis watsonii is proposed. PMID:28127244

  1. Dynamic floodplain vegetation model development for the Kootenai River, USA.

    PubMed

    Benjankar, Rohan; Egger, Gregory; Jorde, Klaus; Goodwin, Peter; Glenn, Nancy F

    2011-12-01

    The Kootenai River floodplain in Idaho, USA, is nearly disconnected from its main channel due to levee construction and the operation of Libby Dam since 1972. The decreases in flood frequency and magnitude combined with the river modification have changed the physical processes and the dynamics of floodplain vegetation. This research describes the concept, methodologies and simulated results of the rule-based dynamic floodplain vegetation model "CASiMiR-vegetation" that is used to simulate the effect of hydrological alteration on vegetation dynamics. The vegetation dynamics are simulated based on existing theory but adapted to observed field data on the Kootenai River. The model simulates the changing vegetation patterns on an annual basis from an initial condition based on spatially distributed physical parameters such as shear stress, flood duration and height-over-base flow level. The model was calibrated and the robustness of the model was analyzed. The hydrodynamic (HD) models were used to simulate relevant physical processes representing historic, pre-dam, and post-dam conditions from different representative hydrographs. The general concept of the vegetation model is that a vegetation community will be recycled if the magnitude of a relevant physical parameter is greater than the threshold value for specific vegetation; otherwise, succession will take place toward maturation stage. The overall accuracy and agreement Kappa between simulated and field observed maps were low considering individual vegetation types in both calibration and validation areas. Overall accuracy (42% and 58%) and agreement between maps (0.18 and 0.27) increased notably when individual vegetation types were merged into vegetation phases in both calibration and validation areas, respectively. The area balance approach was used to analyze the proportion of area occupied by different vegetation phases in the simulated and observed map. The result showed the impact of the river

  2. Holocene changes in vegetation composition in northern Europe: why quantitative pollen-based vegetation reconstructions matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquer, Laurent; Gaillard, Marie-José; Sugita, Shinya; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Mazier, Florence; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Fyfe, Ralph M.; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Alenius, Teija; Birks, H. John B.; Bjune, Anne E.; Christiansen, Jörg; Dodson, John; Edwards, Kevin J.; Giesecke, Thomas; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Kangur, Mihkel; Lorenz, Sebastian; Poska, Anneli; Schult, Manuela; Seppä, Heikki

    2014-04-01

    We present pollen-based reconstructions of the spatio-temporal dynamics of northern European regional vegetation abundance through the Holocene. We apply the Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model using fossil pollen records from eighteen sites within five modern biomes in the region. The eighteen sites are classified into four time-trajectory types on the basis of principal components analysis of both the REVEALS-based vegetation estimates (RVs) and the pollen percentage (PPs). The four trajectory types are more clearly separated for RVs than PPs. Further, the timing of major Holocene shifts, rates of compositional change, and diversity indices (turnover and evenness) differ between RVs and PPs. The differences are due to the reduction by REVEALS of biases in fossil pollen assemblages caused by different basin size, and inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal properties. For example, in comparison to the PPs, the RVs show an earlier increase in Corylus and Ulmus in the early-Holocene and a more pronounced increase in grassland and deforested areas since the mid-Holocene. The results suggest that the influence of deforestation and agricultural activities on plant composition and abundance from Neolithic times was stronger than previously inferred from PPs. Relative to PPs, RVs show a more rapid compositional change, a largest decrease in turnover, and less variable evenness in most of northern Europe since 5200 cal yr BP. All these changes are primarily related to the strong impact of human activities on the vegetation. This study demonstrates that RV-based estimates of diversity indices, timing of shifts, and rates of change in reconstructed vegetation provide new insights into the timing and magnitude of major human disturbance on Holocene regional vegetation, features that are critical in the assessment of human impact on vegetation, land-cover, biodiversity, and climate in the past.

  3. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Zaltash, Abdolreza; Atchley, Jerald Allen; Ennis, Mike J

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have helped to fuel their resurgence in industrial and urban settings. There are many environmental and economical benefits that can be realized by incorporating a vegetative roof into the design of a building. These include storm-water retention, energy conservation, reduction in the urban heat island effect, increased longevity of the roofing membrane, the ability of plants to create biodiversity and filter air contaminants, and beautification of the surroundings by incorporating green space. The vegetative roof research project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was initiated to quantify the thermal performance of various vegetative roofing systems relative to black and white roofs. Single Ply Roofing Institute (SPRI) continued its long-term commitment to cooperative research with ORNL in this project. Low-slope roof systems for this study were constructed and instrumented for continuous monitoring in the mixed climate of East Tennessee. This report summarizes the results of the annual cooling and heating loads per unit area of three vegetative roofing systems with side-by-side comparison to black and white roofing systems as well as a test section with just the growing media without plants. Results showed vegetative roofs reduced heat gain (reduced cooling loads) compared to the white control system due to the thermal mass, extra insulation, and evapo-transpiration associated with the vegetative roofing systems. The 4-inch and tray systems reduced the heat gain by approximately 61%, while the reduction with the 8-inch vegetative roof was found to be approximately 67%. The vegetative roofing systems were more effective in reducing heat gain than in reducing heat losses (heating loads). The reduction in heat losses for the 4-inch and tray systems were found to be approximately 40

  4. Modelling of vegetation volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, J. J.; Papas, C. H.; Engheta, N.; Elachi, C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose is to describe work that is being done to find theoretical models to describe radar backscatter from vegetation layers. The geometry of the problem is shown. The information that one would like to find through the application of the results of these models would include: the thickness of the layer; the absorption in the layer (i.e., density, moisture content, and biomass); the geometry of the scatterers (i.e., shape and orientation); how much of the received power is due to volume scattering only; and a way to enhance the ratio of scattering that has some interaction with the ground surface. The proposed ways to find this information are discussed.

  5. Radar Shows Evidence of Seas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-03-13

    This movie, comprised of several detailed images taken by Cassini radar instrument, shows bodies of liquid near Titan north pole. These images show that many of the features commonly associated with lakes on Earth

  6. Decreased vegetation growth in response to summer drought in Central Asia from 2000 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao-jie; Wang, Xin-ping; Zhang, Xiao-xiao

    2016-10-01

    Climate change scenarios predict that Central Asia may experience an increase in the frequency and magnitude of temperature and precipitation extremes by the end of the 21st century, but the response regularity of different types of vegetation to climate extremes is uncertain. Based on remote-sensed vegetation index and in-situ meteorological data for the period of 2000-2012, we examined the diverse responses of vegetation to climate mean/extremes and differentiated climatic and anthropogenic influence on the vegetation in Central Asia. Our results showed that extensive vegetation degradation was related to summer water deficit as a result of the combined effect of decreased precipitation and increased potential evapotranspiration. Water was a primary climatic driver for vegetation changes regionally, and human-induced changes in vegetation confined mainly to local areas. Responses of vegetation to water stress varied in different vegetation types. Grasslands were most responsive to water deficit followed by forests and desert vegetation. Climate extremes caused significant vegetation changes, and different vegetation types had diverse responses to climate extremes. Grasslands represented a symmetric response to wet and dry periods. Desert vegetation was more responsive during wet years than in dry years. Forests responded more strongly to dry than to wet years due to a severe drought occurred in 2008. This study has important implications for predicting how vegetation ecosystems in drylands respond to climate mean/extremes under future scenarios of climate change.

  7. Early Pliocene vegetation distribution in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, S.; Warny, S.; Suc, J.

    2010-12-01

    Picea developed in higher altitude. The Eastern Europe vegetation (zone D) was characterized by coexistent warm-temperate forests and open ecosystems. Some megathermic and mega-mesothermic elements were persisting. Mediterranean xerophytes were indentified in few amounts in the Eastern Europe, showing a slight increase according to the latitudinal gradient. Site 380A (Black Sea) provides relatively high percentages of Artemisia growing in Anatolia, which increased again during the cooler periods. Anatolia probably represents the origin of the repeated steppe expansions which occurred in Europe at each glacial phase. Finally, the Nile region (zone E) documents the presence of savannah (composed mainly by Poaceae and Cyperaceae) including some subdesertic taxa. Nile riparian forests preserved several tropical-subtropical elements.

  8. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Use of spectral channels and vegetation indices from satellite VEGETATION time series for the Post-Fire vegetation recovery estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, Rosa; Lasaponara, Rosa; Montesano, Tiziana; Lanorte, Antonio; de Santis, Fortunato

    2010-05-01

    . The DFA is a well-known methodology, which allows the detectin of long-range power-law correlations in signals possibly characterized by non-stationarity, which features most of the observational and experimental signals. We analyzed time variation of both single channels and spectral indices from 1998 to 2005 of fire- affected and fire unaffected areas. In order to eliminate the seasonal and/or phenological fluctuations, for each decadal composition, we focused on the normalized departure: 1) NDVI; 2) NDWId, 3) MSId. Results from our analysis point out that the persistence of vegetation dynamics is significantly increased by the occurrence of fires. In particular, a scaling behavior of two classes of vegetation (burned and unburned) has been best revealed by NDVI. The estimated scaling exponents of both classes suggest a persistent character of the vegetation dynamics. But, the burned sites show much larger exponents than those calculated for the unburned sites. Small variations have been observed between the estimated scaling exponents of both fire-affected and fire-unaffected areas.

  10. Vegetation carbon sequestration in Chinese forests from 2010 to 2050.

    PubMed

    He, Nianpeng; Wen, Ding; Zhu, Jianxing; Tang, Xuli; Xu, Li; Zhang, Li; Hu, Huifeng; Huang, Mei; Yu, Guirui

    2017-04-01

    Forests store a large part of the terrestrial vegetation carbon (C) and have high C sequestration potential. Here, we developed a new forest C sequestration (FCS) model based on the secondary succession theory, to estimate vegetation C sequestration capacity in China's forest vegetation. The model used the field measurement data of 3161 forest plots and three future climate scenarios. The results showed that logistic equations provided a good fit for vegetation biomass with forest age in natural and planted forests. The FCS model has been verified with forest biomass data, and model uncertainty is discussed. The increment of vegetation C storage in China's forest vegetation from 2010 to 2050 was estimated as 13.92 Pg C, while the average vegetation C sequestration rate was 0.34 Pg C yr(-1) with a 95% confidence interval of 0.28-0.42 Pg C yr(-1) , which differed significantly between forest types. The largest contributor to the increment was deciduous broadleaf forest (37.8%), while the smallest was deciduous needleleaf forest (2.7%). The vegetation C sequestration rate might reach its maximum around 2020, although vegetation C storage increases continually. It is estimated that vegetation C sequestration might offset 6-8% of China's future emissions. Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between vegetation C sequestration rate and C emission rate in different provinces of China, suggesting that developed provinces might need to compensate for undeveloped provinces through C trade. Our findings will provide valuable guidelines to policymakers for designing afforestation strategies and forest C trade in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of fire on woody vegetation structure in African savanna.

    PubMed

    Smit, Izak P J; Asner, Gregory P; Govender, Navashni; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E; Jacobson, James

    2010-10-01

    Despite the importance of fire in shaping savannas, it remains poorly understood how the frequency, seasonality, and intensity of fire interact to influence woody vegetation structure, which is a key determinant of savanna biodiversity. We provide a comprehensive analysis of vertical and horizontal woody vegetation structure across one of the oldest savanna fire experiments, using new airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology. We developed and compared high-resolution woody vegetation height surfaces for a series of large experimental burn plots in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. These 7-ha plots (total area approximately 1500 ha) have been subjected to fire in different seasons and at different frequencies, as well as no-burn areas, for 54 years. Long-term exposure to fire caused a reduction in woody vegetation up to the 5.0-7.5 m height class, although most reduction was observed up to 4 m. Average fire intensity was positively correlated with changes in woody vegetation structure. More frequent fires reduced woody vegetation cover more than less frequent fires, and dry-season fires reduced woody vegetation more than wet-season fires. Spring fires from the late dry season reduced woody vegetation cover the most, and summer fires from the wet season reduced it the least. Fire had a large effect on structure in the densely wooded granitic landscapes as compared to the more open basaltic landscapes, although proportionally, the woody vegetation was more reduced in the drier than in the wetter landscapes. We show that fire frequency and fire season influence patterns of vegetation three-dimensional structure, which may have cascading consequences for biodiversity. Managers of savannas can therefore use fire frequency and season in concert to achieve specific vegetation structural objectives.

  12. Erosion by water: vegetative control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetation controls erosion by dissipating the erosive forces of rainfall and runoff (erosivity - the strength of the forces causing erosion) and by reducing the susceptibility of soil to erosion (erodibility - how easily soil can be detached and transported). Vegetation alters the partitioning of r...

  13. Demonstrating vegetation dynamics using SIMPPLLE

    Treesearch

    Glenda Scott; Jimmie D. Chew

    1997-01-01

    Understanding vegetation dynamics, both spatially and temporally, is essential to the management of natural resources. SIMPPLLE has been designed to help us quantify and communicate these concepts: What levels of process, i.e., fire or insect and disease, to expect; how they spread; what the vegetative distribution and composition is over time; and how silvicultural...

  14. Electromagnetic wave scattering from vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaoyan

    This dissertation contains the theoretical study of microwave scattering from vegetated media and the development of microwave scattering models with applications to these media. A vegetation canopy may consist of deciduous or coniferous leaves, branches, and trunks with certain size and orientation distributions. The formulation of the scattering model for each element of the canopy is carried out and its scatter patterns versus its size and orientation for like and cross polarizations are computed and presented. In particular, an extension is made where vegetation with a compound-leaf pattern is considered. For this type of vegetation, several leaves that form a specific pattern will scatter coherently as a group as opposed to each leaf scattering independently. Hence, a basic scattering element is a compound leaf with a specific leaf-pattern. Based on the study of scattering patterns of different vegetation elements, the scattering models for different vegetation media are formulated. For a leafy vegetation, we model it as a scattering layer with a given type of leaf. For a forested area, we treat it as a two-layer medium: the layer on top is the crown layer consisted of leaves and branches and below it is the trunk layer. In order to verify the validity of the theoretical models for different types of vegetation canopy, extensive comparisons between models and measurements are carried out.

  15. The Vegetable Bowl. [Student Booklet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nancy

    This student booklet was developed as reading material for use with "The Vegetable Bowl," a unit designed to encourage elementary school children to eat a variety of vegetables. The booklet also contains ten pictures that can be colored by students. (BT)

  16. The Vegetable Bowl. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Nancy

    This teacher's guide was developed for use with "The Vegetable Bowl," a unit designed to encourage elementary school children to eat a variety of vegetables. The unit is designed for ten lessons; however, the sequencing and time used in the classroom may be adapted to the individual needs of the students. Instructional materials include:…

  17. Evolution of vegetated waterways design

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1990, the USDA-ARS Hydraulic Engineering Research Unit (HERU) was recognized as a National Historic Landmark by ASABE for its groundbreaking work and development of vegetated waterways design procedures. In 2000, ASABE acknowledged the vegetated waterway design criteria as an Outstanding Achieve...

  18. Grafting effects on vegetable quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the United States, vegetable grafting is rare and few experiments have been done to determine optimal grafting procedures and production practices for different geographical and climatic regions in America. Grafting vegetables to control soilborne disease is a common practice in Asia, parts of E...

  19. Fire and vegetative trends in the Northern Rockies: interpretations from 1871-1982 photographs

    Treesearch

    George E. Gruell

    1983-01-01

    Interprets changes in forest and range vegetation resulting from the absence of fire. Eighty-six matched photographs covering the period 1871-1982 provide the basis for describing how vegetation has changed in various plant communities. These scenes show that woody vegetation has increased markedly as a result of reduced wildfire. An increase in conifers and...

  20. Can we grow organic or conventional vegetables sustainably without cover crops?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable and fruit consumption patterns in the United States show that most people need to eat far more fruits and vegetables to meet the current nutritional guidelines for a healthy diet. Following these guidelines would require more than doubling the harvested acreage for fruits and vegetables a...

  1. Accumulation and bioavailability of dietary carotenoids in vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Kopsell, Dean A; Kopsell, David E

    2006-10-01

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments found in many vegetable crops that are reported to have the health benefits of cancer and eye disease reduction when consumed in the diet. Research shows that environmental and genetic factors can significantly influence carotenoid concentrations in vegetable crops, and that changing cultural management strategies could be advantageous, resulting in increased vegetable carotenoid concentrations. Improvements in vegetable carotenoid levels have been achieved using traditional breeding methods and molecular transformations to stimulate biosynthetic pathways. Postharvest and processing activities can alter carotenoid chemistry, and ultimately affect bioavailability. Bioavailability data emphasize the importance of carotenoid enhancement in vegetable crops and the need to characterize potential changes in carotenoid composition during cultivation, storage and processing before consumer purchase.

  2. Simulations of moving effect of coastal vegetation on tsunami damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ching-Piao; Chen, Ying-Chi; Octaviani Sihombing, Tri; Lin, Chang

    2017-05-01

    A coupled wave-vegetation simulation is presented for the moving effect of the coastal vegetation on tsunami wave height damping. The problem is idealized by solitary wave propagation on a group of emergent cylinders. The numerical model is based on general Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with renormalization group turbulent closure model by using volume of fluid technique. The general moving object (GMO) model developed in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Flow-3D is applied to simulate the coupled motion of vegetation with wave dynamically. The damping of wave height and the turbulent kinetic energy along moving and stationary cylinders are discussed. The simulated results show that the damping of wave height and the turbulent kinetic energy by the moving cylinders are clearly less than by the stationary cylinders. The result implies that the wave decay by the coastal vegetation may be overestimated if the vegetation was represented as stationary state.

  3. Vegetation change detection based on image fusion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yonghong; Liu, Yueyan; Yu, Hui; Li, Deren

    2005-10-01

    The change detection of land use and land cover has always been the focus of remotely sensed study and application. Based on techniques of image fusion, a new approach of detecting vegetation change according to vector of brightness index (BI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) extracted from multi-temporal remotely sensed imagery is proposed. The procedure is introduced. Firstly, the Landsat eTM+ imagery is geometrically corrected and registered. Secondly, band 2,3,4 and panchromatic images of Landsat eTM+ are fused by a trous wavelet fusion, and bands 1,2,3 of SPOT are registered to the fused images. Thirdly, brightness index and perpendicular vegetation index are respectively extracted from SPOT images and fused images. Finally, change vectors are obtained and used to detect vegetation change. The testing results show that the approach of detecting vegetation change is very efficient.

  4. Vegetative state is a pejorative term.

    PubMed

    Machado, Calixto; Estévez, Mario; Carrick, Frederick R; Rodríguez, Rafael; Pérez-Nellar, Jesús; Chinchilla, Mauricio; Machado, Yanín; Pérez-Hoz, Grisel; Carballo, Maylén; Fleitas, Marcia; Pando, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The term persistent vegetative state (PVS) refers to the only circumstance in which an apparent dissociation of both components of consciousness is found, characterized by preservation of wakefulness with an apparent loss of awareness. Several authors have recently demonstrated by functional neuroimaging studies that a small subset of unresponsive "vegetative" patients may show unambiguous signs of consciousness and command following that is inaccessible to clinical examination at the bedside. The term "estado vegetativo" used in Spanish to describe the PVS syndrome by physicians came from the English-Spanish translation. The Spanish term "vegetativo" is related to unconscious vital functions, and "vegetal" is relative to plants. According to our experience, when a physician informs to patients' relatives that his/her family member's diagnosis is a "estado vegetativo", they understand the he/she is no more a human being, that there is no hope of recovery. The European Task Force on Disorders of Consciousness has recently proposed a new term, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), to assist society in avoiding the depreciatory term vegetative state. Our group has embraced the use of the new term UWS and might suggest that we change our concept and use of the term MCS to minimally responsive wakefulness state (MRWS), or minimally aware wakefulness state (MAWS). Medical terms must be current and avoid any pejorative description of patients, which will promote our abilities to serve humankind and challenge neuroscientists to offer society new and realistic hopes for neurorehabilitation.

  5. Expanding Snow Treatment in CESM Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perket, J.; Flanner, M.; Lawrence, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The CESM land model accounts for precipitation interception, throughfall & drip in the canopy hydrology. Portions of falling snow and rain are intercepted by the canopy and maintained in a water storage term. The remainder falls through to the ground, and intercepted water also drips from the canopy. The Community Land Model uses exposed leaf and stem area indices to determine the throughfall flux and drip flux for liquid and frozen water. The interception by vegetation and the water mass storage term does not differentiate between liquid or frozen precipitation based on the justification that a lower evaporation rate roughly negates the difference. Observations show, however, that leaf capacities for water are about double those of snow. Optical parameters are influenced by the canopy storage and area indices through a wetted fraction of vegetation. Different optical properties are assumed when air temperature is below the freezing temperature of water. This is an efficient method to account for snow in vegetation albedo and radiative flux calculations, but doesn't account for the different morphologies and mechanics of snow. Canopy snow can be blown off by wind, or slide off without wind intervention if the branches provide an unstable or slanting support. We fully separated the liquid and solid terms in CLM's hydrology, creating a canopy snow throughfall and canopy snow storage term. Snow in vegetation can convert to meltwater and vapor. Using these new simulation developments, we are able to quantify radiative and hydrological sensitivity to improved model representation.

  6. Assessing mesquite-grass vegetation condition from Landsat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniel, Kirk C.; Haas, Robert H.

    1982-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) band values, band ratios, and vegetation index models were compared with selected rangeland vegetation parameters collected at six test sites within the honey mesquitellotebushlmixed grass association in north-central Texas. The comparisons at four dates showed that two vegetation index models, TV16 and GVI, are highly correlated (P = 0.01) with green yield, green cover, and plant moisture content. The green vegetation index (GVZ) developed by Kauth and Thomas (1976), was highly correlated and superior to other models in relationship to wet green yield, dry green yield, and cured vegetation cover. TV16, developed by Rouse et al. (1974), was more highly correlated with green vegetation cover and vegetation moisture content. Both TV16 and GVI are superior to other models in their relationship with green cover. None of the Landsat MSS parameters tested was significantly correlated with dry total yield, percent bare ground, or moisture of the soil measured at the surface or at a 20 cm depth. I t is concluded that Landsat MSS data are sensitive to seasonal changes in vegetation growth conditions and inherent ecological differences within a relatively unqorm vegetationlsoil system.

  7. Landscape Level Analyses of Vegetation Cover in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botting, T.; Hollister, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Many International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) studies have been conducted to identify vegetation changes due to warming. However, knowledge gaps remain. For example, most of these studies are conducted at the plot level, not the landscape level, potentially masking larger scale impacts of climate change. An Arctic Systems Science (ARCSS) grid was established in Atqasuk, Alaska and Barrow, Alaska in the mid 1990's. In 2010, approximately 100 untreated vegetation plots were implemented at each grid site. These vegetation plots are 1 meter squared, spaced 100 meters apart, and span 1 kilometer squared. Each vegetation plot represents 100 square meters along the grid. This project will focus on how vegetation cover has changed at the landscape level, using the point frame method, from 2010 to 2013. Preliminary data analysis indicates that in Atqasuk, graminoids, deciduous shrubs, and evergreen shrubs show increased cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes, forbs and lichens. In Barrow, graminoids, lichens and forbs have shown an increase in cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes and deciduous shrubs. At both sites, graminoids represent the greatest increase in cover of all growth forms analyzed. This study will be the foundation for later work, with the purpose of predicting what ARCSS grid vegetation community compositions will be in the future. These expectations will be based on anticipated warming data from ITEX passively warmed vegetation plots. This will be the first time that ITEX vegetation warming research is applied to landscape level research in Barrow and Atqasuk.

  8. Patch-scale Representation of Vegetation within Hydraulic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, R. J.; Marjoribanks, T.; Lane, S. N.

    2016-12-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation affects flow, sediment and ecological processes within rivers. Quantifying these effects is key to understanding the hydraulics and morphodynamics of natural river systems and implementing effective river management. Despite a wealth of research into vegetated flows, the detailed flow characteristics around real plants in natural channels are still poorly understood. Here we present a new methodology for representing vegetation patches within computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of vegetated river channels. Vegetation is represented using a Mass Flux Scaling Algorithm (MFSA) and drag term within the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations, which account for the mass and momentum effects of the vegetation respectively. The model is applied using three different grid resolutions (0.2, 0.1 & 0.05 m) using time-averaged solution methods and compared to field data. The results show that the model reproduces the complex spatial flow heterogeneity within the channel and that increasing the resolution leads to enhanced model accuracy. The model is able to reproduce with accuracy, commonly used reach-scale hydraulic metrics (Manning's n) but also provides spatial flow data which can be used to infer eco-geomorphic feedbacks and long term channel evolution. Specifically, the results demonstrate that while vegetation may cause both local erosion and deposition, at the reach-scale, vegetation can increase sedimentation by 50%.

  9. Assessing vegetation change temporally and spatially in southeastern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. M.; Skirvin, S. M.; Holifield Collins, C. D.; Moran, M. S.; Biedenbender, S. H.; Kidwell, M. R.; Weltz, M. A.; Diaz-Gutierrez, A.

    2008-05-01

    Vegetation species cover and photographic data have been collected at multiple grass- and shrub-dominated sites in 1967, 1994, 1999, and 2005 at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW) in southeastern Arizona. This study combines these measurements with meteorological and edaphic information, as well as historic repeat photography from the late 1880s onward and recent satellite imagery to assess vegetation change at WGEW. The results of classification and ordination of repeated transect data showed that WGEW had two main vegetation structural types, shrub dominated and grass dominated. Spatial distribution was closely linked to soil type and variations in annual and August precipitation. Other than the recent appearance of Eragrostis lehmanniana (Lehmann lovegrass) at limited sites in WGEW, little recruitment has taken place in either shrub or grass vegetation types. Effects of recent drought on both vegetation types were apparent in both transect data and enhanced vegetation index data derived from satellite imagery. Historic photos and a better understanding of WGEW geology and geomorphology supported the hypothesis that the shift from grass- to shrub-dominated vegetation occurred substantially before 1967, with considerable spatial variability. This work reaffirmed the value of maintaining long-term data sets for use in assessments of vegetation change.

  10. Modeling Feedbacks Between Water and Vegetation in the Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Not only is water essential for life on earth, but life itself affects the global hydrologic cycle and consequently the climate of the planet. Whether the global feedbacks between life and the hydrologic cycle tend to stabilize the climate system about some equilibrium level is difficult to assess. We use a global climate model to examine how the presence of vegetation can affect the hydrologic cycle in a particular region. A control for the present climate is compared with a model experiment in which the Sahara Desert is replaced by vegetation in the form of trees and shrubs common to the Sahel region. A second model experiment is designed to identify the separate roles of two different effects of vegetation, namely the modified albedo and the presence of roots that can extract moisture from deeper soil layers. The results show that the presence of vegetation leads to increases in precipitation and soil moisture in western Sahara. In eastern Sahara, the changes are less clear. The increase in soil moisture is greater when the desert albedo is replaced by the vegetation albedo than when both the vegetation albedo and roots are added. The effect of roots is to withdraw water from deeper layers during the dry season. One implication of this study is that the insertion of vegetation into the Sahara modifies the hydrologic cycle so that the vegetation is more likely to persist than initially.

  11. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  12. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  13. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  14. Vegetative bioremediation of phenanthrene

    SciTech Connect

    Malathi, A.; Banks, M.K.; Schwab, A.P.

    1994-12-31

    The role of vegetation to stimulate the degradation and detoxification of toxic and recalcitrant organic chemicals at low soil concentrations is brought about by several mechanisms of plant-soil interactions, including improvement of physical and chemical properties of contaminated soils, increase in soil microbial activity and increase in contact between microbes associated with the roots and toxic compounds in a contaminated soil. This represents a potential cost effective and low maintenance alternative for waste management. However, there is not enough information concerning specific application of plants, chemicals and soils either in the form of laboratory or field results. In the research to be presented, different and diverse perennial plant species [grasses (monocot), legumes, and dicots] were collected from the native prairie grasslands and tested for their efficiency in mineralization of phenanthrene. The mineralization of phenanthrene was evaluated by the measurement of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from the radiolabeled target compound incubated in a rhizosphere soil microcosm. Results from this study will indicate the potential of using different types of plants to enhance degradation of PAHs in contaminated soils.

  15. Carboniferous coal swamp vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.L.; Peppers, R.A.; DiMichele, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Carboniferous Period was one of considerable change on the Earth. The volume explores these changes by using plant morphology and paleoecology to develop the relationship between plant evolution and the derived coal sources. Both are interrelated by the regional and stratigraphic trends in paleoecology and paleoclimatology. The book is divided into three sections dealing with geology, plant morphology including palynology, and paleoecology. In Section I, the paleogeography, geologic settings of major coal basins, coal resources, coal-ball origins and occurrences, and the sources of paleobotanical information are presented with biostratigraphic correlations of Europe and the United States. Section II emphasizes plant morphology as form and structure provide the means of identifying plants and, in turn, establishing development, size, habit, reproductive biology, environmental parameters, and evolutionary change. Quantitative abundances and stratigraphic ranges of plants and spores are compared and summarized. Lastly, Section III integrates coal-ball peats and coal-spore floras as complementary sources for the quantitative analyses of coal-swamp vegetation in relation to climate and coal. The local and regional swamp studies are interfaced and basinal geology and depositional interpretations in a stratigraphic succession.

  16. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  17. Satellite Animation Shows California Storms

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows a series of moisture-laden storms affecting California from Jan. 6 through Jan. 9, 2017. TRT: 00:36 Credit: NASA...

  18. The ecological cultivation system construction of cucurbits and vegetables in Hainan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ziji; Yang, Yan

    The application amount of fertilizer and pesticide overall showed rising trends in Hainan. The excessive application of chemical fertilizer and pesticide can cause higher production costs and greater pressure on the ecological environment. The sown area of cucurbits and vegetables showed an increasing trend to a certain extent, safety and pollution-free production of cucurbits and vegetables has become one of the principal contradictions restricting the development of cucurbits and vegetables in Hainan. In this study, the ecological cultivation system of cucurbits and vegetables was constructed combining ecology, ecological economics, and vegetable cultivation principles, which had an important significance for maintaining ecological balance and sustainable development of agriculture.

  19. Indicators: Lakeshore Habitat/Riparian Vegetative Cover

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Riparian and lakeshore vegetative cover consist of the vegetation corridor alongside streams, rivers, and lakes. Vegetative cover refers to overhanging or submerged tree limbs, shrubs, and other plants growing along the shore of the waterbody.

  20. Monitoring vegetation phenology using MODIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Xiayong; Friedl, Mark A.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Hodges, John C.F.; Gao, Feng; Reed, Bradley C.; Huete, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Accurate measurements of regional to global scale vegetation dynamics (phenology) are required to improve models and understanding of inter-annual variability in terrestrial ecosystem carbon exchange and climate–biosphere interactions. Since the mid-1980s, satellite data have been used to study these processes. In this paper, a new methodology to monitor global vegetation phenology from time series of satellite data is presented. The method uses series of piecewise logistic functions, which are fit to remotely sensed vegetation index (VI) data, to represent intra-annual vegetation dynamics. Using this approach, transition dates for vegetation activity within annual time series of VI data can be determined from satellite data. The method allows vegetation dynamics to be monitored at large scales in a fashion that it is ecologically meaningful and does not require pre-smoothing of data or the use of user-defined thresholds. Preliminary results based on an annual time series of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data for the northeastern United States demonstrate that the method is able to monitor vegetation phenology with good success.

  1. Dielectric properties of marsh vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetkova, Tatiana D.; Suslyaev, Valentin I.; Shcheglova, Anna S.

    2015-10-01

    The present work is devoted to the measurement of the dielectric properties of mosses and lichens in the frequency range from 500 MHz to 18 GHz. Subjects of this research were three species of march vegetation - moss (Dicranum polysetum Michx), groundcedar (Diphasiastrum complanatum (L.) Holub) and lichen (Cladonia stellaris). Samples of vegetation were collected in Tomsk region, Western Siberia, Russia. Complex dielectric permittivity was measured in coaxial section by Agilent Technologies vector network analyzer E8363B. Green samples was measured for some moisture contents from 100% to 3-5 % during a natural drying. The measurements were performed at room temperature, which remained within 21 ÷ 23 ° C. The frequency dependence of the dielectric constant for the three species of marsh vegetation differ markedly. Different parts of the complex permittivity dependency on moisture were fitted by line for all frequency points. Two break point were observed corresponding to the transition of water in the vegetation in various phase states. The complex permittivity spectra of water in the vegetation allow determining the most likely corresponding dielectric model of water in the vegetation by the method of hypothesis testing. It is the Debye's model. Parameters of Debye's model were obtained by numerical methods for all of three states of water. This enables to calculate the dielectric constant of water at any frequency range from 500 MHz to 18 GHz and to find the parameters of the dielectric model of the vegetation.

  2. Recovery times of riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation is a key element in a number of processes that determine the eco-geomorphological features of the river landscape. Depending on the river water stage fluctuations, vegetation biomass randomly switches between growth and decay phases, and its biomass exhibits relevant temporal variations. A full understanding of vegetation dynamics is therefore only possible if the hydrological stochastic forcing is considered. In this vein, we focus on the recovery time of vegetation, namely the typical time taken by vegetation to recover a health state starting from a low biomass value (induced, for instance, by an intense flood). The minimalistic stochastic modeling approach is used for describing vegetation dynamics (i.e., the noise-driven alternation of growth and decay phases). The recovery time of biomass is then evaluated according to the theory of the mean first passage time in systems driven by dichotomous noise. The effect of the main hydrological and biological parameters on the vegetation recovery was studied, and the dynamics along the riparian transect was described in details. The effect of climate change and human interventions (e.g., river damming) was also investigated. We found that: (i) the oscillations of the river stage delay the recovery process (up to one order of magnitude, with respect to undisturbed conditions); (ii) hydrological/biological alterations (due to climate change, damming, exotic species invasion) modify the timescales of the recovery. The result provided can be a useful tool for the management of the river. They open the way to the estimation of: (i) the recovery time of vegetation after devastating floods, clear cutting or fires and; (ii) the timescale of the vegetation response to hydrological and biological alterations.

  3. Green vegetation, nonphotosynthetic vegetation, and soils in AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of distinguishing between green vegetation, nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV, such as dry grass, leaf litter, and woody material), and soils in imaging-spectrometer data is addressed by analyzing an image taken by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (California) on September 20, 1989, using spectral mixture analysis. Over 98 percent of the spectral variation could be explained by linear mixtures of three endmembers, green vegetation, shade, and soil. NPV, which could not be distinguished from soil when included as an endmember, was discriminated by residual spectra that contained cellulose and lignin absorptions. Distinct communities of green vegetation were distinguished by (1) nonlinear mixing effect caused by transmission and scattering by green leaves, (2) variations in a derived canopy-shade spectrum, and (3) the fraction of NPV.

  4. Green vegetation, nonphotosynthetic vegetation, and soils in AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. A.; Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of distinguishing between green vegetation, nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV, such as dry grass, leaf litter, and woody material), and soils in imaging-spectrometer data is addressed by analyzing an image taken by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (California) on September 20, 1989, using spectral mixture analysis. Over 98 percent of the spectral variation could be explained by linear mixtures of three endmembers, green vegetation, shade, and soil. NPV, which could not be distinguished from soil when included as an endmember, was discriminated by residual spectra that contained cellulose and lignin absorptions. Distinct communities of green vegetation were distinguished by (1) nonlinear mixing effect caused by transmission and scattering by green leaves, (2) variations in a derived canopy-shade spectrum, and (3) the fraction of NPV.

  5. NASA Spacecraft Shows Location of China Quake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-22

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft highlights the epicenter of a powerful magnitude 6.6 earthquake which struck Sichuan Province in southwest China on April 20, 2013. Vegetation is displayed in red; clouds and snow are in white.

  6. Understanding vegetation changes in northern China and Mongolia with change vector analysis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaohe; Li, Weiguo; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, a close link between vegetation change and climate change has been established. Vegetation change can be detected with remotely sensed images, especially with normalized difference vegetation index time series records. We used change vector analysis, especially change vector magnitude (CV magnitude), as an indicator to better understand vegetation change. Twenty-one layers of CV magnitude for each 10-day period from April to October have been acquired. Maxima, range, standard deviation, mean, and minima of CV magnitude were obtained and analyzed, identifying 11 regions with different types of vegetation change during different 10-day periods. In addition, the months of maximum CV magnitude were determined to help predict future vegetation change. The following conclusions were drawn: (a) CV magnitude can serve as an indicator to compare vegetation conditions among different years; (b) 11 typical regions were identified in the study area that show vegetation changes between 1999 and 2006;

  7. The impact of flood variables on riparian vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzubakova, Katarina; Molnar, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The riparian vegetation of Alpine rivers often grows in temporally dynamic riverine environments which are characterized by pronounced meteorological and hydrological fluctuations and high resource competition. Within these relatively rough conditions, riparian vegetation fulfils essential ecosystem functions such as water retention, biomass production and habitat to endangered species. The identification of relevant flood attributes impacting riparian vegetation is crucial for a better understanding of the vegetation dynamics in the riverine ecosystem. Hence, in this contribution we aim to quantify the ecological effects of flood attributes on riparian vegetation and to analyze the spatial coherence of flood-vegetation interaction patterns. We analyzed a 500 m long and 300-400 m wide study reach located on the Maggia River in southern Switzerland. Altogether five floods between 2008 and 2011 with return periods ranging from 1.4 to 20.1 years were studied. To assess the significance of the flood attributes, we compared post-flood to pre-flood vegetation vigour to flood intensity. Pre- and post-flood vegetation vigour was represented by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) which was computed from images recorded by high resolution ground-based cameras. Flood intensity was expressed in space in the study reach by six flood attributes (inundation duration, maximum depth, maximum and total velocity, maximum and total shear stress) which were simulated by the 2D hydrodynamic model BASEMENT (VAW, ETH Zurich). We considered three floodplain units separately (main bar, secondary bar, transitional zone). Based on our results, pre-flood vegetation vigour largely determined vegetation reaction to the less intense floods (R = 0.59-0.96). However for larger floods with a strong erosive effect, its contribution was significantly lower (R = 0.59-0.68). Using multivariate regression analysis we show that pre-flood vegetation vigour and maximum velocity proved to be

  8. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  9. Influence of cooking methods on antioxidant activity of vegetables.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Monreal, A M; García-Diz, L; Martínez-Tomé, M; Mariscal, M; Murcia, M A

    2009-04-01

    The influence of home cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, pressure-cooking, griddling, frying, and baking) on the antioxidant activity of vegetables has been evaluated in 20 vegetables, using different antioxidant activity assays (lipoperoxyl and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and TEAC). Artichoke was the only vegetable that kept its very high scavenging-lipoperoxyl radical capacity in all the cooking methods. The highest losses of LOO. scavenging capacity were observed in cauliflower after boiling and microwaving, pea after boiling, and zucchini after boiling and frying. Beetroot, green bean, and garlic kept their antioxidant activity after most cooking treatments. Swiss chard and pepper lost OH. scavenging capacity in all the processes. Celery increased its antioxidant capacity in all the cooking methods, except boiling when it lost 14%. Analysis of the ABTS radical scavenging capacity of the different vegetables showed that the highest losses occurred in garlic with all the methods, except microwaving. Among the vegetables that increased their TEAC values were green bean, celery, and carrot after all cooking methods (except green bean after boiling). These 3 types of vegetables showed a low ABTS radical scavenging capacity. According to the method of analysis chosen, griddling, microwave cooking, and baking alternately produce the lowest losses, while pressure-cooking and boiling lead to the greatest losses; frying occupies an intermediate position. In short, water is not the cook's best friend when it comes to preparing vegetables.

  10. An ergonomic approach for designing indian traditional vegetable cutter.

    PubMed

    Dhara, Prakash C; De, Sujaya; Sengupta, Piyali; Maity, Payel; Pal, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    In India varieties of hand tools have been used to cut the vegetables. Traditional vegetable cutter is a commonly used hand tool which has been used for years in the kitchen. The tool may have some design related problems. The present study was undertaken to reduce those problems. The study objective was to evaluate a new design of traditional vegetable cutters for use in the Indian kitchen. One hundred and fifty Indian women who regularly used a vegetable cutter for cooking purposes participated in this study. The design of the vegetable cutter was modified based on the postural preference of the users and other anthropometric factors including the blade angle, length, breadth and width of the sitting area. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was assessed by means of a questionnaire for subjects' feedback. New concepts of the design were proposed and a few prototypes were made and were tested by paired comparison using the EMG system. A large number of subjects (61%) used the vegetable cutter while sitting on the floor with folded knees and the prevalence of MSD in most of the body parts was comparatively lower in this posture than that in squatting posture. In the new design, a broad platform was suggested to provide a more comfortable sitting when a subject sits on it with folded knees. For the vegetable cutter, the blade angle was made at 120° with a broad folded wooden base as the final prototype of the cutter. The length, breadth, and thickness of the base were selected based on the results of the anthropometric measurements among the prototypes of the cutters. The selected vegetable cutter showed the least myoelectric activity among the prototypes during cutting vegetables. The modified vegetable cutter appeared to be ergonomically effective, less prone to muscular stress, and compatible for preferred posture of the users.

  11. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  12. Creating Slide Show Book Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harriet G.; Stuhlmann, Janice M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of "Kid Pix 2" software by fourth grade students to develop slide-show book reports. Highlights include collaboration with education majors from Louisiana State University, changes in attitudes of the education major students and elementary students, and problems with navigation and disk space. (LRW)

  13. Planetarium Show on Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, R. Michael

    2016-05-31

    We describe a new planetarium show about Dark Matter entitled “Phantom of the Universe”. When completed in late 2014, it will feature the exciting story of dark matter, from the Big Bang to its anticipated discovery at the Large Hadron Collider.

  14. Aerial shows Stennis test stands

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-16

    An aerial photo shows the B-1/B-2 Test Stand (foreground), A-2 Test Stand (middle) and A-1 Test Stand (back). The historic stands have been used to test engines used on every manned Apollo and space shuttle mission.

  15. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    PubMed

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  16. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... A femtoliter is a measure of volume. Blood Glucose This table shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting ( ... are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 Normal ...

  17. Selecting iodine-enriched vegetables and the residual effect of iodate application to soil.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jiu-Lan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zhang, Min; Huang, Yi-Zhong

    2004-12-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to select vegetables for iodine uptake. The residual effect of iodate fertilization on the growth of and iodine uptake by spinach plants were also investigated. Six vegetables, including leafy vegetables (pakchoi [Brassica chinensis L.], spinach [Spinacia oleracea L.]), tuber vegetables (onion [Allium cepa L.]), shoot vegetables (water spinach [Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.], celery [Apium graveolens L.]), and root vegetables (carrot [Daucus carota var. sativa DC.]) were examined. Results showed that the concentrations of iodate in soil had significant effect on the biomass of edible parts of pakchoi and spinach (p<0.01), whereas the concentrations of iodate in soil had no significant effect on that of carrots, water spinach, celery, and onion. Iodine concentrations in edible parts of vegetables and the transfer factors (TFedible parts) of soil-to-edible parts of vegetables significantly increased with increasing iodine concentrations in soil (p<0.001), and iodine concentrations in edible parts and TFedible parts of spinach were much higher than those of other vegetables at any treatment. Both transfer coefficients for edible parts (TCedible parts) and for aerial parts (TCaerial parts) of vegetables changed differently with increasing iodine concentrations in the soil, and TCedible parts and TCaerial parts of spinach were higher than those of other vegetables. Therefore, spinach was considered as an efficient vegetable for iodine biofortification. Further experiment showed that there is considerable residual effect of soil fertilization with iodate.

  18. Relationship between vegetation coverage and spring dust storms over northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xukai K.; Zhai, Panmao M.

    2004-02-01

    On the basis of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from 1982 to 2001 and dust storm observations in China the relationship between vegetation and spring dust storms over northern China is discussed. The results show that poor vegetation coverage in northern China is one important factor for the frequent occurrence of spring dust storms. In addition, vegetation cover plays an important role in interannual variations of dust storms. In general, a negative correlation is noted between vegetation coverage and occurrence of dust storms in northern China for spring during the period 1982-2001. The correlation coefficient between vegetation coverage and areas affected by dust storms is -0.59, which is statistically meaningful at 99% confidence level. The sharp decrease of spring vegetation coverage in recent years is one of the major contributors to frequent spring dust storms over northern China specifically during 2000 and 2001. A negative correlation is especially significant in the eastern part of northern China, mainly in central and eastern Inner Mongolia. When vegetation decreases (increases), the occurrence of dust storms increases (decreases). Furthermore, statistics show that abundant vegetation in previous seasons could help reduce dust storms in the coming spring. The effect of prior summer vegetation on the variation of spring dust storms is particularly evident in the central and eastern part of northern China. Because of the presence of little to no vegetation in the desert areas of northwest China the variation in occurrence of spring dust storms seems unrelated to the vegetation.

  19. Aerial albedos of natural vegetation in South-eastern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Black-and-white low-level 70mm photography was used to record the track of the aircraft, which was then plotted on conventional 1:80,000 23 cm photogrammetric photographs and referenced against simultaneous measurements of the beam albedos of vegetation. Using stereoscopic pairs of the 70mm photographs, the vegetation was classified into sub-formations. Marked differences in the 'sub-formation' albedos were observed. A two-way table using stand height and crown cover of the sub-formations clearly showed a very distinctive trend of albedos. This finding may be important in other vegetal studies.

  20. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  1. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  2. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Treesearch

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  3. The Circumpolar Arctic vegetation map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Donald A.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Einarsson, E.; Elvebakk, A.; Gould, W.A.; Katenin, A.E.; Kholod, S.S.; Markon, C.J.; Melnikov, E.S.; Moskalenko, N.G.; Talbot, S. S.; Yurtsev, B.A.; Bliss, L.C.; Edlund, S.A.; Zoltai, S.C.; Wilhelm, M.; Bay, C.; Gudjonsson, G.; Ananjeva, G.V.; Drozdov, D.S.; Konchenko, L.A.; Korostelev, Y.V.; Ponomareva, O.E.; Matveyeva, N.V.; Safranova, I.N.; Shelkunova, R.; Polezhaev, A.N.; Johansen, B.E.; Maier, H.A.; Murray, D.F.; Fleming, Michael D.; Trahan, N.G.; Charron, T.M.; Lauritzen, S.M.; Vairin, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    Question: What are the major vegetation units in the Arctic, what is their composition, and how are they distributed among major bioclimate subzones and countries? Location: The Arctic tundra region, north of the tree line. Methods: A photo-interpretive approach was used to delineate the vegetation onto an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) base image. Mapping experts within nine Arctic regions prepared draft maps using geographic information technology (ArcInfo) of their portion of the Arctic, and these were later synthesized to make the final map. Area analysis of the map was done according to bioclimate subzones, and country. The integrated mapping procedures resulted in other maps of vegetation, topography, soils, landscapes, lake cover, substrate pH, and above-ground biomass. Results: The final map was published at 1:7 500 000 scale map. Within the Arctic (total area = 7.11 x 106 km 2), about 5.05 ?? 106 km2 is vegetated. The remainder is ice covered. The map legend generally portrays the zonal vegetation within each map polygon. About 26% of the vegetated area is erect shrublands, 18% peaty graminoid tundras, 13% mountain complexes, 12% barrens, 11% mineral graminoid tundras, 11% prostrate-shrub tundras, and 7% wetlands. Canada has by far the most terrain in the High Arctic mostly associated with abundant barren types and prostrate dwarf-shrub tundra, whereas Russia has the largest area in the Low Arctic, predominantly low-shrub tundra. Conclusions: The CAVM is the first vegetation map of an entire global biome at a comparable resolution. The consistent treatment of the vegetation across the circumpolar Arctic, abundant ancillary material, and digital database should promote the application to numerous land-use, and climate-change applications and will make updating the map relatively easy. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  4. Length of vegetation's water memory and its implication for resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Zhang, Y.; Li, S.

    2016-12-01

    Memory effects emphasizes that antecedent climate conditions impact current vegetation productivity. This temporal linkages was found strong in water-limited regions and its strength exhibited a weakening trend with increasing mean annual precipitation recently. However, the relative significance of antecedent precipitation in determining memory effects was not known. Here we quantified the length of water memory and showed that water availability within memory may play dominant role in determining memory effects. More importantly, the strength of memory effects was also considered a useful metric to measure the responding rate of ecosystems to external perturbations, an important component of vegetation resilience. Consistent with current theory, our results showed that vegetation with longer water memory may be accompanied with longer stochastic perturbations, thereby recovered slower to equilibrium state. Our results can help understand vegetation's responses to alterations in water availability and recognize ecosystems approach tipping points and vulnerable regions.

  5. Preliminary assessment of soil moisture over vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, T. N.

    1986-01-01

    Modeling of surface energy fluxes was combined with in-situ measurement of surface parameters, specifically the surface sensible heat flux and the substrate soil moisture. A vegetation component was incorporated in the atmospheric/substrate model and subsequently showed that fluxes over vegetation can be very much different than those over bare soil for a given surface-air temperature difference. The temperature signatures measured by a satellite or airborne radiometer should be interpreted in conjunction with surface measurements of modeled parameters. Paradoxically, analyses of the large-scale distribution of soil moisture availability shows that there is a very high correlation between antecedent precipitation and inferred surface moisture availability, even when no specific vegetation parameterization is used in the boundary layer model. Preparatory work was begun in streamlining the present boundary layer model, developing better algorithms for relating surface temperatures to substrate moisture, preparing for participation in the French HAPEX experiment, and analyzing aircraft microwave and radiometric surface temperature data for the 1983 French Beauce experiments.

  6. Monitoring tropical vegetation succession with LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, V. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    The shadowing problem, which is endemic to the use of LANDSAT in tropical areas, and the ability to model changes over space and through time are problems to be addressed when monitoring tropical vegetation succession. Application of a trend surface analysis model to major land cover classes in a mountainous region of the Phillipines shows that the spatial modeling of radiance values can provide a useful approach to tropical rain forest succession monitoring. Results indicate shadowing effects may be due primarily to local variations in the spectral responses. These variations can be compensated for through the decomposition of the spatial variation in both elevation and MSS data. Using the model to estimate both elevation and spectral terrain surface as a posteriori inputs in the classification process leads to improved classification accuracy for vegetation of cover of this type. Spatial patterns depicted by the MSS data reflect the measurement of responses to spatial processes acting at several scales.

  7. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  8. MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation phenology dynamics in the Inner Mongolia grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Z.; Kawamura, K.; Ishikawa, N.; Goto, M.; Wulan, T.; Alateng, D.; Yin, T.; Ito, Y.

    2015-11-01

    The Inner Mongolia grassland, one of the most important grazing regions in China, has long been threatened by land degradation and desertification, mainly due to overgrazing. To understand vegetation responses over the last decade, this study evaluated trends in vegetation cover and phenology dynamics in the Inner Mongolia grassland by applying a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series obtained by the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) during 2002-2014. The results showed that the cumulative annual NDVI increased to over 77.10 % in the permanent grassland region (2002-2014). The mean value of the total change showed that the start of season (SOS) date and the peak vegetation productivity date of the season (POS) had advanced by 5.79 and 2.43 days, respectively. The end of season (EOS) was delayed by 5.07 days. These changes lengthened the season by 10.86 days. Our results also confirmed that grassland changes are closely related to spring precipitation and increasing temperature at the early growing period because of global warming. Overall, productivity in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region tends to increase, but in some grassland areas with grazing, land degradation is ongoing.

  9. North American vegetation patterns observed with the NOAA-7 advanced very high resolution radiometer. [North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, S. N.; Tucker, C. J.; Dye, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral vegetation index measurements derived from remotely sensed observations show great promise as a means to improve knowledge of land vegetation patterns. The daily, global observations acquired by the advanced very high resolution radiometer, a sensor on the current series of U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration meteorological satellites, may be particularly well suited for global studies of vegetation. Preliminary results from analysis of North American observations, extending from April to November 1982, show that the vegetation index patterns observed correspond to the known seasonality of North American natural and cultivated vegetation. Integration of the observations over the growing season produced measurements that are related to net primary productivity patterns of the major North American natural vegetation formations. Regions of intense cultivation were observed as anomalous areas in the integrated growing season measurements. Significant information on seasonality, annual extent and interannual variability of vegetation photosynthetic activity at continental and global scales can be derived from these satellite observations.

  10. [Vegetation change in Shenzhen City based on NDVI change classification].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Jing; Zeng, Hui; Wel, Jian-Bing

    2008-05-01

    Based on the TM images of 1988 and 2003 as well as the land-use change survey data in 2004, the vegetation change in Shenzhen City was assessed by a NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) change classification method, and the impacts from natural and social constraining factors were analyzed. The results showed that as a whole, the rapid urbanization in 1988-2003 had less impact on the vegetation cover in the City, but in its plain areas with low altitude, the vegetation cover degraded more obviously. The main causes of the localized ecological degradation were the invasion of built-ups to woods and orchards, land transformation from woods to orchards at the altitude of above 100 m, and low percentage of green land in some built-ups areas. In the future, the protection and construction of vegetation in Shenzhen should focus on strengthening the protection and restoration of remnant woods, trying to avoid the built-ups' expansion to woods and orchards where are better vegetation-covered, rectifying the unreasonable orchard constructions at the altitude of above 100 m, and consolidating the greenbelt construction inside the built-ups. It was considered that the NDVI change classification method could work well in efficiently uncovering the trend of macroscale vegetation change, and avoiding the effect of random noise in data.

  11. Heat-resistance of psychrotolerant Bacillus cereus vegetative cells.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Alizée; Dargaignaratz, Claire; Clavel, Thierry; Broussolle, Véronique; Nguyen-The, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    Spores of psychrotolerant strains of the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus can multiply during storage of cooked or pasteurized, refrigerated foods and can represent a risk if these cells are not eliminated during reheating of food product before consumption. We determined the heat-resistance of psychrotolerant B. cereus vegetative cells at different heating temperatures in laboratory medium and compared it with that of thermotolerant B. cereus vegetative cells. The z values, based on times for a 3 log10 reduction, of the vegetative cells of the three psychrotolerant phylogenetic groups of B. cereus varied between 3.02 °C and 4.84 °C. The temperature at which a 3 log10 reduction was achieved in 10 min varied between 47.6 °C and 49.2 °C for psychrotolerant vegetative cells and it was around 54.8 °C for thermotolerant vegetative cells. Moreover, 0.4 min at 60 °C would be sufficient for a 6 log10 CFU/ml reduction of the most heat resistant psychrotolerant B. cereus vegetative cells. These data clearly showed that psychrotolerant B. cereus vegetative cells can be rapidly eliminated by a mild heat treatment such as food reheating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effects of Asian green vegetables against oxidant induced cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Peter; Ong, Choon Nam; Whiteman, Matt

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzyme inducing ability of green leaf vegetables consumed in Asia. METHODS: The antioxidant properties of six commonly consumed Asian vegetables were determined using the ABTS, DPPH, deoxyribose, PR bleaching and iron- ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation assay. Induce of phase II detoxification enzymes was also determined for each respective vegetable extract. Protection against authentic ONOO- and HOCl mediated cytotoxicity in human colon HCT116 cells was determined using the MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrasodium bromide) viability assay. RESULTS: All of the extracts derived from green leaf vegetables exhibited antioxidant properties, while also having cytoprotective effects against ONOO- and HOCl mediated cytotoxicity. In addition, evaluation of the phase II enzyme inducing ability of each extract, as assessed by quinone reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities, showed significant variation between the vegetables analyzed. CONCLUSION: Green leaf vegetables are potential sources of antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzyme inducers in the Asian diet. It is likely that consumption of such vegetables is a major source of beneficial phytochemical constituents that may protect against colonic damage. PMID:16437686

  13. Development of a coupled wave-flow-vegetation interaction model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beudin, Alexis; Kalra, Tarandeep; Ganju, Neil K.; Warner, John C.

    2017-01-01

    Emergent and submerged vegetation can significantly affect coastal hydrodynamics. However, most deterministic numerical models do not take into account their influence on currents, waves, and turbulence. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a wave-flow-vegetation module into a Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system that includes a flow model (ROMS) and a wave model (SWAN), and illustrate various interacting processes using an idealized shallow basin application. The flow model has been modified to include plant posture-dependent three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and production of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy to parameterize vertical mixing. The coupling framework has been updated to exchange vegetation-related variables between the flow model and the wave model to account for wave energy dissipation due to vegetation. This study i) demonstrates the validity of the plant posture-dependent drag parameterization against field measurements, ii) shows that the model is capable of reproducing the mean and turbulent flow field in the presence of vegetation as compared to various laboratory experiments, iii) provides insight into the flow-vegetation interaction through an analysis of the terms in the momentum balance, iv) describes the influence of a submerged vegetation patch on tidal currents and waves separately and combined, and v) proposes future directions for research and development.

  14. Association between pollen hypersensitivity and edible vegetable allergy: a review.

    PubMed

    Caballero, T; Martín-Esteban, M

    1998-01-01

    Over the last three decades several authors have described the existence of an association between sensitivity to different pollens and sensitivity to diverse edible vegetables. An association between ragweed pollinosis and hypersensitivity to Cucurbitaceae vegetables (e.g., watermelon, melon, cucumber) and banana has been reported. Other authors have found a relationship between birch pollinosis and sensitization to hazelnut, apple, carrot, potato, kiwi and other vegetables. Additionally, several papers have shown the association between mugwort pollinosis and sensitization to celery, carrot, spices, nuts, mustard and Leguminoseae vegetables. Later, some studies showed association between grass pollinosis and sensitization to tomato, potato, green- pea, peanut, watermelon, melon, apple, orange and kiwi. Finally, an association between sensitization to plantain pollen and melon hypersensitivity was also described. The association between pollinosis and edible vegetable sensitization has been explained by the combination of different hypotheses, such as the following: 1) presence of lectins in edible vegetables; 2) existence of IgE to carbohydrates of the glycoproteins (cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants); and, 3) existence of common allergens between pollens and edible vegetables. Up to now three allergens have been identified as responsible for cross-reactivity in these associations: profilin, a 14 kd protein that regulates actin; Bet v 1, the 18 kd birch pollen allergen; and a 60-69 kd allergen. It is important to study in depth these associated sensitizations and the common allergens responsible for them in order to improve diagnostic methods and treatment of these syndromes.

  15. [Study of microbial contamination of processed fresh vegetables and lettuce].

    PubMed

    efimochkina, N R; Bykova, I B; Batishcheva, S Iu; Minaeva, L P; Markova, Iu M; Korotkevich, Iu V; Shilov, G Iu; Sheveleva, S A

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of microbial contamination and species composition of the Enterobacteriaceae family in fresh vegetables and lettuce has been conducted. The objects of study were new types of fresh ready-to-eat vegetable foods - salads, sliced vegetables and mixtures thereof, sampled at the main stages of production, including washing, antimicrobial treatment with sodium hypochlorite, and packaging in the film under vacuum. Quantitative analysis of Enterobacteriaceae levels in fresh and packaged vegetables and salads showed that their part in the total amount of microbial contaminants is large enough. Average Enterobacteriaceae content ranged from 2,14 to 3,34 lg cfu/g, reaching in some samples values 4,38-4,74 lg, comparable with the levels of total bacteria. Considerable species diversity of microflora contaminating ready-to-eat vegetable products has been found. Bacteria of the genera Enterobactel; Pantoea, Citrobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Kluyvera, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Rahnella, Acinetobacter were found in the salads and sliced vegetables. In the tested samples most frequently detected Enterobacter spp. - 37% of identified strains and Pantoea spp - 25% of strains. The data on the composition and levels of microbial contaminants in vegetable and salad products highlight not only the need to monitor coliform bacteria - traditional indicators of faecal contamination of raw materials, but also the need to introduce criteria for the amount of Enterobacteriaceae.

  16. The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Slamet, Alim Setiawan; Nakayasu, Akira; Bai, Hu

    2016-12-07

    Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta) from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a) implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b) encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and

  17. Development of a coupled wave-flow-vegetation interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beudin, Alexis; Kalra, Tarandeep S.; Ganju, Neil K.; Warner, John C.

    2017-03-01

    Emergent and submerged vegetation can significantly affect coastal hydrodynamics. However, most deterministic numerical models do not take into account their influence on currents, waves, and turbulence. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a wave-flow-vegetation module into a Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system that includes a flow model (ROMS) and a wave model (SWAN), and illustrate various interacting processes using an idealized shallow basin application. The flow model has been modified to include plant posture-dependent three-dimensional drag, in-canopy wave-induced streaming, and production of turbulent kinetic energy and enstrophy to parameterize vertical mixing. The coupling framework has been updated to exchange vegetation-related variables between the flow model and the wave model to account for wave energy dissipation due to vegetation. This study i) demonstrates the validity of the plant posture-dependent drag parameterization against field measurements, ii) shows that the model is capable of reproducing the mean and turbulent flow field in the presence of vegetation as compared to various laboratory experiments, iii) provides insight into the flow-vegetation interaction through an analysis of the terms in the momentum balance, iv) describes the influence of a submerged vegetation patch on tidal currents and waves separately and combined, and v) proposes future directions for research and development.

  18. Biofilm formation enhances Helicobacter pylori survivability in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Ho, Bow

    2017-04-01

    To date, the exact route and mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains elusive. The detection of H. pylori in food using molecular approaches has led us to postulate that the gastric pathogen may survive in the extragastric environment for an extended period. In this study, we show that H. pylori prolongs its survival by forming biofilm and micro-colonies on vegetables. The biofilm forming capability of H. pylori is both strain and vegetable dependent. H. pylori strains were classified into high and low biofilm formers based on their highest relative biofilm units (BU). High biofilm formers survived longer on vegetables compared to low biofilm formers. The bacteria survived better on cabbage compared to other vegetables tested. In addition, images captured on scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that the bacteria were able to form biofilm and reside as micro-colonies on vegetable surfaces, strengthening the notion of possible survival of H. pylori on vegetables for an extended period of time. Taken together, the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm on vegetables (a common food source for human) potentially plays an important role in its survival, serving as a mode of transmission of H. pylori in the extragastric environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Slamet, Alim Setiawan; Nakayasu, Akira; Bai, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta) from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a) implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b) encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and (c) intensively promoting organic food with respect to consumers’ motives and concerns on health, safety, as well as environmental sustainability. PMID:28231181

  20. Monitoring vegetation growth and morphodynamic effects after stream restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Luna, Andrés; Crosato, Alessandra; Anders, Niels; Hoitink, Ton; Keesstra, Saskia; Uijttewaal, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation processes are widely recognized as a key component on the ecological and morphological development of river channels. Moreover, plants reduce flow velocities and bed-shear stresses by increasing the local hydraulic roughness and thus increasing water levels. Therefore, monitoring the vegetation development is an important activity in river management not only for protecting ecological services, but also in flood risk reduction; especially in times of a changing climate. This paper presents the analysis the effects of riparian vegetation growth on the morphology of a lowland restored stream located in The Netherlands, the Lunterse beek. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was used to obtain aerial imagery at different time steps which was the basis for generating land cover maps with semi-automated image classification. In addition hydrological series and multi-temporal high-resolution bathymetric data allowed analysing river bed morphology and the relevance of seasonality. The UAV campaigns were found a crucial step to ease the vegetation mapping and monitoring. The morphological change observed in this stream, represented by the channel-width adjustment and the cross sectional evolution, is slowed down once vegetation is stablished on the stream. Results of this work show that the vegetation root system assert a strong control on soil stabilization, even during the winter season when the plants biomass is highly reduced. Seasonal variations in plant development appear important only during the first stages of establishment, when vegetation has a low density and, more importantly, a root system that is not fully developed yet.

  1. Global distribution of groundwater-vegetation spatial covariation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Sujan; Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus; de Graaf, Inge E. M.; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Ichii, Kazuhito; Papale, Dario; Raduly, Botond; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Tramontana, Gianluca; Carvalhais, Nuno

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater is an integral component of the water cycle, and it also influences the carbon cycle by supplying moisture to ecosystems. However, the extent and determinants of groundwater-vegetation interactions are poorly understood at the global scale. Using several high-resolution data products, we show that the spatial patterns of ecosystem gross primary productivity and groundwater table depth are correlated during at least one season in more than two-thirds of the global vegetated area. Positive relationships, i.e., larger productivity under shallower groundwater table condition, predominate in moisture-limited dry to mesic conditions with herbaceous and shrub vegetation. Negative relationships, i.e., larger productivity under deeper groundwater table condition, predominate in humid climates with forests, likely, indicating a drawdown of groundwater table due to substantial ecosystem water use. Interestingly, these opposite groundwater-vegetation interactions are primarily associated with differences in vegetation than with climate and surface characteristics. These findings put forth the first evidence of an extensive and non-negligible groundwater-vegetation interactions at the global scale. Simultaneously, it also highlights the need for better considerations of groundwater-vegetation interactions and their determinants in studies linking global carbon and water cycles.

  2. [Vegetation landscape health assessment in Changshan Archipelago, North Yellow Sea].

    PubMed

    Suo, An-ning; Sun, Yong-guang; Li, Bin-yong; Lin, Yong; Zhang, Yong-hua

    2015-04-01

    Island vegetation is an important component of island ecosystem. Multi-targets of island ecosystem health integrated with landscape ecology theory were employed to construct the index system for island vegetation health assessment in terms of landscape vigor, landscape stressing intensity and landscape stability. The Changshan Archipelago in the North Yellow Sea was chosen as a case to apply the island vegetation health assessment index system. The results showed that the overall vegetation health status in Changshan Archipelago was good and had a big island variation. The vegetation health index for Haiyang Island and Zhangzi Island was above 0.80, belonging to first eco-health level area, whereas that for Dachangshan Island, Xiaochangshan Island and Dawangjia Island ranged from 0.70 to 0.80, which could be categorized as the second eco-health level area. Guanglu Island and Shichen Island could be termed as the third eco-health level area with the vegetation health index below 0.70. The distance of island to mainland, area of island together with industrial structure were the main driving forces for the variation of vegetation landscape heath between different islands.

  3. "Show me" bioethics and politics.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Myra J

    2007-10-01

    Missouri, the "Show Me State," has become the epicenter of several important national public policy debates, including abortion rights, the right to choose and refuse medical treatment, and, most recently, early stem cell research. In this environment, the Center for Practical Bioethics (formerly, Midwest Bioethics Center) emerged and grew. The Center's role in these "cultural wars" is not to advocate for a particular position but to provide well researched and objective information, perspective, and advocacy for the ethical justification of policy positions; and to serve as a neutral convener and provider of a public forum for discussion. In this article, the Center's work on early stem cell research is a case study through which to argue that not only the Center, but also the field of bioethics has a critical role in the politics of public health policy.

  4. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up.

    Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  6. Trend shifts in satellite-derived vegetation growth in Central Eurasia, 1982-2013.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao-Jie; Wang, Xin-Ping; Yang, Tai-Bao

    2017-02-01

    Central Eurasian vegetation is critical for the regional ecological security and the global carbon cycle. However, climatic impacts on vegetation growth in Central Eurasia are uncertain. The reason for this uncertainty lies in the fact that the response of vegetation to climate change showed nonlinearity, seasonality and differences among plant functional types. Based on remotely sensed vegetation index and in-situ meteorological data for the years 1982-2013, in conjunction with the latest land cover type product, we analyzed how vegetation growth trend varied across different seasons and evaluated vegetation response to climate variables at regional, biome and pixel scales. We found a persistent increase in the growing season NDVI over Central Eurasia during 1982-1994, whereas this greening trend has stalled since the mid-1990s in response to increased water deficit. The stalled trend in the growing season NDVI was largely attributed by summer and autumn NDVI changes. Enhanced spring vegetation growth after 2002 was caused by rapid spring warming. The response of vegetation to climatic factors varied in different seasons. Precipitation was the main climate driver for the growing season and summer vegetation growth. Changes in temperature and precipitation during winter and spring controlled the spring vegetation growth. Autumn vegetation growth was mainly dependent on the vegetation growth in summer. We found diverse responses of different vegetation types to climate drivers in Central Eurasia. Forests were more responsive to temperature than to precipitation. Grassland and desert vegetation responded more strongly to precipitation than to temperature in summer but more strongly to temperature than to precipitation in spring. In addition, the growth of desert vegetation was more dependent on winter precipitation than that of grasslands. This study has important implications for improving the performance of terrestrial ecosystem models to predict future vegetation

  7. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  8. [Correlation analysis on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of different vegetations and climatic factors in Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-He; Liu, Shi-Rong

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1982-2006 NDVI remote sensing data and meteorological data of Southwest China, and by using GIS technology, this paper interpolated and extracted the mean annual temperature, annual precipitation, and drought index in the region, and analyzed the correlations of the annual variation of NDVI in different vegetation types (marsh, shrub, bush, grassland, meadow, coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, alpine vegetation, and cultural vegetation) with corresponding climatic factors. In 1982-2006, the NDVI, mean annual temperature, and annual precipitation had an overall increasing trend, and the drought index decreased. Particularly, the upward trend of mean annual temperature was statistically significant. Among the nine vegetation types, the NDVI of bush and mash decreased, and the downward trend was significant for bush. The NDVI of the other seven vegetation types increased, and the upward trend was significant for coniferous forest, meadow, and alpine vegetation, and extremely significant for shrub. The mean annual temperature in the areas with all the nine vegetation types increased significantly, while the annual precipitation had no significant change. The drought index in the areas with marsh, bush, and cultural vegetation presented an increasing trend, that in the areas with meadow and alpine vegetation decreased significantly, and this index in the areas with other four vegetation types had an unobvious decreasing trend. The NDVI of shrub and coniferous forest had a significantly positive correlation with mean annual temperature, and that of shrub and meadow had significantly negative correlation with drought index. Under the conditions of the other two climatic factors unchanged, the NDVI of coniferous forest, broad-leaved forest, and alpine vegetation showed the strongest correlation with mean annual temperature, that of grass showed the strongest correlation with annual precipitation, and the NDVI of mash, shrub, grass, meadow, and cultural

  9. Geostatistical estimation of signal-to-noise ratios for spectral vegetation indices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, Lei; Zhang, Li; Rover, Jennifer R.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Chen, Xuexia

    2014-01-01

    In the past 40 years, many spectral vegetation indices have been developed to quantify vegetation biophysical parameters. An ideal vegetation index should contain the maximum level of signal related to specific biophysical characteristics and the minimum level of noise such as background soil influences and atmospheric effects. However, accurate quantification of signal and noise in a vegetation index remains a challenge, because it requires a large number of field measurements or laboratory experiments. In this study, we applied a geostatistical method to estimate signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for spectral vegetation indices. Based on the sample semivariogram of vegetation index images, we used the standardized noise to quantify the noise component of vegetation indices. In a case study in the grasslands and shrublands of the western United States, we demonstrated the geostatistical method for evaluating S/N for a series of soil-adjusted vegetation indices derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. The soil-adjusted vegetation indices were found to have higher S/N values than the traditional normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and simple ratio (SR) in the sparsely vegetated areas. This study shows that the proposed geostatistical analysis can constitute an efficient technique for estimating signal and noise components in vegetation indices.

  10. Geostatistical estimation of signal-to-noise ratios for spectral vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lei; Zhang, Li; Rover, Jennifer; Wylie, Bruce K.; Chen, Xuexia

    2014-10-01

    In the past 40 years, many spectral vegetation indices have been developed to quantify vegetation biophysical parameters. An ideal vegetation index should contain the maximum level of signal related to specific biophysical characteristics and the minimum level of noise such as background soil influences and atmospheric effects. However, accurate quantification of signal and noise in a vegetation index remains a challenge, because it requires a large number of field measurements or laboratory experiments. In this study, we applied a geostatistical method to estimate signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for spectral vegetation indices. Based on the sample semivariogram of vegetation index images, we used the standardized noise to quantify the noise component of vegetation indices. In a case study in the grasslands and shrublands of the western United States, we demonstrated the geostatistical method for evaluating S/N for a series of soil-adjusted vegetation indices derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. The soil-adjusted vegetation indices were found to have higher S/N values than the traditional normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and simple ratio (SR) in the sparsely vegetated areas. This study shows that the proposed geostatistical analysis can constitute an efficient technique for estimating signal and noise components in vegetation indices.

  11. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback.

  12. Quantifying Regional Vegetation Cover Variability in North China during the Holocene: Implications for Climate Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback. PMID:23977110

  13. Vegetation and climate interactions: an introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramstein, Gilles; de Boer, Hugo; Soh, Wuu-Kuang

    2017-04-01

    Plants play a key role in the climate system by influencing the hydrological cycle and the carbon cycle, as well as by affecting the Earths energy balance via changes in albedo. Moreover, changes in climate may result in adaptive responses in vegetation that can feedback to the climate system. The processes that are most dominantly affected depend on the time scale of interest. This session will explore climate and plant interactions and feedbacks through a very large spectrum of processes and time spans. At very short time scale (several minutes) plants may influence the formation of shallow cumulus clouds. At geological time scales (millions of years) evolutionary changes in plant functional traits, such as rooting depth, may influence mineral weathering rates and subsequent atmospheric CO2 levels. To introduce this session we will show that as soon as plants colonized continents the climate was deeply modified. This major change took place during Devonian and corresponds to the opening of a new terrestrial carbon reservoir (soil and vegetation) and therefore contribute to a large decrease of atmospheric CO2. But, this period is also associated with a large change in terrestrial albedo from dessert to vegetation cover. We shall explore the climate impact of such a "terrestrialisation" during Late Devonian (375 Ma). Building on from here, this session will investigate the climate-vegetation interactions through geological time (Late Paleozoic, Cretaceous, Holocene…) and Anthropocene projections. In modern times we are introducing a large quantity of CO2 to the atmospheric reservoir at extreme rates that is affecting the vegetation globally. Owing to recent developments the consequences of terrestrial biosphere interactions for climate change are accurately monitored and simulated through a hierarchy of different co=mplexity models. Therefore, we may predict major interactions which could take place during this century in terms of changes in the water cycle and

  14. The Reliability and Validity of Short Online Questionnaires to Measure Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Adults: The Fruit Test and Vegetable Test

    PubMed Central

    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Crombez, Geert; Steenhuyzen, Saidja; Dejaegere, Liesbet; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Verloigne, Maïté

    2016-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to investigate the stability of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test over time and whether the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test are capable of measuring fruit and vegetable intake with consistency. Second, the study aimed to examine criterion (concurrent) validity of the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test by testing their agreement with 7-day food diary-derived measures of fruit and vegetable intake. In total 58 adults (31% male, mean age = 30.0±12.09y) completed the Flemish Fruit and Vegetable test by indicating the frequency of days that they ate fruit and vegetables and the number of portions during the past week. Validity was tested by using a 7-day food diary as a golden standard. Adults were asked to register their fruit and vegetable intake daily in a diary during one week. Spearman correlations were measured to compare total intake reported in the Fruit and Vegetable Test and in the 7-day diary. Agreement plots were used to illustrate absolute agreement. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by having participants completing the Fruit Test and Vegetable Test twice. The Fruit Test (ICC = 0.81) and Vegetable Test (ICC = 0.78) showed excellent and substantial reliability. The Fruit Test (ρ = 0.73) and Vegetable Test showed good validity. Agreement plots showed modest variability in differences between vegetable and fruit intake as measured by the Vegetable and Fruit Test and the 7-day food diary. Also a small underestimation of fruit intake in the Fruit test and vegetable intake in the Vegetable test against the 7-day food diary was shown. Based on the results, it is suggested to include portion size pictures and consumption of mixed vegetables to prevent underestimation. To prevent overestimation, it is concluded to add a moderate number of representative fruit and vegetable items, questions on portion size, household sizes with sufficient detail and food items highly tailored to the dietary behaviors and local food items of the

  15. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  16. Attribution of trends in global vegetation greenness from 1982 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Xu, L.; Bi, J.; Myneni, R.; Knyazikhin, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Time series of remotely sensed vegetation indices data provide evidence of changes in terrestrial vegetation activity over the past decades in the world. However, it is difficult to attribute cause-and-effect to vegetation trends because variations in vegetation productivity are driven by various factors. This study investigated changes in global vegetation productivity first, and then attributed the global natural vegetation with greening trend. Growing season integrated normalized difference vegetation index (GSI NDVI) derived from the new GIMMS NDVI3g dataset (1982-2011was analyzed. A combined time series analysis model, which was developed from simper linear trend model (SLT), autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) and Vogelsang's t-PST model shows that productivity of all vegetation types except deciduous broadleaf forest predominantly showed increasing trends through the 30-year period. The evolution of changes in productivity in the last decade was also investigated. Area of greening vegetation monotonically increased through the last decade, and both the browning and no change area monotonically decreased. To attribute the predominant increase trend of productivity of global natural vegetation, trends of eight climate time series datasets (three temperature, three precipitation and two radiation datasets) were analyzed. The attribution of trends in global vegetation greenness was summarized as relaxation of climatic constraints, fertilization and other unknown reasons. Result shows that nearly all the productivity increase of global natural vegetation was driven by relaxation of climatic constraints and fertilization, which play equally important role in driving global vegetation greenness.; Area fraction and productivity change fraction of IGBP vegetation land cover classes showing statistically significant (10% level) trend in GSI NDVIt;

  17. Monitoring the vegetation resources in riparian areas

    Treesearch

    Alma H. Winward

    2000-01-01

    This document provides information on three sampling methods used to inventory and monitor the vegetation resources in riparian areas. The vegetation cross-section method evaluates the health of vegetation across the valley floor. The greenline method provides a measurement of the streamside vegetation. The woody species regeneration method measures the density and age...

  18. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetation management...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting the...

  19. Natural vegetation of Oregon and Washington.

    Treesearch

    Jerry F. Franklin; C.T. Dyrness

    1973-01-01

    Major vegetational units of Oregon and Washington and their environmental relationships are described and illustrated. After an initial consideration of the vegetation components in the two States, major geographic areas and vegetation zones are detailed. Descriptions of each vegetation zone include composition and succession, as well as discussion of variations...

  20. Chapter 3: Status and trends of vegetation

    Treesearch

    James M. Guldin; Frank R. Thompson; Lynda L. Richards; Kyra C. Harper

    1999-01-01

    This chapter provides information about the vegetation cover of the Assessment area. The types and areal extent of vegetation in the Highlands are of interest for many reasons. Vegetation cover largely determines the availability of habitat for terrestrial animals, plants, and other organisms. Vegetation cover strongly influences what uses {e.g., timber, forage,...

  1. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.203 Vegetation management. No vegetation management shall be approved on TVA-owned Residential Access Shoreland until a Vegetation Management Plan meeting the... specifically approved in the Vegetative Management Plan. (m) Restricted use herbicides and pesticides shall not...

  2. Responses of vegetation growth to climate change in china

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Zhou, T.

    2015-04-01

    Global warming-related climate changes have significantly impacted the growth of terrestrial vegetation. Quantifying the spatiotemporal characteristic of the vegetation's response to climate is crucial for assessing the potential impacts of climate change on vegetation. In this study, we employed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) that was calculated for various time scales (1 to 12 months) from monthly records of mean temperature and precipitation totals using 511 meteorological stations in China to study the response of vegetation types to droughts. We separated the NDVI into 12 time series (one per month) and also used the SPEI of 12 droughts time scales to make the correlation. The results showed that the differences exist in various vegetation types. For needle-leaved forest, broadleaf forest and shrubland, they responded to droughts at long time scales (9 to 12 months). For grassland, meadow and cultivated vegetation, they responded to droughts at short time scales (1 to 5months). The positive correlations were mostly found in arid and sub-arid environments where soil water was a primary constraining factor for plant growth, and the negative correlations always existed in humid environments where temperature and radiation played significant roles in vegetation growth. Further spatial analysis indicated that the positive correlations were primarily found in northern China, especially in northwestern China, which is a region that always has water deficit, and the negative correlations were found in southern China, especially in southeastern China, that is a region has water surplus most of the year. The disclosed patterns of spatiotemporal responses to droughts are important for studying the impact of climate change to vegetation growth.

  3. Increasing fruits and vegetables in midlife women: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Caroline A; Weber, Janet L; Coad, Jane; Kruger, Marlena C

    2013-07-01

    The positive link between bone health and fruit/vegetable consumption has been attributed to the lower renal acid load of a diet high in alkaline-forming fruit/vegetables. Other important dietary determinants of bone health include micronutrients and bioactives found in fruit/vegetables. We hypothesized that increased intake of fruit/vegetables to 9 or more servings a day would lower net endogenous acid production (NEAP) significantly (~20 mEq/d) and increase urine pH (0.5 pH units). This 8-week feasibility study investigated if 21 midlife women (age, 40-65 years) currently consuming 5 or less servings a day of fruit/vegetables could increase their intake to 9 or more servings a day to substantially lower NEAP and include specific vegetables daily. Three-day diet diaries were completed at baseline and the end of the study and assessed for NEAP (estimated) and number of servings from all food groups. Urine pH dipsticks were provided for the participants to assess and record their fasting urine pH daily (second void). Seventy-six percent of women achieved the study aim, which was to increase to 9 or more servings of fruit/vegetables for at least 5 d/wk. There was a reduction in the number of bread/cereal servings. Net endogenous acid production (estimated) was reduced significantly, with a mean urine pH increase of 0.68 pH units (95% confidence interval, 0.46-1.14); however, daily urine pH measures showed high variability. This study demonstrated that a group of midlife women can change their diet for 8 weeks by significantly increasing fruit/vegetable servings and include specific "bone friendly" vegetables daily, resulting in a significant decrease in estimated dietary NEAP and an increase in urine pH. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental Study on the Characteristics of Scour Hole around Emergent Vegetation with Single-Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    In the natural rivers, woody vegetation commonly grows along the riverbank. When flows run through the woody vegetation zones, the stream processes and bed form are markedly affected. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of scour hole around vegetation patch with different densities by flume experiments. For corresponding to the natural plant growing condition, the vegetation models were arranged along one side of the flume wall. The vegetation models were made of the steel columns with staggered arrangement. The vegetation densities were set equal to 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.07, 0.09, 0.12, 0.15, 0.22 and 0.3. The experimental flow condition was steady and the vegetation models were emergent. The flow velocity was controlled close to the initiation of sediment motion. The scour patterns around the vegetation zone were measured by the Laser Distance Meter in equilibrium scour conditions. The results show that the scour patterns have similarity in vegetation density ranging from 0.03 to 0.12. The dimensionless scour length (D) is ranging 1.30-1.50. The dimensionless scour width (B) is ranging 1.11-1.48. The dimensionless accumulation width (E) is ranging 1.18-1.67. The dimensionless accumulation length (F) is ranging 0.49-1.81.The results also show that B and E are proportional to the vegetation densities, and the D and F are inversely proportional to the vegetation densities.

  5. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  6. Vegetable fuel potential. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Solly, R.K.

    1983-08-01

    The possible contribution to Defence fuels from vegetable sources is considered. Only two categories, ethyl alcohol from fermentation of carbohydrate material and vegetable oils directly from oil crops, can currently be produced with present technology in sufficient amounts to contribute to energy requirements. Liquid hydrocarbons from tree and shrub crops or microorganisms have not been produced in sufficient quantity to carry out even short-term engine trails. Ethyl alcohol is an effective gasoline extender for spark-ignition engines, but these are a minor part of Defence power units. Vegetable oils may be directly substituted for middle-distillate fuels, but a number of technical difficulties are outlined. Chemical reaction of the vegetable oils with ethyl alcohol produces a liquid fuel that has similar physical properties to petroleum distillate. Experimental and theoretical evidence suggests these vegetable-oil esters have better combustion properties in compression-ignition power units than petroleum distillate. Significant amounts could be produced in a strategic situation within a short lead time.

  7. Calcium biofortification and bioaccessibility in soilless "baby leaf" vegetable production.

    PubMed

    D'Imperio, Massimiliano; Renna, Massimiliano; Cardinali, Angela; Buttaro, Donato; Serio, Francesco; Santamaria, Pietro

    2016-12-15

    Calcium is an essential nutrient for human health, because it is a structural component and takes part in a variety of biological processes. The aim of this study was to increase Ca content of baby leaf vegetables (BLV: basil, mizuna, tatsoi and endive), as fresh-cut products. For the production of biofortified BLV, a floating system with two level of Ca (100 and 200mgL(-1)) in the nutrient solution was used. In addition, the assessment of bioaccessibility of Ca, by in vitro digestion process, was performed. In all vegetables, the Ca biofortification (200mgL(-1)) caused a significant Ca enrichment (9.5% on average) without affecting vegetables growth, oxalate contents and marketable quality. Calcium bioaccessibility ranged from 25% (basil) to 40% (endive) but the biofortified vegetables showed more bioaccessible Ca. These results underline the possibility to obtain Ca biofortified BLV by using agronomic approaches.

  8. Vegetation recovery on closed paths in temperate deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Roovers, Pieter; Bossuyt, Beatrijs; Gulinck, Hubert; Hermy, Martin

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate vegetation recovery on footpaths in woodland that have been closed for access for 6 years. A vegetation survey was conducted in four mesophile forests, in transects perpendicular to the trail. Analyses concentrated on the direction and rate of the recovery process. Vegetation on trail sides in these ecosystems recovered substantially. Non-metric multidimensional scaling based upon species composition separated the four sample locations and each cluster contained representatives of the three major trail zones: path centre, transition and undisturbed zones. Analysis of distribution of life forms, plant strategies and seedbank longevity indices showed no differences between trail zones. This indicates that vegetation on the path centre is likely to recover towards the plant composition of the undisturbed zone. Ellenberg values indicate that environmental variation is not related to former path structures, as significant variability was only observed between the forest sites. Furthermore, the analysis concentrated on characteristics of species relevant to the recovery process.

  9. [Simulation of vegetation indices optimizing under retrieval of vegetation biochemical parameters based on PROSPECT + SAIL model].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling; Liu, Xiang-Nan; Zhou, Bo-Tian; Liu, Chuan-Hao; Li, Lu-Feng

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzed the sensitivities of three vegetation biochemical parameters [chlorophyll content (Cab), leaf water content (Cw), and leaf area index (LAI)] to the changes of canopy reflectance, with the effects of each parameter on the wavelength regions of canopy reflectance considered, and selected three vegetation indices as the optimization comparison targets of cost function. Then, the Cab, Cw, and LAI were estimated, based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm and PROSPECT + SAIL model. The results showed that retrieval efficiency with vegetation indices as the optimization comparison targets of cost function was better than that with all spectral reflectance. The correlation coefficients (R2) between the measured and estimated values of Cab, Cw, and LAI were 90.8%, 95.7%, and 99.7%, and the root mean square errors of Cab, Cw, and LAI were 4.73 microg x cm(-2), 0.001 g x cm(-2), and 0.08, respectively. It was suggested that to adopt vegetation indices as the optimization comparison targets of cost function could effectively improve the efficiency and precision of the retrieval of biochemical parameters based on PROSPECT + SAIL model.

  10. Soil temperature depressions beneath vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Starkweather, S.

    1996-10-01

    The results from a summer-long monitoring project were used to determine the effects of vegetative cover on soil temperatures and ground heat fluxes. The measurements were taken over three months in a residential neighborhood adjacent to the University of Colorado campus and correlated with data from a weather station located a mile away. By contrasting the soil temperatures beneath a moderately shaded, vegetated site to those beneath an open site covered with turf grass, the authors were able to quantify an added energy saving benefit of alternative landscapes and tree planting; reduced summer-time ground heat flux. The results from the monitoring project were used to develop a general model for relating local weather data and site-specific vegetative morphologies to site-specific ground heat fluxes. The authors found that the reduced ground heat flux can be largely attributed to the reduced net radiation flux arriving at the soil surface.

  11. Relation of Vegetation and Temperature Condition Indices (1981-1999) and Drought conditions in Indian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwar, R.; Narayan, U.; Kumar, M.

    The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard NOAA series of satellites has been used for regional and global vegetation coverage since 1978 employing the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Recently, this technique has been improved combining NDVI with one of the thermal channels and converting them into the vegetation condition Index (VCI) and Temperature condition Index (TCI). W e have analysed NDVI, Vegetation and Temperature Condition Indices for the year 1981-1999 to the map the state of vegetation for Indian regions. Further, we have correlated these indices with the crop yield and crop production for different parts of India. The NDVI is also correlated with the scattering index derived form ERS data. The preset study shows that scattering coefficient, the NDVI, vegetation and temperature condition indices can be employed together in monitoring drought conditions and the vegetation vigor of Indian regions.

  12. On the morphodynamic stability of intertidal environments and the role of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakeh, Nabil; Coco, Giovanni; Marani, Marco

    2016-07-01

    We describe the coupled biotic and abiotic dynamics in intertidal environments using a point model that includes suspended sediment deposition, wave- and current-driven erosion, biofilm sediment stabilization, and sediment production and stabilization by vegetation. We explore the effects of two widely different types of vegetation: salt-marsh vegetation and mangroves. These two types of vegetation, which colonize distinct geographical areas, are characterized by different biomass productivities and stabilization mechanisms. We show that changing vegetation and biofilm properties result in differing stable states, both in their type and number. The presence of the biofilm exerts a dominant control on the tidal flat (lower intertidal) equilibrium elevation and stability. Vegetation controls the elevation of the marsh platform (i.e., the upper intertidal equilibrium). The two types of vegetation considered lead to similar effects on the stability of the system despite their distinct biophysical interactions.

  13. [Remote sensing estimation of vegetation coverage in guangzhou based on the correction of atmospheric radiation].

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian-Zhou; Xia, Bei-Cheng

    2007-03-01

    Vegetation coverage is a basic parameter in describing landscape ecosystem, and an important index in assessing ecosystem health and security. Based on the four TM images in 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2005, and by using the correction model to deduct atmospheric radiation effect and the spatial operating model for TM image under unsupervised classification, the relationship model between vegetation coverage and normalized vegetation index was established, and the vegetation coverage in different phases in Guangzhou was calculated. The results showed that the vegetation coverage in Guangzhou decreased continuously from 1990 to 2000 but began to increase thereafter, which accorded with the economic development and environmental construction of the city. The model established in this paper could simulate well the dynamics of regional vegetation cover, and have the advantage in describing the dynamics of vegetation coverage more accurately, being available to the assessment of urban eco-environmental quality and its dynamic characters.

  14. Allergies to fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Benito, Cristina; González-Mancebo, Eloína; de Durana, Dolores Alonso Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Allergic reactions to fruits and vegetables are frequently observed in older children and adolescents. They can result from a primary sensitization to food allergens or from a primary sensitization to inhalant allergens such as pollens or latex. In the case of fruit allergies, the stability of the allergens involved is crucial to the sensitization pathway and in the clinical presentation of the food allergy. Two patients allergic to fruits are presented and discussed in the light of the allergens involved. Patient 1 was a 14 yr-old girl with a grass and olive pollen allergy who developed oropharyngeal symptoms typical of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) with multiple fruits from taxonomically unrelated families, and who was sensitized to profilin. Patient 2 was an 8 yr-old girl, with no pollen allergies, who developed systemic reactions to peach and apple, and who was sensitized to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Profilins are labile allergens present in pollens and foods, and sensitization occurs through the respiratory route to pollen profilin. The cross-reactive IgE antibodies generated can elicit local reactions in the oropharyngeal mucosa (OAS) when exposed to fruit profilins. In contrast, LTPs are a family of stable allergens that resist thermal treatment and enzymatic digestion, and can thus behave as true food allergens inducing primary (non-pollen related) sensitizations and triggering systemic reactions. These two cases represent two distinct patterns of sensitization and clinical expression of fruit allergies that are determined by the panallergens involved (LTPs and profilins) and their intrinsic physicochemical properties. Additionally, these two cases also show the improved diagnostic value of Component Resolved Diagnosis, and strengthen its utility in the routine diagnosis and management of patients.

  15. Time-lag effects of global vegetation responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Wu, Donghai; Zhao, Xiang; Liang, Shunlin; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Kaicheng; Tang, Bijian; Zhao, Wenqian

    2015-09-01

    Climate conditions significantly affect vegetation growth in terrestrial ecosystems. Due to the spatial heterogeneity of ecosystems, the vegetation responses to climate vary considerably with the diverse spatial patterns and the time-lag effects, which are the most important mechanism of climate-vegetation interactive effects. Extensive studies focused on large-scale vegetation-climate interactions use the simultaneous meteorological and vegetation indicators to develop models; however, the time-lag effects are less considered, which tends to increase uncertainty. In this study, we aim to quantitatively determine the time-lag effects of global vegetation responses to different climatic factors using the GIMMS3g NDVI time series and the CRU temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation datasets. First, this study analyzed the time-lag effects of global vegetation responses to different climatic factors. Then, a multiple linear regression model and partial correlation model were established to statistically analyze the roles of different climatic factors on vegetation responses, from which the primary climate-driving factors for different vegetation types were determined. The results showed that (i) both the time-lag effects of the vegetation responses and the major climate-driving factors that significantly affect vegetation growth varied significantly at the global scale, which was related to the diverse vegetation and climate characteristics; (ii) regarding the time-lag effects, the climatic factors explained 64% variation of the global vegetation growth, which was 11% relatively higher than the model ignoring the time-lag effects; (iii) for the area with a significant change trend (for the period 1982-2008) in the global GIMMS3g NDVI (P < 0.05), the primary driving factor was temperature; and (iv) at the regional scale, the variation in vegetation growth was also related to human activities and natural disturbances. Considering the time-lag effects is quite

  16. Restoring native riparian vegetation

    Treesearch

    Debbie Hughes

    1996-01-01

    In the lower Pecos Basin, an unusual coalition of conservationists, agriculture producers, business owners, and state agencies have joined together to save what is left of the once-naturally diverse Pecos River ecosystem. This organization is going to show a state-of-the-art, economical, effective, efficient, and environmentally safe method to control salt cedar and...

  17. Textural signatures for wetland vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitman, R. I.; Marcellus, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation indicates that unique textural signatures do exist for specific wetland communities at certain times in the growing season. When photographs with the proper resolution are obtained, the textural features can identify the spectral features of the vegetation community seen with lower resolution mapping data. The development of a matrix of optimum textural signatures is the goal of this research. Seasonal variations of spectral and textural features are particularly important when performing a vegetations analysis of fresh water marshes. This matrix will aid in flight planning, since expected seasonal variations and resolution requirements can be established prior to a given flight mission.

  18. Thermal Vegetation Canopy Model Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    D I Prepared for Headquarters, Department of the ArmyS Washington, D. C 20314 ’ip4 Under Project No. 4A762730AT42, Task A4, Work Unit 003 (Contract...K.J., Nguyen, D., and Link, L.E. 1981. "Thermal Vegetation Canopy Model Studies," Technical Report EL-81-6, prepared by Colorado State University in...VEGETATION CANOPY MODEL STUDIES PART 1: INTRODUCTION 1. This technical report is the last of a series of reports prepared on scene radiation dynamics

  19. Relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes in Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhan-Hong; Zhang, Jin-Tun

    2005-09-01

    The relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes is analyzed for the Luya Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR), Shanxi, China, in this study. Indices such as Sensitive Level (SL), Landscape Importance Value (LIV), information index of biodiversity (H'), Shade-tolerant Species Proportion (SSP), and Tourism Influencing Index (TII) are used to characterize vegetated landscapes, the impact of tourism, and their relationship. Their relationship is studied by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). TWINSPAN gives correct and rapid partition to the classification, and DCA ordination shows the changing tendency of all vegetation types based on tourism development. These results reflect the ecological relationship between tourism development and vegetated landscapes. In Luya Mountain Nature Reserve, most plant communities are in good or medium condition, which shows that these vegetated landscapes can support more tourism. However, the occurrence of the bad condition shows that there is a severe contradiction between tourism development and vegetated landscapes.

  20. Vegetation Patterns and Degradation Thresholds in the Mulga Landscapes of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadi, Samira; Saco, Patricia; Moreno-de las Heras, Mariano; Willgoose, Garry

    2017-04-01

    Drylands are often characterised by a spatially heterogeneous vegetation cover forming mosaics of patches dense vegetation within bare soil. This 'patterned' or 'patchy' vegetation cover is sensitive to human pressures. Previous work suggests that within these landscapes there is a critical vegetation cover threshold below which the landscape functionality is lost. This threshold behaviour is tightly linked to the overland flow redistribution and an increase in hydrologic connectivity that induces loss of resources (i.e., leakiness). In fact, disturbances (such as wildfire, overgrazing or harvesting activities) can disrupt the spatial structure of vegetation, increase landscape hydrologic connectivity, trigger erosion and produce a substantial loss of water. All these effects affect ecosystem functionality. Here we present the results of exploring the impact of degradation processes induced by vegetation disturbances (mainly grazing) on ecosystem functionality and connectivity in semiarid landscapes with various types of vegetation patterns. The sites are carefully selected in Mulga landscapes bioregion (New South Wales, Queensland) and in sites of Northern Territory in Australia, which display similar vegetation characteristics but with different vegetation patterns and good quality rainfall information. The analysis of vegetation patterns is derived from high resolution remote sensing images (IKONOS, QuickBird, Pleiades). Using MODIS NDVI and local precipitation data, we compute rainfall use efficiency and precipitation marginal response in order to assess the ecosystem functionality. We use vegetation binary maps and digital elevation models to estimate mean Flowlength as an indicator of structural hydrologic connectivity. We compare the trends for several sites with varying vegetation patterns (i.e., banded versus spotted patterns). Our results show that disturbances increase hydrologic connectivity and suggest threshold behaviour that affects landscape

  1. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  2. Ground-Vegetation Clutter Affects Phyllostomid Bat Assemblage Structure in Lowland Amazonian Forest.

    PubMed

    Marciente, Rodrigo; Bobrowiec, Paulo Estefano D; Magnusson, William E

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation clutter is a limiting factor for bats that forage near ground level, and may determine the distribution of species and guilds. However, many studies that evaluated the effects of vegetation clutter on bats have used qualitative descriptions rather than direct measurements of vegetation density. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the effect of vegetation clutter on a regional scale. Here, we evaluate the influence of the physical obstruction of vegetation on phyllostomid-bat assemblages along a 520 km transect in continuous Amazonian forest. We sampled bats using mist nets in eight localities during 80 nights (3840 net-hours) and estimated the ground-vegetation density with digital photographs. The total number of species, number of animalivorous species, total number of frugivorous species, number of understory frugivorous species, and abundance of canopy frugivorous bats were negatively associated with vegetation clutter. The bat assemblages showed a nested structure in relation to degree of clutter, with animalivorous and understory frugivorous bats distributed throughout the vegetation-clutter gradient, while canopy frugivores were restricted to sites with more open vegetation. The species distribution along the gradient of vegetation clutter was not closely associated with wing morphology, but aspect ratio and wing load differed between frugivores and animalivores. Vegetation structure plays an important role in structuring assemblages of the bats at the regional scale by increasing beta diversity between sites. Differences in foraging strategy and diet of the guilds seem to have contributed more to the spatial distribution of bats than the wing characteristics of the species alone.

  3. Association between parenting styles and own fruit and vegetable consumption among Portuguese mothers of school children.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Bela; Poínhos, Rui; Klepp, Knut-Inge; de Almeida, Maria Daniel Vaz

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between parenting styles and own fruit and vegetable consumption among Portuguese mothers of school children. A cross-sectional study was performed in Portugal as part of the Pro Children cross-sectional European survey. Portuguese mothers (n 1601) of 11-13-year-old school children were included in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was developed to assess fruit and vegetable consumption as well as the parenting styles. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by a validated FFQ. Parenting styles based on two dimensions - strictness and involvement - were classified into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and neglectful. The higher mean intakes of fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables were observed for mothers classified as indulgent, whereas the lower mean intakes were observed for mothers classified as neglectful. Differences in intake among parenting styles were significant for fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetables. When partial correlations were calculated between the two dimensions, strictness and involvement (controlled one for the other), and intakes, only involvement was positively associated with fruit, vegetables and total fruit and vegetable intake. Findings from the present study show that fruit and vegetable consumption of Portuguese mothers of school children seems to be related to their own parenting styles, especially with the dimension involvement. Future interventions to promote fruit and vegetable intake should take into account these variables.

  4. Snow effects on alpine vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Kun; Zhang, Li; Qiu, Yubao; Ji, Lei; Tian, Feng; Wang, Cuizhen; Wang, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between snow and vegetation is important for interpretation of the responses of alpine ecosystems to climate changes. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is regarded as an ideal area due to its undisturbed features with low population and relatively high snow cover. We used 500 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets during 2001–2010 to examine the snow–vegetation relationships, specifically, (1) the influence of snow melting date on vegetation green-up date and (2) the effects of snow cover duration on vegetation greenness. The results showed that the alpine vegetation responded strongly to snow phenology (i.e., snow melting date and snow cover duration) over large areas of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Snow melting date and vegetation green-up date were significantly correlated (p < 0.1) in 39.9% of meadow areas (accounting for 26.2% of vegetated areas) and 36.7% of steppe areas (28.1% of vegetated areas). Vegetation growth was influenced by different seasonal snow cover durations (SCDs) in different regions. Generally, the December–February and March–May SCDs played a significantly role in vegetation growth, both positively and negatively, depending on different water source regions. Snow's positive impact on vegetation was larger than the negative impact.

  5. Combined use of vegetation and water indices from remotely-sensed AVIRIS and MODIS data to monitor riparian and semiarid vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho Jin

    2006-04-01

    The objectives of dissertation were to examine vegetation and water indices from AVIRIS and MODIS data for monitoring semiarid and upland vegetation communities related with moisture condition and their spatial and temporal dependencies in estimating evapotranspiration (ET). The performance of various water indices, including the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and land surface water index (LSWI), with the chlorophyll-based vegetation indices (VIs), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) was evaluated in (1) investigating sensitivity of vegetation and land surface moisture condition, (2) finding optimal indices in detecting seasonal variations in vegetation water status at the landscape level, and (3) their spatial and temporal scale dependency on estimating ET. The analyses were accomplished through field radiometric measurement, airborne-based and satellite data processing accompanied with water flux data. The results of these studies showed vegetation and landscape moisture condition could be identified in VI--WI scatter-plot. LSWI (2100) showed the biggest sensitivity to variation of vegetation and background soil moisture condition as well. Multi-temporal MODIS data analysis was able to show water use characteristic of riparian vegetation and upland vegetation. Results showed water use characteristics of riparian vegetation are relatively insensitive to summer monsoon pulse, while upland vegetation is highly tied to summer monsoon rain. The relationship between water flux measurement from eddy covariance tower and satellite data has shown that MODIS derived EVI and LSWI (2100) have similar merit to estimate ET rate, but better correlation was observed from the relationship between MODIS EVI and ET. Pixel aggregation results using fine resolution AVIRIS data showed moderate resolution spatial scale 250m or 500m, best predicted ET rates over all study areas. Surface fluxes temporally aggregated to weekly or

  6. Using Long-Term Experimental Warming To Distinguish Vegetation Responses To Warming From Other Environmental Drivers Related To Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, W. A.; Welker, J. M.; Mercado-Díaz, J. A.; Anderson, A.; Menken, M.

    2010-12-01

    Long term studies of vegetation change throughout the tundra biome show increases in the height, canopy extent and dominance of vascular vegetation versus bryophytes and lichens, with mixed responses of the dominant shrub and graminoid growth forms. Increases in vascular vegetation are recorded for sites with and without measurable climatic warming over recent decades, but with other potential drivers, i.e., increased summer precipitation. Experimental warming of tundra vegetation at Toolik Lake, Alaska shows a clear increase in shrub abundance relative to graminoids, with correlated higher NDVI values, increasing canopy heights, and thaw depths. Responses were similar between moist and dry tundra vegetation, with greater responses in moist vegetation. NDVI, with its ability to distinguish shrub from graminoid vegetation, may be a tool to distinguish fine scale differences in the response of tundra vegetation to climatic change, i.e., shifting balances of shrub and graminoid relative abundances that may be related to distinct climatic change drivers.

  7. Modeling gap probability in discontinuous vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xiaowen; Strahler, Alan H.

    1987-01-01

    In the present model for the gap probability of a discontinuous vegetation canopy, the assumption of a negative exponential attenuation within individual plant canopies will yield a problem involving the distribution distances within canopies through which a ray will pass. If, however, the canopies intersect and/or overlap, so that foliage density remains constant within the overlap area, the problem can be approached with two types of approximations. Attention is presently given to the case of a comparison of modeled gap probabilities with those observed for a stand of Maryland pine, which shows good agreement for zenith angles of illumination up to about 45 deg.

  8. Evaporative cooling over the Tibetan Plateau induced by vegetation growth.

    PubMed

    Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Zhou, Liming; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Ciais, Philippe; Chen, Deliang; Huang, Mengtian; Jin, Chun-Sil; Li, Laurent Z X; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Gengxin; Zhang, Yangjian; Yao, Tandong

    2015-07-28

    In the Arctic, climate warming enhances vegetation activity by extending the length of the growing season and intensifying maximum rates of productivity. In turn, increased vegetation productivity reduces albedo, which causes a positive feedback on temperature. Over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), regional vegetation greening has also been observed in response to recent warming. Here, we show that in contrast to arctic regions, increased growing season vegetation activity over the TP may have attenuated surface warming. This negative feedback on growing season vegetation temperature is attributed to enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). The extra energy available at the surface, which results from lower albedo, is efficiently dissipated by evaporative cooling. The net effect is a decrease in daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range, which is supported by statistical analyses of in situ observations and by decomposition of the surface energy budget. A daytime cooling effect from increased vegetation activity is also modeled from a set of regional weather research and forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model simulations, but with a magnitude smaller than observed, likely because the WRF model simulates a weaker ET enhancement. Our results suggest that actions to restore native grasslands in degraded areas, roughly one-third of the plateau, will both facilitate a sustainable ecological development in this region and have local climate cobenefits. More accurate simulations of the biophysical coupling between the land surface and the atmosphere are needed to help understand regional climate change over the TP, and possible larger scale feedbacks between climate in the TP and the Asian monsoon system.

  9. [Fast discrimination of edible vegetable oil based on Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiu-Jun; Dai, Lian-Kui; Li, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    A novel method to fast discriminate edible vegetable oils by Raman spectroscopy is presented. The training set is composed of different edible vegetable oils with known classes. Based on their original Raman spectra, baseline correction and normalization were applied to obtain standard spectra. Two characteristic peaks describing the unsaturated degree of vegetable oil were selected as feature vectors; then the centers of all classes were calculated. For an edible vegetable oil with unknown class, the same pretreatment and feature extraction methods were used. The Euclidian distances between the feature vector of the unknown sample and the center of each class were calculated, and the class of the unknown sample was finally determined by the minimum distance. For 43 edible vegetable oil samples from seven different classes, experimental results show that the clustering effect of each class was more obvious and the class distance was much larger with the new feature extraction method compared with PCA. The above classification model can be applied to discriminate unknown edible vegetable oils rapidly and accurately.

  10. Dynamic Iodine Uptake Process in Vegetation Labeled by I-125

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, H.; Yan, A.; Hong, C.; Qin, Y.; Xie, L.

    2005-12-01

    Low iodine in vegetation is responsible for the occurrence of iodine deficiency in human body. It is of important scientific and practical implications to thoroughly understand the absorption and accumulation process of iodine in vegetation and to seek efficient pathways supplementing iodine for human health. Through aquaculture trial of green vegetable, the dynamic absorption process of I-125, as an isotopic tracer, and its accumulation and distribution in vegetable are studied. The results show that, after green vegetable is aqua-cultured for 5 min, micro I-125 can be monitored in root and after 10 min, it is also monitored in leaves, which indicates a rapid absorption and transportation. As culture time continues, I-125 in root, stem and leaves apparently increases, but the content distribution is differing. Most of the I-125 absorbed by green vegetable is enriched in root, and only one fourth of the total amount is transported upwards and mainly distributes in stem. The content of I-125 in leaves accounts for 5% which is mainly accumulated around the leaf margin. I-125 uptake in stem is larger at night than at daylight, whereas in leaves, its uptake is lower at night than at daylight, suggesting that iodine uptake is an active process and its transportation and accumulation process is related to photosynthesis.

  11. Woody Vegetation on Levees? - Research Experiences and Design Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, Walter

    2013-04-01

    Recent flood events in Austria have reawakened practical and scientific interest in the stability of levees. One focus amongst others has been taken on the relationship between vegetation and levee stability with special reference to the role of woody plants. The effects of woody plants are undoubtedly manifold: On the one hand they can potentially have a negative influence and endanger levees, which is why many guidelines ban woody vegetation to preserve stability, visual inspection and unhindered flood-fight access. On the other hand woody vegetation can have several positive impacts on soil stability and which effects prevail depends largely on types and characteristics of plants. This shows how controversially woody plants on levees can be discussed and the strong need for further research in this field. In order to obtain new insights and widen horizons for this controversial issue, a research project carried out by the Institute of Soil Bioengineering and Landscape Construction - at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna - was launched. This project deals with several aspects of effects of woody plants have on levees and focuses particularly on shrubby woody plants. The examined vegetation type is a dense stand of willows - Purple-Willows (Salix purpurea L.) - commonly used for stabilization of river embankments. The proposed contribution discusses the gained results with reference to levee stability and existing levee vegetation guidelines and gives design suggestions for compatible woody vegetation on levees.

  12. Urban vegetation and heat-related mortality in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Young; Lane, Kevin J; Lee, Jong-Tae; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-11-01

    Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to heat-related health outcomes. Simultaneous trends of climate change and urbanization may increase the urban heat-related health burden. We investigated the effects of urban vegetation on heat-related mortality, and evaluated whether different levels of vegetation and individuals' characteristics affect the temperature-mortality associations within Seoul, Korea 2000-2009. We used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess the urban vegetation within Seoul. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model with interaction term between temperature and indicator of NDVI group (categorized in 3 levels) to assess the effect modification of the temperature-mortality association by urban vegetation. We conducted stratified analysis to explore whether associations are affected by individual characteristics of sex and age. The association between total mortality and a 1°C increase in temperature above the 90th percentile (25.1°C) (the "heat effect") was the highest for gus with low NDVI. The heat effect was a 4.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3, 5.9%), 3.0% (95% CI 0.2, 5.9%), and 2.2% (95% CI -0.5, 5.0%) increase in mortality risk for low, medium, and high NDVI group, respectively. Estimated risks showed similar effects by sex and age. Our findings suggest a higher mortality effect of high temperature in areas with lower vegetation in Seoul, Korea.

  13. Global distribution of groundwater-vegetation spatial covariation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Sujan; Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus; de Graaf, Inge E. M.; Camps-Valls, Gustau; Ichii, Kazuhito; Papale, Dario; Ráduly, Botond; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Tramontana, Gianluca; Carvalhais, Nuno

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is an integral component of the water cycle, and it also influences the carbon cycle by supplying moisture to ecosystems. However, the extent and determinants of groundwater-vegetation interactions are poorly understood at the global scale. Using several high-resolution data products, we show that the spatial patterns of ecosystem gross primary productivity and groundwater table depth are correlated during at least one season in more than two thirds of the global vegetated area. Positive relationships, i.e., larger productivity under shallower groundwater table, predominate in moisture-limited dry to mesic conditions with herbaceous and shrub vegetation. Negative relationships, i.e., larger productivity under deeper groundwater, predominate in humid climates with forests, possibly indicating a drawdown of groundwater table due to substantial ecosystem water use. Interestingly, these opposite groundwater-vegetation interactions are primarily associated with differences in vegetation than with climate and surface characteristics. These findings put forth the first evidence, and a need for better representation, of extensive and non-negligible groundwater-vegetation interactions at the global scale.

  14. Advances in Studies on Natural Preservativesfor Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haisheng; Shi, Pengbao; Zhao, Yuhua

    The author introduced g eneral research and application situations of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables all over the world these years, and summarized application of vegetation of Murraya in Rutaceae, Cinnamomum in Lauraceae, Artemisia in Compositae and other families and genera on fruits and vegetables preservation and fresh-keeping. Decoction or extraction of Chinese traditional medicine, such as Alpinia Officinarum, Amarphalus Konjac K., stemona etc, could be used in fresh-keeping for orange, apple, strawberry, edible fungi and so on. Garlic could be used in fresh-keeping for orange. Phytic acid and fresh-keeping agents compounded with Phytic acid could extend storage periods of easily rotting fruits and vegetables, such as strawberry, banana, cantaloup, edible fungi and so on, and better keep original fresh condition. Extraction of Snow Fresh, Semper Fresh, Arthropod shell extraction, and halite also had better effect on preservation and fresh-keeping for fruits and vegetables. Main problems exsited in the application of natural preservatives for fruits and vegetables were showed in this article and the applying prospect were discussed too.

  15. 'Vegetable' substitutes for diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-22

    Research programs in the US, Brazil, South Africa and the Philippines on efforts to find a vegetable oil substitute for diesel fuel are reported. A narrowing price gap with diesel fuel and a favourable energy balance improve the prospects for such fuels. Much of the current work is centered on blends, rather than the use of the pure oil.

  16. Vegetation Change Analysis User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    D. J. Hansen; W. K. Ostler

    2002-10-01

    Approximately 70 percent of all U.S. military training lands are located in arid and semi-arid areas. Training activities in such areas frequently adversely affect vegetation, damaging plants and reducing the resilience of vegetation to recover once disturbed. Fugitive dust resulting from a loss of vegetation creates additional problems for human health, increasing accidents due to decreased visibility, and increasing maintenance costs for roads, vehicles, and equipment. Diagnostic techniques are needed to identify thresholds of sustainable military use. A cooperative effort among U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Department of Defense, and selected university scientists was undertaken to focus on developing new techniques for monitoring and mitigating military impacts in arid lands. This manual focuses on the development of new monitoring techniques that have been implemented at Fort Irwin, California. New mitigation techniques are described in a separate companion manual. This User's Manual is designed to address diagnostic capabilities needed to distinguish between various degrees of sustainable and nonsustainable impacts due to military training and testing and habitat-disturbing activities in desert ecosystems. Techniques described here focus on the use of high-resolution imagery and the application of image-processing techniques developed primarily for medical research. A discussion is provided about the measurement of plant biomass and shrub canopy cover in arid. lands using conventional methods. Both semiquantitative methods and quantitative methods are discussed and reference to current literature is provided. A background about the use of digital imagery to measure vegetation is presented.

  17. Vegetable production after heavy rains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is not clear if extraordinary precipitation stored in the soil was able to support vegetable crops planted after rains events returned to normal levels. Cucumber and sweet corn were established from seed and non-pungent jalapeno peppers were established from 8-week old transplants on beds. Half...

  18. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects,…

  19. GLOBAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter discusses several aspects of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from vegetation. It begins with a section on emission measurements that includes a brief history of enclosure and above-canopy flux measurements as well as a discussion of existing d...

  20. Prescriptions for Tough Vegetation Problems

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    1999-01-01

    Most tough forst vegetation problems are caused by non-native plants. These foreign invaders-often called exotic, alien, or noxious weeds-occur as trees, shrubs, vines, and grasses. Some have been introduced into this country accidentally, but most were brought here intentionally for livestock forage or as ornamentals.

  1. GLOBAL ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM VEGETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter discusses several aspects of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from vegetation. It begins with a section on emission measurements that includes a brief history of enclosure and above-canopy flux measurements as well as a discussion of existing d...

  2. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects,…

  3. Grafting effects on vegetable quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable grafting began in the 1920s to control soil-borne disease. It is now a common practice in Asia, parts of Europe, and the Middle East. In Japan and Korea most of the cucurbits and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown are grafted. This practice is rare in the U.S. and there have...

  4. Dietary fruits and vegetables and cardiovascular diseases risk.

    PubMed

    Alissa, Eman M; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-06-13

    Diet is likely to be an important determinant of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In this article, we will review the evidence linking the consumption of fruit and vegetables and CVD risk. The initial evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption has a protective effect against CVD came from observational studies. However, uncertainty remains about the magnitude of the benefit of fruit and vegetable intake on the occurrence of CVD and whether the optimal intake is five portions or greater. Results from randomized controlled trials do not show conclusively that fruit and vegetable intake protects against CVD, in part because the dietary interventions have been of limited intensity to enable optimal analysis of their putative effects. The protective mechanisms of fruit and vegetables may not only include some of the known bioactive nutrient effects dependent on their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and electrolyte properties, but also include their functional properties, such as low glycemic load and energy density. Taken together, the totality of the evidence accumulated so far does appear to support the notion that increased intake of fruits and vegetables may reduce cardiovascular risk. It is clear that fruit and vegetables should be eaten as part of a balanced diet, as a source of vitamins, fiber, minerals, and phytochemicals. The evidence now suggests that a complicated set of several nutrients may interact with genetic factors to influence CVD risk. Therefore, it may be more important to focus on whole foods and dietary patterns rather than individual nutrients to successfully impact on CVD risk reduction. A clearer understanding of the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and cardiovascular risk would provide health professionals with significant information in terms of public health and clinical practice.

  5. Marketing Vegetables in Elementary School Cafeterias to Increase Uptake.

    PubMed

    Hanks, Andrew S; Just, David R; Brumberg, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Children do not eat enough servings of vegetables, underscoring the need for effective interventions encouraging this behavior. The purpose of this research was to measure the impact that daily exposure to branded vegetable characters has on vegetable selection among boys and girls in elementary schools. In a large urban school district, 10 elementary schools agreed to participate in the study. They were randomly assigned to a control condition or 1 of 3 treatment conditions: (1) a vinyl banner displaying vegetable characters that was fastened around the base of the salad bar; (2) short television segments with health education delivered by vegetable characters; or (3) a combination of the vinyl banner and television segments. We collected 22 206 student-day observations over a 6-week period by tallying the number of boys and girls taking vegetables from the school's salad bar. Results show that 90.5% (from 12.6% to 24.0%; P = .04) more students took vegetables from the salad bar when exposed to the vinyl banner only, and 239.2% (from 10.2% to 34.6%; P < .001) more students visited the salad bar when exposed to both the television segments and vinyl banners. Both boys and girls responded positively to the vinyl banners (P < .05 in both cases). Evidence from this study highlights the positive impact of branded media on children's vegetable selection in the school cafeteria. Results from this study suggest potential opportunities for using branded media to encourage healthier choices for children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Airborne observations of vegetation and implications for biogenic emission characterization.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Amy K; Solomon, Susan; Portmann, Robert W; Daniel, John S; Langford, Andrew O; Miller, H LeRoy; Eubank, Charles S; Goldan, Paul; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Atlas, Elliot; Hansel, Armin; Wisthaler, Armin

    2003-12-01

    Measuring hydrocarbons from aircraft represents one way to infer biogenic emissions at the surface. The focus of this paper is to show that complementary remote sensing information can be provided by optical measurements of a vegetation index, which is readily measured with high temporal coverage using reflectance data. We examine the similarities between the vegetation index and in situ measurements of the chemicals isoprene, methacrolein, and alpha-pinene to estimate whether the temporal behavior of the in situ measurements of these chemicals could be better understood by the addition of the vegetation index. Data were compared for flights conducted around Houston in August and September 2000. The three independent sets of chemical measurements examined correspond reasonably well with the vegetation index curves for the majority of flight days. While low values of the vegetation index always correspond to low values of the in situ chemical measurements, high values of the index correspond to both high and low values of the chemical measurements. In this sense it represents an upper limit when compared with in situ data (assuming the calibration constant is adequately chosen). This result suggests that while the vegetation index cannot represent a purely predictive quantity for the in situ measurements, it represents a complementary measurement that can be useful in understanding comparisons of various in situ observations, particularly when these observations occur with relatively low temporal frequency. In situ isoprene measurements and the vegetation index were also compared to an isoprene emission inventory to provide additional insight on broad issues relating to the use of vegetation indices in emission database development.

  7. Serving vegetables first: A strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary school cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Elsbernd, S L; Reicks, M M; Mann, T L; Redden, J P; Mykerezi, E; Vickers, Z M

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable consumption in the United States is low despite the wealth of evidence that vegetables play an important role in reducing risk of various chronic diseases. Because eating patterns developed in childhood continue through adulthood, we need to form healthy eating habits in children. The objective of this study was to determine if offering vegetables before other meal components would increase the overall consumption of vegetables at school lunch. We served kindergarten through fifth-grade students a small portion (26-33 g) of a raw vegetable (red and yellow bell peppers) while they waited in line to receive the rest of their lunch meal. They then had the options to take more of the bell peppers, a different vegetable, or no vegetable from the lunch line. We measured the amount of each vegetable consumed by each child. Serving vegetables first greatly increased the number of students eating vegetables. On intervention days most of the vegetables consumed came from the vegetables-first portions. Total vegetable intake per student eating lunch was low because most students chose to not eat vegetables, but the intervention significantly increased this value. Serving vegetables first is a viable strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary schools. Long-term implementation of this strategy may have an important impact on healthy eating habits, vegetable consumption, and the health consequences of vegetable intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intercellular communication in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen discovered via AHG3 transcript movement from the vegetative cell to sperm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An Arabidopsis pollen grain (male gametophyte) consists of three cells: the vegetative cell, which forms the pollen tube, and two sperm cells enclosed within the vegetative cell. It is still unclear if there is intercellular communication between the vegetative cell and the sperm cells. Here we show...

  9. 7 CFR 201.29a - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more... Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound. Each variety of vegetable seeds in containers of more than 1 pound shall be labeled to show the percentage of germination and the percentage...

  10. 7 CFR 201.29a - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more... Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound. Each variety of vegetable seeds in containers of more than 1 pound shall be labeled to show the percentage of germination and the percentage...

  11. 7 CFR 201.29a - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more... Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound. Each variety of vegetable seeds in containers of more than 1 pound shall be labeled to show the percentage of germination and the percentage...

  12. 7 CFR 201.29a - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more... Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound. Each variety of vegetable seeds in containers of more than 1 pound shall be labeled to show the percentage of germination and the percentage...

  13. 7 CFR 201.29a - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more... Germination of vegetable seed in containers of more than 1 pound. Each variety of vegetable seeds in containers of more than 1 pound shall be labeled to show the percentage of germination and the percentage...

  14. [Impact of moss soil crust on vegetation indexes interpretation].

    PubMed

    Fang, Shi-bo; Zhang, Xin-shi

    2011-03-01

    Vegetation indexes were the most common and the most important parameters to characterizing large-scale terrestrial ecosystems. It is vital to get precise vegetation indexes for running land surface process models and computation of NPP change, moisture and heat fluxes over surface. Biological soil crusts (BSC) are widely distributed in arid and semi-arid, polar and sub-polar regions. The spectral characteristics of dry and wet BSCs were quite different, which could produce much higher vegetation indexes value for the wet BSC than for the dry BSC as reported. But no research was reported about whether the BSC would impact on regional vegetation indexes and how much dry and wet BSC had impact on regional vegetation indexes. In the present paper, the most common vegetation index NDVI were used to analyze how the moss soil crusts (MSC) dry and wet changes affect regional NDVI values. It was showed that 100% coverage of the wet MSC have a much higher NDVI value (0.657) than the dry MSC NDVI value (0.320), with increased 0.337. Dry and wet MSC NDVI value reached significant difference between the levels of 0.000. In the study area, MSC, which had the average coverage of 12.25%, would have a great contribution to the composition of vegetation index. Linear mixed model was employed to analyze how the NDVI would change in regional scale as wet MSC become dry MSC inversion. The impact of wet moss crust than the dry moss crust in the study area can make the regional NDVI increasing by 0.04 (14.3%). Due to the MSC existence and rainfall variation in arid and semi-arid zones, it was bound to result in NDVI change instability in a short time in the region. For the wet MSC's spectral reflectance curve is similar to those of the higher plants, misinterpretation of the vegetation dynamics could be more severe due to the "maximum value composite" (MVC) technique used to compose the global vegetation maps in the study of vegetation dynamics. The researches would be useful for

  15. Will European agricultural policy for school fruit and vegetables improve public health? A review of school fruit and vegetable programmes.

    PubMed

    de Sa, Joia; Lock, Karen

    2008-12-01

    For the first time, public health, particularly obesity, is being seen as a driver of EU agricultural policy. In 2007, European Ministers of Agriculture were asked to back new proposals for school fruit and vegetable programmes as part of agricultural reforms. In 2008, the European Commission conducted an impact assessment to assess the potential impact of this new proposal on health, agricultural markets, social equality and regional cohesion. A systematic review of the effectiveness of interventions to promote fruit and/or vegetable consumption in children in schools, to inform the EC policy development process. School schemes are effective at increasing both intake and knowledge. Of the 30 studies included, 70% increased fruits and vegetables (FV) intake, with none decreasing intake. Twenty-three studies had follow-up periods >1 year and provide some evidence that FV schemes can have long-term impacts on consumption. Only one study led to both increased fruit and vegetable intake and reduction in weight. One study showed that school fruit and vegetable schemes can also help to reduce inequalities in diet. Effective school programmes have used a range of approaches and been organized in ways which vary nationally depending on differences in food supply chain and education systems. EU agriculture policy for school fruits and vegetables schemes should be an effective approach with both public health and agricultural benefits. Aiming to increase FV intake amongst a new generation of consumers, it will support a range of EU policies including obesity and health inequalities.

  16. The interaction between vegetation and channel dynamics based on experimental findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teske, R.; Van Dijk, W. M.; Van De Lageweg, W.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Strong feedbacks exist between river channel dynamics, floodplain development and riparian vegetation. Several experimental studies showed how uniformly sown vegetation causes a shift from a braided river to a single-thread and sometimes meandering river. The objective of this study is to test what the effect of fluvially distributed seeds and vegetation settling is on channel pattern change and channel dynamics. The experiments were carried out in a flume of 3 m wide and 10 m long. We tested where the vegetation deposited in a braided and meandering river and how the morphology changed. We used a simple hydrograph of 0.25 hour high flow and 3.75 hour low flow, where alfalfa seeds were added during high flow. The bed sediment consisted of a poorly sorted sediment mixture ranging from fine sand to fine gravel. The evolution was recorded by a high-resolution laser-line scanner and a Digital Single Lens Reflex (DSLR) camera used for channel floodplain segmentation, water depth approximation and vegetation distribution. In an initially braided river, vegetation settled on the higher banks and stabilized the banks. In an initially meandering river, vegetation settled in the inner scrolls, and also on the outer banks when water level exceeded bankfull conditions. In agreement with earlier work, the outer bank was stabilized; erosion rate decreased and bends became sharper. The inner bend vegetation stabilized a part of the point bar and hydraulic resistance of the vegetation steered water in the channel and to the non-vegetated part of the inner bend. As result the meander bend became braided as water flows along the vegetation. Vegetation formed patches that grew over time and reduced channel dynamics. We conclude that self-settling vegetation decreased local bank erosion and that vegetated islands leads to a multi-thread system instead of single-threaded.

  17. Evaluation of mercury methylation and methylmercury demethylation rates in vegetated and non-vegetated saltmarsh sediments from two Portuguese estuaries.

    PubMed

    Cesário, Rute; Hintelmann, Holger; Mendes, Ricardo; Eckey, Kevin; Dimock, Brian; Araújo, Beatriz; Mota, Ana Maria; Canário, João

    2017-07-01

    Neurotoxic methylmercury (MMHg) is formed from inorganic divalent mercury (Hg(2+)). However, it is poorly understood to what extent different mercury (Hg) pools contribute to existent MMHg levels. In this study, ambient concentrations of total Hg (THg) and MMHg as well as rates of methylation and demethylation were measured simultaneously in sediments with and without salt-marsh plant vegetation, which were collected in Guadiana and Tagus estuaries, Portugal. Concurrent processes of Hg methylation and MMHg demethylation were directly monitored and compared by spiking sediments cores with stable isotope tracers of (199)Hg(2+) and CH3(201)Hg(+) followed by gas chromatographic separation and isotope-specific detection using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared to the Guadiana estuary, where concentrations were comparatively low, THg and MMHg levels varied between vegetated and non-vegetated sediments collected at the Rosário site (ROS) of the Tagus estuary. Methylation (KM) and demethylation rates (KD) were also different between estuaries being dependent on the presence of vegetation. In addition, the type of macrophyte species influenced KM and KD values. In fact, the highest KM value was found in Sarcocornia fruticosa vegetated sediments at the Castro Marim site in Guadiana (CM, 0.160 day(-1)) and the lowest KM was observed in non-vegetated sediments at the Alcochete site in Tagus (ALC, 0.009 day(-1)). KD varied by a factor of three among sites with highest rates of demethylation observed in non-vegetated sediments in Guadiana (12 ± 1.3 day(-1), corresponding to a half-life of 1.4 ± 0.2 h). This study clearly shows that the presence of vegetation in sediments favors the formation of MMHg. Moreover, this effect might be site specific and further studies are needed to confirm the findings reported here. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Global relation between microwave satellite vegetation products and vegetation productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Irene E.; Forkel, Matthias; Jung, Martin; Miralles, Diego G.; Dorigo, Wouter A.

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of unfavourable environmental conditions like droughts commonly reduces the photosynthetic activity of ecosystems and, hence, their potential to take up carbon from the atmosphere. Ecosystem photosynthetic activity is commonly determined using remote sensing observations in the optical domain, which however have limitations particularly in regions of frequent cloud cover, e.g. the tropics. In this study, we explore the potential of vegetation optical depth (VOD) from microwave satellite observations as an alternative source for assessing vegetation productivity. VOD serves as an estimate for vegetation density and water content, which has an impact on plant physiological processes and hence should potentially provide a link to gross primary production (GPP). However, to date, it is unclear how microwave-retrieved VOD data and GPP data are related. We compare seasonal dynamics and anomalies of VOD retrievals from different satellite sensors and microwave frequencies with site level and global GPP estimates. We use VOD observations from active (ASCAT) and passive microwave sensors (AMSR-E, SMOS). We include eddy covariance measurements from the FLUXNET2015 dataset to assess the VOD products at site level. For a global scale analysis, we use the solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) observations from GOME-2 as a proxy for GPP and the FLUXCOM GPP product, which presents an upscaling of site measurements based on remote sensing data. Our results demonstrate that in general a good agreement between VOD and GPP or SIF exists. However, the strength of these relations depends on the microwave frequency, land cover type, and the time within the growing season. Correlations between anomalies of VOD and GPP or SIF support the assumption that microwave-derived VOD can be used to monitor vegetation productivity dynamics. The study is performed as part of the EOWAVE project funded by the Vienna University of Technology (http://eowave.geo.tuwien.ac.at/) and

  19. Analysis of the dynamics of African vegetation using the normalized difference vegetation index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.

    1986-01-01

    Images at a resolution of 8 km are currently being generated for the whole of Africa, displaying the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). These images have undergone a process of temporal compositing to reduce the effects of cloud cover and atmospheric variation. When the NDVI is plotted against time, different cover types are shown to have characteristic profiles corresponding closely with their phenology. The resultant pattern of NDVI values displayed on the images is analyzed in terms of the cover types present and local variations in rainfall. Comparison between images for 1983 and 1984 overall showed considerable similarities, but significant differences were observed in the northward extent of the greening wave in the Sahel, the greening up of the Kalahari Desert and East African communities. It is concluded that vegetation monitoring using NDVI images needs to be associated with scene stratification according to cover type.

  20. Analysis of the dynamics of African vegetation using the normalized difference vegetation index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townshend, J. R. G.; Justice, C. O.

    1986-01-01

    Images at a resolution of 8 km are currently being generated for the whole of Africa, displaying the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). These images have undergone a process of temporal compositing to reduce the effects of cloud cover and atmospheric variation. When the NDVI is plotted against time, different cover types are shown to have characteristic profiles corresponding closely with their phenology. The resultant pattern of NDVI values displayed on the images is analyzed in terms of the cover types present and local variations in rainfall. Comparison between images for 1983 and 1984 overall showed considerable similarities, but significant differences were observed in the northward extent of the greening wave in the Sahel, the greening up of the Kalahari Desert and East African communities. It is concluded that vegetation monitoring using NDVI images needs to be associated with scene stratification according to cover type.

  1. Teaching children to like and eat vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wadhera, Devina; Capaldi Phillips, Elizabeth D; Wilkie, Lynn M

    2015-10-01

    Higher vegetable intake has been related to lower risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, several cancers and obesity. Yet children consume fewer than the recommended servings of fruits and vegetables set forth by the USDA. Exposure to vegetables has successfully improved children's liking for and consumption of vegetables particularly for children younger than two years. In contrast, associative conditioning seems necessary for older children, especially with bitter vegetables. We review studies using both exposure and associative conditioning to teach children to like vegetables, including flavor-flavor learning and flavor-calorie learning. Recognizing these different processes helps reconcile discrepant literature and may provide techniques for increasing preferences for vegetables in children. Associative conditioning and exposure can be used by parents and others to enhance children's liking for and consumption of vegetables.

  2. Ecosystems past: prehistory of California vegetation

    Treesearch

    C.I. Millar; W.B. Woolfenden

    2016-01-01

    The history of California's vegetation, from origins in the Mesozoic through Quaternary is outlined. Climatic and geologic history and the processes driving changes in vegetation over time are also described. 

  3. 30 CFR 779.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., contain a map that delineates existing vegetative types and a description of the plant communities within... information adequate to predict the potential for reestablishing vegetation. (b) When a map or aerial...

  4. MODIS Vegetative Cover Conversion and Vegetation Continuous Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Mark; Townshend, John; Hansen, Matthew; DiMiceli, Charlene; Sohlberg, Robert; Wurster, Karl

    Land cover change occurs at various spatial and temporal scales. For example, large-scale mechanical removal of forests for agro-industrial activities contrasts with the small-scale clearing of subsistence farmers. Such dynamics vary in spatial extent and rate of land conversion. Such changes are attributable to both natural and anthropogenic factors. For example, lightning- or human-ignited fires burn millions of acres of land surface each year. Further, land cover conversion requires ­contrasting with the land cover modification. In the first instance, the dynamic represents extensive categorical change between two land cover types. Land cover modification mechanisms such as selective logging and woody encroachment depict changes within a given land cover type rather than a conversion from one land cover type to another. This chapter describes the production of two standard MODIS land products used to document changes in global land cover. The Vegetative Cover Conversion (VCC) product is designed primarily to serve as a global alarm for areas where land cover change occurs rapidly (Zhan et al. 2000). The Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) product is designed to continuously ­represent ground cover as a proportion of basic vegetation traits. Terra's launch in December 1999 afforded a new opportunity to observe the entire Earth every 1.2 days at 250-m spatial resolution. The MODIS instrument's appropriate spatial and ­temporal resolutions provide the opportunity to substantially improve the characterization of the land surface and changes occurring thereupon (Townshend et al. 1991).

  5. Relationships between aquatic vegetation and water turbidity: A field survey across seasons and spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Austin, Åsa N; Hansen, Joakim P; Donadi, Serena; Eklöf, Johan S

    2017-01-01

    Field surveys often show that high water turbidity limits cover of aquatic vegetation, while many small-scale experiments show that vegetation can reduce turbidity by decreasing water flow, stabilizing sediments, and competing with phytoplankton for nutrients. Here we bridged these two views by exploring the direction and strength of causal relationships between aquatic vegetation and turbidity across seasons (spring and late summer) and spatial scales (local and regional), using causal modeling based on data from a field survey along the central Swedish Baltic Sea coast. The two best-fitting regional-scale models both suggested that in spring, high cover of vegetation reduces water turbidity. In summer, the relationships differed between the two models; in the first model high vegetation cover reduced turbidity; while in the second model reduction of summer turbidity by high vegetation cover in spring had a positive effect on summer vegetation which suggests a positive feedback of vegetation on itself. Nitrogen load had a positive effect on turbidity in both seasons, which was comparable in strength to the effect of vegetation on turbidity. To assess whether the effect of vegetation was primarily caused by sediment stabilization or a reduction of phytoplankton, we also tested models where turbidity was replaced by phytoplankton fluorescence or sediment-driven turbidity. The best-fitting regional-scale models suggested that high sediment-driven turbidity in spring reduces vegetation cover in summer, which in turn has a negative effect on sediment-driven turbidity in summer, indicating a potential positive feedback of sediment-driven turbidity on itself. Using data at the local scale, few relationships were significant, likely due to the influence of unmeasured variables and/or spatial heterogeneity. In summary, causal modeling based on data from a large-scale field survey suggested that aquatic vegetation can reduce turbidity at regional scales, and that high

  6. Velocity of change in vegetation productivity over northern high latitudes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mengtian; Piao, Shilong; Janssens, Ivan A; Zhu, Zaichun; Wang, Tao; Wu, Donghai; Ciais, Philippe; Myneni, Ranga B; Peaucelle, Marc; Peng, Shushi; Yang, Hui; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-10-02

    Warming is projected to increase the productivity of northern ecosystems. However, knowledge on whether the northward displacement of vegetation productivity isolines matches that of temperature isolines is still limited. Here we compared changes in the spatial patterns of vegetation productivity and temperature using the velocity of change concept, which expresses these two variables in the same unit of displacement per time. We show that across northern regions (>50° N), the average velocity of change in growing-season normalized difference vegetation index (NDVIGS, an indicator of vegetation productivity; 2.8 ± 1.1 km yr(-1)) is lower than that of growing-season mean temperature (T GS; 5.4 ± 1.0 km yr(-1)). In fact, the NDVIGS velocity was less than half of the T GS velocity in more than half of the study area, indicating that the northward movement of productivity isolines is much slower than that of temperature isolines across the majority of northern regions (about 80% of the area showed faster changes in temperature than productivity isolines). We tentatively attribute this mismatch between the velocities of productivity and temperature to the effects of limited resource availability and vegetation acclimation mechanisms. Analyses of ecosystem model simulations further suggested that limited nitrogen availability is a crucial obstacle for vegetation to track the warming trend.Here the concept of climate-change velocity is used to explore whether northward displacement of vegetation will keep pace with temperature under climate change. Remote sensing data suggest it will not, possibly due to resource availability.

  7. Towards more accurate vegetation mortality predictions

    DOE PAGES

    Sevanto, Sanna Annika; Xu, Chonggang

    2016-09-26

    Predicting the fate of vegetation under changing climate is one of the major challenges of the climate modeling community. Here, terrestrial vegetation dominates the carbon and water cycles over land areas, and dramatic changes in vegetation cover resulting from stressful environmental conditions such as drought feed directly back to local and regional climate, potentially leading to a vicious cycle where vegetation recovery after a disturbance is delayed or impossible.

  8. Towards more accurate vegetation mortality predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Sevanto, Sanna Annika; Xu, Chonggang

    2016-09-26

    Predicting the fate of vegetation under changing climate is one of the major challenges of the climate modeling community. Here, terrestrial vegetation dominates the carbon and water cycles over land areas, and dramatic changes in vegetation cover resulting from stressful environmental conditions such as drought feed directly back to local and regional climate, potentially leading to a vicious cycle where vegetation recovery after a disturbance is delayed or impossible.

  9. Introducing tropical lianas in a vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeeck, Hans; De Deurwaerder, Hannes; Brugnera, Manfredo di Procia e.; Krshna Moorthy Paravathi, Sruthi; Pausenberger, Nancy; Roels, Jana; kearsley, elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Tropical forests are essential components of the earth system and play a critical role for land surface feedbacks to climate change. These forests are currently experiencing large-scale structural changes, including the increase of liana abundance and biomass. This liana proliferation might have large impacts on the carbon cycle of tropical forests. However no single global vegetation model currently accounts for lianas. The TREECLIMBERS project (ERC starting grant) aims to introduce for the first time lianas into a vegetation model. The project attempts to reach this challenging goal by performing a global meta-analysis on liana data and by collecting new data in South American forests. Those new and existing datasets form the basis of a new liana plant functional type (PFT) that will be included in the Ecosystem Demography model (ED2). This presentation will show an overview of the current progress of the TREECLIMBERS project. Liana inventory data collected in French Guiana along a forest disturbance gradient show the relation between liana abundance and disturbance. Xylem water isotope analysis indicates that trees and lianas can rely on different soil water resources. New modelling concepts for liana PFTs will be presented and in-situ leaf gas exchange and sap flow data are used to parameterize water and carbon fluxes for this new PFT. Finally ongoing terrestrial LiDAR observations of liana infested forest will be highlighted.

  10. Spot-4 vegetation instrument: Vegetation monitoring on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durpaire, J.-P.; Gentet, T.; Phulpin, T.; Arnaud, M.

    1995-04-01

    Vegetation plays a major role in global climatic change. It is a major contributor to the hydrological cycle and carbon exchanges between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. A new space-based system dedicated to vegetation would be a boom to climatic and environmental studies. The additional possibilities of evaluating agricultural, pasture and forest production would be major contributions to improved natural resources management and a special benefit to agriculture and the general economy in developing countries. A space mission for monitoring terrestrial vegetation at global and local levels is proposed for inclusion in the Spot-4 payload, scheduled for launch around 1997. The "vegetation" concept is more than just an on-board package; it is a complete system with its own space and ground segments. The vegetation instrument (VI) on-board package is designed as an add-on payload that is quite independent of the host satellite. In addition to the basic imaging instrument, the add-on payload includes a solid-state recorder, an image telemetry subsystem and a computer to manage the work plan. To accommodate future long-term missions and achieve a lifetime in excess of 5 years, no moving parts are included in either the imaging instrument proper or the recorder subsystem. The innovative, large field-of-view (101∘) imaging instrument features telecentric lenses and focal-plane illumination compensation. Despite the large FOV, pixel size varies extremely little across the swath. Overall, the instrument offers an excellent revisit capability at the highest resolution. The inclusion of the VI package alongside Spot-4's prime payload of two HRVIR (high resolution visible and i.r.) imaging instruments will open the way to studies requiring both high accuracy satellite imagery and short revisit intervals. The combination of HRVIR and VI imagery will pave the way to powerful new multi-scale interpretation models, particularly as the instruments will share the same

  11. Radiation preservation and test marketing of fruits and vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhicheng, Xu; Dong, Cai; Fuying, He; Deyao, Zhao

    1993-07-01

    To develop the technology for radiation preservation of fruits and vegetables, many varieties of fruits and vegetables had been researched. Results showed that the low dose irradiation is useful to preservation of fruits and vegetables. On the besis of research, 1900 tons garlic, 950 tons onion, 500 tons potatoes, 710 tons apples and 1000 kg litchi had been irradiated in commercial scale. The quality control standards of irradiated garlic, onion and potato had been established and used for commercial scale irradiation. In order to collect consumers in store response to irradiated foods, a special counter was set up for selling irradiated apples in Nan Jing Road (W), Shanghai. 634 sheets of consumer in-store respense investigation forms have been returned and analysed. These results showed that when consumer understands the benefit of irradiation preservation such as higher quality, greater safety, longer shelf-live, wide product availability, or good prices for value, consumer would willingly buy irradiated food.

  12. Role of rice PPS in late vegetative and reproductive growth.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Nagato, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    The rice peter pan syndrome-1 (pps-1) mutant shows a prolonged juvenile phase and early flowering. Although the early vegetative phase and flowering time of pps-1 have been closely examined, the phenotypes in the late vegetative and reproductive phases are not yet well understood. In the ninth leaf blade of pps-1, the relative length of the midrib was comparable to the sixth leaf blade of wild-type. Moreover, pps-1 had a small inflorescence meristem and small panicles. These phenotypes indicate that in pps-1 the juvenile phase coexists with the late vegetative phase, resulting in small panicles. Gibberellin is known to promote the juvenile-adult phase transition. d18-k is dwarf and has a prolonged juvenile phase. Double mutant (d18-k pps-1) showed the same phenotype as the pps-1, indicating that PPS is upstream of GA biosynthetic genes.

  13. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.37 Section 213.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on...

  14. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.321 Section 213.321 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that...

  15. 30 CFR 783.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vegetation information. 783.19 Section 783.19....19 Vegetation information. (a) The permit application shall, if required by the regulatory authority... description shall include information adequate to predict the potential for reestablishing vegetation....

  16. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.37 Section 213.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on...

  17. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.321 Section 213.321 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that...

  18. 30 CFR 779.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vegetation information. 779.19 Section 779.19....19 Vegetation information. (a) The permit application shall, if required by the regulatory authority... information adequate to predict the potential for reestablishing vegetation. (b) When a map or...

  19. 30 CFR 779.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vegetation information. 779.19 Section 779.19....19 Vegetation information. (a) The permit application shall, if required by the regulatory authority... information adequate to predict the potential for reestablishing vegetation. (b) When a map or...

  20. 30 CFR 779.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vegetation information. 779.19 Section 779.19....19 Vegetation information. (a) The permit application shall, if required by the regulatory authority... information adequate to predict the potential for reestablishing vegetation. (b) When a map or...

  1. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.37 Section 213.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on...

  2. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.321 Section 213.321 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that...

  3. 30 CFR 783.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vegetation information. 783.19 Section 783.19....19 Vegetation information. (a) The permit application shall, if required by the regulatory authority... description shall include information adequate to predict the potential for reestablishing vegetation....

  4. 30 CFR 783.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vegetation information. 783.19 Section 783.19....19 Vegetation information. (a) The permit application shall, if required by the regulatory authority... description shall include information adequate to predict the potential for reestablishing vegetation....

  5. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.37 Section 213.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on...

  6. 30 CFR 783.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vegetation information. 783.19 Section 783.19....19 Vegetation information. (a) The permit application shall, if required by the regulatory authority... description shall include information adequate to predict the potential for reestablishing vegetation....

  7. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.321 Section 213.321 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that...

  8. 30 CFR 779.19 - Vegetation information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vegetation information. 779.19 Section 779.19....19 Vegetation information. (a) The permit application shall, if required by the regulatory authority... information adequate to predict the potential for reestablishing vegetation. (b) When a map or...

  9. Vegetation types on acid soils of Micronesia

    Treesearch

    Marjorie C. Falanruw; Thomas G.. Cole; Craig D. Whitesell

    1987-01-01

    The soils and vegetation of the Caroline high islands, Federated States of Micronesia, are being mapped by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service and Soil Conservation Service. By the end of 1987, vegetation maps and reports on Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap, four Truk Islands, and Palau are expected to be available. To compare soil types with vegetation types...

  10. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Special Aquatic Sites § 230.43 Vegetated shallows. (a) Vegetated shallows are permanently inundated areas that under normal circumstances support communities of rooted aquatic vegetation, such as turtle grass...) releasing chemicals that adversely affect plants and animals; (4) increasing turbidity levels, thereby...

  11. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Special Aquatic Sites § 230.43 Vegetated shallows. (a) Vegetated shallows are permanently inundated areas that under normal circumstances support communities of rooted aquatic vegetation, such as turtle grass...) releasing chemicals that adversely affect plants and animals; (4) increasing turbidity levels, thereby...

  12. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Special Aquatic Sites § 230.43 Vegetated shallows. (a) Vegetated shallows are permanently inundated areas that under normal circumstances support communities of rooted aquatic vegetation, such as turtle grass...) releasing chemicals that adversely affect plants and animals; (4) increasing turbidity levels, thereby...

  13. 40 CFR 230.43 - Vegetated shallows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Special Aquatic Sites § 230.43 Vegetated shallows. (a) Vegetated shallows are permanently inundated areas that under normal circumstances support communities of rooted aquatic vegetation, such as turtle grass...) releasing chemicals that adversely affect plants and animals; (4) increasing turbidity levels, thereby...

  14. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive..., or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of vegetable juice in this paragraph is for the purpose of identity as a color additive only, and...

  15. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive..., or by the water infusion of the dried vegetable. The color additive may be concentrated or dried. The definition of vegetable juice in this paragraph is for the purpose of identity as a color additive only, and...

  16. New Sulfide Derivatives of Vegetable Oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vegetable oils containing sulfide group were synthesized using a UV initiated thiol-ene reaction. The reaction involved addition of butyl thiol to the double bonds of the vegetable oil without the presence of a solvent. The effects of temperature, reaction time, type of vegetable oil, thiol to veg...

  17. Phenolic compounds in Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Cartea, María Elena; Francisco, Marta; Soengas, Pilar; Velasco, Pablo

    2010-12-30

    Phenolic compounds are a large group of phytochemicals widespread in the plant kingdom. Depending on their structure they can be classified into simple phenols, phenolic acids, hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavonoids. Phenolic compounds have received considerable attention for being potentially protective factors against cancer and heart diseases, in part because of their potent antioxidative properties and their ubiquity in a wide range of commonly consumed foods of plant origin. The Brassicaceae family includes a wide range of horticultural crops, some of them with economic significance and extensively used in the diet throughout the world. The phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables has been recently investigated and, nowadays, the profile of different Brassica species is well established. Here, we review the significance of phenolic compounds as a source of beneficial compounds for human health and the influence of environmental conditions and processing mechanisms on the phenolic composition of Brassica vegetables.

  18. Vegetable oils: a new alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper relates: (1) the use and production of methyl ester of vegetable oil, M.E.V.O., as fuel in diesel engines and the effect of the catalyst proportion, alcohol and vegetable oil V.O. on the transesterification process; (2) simple control methods during industrial preparation and the behavior of V.O. and M.E.V.O. on accelerated oxidation test to determine the maximum contration of V.O. in M.E.V.O. that do not cause problems on the injectors; and (3) the behavior of M.E.V.O. and V.O. on parafinic and naphtenic lubricants, with high T.B.N. and without organo-metallic compounds, using antioxidants as B.H.T. to reduce the oxidation effect. 9 figures, 7 tables.

  19. Shortwave infrared detection of vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, S. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The potential of short wave infrared (SWIR) measurements in vegetation discrimination is further substantiated through a discussion of field studies and an examination of the physical bases which cause SWIR measurements to vary with the vegetation type observed. The research reported herein supported the AGRISTARS program objective to incorporate TM measurements in the analysis of agricultural activity. Field measurements on corn and soybeans in Iowa were conducted, and the mean and variance of canopy reflectance were computed for each observation date. The Suits canopy reflectance model was used to evaluate possible explanations of the observed corn/soybeans reflectance patterns /39/. The SWIR measurements were shown to effectively discriminate corn and soybeans on the basis of leaf absorption properties.

  20. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Hyperspectral narrow-band (or imaging spectroscopy) spectral data are fast emerging as practical solutions in modeling and mapping vegetation. Recent research has demonstrated the advances in and merit of hyperspectral data in a range of applications including quantifying agricultural crops, modeling forest canopy biochemical properties, detecting crop stress and disease, mapping leaf chlorophyll content as it influences crop production, identifying plants affected by contaminants such as arsenic, demonstrating sensitivity to plant nitrogen content, classifying vegetation species and type, characterizing wetlands, and mapping invasive species. The need for significant improvements in quantifying, modeling, and mapping plant chemical, physical, and water properties is more critical than ever before to reduce uncertainties in our understanding of the Earth and to better sustain it. There is also a need for a synthesis of the vast knowledge spread throughout the literature from more than 40 years of research.

  1. [Vegetative or minimally conscious state?].

    PubMed

    Overbeek, Berno U H; Lavrijsen, Jan C M; Eilander, Henk J

    2010-01-01

    We describe the clinical course of a 51-year-old woman in a vegetative state and of a 63-year-old woman in a minimally conscious state. The difference between these two states is an important one, as clinical course, prognosis and medical-ethical considerations of both are different. In practice it is difficult to distinguish between a vegetative state and a minimally conscious state, but the use of a Post-Acute Level of Consciousness scale helps to illustrate the differences. Expertise, research, and application of functional neuro-imaging techniques (PET, fMRI) might also be useful. The differences between these two states regarding rehabilitation, pain management and medical-ethical decisions are important. The effects of neuro-rehabilitation and the implications of a minimally conscious state for patients and their proxies need further investigation.

  2. Miscellaneous Additives and Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, J.; Psaila, A.; Orszulik, S. T.

    The need for friction modifiers in lubricant formulations is described. The chemical and physical aspects of friction modification are explained, with emphasis upon the structural contribution of adsorbed vegetable oil-based substances on metal surfaces. Applications of friction modifiers are discussed. The importance of determining a lubricant's pour point is described, and the action of certain structured compounds in decreasing pour point is explained. Demulsifiers and antifoams enable lubricants to separate entrained water and air in service use and prevent them from becoming emulsions and foams with very much decreased lubricity. Corrosion inhibitors are added to lubricants to prevent the acidic products of combustion resulting from fuel combustion, air entrainment and water condensation combining to corrode the internal metal components of engines. The chemical and physical properties of various vegetable oil structures are discussed in terms of their current and potentially future use in lubricant applications, as both base oils and additives.

  3. Early Determinants of Fruit and Vegetable Acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Forestell, Catherine A.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our goal was to evaluate the effects of breastfeeding and dietary experiences on acceptance of a fruit and a green vegetable by 4- to 8-month-old infants. METHODS Forty-five infants, 44% of whom were breastfed, were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatment groups. One group was fed green beans, and the other was fed green beans and then peaches at the same time of day for 8 consecutive days. Acceptance of both foods, as determined by a variety of measures, was assessed before and after the home-exposure period. RESULTS During the initial exposure, infants ate more calories from peaches than from green beans. Breastfed infants showed greater liking of peaches, as did their mothers, who ate more fruits in general than did mothers who formula fed. Although formula-feeding mothers ate more green beans, there was no difference in their infants’ acceptance of this vegetable. For breastfed and formula-fed infants, repeated dietary exposure to green beans, with or without peaches, resulted in greater consumption of green beans (56.8 vs 93.6 g). Only infants who experienced green beans with peaches displayed fewer facial expressions of distaste during feeding. Mothers were apparently unaware of these changes in acceptance. CONCLUSIONS Breastfeeding confers an advantage in initial acceptance of a food, but only if mothers eat the food regularly. Once weaned, infants who receive repeated dietary exposure to a food eat more of it and may learn to like its flavor. However, because infants innately display facial expressions of distaste in response to certain flavors, caregivers may hesitate to continue offering these foods. Mothers should be encouraged to provide their infants with repeated opportunities to taste fruits and vegetables and should focus not only on their infants’ facial expressions but also on their willingness to continue feeding. PMID:18055673

  4. Identification and mapping of natural vegetation on a coastal site using a Worldview-2 satellite image.

    PubMed

    Rapinel, Sébastien; Clément, Bernard; Magnanon, Sylvie; Sellin, Vanessa; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    Identification and mapping of natural vegetation are major issues for biodiversity management and conservation. Remotely sensed data with very high spatial resolution are currently used to study vegetation, but most satellite sensors are limited to four spectral bands, which is insufficient to identify some natural vegetation formations. The study objectives are to discriminate natural vegetation and identify natural vegetation formations using a Worldview-2 satellite image. The classification of the Worldview-2 image and ancillary thematic data was performed using a hybrid pixel-based and object-oriented approach. A hierarchical scheme using three levels was implemented, from land cover at a field scale to vegetation formation. This method was applied on a 48 km² site located on the French Atlantic coast which includes a classified NATURA 2000 dune and marsh system. The classification accuracy was very high, the Kappa index varying between 0.90 and 0.74 at land cover and vegetation formation levels respectively. These results show that Wordlview-2 images are suitable to identify natural vegetation. Vegetation maps derived from Worldview-2 images are more detailed than existing ones. They provide a useful medium for environmental management of vulnerable areas. The approach used to map natural vegetation is reproducible for a wider application by environmental managers.

  5. Impact of small-scale vegetation structure on tephra layer preservation

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Nick A.; Shears, Olivia M.; Streeter, Richard T.; Dugmore, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    The factors that influence tephra layer taphonomy are poorly understood, but vegetation cover is likely to play a role in the preservation of terrestrial tephra deposits. The impact of vegetation on tephra layer preservation is important because: 1) the morphology of tephra layers could record key characteristics of past land surfaces and 2) vegetation-driven variability in tephra thickness could affect attempts to infer eruption and dispersion parameters. We investigated small- (metre-) scale interactions between vegetation and a thin (<10 cm), recent tephra layer. We conducted surveys of vegetation structure and tephra thickness at two locations which received a similar tephra deposit, but had contrasting vegetation cover (moss vs shrub). The tephra layer was thicker and less variable under shrub cover. Vegetation structure and layer thickness were correlated on the moss site but not under shrub cover, where the canopy reduced the influence of understory vegetation on layer morphology. Our results show that vegetation structure can influence tephra layer thickness on both small and medium (site) scales. These findings suggest that some tephra layers may carry a signal of past vegetation cover. They also have implications for the sampling effort required to reliably estimate the parameters of initial deposits. PMID:27845415

  6. Influence of antioxidant rich fresh vegetable juices on starch induced postprandial hyperglycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ashok K; Reddy, K Srikanth; Radhakrishnan, Janani; Kumar, D Anand; Zehra, Amtul; Agawane, Sachin B; Madhusudana, K

    2011-09-01

    This research analyzed the major chemical components and multiple antioxidant activities present in the fresh juice of eight vegetables, and studied their influence on starch induced postprandial glycemia in rats. A SDS-PAGE based protein fingerprint of each vegetable juice was also prepared. The yields of juice, chemical components like total proteins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, total anthocyanins and free radicals like the ABTS˙(+) cation, DPPH, H(2)O(2), scavenging activities and reducing properties for NBT and FeCl(3) showed wide variations. Vegetable juice from brinjal ranked first in displaying total antioxidant capacity. Pretreatment of rats with vegetable juices moderated starch induced postprandial glycemia. The fresh juice from the vegetables ridge gourd, bottle gourd, ash gourd and chayote significantly mitigated postprandial hyperglycemic excursion. Total polyphenol concentrations present in vegetable juices positively influenced ABTS˙(+) scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity. However, NBT reducing activity of juices was positively affected by total protein concentration. Contrarily, however, high polyphenol content in vegetable juice was observed to adversely affect the postprandial antihyperglycemic activity of vegetable juices. This is the first report exploring antihyperglycemic activity in these vegetable juices and highlights the possible adverse influence of high polyphenol content on the antihyperglycemic activity of the vegetable juices.

  7. Vertical and Horizontal Vegetation Structure across Natural and Modified Habitat Types at Mount Kilimanjaro

    PubMed Central

    Rutten, Gemma; Ensslin, Andreas; Hemp, Andreas; Fischer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In most habitats, vegetation provides the main structure of the environment. This complexity can facilitate biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore, measures of vegetation structure can serve as indicators in ecosystem management. However, many structural measures are laborious and require expert knowledge. Here, we used consistent and convenient measures to assess vegetation structure over an exceptionally broad elevation gradient of 866–4550m above sea level at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Additionally, we compared (human)-modified habitats, including maize fields, traditionally managed home gardens, grasslands, commercial coffee farms and logged and burned forests with natural habitats along this elevation gradient. We distinguished vertical and horizontal vegetation structure to account for habitat complexity and heterogeneity. Vertical vegetation structure (assessed as number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) displayed a unimodal elevation pattern, peaking at intermediate elevations in montane forests, whereas horizontal structure (assessed as coefficient of variation of number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) was lowest at intermediate altitudes. Overall, vertical structure was consistently lower in modified than in natural habitat types, whereas horizontal structure was inconsistently different in modified than in natural habitat types, depending on the specific structural measure and habitat type. Our study shows how vertical and horizontal vegetation structure can be assessed efficiently in various habitat types in tropical mountain regions, and we suggest to apply this as a tool for informing future biodiversity and ecosystem service studies. PMID:26406985

  8. The polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of the main edible vegetables in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thu, Nghiem Nguyet; Sakurai, Chika; Uto, Harumi; Van Chuyen, Nguyen; Lien, Do Thi Kim; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Ohmori, Reiko; Kondo, Kazuo

    2004-06-01

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is considered a risk factor in atherosclerosis, and polyphenols are the potential agents to inhibit the oxidation of LDL. We determined the polyphenol contents and the antioxidant activities of commonly consumed vegetables in Vietnam and assessed the quantity of the polyphenol intake from vegetables in the current Vietnamese diet. The polyphenol contents in 30 kinds of vegetables was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activities of vegetables were evaluated by measuring the oxidation of LDL and the reduction of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. In this study, some herbs and edible wild vegetables possessed high contents of polyphenols and antioxidant activities. Among green vegetables, sweet potato leaves showed both a high polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The mean polyphenol daily intake of the Vietnamese was a 595 mg catechin equivalent. Water spinach, a kind of green vegetable, contributed the highest amount (45%) of the total polyphenol intake, followed by other green vegetables. Neither herbs nor edible wild vegetables contributed significantly to the total polyphenol intake due to their low consumption. Green vegetables are therefore considered very important sources of polyphenol intake for the Vietnamese.

  9. Vertical and Horizontal Vegetation Structure across Natural and Modified Habitat Types at Mount Kilimanjaro.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Gemma; Ensslin, Andreas; Hemp, Andreas; Fischer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In most habitats, vegetation provides the main structure of the environment. This complexity can facilitate biodiversity and ecosystem services. Therefore, measures of vegetation structure can serve as indicators in ecosystem management. However, many structural measures are laborious and require expert knowledge. Here, we used consistent and convenient measures to assess vegetation structure over an exceptionally broad elevation gradient of 866-4550 m above sea level at Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. Additionally, we compared (human)-modified habitats, including maize fields, traditionally managed home gardens, grasslands, commercial coffee farms and logged and burned forests with natural habitats along this elevation gradient. We distinguished vertical and horizontal vegetation structure to account for habitat complexity and heterogeneity. Vertical vegetation structure (assessed as number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) displayed a unimodal elevation pattern, peaking at intermediate elevations in montane forests, whereas horizontal structure (assessed as coefficient of variation of number, width and density of vegetation layers, maximum canopy height, leaf area index and vegetation cover) was lowest at intermediate altitudes. Overall, vertical structure was consistently lower in modified than in natural habitat types, whereas horizontal structure was inconsistently different in modified than in natural habitat types, depending on the specific structural measure and habitat type. Our study shows how vertical and horizontal vegetation structure can be assessed efficiently in various habitat types in tropical mountain regions, and we suggest to apply this as a tool for informing future biodiversity and ecosystem service studies.

  10. Estimation of arsenic in agricultural soils using hyperspectral vegetation indices of rice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tiezhu; Liu, Huizeng; Chen, Yiyun; Wang, Junjie; Wu, Guofeng

    2016-05-05

    This study systematically analyzed the performance of multivariate hyperspectral vegetation indices of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in estimating the arsenic content in agricultural soils. Field canopy reflectance spectra was obtained in the jointing-booting growth stage of rice. Newly developed and published multivariate vegetation indices were initially calculated to estimate soil arsenic content. The well-performing vegetation indices were then selected using successive projections algorithm (SPA), and the SPA selected vegetation indices were adopted to calibrate a multiple linear regression model for estimating soil arsenic content. Results showed that a three-band vegetation index (R716-R568)/(R552-R568) performed best in the newly developed vegetation indices in estimating soil arsenic content. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and red edge position (REP) performed well in the published vegetation indices. Moreover, the linear combination of two vegetation indices ((R716-R568)/(R552-R568) and REP) selected using SPA improved the estimation of soil arsenic content. These results indicated that the newly developed three-band vegetation index (R716-R568)/(R552-R568) might be recommended as an indicator for estimating soil arsenic content in the study area. PRI and REP could be used as universal vegetation indices for monitoring soil arsenic contamination.

  11. Drag coefficients for modeling flow through emergent vegetation in the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.K.; Roig, L.C.; Jenter, H.L.; Visser, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Hydraulic data collected in a flume fitted with pans of sawgrass were analyzed to determine the vertically averaged drag coefficient as a function of vegetation characteristics. The drag coefficient is required for modeling flow through emergent vegetation at low Reynolds numbers in the Florida Everglades. Parameters of the vegetation, such as the stem population per unit bed area and the average stem/leaf width, were measured for five fixed vegetation layers. The vertically averaged vegetation parameters for each experiment were then computed by weighted average over the submerged portion of the vegetation. Only laminar flow through emergent vegetation was considered, because this is the dominant flow regime of the inland Everglades. A functional form for the vegetation drag coefficient was determined by linear regression of the logarithmic transforms of measured resistance force and Reynolds number. The coefficients of the drag coefficient function were then determined for the Everglades, using extensive flow and vegetation measurements taken in the field. The Everglades data show that the stem spacing and the Reynolds number are important parameters for the determination of vegetation drag coefficient. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of small-scale vegetation structure on tephra layer preservation.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Shears, Olivia M; Streeter, Richard T; Dugmore, Andrew J

    2016-11-15

    The factors that influence tephra layer taphonomy are poorly understood, but vegetation cover is likely to play a role in the preservation of terrestrial tephra deposits. The impact of vegetation on tephra layer preservation is important because: 1) the morphology of tephra layers could record key characteristics of past land surfaces and 2) vegetation-driven variability in tephra thickness could affect attempts to infer eruption and dispersion parameters. We investigated small- (metre-) scale interactions between vegetation and a thin (<10 cm), recent tephra layer. We conducted surveys of vegetation structure and tephra thickness at two locations which received a similar tephra deposit, but had contrasting vegetation cover (moss vs shrub). The tephra layer was thicker and less variable under shrub cover. Vegetation structure and layer thickness were correlated on the moss site but not under shrub cover, where the canopy reduced the influence of understory vegetation on layer morphology. Our results show that vegetation structure can influence tephra layer thickness on both small and medium (site) scales. These findings suggest that some tephra layers may carry a signal of past vegetation cover. They also have implications for the sampling effort required to reliably estimate the parameters of initial deposits.

  13. Impact of small-scale vegetation structure on tephra layer preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Nick A.; Shears, Olivia M.; Streeter, Richard T.; Dugmore, Andrew J.

    2016-11-01

    The factors that influence tephra layer taphonomy are poorly understood, but vegetation cover is likely to play a role in the preservation of terrestrial tephra deposits. The impact of vegetation on tephra layer preservation is important because: 1) the morphology of tephra layers could record key characteristics of past land surfaces and 2) vegetation-driven variability in tephra thickness could affect attempts to infer eruption and dispersion parameters. We investigated small- (metre-) scale interactions between vegetation and a thin (<10 cm), recent tephra layer. We conducted surveys of vegetation structure and tephra thickness at two locations which received a similar tephra deposit, but had contrasting vegetation cover (moss vs shrub). The tephra layer was thicker and less variable under shrub cover. Vegetation structure and layer thickness were correlated on the moss site but not under shrub cover, where the canopy reduced the influence of understory vegetation on layer morphology. Our results show that vegetation structure can influence tephra layer thickness on both small and medium (site) scales. These findings suggest that some tephra layers may carry a signal of past vegetation cover. They also have implications for the sampling effort required to reliably estimate the parameters of initial deposits.

  14. Landscape level assessment of critically endangered vegetation of Lakshadweep islands using geo-spatial techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. Sudhakar; Debnath, Bijan; Krishna, P. Hari; Jha, C. S.

    2013-04-01

    The conservation of biodiversity is essential for human survival and quality of the environment. Lakshadweep islands are vulnerable to global change and the representing remnant natural vegetation. Landscape fragmentation, disturbance regimes and biological richness have been studied using geo-spatial techniques. Littoral vegetation is the only natural vegetation type of Lakshadweep islands. Altogether 59 patches of the littoral vegetation occupying an area of 137.2 ha were identified. 58.06% of the littoral vegetation patches belongs to the patch-size class of <5 ha. The remnant natural vegetation surviving with patches of less than 20 ha size indicates severe anthropogenic pressure. The fragmentation of littoral vegetation habitat into smaller isolated patches poses one of the key threats to biodiversity and coastal environment. Phytosociological observations revealed distinct plant communities and presence of invasive species in littoral vegetation. The high disturbance areas accounted for 59.11% area of the total vegetation. The overall spatial distribution of biological richness (BR) in Lakshadweep shows maximum BR at low level (78%), followed by medium (19%), high (2%) and very high (1%). The study emphasises the importance of conserving the remnant natural vegetation, which is critically endangered.

  15. Estimating the biomass of unevenly distributed aquatic vegetation in a lake using the normalized water-adjusted vegetation index and scale transformation method.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongnian; Gao, Junfeng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shuangshuang; Li, Qin; Zhai, Shuhua; Zhou, Ya

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing is advantageous for the mapping and monitoring of aquatic vegetation biomass at large spatial scales. We proposed a scale transformation (CT) method of converting the field sampling-site biomass from the quadrat to pixel scale and a new normalized water-adjusted vegetation index (NWAVI) based on remotely sensed imagery for the biomass estimation of aquatic vegetation (excluding emergent vegetation). We used a modeling approach based on the proposed CT method and NWAVI as well as statistical analyses including linear, quadratic, logarithmic, cubic, exponential, inverse and power regression to estimate the aquatic vegetation biomass, and we evaluated the performance of the biomass estimation. We mapped the spatial distribution and temporal change of the aquatic vegetation biomass using a geographic information system in a test lake in different months. The exponential regression models based on CT and the NWAVI had optimal adjusted R(2), F and Sig. values in both May and August 2013. The scatter plots of the observed versus the predicted biomass showed that most of the validated field sites were near the 1:1 line. The RMSE, ARE and RE values were small. The spatial distribution and change of the aquatic vegetation biomass in the study area showed clear variability. Among the NWAVI-based and other vegetation index-based models, the CT and NWAVI-based models had the largest adjusted R(2), F and the smallest ARE values in both tests. The proposed modeling scheme is effective for the biomass estimation of aquatic vegetation in lakes. It indicated that the proposed method can provide a most accurate spatial distribution map of aquatic vegetation biomass for lake ecological management. More accurate biomass maps of aquatic vegetation are essential for implementing conservation policy and for reducing uncertainties in our understanding of the lake carbon cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomechanics of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Peleg, K

    1985-01-01

    The scope of fruit and vegetable biomechanics is reviewed. Sources of mechanical injury to produce in harvesting, processing, storage, packaging and transportation are briefly described. A survey of produce handling and transportation environments was conducted, whereby an envelope model encompassing composite spectra of trucks, railroad, marine and cargo aircraft is presented. The protective quality, i.e. strength of shipping containers is quantified in static and dynamic loading such as encountered in storage, handling and transportation. Mechanical response of fruits and vegetables in quasistatic and dynamic loading are formulated by a nonlinear rheological model, whereby a time and deformation dependent relaxation modulus is defined. A realistic link is established between the model and real fruits and vegetables by test procedures for determination of the parameters in the governing nonlinear equations. Based on the nonlinear relaxation modulus, mechanical damage of fruits and vegetables is quantified for static compression, transients and vibration loading as well as for combined static and dynamic loading, by equations of contact circle diameter, bruise depth and contact pressure. Distribution of loads over a maximal number of contact points per fruit is linked to geometrical patterns of produce packs. The application of Shock Damage Boundary techniques for produce-package testing is described along with a case study comparing the protective qualities of two types of apple packs. Produce damage quantification by direct fruit inspection in terms of a 'Bruise Index' is described, including a practical example, comparing the protective qualities of three types of apple packs in shipping tests. Indirect methods of mechanical injury evaluation, based on weight loss and CO2 emission differences between bruised and wholesome fruits are also briefly discussed.

  17. Riparian Vegetation Encroachment Ratios in rivers below large Dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia de Jalón, Diego; Martínez-Fernández, Vanesa; González del Tánago, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Large Dams and reservoirs change the natural flow regime and consequently cause many alterations in riparian vegetation dynamics which may be assessed at different spatial and temporal scales. In Mediterranean regions flow regulation is frequently associated with irrigation. Regulated rivers with this purpose very often show reduced discharges during the wet season when the reservoir is being filled and increased discharges during the dry season when irrigation takes place. This type of regulation frequently promotes riparian vegetation growth as soil moisture levels are increased during summer when a natural drought would otherwise limit its growth. Additionally, flow regulation by large dams promotes the aging of late seral riparian vegetation reducing the frequency of flood disturbance and consequently, the potential recruitment of pioneer species. In this work we study the response of woody riparian vegetation to flow regulation by large dams in four rivers from Central Spain: Jarama, Manzanares, Guadalix and Alberche. The aim is to quantify the annual vegetation encroachment ratios and to develop a model to understand the main controlling factors, such as floodplain and channel traits; flow regulation intensity; type of regulation; present vegetation canopy; distance to the dam; and time since dam commissioning. A temporal comparison using aerial photographs from 1956, 1966, 1972, 1991, 2011 and 2014 was done in thirteen river reaches downstream from large dams, to evaluate their morphological evolution.. Floodplain dimensions and channel and riparian vegetation changes were assessed by comparing different pre-dam and post-dam conditions. Recent coloured photographs with 0.5 m spatial resolution and older black-and-white photographs at 1:33 000 spatial scale were supplied by the National Geographic Institute of Spain (www.ign.es) and the Statistical Institute (www.madrid.org/nomecalles/Inicio.icm) from Madrid Community. Similar visual scales were used to cope

  18. Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Flip) Witte, J. P. M.; (Ruud) Bartholomeus, R. P.; (Gijsbert) Cirkel, D. G.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual ‘real' vegetation under the ‘real' moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the

  19. Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, R.; Voortman, B.; Witte, J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual ‘real’ vegetation under the ‘real’ moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces

  20. Multispectral vegetative canopy parameter retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borel, Christoph C.; Bunker, David J.

    2011-11-01

    Precision agriculture, forestry and environmental remote sensing are applications uniquely suited to the 8 bands that DigitalGlobe's WorldView-2 provides. At the fine spatial resolution of 0.5 m (panchromatic) and 2 m (multispectral) individual trees can be readily resolved. Recent research [1] has shown that it is possible for hyper-spectral data to invert plant reflectance spectra and estimate nitrogen content, leaf water content, leaf structure, canopy leaf area index and, for sparse canopies, also soil reflectance. The retrieval is based on inverting the SAIL (Scattering by Arbitrary Inclined Leaves) vegetation radiative transfer model for the canopy structure and the reflectance model PROSPECT4/5 for the leaf reflectance. Working on the paper [1] confirmed that a limited number of adjacent bands covering just the visible and near infrared can retrieve the parameters as well, opening up the possibility that this method can be used to analyze multi-spectral WV-2 data. Thus it seems possible to create WV-2 specific inversions using 8 bands and apply them to imagery of various vegetation covered surfaces of agricultural and environmental interest. The capability of retrieving leaf water content and nitrogen content has important applications in determining the health of vegetation, e.g. plant growth status, disease mapping, quantitative drought assessment, nitrogen deficiency, plant vigor, yield, etc.

  1. The importance of catchment vegetation for lake sediment mercury records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydberg, Johan; Rösch, Manfred; Heinz, Emanuel; Biester, Harald

    2014-05-01

    In this study we have used a long, Holocene, sediment profile from a small headwater lake in Southern Germany to determine how changes in the vegetation affected the sediment accumulation in general and the accumulation of mercury in particular. The sediment samples were analyzed for their content of total mercury, organic matter quality/quantity and geochemical composition, and the vegetation development was determined using pollen analysis. Over the course of the Holocene, two major shifts in vegetation occurred, both coincide with changes in mercury accumulation. The period prior to 9000 BP was dominated by non-forest vegetation (e.g., Corylus avellana), and mercury concentrations around 60 ng g-1 (90 μg m-2 yr-1). About 8500 BP there was a shift to forest vegetation (mainly Quercus robur), which coincides with increases in both mercury concentrations and accumulation rates (115 ng g-1 and 140 μg m-2 yr-1, respectively). This vegetation shift also drastically decreased the influx of mineral particles to the lake, likely because the development of a closed forest decreased soil erosion. During the following 3500 years - when the vegetation remained dominated by Quercus robur - mercury concentrations were stable around 115 ng g-1, while mercury accumulation rates decreased to about 110 μg m-2 yr-1 due to a gradual decrease in sediment accumulation during the latter part of this period. Around 5000 BP there is a second shift in the vegetation as Quercus robur is replaced by Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba as the dominant tree species, and again this shift leads to an increase in both mercury concentrations and mercury accumulation rates (200 ng g-1 and 140 μg m-2 yr-1, respectively). This shows that the vegetation - and not only the concentration of mercury in the atmosphere - has an influence on the amount of mercury that is accumulated in a lake's sediment. Firstly, the vegetation will influence the interception of mercury, and other atmospherically derived

  2. Relationships between vegetation indices and different burn and vegetation ratios: a multi-scale approach applied in a fire affected area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleniou, M.; Koutsias, N.

    2013-08-01

    Vegetation indices have been widely used in remote sensing literature for burned land mapping and monitoring. In the present study we used satellite data (IKONOS, LANDSAT, ASTER, MODIS) of multiple spectral (visible, near, shortwave infrared) and spatial (1-500 meters) resolutions, acquired shortly after a very destructive fire occurred in the mountain of Parnitha in Attica, Greece the summer of 2007. The aim of our study is to examine and evaluate the performance of some vegetation indices for burned land mapping and also to characterize the relationships between vegetation indices and the percent of fire-scorched (burned) and non fire-scorched (vegetated) areas. The available satellite images were processed geometrically, radiometrically and atmospherically. The very high resolution IKONOS imagery was served as a base to estimate the percent of cover of burned areas, bare soil and vegetation by applying the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The percent of cover for each type was then correlated to vegetation indices for all the satellite images, and regression models were fit to characterize those relationships. In total 57 versions of some classical vegetation indices were computed using LANDSAT, ASTER and MODIS data. Most of them were modified by replacing Red with SWIR channel, as the latter has been proved sensitive to burned area discrimination. IPVI and NDVI showed a better performance among the indices tested to estimate the percent of vegetation, while most of the modified versions of the indices showed highest performance to estimate the percent of burned areas.

  3. Numerical study of sediment transport on a tidal flat with a patch of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Gangfeng; Han, Yun; Niroomandi, Arash; Lou, Sha; Liu, Shuguang

    2015-02-01

    To understand how vegetation canopies affect sediment transport on tidal flats, a numerical study of tidal flow and sediment transport on an idealized tidal flat with a patch of vegetation is conducted. The numerical model is firstly validated by laboratory measurements of flow and sediment deposition in a partially vegetated open channel. The idealized study shows that a finite patch of vegetation may produce circulation on the tidal flat with converging flow during flood and diverging flow during ebb. The vegetation patch can also generate a tidal phase lag between the vegetated and bare flats. Tidal currents in both zones are asymmetric, with stronger flood current in the vegetated zone and stronger ebb current on the bare flat. The duration of ebb is longer than that of flood. Computed sediment concentration on the bare flat is higher during ebb due to stronger ebb current and larger bottom shear stress. This is in contrast to the tidal flat without a vegetation canopy, where suspended sediment concentration is higher during flood. On the tidal flat without a vegetation canopy, landward net sediment transport occurs on the upper flat, while seaward net sediment transport occurs on the lower flat and subtidal region. On the partially vegetated tidal flat, however, net sediment transport on both the upper and lower flats are in seaward direction. It increases with increasing vegetation density. Alongshore net sediment flux converges inside the canopy and diverges on the bare flat. Sediment exchange rate between the vegetated and bare flats increases with decreasing vegetation density and sediment settling velocity.

  4. Riparian vegetation controls on channels formed in non-cohesive sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, K.; Tal, M.; Paola, C.

    2002-05-01

    Riparian vegetation can significantly influence the morphology of a river, affecting channel geometry and flow dynamics. In channels formed in non-cohesive material, vegetation is the main source of bank cohesion and could affect the overall behavior of the river, potentially constraining the flow from a multi-thread channel to a single-thread channel. To examine the effects of riparian vegetation on streams formed in non-cohesive material, we conducted a series of physical experiments at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. The first set of experiments examines the effects of varying densities of vegetation on braided stream dynamics. Water discharge, sediment discharge, and grain size were held constant. For each run, we allowed a braided system to develop, then halved the discharge, and seeded the flume with alfalfa (Medicago sativa). After ten to fourteen days of growth, we returned the discharge to its original value and continued the run for 30-36 hours. Our results show that the influence of vegetation on the overall river pattern varied systematically with the spatial density of plant stems. The vegetation reduced the number of active channels and increased bank stability, leading to lower lateral migration rates, narrower and deeper channels, and an increase in channel relief. All these effects increased with vegetation density. Vegetation also influenced flow dynamics, increasing the variance of flow direction in the vegetated runs, and increasing scour depths through strong downwelling where the flow collided with relatively resistant banks. This oblique bank collision provides a new mechanism for producing secondary flows. We found these bank collision driven secondary flows to be more important than the classical curvature-driven mechanism in the vegetated runs. The next set of experiments examines more closely how the channel pattern evolves through time, allowing for both channel migration and successive vegetation growth. In these on-going experiments

  5. Effects of heterogeneous wind fields and vegetation composition on modeled estimates of pollen source area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, K. D.; Goring, S. J.; Williams, J. W.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    Fossil pollen records from lakes, bogs, and small hollows offer the main source of information about vegetation responses to climate change and land use over timescales of decades to millennia. Millions of pollen grains are released from individual trees each year, and are transported by wind before settling out of the atmosphere. Reconstructing past vegetation from sedimentary pollen records, however, requires careful modeling of pollen production, transport, and deposition. The atmosphere is turbulent, and regional wind patterns shift from day to day. In accordance with this, it is necessary for pollen transport models to adequately account for variable, non-uniform wind patterns and vegetation heterogeneity. Using a simulation approach, with both simulated vegetation patterns and vegetation gradients, as well as simulated wind fields, we show the inconsistency in pollen loading proportions and local vegetation proportions when non-uniform wind patterns are incorporated. Vegetation upwind from the lake is over-represented due to the increased prevalence of winds transporting pollen from that area. The inclusion of North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) wind records affirms this finding. Of the lake sites explored in this study, none had uniform wind patterns. The use of a settlement-era gridded vegetation dataset, compiled by the PalEON project and based on Public Land Survey System (PLSS) records allows us to model pollen source area with realistic vegetation heterogeneity. Due to differences in productivity, pollen fall speeds, and neighboring vegetation, there exist patterns of vegetation that may be poorly characterized due to over/under representation of different taxa. Better understanding these differences in representation allows for more accurate reconstruction of historical vegetation, and pollen-vegetation relationships.

  6. Analyzing nonlinear variations in terrestrial vegetation in China during 1982-2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanxu; Liu, Xianfeng; Hu, Yi'na; Li, Shuangshuang; Peng, Jian; Wang, Yanglin

    2015-11-01

    Quantifying the long-term trends of changes in terrestrial vegetation on a large scale is an effective method for detecting the effects of global environmental change. In view of the trend towards overall restoration and local degradation of terrestrial vegetation in China, it is necessary to pay attention to the spatial processes of vegetative restoration or degradation, as well as to clarify the temporal and spatial characteristics of vegetative growth in greater geographical detail. However, traditional linear regression analysis has some drawbacks when describing ecological processes. Combining nonparametric linear regression analysis with high-order nonlinear fitting, the temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial vegetative growth in China during 1982-2012 were detected using the third generation of Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g) dataset. The results showed that high-order curves could be effective. The region joining Ordos City and Shaanxi Gansu Ningxia on the Loess Plateau may have experienced restoration-degradation-restoration processes of vegetative growth. In the Daloushan Mountains, degradation-restoration processes of vegetative growth may have occurred, and the occurrence of several hidden vegetative growth processes was located in different regions of eastern China. Changes in cultivated vegetation were inconsistent with changes in other vegetation types. In southern China and some high-altitude areas, temperature was the primary driver of vegetative growth on an interannual scale, while in the north, the effect of rainfall was more significant. Nevertheless, the influence of climate on vegetation activity in large urban areas was weak. The trend types of degradation-restoration processes in several regions were inconsistent with the implements of regional land development and protection strategy. Thus, the role of human activity cannot be ignored. In future studies, it will be still necessary to quantify the

  7. Vegetation hydrological behaviour along a Mediterranean pluviometric gradient.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose; Gabarron Galeote, Miguel Angel; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan

    2010-05-01

    A pluviometric gradient was defined in South of Spain with a great decreased of rainfall from Western (1100 mm y-1) to Eastern (240 mm y-1), related with changes in vegetation and soil hydrological resources. This study was carried out in five hillslopes under different pluviometric conditions and their aims were to analyze i) the differences in the moisten and dry up soil processes of the hillslopes, ii) the variability of available water along the gradient since 2002 to 2006, iii) their key factors and the influence on vegetal cover. Several soil properties have been analysed. Results showed that clay content had a great influence in the topsoil available water for plants, which did not decrease in the drier field sites, where the amount of days with hydric deficit was lower. Have been found important differences in the soil hydrological behaviour of the humid and arid hillslopes, caused by the stronger relations between soil moisture, available water and vegetation in the more humid hillslopes, where existed a feed-back between these properties; these relations are weaker in the arid field sites. This feed-back can be explained by high consumption of water that vegetable species need to survive in the humid hillslopes, which cause a strong dependence water-vegetation, a different kind of vegetation cover depending of the rainfall and a quick consumption of this, once it is in the soil. On the contrary, in the arid hillslopes, vegetable species are better adapted to shortage of soil water content, so they are more independent of the amount of rainfall, the soil moisture and the available water, that remains more time in the soil.

  8. Influence of topography on tropical African vegetation coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Gerlinde; Prange, Matthias; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Hominid evolution in the late Miocene has long been hypothesized to be linked to the retreat of the tropical rainforest in Africa. One cause for the climatic and vegetation change often considered was uplift of Africa, but also uplift of the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau was suggested to have impacted rainfall distribution over Africa. Recent proxy data suggest that in East Africa open grassland habitats were available to the common ancestors of hominins and apes long before their divergence and do not find evidence for a closed rainforest in the late Miocene. We used the coupled global general circulation model CCSM3 including an interactively coupled dynamic vegetation module to investigate the impact of topography on African hydro-climate and vegetation. We performed sensitivity experiments altering elevations of the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau as well as of East and Southern Africa. The simulations confirm the dominant impact of African topography for climate and vegetation development of the African tropics. Only a weak influence of prescribed Asian uplift on African climate could be detected. The model simulations show that rainforest coverage of Central Africa is strongly determined by the presence of elevated African topography. In East Africa, despite wetter conditions with lowered African topography, the conditions were not favorable enough to maintain a closed rainforest. A discussion of the results with respect to other model studies indicates a minor importance of vegetation-atmosphere or ocean-atmosphere feedbacks and a large dependence of the simulated vegetation response on the land surface/vegetation model.

  9. Vegetation Water Content (VWC) dynamics in during SMAPVEX16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Polo Bermejo, J.; Judge, J.; Bongiovanni, T. E.; Chakrabarti, S.; Liu, P. W.; Bragdon, J.; Hornbuckle, B. K.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation water content has a confounding effect on the retrieval of soil moisture from microwave brightness temperatures. The presence of water in the overlying canopy influences the emission from the canopy itself and attenuates the emission from the soil. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the dynamics of vegetation water content in the context of microwave remote sensing. The key questions are: (1) How is moisture distributed in an agricultural canopy? (2) How does that vertical distribution change in time? (3) How do these dynamics influence the observed brightness temperature? To address these questions, a detailed sampling campaign was undertaken in one corn field and one soybean field at an intensively monitored site near Buckeye, Iowa within the SMAPVEX16 domain. The experiment duration extends from the beginning of IOP1 to the end of IOP2, i.e. from May 18 to August 16 2016. Vegetation sampling was performed on days upon which SMAP had both an ascending and a descending pass. On these days, destructive vegetation samples were generally collected at 6pm and 6pm unless the weather conditions were bad. In addition to measuring the bulk vegetation water content for comparison to the SMAP retrieved VWC, the samples were split into leaves and stems. For the corn plants, leaf moisture content was also measured as a function of height and the stem was cut into 10cm sections. Results will be presented to show the changes in VWC associated with plant development through the vegetative and reproductive stages as well as diurnal variations associated with water availability in the root zone and variations in evaporative demand. In addition, fresh biomass, dry biomass and vegetation water content will be related to brightness temperature observations from (1) the SMAP and SMOS satellite missions, (2) the PALS instrument flown during the SMAPVEX16 IOPs in Iowa (3) the tower-based radiometers located at the soybean and corn fields.

  10. Pesticide and pathogen contamination of vegetables in Ghana's urban markets.

    PubMed

    Amoah, P; Drechsel, P; Abaidoo, R C; Ntow, W J

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine and compare the current level of exposure of the Ghanaian urban population to hazardous pesticide and fecal coliform contamination through the consumption of fresh vegetables produced in intensive urban and periurban smallholder agriculture with informal wastewater irrigation. A total of 180 vegetable samples (lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion) were randomly collected under normal purchase conditions from 9 major markets and 12 specialized selling points in 3 major Ghanaian cities: Accra, Kumasi and Tamale. The samples were analyzed for pesticide residue on lettuce leaves, total and fecal coliforms, and helminth egg counts on all three vegetables. Chlopyrifos (Dursban) was detected on 78% of the lettuce, lindane (Gamalin 20) on 31%, endosulfan (Thiodan) on 36%, lambda-cyhalothrin (Karate) on 11%, and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane on 33%. Most of the residues recorded exceeded the maximum residue limit for consumption. Vegetables from all 3 cities were fecally contaminated and carried fecal coliform populations with geometric mean values ranging from 4.0 x 10(3) to 9.3 x 10(8) g(-1) wet weight and exceeded recommended standards. Lettuce, cabbage, and spring onion also carried an average of 1.1, 0.4, and 2.7 helminth eggs g(-1), respectively. The eggs were identified as those of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Schistosoma heamatobium, and Trichuris trichiura. Because many vegetables are consumed fresh or only slightly cooked, the study shows that intensive vegetable production, common in Ghana and its neighboring countries, threatens public health from the microbiologic and pesticide dimensions. Standard recommendations to address this situation (better legislations, law enforcement, or integrated pest management) often do not match the capabilities of farmers and authorities. The most appropriate entry point for risk decrease that also addresses postharvest contamination is washing vegetables before food

  11. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  12. Bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetables grown in an industrial area.

    PubMed

    Kipopoulou, A M; Manoli, E; Samara, C

    1999-09-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content was determined in the inner tissue of various vegetable species and their growing environment (soil and atmosphere) in the greater industrial area of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. The lower molecular weight compounds dominated in both vegetable leaves and roots. Statistical analysis of variance showed that species and season are the factors that significantly affect PAH concentrations in inner vegetable tissue and soil, respectively. Principal component analysis indicated that the mixture of PAHs in inner vegetable tissue was very similar to that in air vapour thus suggesting gaseous deposition as the principal pathway for the accumulation of PAHs. Soil-to-vegetation and air-to-vegetation bioconcentration factors were calculated and their relationships with PAHs' physicochemical properties were investigated. Solubility and the octanol-water partition coefficient, as well as vapour pressure and the octanol-air partition coefficient were proved to be good predictors for the accumulation of PAHs in inner root and leaf tissue, respectively.

  13. Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, S.M.; Jacobus, M.J.; Lestz, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing the various vegetable oil fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures when operating on vegetable oils; equal or higher gas-phase emissions with vegetable oils; lower indicated specific revertant emissions with vegetable oils; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde. (Refs. 14).

  14. Lithium evokes expression of vegetal-specific molecules in the animal blastomeres of sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, B T; Wilt, F H

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of determination of early embryonic cells has been investigated using sea urchin embryos. An efficacious method of isolating blastomere pairs from the animal or vegetal half of sea urchin embryos was developed. The overt differentiation of separated animal and vegetal blastomere pairs resembles that of separated animal and vegetal hemispheres isolated by manual dissection. Treatment of animal blastomeres with LiCl caused them to display a morphology resembling that of isolated vegetal blastomeres. The effects of separation of animal and vegetal blastomeres and of treatment of animal blastomeres with LiCl were examined at the molecular level using gut alkaline phosphatase and a spicule matrix protein RNA as markers of differentiation. Histochemical staining and in situ hybridization studies showed that these markers are normally only expressed in vegetal blastomeres but that their expression can be evoked in animal blastomeres by treatment with LiCl. Images PMID:2726745

  15. The effect of vegetation on pesticide dissipation from ponded treatment wetlands: quantification using a simple model.

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael T; Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2008-07-01

    Field data shows that plants accelerate pesticide dissipation from aquatic systems by increasing sedimentation, biofilm contact and photolysis. In this study, a graphical model was constructed and calibrated with site-specific and supplementary data to describe the loss of two pesticides, endosulfan and fluometuron, from a vegetated and a non-vegetated pond. In the model, the major processes responsible for endosulfan dissipation were alkaline hydrolysis and sedimentation, with the former process being reduced by vegetation and the latter enhanced. Fluometuron dissipation resulted primarily from biofilm reaction and photolysis, both of which were increased by vegetation. Here, greater photolysis under vegetation arose from faster sedimentation and increased light penetration, despite shading. Management options for employing constructed wetlands to polish pesticide-contaminated agricultural runoff are discussed. The lack of easily fulfilled sub-models and data describing the effect of aquatic vegetation on water chemistry and sedimentation is also highlighted.

  16. The reduction of storm surge by vegetation canopies: Three-dimensional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Y. Peter; Lapetina, Andrew; Ma, Gangfeng

    2012-10-01

    Significant buffering of storm surges by vegetation canopies has been suggested by limited observations and simple numerical studies, particularly following recent Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma. Here we simulate storm surge and inundation over idealized topographies using a three-dimensional vegetation-resolving storm surge model coupled to a shallow water wave model and show that a sufficiently wide and tall vegetation canopy reduces inundation on land by 5 to 40 percent, depending upon various storm and canopy parameters. Effectiveness of the vegetation in dissipating storm surge and inundation depends on the intensity and forward speed of the hurricane, as well as the density, height, and width of the vegetation canopy. Reducing the threat to coastal vegetation from development, sea level rise, and other anthropogenic factors would help to protect many coastal regions against storm surges.

  17. Comparison of AVHRR and SMMR data for monitoring vegetation phenology on a continental scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C. O.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1989-01-01

    AVHRR normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data for a one-year period were compared with Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer microwave polarization difference temperature (MPDT) data for the study of vegetation phenology. It is shown that the MPDT response differs considerably from the seasonal NDVI pattern. The results do not support the hypothetical relationship between MPDT and leaf water content. It is found that only vegetation types with a substantial seasonal variation in the areal extent of vegetated cover show strong seasonality in MPDT data.

  18. Mapping vegetation types with the multiple spectral feature mapping algorithm in both emission and absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Koch, Christopher; Ager, Cathy

    1992-01-01

    Vegetation covers a large portion of the Earth's land surface. Remotely sensing quantitative information from vegetation has proven difficult because in a broad sense, all vegetation is similar from a chemical viewpoint, and most healthy plants are green. Plant species are generally characterized by the leaf and flower or fruit morphology, not by remote sensing spectral signatures. But to the human eye, many plants show varying shades of green, so there is direct evidence for spectral differences between plant types. Quantifying these changes in a predictable manner has not been easy. The Clark spectral features mapping algorithm was applied to mapping spectral features in vegetation species.

  19. Comparison of AVHRR and SMMR data for monitoring vegetation phenology on a continental scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C. O.; Townshend, J. R. G.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1989-01-01

    AVHRR normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data for a one-year period were compared with Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer microwave polarization difference temperature (MPDT) data for the study of vegetation phenology. It is shown that the MPDT response differs considerably from the seasonal NDVI pattern. The results do not support the hypothetical relationship between MPDT and leaf water content. It is found that only vegetation types with a substantial seasonal variation in the areal extent of vegetated cover show strong seasonality in MPDT data.

  20. Monitoring vegetation cover on mine dumps with ERTS-1 imagery: Some initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbertson, B. P.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery is being used in an attempt to differentiate between mine dumps having varying degrees of vegetative cover. At this stage it is clear that the various mine dumps can be located and identified. Differences in vegetative cover can be seen and measured. Patterns of vegetative growth, some characteristic to particular dumps, can also be seen. It is therefore tentatively concluded that mine dumps can be differentiated with respect to their vegetative cover on the imagery received to date. Subsequent imagery showing seasonal variations should facilitate this program.

  1. Exploring the Relationship Between Water Flux and Vegetation Water Status Using Time Series Data of Evapotranspiration and Modis Vegetation Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Riaño, D.; Ustin, S.

    2012-12-01

    In agricultural practices, evapotranspiration (ET) data obtained from weather stations or flux towers are used to monitor crop water use and schedule irrigation over the growing season. Recent advances in remote sensing have shown that satellite data (e.g., MODIS) can be used to quantify the amount of water held in vegetation canopies. However, the relationship between how much water has been used through the ET process and how much water is maintained in vegetation canopies remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate how vegetation canopy water content is related to ET for almond orchards in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. MODIS Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance 8-day 500 m data for the growing season of 2011 (March ~ November of 2011) were used to derive a number of vegetation indices as spectral indicators of canopy water content, including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), the Normalized Difference Infrared Index using MODIS Band 6 (NDII) and the Normalized Difference Infrared Index using MODIS Band 7 (NDII7). These times series of MODIS indices were then compared to flux tower-based ET measurements temporally integrated from half-hourly to 8 days for the same time period. Our results showed all vegetation indices could account for more than 70% of variation in the ET data and the two infrared indices (NDII and NDII7) explained more than the other three indices. The relationships between vegetation indices and ET were generally positive and rate of ET change increased while the water content in almond canopies increased. The seasonal trajectory of ET could be fitted by a Gaussian function, with the ET peaking at day of year (DOY) 179. All vegetation indices exhibited broader peaking periods than ET due to insensitivity of spectral signals to fully developed canopies. The Gaussian function fitted to the NDII trajectory had the peaking day closest

  2. The meaning of 'fruits' and 'vegetables'.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Frances E; Willis, Gordon B; Thompson, Olivia M; Yaroch, Amy L

    2011-07-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption is a focus of research and nutrition education; yet, there is no universal agreement on the meaning of 'fruits' and 'vegetables'. Our objective was to describe survey respondent perceptions about a set of foods with regard to whether the food is a fruit, vegetable or something else. Three cross-sectional studies. Two small studies involving cognitive interviewing sessions; and one large self-administered population survey. US adults in two small studies (n 55 and 80) and one large survey (n 3312), all with multiple race/ethnicities. Perceptions varied. In the survey, rice was considered a vegetable by about 20 % of respondents. In one small study, Spanish speakers were more likely to consider rice a vegetable, and Chinese speakers less likely, than were English speakers. Black beans were frequently classified as something other than vegetable or fruit. Among Hispanics, Spanish speakers were less likely than English speakers to consider beans a vegetable. Overall, tomatoes were classified as both fruit and vegetable, and these perceptions varied by race/ethnicity. Substantial disagreement among the fruit, vegetable and other food domains highlights the importance of clearly defining the desired constructs. Foods that require specific instruction include rice, dried beans, potatoes, tomatoes and fruits and vegetables in mixtures and condiments. For measurement, additional questions or explanations may be needed to clarify which foods are of interest. For communication, the global message to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables should be reinforced with specific guidance.

  3. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    PubMed Central

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  4. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-07-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention.

  5. Time-varying trends of global vegetation activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, N.; Feng, X.; Fu, B.

    2016-12-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the energy change, water cycle and biochemical cycle in terrestrial ecosystems. Monitoring the dynamics of vegetation activity and understanding their driving factors have been an important issue in global change research. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an indicator of vegetation activity, has been widely used in investigating vegetation changes at regional and global scales. Most studies utilized linear regression or piecewise linear regression approaches to obtain an averaged changing rate over a certain time span, with an implicit assumption that the trend didn't change over time during that period. However, no evidence shows that this assumption is right for the non-linear and non-stationary NDVI time series. In this study, we adopted the multidimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition (MEEMD) method to extract the time-varying trends of NDVI from original signals without any a priori assumption of their functional form. Our results show that vegetation trends are spatially and temporally non-uniform during 1982-2013. Most vegetated area exhibited greening trends in the 1980s. Nevertheless, the area with greening trends decreased over time since the early 1990s, and the greening trends have stalled or even reversed in many places. Regions with browning trends were mainly located in southern low latitudes in the 1980s, whose area decreased before the middle 1990s and then increased at an accelerated rate. The greening-to-browning reversals were widespread across all continents except Oceania (43% of the vegetated areas), most of which happened after the middle 1990s. In contrast, the browning-to-greening reversals occurred in smaller area and earlier time. The area with monotonic greening and browning trends accounted for 33% and 5% of the vegetated area, respectively. By performing partial correlation analyses between NDVI and climatic elements (temperature, precipitation and cloud cover

  6. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  7. Research in remote sensing of vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, Barry J.; Ripple, William J.; Isaacson, Dennis L.

    1988-01-01

    The research topics undertaken were primarily selected to further the understanding of fundamental relationships between electromagnetic energy measured from Earth orbiting satellites and terrestrial features, principally vegetation. Vegetation is an essential component in the soil formation process and the major factor in protecting and holding soil in place. Vegetation plays key roles in hydrological and nutrient cycles. Awareness of improvement or deterioration in the capacity of vegetation and the trends that those changes may indicate are, therefore, critical detections to make. A study of the relationships requires consideration of the various portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; characteristics of detector system; synergism that may be achieved by merging data from two or more detector systems or multiple dates of data; and vegetational characteristics. The vegetation of Oregon is sufficiently diverse as to provide ample opportunity to investigate the relationships suggested above several vegetation types.

  8. Studying interactions between climate variability and vegetation dynamic using a phenology based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horion, S.; Cornet, Y.; Erpicum, M.; Tychon, B.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we investigated if and how a signature of climate control on vegetation growth can be individualized at regional scale using time series of SPOT-VEGETATION NDVI and ECMWF meteorological data. Twelve regions characterized by dominant and stable cropland or grassland covers were selected in Europe and Africa. Our results show that the relationship between NDVI and meteorological parameters is highly complex and significantly vary trough the phenological cycle of the plants. Hence, interactions between vegetation dynamics and climate variability must be studied at a smaller time scale in order to identify properly the limiting factors to vegetation growth. Using NDVI metrics, vegetative phases (from green-up to maximum NDVI) and reproductive phases (from maximum NDVI to maturity) were identified for each region. Cross-correlation analysis revealed that, in most of the cases, the best scores of Pearson's r are obtained when we considered the vegetative phase (from green-up to maximum of NDVI) and the reproductive phase (from maximum of NDVI to maturity) separately. We also showed that climatic constraints identified using yearly proxies of climate and vegetation do not depict correctly or completely the climate control on vegetation development. In that sense the complexity of the climate-vegetation relationship, which is spatially and temporally variable, is well underlined in this study.

  9. Classification of vegetation types in military region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Miguel; Silva, Jose Silvestre; Bioucas-Dias, Jose

    2015-10-01

    In decision-making process regarding planning and execution of military operations, the terrain is a determining factor. Aerial photographs are a source of vital information for the success of an operation in hostile region, namely when the cartographic information behind enemy lines is scarce or non-existent. The objective of present work is the development of a tool capable of processing aerial photos. The methodology implemented starts with feature extraction, followed by the application of an automatic selector of features. The next step, using the k-fold cross validation technique, estimates the input parameters for the following classifiers: Sparse Multinomial Logist Regression (SMLR), K Nearest Neighbor (KNN), Linear Classifier using Principal Component Expansion on the Joint Data (PCLDC) and Multi-Class Support Vector Machine (MSVM). These classifiers were used in two different studies with distinct objectives: discrimination of vegetation's density and identification of vegetation's main components. It was found that the best classifier on the first approach is the Sparse Logistic Multinomial Regression (SMLR). On the second approach, the implemented methodology applied to high resolution images showed that the better performance was achieved by KNN classifier and PCLDC. Comparing the two approaches there is a multiscale issue, in which for different resolutions, the best solution to the problem requires different classifiers and the extraction of different features.

  10. Canopy reflectance modelling of semiarid vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Janet

    1994-01-01

    Three different types of remote sensing algorithms for estimating vegetation amount and other land surface biophysical parameters were tested for semiarid environments. These included statistical linear models, the Li-Strahler geometric-optical canopy model, and linear spectral mixture analysis. The two study areas were the National Science Foundation's Jornada Long Term Ecological Research site near Las Cruces, NM, in the northern Chihuahuan desert, and the HAPEX-Sahel site near Niamey, Niger, in West Africa, comprising semiarid rangeland and subtropical crop land. The statistical approach (simple and multiple regression) resulted in high correlations between SPOT satellite spectral reflectance and shrub and grass cover, although these correlations varied with the spatial scale of aggregation of the measurements. The Li-Strahler model produced estimated of shrub size and density for both study sites with large standard errors. In the Jornada, the estimates were accurate enough to be useful for characterizing structural differences among three shrub strata. In Niger, the range of shrub cover and size in short-fallow shrublands is so low that the necessity of spatially distributed estimation of shrub size and density is questionable. Spectral mixture analysis of multiscale, multitemporal, multispectral radiometer data and imagery for Niger showed a positive relationship between fractions of spectral endmembers and surface parameters of interest including soil cover, vegetation cover, and leaf area index.

  11. Carotenoid composition of hydroponic leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Mieko; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2003-04-23

    Because hydroponic production of vegetables is becoming more common, the carotenoid composition of hydroponic leafy vegetables commercialized in Campinas, Brazil, was determined. All samples were collected and analyzed in winter. Lactucaxanthin was quantified for the first time and was found to have concentrations similar to that of neoxanthin in the four types of lettuce analyzed. Lutein predominated in cress, chicory, and roquette (75.4 +/- 10.2, 57.0 +/- 10.3, and 52.2 +/- 12.6 microg/g, respectively). In the lactucaxanthin-containing lettuces, beta-carotene and lutein were the principal carotenoids (ranging from 9.9 +/- 1.5 to 24.6 +/- 3.1 microg/g and from 10.2 +/- 1.0 to 22.9 +/- 2.6 microg/g, respectively). Comparison of hydroponic and field-produced curly lettuce, taken from neighboring farms, showed that the hydroponic lettuce had significantly lower lutein, beta-carotene, violaxanthin, and neoxanthin contents than the conventionally produced lettuce. Because the hydroponic farm had a polyethylene covering, less exposure to sunlight and lower temperatures may have decreased carotenogenesis.

  12. Experimental characterization of vegetation uprooting by flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmaier, K.; Crouzy, B.; Perona, P.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate vegetation uprooting by flow for Avena sativa seedlings with stem-to-sediment size ratio close to unity and vanishing obstacle-induced scouring. By inducing parallel riverbed erosion within an experimental flume, we measure the time-to-uprooting in relation to root anchoring and flow drag forces. We link the erosion rate to the uprooting timescales for seedlings with varying mean root length. We show that the process of continuous erosion leading to uprooting resembles that of mechanical fatigue where system collapsing occurs after a given exposure time. By this analogy, we also highlight the nonlinear role of the residual root anchoring versus the flow drag acting on the canopy when uprooting occurs. As a generalization, we propose a framework to extend our results to time-dependent erosion rates, which typically occur for real river hydrographs. Finally, we discuss how the characteristic timescale of plant uprooting by flow erosion suggests that vegetation survival is conditioned by multiple erosion events and their interarrival time.

  13. Global vegetation productivity response to climatic oscillations during the satellite era.

    PubMed

    Gonsamo, Alemu; Chen, Jing M; Lombardozzi, Danica

    2016-10-01

    Climate control on global vegetation productivity patterns has intensified in response to recent global warming. Yet, the contributions of the leading internal climatic variations to global vegetation productivity are poorly understood. Here, we use 30 years of global satellite observations to study climatic variations controls on continental and global vegetation productivity patterns. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases (La Niña, neutral, and El Niño years) appear to be a weaker control on global-scale vegetation productivity than previously thought, although continental-scale responses are substantial. There is also clear evidence that other non-ENSO climatic variations have a strong control on spatial patterns of vegetation productivity mainly through their influence on temperature. Among the eight leading internal climatic variations, the East Atlantic/West Russia Pattern extensively controls the ensuing year vegetation productivity of the most productive tropical and temperate forest ecosystems of the Earth's vegetated surface through directionally consistent influence on vegetation greenness. The Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) simulations do not capture the observed patterns of vegetation productivity responses to internal climatic variations. Our analyses show the ubiquitous control of climatic variations on vegetation productivity and can further guide CCSM and other Earth system models developments to represent vegetation response patterns to unforced variability. Several winter time internal climatic variation indices show strong potentials on predicting growing season vegetation productivity two to six seasons ahead which enables national governments and farmers forecast crop yield to ensure supplies of affordable food, famine early warning, and plan management options to minimize yield losses ahead of time.

  14. Estimation for sparse vegetation information in desertification region based on Tiangong-1 hyperspectral image.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Jun; Gao, Zhi-Hai; Li, Zeng-Yuan; Wang, Hong-Yan; Pang, Yong; Sun, Bin; Li, Chang-Long; Li, Xu-Zhi; Zhang, Jiu-Xing

    2014-03-01

    In order to estimate the sparse vegetation information accurately in desertification region, taking southeast of Sunite Right Banner, Inner Mongolia, as the test site and Tiangong-1 hyperspectral image as the main data, sparse vegetation coverage and biomass were retrieved based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), combined with the field investigation data. Then the advantages and disadvantages between them were compared. Firstly, the correlation between vegetation indexes and vegetation coverage under different bands combination was analyzed, as well as the biomass. Secondly, the best bands combination was determined when the maximum correlation coefficient turned up between vegetation indexes (VI) and vegetation parameters. It showed that the maximum correlation coefficient between vegetation parameters and NDVI could reach as high as 0.7, while that of SAVI could nearly reach 0.8. The center wavelength of red band in the best bands combination for NDVI was 630nm, and that of the near infrared (NIR) band was 910 nm. Whereas, when the center wavelength was 620 and 920 nm respectively, they were the best combination for SAVI. Finally, the linear regression models were established to retrieve vegetation coverage and biomass based on Tiangong-1 VIs. R2 of all models was more than 0.5, while that of the model based on SAVI was higher than that based on NDVI, especially, the R2 of vegetation coverage retrieve model based on SAVI was as high as 0.59. By intersection validation, the standard errors RMSE based on SAVI models were lower than that of the model based on NDVI. The results showed that the abundant spectral information of Tiangong-1 hyperspectral image can reflect the actual vegetaion condition effectively, and SAVI can estimate the sparse vegetation information more accurately than NDVI in desertification region.

  15. Significant contribution of realistic vegetation representation to improved simulation and prediction of climate anomalies over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, Andrea; Catalano, Franco; De Felice, Matteo; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; van den Hurk, Bart; Miller, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The EC-Earth earth system model has been recently developed to include the dynamics of vegetation through the coupling with the LPJ-Guess model. In its original formulation, the coupling between atmosphere and vegetation variability is simply operated by the vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI), which affects climate by only changing the vegetation physiological resistance to evapotranspiration. This coupling with no implied change of the vegetation fractional coverage has been reported to have a weak effect on the surface climate modeled by EC-Earth (e.g.: also Weiss et al. 2012). The effective sub-grid vegetation fractional coverage can vary seasonally and at interannual time-scales as a function of leaf-canopy growth, phenology and senescence, and therefore affect biophysical parameters such as the surface roughness, albedo and soil field capacity. To adequately represent this effect in EC-Earth, we included an exponential dependence of the vegetation densitiy to the LAI, based on a Lambert-Beer formulation. By comparing historical 20th century simulations and retrospective forecasts performed applying the new effective fractional-coverage parameterization with the respective reference simulations using the original constant vegetation-fraction, we showed an increased effect of vegetation on the EC-Earth surface climate. The analysis shows considerable sensitivity of EC-Earth surface climate at seasonal to interannual time-scales due to the variability of vegetation effective fractional coverage. Particularly large effects are shown over boreal winter middle-to-high latitudes, where the cooling effect of the new parameterization corrects the warm biases of the control simulations over land. For boreal winter, the realistic representation of vegetation variability leads to a significant improvement of the skill in predicting surface climate over land at seasonal time-scales. A potential predictability experiment extended to longer time-scales also indicates the

  16. Monitoring Phenology of Floodplain Grassland and Herbaceous Vegetation with Uav Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Iersel, W. K.; Straatsma, M. W.; Addink, E. A.; Middelkoop, H.

    2016-06-01

    River restoration projects, which aim at improved flood safety and increased ecological value, have resulted in more heterogeneous vegetation. However, they also resulted in increasing hydraulic roughness, which leads to higher flood water levels during peak discharges. Due to allowance of vegetation development and succession, both ecological and hydraulic characteristics of the floodplain change more rapidly over time. Monitoring of floodplain vegetation has become essential to document and evaluate the changing floodplain characteristics and associated functioning. Extraction of characteristics of low vegetation using single-epoch remote sensing data, however, remains challenging. The aim of this study was to (1) evaluate the performance of multi-temporal, high-spatial-resolution UAV imagery for extracting temporal vegetation height profiles of grassland and herbaceous vegetation in floodplains and (2) to assess the relation between height development and NDVI changes. Vegetation height was measured six times during one year in 28 field plots within a single floodplain. UAV true-colour and false-colour imagery of the floodplain were recorded coincidently with each field survey. We found that: (1) the vertical accuracy of UAV normalized digital surface models (nDSMs) is sufficiently high to obtain temporal height profiles of low vegetation over a growing season, (2) vegetation height can be estimated from the time series of nDSMs, with the highest accuracy found for combined imagery from February and November (RMSE = 29-42 cm), (3) temporal relations between NDVI and observed vegetation height show different hysteresis behaviour for grassland and herbaceous vegetation. These results show the high potential of using UAV imagery for increasing grassland and herbaceous vegetation classification accuracy.

  17. Determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren in a country of traditionally low fruit and vegetable consumption

    PubMed Central

    Kristjansdottir, Asa G; Thorsdottir, Inga; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Due, Pernille; Wind, Marianne; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2006-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable consumption is traditionally low in Iceland. The results of the Pro Children cross-Europe survey showed that the consumption was lowest among children in Iceland. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren in Iceland. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed in Iceland in the autumn of 2003 as a part of the Pro Children cross-Europe survey. The survey was designed to provide information on actual consumption levels of vegetables and fruits by 11-year-old school children and to assess potential determinants of consumption patterns. A total of 1235 Icelandic children (89%) from 32 randomly chosen schools participated. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to determine the explained variance of the children's fruit and vegetable intake. In these analyses socio-demographic background variables were entered as a first block, perceived physical-environmental variables as a second block, perceived socio-environmental variables as a third block and personal variables as a fourth block. Results 64% of the children ate fruit less than once a day, and 61% ate vegetables less than once a day. Respectively, 31% and 39% of the variance in children's fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the determinants studied. About 7% and 13% of the variance in fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the perceived physical-environmental determinants, mainly by availability at home. About 18% and 16% of the variance in fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the personal determinants. For both fruit and vegetable intake, the significant personal determinants were preferences, liking, knowledge of recommendations and self-efficacy. Conclusion Interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake among children should aim at both environmental factors such as greater availability of fruit and vegetables, and personal factors as self-efficacy and knowledge levels

  18. Specularly modified vegetation indices to estimate photosynthetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rondeaux, G.; Vanderbilt, V. C.

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis tested was that some part of the ecosystem-dependent variability of vegetation indices was attributable to the effects of light specularly reflected by leaves. 'Minus specular' indices were defined excluding effects of specular light which contains no cellular pigment information. Results, both empirical and theoretical, show that the 'minus specular' indices, when compared to the traditional vegetation indices, potentially provide better estimates of the photosynthetic activity within a canopy - and therefore canopy primary production - specifically as a function of sun and view angles.

  19. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff and shows characteristic flashy streamflow and poor water quality commonly associated with urban streams. This data set represents the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), or "greenness" of the Fanno Creek floodplain study area. Aerial photography was used to isolate areas of vegetation based on comparing different bandwidths within the imagery. In this case, the NDVI is calculated as the quotient of the near infrared band minus the red band divided by the near infared plus the red band. NDVI = (NIR - R)/(NIR + R).

  20. Evaluation of Landsat Thematic Mapper for vegetated alluvium soils information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Houston, A. G.; Pitts, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper data acquired over Mississippi County, Arkansas, on August 22, 1982, were evaluated whether TM provides information that could be used for soil association maps and if soil properties (variability within vegetated fields) can be detected with the new bands on TM. It was found that TM data - especially the mid-IR and thermal bands - show the capability for separating vegetated soil landscapes on a broad basis. Analysis at the field level with a crop growing indicates that TM, with its additional and narrower bands and improved spatial resolution is influenced by within-field variability due to soils.