Science.gov

Sample records for crude oil blends

  1. Neural networks for the optimization of crude oil blending.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wen; Morales, América

    2005-10-01

    Crude oil blending is an important unit in petroleum refining industry. Many blend automation systems use real-time optimizer (RTO), which apply current process information to update the model and predict the optimal operating policy. The key unites of the conventional RTO are on-line analyzers. Sometimes oil fields cannot apply these analyzers. In this paper, we propose an off-line optimization technique to overcome the main drawback of RTO. We use the history data to approximate the output of the on-line analyzers, then the desired optimal inlet flow rates are calculated by the optimization technique. After this off-line optimization, the inlet flow rates are used for on-line control, for example PID control, which forces the flow rate to follow the desired inlet flow rates. Neural networks are applied to model the blending process from the history data. The new optimization is carried out via the neural model. The contributions of this paper are: (1) Stable learning for the discrete-time multilayer neural network is proposed. (2) Sensitivity analysis of the neural optimization is given. (3) Real data of a oil field is used to show effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Solids precipitation in crude oils, gas-to-liquids and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Karthik

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) liquids are obtained from syngas by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The blending of GTL liquids produced from natural gas/coal reserves and crude oils is a possibility in the near future for multiple reasons. Solids precipitation is a major problem in pipelines and refineries leading to significant additional operating costs. The effect of the addition of a paraffinic GTL liquid to crude oils on solids precipitation was investigated in this study. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique was used to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for the various samples. The SLE of multiple systems of model oils composed of n-alkanes was investigated preliminarily. Blends of a model oil simulating a GTL liquid composition and a crude oil showed that the wax precipitation temperature (WPT) decreased upon blending. Three crude oils from different geographic regions (Alaskan North Slope, Colorado and Venezuela) and a laboratory-produced GTL liquid were used in the preparation of blends with five different concentrations of the GTL liquid. The wax precipitation temperatures of the blends were found to decrease with the increasing addition of the GTL liquid for all the oils. This effect was attributed to the solvent effect of the low molecular weight-paraffinic GTL liquid on the crude oils. The weight percent solid precipitated that was estimated as a function of temperature did not show a uniform trend for the set of crude oils. The asphaltene onset studies done on the blends with near-infrared spectroscopy indicated that the addition of GTL liquid could have a stabilizing effect on the asphaltenes in some oils. Analytical techniques such as distillation, solvent separation, HPLC, GC, and GPC were used to obtain detailed composition data on the samples. Two sets of compositional data with 49 and 86 pseudo-components were used to describe the three crude oils used in the blending work. The wax precipitation was calculated using a

  3. Least square neural network model of the crude oil blending process.

    PubMed

    Rubio, José de Jesús

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the recursive least square algorithm is designed for the big data learning of a feedforward neural network. The proposed method as the combination of the recursive least square and feedforward neural network obtains four advantages over the alone algorithms: it requires less number of regressors, it is fast, it has the learning ability, and it is more compact. Stability, convergence, boundedness of parameters, and local minimum avoidance of the proposed technique are guaranteed. The introduced strategy is applied for the modeling of the crude oil blending process.

  4. Efficient dispersion of crude oil by blends of food-grade surfactants: Toward greener oil-spill treatments.

    PubMed

    Riehm, David A; Neilsen, John E; Bothun, Geoffrey D; John, Vijay T; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; McCormick, Alon V

    2015-12-15

    Effectiveness of oil spill dispersants containing lecithin/Tween 80 (L/T) blends in ethanol was measured as a function of L:T ratio, surfactant:solvent ratio, solvent composition, and dispersant:oil ratio (DOR) using baffled flask dispersion effectiveness tests. Optimal L:T ratios are between 60:40 and 80:20 (w/w); at higher L:T ratios, effectiveness is limited by high interfacial tension, while at lower L:T ratios, insufficient lecithin is present to form a well-packed monolayer at an oil-water interface. These optimal L:T ratios retain high effectiveness at low DOR: 80:20 (w/w) L:T dispersant is 89% effective at 1:25 DOR (v/v) and 77% effective at 1:100 DOR (v/v). Increasing surfactant:solvent ratio increases dispersant effectiveness even when DOR is proportionally reduced to keep total surfactant concentration dosed into the oil constant. Replacing some of the ethanol with octane or octanol also increases dispersant effectiveness, suggesting that ethanol's hydrophilicity lowers dispersant-oil miscibility, and that more hydrophobic solvents would increase effectiveness.

  5. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  6. The role of benchmark crudes in crude oil pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Wildblood, P.

    1993-12-31

    Most of the world`s oil, whether sold on a spot basis or as part of a term contract, will be priced on a relationship with one or other of a small number of marker crude oils. Generally, the markers used are West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Alaskan North Slope (ANS) for crude oil coming into North and South America; Dubai or Oman for crudes being delivered into the Far Eastern markets; and Brent for any crude being delivered into Europe. For a variety of reasons, over the laster two years, Brent blend has become more predominant in the pricing process for crude oils throughout the world. This has resulted in the fact that, directly or indirectly, Brent is now used to price approximately 65% of the world`s crude oil. So why is it that a crude oil with a comparatively small production base of around 700,000 barrels per day has now come to dominate the pricing of the lion`s share of the world`s crude oil? The answer to this question is discussed.

  7. Crude oil desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  8. Biodegradation of crude oils.

    PubMed

    Bosecker, K; Teschner, M; Wehner, H

    1989-01-01

    Petroleum from well sites in the Gifhorn Trough (Lower Saxony, NW-Germany) and the Maracaibo Basin (Venezuela) contained various types of microorganisms capable of degrading crude oils. Genetically related oils were inoculated with the isolated microorganisms and the degradation of the oils was followed by chromatographic techniques. Parameters important for the reactions (pH, supply of oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus, reaction medium) were monitored and optimized. The degradation of n-alkanes was followed closely. Microorganisms active in degradation (yeast, bacteria) easily survived a period of inactivity due to missing nutrients and were reactivated within hours to degrade newly added crude oil. Under substrate-limiting conditions selectivity of degradation was found, destroying medium-chain n-alkanes (C20, C21) at a faster rate than long-chain n-alkanes (C30, C31). During degradation the physical parameters of the crude oils (e.g. density, viscosity, average molecular weight) were altered and shifted into the direction of heavy oil. In vitro degraded oil is very similar to oil degraded in nature. Aromatic hydrocarbons and biomarker molecules (steranes and triterpanes) were not degraded under the conditions used. Pyrolysis-GC analysis of asphaltenes revealed no significant changes in the composition of pyrolyzates during biodegradation. There is sufficient evidence that heavy oils - besides some other effects - are generated by the in situ-biodegradation of conventional oils.

  9. Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed, deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends.

    PubMed

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Tekasakul, Surajit; Tekasakul, Perapong; Prateepchaikul, Gumpon; Jindapetch, Naret; Furuuchi, Masami; Hata, Mitsuhiko

    2013-04-01

    Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO), the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil, has become of great interest as a renewable energy source. It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits. In the present work, the degummed, deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long-term usage. The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler. The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10, 2.5 and 1 microm, while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 microm. Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 microm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings), especially pyrene. The mass median diameter, PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content, but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased. In addition, Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaP(eq)) for all particle size ranges. As the palm oil was increased, the BaP(eq) decreased gradually. Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute.

  10. Crude Oil Characterization Data Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A computer program has been written which allows rapid retrieval and selection of CONUS and OCONUS crude oil characterization data. The computer... crude oil characterization data, including geographic location, production rate, reserves quantity and physical properties.

  11. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  12. Asphaltene nanoparticle aggregation in mixtures of incompatible crude oils.

    PubMed

    Mason, T G; Lin, M Y

    2003-05-01

    We study the structure and phase behavior of asphaltenes comprised of large polyaromatic molecules in blends of naturally occurring crude oils using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). When two compatible oils are blended together, the asphaltenes remain dispersed as colloidal nanoparticles; however, when two incompatible oils are blended together, these asphaltene nanoparticles can aggregate to form microscale structures. We show that SANS directly probes asphaltene aggregation in unmodified (i.e., nondeuterated) crude oil mixtures due to a significant neutron scattering length density difference between the hydrogen-poor asphaltenes and the surrounding oil. Moreover, the small length scales probed by SANS are ideally suited for studying asphaltene aggregation: SANS simultaneously provides the average size and concentration of nanoscale asphaltene particles and also the volume fraction of microscale asphaltene aggregates. These discoveries yield a practical means for directly assessing the compatibility of crude oils and for diagnosing refinery fouling problems resulting from blending incompatible oils.

  13. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  14. Burning crude oil without pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

  15. Water-in-Oil Microstructures Formed by Marine Oil Dispersants in a Model Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Riehm, David A; Rokke, David J; McCormick, Alon V

    2016-04-26

    DOSS (dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate), Tween 80, and Span 80, surfactants commonly used in marine crude oil spill dispersants, have been mixed into a model oil at a total surfactant concentration of 2 wt %, typical for dispersant-treated oil slicks. These surfactant-oil blends also contained 0.5-1.5 wt % synthetic seawater to enable formation of water-in-oil (W/O) microstructures. Trends in dynamic oil-seawater interfacial tension (IFT) as a function of surfactant blend composition are similar to those observed in prior work for crude oil treated with similar blends of these surfactants. In particular, Span 80-rich surfactant blends exhibit much slower initial dynamic IFT decline than DOSS-rich surfactant blends in both model oil and crude oil, and surfactant blends containing 50 wt % Tween 80 and a DOSS:Span 80 ratio near 1:1 produce ultralow IFT in the model oil (<10(-4) mN/m) just as similar surfactant blends do in crude oil. At all DOSS:Span 80 ratios, surfactant blends containing 50 wt % Tween 80 form clear solutions with seawater in the model oil. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show that these solutions contain spherical W/O microstructures, the size and dispersity of which vary with surfactant blend composition and surfactant:seawater molar ratio. Span 80-rich microstructures exhibit high polydispersity index (PDI > 0.2) and large diameters (≥100 nm), whereas DOSS-rich microstructures exhibit smaller diameters (20-40 nm) and low polydispersity index (PDI < 0.1), indicating a narrow microstructure size distribution. The smaller diameters of DOSS-rich microstructures, as well as the fact that DOSS molecules, being oil-soluble, can diffuse to a bulk oil-water interface as monomers much faster than any of these microstructures, may explain why DOSS-rich blends adsorb to the oil-water interface more quickly than Span 80-rich blends, a phenomenon which has been linked in prior work to the higher effectiveness

  16. Maps of crude oil futures

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.

    1986-05-01

    The Crude Oil Futures presentation shows their concept of the quantity of oil possibly present (the combination of conventional demonstrated reserves plus undiscovered recoverable resources) within the areas outlined. The Crude Oil Futures is not as an exploration map but as a perspective on the distribution of world oil. The occurrence of oil is, after all, a function of particular geologic factors that are not everywhere present. Furthermore, large amounts of oil can occur only where the several necessary independent variables (geologic factors) combine optimally. In the Western Hemisphere, similar minimal crude oil futures are shown for North America and South America. This similarity is a reflection not of similar geology but rather of the fact that most of the oil has already been produced from North America, whereas South America as a whole (except for Venezuela) possesses a geology less likely to produce oil. In Europe, Africa, and Asia, four regions are dominant: the Middle East, Libya, North Sea, and west Siberia. Paleogeography and source rock distribution were keys to this distribution - the Middle East and Libya reflecting the Tethyan association, and the North Sea and west Siberia benefitting from the Late Jurassic marine transgression into geographic environments where ocean circulation was restricted by tectonic events.

  17. Future global crude oil supply

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanhoe, L.F.

    1988-03-01

    Inexpensive crude oil fuels the world's economies and armies. In 1986, for the first time, the global production of crude oil and natural liquids exceeded new reserves added. Proved oil reserves at the end of 1985 stood 707.6 billion bbl (BBO), but declined to 703.1 BBO by the end of 1986. The 1986 reserve decrease, 4.5 BBO, was 20.4% of total global production of 22.0 BBO. This handwriting on the wall is very bad news. The world's recoverable crude oil and natural gas liquids discovered through 1985 totaled 1258 BBO, including cumulative production of 551 BBO and 707 BBO of reserves. At current production rates, half of all discovered oil will have been burned up by 1989. Timing of the end of our oil age can be extrapolated from a modified Hubbert curve, with future production resembling a mirror image of past production. The watershed beginning of the inevitable decline in global crude oil supplies can be expected in the late 1990s, although the date may be over 30 years later in some super-oily Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Clearly the day of reckoning will be postponed by any new oil discoveries. These will probably be distributed much as are the present global reserves (e.g., 68% OPEC; 11% USSR and China; 21% rest of world). Of this 56% will be in the Persian Gulf area. Giant fields (more than 0.5 BBO reserves) contain 75% of the world's reserves. Discoveries of oil in the globe's 320 known giant fields peaked at 125 BBO during the period 1961-1965, after which giant field discoveries plunged to only 10 BBO during 1981-1985. Henceforth, they should expect to find few giant whales (but many minnows) in the non-OPEC world's fished-out basins. Every new field will help as global crude oil supplies dwindle. Therefore, it is essential that all large prospects outside the Persian Gulf be tested promptly, so the oil-importing nations will known what size of non-OPEC reserves are available.

  18. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crude oil. 754.2 Section 754.2....2 Crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the SS notation in the “License Requirements... export of crude oil to all destinations, including Canada. See paragraph (h) of this section for...

  19. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crude oil. 754.2 Section 754.2....2 Crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the SS notation in the “License Requirements... export of crude oil to all destinations, including Canada. See paragraph (h) of this section for...

  20. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crude oil. 754.2 Section 754.2....2 Crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the SS notation in the “License Requirements... export of crude oil to all destinations, including Canada. See paragraph (h) of this section for...

  1. Brent blend, U. K. North Sea marker crude, assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-02-06

    World marker crude Brent blend was assayed in August 1994. The price of this 38[degree]API, 0.04 wt % crude from the U.K. North Sea is used to determine the prices of many other world crudes. Brent's qualities have changed since an assay of the crude was last published in the Journal, at which time the stream recently had been commingled with Ninian blend. API gravity has increased by only 0.5[degree] and sulfur content, by 0.05 wt%, but the crude's pour point has decreased from [minus]12 to [minus]42 C. Some say Brent's future as a world marker crude is in jeopardy, as Bent fields are in decline and BP's lease at the Sullom Voe terminal, in the Shetland Islands north of Scotland, expires in the year 2000. In fact, Shell Exploration and Production has begun a program to redevelop Brent for gas production, although this will recover additional crude as well.

  2. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil. 157.130 Section 157.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...

  3. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil. 157.130 Section 157.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...

  4. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil. 157.130 Section 157.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...

  5. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil. 157.130 Section 157.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...

  6. 33 CFR 157.130 - Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crude oil washing with more than one grade of crude oil. 157.130 Section 157.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...

  7. Correlating field and laboratory data for crude oil fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Asomaning, S.; Panchal, C.B.; Liao, C.F.

    2000-06-01

    Crude oil fouling in a laboratory fouling unit was investigated. The study focused on the preheat-train heat exchangers located just before the crude unit furnace and operating at temperatures in excess of 200 C. A fouling rate model developed using laboratory data from crude blends was used to predict the threshold conditions where negligible fouling was expected under refinery conditions. The results from the model were compared to actual data from a fouling unit located at a refinery. The article discusses factors that may explain the performance of the model and the observed discrepancies between fouling data obtained in the laboratory and the field.

  8. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... section for a License Exception for exports of oil transported by pipeline over right-of-way granted... produced crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to section 203 of the Trans... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to section 28(u) of that Act (30 U...

  9. Detailed assays conducted on Vietnamese crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Du, P.Q. )

    1990-07-16

    More oil property data, in the form of recent crude oil assays, have been made available for two Vietnamese crude oils, Bach Ho (White Tiger) and Dai Hung (Big Bear). Crude oil data presented earlier gave limited properties of the crudes,which are from the Miocene formations. Further analyses have been conducted on Bach Ho crude from the Oligocene formations. Production from Oligocene is far more representative of the oils produced from the Bach Ho field and marketed worldwide. Currently, Bach Ho is the only producing field. Dai Hung is expected to be in production during the next few years. Bach Ho is currently producing at the rate of 20,000 b/d. That figure is projected to grow to 100,000 b/d by 1992 and to 120,000 b/d by 1995. Detailed assays of both crude oils are presented.

  10. Physicochemical properties and biodegradability of crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiura, Keiji; Ishihara, Masami; Shimauchi, Toshitsugu; Harayama, Shigeaki

    1997-01-01

    The biodegradation of four different crude oil samples, namely, Arabian light, Dubai, Maya, and Shengli, by acinetobacter sp. T4 and by a microbial consortium called SM8 was examined. SM8 exhibited higher activity than Acinetobacter for the biodegradation of all four crude oil samples. The degree of biodegradation of crude oil components differed according to the crude oil, the saturated fraction being more susceptible to biodegradation than the aromatic fraction in all the crude oil samples. The extent of biodegradation by acinetobacter and SM8 was found to be in the order of Arabian light > Dubai > Maya = Shengli; the crude oil samples with higher APl gravity being more susceptible to biodegradation. Saturated compounds of smaller molecular weight were preferentially degraded by both cultures. Acinetobacter could not degrade polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples such as (alkyl)naphthalenes, (alky)phenanthrenes, (alkyl)fluorenes, and (alkyl)dibenzothiophenes. However, this strain was capable of degrading more than 10% of the molecules in the aromatic fraction of Arabian light crude oil. An NMR analysis demonstrated that the alkyl side chain of some aromatic molecules was degraded by this organism. In contrast, SM8 degraded the polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples, the extent of degradation being in the order of Maya > Shengli > Arabian light > Dubai. 17 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. The statistical analysis of evaluating crude oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janier, Josefina Barnachea; Sati, Muhammad Salman B. Mohd; Razali, Radzuan B.; Shafie, Afza Bt.; Karim, Samsul B. A.

    2014-10-01

    Crude oil is a naturally occurring mixture, consisting predominantly of hydrocarbon with other elements such as sulphur, nitrogen, and also metal. Since crude oils are taken from different parts of the world, it is necessary to know its composition for quality control in the oil and gas industry. This paper presents the statistical analysis of six acquired crude oil samples by comparing the coefficient of correlation of hydrocarbon components in these samples to standard diesel oil (SDO). Through Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) experiments, the hydrocarbon components in the six crude oil samples' retention time, abundance value and concentration were found. These were compared with those of the components of standard diesel oil (SDO). The results showed a high positive correlation in retention time between the samples and the standard diesel oil (SDO), low negative correlation on the concentration of hydrocarbon components, and low negative correlation on the abundance value.

  12. Biomarkers of East Siberian Crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Aref`yev, O.A.; Zabrodina, M.N.; Rusinova, G.V.

    1993-12-31

    Computerized chromato-mass spectrometry has been used to study higher cyclic biomarkers (steranes, tri, tetra- and pentacyclic terpanes) of crude oils from the main oil-bearing complexes in East Siberia. On the basis of the results obtained, the conditions of generation of crude oils have been determined, and the composition of their initial organic matter has been established. It was noted that early crude oils of Riphean, Vendian and Lower Cambrian age were generated from marine organic matter considerably refined by micro-organisms at the sedimentation stage. Crude oils of Upper Permian, Lower Triassic and Lower Jurassic deposits from the Vilyuisk syneclise were generated from typical continental organic matter. All the crude oils studied are catagenetically mature. 17 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Suriname installing first crude-oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, E.W. )

    1992-04-27

    This paper reports that the first cross country crude-oil pipeline in the south American country of Suriname is currently under construction. The State Oil Co. of Suriname (Staatsolie) is building the 34.4-mile, 14-in. pipeline to deliver crude oil from the Catharina Sophia field (Tambaredjo) to the Tout Lui Faut terminal near the capital, Paramaribo. Crude oil from the Jossi Kreek field will be injected at mile point (MP) 3.4. Oil from these two fields is now being moved to tout Lui Faut by Staatsolie-owned motorized ocean barges. Increased production to meet requirements of a planned refinery near Tout Lui Faut prompted the pipeline.

  14. Increasing crude tall oil yield

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, J.

    1983-10-01

    In the kraft pulping process for softwoods and hardwood, tall oil recovery is an important part of making profit. During the past 10 years, crude tall oil (CTO) production in the U.S. and Canada has dropped. Estimated CTO yield from fresh Canadian pine is 36-40 lb/a.d. ton and from Southern U.S. 70-80 lb/a.d. ton, while the average yield of CTO is approximately 40% of available tall oil in pine wood. Besides low yield, many pulp mills fail to achieve a CTO quality that lives up to market expectations. The moisture content of CTO is reported to vary widely (1.5-3.5%), whereas it should not exceed 1.5% for marketable quality. The acid number of CTO varies in the range of 135 to 150, whereas industry standards are 145-150. At present the average sale price of CTO is approximately $150/ton. By upgrading existing plants, the yield can be increased, resulting in additional revenues. Thus, if a batch acidulation plant is replaced by a continuous acidulation plant, the yield will increase by approximately 15-50%. The capital required for installing a continuous system is approximately $1.1-1.5 million for a 500-a.d. ton/day pulp mill, requiring a payback period of approximatley 5-7 years. 7 references.

  15. Pacific Crude Oil Demands: An International Concern.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Pacific Area as a whole has a great deficit in crude oil resources and, like much of the world, is heavily dependent upon the Middle East. In...spite of the great growth of industrial bases and refining capabilities, with their commensurate increase in requirements, crude oil production has not

  16. Spectral signature of Egyptian crude oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatass, Z. F.; Nashed, A. W.; Saleh, I. H.; Mohmed, M. M.

    2014-11-01

    Crude petroleum oils are complex mixtures of diverse hydrocarbons, in widely varying compositions, that originate from a variety of geological sources. Fluorescence emission spectra have been measured for two types of Egyptian crude petroleum oil, its light and heavy products over a broad range of excitation and emission wavelengths. Both types of crude oil products are characterized by spectral signatures with a differing topography: the number of fluorescent peaks, their coordinates (λex, λem) on the plane of the three dimensions spectrum, and the shape of the bands formed by the contour line density, changeable in either direction. The refined light oil shows emission spectra at λmax between 350 and 500 nm according to the excitation wavelength. The refined heavy oil shows very broad unstructured emission spectra with λmax > 400 nm. As a group, they could certainly be distinguished from the light oil samples and most of the crude oil.

  17. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. crude oil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Noori, Azam; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Alaie, Ebrahim; Newman, Lee A

    2015-06-29

    Sites with crude oil pollution have been successfully treated using phytoremediation, but expanding the range of plants that can be used and understanding how exposure impacts the plants are two areas of study that are important to continue. Leucanthemum vulgare has been shown to grow well under a variety of stressful conditions. To examine L. vulgare's ability to both survive crude oil exposure and to reduce crude oil concentrations in soil, plants were placed in soil containing 0, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% or 10% w/w crude oil. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration, peroxidase and catalase activity, proline and phenol content in roots and leaves were determined at the start of planting and every 2 months for six months. L. vulgare roots were successfully colonized with mycorrhizae under all conditions. Results showed positive correlation between antioxidant compound concentration and crude oil contamination. Also, a significant reduction occurred in TPH content of soil over time in planted pots as compared to controls. The lowest TPH content was recorded after 6 months under all treatments. Results showed L. vulgare could survive crude oil exposure and enhance reducing of crude oil from soil.

  18. Pipelineable syncrude (synthetic crude) from heavy oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rankel, L.A.

    1989-06-12

    This patent describes a process for converting a metals-contaminated heavy crude oil characterized by an API gravity less than about 20{degrees} and a substantial Conradson Carbon Residue to a pipelineable and substantially upgraded syncrude with concomitant recovery of blown asphalt. It comprises: air-blowing at least the 650{degrees} F.{sup +} fraction of the heavy crude oil at a temperature of 390{degrees} to 600{degrees} F. under conditions effective to increase its combined oxygen content by at least 0.5 weight percent; deasphalting the air-blown crude oil with solvent whereby separately recovering a blown asphalt and an intermediate syncrude having a substantially lower concentration of metals and less Conradson Carbon residue than the heavy crude oil; and, visbreaking the intermediate syncrude at 800{degrees} to 950{degrees} F. and at a severity effective to impart to it pipelineable viscosity characteristics.

  19. Sequential growth of bacteria on crude oil.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, A; Gutnick, D; Rosenberg, E

    1975-07-01

    By modification of the enrichment culture procedure three bacterial strains capable of degrading crude oil in sea water were isolated in pure culture, UP-2, UP-3, and UP-4. Strain UP-2 appears to be highly specialized for growth on crude oil in sea water since it showed strong preference for oil or oil degradation products as substrates for growth, converted 66% of the oil into a form no longer extractable by organic solvents, quantitatively degraded the paraffinic fraction (gas chromatographic analysis), emulsified the oil during exponential growth, and produced 1.6 x 10-8 cells per mg of oil. After exhaustive growth of UP-2 on crude oil the residual oil supported the growth of UP-3 and UP-4, but not a previously isolated oil-degrading bacterium, RAG-1. Strains UP-2, UP-3, and UP-4 grew on RAG-1-degraded oil (specifically depleted of n-alkanes). The growth of UP-3 and UP-4 on UP-2 and RAG-1-degraded oil resulted in the production of new paraffinic compounds as revealed by gas chromatography. When the four strains were grown either together in a mixed culture or sequentially, there was over 75% oil conversion. By plating on selective media, growth of the individual strains was measured kinetically in the reconstituted mixed culture, revealing competition for common growth substances (UP-2 and RAG-1), emhanced die-off (UP-2), and stabilization (UP-4) during the stationary phase.

  20. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-05-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg(-1) and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg(-1). It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  1. CRUDE OIL BIOREMEDIATION: THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a state-of-the-art extended abstract presentation summary of the outputs from the oil spill program over the last 11 years. It summarizes the results of 3 field studies involving intentional releases of crude oil: the Delaware study in 1994 (sandy beach), the St. Lawrence...

  2. Cloud-point determination for crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Kruka, V.R.; Cadena, E.R.; Long, T.E.

    1995-08-01

    The cloud point represents the temperature at which wax or paraffin begins to precipitate from a hydrocarbon solution. Conventional American Soc. for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures for cloud-point determination are not applicable to dark crude oils and also do not account for potential subcooling of the wax. A review of possible methods and testing with several crude oils indicate that a reliable method consists of determining the temperature at which wax deposits begin to form on a cooled surface exposed to warm, flowing oil. A concurrent thermal analysis of the waxy hydrocarbon can indicate the presence of possible multiple wax-precipitation temperature regions in the solution.

  3. Dispersibility of crude oil in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, B A; Virkus, A; Mukherjee, B; Venosa, A D

    2009-06-01

    The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever considered for use in fresh water environments. Previous studies on the chemical dispersion of crude oil in fresh water neither identified the dispersants that were investigated nor described the chemistry of the surfactants used. This information is necessary for developing a more fundamental understanding of chemical dispersion of crude oil at low salinity. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between surfactant chemistry and dispersion effectiveness. We found that dispersants can be designed to drive an oil slick into the freshwater column with the same efficiency as in salt water as long as the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance is optimum.

  4. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Health Journal Articles on Oil Dispersants and Invertebrates, Seawater, Plants and Environment PubMed - Biomedical journal literature ... of Health Journal Articles on Oil Spills and Invertebrates, Seawater, Plants and Environment PubMed - Biomedical journal literature ...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL 1 CRUDE OIL CLEANER

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this surface washing agent is used in oil spill cleanups on solid surfaces including beaches, rocks, machines, buildings, and tools. The oil and cleaner form a loose emulsion that can be rinsed away.

  6. Static mixer improves crude-oil measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, H.

    1987-03-09

    Water contamination in crude oil frequently hampers the accuracy of conventional sampling techniques for inline measurement. Installation of a static crude-oil mixer upstream of a sampling point has been shown to improve the accuracy of such measurement. Crude oil is sampled in pipelines to ensure that an agreed quality standard is obtained. Deviations from the standard, if undetected, can cost or save large sums of money. It is, therefore, necessary to achieve accurate and representative sampling. Discussion here is limited to representative sampling of oil flowing in a pipeline. In general, the oil industry is concerned with the measurement of crude-oil quality in two situations: Pipelines in which oil flows continuously with only small variations in flow and composition. Batch transfer operations, as in the unloading of tankers. In this case the following can be expected: 1. Start-up-low flow and high water content. 2. Normal conditions-high flow and medium or low water content. 3. Final phases of unloading and shutdown-decreasing flow and increasing water content. These two situations present different problems. In the case of the pipeline, it is usual for the pipe run prior to sampling to be very long, resulting in stratification of phases. Water will, in general, flow at the base of the pipe, although slugging can occur under certain conditions. In the case of batch transfer, the pipework is often tortuous, but flow rates can be low and at the same time water concentration varies.

  7. Storage studies on mustard oil blends.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Bhawna; Dhawan, Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Mustard oil blends were investigated for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability during storage for 3 months at room temperature (15 °C to 35 °C). The blends were prepared using raw mustard oil with selected refined vegetable oils namely; palm, safflower, soybean, rice bran, sunflower and sesame oil (raw). The fatty acid compositions of all these blends were studied using GLC. The developed blends were found to obey the ideal fatty acid ratio as laid down by health agencies i.e. 1:2:1:: SFA:MUFA:PUFA. The oxidative stability of blends was studied by measuring peroxide value (PV), Kries and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Blends MPSu (mustard oil, palm oil and sunflower oil), MPT (mustard oil, palm oil and sesame oil) and MPGr (mustard oil, palm oil and groundnut oil) were more stable than other blends during storage. The presence of mustard oil in all blends might make them a healthier option for many consumers as it is a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and has anti-carcinogenic properties.

  8. Stored crude-oil sludge components identified

    SciTech Connect

    Mochida, I.; Sakanishi, K.; Fujitsu, H.

    1986-11-17

    Long-term storage of crude oils, essential to maintain adequate supplies in the event of future shortages, results in deterioration of the crude oil caused by air oxidation, photo oxidation, and condensation. Deterioration forms polymeric polar substances that stay solid at room temperature. The substances precipitate from the main body of the crude oil with other components to form sludges which are difficult to transfer from storage. As a result, a significant amount of valuable resource can be lost during storage. Some of the mechanisms that form sludge have been previously reported, and are summarized as: Separation and precipitation of the asphaltene fraction; Separation and precipitation of the wax fraction; Oxidative polymerization and precipitation of heteroatom (oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen) containing compounds; Agglomeration and precipitation of inorganic contaminants. Studies were conducted on several crude oils to determine the organic components in various sludges, and the chemical structure of the components. From these studies, the origin and precipitation mechanisms of sludge formation are considered. The solubility decrease of crude oil components caused by micell formation (an oriented arrangement of a number of molecules where there are few or no unshared electron pairs).

  9. Biogeochemistry of anaerobic crude oil biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons is widely recognized as a globally significant process both in the formation of the world's vast heavy oil deposits and for the dissipation of hydrocarbon pollution in anoxic contaminated environments. Comparative analysis of crude oil biodegradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions has revealed differences not only in the patterns of compound class removal but also in the microbial communities responsible. Under methanogenic conditions syntrophic associations dominated by bacteria from the Syntropheaceae are prevalent and these are likely key players in the initial anaerobic degradation of crude oil alkanes to intermediates such as hydrogen and acetate. Syntrophic acetate oxidation plays an important role in these systems and often results in methanogenesis dominated by CO2 reduction by members of the Methanomicrobiales. By contrast the bacterial communities from sulfate-reducing crude oil-degrading systems were more diverse and no single taxon dominated the oil-degrading sulfate-reducing systems. All five proteobacterial subdivisions were represented with Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria being detected most consistently. In sediments which were pasteurized hydrocarbon degradation continued at a relatively low rate. Nevertheless, alkylsuccinates characteristic of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation accumulated to high concentrations. This suggested that the sediments harbour heat resistant, possibly spore-forming alkane degrading sulfate-reducers. This is particularly interesting since it has been proposed recently, that spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria found in cold arctic sediments may have originated from seepage of geofluids from deep subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  10. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  11. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  12. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  13. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  14. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  15. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Jones, D. Martin; Head, Ian M.; Gray, Neil D.

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5–nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12–nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 μmol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12–nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 μmol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers. PMID:24765087

  16. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell J; Aitken, Carolyn M; Jones, D Martin; Head, Ian M; Gray, Neil D

    2014-01-01

    Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and xylenes) were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34) and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene) were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales) were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 μmol CH4/g sediment/day) with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34). For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 μmol CH4/g sediment/day). This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  17. U.S. Crude Oil Production to 2025: Updated Projection of Crude Types

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report updates and extends a May 2014 EIA report, U.S. crude oil production forecast – analysis of crude types. It provides a projection of domestic crude oil production by crude type through 2025, supplementing the overall production projection provided in the AEO2015. Projections of production by crude type matter for several reasons. First, U.S. crude streams vary widely in quality. Second, the economics surrounding various options for the domestic use of additional domestic oil production are directly dependent on crude quality characteristics. Third, actual or potential export values also vary significantly with quality characteristics.

  18. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of heavy California crude oil up to an average volume not to exceed 25 MB/D (see paragraph (g) of... with the national interest and the purposes of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). Although... consistent with the national interest and the purposes of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (e) Exports...

  19. Micellar solution for recovering crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, R. B.; Purcell, R. F.

    1985-08-20

    An improved process for recovering crude oil from a geological formation containing it using a micellar solution containing as a surfactant a salt of a petroleum sulfonic acid having an equivalent weight of from about 350-500 and as a co-surfactant 2-alkenyl-4,4-substituted oxazoline.

  20. DISPERSIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL IN FRESH WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever consider...

  1. Death following crude oil aspiration.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M A; Martinez, M C; Martinez-Ruiz, D; Paz Giménez, M; Menéndez, M; Repetto, M

    1991-07-01

    This is a report on three deaths following oil aspiration by workers in petrol tankers. Lung aspiration was demonstrated by the presence of a yellowish-brown material in the alveolar spaces, which was difficult to identify by optic microscopy. Volatile hydrocarbons from petroleum were identified in lung samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  2. Dispersion Of Crude Oil And Petroleum Products In Freshwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between dispersion effectiveness in freshwater and the surfactant composition for fresh and weathered crude oil. Although limited research on the chemical dispersion of crude oil and petroleum products in freshwat...

  3. A MODEL FOR DIFFUSION CONTROLLED BIOAVAILABILITY OF CRUDE OIL COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of several different structural classes of compounds including alkanes, aromatics, heterocyclic polar compounds, and asphaltenes. The rate and extent of microbial degradation of crude oil depends on the interaction between the physical and biochemi...

  4. Dispersion Of Crude Oil And Petroleum Products In Freshwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between dispersion effectiveness in freshwater and the surfactant composition for fresh and weathered crude oil. Although limited research on the chemical dispersion of crude oil and petroleum products in freshwat...

  5. Autoxidation of Fish Oil Blended with Rice Bran Oil.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shigeo; Takai, Marie; Hayashi, Chieko; Tsuno, Takuo; Endo, Yasushi

    2017-06-01

    Effects of rice bran oil on the oxidative and flavor stability of fish oil were investigated by the gas liquid chromatography-head space method. When fish oil blending with different ratio of rice bran oils was oxidized at room temperature in the dark, volatile compounds produced during autoxidation was measured by gas liquid chromatography. The amounts of volatile compounds were decreased with increased the ratio of blended rice bran oil as well as peroxide value. The level of propanal and acrolein which gave unpleasant flavor was also decreased with increased the ratio of blended rice bran oil. Especially, the level of propanal and acrolein and peroxide value were remarkably decreased when blending more than 75% of rice bran oil. Blending of rice bran oil improved the oxidative and flavor stabilities of fish oil.

  6. The Fate and Behavior of Crude Oil on Marine Life.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The physiological effects of crude oil on marine organisms has been investigated. Crude oil has not been found to be acutely toxic to organisms used...in this study. Crude oil has been found to cause serious metabolic disorders in both plants and animals which can lead to a reduction in the net amount of carbon available for growth and reproduction. (Author)

  7. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  8. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  9. Pipelining heavy crude oil requires special pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    This paper reviews the use of rotary screw pumps installed at Guatemala`s Xan oil field to help pipeline heavy crudes to their processing facilities. It reviews the special design characteristics and specifications for each of the three pumps. It provides information on the capacities and the materials used in making the pumps. It provides information on cooling systems and on the engines used to power the pumps.

  10. Rheological behavior on treated Malaysian crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Krittika; Sinnathambi, Chandra Mohan

    2016-11-01

    Crude oil is always produced with water. This association causes many problems during oil production, arising from the formation of emulsion. Emulsion is an undesirable substance that increases operational and capital cost in the pipeline and processing equipment. To overcome this issue, demulsifiers are formulated to break the emulsion, where they are able to separate the water-oil emulsions to their respective phases. The emulsifier's main function is to reduce the interfacial tension properties of the emulsion. For this research, both the EOR and natural water-in-oil emulsions were treated with low a concentration demulsifier. The main objective of this paper is to determine the dynamic viscosity and rheological properties of the treated EOR and natural emulsion. The dynamic viscosity was obtained using the Brook-field Digital Viscometer. The components that influence the emulsion's rheological properties are the temperature, shear rate and shear stress. The results obtained demonstrate that the viscosity of the treated crude decreases and portrays the Non-Newtonian shear thinning "pseudo-plastic" behavior. Besides that, to determine the interfacial film of the treated crude, the spinning drop tensiometer was used. With the addition of demulsifier, the thinning rate of the oil film accelerates whereby there is a linear decrease in the interfacial tension with an increase in time. Therefore, from the results, it can be observed that the rheology study plays a significant role in the demulsification test. Furthermore, both the rheology approaches showed that time, temperature, shear rate and shear stress have a great impact on the viscosity behavior as well as the IFT.

  11. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-Ccopepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L(-1)) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼ 1.3-2.6 mg-oil m(-3) d(-1), which would represent ∼ 0.15%-0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Crude oil degradation as an explanation of the depth rule

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies of crude oil degradation by water washing and bacterial attack have documented the operation of these processes in many different petroleum basins of the world. Crude oil degradation substantially alters the chemical and physical makeup of a crude oil, changing a light paraffinic low-S "mature" crude to a heavy naphthenic or asphalt base, "immature appearing" high-S crude. Rough calculations carried out in the present study using experimentally determined solubility data of petroleum in water give insight into the possible magnitude of water washing and suggest that the process may be able to remove large amounts of petroleum in small divisions of geologic time. Plots of crude oil gravity vs. depth fail to show the expected correlation of increasing API gravity (decreasing specific gravity) with depth below 2.44 km (8000 ft.). Previous studies which have been carried out to document in-reservoir maturation have used crude oil gravity data shallower than 2.44 km (8000 ft.). The changes in crude oil composition as a function of depth which have been attributed to in-reservoir maturation over these shallower depths, are better explained by crude oil degradation. This study concludes that changes in crude oil composition that result from in-reservoir maturation are not evident from existing crude oil gravity data over the depth and temperature range previously supposed, and that the significant changes in crude oil gravity which are present over the shallow depth range are due to crude oil degradation. Thus the existence of significant quantities of petroleum should not necessarily be ruled out below an arbitrarily determined depth or temperature limit when the primary evidence for this is the change in crude oil gravity at shallow depths. ?? 1980.

  13. Crude oil from the Kalamkas field

    SciTech Connect

    Manovyan, A.K.; Dorogochinskaya, V.A.; Shigapova, A.K.; Shul'zhenko, E.D.

    1984-03-01

    This article reports on a study of a sample of commercial mixed crude from a field on the Buzachi Peninsula (Kazakh SSR). Kalamkas is a multireservoir field, the oil- and gas-bearing strata being mainly in the Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic. The oil is high in density, viscosity, and carbon residue, and it contains large amounts of resinous-asphaltic substances and sulfur, with little paraffin. The oil contains considerable amounts of metals, in particular vanadium and nickel. The diesel fuel cuts do not meet the requirements of the diesel fuel standards for sulfur content, and the 240-350/sup 0/C cut also fails to meet the requirements for kinematic viscosity at 20/sup 0/C. The 350-490/sup 0/C cut meets all of the requirements for catalytic cracking feed, including the limit on metal content. The total potential content of distillate lube stocks is 20.3% on crude, and the total potential content of residual lube stocks is 22.1%. Includes 4 tables.

  14. Production of hydraulic oil from Baku crudes

    SciTech Connect

    Samedova, F.I.; Kasumova, A.M.; Alieva, V.M.

    1994-07-01

    The demand for low-pour oils for use in hydraulic systems is considerably greater than the possible production volume. The base stocks for hydraulic oils - AMG-10, MGE-10A, RM, and RMTs - are obtained by sulfuric acid treatment. In the interest of improving the ecological aspects of hydraulic oil production, sulfuric acid treatment is being replaced by hydroprocessing. The work described here was aimed at determining the feasibility of obtaining hydraulic oil of the RM type from lube distillate fractions of the mixed low-wax crudes processed in the Baku Azerneftyag Petroleum Refinery. This oil is intended for use in hydraulic systems of automatic control apparatus, mainly in flight vehicles operating in the North. Stringent requirements are imposed on its solid point and viscosity. solid point no higher than -60{degrees}C. viscosity w higher than 350 mm{sup 2}/sec at -40{degrees}C. The lube fractions used as starting materials had viscosities of 2.77 and 16.84 mm{sup 2}/sec at 50{degrees}C, with respective flash points of 85{degrees} and 168{degrees}C. As another starting material we used a gasoil cut with a viscosity of 4.4 mm{sup 2}/sec at 50{degrees}C and a flash point of 134{degrees}C.

  15. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.

    1997-02-01

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry`s practice of maintaining crude stocks at ``Just in time`` inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers` information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996.

  16. Pump packages for Colombian crude oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The Caterpillar Large Engine Center recently packaged ten engine-driven centrifugal pump packages for British Petroleum Exploration`s crude oil pipeline in South America. The ten sets, which use Ingersoll-Dresser centrifugal pumps, are designed to increase significantly the output of BP`s Central LLanos pipeline located in a remote region near Bogota, Colombia. BP anticipates that the addition of the new pump packages will increase daily volume from the current 100000 barrels to approximately 210000 barrels when the upgrade of the pipeline is completed in September. The ten sets are installed at three separate pumping stations. The stations are designed to operate continuously while unmanned, with only periodic maintenance required. The pump packages are powered by Caterpillar 3612 engines rated 3040 kW at 1000 r/min. The 12-cylinder engines are turbocharged and charge-air cooled and use the pipeline oil as both fuel and a cooling medium for the fuel injectors.

  17. Ecuador plans expanded crude-oil line

    SciTech Connect

    Boschat, J.; Sabathier, J. )

    1995-01-23

    Ecuador plans to increase throughput of the 309 mile, 20 and 26-in. Trans Ecuadorian pipeline that moves crude oil from the Oriente in the Amazon basin to the Pacific coast for refining in local refineries and export. Increasing crude-oil production is driving the expansion. In investment, it is the largest pipeline project in the country in more than 20 years. In August 1992, Petro-ecuador, the Ecuadorian state company in charge of petroleum, hired the French petroleum consulting firm Beicip-Franlab to carry out the basic engineering and preparation of the technical tender documents for increasing the pipeline's throughput. The revamped Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, together with the Triunfo Nuevo-Condijua pipeline, will form the new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. This means that they will be integrated into a single system controlled and monitored from a main dispatching center in Guajalo near Quito which is now Petroecuador's maintenance center for the existing pipeline. As there is no supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system now on the Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, scada will be built along with a new telecommunication network covering the entire new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. Also, to comply with the most modern requirements in terms of environmental protection, especially in a country subject to seismic activity, a leak-detection system will be implemented on all lines.

  18. Developmental Toxicity of Louisiana Crude Oiled Sediment to Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryonic exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum products cause a characteristic suite of developmental defects in a variety of fish species. We exposed zebrafish embryos to sediment mixed with laboratory weathered South Louisiana crude oil. Oiled sedi...

  19. Developmental Toxicity of Louisiana Crude Oiled Sediment to Zebrafish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Embryonic exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and petroleum products cause a characteristic suite of developmental defects in a variety of fish species. We exposed zebrafish embryos to sediment mixed with laboratory weathered South Louisiana crude oil. Oiled sedi...

  20. Characterization of crude oils by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mutelet, F; Ekulu, G; Rogalski, M

    2002-09-06

    It was shown that the flocculation onset of asphaltenes in crude oils could be predicted on the basis of the inverse gas chromatography characterization of the crude oil properties. Hildebrand's solubility parameters of four crude oils were calculated from inverse chromatography data and compared with values obtained from the onset of asphaltene flocculation measurements. A good agreement was observed with three crude oils of different origin. A relation between Hildebrand's solubility parameter and linear solvation energy relationship descriptors was established and it was demonstrated that the solubility parameter of a crude oil is determined mainly with dispersion interactions and the hydrogen bond basicity. A large basicity lowers the oil solubility parameter, and increases its stability in respect to flocculation.

  1. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  2. The effect of temperature and pressure on the viscosities of crude oils and their mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Besharah, J.M.; Akashah, S.A.; Mumford, C.J.

    1989-02-01

    The kinematic viscosities of light, medium, and heavy crude oils, and their binary and ternary mixtures, were measured over a temperature range of 10-50/sup 0/C and a pressure range of 14.7-8000 psi. These data were used to develop a new method to predict the viscosity of crude oils and their blends at high pressure, based upon the densities of the components and the kinematic viscosity at atmospheric pressure. This prediction method gave excellent agreement with the measured values, the absolute average deviations being <5.2% and <6.0% for the binary and ternary crude oil mixtures, respectively. This was significantly better than the current equation adopted by the American Petroleum Institute which resulted in deviations of <34.7% and <27.7% for the same binary and ternary mixtures.

  3. Crude oils of the northern region of West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Mkhchiyan, M.A.; Driatskaya, Z.V.; Kaminskii, E.F.; Titkina, G.I.

    1983-03-01

    This article presents results of studies of the physiocochemical characteristics and hydrocarbon compositions of crude oils from the northern oil and gas province. It establishes that the oils are all nearly identical in properties (with the exception of the Russkaya crude from the Cenomanian deposits) and that they differ from the crudes and products obtained in other oil and gas districts of West Siberia. The crudes from the northern region are low-sulfur (below 0.5%), and that the potential content of distillates below 350/sup 0/C is extremely high, reaching levels of 91% and 84% by weight for the Kharvutte and Tarko-Salinsk crudes, respectively. It is recommended that these crudes should be segregated from the others of West Siberia in order to take advantage of their particular qualities.

  4. MERCURY IN CRUDE OIL PROCESSED IN THE UNITED STATES (2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mean and range of concentrations of mercury in crude oil processed in the U.S. were investigated using two analytical methods. The sample ensemble consisted of 329 samples from 170 separate crude oil streams that are processed by U.S. refineries. Samples were retrieved imme...

  5. MERCURY IN CRUDE OIL PROCESSED IN THE UNITED STATES (2004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mean and range of concentrations of mercury in crude oil processed in the U.S. were investigated using two analytical methods. The sample ensemble consisted of 329 samples from 170 separate crude oil streams that are processed by U.S. refineries. Samples were retrieved imme...

  6. Ground water contamination by crude oil near Bemidji, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Essaid, H.I.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Lahvis, M.H.; Bekins, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water contamination by crude oil, and other petroleum-based liquids, is a widespread problem. An average of 83 crude-oil spills occurred per year during 1994-96 in the United States, each spilling about 50,000 barrels of crude oil (U.S. Office of Pipeline Safety, electronic commun., 1997). An understanding of the fate of organic contaminants (such as oil and gasoline) in the subsurface is needed to design innovative and cost-effective remedial solutions at contaminated sites.

  7. Natural seepage of crude oil into the marine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Cooper, C.K.

    2003-01-01

    Recent global estimates of crude-oil seepage rates suggest that about 47% of crude oil currently entering the marine environment is from natural seeps, whereas 53% results from leaks and spills during the extraction, transportation, refining, storage, and utilization of petroleum. The amount of natural crude-oil seepage is currently estimated to be 600,000 metric tons per year, with a range of uncertainty of 200,000 to 2,000,000 metric tons per year. Thus, natural oil seeps may be the single most important source of oil that enters the ocean, exceeding each of the various sources of crude oil that enters the ocean through its exploitation by humankind.

  8. Efficient Atomization and Combustion of Emulsified Crude Oil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-18

    nozzle [7]. This method has been successfully demonstrated for both conventional liquid and alternative, highly viscous fuels such as vegetable oil and...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6180--14-9566 Efficient Atomization and Combustion of Emulsified Crude Oil September 18...PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Efficient Atomization and Combustion of Emulsified Crude Oil Steven G. Tuttle, John P. Farley, and

  9. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  10. Crude oil impairs cardiac excitation-contraction coupling in fish.

    PubMed

    Brette, Fabien; Machado, Ben; Cros, Caroline; Incardona, John P; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Block, Barbara A

    2014-02-14

    Crude oil is known to disrupt cardiac function in fish embryos. Large oil spills, such as the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster that occurred in 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico, could severely affect fish at impacted spawning sites. The physiological mechanisms underlying such potential cardiotoxic effects remain unclear. Here, we show that crude oil samples collected from the DWH spill prolonged the action potential of isolated cardiomyocytes from juvenile bluefin and yellowfin tunas, through the blocking of the delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Kr)). Crude oil exposure also decreased calcium current (I(Ca)) and calcium cycling, which disrupted excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes. Our findings demonstrate a cardiotoxic mechanism by which crude oil affects the regulation of cellular excitability, with implications for life-threatening arrhythmias in vertebrates.

  11. High-frequency EPR study of crude oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodin, M. A.; Mamin, G. V.; Izotov, V. V.; Orlinskii, S. B.

    2013-12-01

    Four different samples of crude oil were studied by means of high-frequency W-band (94 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with the aim to develop new methods of crude oil quality control. High spectral resolution of W-band allowed to avoid an overlap of spectra contributors. The ratio K between the integral intensity of the low-field EPR component of the vanadyl complexes to that of free radical line was chosen as an attribute of each sample. Using the K-parameters and EPR spectra simulations the crude oil leaking between adjacent horizons is shown. Pulsed EPR experiments allowed detecting free radicals signals only. It is demonstrated that the extracted transverse relaxation time could be used as an additional parameter which characterizes the origin of the crude oil and nature of the oil paramagnetic centers.

  12. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2) or... crude oil that can be used for crude oil washing....

  13. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2) or... crude oil that can be used for crude oil washing....

  14. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2) or... crude oil that can be used for crude oil washing....

  15. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2) or... crude oil that can be used for crude oil washing....

  16. 33 CFR 157.138 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.138 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. (a) Each Crude Oil Washing...

  17. 33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank vessel having a COW system meeting § 157.10a(a)(2) or... crude oil that can be used for crude oil washing....

  18. Efficient carbon rejection upgrades Mexico's Maya crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Suchanek, A.J.; Moore, A.S.

    1986-08-01

    Poor-quality crude oils and resids can be effectively upgraded by a chemically efficient carbon-rejection process followed by hydrotreating. The effectiveness is demonstrated by utilizing the asphalt residual treating (ART) process to upgrade whole Maya crude oil from Mexico, in a 100,000-b/d refinery. Maya was chosen because it represents most of the world's poor-quality crude oils and resids, and because the results of processing Maya will be similar for other poor-quality feed stocks. Here is a review of the upgrade process, along with investment and operating economics of the Maya upgrade.

  19. WETTING BEHAVIOR OF SELECTED CRUDE OIL/BRINE/ROCK SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    G.Q. Tang; N.R. Morrow

    1997-04-01

    The effect of aging and displacement temperatures, and brine and oil composition on wettability and the recovery of crude oil by spontaneous imbibition and waterflooding has been investigated. This study is based on displacement tests in Berea Sandstone using three distinctly different crude oils and three reservoir brines. Brine concentration was varied by changing the concentration of total dissolved solids of the synthetic brine in proportion to give brine of twice, one tenth, and one hundredth of the reservoir brine concentration. Aging and displacement temperatures were varied independently. For all crude oils, water-wetness and oil recovery increased with increase in displacement temperature. Tests on the effect of brine concentration showed that salinity of the connate and invading brines can have a major influence on wettability and oil recovery at reservoir temperature. Oil recovery increased over that for the reservoir brine with dilution of both the initial (connate) and invading brine or dilution of either. Removal of light components from the crude oil resulted in increased water-wetness. Addition of alkanes to the crude oil reduced the water-wetness, and increased oil recovery. Relationships between waterflood recovery and wettability are summarized.

  20. Responses of freshwater ecosystems to crude oil impaction

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    Responses of two freshwater lake ecosystems of the Intermountain West to crude oil impaction were investigated. Effects of crude oil on an ecosystem established in three phase laboratory microcosms (gaseous-aqueous-sediment), which simulated the natural lakes, were studied. Notable responses of the microcosm ecosystem to oil impaction included: an increased oxygen demand by the biological community, nutrient immobilization, a reduction in plant biomass accumulation and a heterotrophically dominated ecosystem. Nutrient immobilization, rather than toxic effects of oil on plants, was the primary factor leading to the long-term imbalance between autotrophs and heterotrophs following oil impaction. Crude oil reduced the rate and extent of in situ litter decomposition, but activity of oil-litter associated decomposer communities was greater than or equal to that of unoiled-litter over a year's period. Differences in the degree of crude oils' impacts between litter types and lakes were explained by factors such as biochemical structure of the plants, sediment types of the lakes and physical energy (e.g., wind) to the lakes. Increased rates of oxygen utilization because of the crude oil were identified as a potential primary detrimental effect of oil pollution. Crude oil did not affect the nutrient content of plant litter at any given stage of litter decomposition, but the rate of nutrient loss from the litter was reduced because of a reduction in the rate of litter decomposition.Of the nitrogen and phosphorus lost from plant litter, much less was released to ambient water in inorganic form from oiled litter than from unoiled litter. Nitrogen limitation to decomposers may have been the primary factor reducing the rate of oiled litter decomposition. Environmental ramifications of oil pollution concerning litter-environment nutrient exchange are discussed.

  1. Characterization of chemical fingerprints of unconventional Bakken crude oil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Lambert, Patrick; Zhang, Gong; Yang, Zeyu; Landriault, Mike; Hollebone, Bruce; Fieldhouse, Ben; Mirnaghi, Fatemeh; Brown, Carl E

    2017-11-01

    The ability to characterize the composition of emerging unconventional Bakken tight oil is essential to better prepare for potential spills and to assess associated environmental concerns. The present work measured and compared the physical and chemical properties of Bakken crudes with conventional crude oils from various regions and different types of refined petroleum products. The physicochemical properties of Bakken crude are overall similar to those of conventional light crudes. The Bakken crude consists of high concentrations of monoaromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated PAHs with a clear dominance of the alkylated naphthalene homologues followed by the phenanthrene series. Its pyrogenic index (PI) values are considerably lower than typical conventional crude oils. The Bakken crude oils in this study exhibit a low abundance of petroleum biomarker such as terpanes, steranes and diamondoids and bicyclic sesquiterpanes. Since tight oil from the Bakken region is produced from low-permeability formations, variations in abundance and diagnostic ratios of common target petroleum hydrocarbons were found among these oils. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  3. Application of biosurfactant produced from peanut oil cake by Lactobacillus delbrueckii in biodegradation of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Thavasi, Rengathavasi; Jayalakshmi, Singaram; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii cultured with peanut oil cake as the carbon source yielded 5.35 mg ml(-1) of biosurfactant production. Five sets of microcosm biodegradation experiments were carried out with crude oil as follows: set 1 - bacterial cells+crude oil, set 2 - bacterial cells+crude oil+fertilizer, set 3 - bacterial cells+crude oil+biosurfactant, set 4 - bacterial cells+crude oil+biosurfactant+fertilizer, set 5 - with no bacterial cells, fertilizer and biosurfactant (control). Maximum degradation of crude oil was observed in set 4 (75%). Interestingly, when biosurfactant and bacterial cells were used (set 3), significant oil biodegradation activity occurred and the difference between this treatment and that in set 4 was 7% higher degradation level in microcosm experiments. It is evident from the results that biosurfactants alone is capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizers.

  4. Effects of crude oil and dispersed crude oil on the critical swimming speed of puffer fish, Takifugu rubripes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoming; Xu, Chuancai; Liu, Haiying; Xing, Binbin; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Guosheng

    2015-05-01

    In order to examine the effects of crude oil and dispersed crude oil (DCO) on the swimming ability of puffer fish, Takifugu rubripes, the critical swimming speeds (U crit) of fish exposed to different concentrations of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil and DCO solution were determined in a swimming flume. WSF and DCO significantly affected the U crit of puffer fish (p < 0.05). The U crit of puffer fish exposed to 136 mg L(-1) WSF and 56.4 mg L(-1) DCO decreased 48.7 % and 43.4 %, respectively. DCO was more toxic to puffer fish than WSF. These results suggested that crude oil and chemically dispersed oil could weaken the swimming ability of puffer fish.

  5. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana

    2016-03-01

    As the world's oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  6. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    SciTech Connect

    Muntini, Melania Suweni Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana

    2016-03-11

    As the world’s oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  7. Biodiesel production in crude oil contaminated environment using Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Mohammadi Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad; Movafeghi, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Biodiesel is a valuable alternative to fossil fuels and many countries choose biodiesel as an unconventional energy source. A large number of investigations have been done on microalgae as a source of oil production. In recent years, wastewater pollutions have caused many ecological problems, and therefore, wastewater phycoremediation has attracted the international attention. This paper studied the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a crude oil polluted environment for biodiesel production. Intended concentrations were 10 and 20gperliter (crude oil/water) at two times. The results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was improved in wastewater and the maximum amount of dry mass and oil was produced at the highest concentration of crude oil (0.41g and 0.15g/l, respectively). In addition, dry mass and oil yield of the microalga were significantly enhanced by increasing the experiment duration.

  8. Waxy crude oil handling in Nigeria; Practices, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Ajienka, J.A.; Ikoku, C.U. )

    1990-01-01

    With case studies, the practices, problems, and prospects of handling waxy crude oils in Nigeria are discussed. Using a rotational viscometer, the temperature dependence of rheological properties and thixotropy of these crudes were determined. Suggestions are given on how to improve handling practices. These suggestions include adequate screening and ranking of wax inhibitors, taking into account pour-point depression, viscosity, and yield value.

  9. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF MERCURY IN CRUDE OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling and analytical procedures used to determine total mercury content in crude oils were examined. Three analytical methods were compared with respect to accuracy, precision and detection limit. The combustion method and a commercial extraction method were found adequate to...

  10. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF MERCURY IN CRUDE OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling and analytical procedures used to determine total mercury content in crude oils were examined. Three analytical methods were compared with respect to accuracy, precision and detection limit. The combustion method and a commercial extraction method were found adequate to...

  11. Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a short-term monthly forecasting model of West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot price using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) petroleum inventory levels.

  12. Method for preventing the formation of sludge in crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.; Lane, J.L. Jr.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes a method of increasing the permeability of a subterranean calcatreous formation containing a sludging crude oil while preventing the precipittion in the formation of slude, ferric compounds and calcium compounds.

  13. Microbial degradation of crude oil and some model hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Fu-Hsian; Noben, N.N.; Brand, Danny; Hult, Marc F.

    1988-01-01

    Research on microbial degradation of crude oil in the shallow subsurface at a spill site near Bemidji, Minn. (fig. C-l), began in 1983 (Hull, 1984; Chang and Ehrlich, 1984). The rate and extent of crude oil and model hydrocarbon biodegradation by the indigenous microbial community was measured in the laboratory at several concentrations of inorganic nutrients, conditions of oxygen availability, incubation temperatures, and incubation time.

  14. Crude oil plus dispersant: always a boon or bane?

    PubMed

    Otitoloju, Adebayo Akeem

    2005-02-01

    The toxicities of a Nigerian brand of crude oil (Forcados Light), a newly approved dispersant for use in Nigerian ecosystems (Biosolve), and their mixtures, based on ratios 9:1, 6:1 and 4:1 (v/v), were evaluated against the juvenile stage of prawn, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, in laboratory bioassays. On the basis of the derived toxicity indices, crude oil with 96-h LC50 value of 0.28 ml/L was found to be about six times more toxic than the dispersant (96-h LC50 1.9 ml/L) when acting alone against M. vollenhovenii. Toxicity evaluations of the mixtures of crude oil and dispersant meant to simulate the environmental control settings of crude oil spillages in aquatic ecosystems revealed that effects of the crude oil/dispersant mixtures varied, depending largely upon the proportion of addition of the mixture components. The interactions between mixture of crude oil and dispersant at the test ratios of 9:1 and 4:1 were found to conform with the model of synergism (RTU=1.2 and 2.1, respectively), while the interactions between the mixture prepared based on ratio 6:1 conformed with the model of antagonism (RTU=0.16), based on the concentration-addition model. Furthermore, the mixtures prepared based on ratios 9:1 and 6:1 were found to be less toxic than crude oil when acting singly against M. vollenhovenii while the mixture prepared based on ratio 4:1 was found to have similar toxicity with crude oil when acting singly, based on the derived synergistic ratio values. The importance of results obtained from the joint-action tests in setting effective and environmentally safe dispersal ratios is discussed.

  15. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work.

  16. Tough Blends of Polylactide and Castor Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Megan L.; Paxton, Jessica M.; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2012-10-10

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of L-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized - an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  17. Tough blends of polylactide and castor oil.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Megan L; Paxton, Jessica M; Hillmyer, Marc A

    2011-09-01

    Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) is a renewable resource polymer derived from plant sugars with several commercial applications. Broader implementation of the material is limited due to its inherent brittleness. We show that the addition of 5 wt % castor oil to PLLA significantly enhances the overall tensile toughness with minimal reductions in the modulus and no plasticization of the PLLA matrix. In addition, we used poly(ricinoleic acid)-PLLA diblock copolymers, synthesized entirely from renewable resources, as compatibilizers for the PLLA/castor oil blends. Ricinoleic acid, the majority fatty acid comprising castor oil, was polymerized through a lipase-catalyzed condensation reaction. The resulting polymers contained a hydroxyl end-group that was subsequently used to initiate the ring-opening polymerization of l-lactide. The binary PLLA/castor oil blend exhibited a tensile toughness seven times greater than neat PLLA. The addition of block copolymer allowed for control over the morphology of the blends, and even further improvement in the tensile toughness was realized-an order of magnitude larger than that of neat PLLA.

  18. Hydrogen isotope type-curves of very hot crude oils.

    PubMed

    Fekete, József; Sajgó, Csanád; Demény, Attila

    2011-01-15

    Several crude oil accumulations in the Pannonian Basin are trapped in uncommonly hot (>170°C) reservoirs. Their maturities range from mature to very mature on the basis of cracking parameters of their biological marker homologous series (ratio of products to reactants). A stable carbon isotopic study of these oils, poor in biological markers commonly used for correlation purposes, did not provide a reliable oil-to-oil correlation. As an alternative tool, the hydrogen isotope compositions of oil fractions separated on the basis of different polarities were measured, and hydrogen isotope type-curves were generated for a set of mature to very mature crude oil samples. This method of presenting hydrogen isotope composition of fractions as type-curves is novel. Nineteen samples (17 crude oils from SE-Hungary, 1 oil condensate and 1 artificial oil) were chosen for the present study. The aim was to examine the applicability of hydrogen isotope type-curves in oil-to-oil correlation and to test the simultaneous application of carbon and hydrogen isotope type-curves in the field of petroleum geochemistry. We have shown that, although the conventionally used co-variation plots proved to be inadequate for the correlation of these hot and mature oils, the simultaneous use of carbon and the newly introduced hydrogen isotope type-curves allows us to group and distinguish oils of different origins.

  19. Transfer of crude oil from contaminated water to bird eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Albers, P.H.

    1980-08-01

    Pairs of breeding mallard ducks were exposed to oiled water for 2 days during the first week of incubation. Hatching success of ducks exposed to 100 ml of Prudhoe Bay crude oil per square meter of water surface was significantly less than that of controls. Hatching success of ducks exposed to 5 ml of crude oil per square meter of water surface was less than that of controls but the difference was not significant. The presence of oil on the eggs of ducks exposed to oiled water was confirmed by chemical analysis. Thermocouple probes were used to monitor the egg and nest temperatures of some of the ducks in each of the three groups. Incubation temperatures of oiled females were not significantly different from those of the controls. The incubation behavior of females exposed to oiled water and the first-week survival of their ducklings was not affected by the oil.

  20. Transfer of crude oil from contaminated water to bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    Paris of breeding mallard ducks were exposed to oiled water for 2 days during the first week of incubation. Hatching success of ducks exposed to 100 ml of Prudhoe Bay crude oil per square meter of water surface was significantly less than that of controls. Hatching success of ducks exposed to 5 ml of crude oil per square meter of water surface was less than that of controls but the difference was not significant. The presence of oil on the eggs of ducks exposed to oiled water was confirmed by chemical analysis. Thermocouple probes were used to monitor the egg and nest temperatures of some of the ducks in each of the three groups. Incubation temperatures of oiled females were not significantly different from those of the controls. The incubation behavior of females exposed to oiled water and the first-week survival of their ducklings was not affected by the oil.

  1. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    On 24 March 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In the months following the spill, over 1,000 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from oil spill-affected areas are known to have died. The purpose of the study is to identify and describe histopathologic lesions associated with crude oil exposure in sea otters and to discuss possible pathogeneses of the lesions. Materials available included tissues from oil-contaminated and uncontaminated otters that died in rehabilitation centers following the oil spill and tissues from otters that were found dead in the oil spill-affected area with external oil present. Tissues from apparently normal sea otters from an area not contaminated by crude oil, were also examined.

  2. Combined heating and chemical treatment for oil recovery from aging crude oil.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chunjuan; Jiang, Qingzhe; Song, Zhaozheng; Tan, Guorong; Shi, Zhan

    2016-07-01

    With increasing use of chemical oil displacement agents in tertiary recovery and the application of various demulsifiers for crude oil dehydration, a large amount of aging crude oil containing a high ratio of water is produced, and it is very difficult for processing and utilisation. In this article, we chose aging crude oil samples from a union station in an oilfield in China. Sample composition was analysed to demonstrate that the key of aging crude oil dehydration is the removal of solid impurities. Thus, an efficient method of combining heating and chemical treatments was developed to treat aging crude oil. It includes two steps: The first step is washing of aging crude oil with hot water with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; the second step is chemical demulsification of the above mixture with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution. The result showed that 2.9% of solid impurities and 29.2% of water were removed in the first step; 27.2% of oil, 24.3% of water, and 3.47% of solid impurities in the aging crude oil were recycled in the second step. A total 87.07% of aging crude oil could be solved with this method. The present two-step treatment method can ensure that the dehydration process runs normally and efficiently in the union station, making it a promising method in the recycling of aging crude oil.

  3. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil...

  4. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil...

  5. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude oil...

  6. Effects of Removing Restrictions on U.S. Crude Oil Exports

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    This report examines the implications of removing current restrictions on U.S. crude oil exports for the price of domestic and global marker crude oil streams, gasoline prices, domestic crude oil production, domestic refining activity, and trade in crude oil and petroleum products.

  7. Open surface flotation method for extracted crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, D.M.; Wang, F.

    1983-09-06

    A method is disclosed for the separation of extracted viscous crude oil placed in a reservoir of an opened cell. Materials such as oil shale, oil sand, or tar sand may be involved. Hot water is introduced to the top surface of the reservoir material in the cell while steam is injected into a steam gallery running through the cell. The hot water and steam may contain a surfactant. The bouyancy of the crude oil creates an artificial water drive which causes the water and oil to ''flip-flop'' so that the oil rises to the top of the reservoir and separates from the remainder of the reservoir material. This separated oil may be removed from the cell and the remaining material disposed of.

  8. Open surface flotation method for extracted crude oil. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, D.M.; Wang, F.

    1981-05-29

    A method is described for the separation of extracted viscous crude oil placed in a reservoir of an opened cell. Materials such as oil shale, oil sand, or tar sand may be involved. Hot water is introduced to the top surface of the reservoir material in the cell while steam is injected into a steam gallery running through the cell. The hot water and steam may contain a surfactant. The bouyancy of the crude oil creates an artificial water drive which causes the water and oil to 'flip-flop' so that the oil rises to the top of the reservoir and separates from the remainder of the reservoir material. This separated oil may be removed from the cell and the remaining material disposed of.

  9. AN EXAMINATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL FLOW OF CRUDE OIL, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE MIDDLE EAST,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    crude oil transportation, its technology, worldwide pattern, and future. It gives special emphasis to the movement of crude oil between the Middle East and Western Europe because of the critical supply-and-demand relationships existing between the two regions; further, it underscores the growth of both the crude oil tanker and crude oil pipelines, and the effect that this growth will have on the future patterns of crude oil flow. And it notes that the interest of the Soviet Union in

  10. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN SOURCE ON CRUDE OIL BIODEGRADATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of NH4Cl and KNO3 on biodegradation of light Arabian crude oil by an oil-degrading enrichment culture were studied in respirometers. In poorly buffered sea salts medium, the pH decreased dramatically in cultures that contained NH4Cl, b...

  11. Wettability of Freon hydrates in crude oil/brine emulsions.

    PubMed

    Høiland, S; Askvik, K M; Fotland, P; Alagic, E; Barth, T; Fadnes, F

    2005-07-01

    The surface energy of petroleum hydrates is believed to be a key parameter with regard to hydrate morphology and plugging tendency in petroleum production. As of today, the surface energy of natural gas hydrates is unknown, but will depend on the fluids in which they grow. In this work, the wettability of Freon hydrates is evaluated from their behavior in crude oil emulsions. For emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles, the particle wettability is a governing parameter for the emulsion behavior. The transition between continuous and dispersed phases as a function of brine volume in crude oil-brine emulsions containing Freon hydrates has been determined for 12 crude oils. Silica particles are used for comparison. The results show that phase inversion is highly dependent on crude oil properties. Based on the measured points of phase inversion, the wettability of the Freon hydrates generated in each system is evaluated as being oil-wet, intermediate-wet, or water-wet. Generation of oil-wet hydrates correlates with low hydrate plugging tendency. The formation of oil-wet hydrates will prevent agglomeration into large hydrate aggregates and plugs. Hence, it is believed that the method is applicable for differentiating oils with regard to hydrate morphology.

  12. BIODEGRADABILITY OF DISPERSED CRUDE OIL AT TWO DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were initiated to study the biodegradability of crude oil after dispersants were applied. Two experiments were conducted, one at 20oC and the other at 5oC. In both experiments, only the dispersed oil fraction was investigated compared ...

  13. BIODEGRADABILITY OF DISPERSED CRUDE OIL AT TWO DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were initiated to study the biodegradability of crude oil after dispersants were applied. Two experiments were conducted, one at 20oC and the other at 5oC. In both experiments, only the dispersed oil fraction was investigated compared ...

  14. EFFECTS OF NITROGEN SOURCE ON CRUDE OIL BIODEGRADATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of NH4Cl and KNO3 on biodegradation of light Arabian crude oil by an oil-degrading enrichment culture were studied in respirometers. In poorly buffered sea salts medium, the pH decreased dramatically in cultures that contained NH4Cl, b...

  15. Enhanced crude oil biodegradation in soil via biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-02

    Research on feasible methods for the enhancement of bioremediation in soil contaminated by crude oil is vital in oil-exporting countries such as Kuwait, where crude oil is a major pollutant and the environment is hostile to biodegradation. This study investigated the possibility of enhancing crude oil bioremediation by supplementing soil with cost-effective organic materials derived from two widespread locally grown trees, Conocarpus and Tamarix. Amendments in soils increased the counts of soil microbiota by up to 98% and enhanced their activity by up to 95.5%. The increase in the biodegradation of crude oil (75%) and high levels of alkB expression substantiated the efficiency of the proposed amendment technology for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. The identification of crude-oil-degrading bacteria revealed the dominance of the genus Microbacterium (39.6%), Sphingopyxis soli (19.3%), and Bordetella petrii (19.6%) in unamended, Conocarpus-amended, and Tamarix-amended contaminated soils, respectively. Although soil amendments favored the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and reduced bacterial diversity, the structures of bacterial communities were not significantly altered.

  16. Variability in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lipopolysaccharide Expression during Crude Oil Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Norman, R. Sean; Frontera-Suau, Roberto; Morris, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial utilization of crude oil components, such as the n-alkanes, requires complex cell surface adaptation to allow adherence to oil. To better understand microbial cell surface adaptation to growth on crude oil, the cell surface characteristics of two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, U1 and U3, both isolated from the same crude oil-degrading microbial community enriched on Bonny Light crude oil (BLC), were compared. Analysis of growth rates demonstrated an increased lag time for U1 cells compared to U3 cells. Amendment with EDTA inhibited U1 and U3 growth and degradation of the n-alkane component of BLC, suggesting a link between cell surface structure and crude oil degradation. U1 cells demonstrated a smooth-to-rough colony morphology transition when grown on BLC, while U3 cells exhibited rough colony morphology at the outset. Combining high-resolution atomic force microscopy of the cell surface and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracted lipopolysaccharides (LPS), we demonstrate that isolates grown on BLC have reduced O-antigen expression compared with that of glucose-grown cells. The loss of O-antigen resulted in shorter LPS molecules, increased cell surface hydrophobicity, and increased n-alkane degradation. PMID:12324360

  17. Convergence and Divergence of Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagus, George M.

    This research investigates the possibility that WTI crude oil and Henry Hub natural gas prices share a stable link. Economic theory suggests that the two commodities are linked by both supply and demand given that the commodities can be coproduced and many consumers have the ability to switch between the fuels. In general, it would appear that the two commodities support this theory with natural gas prices tracking crude oil prices fairly well until late 2008. However, since the end of 2008 the two price series have diverged and appear to move independently of each other. Reduced fuel switching capabilities in U.S. industry and electric power generation coupled with increased technology and production from shale formations have potentially changed the driving force behind natural gas prices. However, a severe recession has impacted world economies over the same time period making the cause of the disparity between crude oil and natural gas prices unclear. Therefore, this research analyzed the possible long-term link between the two commodities over two timeframes. Using an error correction model that includes exogenous factors affecting the short-run dynamics of natural gas prices over the period January 1999 through September 2008, I find evidence of a long-run cointegrating relationship between natural gas and crude oil prices. Additionally, crude oil prices are found to be weakly exogenous to the system, suggesting causality runs from crude oil to natural gas prices. Extending this series through February 2012 yields much weaker evidence of a cointegrating relationship and provides evidence for the decoupling crude oil and natural gas prices.

  18. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  19. Utilization of interesterified oil blends in the production of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Ozvural, Emin Burçin; Vural, Halil

    2008-03-01

    Ten treatments of frankfurters were produced with interesterified oil and oil blends (palm oil, palm stearin, cottonseed oil, hazelnut oil and their mixtures) and were compared to control, produced with all animal fat. Addition of interesterified oil and oil blends affected (p<0.05) the moisture and fat content and pH values of frankfurters. According to the colour measurements, the brightness value (L(∗)) of most of the samples with interesterified oil and oil blends were higher (p<0.05) than the control. The fatty acid composition of frankfurters was modified. The PUFA/SFA values of frankfurters were increased due to the presence of interesterified oil and oil blends in the formulation. Frankfurters with 100% interesterified cottonseed oil or with interesterified oil blends with 66.6% and 83.4% cottonseed oil had PUFA/SFA ratio higher than 0.4 and are considered better than all others from the health point of view. Frankfurters produced with 100% interesterified cottonseed and hazelnut oil or with interesterified hazelnut oil blends had the same (p>0.05) scores for sensory attributes with the control, while all other treatments were also acceptable.

  20. Viscosity behavior of carbon dioxide treated Cut Bank crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, G.V.; Mosawi, H.

    1995-12-31

    Carbon dioxide injection, either by huff and puff or displacement operations, results in a crude oil viscosity reduction at pressures below the miscibility conditions. Carbon dioxide miscibility occurs in reservoirs at miscible temperature and pressure, but these conditions are not possible in shallow reservoirs. Improved oil recovery in a shallow reservoir depends on the degree of viscosity reduction at the reservoir temperature and pressure. A recovery project`s success depends on the interaction between the carbon dioxide and the reservoir system. A research project carried out at Montana Tech to study the viscosity reduction and carbon dioxide solubility in Cut Bank crude oil at the reservoir`s prevailing temperature and near fracture pressure shows a viscosity reduction ratio (crude-carbon dioxide mixture to original dead oil viscosity) of 0.22 at a pressure of 1,000 psig and 90 F. An original mobility of 20 Md/cp improves to 91 Md/cp under a carbon dioxide recovery process at or near the reservoir`s fracture pressure. Based on the authors` research, improved oil recovery operations in the Cut Bank Field, Montana, is viable when using a commercial on site carbon dioxide recovery or generating system to minimize the cost of CO{sub 2} transportation. The major benefits are oil viscosity reduction, mobility ratio improvement, gas drive, and crude oil swelling.

  1. Prospects for heavy crude oil development ( US, Canada and worldwide).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of utilizing heavy crude oil and natural bitumens centre on their high viscosity which makes them difficult to produce, store, transport and refine. These factors are reflected in costs. World reserves are substantial, however, perhaps as much as 7 trillion barrels estimated to represent 0.9 trillion barrels of recoverable oil. Data required to determine the cost of finding natural bitumen and heavy oil are roughly the same as for other mineral commodities. Similarly for recovery costs.-from Author

  2. Assessment of crude oil biodegradation in arctic seashore sediments: effects of temperature, salinity, and crude oil concentration.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Schiewer, Silke

    2016-08-01

    The expected increase in offshore oil exploration and production in the Arctic may lead to crude oil spills along arctic shorelines. To evaluate the potential effectiveness of bioremediation to treat such spills, oil spill bioremediation in arctic sediments was simulated in laboratory microcosms containing beach sediments from Barrow (Alaska), spiked with North Slope Crude, and incubated at varying temperatures and salinities. Biodegradation was measured via respiration rates (CO2 production); volatilization was quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) analysis of hydrocarbons sorbed to activated carbon, and hydrocarbons remaining in the sediment were quantified by GC/flame ionization detector (FID). Higher temperature leads to increased biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, while the release of volatile organic compounds was similar at both temperatures. Increased salinity had a small positive impact on crude oil removal. At higher crude oil dosages, volatilization increased, however CO2 production did not. While only a small percentage of crude oil was completely biodegraded, a larger percentage was volatilized within 6-9 weeks.

  3. 49 CFR 172.327 - Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.327 Petroleum sour crude oil in bulk packaging. A Bulk packaging used to transport petroleum crude oil containing hydrogen sulfide (i.e., sour crude...

  4. Rheological properties of crude oils in Yaregskoye and Yaraktinskoye oil fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzhai, V. N.; Le Grand Monkam Monkam, Clovis; Terre, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Rotary viscometer tests of crude oil with a high content of resins and asphaltenes (Yaregskoye oil field) and crude oil with high paraffin content (Yaraktinskoye oil field) have been conducted. The typical flow curves for these oil types have been plotted. It has been detected that these oils are non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity of which is dependent on shear rate. Based on Arrhenius-Eyring equation, calculations of viscous flow activation energy and complex structural unit (CSU) sizes have been performed. It has been stated that there is a tenfold reduction in CSU size in asphaltic crude oil with the increase in shear rate in a rotary viscometer, while particle size in paraffinic crude oil does not essentially change under the same hydrodynamic conditions.

  5. Leakage diffusion of underwater crude oil in wind fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liqiong; Liu, Qi; Li, Yunyun; Lu, Rui; Wu, Shijuan; Li, Xin; Hou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Leakage of underwater crude oil pipes causes severe pollution to soil and water, and results in great economic loss. To predict the diffusion area of spilled oil before it reaches the water's surface and to reduce the time required for emergency response, numerical simulations were conducted on underwater spilled oil diffusion of bare crude oil pipes using FLUENT software. The influences of water-surface wind speed, leakage hole diameter, water velocity, and initial leakage velocity on oil diffusion were analyzed. The results revealed the following: (1) with wind blowing on the surface of the water, the vertical displacement of spilled oil jet-flow was affected by the combined action of water flow and wind, making it difficult for a high-speed jet-flow to form. A horizontal oil flow mostly moved in the direction of the bottom water, and frontier oil droplets dispersed quickly; (2) during the diffusion of spilled oil in water, the maximum horizontal displacement mostly increased linearly, while the maximum vertical displacement initially increased quickly and then slowed; (3) the greater the initial velocity and leakage hole diameter, the higher the oil jet-flow and the wider the diffusion area; the higher the water flow rate and water-surface wind speed, the smaller the vertical displacement of spilled oil. The existence of water-surface wind had no obvious influence on the horizontal displacement of underwater spilled oil.

  6. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  7. Mercury in crude oil processed in the United States (2004).

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, S Mark; Liang, Lian; Cussen, Deborah; Kirchgessner, David A

    2007-07-01

    The mean and range of concentrations of mercury in crude oil processed by U.S. refineries in 2004 were determined using two analytical methods. One hundred seventy separate crude oil streams were sampled repetitively to obtain 328 individual samples. Samples were retrieved immediately upstream of refinery tank farms. Losses of mercury during production, separation, and transportation were not examined. The arithmetic mean and median of 170 oil streams were 7.3 and 1.5 microg/kg in total mercury, respectively. The total mercury concentration of oil processed in the United States in year 2004, including all species and both dissolved and suspended forms, expressed as a volume-weighted mean was calculated to be 3.5 +/- 0.6 microg/kg. The range of measured concentrations extended from below the analytical detection limit (0.5 microg/kg) to approximately 600 microg/kg. Good agreement was found with other recent and independent studies of mercury in crude oil refined in North America. The total amount of mercury in crude oil processed in the U.S annually is less than five percent of the amount contained in U.S. coal produced annually.

  8. Comparison of Michigan Basin crude oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogler, E. A.; Meyers, P. A.; Moore, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Michigan Basin oils from the Ordovician Trenton, Silurian Niagaran, and Devonian Dundee formations have been geochemically compared by GC, GC-MS, and carbon isotope mass spectrometry. One oil from each formation was selected for detailed analysis which included measurement of individual n-alkane delta 13 C values. The Ordovician and Devonian oils are strikingly similar to one another, yet clearly different from the Silurian oil. This pattern is unexpected because Ordovician and Devonian reservoirs are physically separated by the Silurian strata. From time-temperature considerations, the Devonian oil probably was formed in older strata and has migrated to its present location. Our analyses suggest a common source for the Devonian and Ordovician oils.

  9. Technique for the determination of asphaltenes in crude oil residues

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, C.D.; Huff, G.S.; Gharfeh, S.G.

    1986-12-01

    Recently, the authors reported a method for the determination of saturates, aromatics, and resins in deasphaltened crude oil residues by high-performance liquid chromatography using a flame ionization detector. The present work describes a filtration technique for the determination of asphaltenes in crude oil residues using disposable Millex filters. This technique reduces the filtration, washing, and equilibration time needed for asphaltene determination. Six crude oil residues that varied widely in asphaltene content were used to evaluate the precision of this technique. The values obtained by Millex filters were compared to the values obtained by a conventional method using filter papers. Agreement between the two methods was very good. Several methods have been reported for the separation and determination of asphaltenes. Speight et al. made a survey of the different asphaltene procedures and conducted the experimental work to determine the optimum conditions for asphaltene separation and determination. The operating parameters recommended by Speight were used in this work.

  10. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Adsorption of crude oil on anhydrous and hydrophobized vermiculite.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Umberto G; de F Melo, Marcus A; da Silva, Adaílton F; de Farias, Robson F

    2003-04-15

    This publication reports the adsorption of crude oil on vermiculite samples, expanded and hydrophobized with carnauba (Copernícia Cerífera) wax. The adsorption studies were performed by using columns filled with the vermiculite matrices and by dispersion of the vermiculite samples in an oil-water (50 ppm of oil) emulsion. The hydrate vermiculite exhibits a very low adsorption capacity against crude oil. On the other hand, anhydrous (expanded) and hydrophobized matrices show a high adsorption capacity. The 10% hydrophobized matrix show a 50% increased adsorption capacity, in comparison with the expanded one. For adsorption performed in the water-oil emulsion, saturation of the solid hydrophobized matrix is achieved after 60 min. The hydrophobized samples exhibit adsorption factors in the 0.7-1.0 range.

  12. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    SciTech Connect

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I.

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  13. Refining and separation of crude tall-oil components

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-10-01

    Methods for crude tall-oil refining and fractionation evolving research studies of long-chain fatty and resinic acids separation are reviewed. Although several techniques have been applied since the 1940s with industrial aims, only distillation under high vacuum is economically practicable for crude tall-oil fractionation. Techniques such as adsorption and dissociation extraction seem to be the most industrially promising for implementation in the future for the separation of long-chain fatty and resinic acids fractions with a high purity level at low cost.

  14. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  15. Laboratory unit for distillation of crude oils and products

    SciTech Connect

    Manovyan, A.K.; Khachaturova, D.A.; Lozin, V.V.

    1983-11-01

    The ARN-2 apparatus currently used to distill crude oil in order to determine its fractional composition requires too much time and labor. A distillation unit with stripping columns (RUST) has been developed with which a crude oil can be subjected to continuous distillation while taking several cuts simultaneously. The basic characteristics of the unit are outlined, and the unit subjected to comprehensive evaluations. The tests demonstrate the feasibility of using the RUST-1 and RUST-2 units for an extremely diverse group of laboratory operations.

  16. Morphological and biochemical characteristics of bacterial isolates degrading crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Janiyani, K.L.; Wate, S.R.; Joshi, S.R. )

    1993-01-01

    A mixed bacterial culture developed by soil enrichment procedure using crude oil as a substrate was screened for individual bacterial species. Studies on morphological and biochemical characterization of eleven dominant bacterial isolates revealed that most of the cultures were gram-negative motile rods, and were catalase and oxidase positive. It was observed that four bacterial isolates were efficient in degrading pure hydrocarbons, model petroleum and crude oil. Identification of dominant bacterial cultures confirmed the isolates as Pseudomonas stutzeri, Pseudomonas aeruginoss, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens. 28 refs., 8 tabs.

  17. Discriminating crude oil grades using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hussein, A.; Marzouk, A.; Harith, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of crude oil using laser-based analytical techniques such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has become of great interest to various specialists in different fields such as geology, petro-chemistry and environmental science. In this work, a detailed study is presented wherein the implementation of an efficient and simple LIBS technique to identify the elemental constituents of crude oil and to distinguish between different grades of petroleum crude oil is discussed. Laser-induced plasma (LIP) technique has been used in this work for direct measurements of atomic, ionic and molecular species in dry crude oil samples with API gravities ranging between 18 and 36. The technique was implemented using the first harmonic of a pulsed Nd-YAG laser source. Atomic and molecular emission bands were observed, consisting of characteristic spectral lines of atoms and diatomic molecular bands, namely from C, H, Si, Na, Ca, Mg, AL, Fe, Ti, Mo, C2 and CN. The intensities of high-resolution spectral lines for some atoms and molecules of elements such as Ca, Na, Fe, Mo, C2 and CN were evaluated at different wavelengths along the obtained spectra. The molecular bands and the elemental spectral lines were used to assess the possibility of adopting the LIBS technique in differentiating between crude oil samples with different American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity values. The results indicate the presence of a distinct correlation between the API gravity values of the various oil samples and the spectral line intensities of the elements and some molecular radical constituents. In addition, the possibility of identifying the API gravity values of unknown oil samples is also indicated.

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  19. 33 CFR 158.210 - Ports and terminals loading crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.210 Ports and terminals loading crude oil. The reception facility for a crude oil loading port or terminal must have the capacity for receiving— (a) Oil... the oceangoing tankers loading crude oil at the port or terminal that do not have clean ballast...

  20. 33 CFR 158.210 - Ports and terminals loading crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.210 Ports and terminals loading crude oil. The reception facility for a crude oil loading port or terminal must have the capacity for receiving— (a) Oil... the oceangoing tankers loading crude oil at the port or terminal that do not have clean ballast...

  1. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  4. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  5. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  6. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  7. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  8. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  9. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  10. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  11. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  12. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  13. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  14. 33 CFR 157.160 - Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.160 Tanks: Ballasting and crude oil washing. (a) The owner, operator, and master of a tank vessel under §...

  15. 33 CFR 158.210 - Ports and terminals loading crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.210 Ports and terminals loading crude oil. The reception facility for a crude oil loading port or terminal must have the capacity for receiving— (a) Oil... the oceangoing tankers loading crude oil at the port or terminal that do not have clean ballast...

  16. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  17. 33 CFR 158.210 - Ports and terminals loading crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.210 Ports and terminals loading crude oil. The reception facility for a crude oil loading port or terminal must have the capacity for receiving— (a) Oil... the oceangoing tankers loading crude oil at the port or terminal that do not have clean ballast...

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  19. 33 CFR 157.114 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.114 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Not approved. If the manuals submitted...

  20. 33 CFR 157.150 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording information after inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Inspections § 157.150 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual: Recording...

  1. 33 CFR 158.210 - Ports and terminals loading crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Criteria for Reception Facilities: Oily Mixtures § 158.210 Ports and terminals loading crude oil. The reception facility for a crude oil loading port or terminal must have the capacity for receiving— (a) Oil... the oceangoing tankers loading crude oil at the port or terminal that do not have clean ballast...

  2. 33 CFR 157.112 - Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved Crude Oil Washing... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.112 Approved Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil Public Law 104-58 SEC. 201. EXPORTS OF ALASKAN NORTH SLOPE OIL... crude oil transported by pipeline over rights-of-way granted pursuant to this section, except such...

  4. alpha-Terpineol from hydration of crude sulfate turpentine oil.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, H; Sarron, S; Roy, C

    2001-09-01

    Hydration of alpha-pinene under various conditions was studied and compared with the literature. Optimal reaction conditions have been established for the hydration of alpha-pinene and crude turpentine oil in the absence of catalyst and using a low volume of acetone. A detailed reaction product analysis is reported. The main hydration product, alpha-terpineol, was obtained at a yield of 67 wt % of the initial alpha-pinene by reacting with 15% aqueous sulfuric acid and an excess of acetone in an oil bath heated to 80-85 degrees C over the course of 4 h. A progressive transformation of alpha-terpineol to 4-(2-hydroxypropyl)-1-methylcyclohexanol (1,8-terpine) takes place as the hydration time exceeds 4 h. A crude turpentine oil sample was also hydrated under conditions similar to those of alpha-pinene. The alpha-terpineol yield was 77 wt % of the initial alpha-pinene in the crude turpentine oil. The chemical analysis of the crude turpentine oil before and after hydration was carried out, and the distribution of the products was discussed.

  5. Isolation and characterisation of crude oil sludge degrading bacteria.

    PubMed

    Obi, Linda U; Atagana, Harrison I; Adeleke, Rasheed A

    2016-01-01

    The use of microorganisms in remediating environmental contaminants such as crude oil sludge has become a promising technique owing to its economy and the fact it is environmentally friendly. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as the major components of oil sludge, are hydrophobic and recalcitrant. An important way of enhancing the rate of PAH desorption is to compost crude oil sludge by incorporating commercial surfactants, thereby making them available for microbial degradation. In this study, crude oil sludge was composted for 16 weeks during which surfactants were added in the form of a solution. Molecular characterisation of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that the isolates obtained on a mineral salts medium belonged to different genera, including Stenotrophmonas, Pseudomonas, Bordetella, Brucella, Bacillus, Achromobacter, Ochrobactrum, Advenella, Mycobacterium, Mesorhizobium, Klebsiella, Pusillimonas and Raoultella. The percentage degradation rates of these isolates were estimated by measuring the absorbance of the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol medium. Pseudomonas emerged as the top degrader with an estimated percentage degradation rate of 73.7% after 7 days of incubation at 28 °C. In addition, the presence of the catabolic gene, catechol-2,3-dioxygenase was detected in the bacteria isolates as well as in evolutionary classifications based on phylogeny. The bacteria isolated in this study are potential agents for the bioremediation of crude oil sludge.

  6. Seahorse (Hippocampus reidi) as a bioindicator of crude oil exposure.

    PubMed

    Delunardo, Frederico Augusto Cariello; de Carvalho, Luciano Rodrigues; da Silva, Bruno Ferreira; Galão, Michel; Val, Adalberto Luís; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana R

    2015-07-01

    This study explored the suitability of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933) for assessing biomarkers of genotoxic effects and its use as a sentinel organism to detect the effects of acute exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. Fish were exposed to three concentrations of crude oil (10, 20 and 30 g/kg) for 96 h, and the activity of phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) was measured. In addition, we performed genotoxicity assays, such as comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and nuclear abnormalities (NA) induction, on the erythrocytes of the fish species. Our results revealed that the inhibition of hepatic GST activity in H. reidi was dependent on increasing crude oil concentrations. In contrast, an increase in the damage index (DI) and MN frequency were observed with increased crude oil concentrations. These results indicate that the alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test were suitable and useful in the evaluation of the genotoxicity of crude oil, which could improve determinations of the impact of oil spills on fish populations. In addition, H. reidi is a promising "sentinel organism" to detect the genotoxic impact of petroleum hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Upgrading of crude algal bio-oil in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Duan, Peigao; Savage, Phillip E

    2011-01-01

    We determined the influence of a Pt/C catalyst, high-pressure H2, and pH on the upgrading of a crude algal bio-oil in supercritical water (SCW). The SCW treatment led to a product oil with a higher heating value (∼42 MJ/kg) and lower acid number than the crude bio-oil. The product oil was also lower in O and N and essentially free of sulfur. Including the Pt/C catalyst in the reactor led to a freely flowing liquid product oil with a high abundance of hydrocarbons. Overall, many of the properties of the upgraded oil obtained from catalytic treatment in SCW are similar to those of hydrocarbon fuels derived from fossil fuel resources. Thus, this work shows that the crude bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction of a microalga can be effectively upgraded in supercritical water in the presence of a Pt/C catalyst. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing... § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  9. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing... § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  10. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing... § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  11. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing... § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  12. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing... § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  13. Effects of ingested crude and dispersed crude oil on thermoregulation in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenssen, B.M.

    1989-02-01

    Thermoregulatory effects of ingested doses of Statfjord A crude oil and of this oil mixed with the dispersant Finasol OSR-5 were studied in adult domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) exposed to ambient temperatures of +16 degrees C and -17 degrees C. The data show that ingestion of both the crude and the oil-dispersant mixture resulted in an increased body temperature during exposure to the low ambient temperature (-17 degrees C). Neither contaminant had any effect on body temperature during exposure to +16 degrees C. Ingestion of the contaminants had no effect on metabolic heat production at either ambient temperature. The breast skin temperature of the ducks in both contaminated groups was significantly decreased when the ducks were exposed to the low ambient temperature. This indicates that the increase in body temperature observed in the contaminated ducks at the low ambient temperature is due to an increase in peripheral vasoconstriction.

  14. Inflationary effect of crude oil prices in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berument, Hakan; Taşçı, Hakan

    2002-12-01

    It is generally acknowledged that changes in oil prices affect economic welfare in ways that are not entirely reflected in transactions in the oil market. In this article, by using the 1990 input-output table, the inflationary effects of crude oil prices are investigated for Turkey. Under fixed nominal wages, profits, interest and rent earnings, the effect of increasing prices of oil on inflation is limited. However, when wages and the other three factors of income (profit, interest and rent) are adjusted to the general price level that includes the oil price increases, the inflationary effect of oil prices becomes significant. Hence, indexation could have very severe effects on an economy when oil prices increase and, in some cases, could even lead to hyperinflation.

  15. Crude oil bioremediation field experiment in the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Maki, Hideaki; Hirayama, Noriko; Hiwatari, Takehiko; Kohata, Kunio; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Watanabe, Masataka; Yamasaki, Fumio; Furuki, Masakazu

    2003-01-01

    Experimental bioremediation of crude oil was conducted for approximately 3 months in the intertidal zone of the Sea of Japan, Hyogo Prefecture. Artificial mixtures of weathered Arabian light crude oil and sand taken from the experimental site were wrapped in polyester net envelopes. The envelopes were placed in drum-shaped acrylic vessels with perforated sides to facilitate seawater exchange. The vessels were laid in the intertidal area. Slow release nitrogen and phosphorus synthetic fertilizer granules were added to the oil-sand mixtures in three different amounts. Some oil-sand mixtures were unfertilized controls. The oil-sand mixtures were periodically sampled and changes in the composition of the residual oils were monitored. Oil samples were subjected to gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for analysis of some representative semi-volatile aliphatic and aromatic compounds. All values for each analyte were normalized against that of hopane to evaluate the extent of oil biodegradation. Significant increases in the concentrations of both nitrogen and phosphorus were found in the fertilized sections in accordance with the amounts of added fertilizers. Although significant natural attenuation of oil was observed in the unfertilized sections, fertilization stimulated the degradation rate of the oil in the early stage of the experimental term. The extent of the oil biodegradation increased as the amount of added fertilizer increased. However, the final degradation efficiencies for each oil component in the fertilized sections were not significantly different from those in the unfertilized sections, and the degradation of each oil component had almost ceased after 6 weeks. We conclude that excessive amounts of macronutrients are required to accelerate oil biodegradation and that fertilization is only effective in the early stages.

  16. Induced biochemical interactions in crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1996-08-01

    In the evolution of oil from sedimentary to reservoir conditions, the hydrogen to carbon ratios decrease while the oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur to carbon ratios increase. During this process, the oils become heavier and richer in asphaltenes. In terms of chemical composition, the oils become enriched in resins, asphaltenes, and polar compounds containing the heteroatoms and metals. Over the geological periods of time, the chemical and physical changes have been brought about by chemical, biological (biochemical) and physical (temperature and pressure) means as well as by the catalytic effects of the sedimentary matrices, migration, flooding, and other physical processes. Therefore, different types of oils are the end products of a given set of such interactions which were brought about by multiple and simultaneous physicochemical processes involving electron transfer, free radical, and chemical reactions. A biocatalyst introduced into a reaction mixture of the type produced by such reactions will seek available chemical reaction sites and react at the most favorable ones. The rates and the chemical pathways by which the biocatalytic reactions will proceed will depend on the oil type and the biocatalyst(s). Some of the possible reaction pathways that may occur in such complex mixtures are discussed.

  17. Crude oil metabolites in groundwater at two spill sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Steenson, Ross; Thorn, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Two groundwater plumes in north central Minnesota with residual crude oil sources have 20 to 50 mg/L of nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC). These values are over 10 times higher than benzene and two to three times higher than Diesel Range Organics in the same wells. On the basis of previous work, most of the NVDOC consists of partial transformation products from the crude oil. Monitoring data from 1988 to 2015 at one of the sites located near Bemidji, MN show that the plume of metabolites is expanding toward a lakeshore located 335 m from the source zone. Other mass balance studies of the site have demonstrated that the plume expansion is driven by the combined effect of continued presence of the residual crude oil source and depletion of the electron accepting capacity of solid phase iron oxide and hydroxides on the aquifer sediments. These plumes of metabolites are not covered by regulatory monitoring and reporting requirements in Minnesota and other states. Yet, a review of toxicology studies indicates that polar metabolites of crude oil may pose a risk to aquatic and mammalian species. Together the results suggest that at sites where residual sources are present, monitoring of NVDOC may be warranted to evaluate the fates of plumes of hydrocarbon transformation products.

  18. [Quality research on Epimedium cut crude drug processed with oil].

    PubMed

    Sun, E; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Jin, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Jing-Jing; Jia, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Yan; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2010-06-01

    To study internal quality of 14 batches Epimedium cut crude drug processed with oil, and to provide informations for quality specification in Chinese Pharmacopeia of 2010 edition. 14 batches Epimedium cut crude drug processed with oil were investigated impurity, moisture content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, extractum and assaying to analyze and evaluate their quality condition. It is suggested that, in Epimedium cut crude drug processed with oil, the moisture content should not pass 8.0%, total ash should not pass 8.0%, acid-insoluble ash should not pass 2.0%, extractum content should not lower than 12.0%, total flavonoids content should not lower than 5.0%, icariin content should not lower than 0.6%, and Baohuoside I content should not lower than 0.1%. Quality evaluation system of Epimedium cut crude drug processed with oil has been constructed initially, it will offer scientific basis for instituting quality specification in Chinese Pharmacopeia of 2010 edition.

  19. Tolerance of nitrobacter to toxicity of some Nigerian crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Okpokwasili, G.C.; Odokuma, L.O. )

    1994-03-01

    Crude oil spillage in aquatic systems affects thousands of aquatic species including bacteria. Some of the crude oil components are rapidly evaporated or biologically degraded. Other components continue to remain for several months and perhaps several years. Some of these components may be toxic to microorganisms, while some may stimulate microbial activity especially at low concentrations. The use of bacteria as bioassay organisms is now gaining wide acceptance. It offers a number of advantages such as ease of handling, economy of space, short life cycles and low cost. Their uses in bioassays are based on cell lysis, mutagenic properties and the inhibition of physiological processes such as respiration. Recently, a number of workers have proposed the use of Nitrobacter as a test organism. The organism has a number of advantages in toxicity testing: obligate autotrophy, its sensitivity to various toxicants and its predominance in wastewater environments are some of them . Of recent, the inhibition of bacterial enzyme biosynthesis have been suggested in bacterial assays. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of six Nigerian crude oils on the cell reproduction rate (LC, lethal concentration), cellular respiration (EC, effective concentration) and biosynthesis of enzyme responsible for nitrite oxidation (IC, inhibition concentration) in Nitrobacter. In addition, the goal was to identify which of these was the most sensitive to crude oil and which may thus be used for detecting the toxicity of these chemicals. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Legislative history of the crude oil windfall profit tax

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, T.

    1980-08-01

    This paper looks at the history of the crude oil windfall profits tax program from the completion of the administration proposal to the passage of the final conference bill. The administration's proposal, House action, Senate action, and the final bill are described.

  1. Crude Oil Metabolites in Groundwater at Two Spill Sites.

    PubMed

    Bekins, Barbara A; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Erickson, Melinda L; Steenson, Ross A; Thorn, Kevin A

    2016-09-01

    Two groundwater plumes in north central Minnesota with residual crude oil sources have 20 to 50 mg/L of nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC). These values are over 10 times higher than benzene and two to three times higher than Diesel Range Organics in the same wells. On the basis of previous work, most of the NVDOC consists of partial transformation products from the crude oil. Monitoring data from 1988 to 2015 at one of the sites located near Bemidji, MN show that the plume of metabolites is expanding toward a lakeshore located 335 m from the source zone. Other mass balance studies of the site have demonstrated that the plume expansion is driven by the combined effect of continued presence of the residual crude oil source and depletion of the electron accepting capacity of solid phase iron oxide and hydroxides on the aquifer sediments. These plumes of metabolites are not covered by regulatory monitoring and reporting requirements in Minnesota and other states. Yet, a review of toxicology studies indicates that polar metabolites of crude oil may pose a risk to aquatic and mammalian species. Together the results suggest that at sites where residual sources are present, monitoring of NVDOC may be warranted to evaluate the fates of plumes of hydrocarbon transformation products.

  2. Libya, Algeria and Egypt: crude oil potential from known deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.; Ross, T.A.

    1982-04-01

    An analysis is presented of the discovered crude oil resources, reserves, and estimated annual production from known fields of the Republics of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Proved reserves are defined as the remaining producible oil as of a specified date under operating practice in effect at that time and include estimated recoverable oil in undrilled portions of a given structure or structures. Also included in the proved reserve category are the estimated indicated additional volumes of recoverable oil from the entire oil reservoir where fluid injection programs have been started in a portion, or portions, of the reservoir. The indicated additional reserves (probable reserves) reported herein are the volumes of crude oil that might be obtained with the installation of secondary recovery or pressure maintenance operations in reservoirs where none have been previously installed. The sum of cumulative production, proved reserves, and probable reserves is defined as the ultimate oil recovery from known deposits; and resources are defined as the original oil in place (OOIP). An assessment was made of the availability of crude oil under three assumed sustained production rates for each country; an assessment was also made of each country's capability of sustaining production at, or near, the 1980 rates assuming different limiting reserve to production ratios. Also included is an estimate of the potential maximum producing capability from known deposits that might be obtained from known accumulations under certain assumptions, using a simple time series approach. The theoretical maximum oil production capability from known fields at any time is the maximum deliverability rate assuming there are no equipment, investment, market, or political constraints.

  3. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  4. Influences of Fuel Additive, Crude Palm and Waste Cooking Oil on Emission Characteristics of Small Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Amir; Jaat, Norrizam; Manshoor, Bukhari; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Basharie, Mariam

    2017-08-01

    Major research has been conducted on the use of input products, such as rapeseed, canola, soybean, sunflower oil, waste cooking oil (WCO), crude palm oil (CPO) and crude jatropha oil as alternative fuels. Biodiesel is renewable, biodegradable and oxygenated, where it can be easily adopted by current existing conventional diesel engine without any major modification of the engine. To meet the future performance and emission regulations, is urged to improve the performance and exhaust emissions from biodiesel fuels. Hence, further investigation have been carried out on the emission characteristics of small diesel engine that fuelled by variant blending ratio of WCO and CPO with booster additive. For each of the biodiesel blends ratio from 5 to 15 percent volume which are WCO5, WCO10 and WCO15 for WCO biodiesel and CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 for CPO biodiesel. The exhaust emissions were measured at engine speeds varied at 2000 rpm and 2500 rpm with different booster additive volume DRA (biodiesel without additive), DRB (0.2 ml) and DRC (0.4 ml). Emissions characteristics that had been measured were Hydrocarbon (HC), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), and smoke opacity. The results showed that increased of blending ratio with booster additive volume significantly decreased the CO emission, while increased in NOx and CO2 due to changes of fuel characteristics in biodiesel fuel blends.

  5. 75 FR 11841 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Short Supply Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... petroleum (crude oil) and is used by licensing officers to determine the exporter's compliance with the five...

  6. Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

    1980-08-01

    Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

  7. Rheological behavior and structural interpretation of waxy crude oil gels.

    PubMed

    Visintin, Ruben F G; Lapasin, Romano; Vignati, Emanuele; D'Antona, Paolo; Lockhart, Thomas P

    2005-07-05

    A waxy crude oil which gels below a threshold temperature has been investigated under static and dynamic conditions, using a combination of rheological methods, optical microscopy, and DSC. Particular attention is given in this work to the influence of the mechanical history on gel strength and to describing the time-dependent rheological behavior. The gels display a strong dependence of the yield stress and moduli on the shear history, cooling rate, and stress loading rate. Of particular interest is the partial recovery of the gel structure after application of small stress or strain (much smaller than the critical values needed for flow onset) during cooling, which can be used to reduce the ultimate strength of the crude oil gel formed below the pour point. A second focus of this study is to further develop the physical interpretation of the mechanism by which wax crystallization produces gelation. Gelation of the waxy crude oil studied is suggested to be the result of the association between wax crystals, which produces an extended network structure, and it is shown that the system displays features common to attractive colloidal gels, for one of which, fumed silica (Aerosil 200) in paraffin oil, rheological data are reported. The colloidal gel model provides a simple and economical basis for explaining the response of the gelled oil to various mechanical perturbations and constitutes a fruitful basis from which to develop technologies for controlling the gelation phenomenon, as suggested by the rheological results reported.

  8. Direct Utilization of Crude Oils as Fuels in U.S. Army Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    availability of crude oil properties throughout the world were investigated, and these properties were divided into two groups (1) Those properties which...of crude oil use on engine subsystem hardware such as fuel filters and fuel injection pumps were investigated, with particular attention being paid...CLR diesel engine operating on various crude oils. Performance data, wear, and deposition effects of crude oil use were obtained using the TACOM

  9. Microbial ecology of a crude oil contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, B.A.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed microbial analyses of a glacial outwash aquifer contaminated by crude oil provide insights into the pattern of microbial succession from iron reducing to methanogenic in the anaerobic portion of the contaminant plume. We analysed sediments from this area for populations of aerobes, iron reducers, fermenters and methanogens, using the most probable number method. On the basis of the microbial data the anaerobic area can be divided into distinct physiological zones dominated by either iron-reducers or a consortium of fermenters and methanogens. Chemistry and permeability data show that methanogenic conditions develop first in areas of high hydrocarbon flux. Thus, we find methanogens both in high permeability horizons and also where separate-phase crude oil is present in either the saturated or unsaturated zone. Microbial numbers peak at the top of the separate-phase oil suggesting that growth is most rapid in locations with access to both hydrocarbons and nutrients infiltrating from the surface.

  10. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. oil and natural gas proved reserves declined in 2015 due to lower prices. U.S. crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves declined 4.7 billion barrels (11.8%) from their year-end 2014 level to 35.2 billion barrels at year-end 2015, according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2015, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. U.S natural gas proved reserves decreased 64.5 trillion cubic feet, a 16.6% decline, reducing the U.S. total to 324.3 Tcf at year-end 2015.

  11. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil.

  12. U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. oil and natural gas proved reserves declined in 2015 due to lower prices. U.S. crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves declined 4.7 billion barrels (11.8%) from their year-end 2014 level to 35.2 billion barrels at year-end 2015, according to U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Year-end 2015, released today by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. U.S natural gas proved reserves decreased 64.5 trillion cubic feet, a 16.6% decline, reducing the U.S. total to 324.3 Tcf at year-end 2015.

  13. Surface weathering and dispersibility of MC252 crude oil.

    PubMed

    Daling, Per S; Leirvik, Frode; Almås, Inger Kjersti; Brandvik, Per Johan; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Lewis, Alun; Reed, Mark

    2014-10-15

    Results from a comprehensive oil weathering and dispersant effectiveness study of the MC252 crude oil have been used to predict changes in oil properties due to weathering on the sea surface and to estimate the effective "time window" for dispersant application under various sea conditions. MC252 oil is a light paraffinic crude oil, for which approximately 55 wt.% will evaporate within 3-5 days when drifting on the sea. An unstable and low-viscosity water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion are formed during the first few days at the sea surface. This allows a high degree of natural dispersion when exposed to breaking wave conditions. Under calm sea conditions, a more stable and light-brown/orange colored water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion may start to form after several days, and viscosities of 10,000-15,000 mPa s can be achieved after 1-2 weeks. The "time window" for effective use of dispersants was estimated to be more than 1 week weathering at sea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. United States Producing and Nonproducing Crude Oil and Natural Gas Reserves From 1985 Through 2004

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the regional and temporal trends in producing and nonproducing crude oil and natural gas reserves using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) categorization of reserves. The report first focuses on EIA's collection and reporting of crude oil and natural gas reserves data, followed by a discussion of the natural gas reserve trends, and then the crude oil reserve trends.

  15. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  16. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-11-01

    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Fate of Crude Oil during Photooxidation under Natural Sunlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Evans, M.; Bacosa, H. P.; Hu, X.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Photooxidation plays an important role in removing spilled crude oil, particularly the aromatic fraction, in surface seawater. Even though much research has been done regarding the changes of different oil fractions by photooxidation, including saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA), we know little about how specific aromatic compounds change in the SARA fractions during photooxidation. In this study, we amended 13C-labled phenanthrene in slightly weathered Louisiana light sweet crude, and followed the fates of 13C values of the SARA fractions during a 44-d incubation experiment under the natural sunlight in south Texas. Our results showed that the aromatic fraction of the crude decreased from 25.4% at time zero to 13.5% at the 44th d, while the resin increased from 12.2% to 16.5% and asphaltene from 2.4% to 13.3%, respectively. This result indicates the aromatic was transformed mostly into asphaltene by photooxidation, and most of the changes took place within the first 10 d. In contrast, no significant difference was observed in the SARA fractions in the dark controls. Analyses of 13C values and phenanthrene concentrations in the SARA fractions are currently on going and will be presented. Results from this experiment provide insights into changes of specific aromatic compounds within oil fractions by photochemical oxidation during oil weathering in the ocean.

  18. Induced biochemical interactions in immature and biodegraded heavy crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Shelenkova, L.; Zhou, W.M.

    1998-11-01

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.

  19. INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS IN IMMATURE AND BIODEGRADED HEAVY CRUDE OILS

    SciTech Connect

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; SHELENKOVA,L.; ZHOU,W.M.

    1998-10-27

    Studies in which selective chemical markers have been used to explore the mechanisms by which biocatalysts interact with heavy crude oils have shown that the biochemical reactions follow distinct trends. The term biocatalyst refers to a group of extremophilic microorganisms which, under the experimental conditions used, interact with heavy crude oils to (1) cause a redistribution of hydrocarbons, (2) cause chemical changes in oil fractions containing sulfur compounds and lower the sulfur content, (3) decrease organic nitrogen content, and (4) decrease the concentration of trace metals. Current data indicate that the overall effect is due to simultaneous reactions yielding products with relatively higher concentration of saturates and lower concentrations of aromatics and resins. The compositional changes depend on the microbial species and the chemistry of the crudes. Economic analysis of a potential technology based on the available data indicate that such a technology, used in a pre-refinery mode, may be cost efficient and promising. In the present paper, the background of oil biocatalysis and some recent results will be discussed.

  20. Biodegradability of dispersed crude oil at two different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Venosa, A D; Holder, E L

    2007-05-01

    Laboratory experiments were initiated to study the biodegradability of oil after dispersants were applied. Two experiments were conducted, one at 20 degrees C and the other at 5 degrees C. In both experiments, only the dispersed oil fraction was investigated. Each experiment required treatment flasks containing 3.5% artificial seawater and crude oil previously dispersed by either Corexit 9500 or JD2000 at a dispersant-to-oil ratio of 1:25. Two different concentrations of dispersed oil were prepared, the dispersed oil then transferred to shake flasks, which were inoculated with a bacterial culture and shaken on a rotary shaker at 200 rpm for several weeks. Periodically, triplicate flasks were removed and sacrificed to determine the residual oil concentration remaining at that time. Oil compositional analysis was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to quantify the biodegradability. Dispersed oil biodegraded rapidly at 20 degrees C and less rapidly at 5 degrees C, in line with the hypothesis that the ultimate fate of dispersed oil in the sea is rapid loss by biodegradation.

  1. Progression of methanogenic degradation of crude oil in the subsurface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, B.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Delin, G.N.; Warren, E.; Essaid, H.I.

    2005-01-01

    Our results show that subsurface crude-oil degradation rates at a long-term research site were strongly influenced by small-scale variations in hydrologic conditions. The site is a shallow glacial outwash aquifer located near Bemidji in northern Minnesota that became contaminated when oil spilled from a broken pipeline in August 1979. In the study area, separate-phase oil forms a subsurface oil body extending from land surface to about 1 m (3.3 ft) below the 6-8-m (20-26 ft)-deep water table. Oil saturation in the sediments ranges from 10-20% in the vadose zone to 30-70% near the water table. At depths below 2 m (6.6 ft), degradation of the separate-phase crude oil occurs under methanogenic conditions. The sequence of methanogenic alkane degradation depletes the longer chain n-alkanes before the shorter chain n-alkanes, which is opposite to the better known aerobic sequence. The rates of degradation vary significantly with location in the subsurface. Oil-coated soils within 1.5 m (5 ft) of land surface have experienced little degradation where soil water saturation is less than 20%. Oil located 2-8 m (6.6-26 ft) below land surface in areas of higher recharge has been substantially degraded. The best explanation for the association between recharge and enhanced degradation seems to be increased downward transport of microbial growth nutrients to the oil body. This is supported by observations of greater microbial numbers at higher elevations in the oil body and significant decreases with depth in nutrient concentrations, especially phosphorus. Our results suggest that environmental effects may cause widely diverging degradation rates in the same spill, calling into question dating methods based on degradation state. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  2. Crude-oil biodegradation via methanogenesis in subsurface petroleum reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Jones, D M; Head, I M; Gray, N D; Adams, J J; Rowan, A K; Aitken, C M; Bennett, B; Huang, H; Brown, A; Bowler, B F J; Oldenburg, T; Erdmann, M; Larter, S R

    2008-01-10

    Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs has adversely affected the majority of the world's oil, making recovery and refining of that oil more costly. The prevalent occurrence of biodegradation in shallow subsurface petroleum reservoirs has been attributed to aerobic bacterial hydrocarbon degradation stimulated by surface recharge of oxygen-bearing meteoric waters. This hypothesis is empirically supported by the likelihood of encountering biodegraded oils at higher levels of degradation in reservoirs near the surface. More recent findings, however, suggest that anaerobic degradation processes dominate subsurface sedimentary environments, despite slow reaction kinetics and uncertainty as to the actual degradation pathways occurring in oil reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments in microcosms monitoring the hydrocarbon composition of degraded oils and generated gases, together with the carbon isotopic compositions of gas and oil samples taken at wellheads and a Rayleigh isotope fractionation box model, to elucidate the probable mechanisms of hydrocarbon degradation in reservoirs. We find that crude-oil hydrocarbon degradation under methanogenic conditions in the laboratory mimics the characteristic sequential removal of compound classes seen in reservoir-degraded petroleum. The initial preferential removal of n-alkanes generates close to stoichiometric amounts of methane, principally by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Our data imply a common methanogenic biodegradation mechanism in subsurface degraded oil reservoirs, resulting in consistent patterns of hydrocarbon alteration, and the common association of dry gas with severely degraded oils observed worldwide. Energy recovery from oilfields in the form of methane, based on accelerating natural methanogenic biodegradation, may offer a route to economic production of difficult-to-recover energy from oilfields.

  3. Blends of rapeseed oil with black cumin and rice bran oils for increasing the oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Rudzińska, Magdalena; Hassanein, Minar M M; Abdel-Razek, Adel G; Ratusz, Katarzyna; Siger, Aleksander

    2016-02-01

    For the increase of oxidative stability and phytonutrient contents of rapeseed oil 5, 10 and 20 % blends with rice bran oil and black cumin oil were prepared. Profiles of different bioactive lipid components of blends including tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytostanols as well as fatty acid composition were carried out using HPLC and GLC. Rancimat was used for detecting oxidative stability of the fatty material. The blends with black cumin seed oil characterized higher level of α- and γ-tocopherols as well as all isomers of tocotrienols. Presence of rice bran oil in blends leads to increased tocotrienols amounts, β-sitosterol and squalene. Blending resulted in lowering ratio of PUFA/SFA and improves stability of these oils. The ratio of omega-6/omega-3 raises from 2.1 in rapeseed oil to 3.7 and 3.0 in blends with black cumin and rice bran oils, respectively. Addition of 10 and 20 % of black cumin and rice bran oils to rapeseed oil were influenced on the oxidative stability of prepared blends. The results appear that blending of rapeseed oil with black cumin seed oil or rice bran oil enhanced nutritional and functional properties via higher oxidative stability as well as improved phytonutrient contents.

  4. Hydrous pyrolysis of crude oil in gold-plated reactors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curiale, J.A.; Lundegard, P.D.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    Crude oils from Iraq and California have been pyrolyzed under hydrous conditions at 200 and 300??C for time periods up to 210 days, in gold-plated reactors. Elemental (vanadium, nickel), stable isotopic (carbon), and molecular (n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, steranes, terpanes and aromatic steroid hydrocarbons) analyses were made on the original and pyrolyzed oils. Various conventional crude oil maturity parameters, including 20S/(20S + 20R)-24-ethylcholestane ratios and the side-chain-length distribution of aliphatic and aromatic steroidal hydrocarbons, were measured in an effort to assess the modification of molecular maturity parameters in clay-free settings, similar to those encountered in "clean" reservoirs. Concentrations of vanadium and nickel in the Iraq oil decrease significantly and the V/(V + Ni) ratio decreases slightly, with increasing pyrolysis time/temperature. Whole oil carbon isotope ratios remain fairly constant during pyrolysis, as do hopane/sterane ratios and carbon number distribution of 5??(H),14??(H),17??(H),20R steranes. These latter three parameters are considered maturity-invariant. The ratios of short side-chain components to long side-chain components of the regular steranes [C21/(C21 + C29R)] and the triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons [C21/(C21 + C28)] vary systematically with increasing pyrolysis time, indicating that these parameters may be useful as molecular maturity parameters for crude oils in clay-free reservoir rocks. In addition, decreases in bisnorhopane/hopane ratio with increasing pyrolysis time, in a clay-free and kerogen-free environment, suggest that the distribution of these compounds is controlled by either differential thermal stabilities or preferential release from a higher-molecular weight portion of the oil. ?? 1992.

  5. Marine biodegradation of crude oil in temperate and Arctic water samples.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Mette; Johnsen, Anders R; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-12-30

    Despite increased interest in marine oil exploration in the Arctic, little is known about the fate of Arctic offshore oil pollution. Therefore, in the present study, we examine the oil degradation potential for an Arctic site (Disko Bay, Greenland) and discuss this in relation to a temperate site (North Sea, Denmark). Biodegradation was assessed following exposure to Oseberg Blend crude oil (100 mg L(-1)) in microcosms. Changes in oil hydrocarbon fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl-substituted PAHs, dibenzothiophenes, n-alkanes and alkyltoluenes were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the Disko Bay sample, the degradation order was n-alkanes>alkyltoluenes (para->meta->ortho-isomers)>PAHs and dibenzothiophenes, whereas, the degradation order in the North Sea samples was PAHs and dibenzothiophenes>alkyltoluenes>n-alkanes. These differences in degradation patterns significantly affect the environmental risk of oil spills and emphasise the need to consider the specific environmental conditions when conducting risk assessments of Arctic oil pollution.

  6. Fatty acid fragmentation of triacylglycerol isolated from crude nyamplung oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparamarta, Hakun Wirawasista; Anggraini, Desy; Istianingsih, Della; Susanto, David Febrilliant; Widjaja, Arief; Ju, Yi-Hsu; Gunawan, Setiyo

    2017-05-01

    Nyamplung (Calophylluminophyllum) has many benefits ranging from roots, stems, leaves, until seeds. In this seed, C. inophyllum contained significantly high amount of crude oil (70.4%). C. inophyllum oil is known as non edible. Therefore Indonesian people generally only know that seeds can produce oil that can be used for biodiesel. In this work, the fragmentation of fatty acid in triacylglycerols (TAG) was studied. The isolation process was started with separation of non polar lipid fraction (NPLF) from crude C. inophyllum oil via batchwise multistage liquid extraction. TAG was obtained in high purity (99%) and was analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). It was found that fatty acids of TAG are palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1c), linoleic acid (C18:2c), and linolenic acid (C18:3c). Moreover, TAG isolated from C. inophyllum oil was promising as edible oil.

  7. Microbiological profile of crude oil in storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Atagana, H I

    1996-07-01

    Microbiological quality of crude oil storage tanks was determined. The samples were taken from crude oil storage tanks in three stations, at Ughelli, Escravos and Forcados tank farms in the Delta State of Nigeria. Two tanks were sampled at each station with samples collected from three levels of the tank, namely the oil layer, oil water interface, and effluent layer. Samples from the inner walls and bottom sediment of the only empty tank in Ughelli during the study were also taken. The total heterotrophic count of bacteria and total fungal count were obtained by plating samples on nutrient agar and sabouraud's glucose agar respectively and incubated for 14 days at 28 °C±2 °C. Oilutilizing bacteria and fungi were isolated on oil agar using fungizone and antibiotics to inhibit fungal and bacterial growth respectively. Pure cultures of bacteria and fungi were prepared on nutrient agar and sabouraud's glucose agar respectively at 28 °C±2 °C for 4 days. Isolates were identified using approved standard methods. Three bacterial genera, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Bacillus, and one actinomycete, Actinomyces and two fungal genera, Penicillium and Cunninghamella, were isolated. Pseudomonas was dominant among the bacteria (41.62%) and Penicillium dominant among the fungi (94%). It was also found that the total microbial load of the effluent layer was higher than that of the oil layer.

  8. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.; Ballachey, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body - heavily contaminated; oil covering 30–60% of the body - moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur - lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters (three males, two females) found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters (four males, two females) collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with

  9. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil. 158.220 Section 158.220 Navigation... § 158.220 Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker... than 1,000 metric tons (1,100 short tons) of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil to...

  10. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil. 158.220 Section 158.220 Navigation... § 158.220 Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker... than 1,000 metric tons (1,100 short tons) of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil to...

  11. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil. 158.220 Section 158.220 Navigation... § 158.220 Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker... than 1,000 metric tons (1,100 short tons) of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil to...

  12. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil. 158.220 Section 158.220 Navigation... § 158.220 Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker... than 1,000 metric tons (1,100 short tons) of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil to...

  13. 33 CFR 158.220 - Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil. 158.220 Section 158.220 Navigation... § 158.220 Ports and terminals loading more than 1,000 metric tons of oil other than crude oil or bunker... than 1,000 metric tons (1,100 short tons) of oil other than crude oil or bunker oil to...

  14. Use of chemical fingerprinting to establish the presence of spilled crude oil in a residential area following Hurricane Katrina, St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Stout, Scott A; Liu, Bo; Millner, Glenn C; Hamlin, Dyron; Healey, Edward

    2007-11-01

    Hurricane Katrina's storm surge displaced and damaged a 250,000 barrel storage tank causing a Nigerian crude oil blend (API 36.4 degrees) to be released and dispersed into the adjacent evacuated residential area by the retreating floodwaters. The subsequent environmental assessment involved sampling and chemical fingerprinting of nearly 15,000 wipe and soil samples collected both inside and outside of buildings to determine which properties were impacted by the spilled crude oil. Tier 1 qualitative analysis of gas chromatograms and Tier 2 quantitative (revised Nordtest-type) and qualitative (ASTM D5739-type) analysis of petroleum biomarkers revealed the extent of crude oil contamination-as well as the widespread occurrence of hydrocarbons derived from (i) lubricating, hydraulic, and transmission oils, most likely from vehicles in the flooded area, and (ii) allochthonous natural organic matter (NOM) from the surrounding bayous. Conventional oil spill fingerprinting protocols and two-component mixing models (crude oil/lube oil and crude oil/NOM) were used to confirm the presence of the spilled crude oil-even when mixed at low concentrations with other hydrocarbon sources-as a means to develop and govern a settlement and remedial program with the affected property owners.

  15. Wavelet regression model in forecasting crude oil price

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Mohd Helmie; Shabri, Ani

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the performance of wavelet multiple linear regression (WMLR) technique in daily crude oil forecasting. WMLR model was developed by integrating the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The original time series was decomposed to sub-time series with different scales by wavelet theory. Correlation analysis was conducted to assist in the selection of optimal decomposed components as inputs for the WMLR model. The daily WTI crude oil price series has been used in this study to test the prediction capability of the proposed model. The forecasting performance of WMLR model were also compared with regular multiple linear regression (MLR), Autoregressive Moving Average (ARIMA) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) using root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean absolute errors (MAE). Based on the experimental results, it appears that the WMLR model performs better than the other forecasting technique tested in this study.

  16. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    SciTech Connect

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  17. Crude oil emulsions containing a compatible fluorochemical surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Karydas, A.; Rodgers, J.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a crude oil in water emulsion, which is stable to both breakdown and phase inversion up to at least about 50{degrees} C., the emulsion containing an effective, compatible, emulsion stabilizing amount of a fluorochemical surfactant of the formula (R{sub {ital f}}){sub {ital n}}A{sub {ital m}}Q wherein R{sub {ital f}} is an inert, stable, oleophobic and hydrophobic fluoroaliphatic group having up to about 20 carbon atoms; n is an integer from 1 to 3; A is a direct bond or an organic linking group and is covalently bonded to both R{sub {ital f}} and Q; Q is an anionic, nonionic or amphoteric group; and m is an integer from 1 to 3; wherein the amount of weight of the fluorochemical surfactant present in the emulsion being between about 0.001 and 1% by weight of the emulsion, in the presence of absence of up to about 2% by weight of a crude oil emulsion promoting hydrocarbon surfactant, with the proviso that at least about 0.005% by weight total fluorochemical and hydrocarbon surfactant is present, based upon the weight of emulsion, and wherein the emulsion contains bout 15 to about 90 percent by weight water, based upon the weight of emulsion, such that the viscosity of the emulsion is less than about 50% of the viscosity of the crude oil, and wherein the emulsion spontaneously breaks down into an aqueous and crude oil phase at a temperature between about 55{degrees} and 75{degrees} C.

  18. Modeling of crude oil biodegradation using two phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Fakhru'l-Razi, A; Peyda, Mazyar; Ab Karim Ghani, Wan Azlina Wan; Abidin, Zurina Zainal; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Moeini, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, crude oil biodegradation has been optimized in a solid-liquid two phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) by applying a response surface methodology based d-optimal design. Three key factors including phase ratio, substrate concentration in solid organic phase, and sodium chloride concentration in aqueous phase were taken as independent variables, while the efficiency of the biodegradation of absorbed crude oil on polymer beads was considered to be the dependent variable. Commercial thermoplastic polyurethane (Desmopan®) was used as the solid phase in the TPPB. The designed experiments were carried out batch wise using a mixed acclimatized bacterial consortium. Optimum combinations of key factors with a statistically significant cubic model were used to maximize biodegradation in the TPPB. The validity of the model was successfully verified by the good agreement between the model-predicted and experimental results. When applying the optimum parameters, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed a significant reduction in n-alkanes and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This consequently highlights the practical applicability of TPPB in crude oil biodegradation. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: an annotated review

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkman, D.W.; Bowden, J.N.; Giles, H.N.

    1980-02-01

    The Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) of the Deopartment of Energy (DOE) and the US Army Fuels and Lubricants Research laboratory (AFLRL) at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) have been working together on a support effort for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office (SPRO) of DOE. One task within this effort was a detailed literature survey of previous experiences in long-term storage of crude oil and finished fuels with an emphasis on underground storage. Based on the discussion presented in this review, in the limited number of cases reported, the refinability of crude oil was not significantly affected by prolonged storage. It was found that most crudes will deposit a sludge during storage which may interfere with withdrawal pumping. This sludge is probably composed of wax, sediment, water, and possibly asphaltenes. Emulsions of the water-oil interface have been reported after prolonged storage which have been attributed to action of centrifugal pumps used to remove accumulated seepage water. It is possible that these emulsions resulted from biological activity, such as the anaerobic activity reported, but no hydrogen sulfide production was observed.

  20. Hidden Markov Model and Forward-Backward Algorithm in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talib Bon, Abdul; Isah, Nuhu

    2016-11-01

    In light of the importance of crude oil to the world's economy, it is not surprising that economists have devoted great efforts towards developing methods to forecast price and volatility levels. Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile such as economic, political and social. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid unforeseen circumstances towards economic activity. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2nd January to 29th May 2015. We used Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Forward-Backward Algorithm to forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using Maple software. Based on the study, we concluded that model (0 3 0) is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  1. The Biodiversity Changes in the Microbial Population of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    Crude oil spills resulting from excavation, transportation and downstream processes can cause intensive damage to living organisms and result in changes in the microbial population of that environment. In this study, we used a pyrosequencing analysis to investigate changes in the microbial population of soils contaminated with crude oil. Crude oil contamination in soil resulted in the creation of a more homogenous population of microorganisms dominated by members of the Actinomycetales, Clostridiales and Bacillales (all belonging to Gram-positive bacteria) as well as Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadales (all belonging to Gram-negative bacteria). These changes in the biodiversity decreased the ratios of chemoheterotrophic bacteria at higher concentrations of crude oil contamination, with these being replaced by photoheterotrophic bacteria, mainly Rhodospirillales. Several of the dominant microbial orders in the crude oil contaminated soils are able to degrade crude oil hydrocarbons and therefore are potentially useful for remediation of crude oil in contaminated sites.

  2. Impact of Small Raindrops on Crude Oil Slicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morra, David; Almashan, Nourah; Murphy, David; Katz, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    The impact of millimeter size water droplets falling near terminal velocity (e.g. rainfall) on a pool is known to produce air bubbles at the bottom of the splash cavity. These bubbles produce noise and contribute to marine aerosol production. Layers of crude oil resulting from oil spills alter air-sea interfacial properties. Our high speed observations examine the effect of oil layer thickness on the entrainment of air and oil as small raindrops impact the surface. They reveal that layers in the 10-400 μm range suppress bubble entrainment, likely due to the reduction of air-liquid surface tension (from 72 to 28 mN/m). For ``low energy'' impacts (droplets <2 mm and speed <2.5 m/s) and <200 μm layers, rupture of the film in less than 1 ms causes rapid retraction of the oil layer across the subsurface cavity and formation of oil droplets on the cavity side. Subsequently, as the cavity collapses, a vortex ring develops at the bottom of this cavity and forces these droplets downward. Impact on thicker oil layers results initially in accumulation of the drop fluid at the cavity base. When the drop subsequently penetrates the layer, it creates multiphase vesicles, i.e. drops of freshwater coated by a thin oil film, which migrate down into the bulk seawater. Sponsored by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  3. The primary biodegradation of dispersed crude oil in the sea.

    PubMed

    Prince, Roger C; McFarlin, Kelly M; Butler, Josh D; Febbo, Eric J; Wang, Frank C Y; Nedwed, Tim J

    2013-01-01

    Dispersants are important tools for stimulating the biodegradation of large oil spills. They are essentially a bioremediation tool - aiming to stimulate the natural process of aerobic oil biodegradation by dispersing oil into micron-sized droplets that become so dilute in the water column that the natural levels of biologically available nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen are sufficient for microbial growth. Many studies demonstrate the efficacy of dispersants in getting oil off the water surface. Here we show that biodegradation of dispersed oil is prompt and extensive when oil is present at the ppm levels expected from a successful application of dispersants - more than 80% of the hydrocarbons of lightly weathered Alaska North Slope crude oil were degraded in 60 d at 8 °C in unamended New Jersey (USA) seawater when the oil was present at 2.5 ppm by volume. The apparent halftime of the biodegradation of the hydrocarbons was 13.8 d in the absence of dispersant, and 11 d in the presence of Corexit 9500 - similar to rates extrapolated from the field in the Deepwater Horizon response.

  4. Deep Desulfurization of Diesel Oil and Crude Oils by a Newly Isolated Rhodococcus erythropolis Strain

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bo; Xu, Ping; Shi, Quan; Ma, Cuiqing

    2006-01-01

    The soil-isolated strain XP was identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis. R. erythropolis XP could efficiently desulfurize benzonaphthothiophene, a complicated model sulfur compound that exists in crude oil. The desulfurization product of benzonaphthothiophene was identified as α-hydroxy-β-phenyl-naphthalene. Resting cells could desulfurize diesel oil (total organic sulfur, 259 ppm) after hydrodesulfurization. The sulfur content of diesel oil was reduced by 94.5% by using the resting cell biocatalyst for 24 h at 30°C. Biodesulfurization of crude oils was also investigated. After 72 h of treatment at 30°C, 62.3% of the total sulfur content in Fushun crude oil (initial total sulfur content, 3,210 ppm) and 47.2% of that in Sudanese crude oil (initial total sulfur, 1,237 ppm) were removed. Gas chromatography with pulsed-flame photometric detector analysis was used to evaluate the effect of R. erythropolis XP treatment on the sulfur content in Fushun crude oil, and it was shown that most organic sulfur compounds were eliminated after biodesulfurization. PMID:16391024

  5. Deep desulfurization of diesel oil and crude oils by a newly isolated Rhodococcus erythropolis strain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Xu, Ping; Shi, Quan; Ma, Cuiqing

    2006-01-01

    The soil-isolated strain XP was identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis. R. erythropolis XP could efficiently desulfurize benzonaphthothiophene, a complicated model sulfur compound that exists in crude oil. The desulfurization product of benzonaphthothiophene was identified as alpha-hydroxy-beta-phenyl-naphthalene. Resting cells could desulfurize diesel oil (total organic sulfur, 259 ppm) after hydrodesulfurization. The sulfur content of diesel oil was reduced by 94.5% by using the resting cell biocatalyst for 24 h at 30 degrees C. Biodesulfurization of crude oils was also investigated. After 72 h of treatment at 30 degrees C, 62.3% of the total sulfur content in Fushun crude oil (initial total sulfur content, 3,210 ppm) and 47.2% of that in Sudanese crude oil (initial total sulfur, 1,237 ppm) were removed. Gas chromatography with pulsed-flame photometric detector analysis was used to evaluate the effect of R. erythropolis XP treatment on the sulfur content in Fushun crude oil, and it was shown that most organic sulfur compounds were eliminated after biodesulfurization.

  6. The utilization of crude fish oil (CFO) to increase mudcrab (Scylla serrata) feed quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamid, Mirni; Agustono

    2017-02-01

    Crude fish oil is one of essential fatty acid sources, which is found in Sardinella lemuru. This research aims to study the quality improvement of mudcrab(Scylla serrata) feed. Four feed formulations were designed by using completely randomized design, including P0 = trash fish + 1% tapioca starch; P1=trash fish + 2.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch;, P2= trash fish +4.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P3=trash fish + 6.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P4=trash fish +8.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch, respectively, which were carried out in quadruplicate. This study showed that feed formulation significantly affected crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash, organic matter and nitrogen free extract and energy of mudcrab. The P2 feed was the best formulation but had a slight different from P3 formulation.

  7. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  8. Characteristics of Baku and eastern crudes as raw materials for lube oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Samedova, F.I.; Kasumova, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    This article presents data to show that the lube cuts from the Baku medium-wax crudes, in contrast to the eastern medium-wax crudes, will not give oils with viscosity indexes above 90 even when severly treated. The medium-wax Baku crudes have higher contents of naphthenic-paraffinic hydrocarbons, and their aromatic hydrocarbons are present in smaller amounts and have poorer viscosity-temperature properties. The Baku refineries have become the principal suppliers of lube oils in the USSR because of their use of low-wax crudes and relatively simple manufacturing processes. In recent years, the resources of low-wax crudes have declined while the medium-wax crudes have increased. The Baku medium-wax crudes are distinguished by higher contents of oils, including residual oils. It is concluded that the Baku medium-wax crudes should be processed to produce oils that are in short supply, such as transformer oils, turbine oils, compressor oils, high-viscosity oils of the P-28 type, and special-purpose oils (e.g., white oils, naphthenic oils) for which a high viscosity index is not a requirement. The medium-wax crudes from the eastern districts should be used to produce oils with viscosity indexes above 90. Includes 5 tables.

  9. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  10. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  11. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  12. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  13. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  14. Measurement of Soret coefficients of crude oil in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, D'arcy; Legros, Jean-Claude; Montel, François

    1998-01-01

    Optimum technical and economic development of an oil field requires accurate knowledge of the behavior of the fluids that impregnate petroleum reservoirs and of their evolution during production. Many reservoirs being explored today are at sufficient depth to be close to critical pressure and temperature conditions. Therefore, they are very sensitive to applied forces of gravity plus temperature and pressure gradients. Compositional differences induced by such forces can be very significant. The thermodiffusion (Soret) process exists in the presence of a temperature gradient in fluid mixtures, inducing a mass flux. Very few numerical models of oil reservoirs take into account the thermodiffusion process mainly due to a severe lack of Soret coefficients measured in crude oil. Soret coefficients of crude oil must be measured to provide for accurate numerical models. The Microgravity Research Center is collaborating with C-CORE to develop a microgravity experiment to fly on NASA's Space Shuttle. This paper describes the development and potential benefits of the Soret coefficient project.

  15. Crude oil contamination of plastic and copper drinking water pipes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiangning; Andry, Stephane; Yaputri, Jessica; Kelly, Devin; Ladner, David A; Whelton, Andrew J

    2017-10-05

    This study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of plastic (i.e., PEX, HDPE and CPVC) and copper pipes to short-term contamination by crude oil. Pipes were exposed to highly and slightly contaminated drinking water for the typical duration of Do Not Use drinking water orders. PEX pipes sorbed and desorbed the greatest amount of monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs), whereas copper pipes were less susceptible to contamination. For benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) quantified in water, only benzene exceeded its health based maximum contaminant level (MCL). The MCL was exceeded for copper pipe on day 3, for CPVC pipe through day 9, and PEX and HDPE pipes through day 15. The BTEX compound concentration in water after the pipes were returned to service depended on the initial crude oil concentration, material type, and exposure duration. Total organic carbon (TOC) measurement was not helpful in detecting oil contaminated water. Except BTEX, trimethylbenzene isomers and a couple of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with and without MCLs were also detected desorbing from PEX-A pipe. Oil contaminated water must be thoroughly characterized and pipe type will influence the ability of drinking water levels to return to safe limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Louisiana crude oil on the sheepshead minnow ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Determining the long-term effects of crude oil exposure is critical for ascertaining population-level ecological risks of spill events. A 19-week complete life-cycle experiment was conducted with the estuarine sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) exposed to reference (uncontaminated) sediment spiked with laboratory weathered South Louisiana crude (SLC) oil at five concentrations as well as one unspiked sediment control and one seawater (no sediment) control. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to the oiled sediments at measured concentrations of < 1 (sediment control), 50, 103, 193, 347, and 711 mg total polyaromatic hydrocarbons (tPAH)/kg dry sediment. Juveniles were exposed through the reproductively active adult phase at measured concentrations of <1 (sediment control), 52, 109, 199, 358, and 751 mg tPAH/kg sediment. Throughout the exposure, fish were assessed for growth, survival, and reproduction. Resulting F1 embryos were then collected, incubated, and hatched in clean water to determine if parental full life-cycle exposure to oiled sediment produced trans-generational effects. Larvae experienced significantly reduced standard length (5–13% reduction) and wet weight (13–35% reduction) at concentrations at and above 50 and 103 mg tPAH/kg sediment, respectively. At 92 and 132 days post hatch (dph), standard length was reduced (7–13% reduction) at 199 and 109 mg tPAH/kg dry sediment, respectively, and wet weight for both time periods was reduced

  17. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, David L.; Allen, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  18. The determination of water in crude oil and transformer oil reference materials.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Sam A; Hagwood, Charles

    2003-05-01

    The measurement of the amount of water in oils is of significant economic importance to the industrial community, particularly to the electric power and crude oil industries. The amount of water in transformer oils is critical to their normal function and the amount of water in crude oils affects the cost of the crude oil at the well head, the pipeline, and the refinery. Water in oil Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are essential for the accurate calibration of instruments that are used by these industries. Three NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been prepared for this purpose. The water in these oils has been measured by both coulometric and volumetric Karl Fischer methods. The compounds (such as sulfur compounds) that interfere with the Karl Fischer reaction (interfering substances) and inflate the values for water by also reacting with iodine have been measured coulometrically. The measured water content of Reference Material (RM) 8506a Transformer Oil is 12.1+/-1.9 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 6.2+/-0.9 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2722 Sweet Crude Oil, is 99+/-6 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 5+/-2 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2721 Sour Crude Oil, is 134+/-18 mg kg(-1) plus an additional 807+/-43 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances. Interlaboratory studies conducted with these oil samples (using SRM 2890, water saturated 1-octanol, as a calibrant) are reported. Some of the possible sources of bias in these measurements were identified, These include: improperly calibrated instruments, inability to measure the calibrant accurately, Karl Fischer reagent selection, and volatilization of the interfering substances in SRM 2721.

  19. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  20. Relative phytoplankton growth responses to physically and chemically dispersed South Louisiana sweet crude oil.

    PubMed

    Özhan, Koray; Miles, Scott M; Gao, Heng; Bargu, Sibel

    2014-06-01

    We conducted controlled laboratory exposure experiments to assess the toxic effects of water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of South Louisiana sweet crude oil on five phytoplankton species isolated from the Gulf of Mexico. Experiments were conducted with individual and combinations of the five phytoplankton species to determine growth inhibitions to eight total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) equivalent concentrations ranging from 461 to 7,205 ppb. The composition and concentration of crude oil were altered by physical and chemical processes and used to help evaluate crude oil toxicity. The impact of crude oil exposure on phytoplankton growth varied with the concentration of crude oil, species of microalgae, and their community composition. At a concentration of TPH < 1,200 ppb, dinoflagellate species showed significantly better tolerance, while diatom species showed a higher tolerance to crude oil at higher concentrations of TPH. For both groups, the larger species were more tolerant to crude oil than smaller ones. The toxicity potential of crude oil seems to be strongly influenced by the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The addition of the dispersant, Corexit® EC9500A, increased the amount of crude oil up to 50-fold in the water column, while the physical enhancement (vigorous mixing of water column) did not significantly increase the amount of TPH concentration in the water column. The species response to crude oil was also examined in the five-species community. Each phytoplankton species showed considerably less tolerance to crude oil in the five-species community compared to their individual responses. This study provides baseline information about individual phytoplankton responses to crude oil and dispersed crude oil for subsequent research efforts seeking to understand the impacts of oil on the phytoplankton in the bigger picture.

  1. Effects of Nano Additives in engine emission Characteristics using Blends of Lemon Balm oil with Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil kumar, J.; Ganesan, S.; Sivasaravanan, S.; Padmanabhan, S.; Krishnan, L.; Aniruthan, V. C.

    2017-05-01

    Economic growth in developing countries has led to enormous increase in energy demand. In India the energy demand is increasing at a rate of 6.5% every year. The crude oil demand of country is meet by bring in of about 70%. Thus the energy safety measures have become key issue for our country. Bio diesel an eco-friendly and renewable fuel alternate for diesel has been getting the consideration of researcher’s entire world. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the engine parameters using blend of pure lemon balm oil with diesel. Also nano Additives is used as a catalyst with blends of bio fuel to enhance the Emission Characteristics of various effective gases like CO2, NOx, CO and UHC with various levels of engine process parameters.

  2. Ingestion and sublethal effects of physically and chemically dispersed crude oil on marine planktonic copepods.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Baca, Sarah; Hyatt, Cammie; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Planktonic copepods play a key function in marine ecosystems, however, little is known about the effects of dispersants and chemically dispersed crude oil on these important planktonic organisms. We examined the potential for the copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Parvocalanus crassirostris to ingest crude oil droplets and determined the acute toxicity of the dispersant Corexit(®) 9500A, and physically and chemically dispersed crude oil to these copepods. We detected ingestion of crude oil droplets by adults and nauplii of the three copepod species. Exposure to crude oil alone (1 µL L(-1), 48 h) caused a reduction of egg production rates (EPRs) by 26-39 %, fecal pellet production rates (PPRs) by 11-27 %, and egg hatching (EH) by 1-38 % compared to the controls, depending on the species. Dispersant alone (0.05 µL L(-1), 48 h) produced a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 20-35, 12-23 and 2-11 %, respectively. Dispersant-treated crude oil was the most toxic treatment, ~1.6 times more toxic than crude oil alone, causing a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 45-54, 28-41 and 11-31 %, respectively. Our results indicate that low concentrations of dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil are toxic to marine zooplankton, and that the ingestion of crude oil droplets by copepods may be an important route by which crude oil pollution can enter marine food webs.

  3. Crude oil price analysis and forecasting based on variational mode decomposition and independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E, Jianwei; Bao, Yanling; Ye, Jimin

    2017-10-01

    As one of the most vital energy resources in the world, crude oil plays a significant role in international economic market. The fluctuation of crude oil price has attracted academic and commercial attention. There exist many methods in forecasting the trend of crude oil price. However, traditional models failed in predicting accurately. Based on this, a hybrid method will be proposed in this paper, which combines variational mode decomposition (VMD), independent component analysis (ICA) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), called VMD-ICA-ARIMA. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence factors of crude oil price and predict the future crude oil price. Major steps can be concluded as follows: Firstly, applying the VMD model on the original signal (crude oil price), the modes function can be decomposed adaptively. Secondly, independent components are separated by the ICA, and how the independent components affect the crude oil price is analyzed. Finally, forecasting the price of crude oil price by the ARIMA model, the forecasting trend demonstrates that crude oil price declines periodically. Comparing with benchmark ARIMA and EEMD-ICA-ARIMA, VMD-ICA-ARIMA can forecast the crude oil price more accurately.

  4. Isolation and characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from the Persian Gulf (Khorramshahr provenance).

    PubMed

    Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Zeynalipour, Mohammad Saleh; Musa, Farzaneh Hosseinzadeh

    2014-05-15

    Fifteen crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from oil contaminated sites in the Persian Gulf at Khorramshahr provenance. These bacteria were screened with two important factors such as growth rate on crude oil and hydrocarbon biodegradation, and then three strains were selected from 15 isolated strains for further study. One strain (PG-Z) that show the best crude oil biodegradation was selected between all isolates. Nucleotides sequencing of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that strain PG-Z belong to Corynebacterium variabile genus. This strain was efficient in degrading of crude oil. This strain was capable to degraded 82% of crude-oil after one week incubation in ONR7a medium. The PG-Z strain had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production between all isolates. GC-MS analysis shows that C. variabile strain PG-Z can degrade different alkanes in crude oil.

  5. Analysis of Exxon crude-oil-slip stream coking data

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.; Panchal, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    Fouling of pre-heat train heat exchangers and process heaters used for the crude-distillation unit is a major unsolved problem which costs the industry in terms of energy inefficiency and productivity loss. The complexity of the fouling problem has prevented the industry from developing effective mitigation methods. Coking is a general term used for fouling at high temperatures, because the structure of the deposition resemblance to coke. Exxon Research and Engineering Co. conducted a joint research project with the US Department of Energy. One part of the research was to conduct coking experiments for crude oil subjected to heat fluxes greater than typical industrial conditions. In the present study, the coking data are re-analyzed and a simplified model is developed for predicting threshold fouling conditions. Recommendations are made for future experiments and analysis of the laboratory and field data.

  6. Process Considerations in the Biodesulfurization of Crude Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, A.P.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1998-10-20

    Biodesulfurization offers an attractive alternative to conventional hydrodesulfurization due to the mild operating conditions and reaction specificity afforded by the biocatalyst. The enzymatic pathway existing in Rhodococcus has been demonstrated to oxidatively desulfhrize the organic sulfbr occurring in dibenzothiophene while leaving the hydrocarbon intact. In order for biodesulfiization to realize commercial success, a variety of process considerations must be addressed including reaction rate, emulsion formation and breakage, biocatalyst recovery, and both gas and liquid mass transport. This study compares batch stirred to electro-spray bioreactors in the biodesulfurization of both model organics and actual crudes in terms of their operating costs, ability to make and break emulsions, ability to effect efficient reaction rates and enhance mass transport. Further, sulfim speciation in crude oil is assessed and compared to the sulfur specificity of currently available biocatalyst.

  7. Combustion performance of pyrolysis oil/ethanol blends in a residential-scale oil-fired boiler

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 40 kWth oil-fired commercial boiler was fueled with blends of biomass pyrolysis oil (py-oil) and ethanol to determine the feasibility of using these blends as a replacement for fuel oil in home heating applications. An optimal set of test parameters was determined for the combustion of these blend...

  8. Synthesis copolymer use to reduce pour point temperature of diamond crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Than, Dao Viet; Chuong, Thai Hong; Tuy, Dao Quoc

    2017-09-01

    Diamond oil field is located in Block 01&02 Offshore Vietnam. Crude oil from Diamond Well Head Platform (WHP) is evacuated to FPSO via 20km 10" subsea flexible pipeline. The lowest seabed temperature in the field is 22°C, while the pour point temperature (PPT) of Diamond crude oil is very high (36°C) due to high paraffin content (25%). So studying to research a suitable Pour Point Depressant (PPD) for the crude oil is very important. The PPD must have ability to reduce pour point temperature of crude oil from 36°C to 21°C.

  9. Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, John W.; D'Aria, Dana M.; Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Unambiguous detection of oil slicks by remote sensing techniques has proven an elusive goal. This article presents new thermal infrared spectra of oil slicks made from five different crude oil samples with a wide range of API gravities and compositions. After a brief outgassing phase, all oil slick spectra are quite similar and little affected by thickness, extended exposure to air or sunlight, and even by emulsification with seawater (mousse formation). Thus, oil slicks provide a remarkably unvarying spectral signature as remote sensing targets in the thermal infrared compared to other regions of the spectrum. This spectral signature in the 8-14 micron atmospheric window is flat, with an average reflectance of 4 percent. Seawater, on the other hand, has a spectrum that varies in reflectance with wavelength in the 8-14 micron window from 0.90 to 3.65 percent. In addition, we show that sea foam displays a reflectance spectrum quite similar to that of seawater in the 8-14 micron region. This results in a relatively uniform spectral background, against which oil slicks can be detected, based on their different spectral signature.

  10. Cross-correlations between crude oil and agricultural commodity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate cross-correlations between crude oil and agricultural commodity markets. Based on a popular statistical test proposed by Podobnik et al. (2009), we find that the linear return cross-correlations are significant at larger lag lengths and the volatility cross-correlations are highly significant at all of the lag lengths under consideration. Using a detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA), we find that the return cross-correlations are persistent for corn and soybean and anti-persistent for oat and soybean. The volatility cross-correlations are strongly persistent. Using a nonlinear cross-correlation measure, our results show that cross-correlations are relatively weak but they are significant for smaller time scales. For larger time scales, the cross-correlations are not significant. The reason may be that information transmission from crude oil market to agriculture markets can complete within a certain period of time. Finally, based on multifractal extension of DCCA, we find that the cross-correlations are multifractal and high oil prices partly contribute to food crisis during the period of 2006-mid-2008.

  11. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    DOEpatents

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  12. Symmetry/anti-symmetry phase transitions in crude oil markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Soriano, Angel; Cisneros, Myriam; Suarez, Rodolfo

    2003-05-01

    Daily records of international crude oil prices are studied by means of a Zipf-type analysis. By using simple up-down information on price fluctuations, we have observed phase transitions between symmetric states, where occurrence of up and down fluctuations are almost equal, to anti-symmetric states, where there is a significant imbalance between up and down occurrences. Symmetric phase provides a time-scale domain for risk-neutral transactions. On the other hand, anti-symmetric phase can be exploited by speculators and consumers to accommodate contracts that take advantage of the spread between up and down occurrences.

  13. Effects of a chemical dispersant and crude oil on breeding ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Gay, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of chemically dispersed crude oil on mallard reproduction. Incubating female mallards were exposed to a water source treated with either Prudhoe Bay crude oil, Corexit 9527, or a combination of oil and dispersant during the first 10 da of development. Used thermocouple probes to monitor incubation temperature. Measured hatching success, incubation temperature, and survival of ducklings to 1 wk of age.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter sp. Strain ODB01, a Bacterium That Degrades Crude Oil

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Hui; Yang, Hui; Li, Peiwang; Wang, Chong; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhou, Hui; Pan, Hu; Yu, Ye

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterobacter sp. strain ODB01, which was isolated from the Changqing oil field, can degrade crude oil efficiently and use crude oil as its sole source of carbon and energy. We report the complete genome sequence of ODB01. The results promote its application in the remediation of petroleum contaminants. PMID:28280034

  15. Synergistic effect of crude oil plus dispersant on bacterial community in a louisiana salt marsh sediment.

    PubMed

    Al-Jawasim, Mohammed; Yu, Kewei; Park, Joong-Wook

    2015-09-01

    A combined effect of crude oil plus dispersant (Corexit 9500A) significantly altered indigenous bacterial communities in a Louisiana salt marsh sediment after 30 days of incubation; the crude oil and/or Corexit 9500A treatments triggered shifts in bacterial communities and the shifted bacterial structure by crude oil plus Corexit 9500A was considerably different from those by either crude oil or Corexit 9500A. However, the synergistic effect of crude oil plus Corexit 9500A was not observed after 7 days of incubation; the bacterial community was slightly shifted by Corexit 9500A and the crude oil did not trigger any bacterial community shift after 7 days of incubation. DNA sequencing data indicated that Chromobacterium species was enriched in the Corexit 9500A microcosms after 7 days of incubation, while Pseudomonas, Advenella, Acidocella and Dyella spp. were enriched after 30 days of incubation. Parvibaculum was a dominant species in the crude oil microcosms after 30 days of incubation. Rhodanobacter, Dyella and Frateuria spp. were dominant in crude oil plus Corexit 9500A microcosms after 30 days of incubation. Our data show that the effect of crude oil plus Corexit 9500A on bacterial community is synergistic, and thus the dispersant effect should be considered with the spilled oil to correctly evaluate the environmental impact.

  16. Macondo crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disrupts specific developmental processes during zebrafish embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Deepwater Horizon disaster was the largest marine oil spill in history, and total vertical exposure of oil to the water column suggests it could impact an enormous diversity of ecosystems. The most vulnerable organisms are those encountering these pollutants during their early life stages. Water-soluble components of crude oil and specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been shown to cause defects in cardiovascular and craniofacial development in a variety of teleost species, but the developmental origins of these defects have yet to be determined. We have adopted zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model to test whether water accumulated fractions (WAF) of the Deepwater Horizon oil could impact specific embryonic developmental processes. While not a native species to the Gulf waters, the developmental biology of zebrafish has been well characterized and makes it a powerful model system to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind Macondo crude toxicity. Results WAF of Macondo crude oil sampled during the oil spill was used to treat zebrafish throughout embryonic and larval development. Our results indicate that the Macondo crude oil causes a variety of significant defects in zebrafish embryogenesis, but these defects have specific developmental origins. WAF treatments caused defects in craniofacial development and circulatory function similar to previous reports, but we extend these results to show they are likely derived from an earlier defect in neural crest cell development. Moreover, we demonstrate that exposure to WAFs causes a variety of novel deformations in specific developmental processes, including programmed cell death, locomotor behavior, sensory and motor axon pathfinding, somitogenesis and muscle patterning. Interestingly, the severity of cell death and muscle phenotypes decreased over several months of repeated analysis, which was correlated with a rapid drop-off in the aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon components of the oil

  17. Macondo crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disrupts specific developmental processes during zebrafish embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Soysa, T Yvanka; Ulrich, Allison; Friedrich, Timo; Pite, Danielle; Compton, Shannon L; Ok, Deborah; Bernardos, Rebecca L; Downes, Gerald B; Hsieh, Shizuka; Stein, Rachael; Lagdameo, M Caterina; Halvorsen, Katherine; Kesich, Lydia-Rose; Barresi, Michael J F

    2012-05-04

    The Deepwater Horizon disaster was the largest marine oil spill in history, and total vertical exposure of oil to the water column suggests it could impact an enormous diversity of ecosystems. The most vulnerable organisms are those encountering these pollutants during their early life stages. Water-soluble components of crude oil and specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been shown to cause defects in cardiovascular and craniofacial development in a variety of teleost species, but the developmental origins of these defects have yet to be determined. We have adopted zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model to test whether water accumulated fractions (WAF) of the Deepwater Horizon oil could impact specific embryonic developmental processes. While not a native species to the Gulf waters, the developmental biology of zebrafish has been well characterized and makes it a powerful model system to reveal the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind Macondo crude toxicity. WAF of Macondo crude oil sampled during the oil spill was used to treat zebrafish throughout embryonic and larval development. Our results indicate that the Macondo crude oil causes a variety of significant defects in zebrafish embryogenesis, but these defects have specific developmental origins. WAF treatments caused defects in craniofacial development and circulatory function similar to previous reports, but we extend these results to show they are likely derived from an earlier defect in neural crest cell development. Moreover, we demonstrate that exposure to WAFs causes a variety of novel deformations in specific developmental processes, including programmed cell death, locomotor behavior, sensory and motor axon pathfinding, somitogenesis and muscle patterning. Interestingly, the severity of cell death and muscle phenotypes decreased over several months of repeated analysis, which was correlated with a rapid drop-off in the aromatic and alkane hydrocarbon components of the oil. Whether these

  18. Solvent extraction for heavy crude oil removal from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingang; Du, Yongliang; Wu, Guozhong; Li, Zhongyuan; Li, Hong; Sui, Hong

    2012-06-01

    A new strategy of heavy crude oil removal from contaminated soils was studied. The hexane-acetone solvent mixture was used to investigate the ability of solvent extraction technique for cleaning up soils under various extraction conditions. The mixtures of hexane and acetone (25 vol%) were demonstrated to be the most effective in removing petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils and approx 90% of saturates, naphthene aromatics, polar aromatics, and 60% of nC(7)-asphaltenes were removed. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that the equilibrium was reached in 5 min and the majority of the oil pollutants were removed within 0.5 min. The effect of the ratio between solvent and soil on the extraction efficiency was also studied and results showed that the efficiency would increase following the higher solvent soil ratio. Then the multistage continuous extraction was considered to enhance the removal efficiency of oil pollutants. Three stages crosscurrent and countercurrent solvent extraction with the solvent soil ratio 6:1 removed 97% oil contaminants from soil. Clearly the results showed that the mixed-solvent of hexane and acetone (25 vol%) with character of low-toxic, acceptable cost and high efficiency was promising in solvent extraction to remove heavy oil fractions as well as petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acetylation of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as an adsorbent for removal of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman B; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kakooei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oil spillage from the environment is a global concern. Various methods, including the use of fibers as sorbents, have been developed for oil spill control. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a plant biomass that may be acetylated by acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as a catalyst; here, the extent of acetylation may be calculated in terms of weight percent gain (WPG). The modified fiber was used to remove Tapis and Arabian crude oils. The optimum time, temperature, and catalyst concentration were 4 h, 120 °C, and 3 %, respectively, and these parameters could achieve an 11.49 % increase in WPG. The optimized parameters improved the adsorption capacity of OPEFB fibers for crude oil removal. The acetylated OPEFB fibers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe the functional groups available and morphology. Kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted using different contact times and oil/water ratios. The rate of oil sorption onto the OPEFB fibers can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption studies revealed that adsorption of crude oil on treated OPEFB fiber could be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  20. Dispersion of oil into water using lecithin-Tween 80 blends: The role of spontaneous emulsification.

    PubMed

    Riehm, David A; Rokke, David J; Paul, Prakash G; Lee, Han Seung; Vizanko, Brent S; McCormick, Alon V

    2017-02-01

    Lecithin-rich mixtures of the nontoxic surfactants lecithin and Tween 80 are effective marine oil spill dispersants, but produce much higher oil-water interfacial tension than other, comparably effective dispersants. This suggests interfacial phenomena other than interfacial tension influence lecithin-Tween 80 dispersants' effectiveness. The interface between seawater and dispersant-crude oil mixtures was studied using light microscopy, cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, and droplet coalescence tests. Lecithin:Tween 80 ratio was varied from 100:0 to 0:100 and wt% dispersant in the oil was varied from 1.25 to 10wt%. Tween 80-rich dispersants cause oil-into-water spontaneous emulsification, while lecithin-rich dispersants primarily cause water-into-oil spontaneous emulsification. Possible mechanisms for this spontaneous emulsification are discussed, in light of images of spontaneously emulsifying interfaces showing no bursting microstructures, interfacial gel, or phase inversion, and negligible interfacial turbulence. Dispersant loss into seawater due to oil-into-water spontaneous emulsification may explain why Tween 80-rich dispersants are less effective than lecithin-rich dispersants with comparable interfacial tension, although longer droplet coalescence times observed for Tween 80-rich, self-emulsifying dispersant-oil mixtures may mitigate the effects of dispersant leaching. Conversely, surfactant retention in oil via lecithin-rich dispersants' water-into-oil emulsification may explain why lecithin-Tween 80 dispersants are as effective as dispersants containing other surfactant blends which produce lower interfacial tension.

  1. Short and long term toxicity of crude oil and oil dispersants to two representative coral species.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Shai; Van Rijn, Jaap; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2007-08-01

    Oil dispersants, the tool of choice for treating oil spills in tropical marine environments, is potentially harmful to marine life, including reef corals. In a previous study, we found that dispersed oil and oil dispersants are harmful to soft and hard coral species at early life stages. In this broader study, we employed a "nubbin assay" on more than 10 000 coral fragments to evaluate the short- and long-term impacts of dispersed oil fractions (DOFs) from six commercial dispersants, the dispersants and water-soluble-fractions (WSFs) of Egyptian crude oil, on two Indo Pacific branching coral species, Stylophora pistillata and Pocillopora damicornis. Survivorship and growth of nubbins were recorded for up to 50 days following a single, short (24 h) exposure to toxicants in various concentrations. Manufacturer-recommended dispersant concentrations proved to be highly toxic and resulted in mortality for all nubbins. The dispersed oil and the dispersants were significantly more toxic than crude oil WSFs. As corals are particularly susceptible to oil detergents and dispersed oil, the results of these assays rules out the use of any oil dispersant in coral reefs and in their vicinity. The ecotoxicological impacts of the various dispersants on the corals could be rated on a scale from the least to the most harmful agent, as follows: Slickgone > Petrotech > Inipol = Biorieco > Emulgal > Dispolen.

  2. Genome Sequence of Arthrobacter sp. MWB30, Isolated from a Crude Oil-Contaminated Seashore

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Seon Hee; Moon, Yoon-Jung; Park, Sung-Joon; Kim, Seung Il; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Arthrobacter sp. MWB30 strain, isolated from a crude oil-contaminated seashore in Tae-an, South Korea, which is able to degrade the crude oil and its derivatives. The draft genome sequence of 4,647,008 bp provides a resource for the identification of crude oil-degrading mechanisms in strain MWB30. PMID:25700396

  3. Geospatial Hydrochemical and Microbiological Implications on the Occurrence of Crude Oil Biodegradation and Methanogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, J.; McIntosh, J. C.; Warwick, P.; McCray, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Technologies that serve as a bridge between renewable energy and fossil fuels are needed to meet growing energy demands and to mitigate climate change. Many reservoirs contain difficult to produce residual and/or heavily biodegraded (i.e., geochemically altered) crude oil, which remains a relatively untapped resource. Production of this residual crude oil via unconventional methods, such as enhanced oil recovery (EOR), has offset some of the decline in conventional oil production. EOR is not efficient enough to recover all of the original oil in place, and some methods are not effective for very heavy crude oils. Stimulation of in-situ microorganisms to convert the residual crude oil to natural gas (i.e., microbial methane) is one promising strategy to "extract" residual and /or heavy crude oil. Although the hydrogeochemical conditions necessary for the occurrence of both crude oil biodegradation and microbial methanogenesis in various reservoirs have been studied, there are still gaps in research. Many hydrogeochemical factors have been researched individually (not as part of a multifactor or lithologically similar system) and little work has assessed the microbiological limitations of both processes. Our goal is to determine the hydrogeochemical and microbiological conditions required for maximum crude oil biodegradation and microbial methanogenesis across a lithologically similar unit. Produced water, oil, gas, and microbial biomass samples were collected from wells completed in the Paleocene—Eocene Wilcox Group in central Louisiana. Initial results indicate potential relationships between the amount of crude oil biodegradation, indicators of microbial methanogenesis, and aqueous geochemistry. For example, produced waters with the lowest salinity had the highest crude oil biodegradation, and wells exhibiting the most microbial methane generation produce waters with hydrogeochemical conditions most fit for methanogenesis to occur. In sampled wells displaying

  4. Method of forming carbon dioxide mixtures miscible with formation crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Froning, H. R.; Yellig Jr., W. F.

    1985-07-16

    A method is disclosed for forming a carbon dioxide-containing mixture which is miscible with crude oil. The method comprises maintaining a mixture of crude oil and carbon dioxide in an extraction zone at a temperature and pressure such that multiple phase equilibrium is achieved therebetween. A carbon dioxide-rich phase that includes a mixture of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons is withdrawn and is miscible with the reservoir crude oil when injected into the reservoir from which the crude oil was produced.

  5. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Embryotoxicity of weathered crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Finch, Bryson E; Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N

    2011-08-01

    Weathered crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico can result from oil spills such as the Deepwater Horizon incident that occurred on April 20, 2010 or from natural seeps. Adult waterbirds of the Gulf Coast region may become exposed to weathered crude oil while foraging, wading, or resting, and residues can then be transferred to nests, eggs, and hatchlings. Although the toxicity of many types of crude oil to avian embryos has been thoroughly studied, the effects of weathered crude oil on developing avian embryos are not well characterized. The objective of the present study was to examine embryotoxicity of weathered crude oil collected from the Gulf of Mexico in June 2010 using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) as a model species. Weathered crude oil was applied to fertilized mallard duck eggs by paintbrush in masses ranging from 0.1 to 99.9 mg on day 3 of incubation. Mortality occurred as early as day 7 and the conservatively derived median lethal application of weathered crude oil was 30.8 mg/egg (0.5 mg/g egg) or 30.7 µl/egg (0.5 µl/g egg). Body mass, liver and spleen mass, crown-rump and bill lengths, and frequency of deformities were not significantly different among hatchlings from oiled and control eggs. In comparison to published reports of fresh crude oil embryotoxicity, weathered crude oil was considerably less toxic. We conclude that avian toxicity varies according to the degree of crude oil weathering and the stage of embryonic development at the time of exposure. Results indicate bird eggs exposed to weathered crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico during summer 2010 may have had reduced hatching success. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Quality evaluation of noble mixed oil blended with palm and canola oil.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyesook; Lee, Eunji; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-01-01

    Noble blended oils (canola: palm oil = 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, 6:4 and 7:3) were prepared and their frying qualities were evaluated. Frying qualities such as fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value, viscosity, smoke point, color, antioxidant activity, and sensory evaluation were measured to elucidate the optimum blend ratio of canola and palm oil. The ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid of the blended oils was higher than that of palm oil after frying 50 times. The blended oil (3:7, Ca: Pa) had a relatively high oxidative stability and its peroxide values were 44.2-70.7 meq/kg after frying. The 3:7 (Ca: Pa) blended oil had excellent flavor, taste, and texture compared to those of the other frying oils as a result of a sensory evaluation of raw and fried potatoes. The results suggest that the 3:7 (Ca: Pa) blended oil is a good alternative oil for frying potatoes.

  8. Removal of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via organoclay-microbe-oil interactions.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Fialips, Claire I

    2017-05-01

    Clay minerals are quite vital in biogeochemical processes but the effect of organo-clays in the microbial degradation of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is not well understood. The role of organo-saponite and organo-montmorillonite in comparison with the unmodified clays in crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal via adsorption and biodegradation was studied by carrying out microcosm experiments in aqueous clay/oil systems with a hydrocarbon degrading microbial community that is predominantly alcanivorax spp. Montmorillonite and saponite samples were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organo-montmorillonite and organo-saponite used in this study. Obtained results indicate that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as montmorillonite produced organo-clay (organomontmorillonite) that was not stimulatory to biodegradation of crude oil polycyclic aromatic compounds, especially the low molecular weight (LMW) ones, such as dimethylnaphthalenes. It is suggested that interaction between the organic phase of the organo-clay and the crude oil PAHs which is hydrophobic in nature must have reduced the availability of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for biodegradation. Organo-saponite did not enhance the microbial degradation of dimethylnaphthalenes but enhanced the biodegradation of some other PAHs such as phenanthrene. The unmodified montmorillonite enhanced the microbial degradation of the PAHs and is most likely to have done so as a result of its high surface area that allows the accumulation of microbes and nutrients enhancing their contact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters

    PubMed Central

    Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Gieg, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls), corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase encoding gene (assA/masA) in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up to 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic vs. sessile) within a subsurface crude oil reservoir. PMID:24829563

  10. Conversion of crude oil to methane by a microbial consortium enriched from oil reservoir production waters.

    PubMed

    Berdugo-Clavijo, Carolina; Gieg, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls), corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase encoding gene (assA/masA) in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up to 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic vs. sessile) within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

  11. Recovery of heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from underground formations

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, A.S.

    1989-07-11

    This patent describes a method of producing heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from an underground formation. The method consists of utilizing or establishing an aqueous fluid communication path within and through the formation between an injection well or conduit and a production well or conduit by introducing into the formation from the injection well or conduit hot water and/or low quality steam at a temperature in the range about 60{sup 0}-130{sup 0}C and at a substantially neutral or alkaline pH to establish or enlarge the aqueous fluid communication path within the formation from the injection well or conduit to the production well or conduit by movement of the introduced hot water or low quality steam through the formation, increasing the temperature of the injected hot water of low quality steam to a temperature in the range about 110{sup 0}-180{sup 0}C while increasing the pH of the injected hot water or low quality steam to a pH of about 10-13 so as to bring about the movement or migration or stripping of the heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation substantially into the hot aqueous fluid communication path with the formation and recovering the resulting produced heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation as an emulsion containing less than about 30% oil or bitumen from the production well or conduit.

  12. Bacterial motility near crude oil and water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Jomayra E. Sánchez; Molaei, Mehdi; Sheng, Jian

    2013-11-01

    Study of biodegradation of crude oil by microbes requires profound understanding of their movement near oil-water interface as well as in/out of phase movement. Bacterial motilities are known to be modified by the presence of an interface through hydrodynamic interactions in addition to the chemotactic behavior towards the oil phase. Using digital holographic microscopy and phase contrast microscopy, we study locomotion of Pseudomonas sp (P62), a well-known hydrocarbon degrader under various chemo- and mechano-environmental conditions. Baseline experiments have been performed at different nutrient levels and Ion levels to identify effects of chemical environment on cell motility. Utilizing novel microfluidics and surface functionalization, we have established a stable vertical oil-water interface between top and bottom surfaces of the microfluidics, which allow clear optical access to observe bacterial movement near the interface. Three-dimensional trajectories of bacteria, obtained by analyzing recorded by digital holography microscopy, enable us to characterize bacterial swimming and orientation near interfaces. Chemotaxis velocity and swimming induced dispersion are measured directly as well as cell concentration distributions with respect to the distance to the interface. NIH, NSF, GoMRI.

  13. Dispersant and salinity effects on weathering and acute toxicity of South Louisiana crude oil.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Adam J; Nyman, J Andrew; Kaller, Michael D; Green, Christopher C

    2013-11-01

    Chemical dispersants are an important technology in the remediation of oil spills in the aquatic environment, facilitating degradation of crude oil and salinity is an important factor in dispersant effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of salinity on the degradation chemistry of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of the dispersant COREXIT 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil on a common estuarine fish. Laboratory microcosms were designed at salinities of 4 parts per thousand (ppt), 12 ppt, or 18 ppt and spiked with crude oil, COREXIT 9500A, or a combined exposure to crude oil and COREXIT and allowed to biodegrade for 1 wk, 4 wk, and 16 wk. The WAF was harvested for analytical PAH analysis and acute toxicity testing in juvenile Fundulus grandis. Compared with undispersed oil, COREXIT exponentially increased the PAH concentrations in the WAF for up to 16 wk; hopane-normalized concentrations indicated that biodegradation was slowed for the first 4 wk. Dispersed crude oil and COREXIT were acutely toxic following 1 wk of biodegradation with no correlation between PAH concentrations and crude oil WAF mortality. Both dispersant and dispersant oil mixtures remained toxic for at least 4 wk at the lowest salinity tested, suggesting increased sensitivity or reduced biodegradation of toxic components in low-saline environments. At the lowest salinity, oil dispersed with COREXIT was more toxic than either the COREXIT alone or oil alone, even after 16 wk of biodegradation.

  14. Bacterial communities in a crude oil gathering and transferring system (China).

    PubMed

    Liu, Y J; Chen, Y P; Jin, P K; Wang, X C

    2009-10-01

    Bacterial communities in crude oil and oil field production water samples from an oil gathering and transferring system in Changqing Oil field in China were investigated by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis followed by gene cloning and sequencing. DGGE profiles showed that bacterial communities are far more rich in the water samples than that in the crude oil samples, and that bacteria related to Ochrobactrum sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. were detected in all crude oil and oil field water samples. Bacteria related to Burkholderia sp., Brevundimonas sp., and Propionibacterium sp. were detected in the crude oil samples but not in water samples. Bacteria related to Hippea sp., Acidovorax sp., Arcobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Thiomicrospira sp., Brevibacterium sp., Tissierella sp. and Peptostreptococcus sp. were detected in the water samples but not in crude oil samples. Using an archaea-specific primer set, methanogens related to Methanomicrobials and Methanosarcinales were found in water samples but not in crude oil samples. The comparability of the microbial communities in the water and crude oil phase during the period of oil gathering and transferring process was 83.3% and 88.2%, respectively, indicating a stable structure of the microbial communities.

  15. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment.

  16. Geochemical analysis of potash mine seep oils, collapsed breccia pipe oil shows and selected crude oils, Eddy County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacas, J.G.; Snyder, R.P.; Baysinger, J.P.; Threlkeld, C.N.

    1982-01-01

    Oil shows, in the form of oil stains and bleeding oil, in core samples from two breccia pipes, Hills A and C, Eddy County, New Mexico, and seepage oils in a potash mine near Hill C breccia pipe are geochemically similar. The geochemical similarities strongly suggest that they belong to the same family of oils and were derived from similar sources. The oils are relatively high in sulfur (0.89 to 1.23 percent), rich in hydrocarbons (average 82 percent), relatively high in saturated hydrocarbon/aromatic hydrocarbon ratios (average 2.9), and based on analysis of seep oils alone, have a low API gravity (average 19.4?). The oils are for the most part severely biodegraded as attested by the loss of n-paraffin molecules. Geochemical comparison of seven crude oils collected in the vicinity of the breccia pipes indicates that the Yates oils are the likely source of the above family of oils. Six barrels of crude oil that were dumped into a potash exploration borehole near Hill C breccia pipe, to release stuck casing, are considered an unlikely source of the breccia pipe and mine seep oils. Volumetric and hydrodynamic constraints make it highly improbable that such a small volume of 'dumped' oil could migrate over distances ranging from about 600 feet to 2.5 miles to the sites of the oil shows.

  17. Health risks associated with crude oil spill exposure.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Mark A; Reddy, G Kesava

    2014-09-01

    Human exposure to crude oil spills is associated with multiple adverse health effects including hematopoietic, hepatic, renal, and pulmonary abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to assess the hematological and liver function indices among the subjects participating in the Gulf oil spill cleanup operations in comparison with the standardized normal range reference values. Using medical charts, clinical data (including white blood cell [WBC] count, platelet count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, blood urea nitrogen [BUN] creatinine, alkaline phosphatase [ALP], aspartate amino transferase [AST], alanine amino transferase [ALT], and urinary phenol) were gathered for the subjects who were exposed to the Gulf oil spill and analyzed. A total of 117 subjects exposed to the oil spill were included. Over 77% of subjects had WBC counts in the mid range (6-10 × 10(3) per μL), while none of the subjects had the upper limit of the normal range (11 × 10(3) per μL). A similar pattern was seen in the platelet counts and BUN levels among the oil spill-exposed subjects. Conversely, over 70% of the subjects had creatinine levels toward the upper limit of the normal range and 23% of subjects had creatinine levels above the upper limit of the normal range (>1.3 mg per dL). Similarly, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were toward the upper limit of normal in more than two thirds of the subjects. AST and ALT levels above the upper limit of normal range (>40 IU per L) were seen in 15% and 31% of subjects, respectively. Over 80% of subjects had urinary phenol levels higher than detectable levels (2 mg per L). The results of this study support our earlier study findings in which we found that people who participated in oil spill cleanup activities are at risk of developing alterations in hematological profile and liver function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  19. Wetting behavior of selected crude oil/brine/rock systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Of the many methods of characterizing wettability of a porous medium, the most commonly used are the Amott test and the USBM test. The Amott test does not discriminate adequately between systems that give high values of wettability index to water and are collectively described as very strongly water-wet. The USBM test does not recognize systems that achieve residual oil saturation by spontaneous imbibition. For such systems, and for any systems that exhibit significant spontaneous imbibition, measurements of imbibition rate provide a useful characterization of wettability. Methods of interpreting spontaneous imbibition data are reviewed and a new method of quantifying wettability from rate of imbibition is proposed. Capillary pressure is the driving force in spontaneous imbibition. The area under an imbibition curve is closely related to the work of displacement that results from decrease in surface free energy. Imbibition rate data can be correlated to allow for differences in interracial tension, viscosities, pore structure, and sample size. Wettability, the remaining key factor in determining the capillary driving force and the related imbibition rate, then largely determines the differences in saturation vs. scaled time curves. These curves are used to obtain pseudo imbibition capillary pressure curves; a wettability index based on relative areas under these curves is defined as the relative pseudo work of imbibition. The method is applied for two crude oil/brine/rock systems. Comparison of the method with the Amott wettability index is made for different wettability states given by differences in aging of cores with crude oil. Correlations of wettability indices with waterflood recoveries are presented.

  20. Induction of reactive oxygen species in marine phytoplankton under crude oil exposure.

    PubMed

    Ozhan, Koray; Zahraeifard, Sara; Smith, Aaron P; Bargu, Sibel

    2015-12-01

    Exposure of phytoplankton to the water-accommodated fraction of crude oil can elicit a number of stress responses, but the mechanisms that drive these responses are unclear. South Louisiana crude oil was selected to investigate its effects on population growth, chlorophyll a (Chl a) content, antioxidative defense, and lipid peroxidation, for the marine diatom, Ditylum brightwellii, and the dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa triquetra, in laboratory-based microcosm experiments. The transcript levels of several possible stress-responsive genes in D. brightwellii were also measured. The microalgae were exposed to crude oil for up to 96 h, and Chl a content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), the glutathione pool (GSH and GSSG), and lipid peroxidation content were analyzed. The cell growth of both phytoplankton species was inhibited with increasing crude oil concentrations. Crude oil exposure did not affect Chl a content significantly in cells. SOD activities showed similar responses in both species, being enhanced at 4- and 8-mg/L crude oil exposure. Only H. triquetra demonstrated enhanced activity in GSSG pool and lipid peroxidation at 8-mg/L crude oil exposure, suggesting that phytoplankton species have distinct physiological responses and tolerance levels to crude oil exposure. This study indicated the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phytoplankton under crude oil exposure; however, the progressive damage in cells is still unknown. Thus, ROS-related damage in nucleic acid, lipids, proteins, and DNA, due to crude oil exposure could be a worthwhile subject of study to better understand crude oil toxicity at the base of the food web.

  1. BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM CRUDE OIL IN SANDY-BEACH MICROCOSMS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Though the lower n-alkanes are considered the most degradable components of crude oil, our experiments with microcosms simulating oiled beaches showed substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and other PAH in control treatments consisting of raw seawater...

  2. BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM CRUDE OIL IN SANDY-BEACH MICROCOSMS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Though the lower n-alkanes are considered the most degradable components of crude oil, our experiments with microcosms simulating oiled beaches showed substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and other PAH in control treatments consisting of raw seawater...

  3. Brine-in-crude-oil emulsions at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect

    Nemer, Martin B.; Lord, David L.; MacDonald, Terry L.

    2013-10-01

    Metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion formation could occur in a Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) cavern if water were to flow into the crude-oil layer at a sufficient rate. Such a situation could arise during a drawdown from a cavern with a broken-hanging brine string. A high asphaltene content (> 1.5 wt %) of the crude oil provides the strongest predictor of whether a metastable water-in-crude-oil emulsion will form. However there are many crude oils with an asphaltene content > 1.5 wt % that don't form stable emulsions, but few with a low asphaltene content that do form stable emulsions. Most of the oils that form stable emulsions are %E2%80%9Csour%E2%80%9D by SPR standards indicating they contain total sulfur > 0.50 wt %.

  4. Toxicity of dispersant Corexit 9500A and crude oil to marine microzooplankton.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Hyatt, Cammie; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, nearly 7 million liters of chemical dispersants, mainly Corexit 9500A, were released in the Gulf of Mexico to treat the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. However, little is still known about the effects of Corexit 9500A and dispersed crude oil on microzooplankton despite the important roles of these planktonic organisms in marine ecosystems. We conducted laboratory experiments to determine the acute toxicity of Corexit 9500A, and physically and chemically dispersed Louisiana light sweet crude oil to marine microzooplankton (oligotrich ciliates, tintinnids and heterotrophic dinoflagellates). Our results indicate that Corexit 9500A is highly toxic to microzooplankton, particularly to small ciliates, and that the combination of dispersant with crude oil significantly increases the toxicity of crude oil to microzooplankton. The negative impact of crude oil and dispersant on microzooplankton may disrupt the transfer of energy from lower to higher trophic levels and change the structure and dynamics of marine planktonic communities.

  5. Exploring the WTI crude oil price bubble process using the Markov regime switching model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wang, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The sharp volatility of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price in the past decade triggers us to investigate the price bubbles and their evolving process. Empirical results indicate that the fundamental price of WTI crude oil appears relatively more stable than that of the market-trading price, which verifies the existence of oil price bubbles during the sample period. Besides, by allowing the WTI crude oil price bubble process to switch between two states (regimes) according to a first-order Markov chain, we are able to statistically discriminate upheaval from stable states in the crude oil price bubble process; and in most of time, the stable state dominates the WTI crude oil price bubbles while the upheaval state usually proves short-lived and accompanies unexpected market events.

  6. Biodegradation of Diesel, Crude Oil and Spent Lubricating Oil by Soil Isolates of Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Raju, Maddela Naga; Leo, Rodriguez; Herminia, Sanaguano Salguero; Morán, Ricardo Ernesto Burgos; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Laura, Scalvenzi

    2017-05-01

    Two species of Bacillus, B. thuringiensis B3 and B. cereus B6, isolated from crude oil-contaminated sites in Ecuador, were tested for their capability in degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in diesel (shake-flask), and to remove total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) from crude oil- or spent lubricating oil-polluted soils (plot-scale). TPHs and PAHs were analyzed by Gas chromatography-Flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Degradation percentages of PAHs by strain B6 were in the range of 11-83 after 30 days. A mixed culture of both the strains removed 84% and 28% of TPHs from crude oil- and spent lubricating oil-polluted soils, respectively. Reduction in the abundance of total n-alkane fractions (C8-C40) of spent lubricating oil was 94%, which was 18% higher than the control. Our results clearly indicate that the selected strains have great potential in degrading petroleum hydrocarbons at both laboratory- and field-scales.

  7. Studies on water-in-oil products from crude oils and petroleum products.

    PubMed

    Fingas, Merv; Fieldhouse, Ben

    2012-02-01

    Water-in-oil mixtures such as emulsions, often form and complicate oil spill countermeasures. The formation of water-in-oil mixtures was studied using more than 300 crude oils and petroleum products. Water-in-oil types were characterized by resolution of water at 1 and 7 days, and some after 1 year. Rheology measurements were carried out at the same intervals. The objective of this laboratory study was to characterize the formed water-in-oil products and relate these properties to starting oil properties. Analysis of the starting oil properties of these water-in-oil types shows that the existence of each type relates to the starting oil viscosity and its asphaltene and resin contents. This confirms that water-in-oil emulsification is a result of physical stabilization by oil viscosity and chemical stabilization by asphaltenes and resins. This stabilization is illustrated using simple graphical techniques. Four water-in-oil types exist: stable, unstable, meso-stable and entrained. Each of these has distinct physical properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative Toxicity of Eight Oil Dispersants, Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Aquatic Test Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach utilized consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispers...

  9. Comparative Toxicity of Eight Oil Dispersants, Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Aquatic Test Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes the acute toxicity of eight commercial oil dispersants, Louisiana sweet crude oil (LSC), and chemically dispersed LSC. The approach utilized consistent test methodologies within a single laboratory in assessing the relative acute toxicity of the eight dispers...

  10. Cross-correlations between crude oil and exchange markets for selected oil rich economies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianfeng; Lu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), this paper studies the cross-correlation behavior between crude oil market and five selected exchange rate markets. The dataset covers the period of January 1,1996-December 31,2014, and contains 4,633 observations for each of the series, including daily closing prices of crude oil, Australian Dollars, Canadian Dollars, Mexican Pesos, Russian Rubles, and South African Rand. Our empirical results obtained from cross-correlation statistic and cross-correlation coefficient have confirmed the existence of cross-correlations, and the MF-DCCA results have demonstrated a strong multifractality between cross-correlated crude oil market and exchange rate markets in both short term and long term. Using rolling window analysis, we have also found the persistent cross-correlations between the exchange rates and crude oil returns, and the cross-correlation scaling exponents exhibit volatility during some time periods due to its sensitivity to sudden events.

  11. 33 CFR 157.108 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.108 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels...

  12. 33 CFR 157.108 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.108 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels...

  13. 33 CFR 157.108 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.108 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels...

  14. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.110 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank...

  15. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.110 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank...

  16. 33 CFR 157.108 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.108 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank...

  17. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.110 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank...

  18. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.110 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank...

  19. 33 CFR 157.108 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.108 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for U.S. tank...

  20. 33 CFR 157.110 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crude Oil Washing Operations and... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels General § 157.110 Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual for foreign tank...

  1. Interactions between Zooplankton and Crude Oil: Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L−1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L−1) and dispersant- treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L−1) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  2. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1) in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1)) and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1)) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments.

  3. Paraffin problems in crude oil production and transportation: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, S.; Baruah, S.; Singh, K. )

    1995-02-01

    Problems related to crystallization and deposition of paraffin waxes during production and transportation of crude oil cause losses of billions of dollars yearly to petroleum industry. The goal of this paper is to present the knowledge on such problems in a systematic and comprehensive form. The fundamental aspects of these problems are defined, and characterization of paraffins and their solubility tendencies have been discussed. It has been established conclusively that n-paraffins are predominantly responsible for this problem. Comprehensive discussion on the mechanism of crystallization of paraffins has been included. Compounds other than n-paraffins, especially asphaltenes and resins, have profound effects on solubility of n-paraffins. In evaluations of the wax potential of a crude, the climate of the area concerned should be considered. Under the most favorable conditions, n-paraffins form clearly defined orthorhombic crystals, but unfavorable conditions and the presence of impurities lead to hexagonal and/or amorphous crystallization.The gelation characteristics are also affected the same way. An attempt was made to classify the paraffin problems into those resulting from high pipeline pressure, high restarting pressure, and deposition on pipe surfaces. Fundamental aspects and mechanism of these dimensions are described. Wax deposition depends on flow rate, the temperature differential between crude and pipe surface, the cooling rate, and surface properties. Finally, methods available in the literature for predicting these problems and evaluating their mitigatory techniques are reviewed. The available methods present a very diversified picture; hence, using them to evaluate these problems becomes taxing. A top priority is standardizing these methods for the benefit of the industry. 56 refs.

  4. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments. PMID:26525361

  5. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials.

    PubMed

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-03

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it's of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a "seed bank" of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  6. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  7. Ignitability of crude oil and its oil-in-water products at arctic temperature.

    PubMed

    Ranellone, Raymond T; Tukaew, Panyawat; Shi, Xiaochuan; Rangwala, Ali S

    2017-02-15

    A novel platform and procedure were developed to characterize the ignitability of Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil and its water-in-oil products with water content up to 60% at low temperatures (-20-0°C). Time to ignition, critical heat flux, in-depth temperature profiles were investigated. It was observed that a cold boundary and consequent low oil temperature increased the thermal inertia of the oil/mixture and consequently the time to sustained ignition also increased. As the water content in the ANS water-in-oil mixture increased, the critical heat flux for ignition was found to increase. This is mainly because of an increase in the thermal conductivity of the mixture with the addition of saltwater. The results of the study can be used towards design of ignition strategies and technologies for in situ burning of oil spills in cold climates such as the Arctic.

  8. Fresh water supply to oil producing countries by means of crude oil tankers

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Y.

    1980-12-01

    Oil producing area and oil consuming area in the world sometimes coincide with water deficient area and water surplus area, like as Arabian Gulf area and Japan. Ocean transportation of oil over these areas is being made by oil tankers, but return voyage of tankers has so far not been put to productive use. By boost of international regulation to prevent marine pollution caused by discharging sea water ballast, such half used bridge will provide with practical measures of fresh water transportation to oil producing arid area. This is to report the proposed scheme to transport and supply fresh water to Arabian Gulf area by means of return voyages of crude oil tankers voyaging between Arabian Gulf area and Japan with it technical and economical aspects as well as its effect and additional advantages to be expected by the scheme.

  9. 78 FR 21929 - TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 26, 2013, TexStar Crude Oil Pipeline, LP (TexStar) submitted to the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  10. Chemical composition of asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba

    SciTech Connect

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Klyavina, O.A.; Kolyabina, N.A.

    1994-09-10

    Asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba have been studied by physical and physicochemical methods. Dynamics of distribution of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen and also various functional groups in asphaltenes has been described. These data can be used for the proper deasphalting of crude oil and further treatment of asphaltenes.

  11. Quality of Crude Oil Extracted from Aging Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quality of crude oil extracted from pollock byproducts aged at 6 and 15 'C for up to 4 and 10 days was examined. Longer storage of byproducts resulted in higher free fatty acid (FFA) and an increase in retinol levels in the extracted crude oils. Primary and secondary oxidative assays consisting of p...

  12. Allegations of diversion and substitution of crude oil. Bayou Choctaw Storage Site, Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-30

    Investigation did not substantiate allegations that crude oil destined for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve storage site at Bayou Choctaw was diverted to private use and some other material substituted in its place. However, recommendations are made for handling intermediate transport and storage systems for crude oil to tighten security aspects. (PSB)

  13. Effects of crude oil ingestion on avian intestinal function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; Murray, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal function in mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) on a freshwater regime was studied after a 7-day dietary ingestion of 0.25% and 2.5% Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) or a 2.5% paraffin mixture with an in vivo luminal perfusion technique. Dietary ingestion of 2.5% PBCO may have an effect on the integrity of the duckling intestine. There were no significant effects of PBCO on the absorption of Na, Cl, K, or H2O compared with control animals. The ducklings fed 2.5% paraffin had a significant depression in Na and H2O absorption compared with controls. However, this depression dose not seem to be related to an effect on intestinal mucosa Na-K-ATPase activity.

  14. Extreme-volatility dynamics in crude oil markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zheng, Bo; Qiu, Tian; Ren, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Based on concepts and methods from statistical physics, we investigate extreme-volatility dynamics in the crude oil markets, using the high-frequency data from 2006 to 2010 and the daily data from 1986 to 2016. The dynamic relaxation of extreme volatilities is described by a power law, whose exponents usually depend on the magnitude of extreme volatilities. In particular, the relaxation before and after extreme volatilities is time-reversal symmetric at the high-frequency time scale, but time-reversal asymmetric at the daily time scale. This time-reversal asymmetry is mainly induced by exogenous events. However, the dynamic relaxation after exogenous events exhibits the same characteristics as that after endogenous events. An interacting herding model both with and without exogenous driving forces could qualitatively describe the extreme-volatility dynamics.

  15. The toxicopathology of Prudhoe Bay crude oil in chicken embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Couillard, C.M.; Leighton, F.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Microliter amounts of Prudhoe Bay crude oil were applied to the shell of fertile leghorn chicken eggs on Day 9 of incubation. Gross and microscopic pathological changes were examined in embryos surviving 4 days after exposure. Gross lesions seen consistently were extensive edema, superficial zones of pale hepatic tissue, distension of the heart, and enlargement of the spleen. Histologically, the pale liver tissue corresponded to areas of hepatocyte necrosis. Additional histological lesions were cellular casts and mineralization in the renal tubules, distension of the glomerular capillaries, and accumulation of hematopoietic tissue in the liver and spleen. Dose-related increases in the number of mitotic figures in hepatocytes and in weights of liver, spleen, and heart were observed.

  16. Application of carbon nanocatalysts in upgrading heavy crude oil assisted with microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Li, Kewen; Hou, Binchi; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yi

    2014-06-11

    Heavy crude oil can be upgraded to lighter oil using several techniques. However, current methods usually require high temperatures, long reaction duration, and cause serious environmental pollution. This study shows that by using carbon nanocatalysts, heavy crude oil can be efficiently upgraded to lighter oil at a relatively low temperature of about 150 °C. The temperature of crude oil was increased by microwave heating. The technique proposed in this study has the following advantages: (1) great viscosity reduction ratio over 96%, (2) short reaction time (less than 1 h), (3) low required temperature, and (4) long viscosity regression time. Because of these advantages, upgrading heavy crude oil to light oil can be cheaper and more environment-friendly.

  17. New diagnostic ratios based on phenanthrenes and anthracenes for effective distinguishing heavy fuel oils from crude oils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijiang; Wang, Chuanyuan; Zhao, Ruxiang; Yin, Xiaonan; Zhou, Hongyang; Tan, Liju; Wang, Jiangtao

    2016-05-15

    The heavy fuel oils (HFOs) and crude oils are the main oil types in the marine oil spill accidents in China. It is usually a challenge to distinguish the HFOs from crude oils due to the highly similar physicochemical characteristics. In this paper, the distributions of phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), methyl-phenanthrene (MP) and methyl-anthracene (MA) in hundreds of HFOs and crude oils samples which were collected from all over the world were characterized. Nine new diagnostic indexes, such as Ant/(Ant+Phe) and other eight diagnostic ratios based on the MP isomers and MA, were developed for effective distinguishing HFOs from crude oils. The histogram with normal fit plots, the double ratio plots and Bayes discriminant analysis (BDA) method were employed to illustrate the effectiveness of the new diagnostic indexes. BDA model based on nine new diagnostic indexes demonstrated high precision with discriminant ratio which lay between 93.92% and 99.32%.

  18. Multifractal detrended cross-correlations between crude oil market and Chinese ten sector stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liansheng; Zhu, Yingming; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Yiqi

    2016-11-01

    Based on the daily price data of spot prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and ten CSI300 sector indices in China, we apply multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to investigate the cross-correlations between crude oil and Chinese sector stock markets. We find that the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and energy sector stock market is the highest, followed by the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and financial sector market, which reflects a close connection between energy and financial market. Then we do vector autoregression (VAR) analysis to capture the interdependencies among the multiple time series. By comparing the strength of multifractality for original data and residual errors of VAR model, we get a conclusion that vector auto-regression (VAR) model could not be used to describe the dynamics of the cross-correlations between WTI crude oil and the ten sector stock markets.

  19. Analysis of the temporal properties of price shock sequences in crude oil markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Liu, Zhi-ying; Huang, Wei-qiang

    2014-01-01

    As one of the fundamental energy sources and important chemical raw materials, crude oil is crucially important to every country. Especially, the price shock of crude oil will bring about hidden dangers in energy security and economic security. Therefore, investigating the dynamics of frequent price shocks of crude oil markets seems to be crucial and necessary. In order to make the conclusions more reliable and valid, we use two different representations of the price shocks (inter-event times and series of counts) to study the temporal properties of price shock sequences in crude oil markets, such as coefficient of variation, Allan Factor, Fano Factors, Rescaled Range analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We find evidence that the time dynamics of the price shock sequences can be considered as a fractal process with a high degree of time-clusterization of the events. It could give us some useful information to better understand the nature and dynamics of crude oil markets.

  20. Stable distribution and long-range correlation of Brent crude oil market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Jin, Xiu; Huang, Wei-qiang

    2014-11-01

    An empirical study of stable distribution and long-range correlation in Brent crude oil market was presented. First, it is found that the empirical distribution of Brent crude oil returns can be fitted well by a stable distribution, which is significantly different from a normal distribution. Second, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that there are long-range correlation in returns. It implies that there are patterns or trends in returns that persist over time. Third, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that after the financial crisis 2008, the Brent crude oil market becomes more persistence. It implies that the financial crisis 2008 could increase the frequency and strength of the interdependence and correlations between the financial time series. All of these findings may be used to improve the current fractal theories.

  1. Metal content of crude oils from the Afghan-Tadzhik depression

    SciTech Connect

    Punanova, S.A.; Safranov, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    The distribution of microelements in different types of crude oil from the Paleocene-Eocene deposits of the Afghan-Tadzhik Depression has been examined, and their metal content assessed. Abnormally high concentrations of a number of microelements in crude oils of the Afghan-Tadzhik Depression have been established, considerably higher than the crustal abundances of the same elements in clay rock. The main role in the enrichment of crude oils with microelements is attributed to processes of their hypergenetic conversion, since ore-bearing concentrations of microelements are connected with high-viscosity, heavy, resinous crude oils. Crude oils of the Afghan-Tadzhik Depression may be used as an alternative source of metals such as vanadium. nickel, copper, chromium, cobalt and, possibly, others. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Mixed Multifractal Analysis of Crude Oil, Gold and Exchange Rate Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Shao, Shuxiang; Gao, Jianyu; Sun, Yu; Su, Weiyi

    2016-11-01

    The multifractal analysis of one time series, e.g. crude oil, gold and exchange rate series, is often referred. In this paper, we apply the classical multifractal and mixed multifractal spectrum to study multifractal properties of crude oil, gold and exchange rate series and their inner relationships. The obtained results show that in general, the fractal dimension of gold and crude oil is larger than that of exchange rate (RMB against the US dollar), reflecting a fact that the price series in gold and crude oil are more heterogeneous. Their mixed multifractal spectra have a drift and the plot is not symmetric, so there is a low level of mixed multifractal between each pair of crude oil, gold and exchange rate series.

  3. Dissipative particle dynamics simulation on the rheological properties of heavy crude oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sibo; Xu, Junbo; Wen, Hao

    2015-11-01

    The rheological properties of heavy crude oil have a significant impact on the production, refining and transportation. In this paper, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations were performed to study the effects of the addition of light crude oil and emulsification on the rheological properties of heavy crude oil. The simulation results reflected that the addition of light crude oil reduced the viscosity effectively. The shear thinning behaviour of crude oil mixtures were becoming less distinct as the increase of the mass fraction of light crude oil. According to the statistics, the shear had an influence on the aggregation and spatial orientation of asphaltene molecules. In addition, the relationship between the viscosity and the oil mass fraction was investigated in the simulations of emulsion systems. The viscosity increased with the oil mass fraction slowly in oil-in-water emulsions. When the oil mass fraction was higher than 50%, the increase became much faster since systems had been converted into water-in-oil emulsions. The equilibrated morphologies of emulsion systems were shown to illustrate the phase inversion. The surfactant-like feature of asphaltenes was also studied in the simulations.

  4. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention was paid to heavy crude oils from Venezuela, California, Alabama, Arkansas, Wyoming, Alaska, and other oil producing areas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between {open_quotes}biodegraded{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biotreated{close_quotes} oils. Preliminary results indicate the introduced microorganisms may become the dominant species in the bioconversion of oils. These studies also indicate the biochemical interactions between crude oils and microorganisms follow distinct trends, characterized by a group of chemical markers. Core-flooding experiments have shown significant additional crude oil recoveries are achievable with thermophilic microorganisms at elevated temperatures similar to those found in oil reservoirs. In addition, the biochemical treatment of crude oils has technological applications in downstream processing of crude oils such as in upgrading of low grade oils and the production of hydrocarbon based detergents.

  5. Geologically distinct crude oils cause a common cardiotoxicity syndrome in developing zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Hicken, Corinne E; Boyd, Daryle; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Carls, Mark G; Shim, Won Joon; Incardona, John P

    2013-05-01

    Crude oils from different geological formations vary in composition, yet most crude oils contain a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fraction that would be expected to produce cardiotoxic effects in developing fish. To determine whether different crude oils or PAH compositions produce common or distinct effects, we used zebrafish embryos to directly compare two crude oils at different states of weathering. Iranian heavy crude oil (IHCO) spilled in the Yellow Sea following the 2007 Hebei Spirit accident was compared to the intensively studied Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) using two different exposure methods, water-accommodated fractions containing dispersed oil microdroplets and oiled gravel effluent. Overall, both crude oils produced a largely overlapping suite of defects, marked by the well-known effects of PAH exposure on cardiac function. Specific cardiotoxicity phenotypes were nearly identical between the two oils, including impacts on ventricular contractility and looping of the cardiac chambers. However, with increased weathering, tissue-specific patterns of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) activation in the heart changed, with myocardial AHR activation evident when alkyl-PAHs dominated the mixture. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of cardiotoxicity may shift from a predominantly AHR-independent mode during early weathering to a multiple pathway or synergistic mode with prolonged weathering and increased proportions of dissolved alkyl-PAHs. Despite continued need for comparisons of crude oils from different sources, the results here indicate that the body of knowledge already acquired from studies of ANSCO is directly relevant to understanding the impacts of other crude oil spills on the early life history stages of fish. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Effects of weathering on the dispersion of crude oil through oil-mineral aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gustitus, Sarah A; John, Gerald F; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2017-06-01

    Crude oil that is inadvertently spilled in the marine environment can interact with suspended sediment to form oil-mineral aggregates (OMA). Researchers have identified OMA formation as a natural method of oil dispersion, and have sought ways to enhance this process for oil spill remediation. Currently there is a lack of understanding of how the weathering of oil will affect the formation of OMA due to a lack of published data on this relationship. Based on literature, we identified two conflicting hypotheses: OMA formation 1) increases with weathering as a result of increased asphaltene and polar compound content; or 2) decreases with weathering as a result of increased viscosity. While it is indeed true that the viscosity and the relative amount of polar compounds will increase with weathering, their net effects on OMA formation is unclear. Controlled laboratory experiments were carried out to systematically test these two conflicting hypotheses. Experimental results using light, intermediate, and heavy crude oils, each at five weathering stages, show a decrease in OMA formation as oil weathers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonmonotonic Elasticity of the Crude Oil-Brine Interface in Relation to Improved Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Miyauchi, Tomás E; Firoozabadi, Abbas; Fuller, Gerald G

    2016-03-08

    Injection of optimized chemistry water in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has gained much interest in the past few years. Crude oil-water interfaces can have a viscoelastic character affected by the adsorption of amphiphilic molecules. The brine concentration as well as surfactants may strongly affect the fluid-fluid interfacial viscoelasticity. In this work we investigate interfacial viscoelasticity of two different oils in terms of brine concentration and a nonionic surfactant. We correlate these measurements with oil recovery in a glass-etched flow microchannel. Interfacial viscoelasticity develops relatively fast in both oils, stabilizing at about 48 h. The interfaces are found to be more elastic than viscous. The interfacial elastic (G') and viscous (G″) moduli increase as the salt concentration decreases until a maximum in viscoelasticity is observed around 0.01 wt % of salt. Monovalent (Na(+)) and divalent (Mg(2+)) cations are used to investigate the effect of ion type; no difference is observed at low salinity. The introduction of a small amount of a surfactant (100 ppm) increases the elasticity of the crude oil-water interface at high salt concentration. Aqueous solutions that give the maximum interface viscoelasticity and high salinity brines are used to displace oil in a glass-etched "porous media" micromodel. Pressure fluctuations after breakthrough are observed in systems with high salt concentration while at low salt concentration there are no appreciable pressure fluctuations. Oil recovery increases by 5-10% in low salinity brines. By using a small amount of a nonionic surfactant with high salinity brine, oil recovery is enhanced 10% with no pressure fluctuations. Interface elasticity reduces the snap-off of the oil phase, leading to reduced pressure fluctuations. This study sheds light on significance of interface viscoelasticity in oil recovery by change in salt concentration and by addition of a small amount of a nonionic surfactant.

  8. A Scientific Study to Develop a Practical Method for Assessing the Cleanup of ’Sour’ (High Sulfur) Crude Oil Spills in Littoral Sands using Benthic Microorganisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Stabilized crude oil in littoral sands and gravels by using microorganisms as indicators. Crude oil was spilled on beaches at three localities along the...sediments, the crude oil was not detected approximately three months after it was spilled. (Author)

  9. Numerical simualtions of fouling in crude-oil processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junfeng; Matar, Omar

    2013-11-01

    The aims of this study are to achieve fundamental understanding of the transfer processes underlying the development of a fouling layer on the inside of heat exchangers used in crude-oil processing. The numerical models developed are based on the solution of the mass and momentum conservation equations, coupled to the energy transport equation. These are complemented by relations that capture the dependence of the layer density, viscosity, and surface tension on temperature. In order to capture ageing effects, the thermal conductivity of the layer is allowed to depend on temperature, and a functional form is chosen for its viscosity that accounts for dynamic structure-building and destruction. Importantly, a chemical equilibria model is used to model the phase behaviour of the oil, and this is also coupled to the governing equations. The turbulence in the fluid phase is modelled using large eddy simulations. Numerical solutions of the model equations are obtained in a channel geometry using a volume-of-fluid approach. Our results capture the complex fouling dynamics that include phase separation, wall-layer deposition, and removal. Skolkovo Foundation, UNIHEAT project.

  10. Optimization of squalene produced from crude palm oil waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandira, Irda; Legowo, Evita H.; Widiputri, Diah I.

    2017-01-01

    Squalene is a hydrocarbon originally and still mostly extracted from shark liver oil. Due to environmental issues over shark hunting, there have been efforts to extract squalene from alternative sources, such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD), one of crude palm oil (CPO) wastes. Previous researches have shown that squalene can be extracted from PFAD using saponification process followed with liquid-liquid extraction process although the method had yet to be optimized in order to optimize the amount of squalene extracted from PFAD. The optimization was done by optimizing both processes of squalene extraction method: saponification and liquid-liquid extraction. The factors utilized in the saponification process optimization were KOH concentration and saponification duration while during the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) process optimization, the factors used were the volumes of distilled water and dichloromethane. The optimum percentage of squalene content in the extract (24.08%) was achieved by saponifying the PFAD with 50%w/v KOH for 60 minutes and subjecting the saponified PFAD to LLE, utilizing 100 ml of distilled water along with 3 times addition of fresh dichloromethane, 75 ml each; those factors would be utilized in the optimum squalene extraction method.

  11. Toxicological evaluation of a lake ecosystem contaminated with crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Twigg, D.; Ramey, B.; Bishop, V.

    1995-12-31

    Winona Lake on the Daniel Boone National Forest in Powell County, Kentucky, was used from the mid 1950`s to 1987 as a water source for water-injection oil drilling and as a brine disposal site. The lake was contaminated with excessive amounts of crude oil. A multi phase investigation was conducted, including chemical analysis of water and sediment, water toxicity tests using a cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia, sediment toxicity tests using an amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and a faunal survey of the communities of the lake and stream both above and below the lake. The sediment was laden with petroleum hydrocarbons (4.1 parts per thousand), while the water showed no contamination. The C dubia test results showed no significant water toxicity. The contaminated sediment adjacent to the dam produced 75% mortality in H. azteca. The faunal survey indicated little or no impact on the upstream and downstream communities but the lake community was highly impacted, especially the benthos. Pollution tolerant Chaoborus sp. were the only organisms collected from sediment samples dredged from the lake. Contamination was limited to the sediment within the lake but the impact on the entire lake community was severe.

  12. Microbial interactions in crude oils: Possible impact on biochemical versatility on the choice of microbial candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.

    1995-10-01

    Experimental data gathered over the past several years show that the interactions of microorganisms with crude oils are variable and depend on the microbial species and the chemical composition of crude oils. The variations can be observed in terms of the extent of emulsification, changes in the hydrocarbon composition of crude oils, and duration of biotreatment. All of these factors indicate that the interaction of microbes with crude oils involves multiple chemical reactions resulting from the biochemical interactions between microbes and oils. Different interactions may influence the efficiency of processes in which single or mixed microbial species are used for the oil treatment and may also suggest possible combinations of biological and chemical technologies. Some of these concepts will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Biodegradation of crude oil by Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from fermented zobo (locally fermented beverage in Nigeria).

    PubMed

    Abioye, O P; Akinsola, R O; Aransiola, S A; Damisa, D

    2013-12-15

    The increase in demand for crude oil as a source of energy and as a primary raw material for industries has resulted in an increase in its production, transportation and refining, which in turn has resulted in gross pollution of the environment. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from a commercially prepared local fermented beverage 'zobo' (prepared from Hibiscus flower) was tested to determine its potential to degrade crude oil for a period of 28 days under aerobic condition. The percentage of oil biodegradation was determined using weight loss method and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) of the residual crude oil after 28 days. At the end of 28 days 49.29% crude oil degradation was recorded. The result suggests the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bioremediation of oil polluted sites.

  14. Mechanisms for ageing of middle distillates manufactured from crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Derst, P.

    1995-04-01

    European middle distillate marketers and manufacturers have recently seen a surprising increase of ageing phenomena, mainly in the new eastern provinces of Germany after installation of new home heating oil units. Some of these phenomena remain unexplained, so that the {open_quotes}Committee Product Application-Fuels{close_quotes} of the DGMK (German Society for Petroleum and Coal Science and Technology) agreed to foster a research study with respect to ageing of middle distillates manufactured from mineral oils. As step I a literature search was authorized, as it was felt that since over 50 years of work had been done on the subject without culminating in an overall deterioration and degradation theory yet. What has been found by the search is a majority of papers dealing with the results of ageing processes taken from real life cases and trying to resimulate them in the laboratory while reducing the reaction time. Relatively few papers try to explain chemical/physical reaction mechanisms on which an ageing theory could be built. An obvious problem with testing distillates and presented by many papers is the isolation of a blend component often found harmful for a finished product, from the rest of the fuel components, thus omitting preventative forces or activating/accelerating agents from the findings. Many tests with Light Cat Cycle Oil (LCO) are typical examples. This isolation can explain the many contradictive findings in literature, which this paper will document in detail. The most promising theory requires a set of conditions/chemicals to be met/present to kick off the ageing process and progress it until one of the components is consumed. The paper will provide details on these {open_quotes}danger chemicals{close_quotes} found in literature. Finally the most promising reaction kinetic models found in the literature will be critically reviewed.

  15. Microbial enhanced heavy crude oil recovery through biodegradation using bacterial isolates from an Omani oil field.

    PubMed

    Al-Sayegh, Abdullah; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Joshi, Sanket

    2015-09-16

    Biodegradation is a cheap and environmentally friendly process that could breakdown and utilizes heavy crude oil (HCO) resources. Numerous bacteria are able to grow using hydrocarbons as a carbon source; however, bacteria that are able to grow using HCO hydrocarbons are limited. In this study, HCO degrading bacteria were isolated from an Omani heavy crude oil field. They were then identified and assessed for their biodegradation and biotransformation abilities under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria were grown in five different minimum salts media. The isolates were identified by MALDI biotyper and 16S rRNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were submitted to GenBank (NCBI) database. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis. To assess microbial growth and biodegradation of HCO by well-assay on agar plates, samples were collected at different intervals. The HCO biodegradation and biotransformation were determined using GC-FID, which showed direct correlation of microbial growth with an increased biotransformation of light hydrocarbons (C12 and C14). Among the isolates, B. licheniformis AS5 was the most efficient isolate in biodegradation and biotransformation of the HCO. Therefore, isolate AS5 was used for heavy crude oil recovery experiments, in core flooding experiments using Berea core plugs, where an additional 16 % of oil initially in place was recovered. This is the first report from Oman for bacteria isolated from an oil field that were able to degrade and transform HCO to lighter components, illustrating the potential use in HCO recovery. The data suggested that biodegradation and biotransformation processes may lead to additional oil recovery from heavy oil fields, if bacteria are grown in suitable medium under optimum growth conditions.

  16. Effects of crude oil residuals on soil chemical properties in oil sites, Momoge Wetland, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Feng, Jiang; Zhao, Jimin

    2010-02-01

    Crude oil exploration and production has been the largest anthropogenic factor contributing to the degradation of Momoge Wetland, China. To study the effects of crude oil on wetland soils, we examined the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP), as well as pH and electricity conductivity (EC) from oil sites and uncontaminated areas in the Momoge Wetland. All contaminated areas had significantly higher (p < 0.05) contents of TPH and TOC, but significantly lower (p < 0.05) TN contents than those of the uncontaminated areas. Contaminated sites also exhibited significantly higher (p < 0.05) pH values, C/N and C/P ratios. For TP contents and EC, no significant changes were detected. The level of soil contamination and impact of oil residuals on soil quality greatly depended on the length of time the oil well was in production. Oil residuals had caused some major changes in the soils' chemical properties in the Momoge Wetland.

  17. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Progress report, September 15, 1979-March 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; King, C.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Four crude oils (H Coal-Fuel Oil Mode, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, and SRC II) which were distilled into four fractions (naphtha, mid-distillate, gas oil and residue) for analysis and biological screening testing during the last report period were tested for mutagenicity by the Ames test and for tumor initiating activity by an initiation/promotion (skin painting) test. Substantial agreement exists between Ames and skin painting results. Low boiling naphtha fractions of the 4 crude oils showed little or no mutagenicity or tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil fractions.

  18. A detection method of vegetable oils in edible blended oil based on three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy technique.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Edible blended vegetable oils are made from two or more refined oils. Blended oils can provide a wider range of essential fatty acids than single vegetable oils, which helps support good nutrition. Nutritional components in blended oils are related to the type and content of vegetable oils used, and a new, more accurate, method is proposed to identify and quantify the vegetable oils present using cluster analysis and a Quasi-Monte Carlo integral. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were obtained at 250-400nm (excitation) and 260-750nm (emission). Mixtures of sunflower, soybean and peanut oils were used as typical examples to validate the effectiveness of the method.

  19. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks, crude... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel to meet the draft and trim requirements in § 157.09(b); or (2) A crude oil washing system that...

  20. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks, crude... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel to meet the draft and trim requirements in § 157.09(b); or (2) A crude oil washing system that...

  1. 33 CFR 157.10 - Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. 157.10 Section 157.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters... § 157.10 Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. (a) This... vessel under this section of 20,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and of 30,000 DWT or more...

  2. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude... DWT or more. (a) An existing vessel of 40,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and a new vessel of 40,000 DWT or more but less than 70,000 DWT that carries crude oil must have: (1) Segregated...

  3. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks, crude... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel to meet the draft and trim requirements in § 157.09(b); or (2) A crude oil washing system that...

  4. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude... DWT or more. (a) An existing vessel of 40,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and a new vessel of 40,000 DWT or more but less than 70,000 DWT that carries crude oil must have: (1) Segregated...

  5. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks, crude... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel to meet the draft and trim requirements in § 157.09(b); or (2) A crude oil washing system that...

  6. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude... DWT or more. (a) An existing vessel of 40,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and a new vessel of 40,000 DWT or more but less than 70,000 DWT that carries crude oil must have: (1) Segregated...

  7. 33 CFR 157.10 - Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. 157.10 Section 157.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters... § 157.10 Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. (a) This... vessel under this section of 20,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and of 30,000 DWT or more...

  8. 33 CFR 157.10 - Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. 157.10 Section 157.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters... § 157.10 Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. (a) This... vessel under this section of 20,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and of 30,000 DWT or more...

  9. 33 CFR 157.10 - Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. 157.10 Section 157.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters... § 157.10 Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. (a) This... vessel under this section of 20,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and of 30,000 DWT or more...

  10. 33 CFR 157.10c - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10c Segregated ballast tanks, crude... carries crude oil must have— (1) Segregated ballast tanks that have a total capacity to allow the vessel to meet the draft and trim requirements in § 157.09(b); or (2) A crude oil washing system that...

  11. 33 CFR 157.10 - Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. 157.10 Section 157.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters... § 157.10 Segregated ballast tanks and crude oil washing systems for certain new vessels. (a) This... vessel under this section of 20,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and of 30,000 DWT or more...

  12. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude... DWT or more. (a) An existing vessel of 40,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and a new vessel of 40,000 DWT or more but less than 70,000 DWT that carries crude oil must have: (1) Segregated...

  13. 33 CFR 157.10a - Segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing systems, and dedicated clean ballast tanks for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.10a Segregated ballast tanks, crude... DWT or more. (a) An existing vessel of 40,000 DWT or more that carries crude oil and a new vessel of 40,000 DWT or more but less than 70,000 DWT that carries crude oil must have: (1) Segregated...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain N002, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from Geleky, Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Abhjit Sarma; Baruah, Reshita; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Borah, Maina

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of crude oil-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain N002, isolated from a crude oil-polluted soil sample from Geleky, Assam, India. Multiple genes potentially involved in crude oil degradation were identified. PMID:23405324

  15. Chemical dispersant potentiates crude oil impacts on growth, reproduction, and gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Chen, Dongliang; Ennis, Adrien C; Polli, Joseph R; Xiao, Peng; Zhang, Baohong; Stellwag, Edmund J; Overton, Anthony; Pan, Xiaoping

    2013-02-01

    The economic, environmental, and human health impacts of the deepwater horizon (DWH) oil spill have been of significant concern in the general public and among scientists. This study employs parallel experiments to test the effects of crude oil from the DWH oil well, chemical dispersant Corexit 9500A, and dispersant-oil mixture on growth and reproduction in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Both the crude oil and the dispersant significantly inhibited the reproduction of C. elegans. Dose-dependent inhibitions of hatched larvae production were observed in worms exposed to both crude oil and dispersant. Importantly, the chemical dispersant Corexit 9500A potentiated crude oil effects; dispersant-oil mixture induced more significant effects than oil or dispersant-alone exposures. While oil-alone exposure and dispersant-alone exposure have none to moderate inhibitory effects on hatched larvae production, respectively, the mixture of dispersant and oil induced much more significant inhibition of offspring production. The production of hatched larvae was almost completely inhibited by several high concentrations of the dispersant-oil mixture. This suggests a sensitive bioassay for future investigation of oil/dispersant impacts on organisms. We also investigated the effects of crude oil/dispersant exposure at the molecular level by measuring the expressions of 31 functional genes. Results showed that the dispersant and the dispersant-oil mixture induced aberrant expressions of 12 protein-coding genes (cat-4, trxr-2, sdhb-1, lev-8, lin-39, unc-115, prdx-3, sod-1, acr-16, ric-3, unc-68, and acr-8). These 12 genes are associated with a variety of biological processes, including egg-laying, oxidative stress, muscle contraction, and neurological functions. In summary, the toxicity potentiating effect of chemical dispersant must be taken into consideration in future crude oil cleanup applications.

  16. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-10-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasoline (RFG) are estimated. The scope of the study includes both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components. The effects on energy and crude oil use of employing various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen-content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis shows that production of RFG requires more total energy, but uses less crude oil, than that of conventional gasoline. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than does RFG with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethyl tertiary butyl ether. A specific proposal by the US Environmental Protection Agency, designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG, would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over the corresponding values for the base RFG with MTBE.

  17. Inhibition of Acetoclastic Methanogenesis in Crude Oil- and Creosote-Contaminated Groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Smith, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater was studied. The crude oil and water-soluble components of creosote contributed to the inhibition of acetoclastic methanogens. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was much more susceptible to the toxic inhibition of crude oil and creosote than either hydrogen- or formate-utilizing methanogenesis. The effect of this toxic inhibition was apparent in the population of the methanogenic trophic groups near nonaqueous crude oil at the Bemidji, MN, site. At a crude oil-contaminated site, numbers of acetoclastic methanogens found close to crude oil were 100 times fewer than those of hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanogens. In laboratory toxicity assays, crude oil collected from the site inhibited methane production from acetate but not from formate or hydrogen. Toxicity assays with aqueous creosote extract completely inhibited acetate utilization over the range of tested dilutions but only mildly affected formate and hydrogen utilization. Wastewater reactor studies indicated that this toxicity would result in a decrease in the biodegradation rate of contaminants at sites where toxic compounds are present.

  18. Changes in rheological properties of crude oil upon treatment with urea (a discussion)

    SciTech Connect

    Rudakova, N.Y.; Froishteter, G.B.; Radionova, N.V.; Timoshina, A.A.; Tkschuk, T.I.

    1983-11-01

    Paraffin-containing systems, such as waxy crudes, leave extensive wax deposits on pipeline walls and greatly adds to pipeline costs. It is proposed that solid hydrocarbons be extracted from raw crudes by adduct formation with urea. The petroleum would be separated into basic groups of hydrocarbons: normal-structure paraffins, and cyclic paraffins. Mangyshlak, Dolina, and Romashinko crude were treated. It is shown that by changing the rheological properties of crude oil by extracting the normal-structure hydrocarbons, it becomes possible to transport high-wax and medium-wax crude through pipelines with several advantages as specified.

  19. A simple extraction procedure for determination of total mercury in crude oil.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Razi; Al-Fahad, Mossaed A; Al-Rashwan, Ayman K; Al-Qarni, Mohammad A

    2013-05-01

    The determination of mercury in crude oil and petroleum products is particularly difficult due to the volatile nature of both mercury and the matrix, which may lead to significant loss of the analyte. A simple extraction method for total mercury has been developed to determine total mercury in crude oil using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The homogenized crude oil sample was diluted to 5, 10, and 20 % (w/w) in toluene. The diluted crude oil samples were spiked with 10 and 40 μg/kg (w/w). The samples were extracted using an oxidant/acid solution, BrCl/HCl. The mercury was extracted into the aqueous phase; the ionic mercury was then reduced to volatile elemental mercury (Hg(0)) by stannous chloride (SnCl2). The mercury vapor was detected by Merlin cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry at a 253.7-nm wavelength. The average recoveries for mercury in spiked diluted crude oil (10 and 40 μg/kg, w/w) were between 96 and 103 %, respectively, in 5 and 10 % spiked diluted crude oil. Whereas, low recoveries (<50 %) were recorded in 20 % diluted spiked crude oil. The method detection limit was calculated as t (0.01)(n - 1) × SD where t is the student's value for 99 % confidence level and standard deviation estimate with n - 1 degrees of freedom. The method detection limit was found to be 0.38 μg/kg based on 5 g of diluted crude oil sample. The method is sensitive enough to determine low levels of mercury in crude oil.

  20. Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

    2008-07-01

    Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

  1. Combustion performance evaluation of air staging of palm oil blends.

    PubMed

    Mohd Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri; Eldrainy, Yehia A; Mat Ali, Muhammad Faiser; Wan Omar, W Z; Mohd Hizam, Mohd Faizi Arif

    2012-02-21

    The problems of global warming and the unstable price of petroleum oils have led to a race to develop environmentally friendly biofuels, such as palm oil or ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane. Biofuels are a potential replacement for fossil fuel, since they are renewable and environmentally friendly. This paper evaluates the combustion performance and emission characteristics of Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized Palm Oil (RBDPO)/diesel blends B5, B10, B15, B20, and B25 by volume, using an industrial oil burner with and without secondary air. Wall temperature profiles along the combustion chamber axis were measured using a series of thermocouples fitted axially on the combustion chamber wall, and emissions released were measured using a gas analyzer. The results show that RBDPO blend B25 produced the maximum emission reduction of 56.9% of CO, 74.7% of NOx, 68.5% of SO(2), and 77.5% of UHC compared to petroleum diesel, while air staging (secondary air) in most cases reduces the emissions further. However, increasing concentrations of RBDPO in the blends also reduced the energy released from the combustion. The maximum wall temperature reduction was 62.7% for B25 at the exit of the combustion chamber.

  2. Effects of crude oil, oil components, and bioremediation on plant growth.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Hee-Sik; Oh, Hee-Mock; Yoon, Byung-Dae; Kim, Jaisoo; Lee, In-Sook

    2004-01-01

    The phytotoxic effects of crude oil and oil components on the growth of red beans (Phaseolus nipponesis OWH1) and corn (Zea mays) was investigated. In addition, the beneficial effects of bioremediation with the oil-degrading microorganism, Nocardia sp. H17-1, on corn and red bean growth in oil-contaminated soil was also determined. It was found that crude oil-contaminated soil (10,000mg/kg) was phytotoxic to corn and red beans. In contrast, obvious phytotoxicity was not observed in soils contaminated with 0-1000 mg/kg of aliphatic hydrocarbons such as decane (C10) and eicosane (C20). Phytotoxicity was observed in soils contaminated with 10-1000mg/kg of the poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. It was observed that phytotoxicity increased with the number of aromatic rings, and that corn was more sensitive than red beans to PAH-contaminated soil. Bioremediation with Nocardia sp. H17-1 reduced phytotoxicity more in corn than in red bean, suggesting that this microbial species might degrade PAHs to some degree.

  3. Sulfur transfer in the distillate fractions of Arabian crude oils under gamma-irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Soliman, Yasser S.; Alkhuraiji, Turki S.

    2017-05-01

    Desulfurization of light distillation fractions including gasoline, kerosene and diesel obtained from the four Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) upon γ-rays irradiation to different doses was investigated. In addition, yields vol%, FTIR analysis, kinematic viscosity and density of all distillation fractions of irradiated crude oils were evaluated. Limited radiation-induced desulfurization of those fractions was observed up to an irradiation dose of 200 kGy. FTIR analysis of those fractions indicates the absence of oxidized sulfur compounds, represented by S=O of sulfone group, indicating that γ-irradiation of the Arabian crude oils at normal conditions does not induce an oxidative desulfurization in those distillation fractions. Radiation-induced sulfur transfer decreases by 28.56% and increases in total sulfur by 16.8% in Arabian extra light oil and Arabian medium crude oil respectively.

  4. Sensitivity of branchial mucous to crude oil toxicity in a freshwater fish, Colisa fasciatus

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, M.S.

    1988-11-01

    In the maintenance of respiratory activity of the gills in fishes, mucus secretion is known to have an important function. Crude oils and their fractions enter the fish tissue by positive transfer via the gills thus the mucus cells of gill epithelia act as an obvious site of pathogenic interactions between the fish and the environment. Mucous cell hyperplasia is a general phenomenon associated with crude oil toxicity. Even though a large quantity of crude oil pollutes the freshwater environment annually, literatures on the pathogenic effect of oil pollutants on the branchial mucous cells of fishes are limited to the marine and estuarine species. This investigation has been undertaken to provide a better understanding of the pathogenic effects of crude oil on the branchial mucous of a freshwater fish, Colisa fasciatus. The toxicity assessment is based on the histochemical observations of mucous cells present in the epithelia of gill rakers and filaments.

  5. Potential of the green alga Chlorella vulgaris for biodegradation of crude oil hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Movafeghi, Ali; Mohammadi-Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad

    2017-08-22

    Oil production and/or transportation can cause severe environmental pollution and disrupt the populations of living organisms. In the present study, biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is investigated using Chlorella vulgaris as a green algal species. The microalga was treated by 10 and 20g/l crude oil/water concentrations at two experimental durations (7 and 14days). Based on the results obtained, C. vulgaris owned not only considerable resistance against the pollutants but also high ability in remediation of crude oil hydrocarbons (~94% of the light and ~88% of heavy compounds in 14days). Intriguingly, dry weight of C. vulgaris increased by the rising crude oil concentration indicating the positive effect of crude oil on the growth of the algal species. This biodegradation process is remarkably a continuous progression over a period of time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Handling of high pour point West African crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Irani, C.; Zajac, J.

    1982-02-01

    Problems related with the transportation of two high pour point west African (Zaire and Cabinda) crudes are discussed. Relevant rheological parameters of untreated and treated (chemical additives for pour point depression) crude were determined in the laboratory with a rotational viscometer and these results are presented. In both cases, low concentrations (30 to 50 ppmw) of the chemical additives improved the mobility and reduced the restarting pressure requirements for the crude. On the basis of the rheological evaluation of Cabinda crude, continuous circulation of the crude in the platform storage tank was suggested to field personnel as a means to partially alleviate the transportation problems. 17 refs.

  7. Magneto-optical activity of crude oil and its heavy fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A. E.; Edelman, I. S.; Zabluda, V. N.; Petrakovskaya, E. A.; Aleksandrovskii, A. S.; Shubin, A. A.; Trukhan, S. N.; Mart'yanov, O. N.

    2012-05-01

    We have experimentally studied optical and magneto-optical spectra of solutions of crude oils of different origin and their heavy fractions in the visible spectral range. Magnetic circular dichroism of oil in the wavelength range ˜550 nm has been revealed. We show that the shape of the spectra of this dichroism depends on the origin of crude oil, with the magnetic dichroism magnitude being proportional to the concentration of the oil in the solution. A comparison of the data of magneto-optical spectroscopy with electron paramagnetic resonance spectra and chemical composition of samples has allowed us to conclude that the observed magneto-optical activity is determined by the occurrence of VO2+ complexes in the oil samples. The revealed magneto-optical activity of crude oil can form the basis of a unique method of analysis of the composition and properties of oils of different origin and heavy fractions thereof.

  8. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    1. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.015%, 0.150%, and 1.500% crude oil.2. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0.150% or 1.500% Alaskan Prudhoe Bay crude oil were uniformly depressed when compared to values in untreated control birds.3. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil.4. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment.

  9. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this program is to determine the chemical and physical effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted organisms on crude oils and cores at elevated temperatures and pressures. Ultimately a data base will be generated which will be used in technical and economic feasibility studies leading to field applications. Progress to date are described for: construction of core-flooding systems; studies of trends in biochemical interactions between different microorganisms and crude oils; and comparative studies of interaction between different crude oils and microorganisms.

  10. Biofilm-Mediated Enhanced Crude Oil Degradation by Newly Isolated Pseudomonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Debdeep; Ghosh, Ritabrata; Sengupta, Tapas K.

    2013-01-01

    The bioavailability of organic contaminants to the degrading bacteria is a major limitation to efficient bioremediation of sites contaminated with hydrophobic pollutants. Such limitation of bioavailability can be overcome by steady-state biofilm-based reactor. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of such multicellular aggregation by naturally existing oil-degrading bacteria on crude oil degradation. Microorganisms, capable of utilizing crude oil as sole carbon source, were isolated from river, estuary and sea-water samples. Biochemical and 16S rDNA analysis of the best degraders of the three sources was found to belong to the Pseudomonas species. Interestingly, one of the isolates was found to be close to Pseudomonas otitidis family which is not reported yet as a degrader of crude oil. Biodegradation of crude oil was estimated by gas chromatography, and biofilm formation near oil-water interface was quantified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Biofilm supported batches of the isolated Pseudomonas species were able to degrade crude oil much readily and extensively than the planktonic counterparts. Volumetric and topographic analysis revealed that biofilms formed in presence of crude oil accumulate higher biomass with greater thickness compared to the biofilms produced in presence of glucose as sole carbon source. PMID:25937972

  11. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, David; Luketa, Anay; Wocken, Chad; Schlasner, Steve; Aulich, Ted; Allen, Ray; Rudeen, David Keith

    2015-03-01

    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  12. Demethylated hopanes in crude oils and their applications in petroleum geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkman, John K.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert Ian; Woodhouse, Garry Wayne

    1983-04-01

    Analyses of some Australian crude oils show that many contain varying concentrations of A/ B-ring demethylated hopanes. These range from C 26 to C 34 and have been identified from their retention times and mass spectral data as 17α(H)-25-norhopanes. Comparison of hopane and demethylated hopane concentrations and distributions in source-related, biodegraded oils suggests that demethylated hopanes are biotransformation products of the hopanes. Further, it appears that the process occurs at a late stage of biodegradation, after partial degradation of steranes has occurred. Demethylated hopanes are proposed as biomarkers for this stage of severe biodegradation. The presence of these compounds in apparently undegraded crude oils is thought to be due to the presence of biodegraded crude oil residues which have been dissolved by the undegraded crude oil during accumulation in the reservoir sands. The timing of hopane demethylation, relative to the degradation of other compounds, has been assessed and the progressive changes in crude oil composition with increasing extent of biodegradation have been identified. The use of demethylated hopanes as maturity parameters for severely biodegraded crude oils, and the applicability of established biomarker maturity parameters to such oils, are also discussed.

  13. Biofilm-mediated enhanced crude oil degradation by newly isolated pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Debdeep; Ghosh, Ritabrata; Sengupta, Tapas K

    2013-01-01

    The bioavailability of organic contaminants to the degrading bacteria is a major limitation to efficient bioremediation of sites contaminated with hydrophobic pollutants. Such limitation of bioavailability can be overcome by steady-state biofilm-based reactor. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of such multicellular aggregation by naturally existing oil-degrading bacteria on crude oil degradation. Microorganisms, capable of utilizing crude oil as sole carbon source, were isolated from river, estuary and sea-water samples. Biochemical and 16S rDNA analysis of the best degraders of the three sources was found to belong to the Pseudomonas species. Interestingly, one of the isolates was found to be close to Pseudomonas otitidis family which is not reported yet as a degrader of crude oil. Biodegradation of crude oil was estimated by gas chromatography, and biofilm formation near oil-water interface was quantified by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Biofilm supported batches of the isolated Pseudomonas species were able to degrade crude oil much readily and extensively than the planktonic counterparts. Volumetric and topographic analysis revealed that biofilms formed in presence of crude oil accumulate higher biomass with greater thickness compared to the biofilms produced in presence of glucose as sole carbon source.

  14. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500.

    PubMed

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed

    2011-01-30

    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  15. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    PubMed

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses.

  16. Life cycle water demand coefficients for crude oil production from five North American locations.

    PubMed

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2017-10-15

    The production of liquid fuels from crude oil requires water. There has been limited focus on the assessment of life cycle water demand footprints for crude oil production and refining. The overall aim of this paper is address this gap. The objective of this research is to develop water demand coefficients over the life cycle of fuels produced from crude oil pathways. Five crude oil fields were selected in the three North American countries to reflect the impact of different spatial locations and technologies on water demand. These include the Alaska North Slope, California's Kern County heavy oil, and Mars in the U.S.; Maya in Mexico; and Bow River heavy oil in Alberta, Canada. A boundary for an assessment of the life cycle water footprint was set to cover the unit operations related to exploration, drilling, extraction, and refining. The recovery technology used to extract crude oil is one of the key determining factors for water demand. The amount of produced water that is re-injected to recover the oil is essential in determining the amount of fresh water that will be required. During the complete life cycle of one barrel of conventional crude oil, 1.71-8.25 barrels of fresh water are consumed and 2.4-9.51 barrels of fresh water are withdrawn. The lowest coefficients are for Bow River heavy oil and the highest coefficients are for Maya crude oil. Of all the unit operations, exploration and drilling require the least fresh water (less than 0.015 barrel of water per barrel of oil produced). A sensitivity analysis was conducted and uncertainty in the estimates was determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distribution and Recovery of Crude Oil in Various Types of Porous Media and Heterogeneity Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tick, G. R.; Ghosh, J.; Greenberg, R. R.; Akyol, N. H.

    2015-12-01

    A series of pore-scale experiments were conducted to understand the interfacial processes contributing to the removal of crude oil from various porous media during surfactant-induced remediation. Effects of physical heterogeneity (i.e. media uniformity) and carbonate soil content on oil recovery and distribution were evaluated through pore scale quantification techniques. Additionally, experiments were conducted to evaluate impacts of tetrachloroethene (PCE) content on crude oil distribution and recovery under these same conditions. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SXM) was used to obtain high-resolution images of the two-fluid-phase oil/water system, and quantify temporal changes in oil blob distribution, blob morphology, and blob surface area before and after sequential surfactant flooding events. The reduction of interfacial tension in conjunction with the sufficient increase in viscous forces as a result of surfactant flushing was likely responsible for mobilization and recovery of lighter fractions of crude oil. Corresponding increases in viscous forces were insufficient to initiate and maintain the displacement of the heavy crude oil in more homogeneous porous media systems during surfactant flushing. Interestingly, higher relative recoveries of heavy oil fractions were observed within more heterogeneous porous media indicating that wettability may be responsible for controlling mobilization in these systems. Compared to the "pure" crude oil experiments, preliminary results show that crude oil with PCE produced variability in oil distribution and recovery before and after each surfactant-flooding event. Such effects were likely influenced by viscosity and interfacial tension modifications associated with the crude-oil/solvent mixed systems.

  18. Effect of enhanced-oil-recovery chemicals on crude refining. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brubaker, I.M.; Hilfman, L.; Malloy, T.P.

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to study the refining processibility of crude oils produced during enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations using chemical flooding techniques. Results indicate that: (1) Preparative distillation of crude oils containing surfactants produced several effects depending on the structure of the surfactant and the nature of the crude oil - (a) complete destruction of the surfactant; (b) concentration of the surfactant in the vacuum resid fraction; and (c) complexation of the surfactant with hetero-species in the crude oil and possible concentration in the vacuum resid. (2) The activity of a RCD Unibon (BOC) catalyst was reduced when a vacuum resid fraction with a sodium-containing surfactant was processed. The exchange of sodium by ammonium ion produced a surfactant that did not reduce the catalytic activity. (3) The sodium and surfactant levels in EOR crude oils studied can be reduced by desalting, a typical treatment for whole crude oil. (4) Solvent extraction (Demex) of surfactant-containing vacuum resids produced an oil and pitch comparable in quality to those produced by extraction of virgin resids. The sodium contents of the products of the surfactant-doped resid were higher than the corresponding products from the virgin resids, and the surfactant was not clearly separated into either phase. (5) Low Pressure Coking was not affected by the presence of the sodium sulfonate-containing surfactant in the City of Long Beach vacuum resid. The surfactant was destroyed during the process. (6) The sodium sulfonate-based surfactant in the City of Long Beach crude oil did not have an adverse effect on the fouling properties of the crude oil.

  19. Sugar based amphiphiles: easily accessible and efficient crude oil spill thickening agents.

    PubMed

    Samateh, Malick; Vidyasagar, Adiyala; Jadhav, Swapnil R; John, George

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the use of biomass for the catalytic production of phase-selective gelators (PSGs) as a cost-effective, environmentally benign and ideal method for crude oil spill remediation, as well as execute the study exclusively in crude oil. The use of PSGs has recently provided great promise relative to that of their traditional counterparts. However, the use of PSGs with crude oil is much more complicated due to its complex composition. All of the current PSG methods are demonstrated with refined oils or do not employ eco-friendly methods like enzymatic synthesis. Our current project entails studying sugar alcohol-derived amphiphiles for their phase-selective gelation in crude oil; the PSGs are derived from renewable, benign materials and synthesized via a simple, single-step, enzymatic catalysis that required no purification. The results showed that, after a rigorous and systematic testing, the mannitol-derived amphiphile using 8-carbon alkyl chain length (M-8) turned out to be the best crude oil PSG among the studied amphiphiles. M-8 demonstrated a versatility towards thickening of different crude oil types, an efficient ability towards selective gelation of the oil (forming crude oil gel that is over sixty-one-times its mass and stable up to 109.7 °C) in a crude oil/water mixture, and an ability to form gel under practical situations such as seawater conditions. These qualities, in addition to the use of a simple and environmentally benign method to synthesize the structuring agents, make this amphiphile very practical in real life application.

  20. Crude Oil Remote Sensing, Characterization and Cleaning with ContinuousWave and Pulsed Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-23

    identification, and characterization of crude oil . These methods enable the three-dimensional characterization of oil spills that is important for... oil spills that is important for practical applications. Combined methods of CFP and HILI are described in the frame of coherent superposition of...cleaning methods of oil spills cause damage to the environment and pose a risk to human health,.. Oil removal/containment by Lasers offers advantages

  1. Elastohydrodynamics of oil-soluble PAGs, high-oleic sunflower oil and their blends

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent reports indicate that the oxidative stability of vegetable oils can be improved for lubrication purposes by mixing them with oil-soluble polyalkyl glycols (OS-PAG). This inspired a study of other lubrication-related properties of their blends. The viscosity, density, and elastohydrodynamic fi...

  2. Biodegradation of crude oil saturated fraction supported on clays.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Jones, Martin D; Head, Ian M; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-02-01

    The role of clay minerals in crude oil saturated hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/saturated hydrocarbon microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clay minerals used for this study were montmorillonite, palygorskite, saponite and kaolinite. The clay mineral samples were treated with hydrochloric acid and didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce acid activated- and organoclays respectively which were used in this study. The production of organoclay was restricted to only montmorillonite and saponite because of their relative high CEC. The study indicated that acid activated clays, organoclays and unmodified kaolinite, were inhibitory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. Unmodified saponite was neutral to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturates. However, unmodified palygorskite and montmorillonite were stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbon saturated fraction and appears to do so as a result of the clays' ability to provide high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients such that the nutrients were within the 'vicinity' of the microbes. Adsorption of the saturated hydrocarbons was not significant during biodegradation.

  3. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Assessing bioremediation of crude oil in soils and sludges

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, S.J.; Kerr, J.M.; Gray, N.R.; Requejo, A.G.; McDonald, T.J.; Douglas, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Standard bulk property analytical methods currently being employed to evaluate crude oil bioremediation efficacy in soils provide no information concerning the mechanisms by which hydrocarbon losses are occurring (e.g., biodegradation versus leaching). Site/sample heterogeneity in field bioremediation projects may make it difficult to accurately quantify hydrocarbon losses due to biodegradation. To better understand the mechanisms by which losses are occurring and to accurately evaluate biodegradation rates, the hydrocarbon analytical methods must provide both quantitative and compositional information. In this study laboratory bioremediation experiments were used to compare the results of bulk property analytical methods with those methods used by petroleum geochemists that provide both quantitative and compositional data. A tecator extraction was used to isolate the total extractable matter (TEM) from the samples. Compositional changes were monitored by (1) column chromatography to determine class distributions, (2) high resolution gas chromatography with a flame-ionization detector (GC/FID) and (3) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Illustrations of the compositional changes detected by each method and their application to validating bioremediation are provided.

  5. Multivariate Time Series Forecasting of Crude Palm Oil Price Using Machine Learning Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchymalay, Kasturi; Salim, N.; Sukprasert, Anupong; Krishnan, Ramesh; Raba'ah Hashim, Ummi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between crude palm oil (CPO) price, selected vegetable oil prices (such as soybean oil, coconut oil, and olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil), crude oil and the monthly exchange rate. Comparative analysis was then performed on CPO price forecasting results using the machine learning techniques. Monthly CPO prices, selected vegetable oil prices, crude oil prices and monthly exchange rate data from January 1987 to February 2017 were utilized. Preliminary analysis showed a positive and high correlation between the CPO price and soy bean oil price and also between CPO price and crude oil price. Experiments were conducted using multi-layer perception, support vector regression and Holt Winter exponential smoothing techniques. The results were assessed by using criteria of root mean square error (RMSE), means absolute error (MAE), means absolute percentage error (MAPE) and Direction of accuracy (DA). Among these three techniques, support vector regression(SVR) with Sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm showed relatively better results compared to multi-layer perceptron and Holt Winters exponential smoothing method.

  6. Crude oil degradation efficiency of a recombinant Acinetobacter baumannii strain and its survival in crude oil-contaminated soil microcosm.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sanjeet; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Lal, Banwari

    2004-06-15

    A hydrocarbon degrading Acinetobacter baumannii S30 strain, isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil, was inserted with the lux gene from the luciferase gene cassette luxCDABE. Soil microcosms were designed to study the degradation efficacy for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of crude oil by lux-tagged A. baumannii S30 pJES. Bioaugmentation of a TPH-contaminated microcosm with A baumannii S30 pJES showed that TPH levels were reduced from 89.3 to 53.9 g/kg soil in 90 days. Biodegradation of TPH by A baumannii S30 pJES was also monitored in shake flask conditions, which showed a reduction of initial TPH levels by over 50% at the end of 120 h. A lux-PCR-based approach along with the standard dilution plating with selective antibiotics was successfully utilized to monitor the survivability of the lux-tagged strain A. baumannii S30 pJES in soil microcosms and stability of the lux insert in the host strain A. baumannii S30. The selective plating technique indicated the population of A. baumannii S30 pJES to be 6.5+/-0.13 x 10(8) CFU/g at day zero (just after bioaugmentation) and 2.09+/-0.08 x 10(8) CFU/g of soil after 90 days of incubation. lux-PCR confirmed the stability of the insert in all the randomly selected colonies of A. baumannii strains from the antibiotic plates. The lux insert was stable after 50 generations in Luria Bertini broth and storage at -70 degrees C as glycerol stocks for over a year. These results revealed that the lux insert was stable and lux-tagged A. baumannii S30 strain could survive in a TPH-contaminated soil microcosm and could degrade TPH in the soil microcosm conditions. It can be used as an effective marker to monitor the survival of augmented strains at a bioremediation site.

  7. Paraffin deposition and rheological evaluation of high wax content Altamont crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Matlach, W.J.; Newberry, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Altamont area in Utah produces one of the highest wax content crudes anywhere in the world. These high pour point and hard to handle crude oils are an even tougher problem because of their location in a geographic area subject to very low ambient temperatures. Millions of dollars are spent each year heating these crudes in order to expedite their production and transportation. Crude oil samples from the area have been tested using a variety of techniques. Paraffin deposition, viscosity, cloud point, pour point, yield values, wax extraction, and GLC tests have been conducted in order to characterize the crude oil samples. The effects of various chemical additives were analyzed using the same tests. The effective paraffin inhibitors not only reduced the quantity of wax deposited, but dramatic shifts in molecular weight range and configuration also were apparent. 17 references.

  8. Characterisation of crude oils by carbon and sulphur isotope ratio measurements as a tool for pollution control.

    PubMed

    Becker, S; Hirner, A V

    1998-01-01

    The potential of carbon and sulphur isotope ratios to group crude oils with respect to their origin was investigated. Sample selection was based on the actual crude oil imports to Germany. Analysed crude oils from Algeria, the Community of Independent States (CIS), Middle East, Nigeria, the North Sea and Venezuela make up over 86% of the German crude oil imports. The oil as received was deasphalted and the maltene fraction was separated by MPLC into saturated, aromatic and polar fractions. Due to overlapping areas, it is not possible to group the crude oils by their delta 13C values alone. A complete grouping of the crude oils with respect to their origin can only be achieved by the combined use of delta 13C and delta 34S of crude oils, and isotope type-curves. In some cases isotope type-curves enable differentiation between different oil fields of the same geographical origin. In order to determine the post-spill changes of delta 13C values, an experimental spill of crude oil was studied over a period of seven weeks in an outdoor aquarium containing pond water. The delta 13C measurements of crude oil fractions showed changes up to 1.1/1000 during the oil spill simulation. The delta 13C values of the polar fraction exhibited the smallest change, with a variation of 0.3/1000, and are therefore especially useful for the characterisation of crude oil spills.

  9. Unexpected Interaction with Dispersed Crude Oil Droplets Drives Severe Toxicity in Atlantic Haddock Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sørhus, Elin; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Harman, Christopher; Jentoft, Sissel; Meier, Sonnich

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of cyp1a, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea. PMID:25923774

  10. Fresh and weathered crude oil effects on potential denitrification rates of coastal marsh soil.

    PubMed

    Pietroski, Jason P; White, John R; DeLaune, Ronald D; Wang, Jim J; Dodla, Syam K

    2015-09-01

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil platform experienced an explosion which triggered the largest marine oil spill in US history, resulting in the release of ∼795 million L of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Once oil reached the surface, changes in overall chemical composition occurred due to volatilization of the smaller carbon chain compounds as the oil was transported onshore by winds and currents. In this study, the toxic effects of both fresh and weathered crude oil on denitrification rates of coastal marsh soil were determined using soil samples collected from an unimpacted coastal marsh site proximal to areas that were oiled in Barataria Bay, LA. The 1:10 ratio of crude oil:field moist soil fully coated the soil surface mimicking a heavy oiling scenario. Potential denitrification rates at the 1:10 ratio, for weathered crude oil, were 46 ± 18.4% of the control immediately after exposure and 62 ± 8.0% of the control following a two week incubation period, suggesting some adaptation of the denitrifying microbial consortium over time. Denitrification rates of soil exposed to fresh crude oil were 51.5 ± 5.3% of the control after immediate exposure and significantly lower at 10.9 ± 1.1% after a 2 week exposure period. Results suggest that fresh crude oil has the potential to more severely impact the important marsh soil process of denitrification following longer term exposure. Future studies should focus on longer-term denitrification as well as changes in the microbial consortia in response to oil exposure.

  11. Unexpected interaction with dispersed crude oil droplets drives severe toxicity in Atlantic haddock embryos.

    PubMed

    Sørhus, Elin; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Karlsen, Ørjan; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Harman, Christopher; Jentoft, Sissel; Meier, Sonnich

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of cyp1a, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea.

  12. Superoleophillic electrospun polystrene/exofoliated graphite fibre for selective removal of crude oil from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Dare, Enock O.; Olorundare, F. O. Grace; Nkosi, D.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, B. B.

    2016-04-01

    During oil spills, the aquatic environment is greatly endangered because oil floats on water making the penetration of sunlight difficult therefore primary productivity is compromised, birds and aquatic organisms are totally eliminated within a short period. It is therefore essential to remove the oil from the water bodies after the spillage. This work reports on the fabrication of oil loving electrospun polystyrene-exofoliated graphite fibre with hydrophobic and oleophillic surface properties. The fibre was applied for the selective adsorption of crude oil from simulated crude oil spillage on water. The maximum oil adsorption capacity of the EPS/EG was 1.15 kg/g in 20 min while the lowest oil adsorption capacity was 0.81 kg/g in 10 min. Cheap oil adsorbent was developed with superoleophillic and superhydrophobic properties.

  13. Effects of crude oil, dispersant, and oil-dispersant mixtures on human fecal microbiota in an in vitro culture system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Nam; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Seong-Jae; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2012-10-23

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 raised concerns that dispersant and dispersed oil, as well as crude oil itself, could contaminate shellfish and seafood habitats with hazardous residues that had potential implications for human health and the ecosystem. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil and dispersant on the human fecal microbiota. The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil, Corexit 9500 dispersant, and their combination on human fecal microbial communities, using an in vitro culture test system. Fecal specimens from healthy adult volunteers were made into suspensions, which were then treated with oil, dispersant, or oil-dispersant mixtures under anaerobic conditions in an in vitro culture test system. Perturbations of the microbial community, compared to untreated control cultures, were assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time PCR, and pyrosequencing methods. DGGE and pyrosequencing analysis showed that oil-dispersant mixtures reduced the diversity of fecal microbiota from all individuals. Real-time PCR results indicated that the copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes in cultures treated with dispersed oil or oil alone were significantly lower than those in control incubations. The abundance of the Bacteroidetes decreased in crude oil-treated and dispersed-oil-treated cultures, while the Proteobacteria increased in cultures treated with dispersed oil. In conclusion, the human fecal microbiota was affected differently by oil and dispersed oil, and the influence of dispersed oil was significantly greater than that of either oil or dispersant alone compared to control cultures. IMPORTANCE There have been concerns whether human health is adversely affected by exposure to spilled crude oil, which contains regulated carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, we determined the effect of BP Deepwater Horizon crude oil and oil dispersant on the

  14. Impact of formation water geochemistry and crude oil biodegradation on microbial methanogenesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Warwick, Peter D.; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Shallow wells (393–442 m depth) contained highly biodegraded oils associated with low extent of methanogenesis, while the deepest (> 1208 m) wells contained minimally degraded oils and produced fluids suggesting a low extent of methanogenesis. Mid-depth wells (666–857 m) in the central field had the highest indicators of methanogenesis and contained moderately biodegraded oils. Little correlation existed between extents of crude oil biodegradation and methanogenesis across the whole transect (avg.R2 = 0.13). However, when wells with the greatest extent of crude oil biodegradation were eliminated (3 of 6 oilfields), better correlation between extent of methanogenesis and biodegradation (avg. R2 = 0.53) was observed. The results suggest that oil quality and salinity impact methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. Reservoirs indicating moderate extent of crude oil biodegradation and high extent of methanogenesis, such as the central field, would be good candidates for attempting to enhance methanogenic crude oil biodegradation as a result of the observations from the study.

  15. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1993-10-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. In this laboratory systematic studies are being conducted which deal with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention is being paid to heavy crude oils such as Boscan and Cerro Negro (Venezuela), Monterey (California) and those from Alabama and Arkansas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent solubilization of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative chemical and physical changes appear to be microbial species dependent. Effects on heavy crude oils are also compared to those on lighter oils such as oils from the Wyoming petroleum reserve. Microbial oil interactions are monitored routinely by a consortium of analytical techniques which are continuously upgraded and are capable of multiparameter analysis. The results generated in fiscal year 1991, describing (1) through (6), are presented and discussed in this report.

  16. Origin of crude oil in eastern Gulf Coast: Upper Jurassic, Upper Cretaceous, and lower Tertiary source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Sassen, R.

    1988-02-01

    Analysis of rock and crude oil samples suggests that three source rocks have given rise to most crude oil in reservoirs of the eastern Gulf Coast. Carbonate source rocks of the Jurassic Smackover Formation are characterized by algal-derived kerogen preserved in an anoxic and hypersaline environment, resulting in crude oils with distinct compositions. Migration commenced during the Cretaceous, explaining the emplacement of Smackover-derived crude oil in Jurassic and in some Cretaceous reservoirs. Upper Cretaceous clastic and carbonate source rocks are also present. Much crude oil in Upper Cretaceous reservoirs has been derived from organic-rich marine shales of the Tuscaloosa Formation. These shales are characterized by algal and higher plant kerogen, resulting in distinct crude oil compositions. Migration commenced during the Tertiary, but was mostly focused to Upper Cretaceous reservoirs. Lower Tertiary shales, including those of the Wilcox Formation, are quite organic-rich and include downdip marine facies characterized by both algal and higher plant kerogen. Crude oils in lower Tertiary reservoirs are dissimilar to crude oils from deeper and older source rocks. Migration from lower Tertiary shales commenced during the late Tertiary and charged Tertiary reservoirs. Although most crude oil in the eastern Gulf Coast has been emplaced by short-range migration, often with a strong vertical component, some long-range lateral migration (> 100 km) has occurred along lower Tertiary sands. The framework of crude oil generation and migration onshore has important implications with respect to origin of crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Comparative assessment of the trace-element composition of coals, crude oils, and oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    M.Y. Shpirt; S.A. Punanova

    2007-10-15

    A comparative analysis of the amounts of 42 trace elements in coals, crude oils, and oil and black shales was performed. The degree of concentration of trace elements by caustobioliths and their ashes relative to their abundance in argillaceous rocks and the Earth's crust was calculated. Typomorphic trace elements were distinguished, of which many turned out to be common for the different kinds of caustobioliths in question. The trace elements were classified according to their concentration factors in different caustobioliths. The ash of crude oils is enriched in trace elements (Cs, V, Mo, Cu, Ag, Au, Zn, Hg, Se, Cr, Co, Ni, U) to the greatest extent (concentration factor above 3.5) and that of oil shales is enriched to the least extent (Re, Cs, Hg, Se). The ratios between typomorphic trace elements in general strongly differ from those in the Earth's crust and argillaceous rocks and are not identical in different caustobioliths. Quantitative parameters that make it possible to calculate a change in these ratios on passing from one caustobiolith type to another were proposed and the relative trace-element affinity of different caustobioliths was estimated.

  18. Effect of ultrasonic frequency on separation of water from heavy crude oil emulsion using ultrasonic baths.

    PubMed

    Antes, Fabiane G; Diehl, Liange O; Pereira, Juliana S F; Guimarães, Regina C L; Guarnieri, Ricardo A; Ferreira, Bianca M S; Flores, Erico M M

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a comprehensive study was performed for the evaluation of ultrasound (US) frequency for demulsification of crude oil emulsions. Experiments were performed using ultrasonic baths operating at the following frequencies: 25, 35, 45, 130, 582, 862 and 1146kHz. Synthetic water-in-oil emulsions with 12%, 35% and 50% of water and medians of droplet size distribution (DSD, D(0.5)) of 5, 10 and 25μm were prepared using a heavy crude oil (API density of 19). Crude oil demulsification was achieved at frequencies in the range of 25-45kHz for all tested emulsions. When frequencies higher than 45kHz were applied, no changes in the characteristics of the crude oil emulsions were observed. Demulsification efficiencies of about 65% were achieved at a frequency of 45kHz after 15min of US application (emulsions with original water content of 50% and D(0.5)=10μm). An important aspect is that no addition of chemical demulsifiers was performed, and the demulsification efficiency was considered high, taking into account that the results were obtained using a non-conventional crude oil. Contrary to the normal application of low-frequency US that has been used for emulsification, the proposed approach seems to be a promising technology for water removal from crude oil emulsions.

  19. Determination of Component Contents of Blend Oil Based on Characteristics Peak Value Integration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Pei-guo; Wang, Yu-tian; Pan, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Edible blend oil market is confused at present. It has some problems such as confusing concepts, randomly named, shoddy and especially the fuzzy standard of compositions and ratios in blend oil. The national standard fails to come on time after eight years. The basic reason is the lack of qualitative and quantitative detection of vegetable oils in blend oil. Edible blend oil is mixed by different vegetable oils according to a certain proportion. Its nutrition is rich. Blend oil is eaten frequently in daily life. Different vegetable oil contains a certain components. The mixed vegetable oil can make full use of their nutrients and make the nutrients more balanced in blend oil. It is conducive to people's health. It is an effectively way to monitor blend oil market by the accurate determination of single vegetable oil content in blend oil. The types of blend oil are known, so we only need for accurate determination of its content. Three dimensional fluorescence spectra are used for the contents in blend oil. A new method of data processing is proposed with calculation of characteristics peak value integration in chosen characteristic area based on Quasi-Monte Carlo method, combined with Neural network method to solve nonlinear equations to obtain single vegetable oil content in blend oil. Peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil are used as research object to reconcile into edible blend oil, with single oil regarded whole, not considered each oil's components. Recovery rates of 10 configurations of edible harmonic oil is measured to verify the validity of the method of characteristics peak value integration. An effective method is provided to detect components content of complex mixture in high sensitivity. Accuracy of recovery rats is increased, compared the common method of solution of linear equations used to detect components content of mixture. It can be used in the testing of kinds and content of edible vegetable oil in blend oil for the food quality detection

  20. Crude oil as a stranding cause among loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands, Spain (1998-2011).

    PubMed

    Camacho, María; Calabuig, Pascual; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge

    2013-07-01

    We report the number of strandings caused by crude oil among loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Canary Islands between 1998 and 2011 and analyze the impact of the designation of the Canary Islands as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA) in 2005. Among 1,679 stranded loggerhead turtles, 52 turtles stranded due to crude oil (3.1%). The survival rate of the turtles stranded by crude oil was 88%. All turtles that died because of crude oil stranding had signs of ingestion of crude oil and lesions, included esophageal impaction, necrotizing gastroenteritis, necrotizing hepatitis, and tubulonephrosis. The number of strandings caused by crude oil after 2005 was significantly lower than it was before 2006. We show that the designation of the Canary Islands as a PSSA in 2005 by the International Maritime Organization was associated with a reduction of sea turtle strandings caused by crude oil.

  1. 33 CFR 157.138 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (18) The procedures and equipment needed to prevent leakage of crude oil from the steam heater under § 157.122(i) to the engine room. (19) The number of crew members needed to conduct the following:...

  2. 33 CFR 157.138 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (18) The procedures and equipment needed to prevent leakage of crude oil from the steam heater under § 157.122(i) to the engine room. (19) The number of crew members needed to conduct the following:...

  3. 33 CFR 157.138 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (18) The procedures and equipment needed to prevent leakage of crude oil from the steam heater under § 157.122(i) to the engine room. (19) The number of crew members needed to conduct the following:...

  4. 33 CFR 157.138 - Crude Oil Washing Operations and Equipment Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (18) The procedures and equipment needed to prevent leakage of crude oil from the steam heater under § 157.122(i) to the engine room. (19) The number of crew members needed to conduct the following:...

  5. The impact of crude-oil price volatility on agricultural employment in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-12-31

    This study focuses on the impact of fluctuations in the price of crude oil on agricultural employment in the United States. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between agricultural employment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impacts of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in agricultural employment are exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in agricultural employment and the volatility of the price of crude oil, the percentage changes in expected net farm income, realized technological innovation, and the wage rate is examined.

  6. Level shift two-components autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity modelling for WTI crude oil market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Kuek Jia; Cheong, Chin Wen; Hooi, Tan Siow

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the crude oil volatility using a two components autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH) model with the inclusion of abrupt jump feature. The model is able to capture abrupt jumps, news impact, clustering volatility, long persistence volatility and heavy-tailed distributed error which are commonly observed in the crude oil time series. For the empirical study, we have selected the WTI crude oil index from year 2000 to 2016. The results found that by including the multiple-abrupt jumps in ARCH model, there are significant improvements of estimation evaluations as compared with the standard ARCH models. The outcomes of this study can provide useful information for risk management and portfolio analysis in the crude oil markets.

  7. Custody transfer metering performance for turbine and positive displacement meters on batched crude oil pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.E.; Coats, J.R.; Butts, H.W.; LaNasa, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The USA pipeline grid is quickly migrating from transporting low viscosity crude oils to large volumes of moderate to high viscosity crude oils. As a result, the challenges associated with custody transfer, loss control and line integrity have been brought to a new level. To assist in these challenges, an evaluation was undertaken on three flowmeters on a batched crude oil pipeline. A series of experiments are currently underway to evaluate the performance of a conventional turbine meter, a dual bladed helical turbine meter and a capillary seal positive displacement meter over a wide range of transport properties. The goal of this program is to assist the Northern American pipeline industry in determining economically acceptable alternatives in the handling of ever increasing high viscosity crude oils.

  8. Nonlinear joint dynamics between prices of crude oil and refined products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Ma, Guofeng; Liu, Guangsheng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices. We find that nonlinear correlations are stronger in the long-term than in the short-term. Crude oil and product prices are cointegrated and financial crisis in 2007-2008 caused a structural break of the cointegrating relationship. Moreover, different from the findings in most studies, we reveal that the relationships are almost symmetric based on a threshold error correction model. The so-called 'asymmetric relationships' are caused by some outliers and financial crisis. Most of the time, crude oil prices play the major role in the adjustment process of the long-term equilibrium. However, refined product prices dominated crude oil prices during the period of financial crisis. Important policy and risk management implications can be learned from the empirical findings.

  9. A reexamination of the crude oil price-unemployment relationship in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, N.D.; Boyd, R.

    1996-04-01

    This study begins by asking whether fluctuations in the price of crude oil have affected employment and the rate of unemployment in the US. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between the rate of unemployment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impact of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in unemployment is exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in unemployment and the volatility of the price of crude oil and the percentage change in gross national product is examined.

  10. A Study of Crude Oil Price Behavior Based on Fictitious Economy Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoming; Cheng, Siwei; Wang, Shouyang

    The over fluctuating of international crude oil price has aroused wide concern in the society and the academics. Based on the theory of fictitious economy, this paper has studied and explained the crude oil price behavior from Jan 1946 to Dec 2008. It concludes that the long term prices of crude oil are subject to mean reversion in accordance with the decisive law of value, which is fluctuating around the long term marginal opportunity cost. However, at the same time the prices also appeared to deviate far from long term marginal opportunity cost for several relatively long periods. This paper highlights four aspects of this issue: the diversification of international crude oil market participants, the structural changes of the participants, the evolution of pricing mechanism, and the periodic change of world economy.

  11. PETROLEUM REFINERY OPERATIONS SCHEDULING. CHAPTER III. A CRUDE OIL ALLOCATION PROBLEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    mathematical technique used takes notice of the net realization estimates that are available in large integrated companies and also handles the question of crude oil availabilities and of primary distillation capacities.

  12. Influence of UVB radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to planktonic copepod nauplii.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Harvey, Tracy E; Connelly, Tara L; Baca, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Toxic effects of petroleum to marine zooplankton have been generally investigated using dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and in the absence of sunlight. In this study, we determined the influence of natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to naupliar stages of the planktonic copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus. Low concentrations of dispersed crude oil (1 μL L(-1)) caused a significant reduction in survival, growth and swimming activity of copepod nauplii after 48 h of exposure. UVB radiation increased toxicity of dispersed crude oil by 1.3-3.8 times, depending on the experiment and measured variables. Ingestion of crude oil droplets may increase photoenhanced toxicity of crude oil to copepod nauplii by enhancing photosensitization. Photoenhanced sublethal toxicity was significantly higher when T. turbinata nauplii were exposed to dispersant-treated oil than crude oil alone, suggesting that chemical dispersion of crude oil may promote photoenhanced toxicity to marine zooplankton. Our results demonstrate that acute exposure to concentrations of dispersed crude oil and dispersant (Corexit 9500) commonly found in the sea after oil spills are highly toxic to copepod nauplii and that natural levels of UVB radiation substantially increase the toxicity of crude oil to these planktonic organisms. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering sunlight in petroleum toxicological studies and models to better estimate the impact of crude oil spills on marine zooplankton. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Fatty Amide Determination in Neutral Molecular Fractions of Green Crude Hydrothermal Liquefaction Oils From Algal Biomass

    DOE PAGES

    Palardy, Oliver; Behnke, Craig; Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2017-07-05

    Even though hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising route to produce crude oils (referred to as 'green crude'), the molecular composition of the nitrogen fraction of such green crude oils is not fully understood. The goal of this work was to identify and quantify the fraction of fatty amides in green crude oils obtained from five different samples derived from Desmodesmus armatus, Tetraselmis sp., and Chlorella sp. biomass treated under different HTL conditions (260 or 340 degrees C as batch or continuous processes). The goal of this work was to elucidate the nature of the high nitrogen content of themore » green crude oils. We identified at least 19 distinct fatty amides present in green crude oils and quantified them based on relevant standards in purified fractions after functional group-based separation and enrichment. It was not known how much these compounds contributed to the oils or which molecular fraction they are associated with. We found that fatty amides exclusively partitioned with the neutral fraction of the oils and belonged mainly to one of five categories, based on their functional group substitution, i.e., fatty amides, monomethyl, dimethyl, monoethanolamide, and diethanolamide. The quantification of fatty amides in the neutral oil fraction was based on respective fatty amide standards, after verification of consistency in response factors between molecules with different substitutions of the amide group. Here, we found that the amount of fatty amides found in each of the five samples varied considerably and ranged between 1.4 and 3.0% of the green crude oils, with the highest levels detected in the sample with the highest oil content, after HTL of biomass derived from a nutrient deprived Chlorella sp. culture.« less

  14. A study on chaos in crude oil markets before and after 2008 international financial crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate existence of chaos in crude oil markets (Brent and WTI) before and after recent 2008 international financial crisis. Largest Lyapunov exponent is estimated for prices, returns, and volatilities. The empirical results show strong evidence that chaos does not exist in prices and returns in both crude oil markets before and after international crisis. However, we find strong evidence of chaotic dynamics in both Brent and WTI volatilities after international financial crisis.

  15. Experimental investigation of the effects of crude oil on two freshwater lake ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, M.D.; Adams, V.D.; Lamarra, V.A.

    1983-04-01

    The responses of two freshwater lake ecosystems (Bear Lake, Utah-Idaho, and New Fork Lake, Wyoming) to crude oil impaction were investigated in two phases. The effects were first studied on three phase (gaseous-aqueous-sediment) laboratory microcosms. Notable responses were increased oxygen demand, nutrient immobilization, reduction in plant biomass accumulation, and a heterotrophically dominated ecosystem. The second phase investigated the effects of crude oil on plant litter decomposition in the lakes.

  16. Gel chromatographic isolation of resins and asphaltene material in crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Aaberg, A.

    1982-01-01

    A new method is described for fast, simple, and quantitative isolation of high molecular resinous and asphaltene material in crude oils without any alteration of the petroleum constituents. The method is based on gel permeation on Sephadex LH-20 using chloroform as the mobile phase which isolates the high molecular weight resins and asphaltene material from the remainder of the crude oil, and a subsequent gel filtration on Sephadex LH-60 separates resins from asphaltenes if required.

  17. Effect of electric field on the characteristics of crude avocado oil and virgin olive.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Del Socorro Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Ramos-Cassellis, María Elena; Castañeda-Antonio, Dolores; Betanzos-Cabrera, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of an electric field treatment (voltage 9 kV cm(-1), frequency 720 Hz and time of 5 and 25 min) as method of preservation on two edible oils. Unsaturated fatty acid oxidation in the crude avocado oil and virgin olive oil was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid infrared region and by quality parameters (acidity, peroxide and iodine). The electric field is a suitable method to preserve the crude oils composition with minimal modifications without the synthetic antioxidant addition.

  18. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  19. Wettability Behavior of Crude Oil-Silica Nanofluids-Sandstone Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lingyun; Li, Chunyan; Pales, Ashley; Huibers, Britta; Ladner, David; Daigle, Hugh; Darnault, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Mobilizing and recovering crude oils from geological formations is critical for the management and exploitation of petroleum reservoirs. Nanoparticles, with their unique physico-chemical properties can increase the efficiency of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by decreasing interfacial tension (IFT) between the oil and aqueous phase systems, and altering rock wettability. Our research examines the potential use of nanoparticles as a means of EOR by studying the influence of silicon oxide (SIO2) nanoparticles on the wettability and interfacial tension of different crude oil-silica nanofluids-sandstone systems. We designed nanofluid treatments to manipulate changes in wettability of Berea and Boise sandstones simulating petroleum reservoir. Experiments were performed to measure the IFT and wettability involving different concentrations of nanoparticles with and without the addition of surfactant to determine which nanofluids produced the most favorable wettability changes for optimal EOR with light crude oil (e.g., West Texas, API: 40), medium crude oil (Prudhoe Bay, API: 28), and heavy crude oil (e.g., Lloydminster, API: 20). We investigated the addition of Tween 20 nonionic surfactant to the nanoparticle dispersions - made from SiO2 nanoparticles - that allows the optimum mobility in porous media through optimization of interfacial tension (IFT) and contact angle, and conducted tests. Batch studies were conducted to measure the IFT and wettability of the nanofluids of different range of nanoparticle concentrations (0-0.1 wt. %) in different reservoir conditions, i.e. brine and brine-surfactant systems made with 5% brine and 2CMC of Tween 20 nonionic surfactants. The dynamic behavior of IFT was monitored using a pendant drop method. Five percent brine-nanoparticle systems containing 0.001 and 0.01 wt.% of nanoparticles resulted in a significant decrease of IFT for light and medium crude oils, while the highest decrease of IFT for heavy crude oil was observed with 0.1 wt

  20. Hydrobiogeochemical controls on a low-carbon emitting energy extraction mechanism: exploring methanogenic crude oil biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Jenna; McIntosh, Jennifer; Akob, Denise; Spear, John; Warwick, Peter; McCray, John

    2016-04-01

    Exploiting naturally-occurring microbial communities in the deep subsurface could help mitigate the effects of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. These microbial communities, a combination of methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, can perform methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, namely the conversion of crude oil to natural gas, and have also been detected in biodegraded, methanogenic reservoirs. These microbes could target residual crude oil, a high-carbon, hard-to-obtain fossil fuel source, and convert it to natural gas, effectively "producing" a lower CO2 per BTU fuel source. Yet, little is known about what geochemical parameters are driving microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs, and how the presence of specific microbial communities may impact methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. To investigate methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, 22 wells along a subsurface hydrogeochemical gradient in the southeastern USA were sampled for DNA analysis of the microbial community, and geochemical analysis of produced water and crude oil. A statistical comparison of microbial community structure to formation fluid geochemical parameters, amount of crude oil biodegradation, and relative extent of methanogenesis revealed that relative degree of biodegradation (high, medium, or low), chloride concentration (550 mM to 2100 mM), well depth (393 m to 1588 m), and spatial location within the reservoir (i.e., oil field location) are the major drivers of microbial diversity. There was no statistical evidence for correlation between extent of methanogenesis and the subsurface community composition. Despite the dominance of methanogens in these sampled wells, methanogenic activity was not predicted solely based on the microbial community composition. Crude oil biodegradation, however, correlates with both community composition and produced water geochemistry, suggesting a co-linear system and implying that microbial communities associated with degree

  1. Effects of Crude Oil, Dispersant, and Oil-Dispersant Mixtures on Human Fecal Microbiota in an In Vitro Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Nam; Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Seong-Jae; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 raised concerns that dispersant and dispersed oil, as well as crude oil itself, could contaminate shellfish and seafood habitats with hazardous residues that had potential implications for human health and the ecosystem. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil and dispersant on the human fecal microbiota. The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil, Corexit 9500 dispersant, and their combination on human fecal microbial communities, using an in vitro culture test system. Fecal specimens from healthy adult volunteers were made into suspensions, which were then treated with oil, dispersant, or oil-dispersant mixtures under anaerobic conditions in an in vitro culture test system. Perturbations of the microbial community, compared to untreated control cultures, were assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), real-time PCR, and pyrosequencing methods. DGGE and pyrosequencing analysis showed that oil-dispersant mixtures reduced the diversity of fecal microbiota from all individuals. Real-time PCR results indicated that the copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes in cultures treated with dispersed oil or oil alone were significantly lower than those in control incubations. The abundance of the Bacteroidetes decreased in crude oil-treated and dispersed-oil-treated cultures, while the Proteobacteria increased in cultures treated with dispersed oil. In conclusion, the human fecal microbiota was affected differently by oil and dispersed oil, and the influence of dispersed oil was significantly greater than that of either oil or dispersant alone compared to control cultures. PMID:23093387

  2. Characteristics of Newly Isolated Geobacillus sp. ZY-10 Degrading Hydrocarbons in Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yumei; Ning, Zhanguo; Yang, Fan; Li, Xianzhen

    2015-01-01

    An obligately thermophilic strain ZY-10 was isolated from the crude oil in a high-temperature oilfield, which was capable of degrading heavy crude oil. Phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the isolate should be grouped in the genus Geobacillus, which shared thd highest similarity (99%) of the 16S rDNA sequence to Geobacillus stearothermophilus. However, the major cellular fatty acid iso-15:0 (28.55%), iso-16:0 (24.93%), iso-17:0 (23.53%) and the characteristics including indole production, tolerance to NaN3 and carbohydrate fermentation showed some difference from the recognized species in the genus Geobacillus. The isolate could use tridecane, hexadecane, octacosane and hexatridecane as sole carbon source for cell growth, and the digesting rate of long-chain alkane was lower than that of short-chain alkane. When the isolate was cultured in the heavy crude oil supplement with inorganic salts and trace yeast extract, the concentration of short-chain alkane was significantly increased and the content of long-chain alkane was decreased, suggesting that the larger hydrocarbon components in crude oil were degraded into shorter-chain alkane. Strain ZY-10 would be useful for improving the mobility of crude oil and upgrading heavy crude oil in situ.

  3. Optimization of crude oil degradation by Dietzia cinnamea KA1, capable of biosurfactant production.

    PubMed

    Kavynifard, Amirarsalan; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was isolation and characterization of a crude oil degrader and biosurfactant-producing bacterium, along with optimization of conditions for crude oil degradation. Among 11 isolates, 5 were able to emulsify crude oil in Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) among which one isolate, named KA1, showed the highest potency for growth rate and biodegradation. The isolate was identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The optimal conditions were 510 mM NaCl, pH 9.0, 35 °C, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4 Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2 PO4 . Gravimetric test and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy technique (GC-MS) showed that Dietzia cinnamea KA1 was able to utilize and degrade 95.7% of the crude oil after 5 days, under the optimal conditions. The isolate was able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil, glycerol or whey as the sole carbon sources, but bacterial growth was occurred using molasses with no biosurfactant production. This is the first report of biosurfactant production by D. cinnamea using crude oil, glycerol and whey and the first study to report a species of Dietzia degrading a wide range of hydrocarbons in a short time.

  4. Dispersion of T1 and T2 nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation in crude oils.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joseph J; Hürlimann, Martin; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Freed, Denise; Mandal, Soumyajit; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2014-09-15

    Crude oils, which are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, can be characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance diffusion and relaxation methods to yield physical properties and chemical compositions. In particular, the field dependence, or dispersion, of T1 relaxation can be used to investigate the presence and dynamics of asphaltenes, the large molecules primarily responsible for the high viscosity in heavy crudes. However, the T2 relaxation dispersion of crude oils, which provides additional insight when measured alongside T1, has yet to be investigated systematically. Here we present the field dependence of T1-T2 correlations of several crude oils with disparate densities. While asphaltene and resin-containing crude oils exhibit significant T1 dispersion, minimal T2 dispersion is seen in all oils. This contrasting behavior between T1 and T2 cannot result from random molecular motions, and thus, we attribute our dispersion results to highly correlated molecular dynamics in asphaltene-containing crude oils. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The role of fluctuating modes of autocorrelation in crude oil prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Fang, Wei; Huang, Xuan; Ding, Yinghui

    2014-01-01

    Autocorrelation exists in the crude oil price due to price inertia, the cobweb theorem, model errors, etc. Many researchers have studied the fluctuation of the crude oil price, but few have focused on the autocorrelation fluctuation in crude oil prices. Exploring the fluctuating rules of autocorrelation can aid in understanding the fluctuating mechanism of crude oil prices. To study the role of fluctuating modes of autocorrelation in crude oil prices, which have time series characteristics, this study selected international crude oil spot prices as sample data to employ the methods of statistical physics. The fluctuating modes of autocorrelation were defined by the autocorrelation coefficient, symbolization, and a coarse-graining process. We set the modes as nodes and the transformation between modes as edges; the fluctuating mode weight network of autocorrelation was then built. Thus, the study of autocorrelation fluctuation was transformed to a network study. Then, certain aspects, such as the statistical properties, the “small-world” behavior, and the transmission medium in the network, could be analyzed using complex network theory and analytical methods. The periodicity of the fluctuation was calculated using a spectral analysis method. This study not only describes the fluctuation of the time series more precisely than other methods but also provides ideas for methods of studying the fluctuation of univariate autocorrelations.

  6. Genotoxic and morphological damage in Hippocampus reidi exposed to crude oil.

    PubMed

    Cariello Delunardo, Frederico Augusto; Ferreira da Silva, Bruno; Paulino, Marcelo Gustavo; Narciso Fernandes, Marisa; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana Regina

    2013-01-01

    The present article investigates the responses of Hippocampus reidi exposed to crude oil (10mL/L) for time periods that are characteristic of acute (12, 24, 48 and 96h) and subchronic (168 and 336h) and its recovery at 168h, such as to assess H. reidi as a good sentinel species. These responses were examined by genotoxic and morphologic analyses. There was a control group (n=8) for each group exposed to crude oil (n=8). The results revealed the occurrence of genotoxic damage in erythrocytes of all specimens exposed to crude oil. The damage index (DI) observed for all exposure times were significantly higher compared to those of the respective control groups; the highest DI was observed in specimens exposed to crude oil for 168h. The group exposed to crude oil for 96h had the highest values of micronuclei than all other exposure times. Microscopic inspection of the H. reidi gills revealed the presence of several histopathological changes, all of which were minor severity (structural normal gills). The recovery experiment revealed a significant reduction in genotoxic damages, however the period of 168h was not sufficient to recuperate the histopathology damages. The Seahorse has presented significant genotoxic responses after exposure to crude oil. Furthermore, it is a sedentary fish and is widely distributed; in conclusion this specie can be considered an excellent sentinel organism.

  7. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Final report, October 16, 1978-August 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; King, C.F.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Eight crude oils (Southern Louisiana Petroleum, H Coal Syncrude, H Coal Fuel Oil, SRC II, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Paraho Shale Oil and Geokinetics in situ Shale Oil) were distilled into, or have been received, as four fractions for analysis and screening for biological (mutagenicity and tumor initiating) activity. Results of selected analytical tests have been obtained on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Salmonella typhimurium mutation assay and an accelerated tumor initiation-promotion test have been run on the undistilled crude oils and the fractions. Low boiling (naphtha) fractions of all eight materials showed little or no mutagenicity or skin tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil samples, the latter were similar to the petroleum controls. Few differences were apparent in biological activity between coal derived samples of equivalent boiling range among the various coal liquefaction processes, except that the SRC II naphtha sample showed a degree of acute toxicity through skin absorption not exhibited by the other samples. Generally the results agreed closely for the various samples between the salmonella mutation assay with activation and the skin tumor initiation test.

  8. Adsorption of crude and engine oils from water using raw rice husk.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Zahra; Mirghaffari, Nourollah; Rezaei, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    The raw rice husk (RRH) was used as a low cost adsorbent to remove three oil compounds with different viscosities (crude oil, engine oil and spent engine oil) from an aqueous environment. Some of the sorbent specifications were characterized using a CHNSO analyzer, Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. With decreasing RRH particles size, the oil adsorption percentage was reduced for crude, spent and engine oils from 50 to 30%, 65 to 20% and 70 to 0.01%, respectively. This was probably due to damage of the microcavities. The removal percentage by sorbent at optimized conditions was 88, 80 and 55% for engine, spent and crude oils, respectively, corresponding to their descending viscosity. The adsorption of crude and spent oils on rice husk followed the Freundlich isotherm model, while the adsorption of engine oil was fitted by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), calculated from the Langmuir model for the adsorption of engine oil on RRH, was 1,250 mg/g.

  9. Finding the multipath propagation of multivariable crude oil prices using a wavelet-based network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaoliang; An, Haizhong; Sun, Xiaoqi; Huang, Xuan; Gao, Xiangyun

    2016-04-01

    The globalization and regionalization of crude oil trade inevitably give rise to the difference of crude oil prices. The understanding of the pattern of the crude oil prices' mutual propagation is essential for analyzing the development of global oil trade. Previous research has focused mainly on the fuzzy long- or short-term one-to-one propagation of bivariate oil prices, generally ignoring various patterns of periodical multivariate propagation. This study presents a wavelet-based network approach to help uncover the multipath propagation of multivariable crude oil prices in a joint time-frequency period. The weekly oil spot prices of the OPEC member states from June 1999 to March 2011 are adopted as the sample data. First, we used wavelet analysis to find different subseries based on an optimal decomposing scale to describe the periodical feature of the original oil price time series. Second, a complex network model was constructed based on an optimal threshold selection to describe the structural feature of multivariable oil prices. Third, Bayesian network analysis (BNA) was conducted to find the probability causal relationship based on periodical structural features to describe the various patterns of periodical multivariable propagation. Finally, the significance of the leading and intermediary oil prices is discussed. These findings are beneficial for the implementation of periodical target-oriented pricing policies and investment strategies.

  10. Geochemical Characteristics and Origins of the Crude Oil of Triassic Yanchang Formation in Southwestern Yishan Slope, Ordos Basin

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yande; Wu, Hongchen; Ren, Zeqiang

    2017-01-01

    Biomarker compounds that derived from early living organisms play an important role in oil and gas geochemistry and exploration since they can record the diagenetic evolution of the parent materials of crude oil and reflect the organic geochemical characteristics of crude oil and source rocks. To offer scientific basis for oil exploration and exploitation for study area, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method is applied to study the biomarker compounds of crude oil in Southwestern Yishan Slope of Ordos Basin, through qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing separated materials. The crude oil of Yanchang Formation and the source rocks of Yan'an and Yanchang Formation were collected in order to systematically analyze the characteristics of the biomarker compounds in saturated hydrocarbon fractions and clarify the organic geochemical characteristics of crude oil. The distribution and composition of various types of hydrocarbon biomarker compounds in crude oil suggest that the parent materials of crude oil are composed of hydrobiont and terrigenous plants, and the crude oil is mature oil which is formed in the weak reducing fresh water environment. Oil source correlation results show that the crude oil of Yanchang Formation in Yishan Slope is sourced from the source rocks of Chang 7 subformation. PMID:28751914

  11. Geochemical Characteristics and Origins of the Crude Oil of Triassic Yanchang Formation in Southwestern Yishan Slope, Ordos Basin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; He, Jinxian; Zhao, Yande; Wu, Hongchen; Ren, Zeqiang

    2017-01-01

    Biomarker compounds that derived from early living organisms play an important role in oil and gas geochemistry and exploration since they can record the diagenetic evolution of the parent materials of crude oil and reflect the organic geochemical characteristics of crude oil and source rocks. To offer scientific basis for oil exploration and exploitation for study area, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method is applied to study the biomarker compounds of crude oil in Southwestern Yishan Slope of Ordos Basin, through qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing separated materials. The crude oil of Yanchang Formation and the source rocks of Yan'an and Yanchang Formation were collected in order to systematically analyze the characteristics of the biomarker compounds in saturated hydrocarbon fractions and clarify the organic geochemical characteristics of crude oil. The distribution and composition of various types of hydrocarbon biomarker compounds in crude oil suggest that the parent materials of crude oil are composed of hydrobiont and terrigenous plants, and the crude oil is mature oil which is formed in the weak reducing fresh water environment. Oil source correlation results show that the crude oil of Yanchang Formation in Yishan Slope is sourced from the source rocks of Chang 7 subformation.

  12. Three essays in corporate finance: Examining the influence of government ownership and evaluating crude oil arbitrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Kateryna

    The aim of this dissertation is twofold: first, to evaluate how governments influence firms in which they invest (chapters one and two), and second, to examine arbitrage in the crude oil market by investigating the relationship between crude oil inventories, physical prices, and financial prices (chapter three). In the first chapter (The Wealth Effects of Government Investment in Publicly Traded Firms), I study how government share ownership affects shareholder wealth. I find that government investments with higher likelihood of political interference have a negative influence on shareholder wealth, while the opposite is true for government investments with economic objectives. In the second chapter (Government Ownership and the Cost of Debt: Evidence form Government Investment in Publicly Traded Firms), I investigate how government share ownership affects the cost of debt of publicly traded firms. I find that government ownership generally leads to a higher cost of debt, except for times of economic and firm distress, when the value of the implicit government guarantee is associated with a reduction in the cost of debt. In the third chapter (Financial Trading, Spot Oil Prices, and Inventory: Evidence from the U.S. Crude Oil Market), I confirm the existence of an active cash and carry market in crude oil in Cushing, OK, the main U.S. crude oil futures settlement location. In other words, crude oil inventories in Cushing, but not in any other U.S. crude oil storage locations, are explained by the spread between the financial and the physical price of oil in addition to operational factors.

  13. Utilization of alkylbenzenes during anaerobic growth of pure cultures of denitrifying bacteria on crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Rabus, R.; Widdel, F.

    1996-04-01

    Leakage from oil pipelines and underground fuel tanks may result in contamination of soils and deeper horizons. Even though the equilibrium partitioning of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) between oil and water is largely on the side of the hydrophobic phase, BTEX exhibit a certain water solubility higher than other oil hydrocarbons. This study evaluates the growth of four strains of denitrifying bacteria on crude oil and the resulting, strain-specific depletion of alkylbenzenes.

  14. Vegetable oil blends with α-linolenic acid rich Garden cress oil modulate lipid metabolism in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Umesha, S S; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2012-12-15

    Vegetable oil blends with modified fatty acid profile are being developed to improve n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) ratio in edible oils. The objective of this study is to develop vegetable oil blends with α-linolenic acid (ALA) rich Garden cress oil (GCO) and assess their modulatory effect on lipid metabolism. Sunflower oil (SFO), Rice bran oil (RBO), Sesame oil (SESO) were blended with GCO at different ratios to obtain n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 2.3-2.6. Native and GCO blended oils were fed to Wistar rats at 10% level in the diet for 60 days. Serum and liver lipids showed significant decrease in Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), LDL-C levels in GCO and GCO blended oil fed rats compared to native oil fed rats. ALA, EPA, DHA contents were significantly increased while linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) levels decreased in different tissues of GCO and GCO blended oils fed rats. In conclusion, blending of vegetable oils with GCO increases ALA, decreases n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio and beneficially modulates lipid profile.

  15. Antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral effects of three essential oil blends.

    PubMed

    Brochot, Amandine; Guilbot, Angèle; Haddioui, Laïla; Roques, Christine

    2017-03-14

    New agents that are effective against common pathogens are needed particularly for those resistant to conventional antimicrobial agents. Essential oils (EOs) are known for their antimicrobial activity. Using the broth microdilution method, we showed that (1) two unique blends of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis EOs (AB1 and AB2; cinnamon EOs from two different suppliers) were active against the fourteen Gram-positive and -negative bacteria strains tested, including some antibiotic-resistant strains. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.01% to 3% v/v with minimal bactericidal concentrations from <0.01% to 6.00% v/v; (2) a blend of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Daucus carota, Syzygium aromaticum, Origanum vulgare EOs was antifungal to the six Candida strains tested, with MICs ranging from 0.01% to 0.05% v/v with minimal fungicidal concentrations from 0.02% to 0.05% v/v. Blend AB1 was also effective against H1N1 and HSV1 viruses. With this dual activity, against H1N1 and against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae notably, AB1 may be interesting to treat influenza and postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia infections. These blends could be very useful in clinical practice to combat common infections including those caused by microorganisms resistant to antimicrobial drugs.

  16. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development

    PubMed Central

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7–7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish. PMID:27506155

  17. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development.

    PubMed

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-08-10

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7-7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish.

  18. Acute toxicity of crude and dispersed oil to Octopus pallidus (Hoyle, 1885) hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Long, Sara M; Holdway, Douglas A

    2002-06-01

    There is an increasing risk of a major oil spill in Australian waters over the next 20 years but there have been few studies on the impact of oil spills, and subsequent remedial action, on native Australian fauna. Octopus pallidus is a native Australian octopus species found in south-eastern Australia. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the effects of acute exposure to crude and dispersed crude oil and 4-chlorophenol (a reference toxicant) on recently hatched O. pallidus by calculating the 48-h LC50. Water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of Bass Strait crude oil was prepared using a ratio of one part crude oil to nine parts filtered seawater and mixing for 23 h. Dispersed-WAF was prepared using a ratio of one part Corexit 9527 to 50 parts crude oil and an oil to water ratio of one to nine and mixing for 23 h. Mean (SE) 48 h LC50 values were 0.39 (0.04), 1.83 (0.64) and 0.89 (0.08) ppm for WAF, dispersed-WAF and 4 chlorophenol, respectively. These results demonstrate that addition of the chemical dispersant Corexit 9527 to WAF does not increase the toxicity of WAF to O. pallidus hatchlings.

  19. Crude oil specific gravity sensor design using polymer optical fiber with structural imperfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistianto, Junivan; Hatta, Agus M.; Sekartedjo, Ir.

    2016-11-01

    Crude oil is a products of oil and gas industries. One of the parameters which has in crude oil is specific gravity. In the oil and gas industries, specific gravity is used to classify crude oil which to be produced. specific gravity can be measured using ASTM D-1298 method. Disadvantage of this method is there are need of special environments and still using manual transcription. This research has been conducted a crude oil specific gravity sensor design by implementing structural imperfect to improve the performance of specific gravity sensors. In this research, polymer optical fiber is used as a sensor to measure specific gravity of crude oil. There are three variation of the amount of defect that were used in this research. Sample which used in this research has span of specific gravity value from 0,842218 to 0,9097. Based on the result, sensor with 3 imperfect structure have the best performance with linearity coefficient value 0,9438 and the span of measurement is 1,75792 dBm.

  20. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7–7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish.

  1. Developmental toxicity in flounder embryos exposed to crude oils derived from different geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Kwang-Min; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; An, Joon Geon; Kim, Moonkoo

    2017-03-06

    Crude oils from distinct geographical regions have distinct chemical compositions, and, as a result, their toxicity may be different. However, developmental toxicity of crude oils derived from different geographical regions has not been extensively characterized. In this study, flounder embryos were separately exposed to effluents contaminated by three crude oils including: Basrah Light (BLO), Pyrenees (PCO), and Sakhalin Vityaz (SVO), in addition to a processed fuel oil (MFO-380), to measure developmental toxicity and for gene expressions. Each oil possessed a distinct chemical composition. Edema defect was highest in embryos exposed to PCO and MFO-380 that both have a greater fraction of three-ring PAHs (33% and 22%, respectively) compared to BLO and SVO. Observed caudal fin defects were higher in embryos exposed to SVO and MFO-380, which are both dominated by naphthalenes (81% and 52%, respectively). CYP1A gene expressions were also highest in embryos exposed to SVO and MFO-380. Higher incidence of cardiotoxicity and lower nkx 2.5 expression were detected in embryos exposed to PCO. Unique gene expression profiles were observed in embryos exposed to crude oils with distinct compositions. This study demonstrates that crude oils of different geographical origins with different compositional characteristics induce developmental toxicity to different degrees.

  2. Partition behaviour of alkylphenols in crude oil/brine systems under subsurface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, B.; Larter, S. R.

    1997-10-01

    Partition of organic solutes between oils and water in the subsurface is an important geochemical process occurring during petroleum migration and reservoiring, during water washing, and during petroleum production. Currently no data exists on the quantitative aspects of the partition process at subsurface conditions for solutes such as phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons which are major components of both oils and waters. We have constructed an equilibration device for oils and waters based on flow injection analysis principles to measure partition coefficients of alkylphenols in crude oil/brine systems under reservoir conditions. Concentrations of C 0C 2 alkylphenols in waters and solid phase extracts of crude oils produced in the device were determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (RP-HPLC-ED), partition coefficients being measured as a function of pressure (25-340 bar), temperature (25-150°C), and water salinity (0-100,000 mg/L sodium chloride) for a variety of oils. Partition coefficients for all compounds decreased with increasing temperature, increased with water salinity and crude oil bulk NSO content, and showed little change with varying pressure. These laboratory measurements, determined under conditions close to those typically encountered in petroleum reservoirs, suggest temperature, water salinity, and crude oil bulk NSO content will have important influence on oil-water partition processes in the subsurface during migration and water washing.

  3. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  4. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon.

    PubMed

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m(-1), with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L(-1). FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed.

  5. Evaluation of the toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to surrogate wildlife species

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Prince, H.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) to avian and mammalian wildlife species were evaluated using the surrogate species, mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferret, Mustela putorius. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential for toxic (rather than physical) injury to wildlife species that may have been exposed to WEVC, either through external contact or through dietary uptake. Previous studies have assessed the toxicity of unweathered crude oils, including Alaska North Slope Crude, but little information exists regarding the toxicity of a naturally weathered crude oil, typical of that encountered following a spill. A battery of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted, in compliance with standard and published test procedures, to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity of WEVC. These included tests of food avoidance, reproductive effects, and direct eggshell application toxicity. Naturally weathered EVC, recovered postspill from Prince William Sound, was used as the test material. 36 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. 78 FR 78353 - NuStar Crude Oil Pipeline L.P.; Notice of Petiton for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...Star's South Texas Crude Oil Pipeline system to transport additional Eagle Ford shale crude. Among... proceeding are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the appropriate link in...

  7. Effect of frying on the rheological and chemical properties of palm oil and its blends.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Bazlul Mobin; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Ahmad, Anees; Ayob, Afizah; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Ak, Mohd Omar

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the changes in the physicochemical properties of palm oil and its blends by FTIR and rheological measurements. Application of heat produces some chemical compounds as impurities and even toxic compounds in oils and fats that give absorbance at different region. FTIR spectra of pure palm olein shows an absorbance at 3002 cm(-1) whereas other pure oils show maximum absorption at around 3007 cm(-1) due to C-H stretching vibration of cis-double bond (=C-H). By blending of high unsaturated oils with palm olein, a clear shift of 3007 cm(-1) band to 3005 cm(-1) occurs. Viscosity of palm olein was found higher among all oils while it subsequently and substantially reduced by blending with other oils. Since it is a function of temperature, viscosity of pure oils and their blends decreases with the increase of temperature. The loss modulus (G''), for all oil blends before and after frying, in rheological experiment was found higher for all oils than the storage modulus (G'), therefore, the viscous property was found higher than elastic property of oils and blends. However, the critical stress for all oil blends was found higher than that of pure oils.

  8. Correlation of crude oils from the San Jorges Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philp, R. P.

    1983-02-01

    The aliphatic hydrocarbon fractions of sixty oils from the San Jorges Basin, Argentina have been analysed by computerized-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The initial aim of this study was the correlation of the oils using sterane and triterpane biomarkers. The oils could be divided into four groups which were distinguished by the relative proportions of regular to demethylated hopanes. Although it has been previously suggested that the demethylated hopanes found in oils could have resulted from biotransformation of the oils in the reservoir, in this basin the possibility that these compounds originated directly from the source beds cannot be entirely eliminated since the oils do not appear to be extensively biodegraded on the basis of their aliphatic hydrocarbon distributions. An alternative theory for the hydrocarbon distributions observed in these oils, is initially biodegradation of the oils in the reservoir followed by addition of non-degraded oil to produce a mixture of degraded and non-degraded oil.

  9. Biodegradation of crude oil into nonvolatile organic acids in a contaminated aquifer near Bemidji, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Aiken, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    As the result of a pipeline burst, a body of light aliphatic crude oil floats atop the groundwater in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer in a remote area outside Bemidji, Minnesota. Biodegradation has resulted in the formation of a plume of DOC downgradient from the oil body. Groundwater has also been contaminated in an area known as the spray zone, from vertical infiltration of DOC resulting from biodegradation of crude oil in the overlying unsaturated zone. The majority of DOC in the contaminated groundwater is in the form of nonvolatile organic acids (NVOA's) which represent the partial oxidation products of the crude oil constituents. The NVOA's have been classified into three fractions according to their isolation on XAD resins: hydrophobic neutrals (HPO-N), hydrophobic acids (HPO-A) and hydrophilic acids (HPI-A). These fractions of NVOA's were isolated from a well downgradient from the oil body (well 530; DOC=21 mg C/l), from a well in the spray zone (well 603; DOC=15 mg C/l) and from an uncontaminated well upgradient of the oil body where the naturally occurring DOC is 2.9 mg C/l (well 310). The three sets of NVOA's were characterized by elemental analyses, molecular weight determinations, 14C ages and liquid phase 1H and 13C NMR. The crude oil and the saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene fractions of the crude oil were similarly analyzed by elemental analysis and NMR. The NVOA's from the contaminated wells were clearly distinguishable from the naturally occurring groundwater DOC. Based upon molecular weights, sulfur contents, aromaticities and the presence of methyl groups bonded to aromatic rings, the characterization data suggests that the NVOA's originate from the C18 or greater alkylaromatic, naphthenoaromatic and sulfur-containing constituents of the crude oil, including possibly the resins and asphaltenes.

  10. Identification of crude-oil components and microorganisms that cause souring under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, R; Toyama, K; Miyanaga, K; Tanji, Y

    2014-02-01

    Oil souring has important implications with respect to energy resources. Understanding the physiology of the microorganisms that play a role and the biological mechanisms are both important for the maintenance of infrastructure and mitigation of corrosion processes. The objective of this study was to identify crude-oil components and microorganisms in oil-field water that contribute to crude-oil souring. To identify the crude-oil components and microorganisms that are responsible for anaerobic souring in oil reservoirs, biological conversion of crude-oil components under anaerobic conditions was investigated. Microorganisms in oil field water in Akita, Japan degraded alkanes and aromatics to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under anaerobic conditions, and fermenting bacteria such as Fusibacter sp. were involved in VFA production. Aromatics such as toluene and ethylbenzene were degraded by sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfotignum sp.) via the fumarate-addition pathway and not only degradation of VFA but also degradation of aromatics by sulfate-reducing bacteria was the cause of souring. Naphthenic acid and 2,4-xylenol were not converted.

  11. Poly(hydroxyalkanoate) Biosynthesis from Crude Alaskan Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Oil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Six strains of Pseudomonas were tested for their abilities to synthesize poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) polymers from crude Pollock oil, a large volume byproduct of the Alaskan fishing industry. All six strains were found to produce PHA polymers from hydrolyzed Pollock oil with productivities (P; the...

  12. Influence of crude oil on changes of bacterial communities in Arctic sea-ice.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Birte; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Dieckmann, Gerhard; Helmke, Elisabeth

    2005-06-01

    The danger of a petroleum hydrocarbon spillage in the polar, ice-covered regions is increasing due to oil exploration in Arctic offshore areas and a growing interest in using the Northern Sea Route (NSR) as an alternative transportation route for Arctic oil and gas. However, little is known about the potential impact of accidental oil spills on this environment. We investigated the impact of crude oil on microbial community composition in six different Arctic sea-ice samples incubated with crude oil at 1 degrees C in microcosms for one year. Alterations in the composition of bacterial communities were analyzed with the culture-independent molecular methods DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). DGGE, FISH and cultivation methods revealed a strong shift in community composition toward the gamma-proteobacteria in sea-ice and melt pool samples incubated with crude oil. Marinobacter spp., Shewanella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the predominant phylotypes in the oil-treated microcosms. The ability of indigenous sea-ice bacteria to degrade hydrocarbons at low temperature (1 degrees C) was tested using four representative strains cultivated from sea-ice enriched with crude oil. [14C]Hexadecane was degraded by the sea-ice isolates at 20-50% capacity of the mesophilic type strain Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, a known hydrocarbon degrader, incubated at 22 degrees C.

  13. Partition coefficients as a measure of bioconcentration potential of crude oil compounds in fish and shellfish

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, M.; Fujisawa, K.; Ogino, Y.; Mano, E.

    1984-11-01

    This paper deals with the correlation between the partition coefficient and the concentration factor of alkyl benzenes in crude oil for gold fish and also the correlation between the partition coefficients and concentration factor of alkyl dibenzothiophene for shellfish reared in oil suspension and that caught in the sea.

  14. Screening of crude oils for asphalt precipitation: Theory, practice, and the selection of inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, R.B. de; Leerlooyer, K.; Bergen, A.R.D. van ); Eigner, M.R.P.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes a simple method to screen crude oils for their tendency to precipitate asphalt, which may cause problems during production. The method is based on a thermodynamic model of asphalt solubility, derived earlier by Flory and Huggins. The most important parameters in this model are the Hildebrand solubility parameters for oil and asphaltene, and their molar volumes. The oil parameters can all be correlated with the in-situ density of the crude. It is shown that heavy crudes usually will give fewer problems with asphalt precipitation, despite their higher asphaltene content, certainly if the reservoir pressure is close to bubblepoint pressure. Consequently, the tendency for asphalt precipitation is mainly determined by three parameters: the extent to which the crude is undersaturated with gas, the density of the crude at reservoir conditions, and its saturation with asphalt at downhole conditions. Apart from the simple screening method, more elaborate methods are described to assess the potential for asphalt precipitation more accurately; asphaltene analysis on produced reservoir fluid and tank oil; n-heptane titration of the tank oil; visual inspection of a bottom-hole sample in a high-pressure cell during pressure reduction; and dynamic flow tests on tank oil after n-heptane addition.

  15. Multifractal analysis on international crude oil markets based on the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Rongbao; Chen, Hongtao; Wang, Yudong

    2010-07-01

    The multifractal nature of WTI and Brent crude oil markets is studied employing the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. We find that two crude oil markets become more and more efficient for long-term and two Gulf Wars cannot change time scale behavior of crude oil return series. Considering long-term influence caused by Gulf Wars, we find such “turning windows” in generalized Hurst exponents obtained from three periods divided by two Gulf Wars so that WTI and Brent crude oil returns possess different properties above and below the windows respectively. Comparing with the results obtained from three periods we conclude that, before the First Gulf War, international crude oil markets possessed the highest multifractality degree, small-scope fluctuations presented the strongest persistence and large-scope fluctuations presented the strongest anti-persistence. We find that, for two Gulf Wars, the first one made a greater impact on international oil markets; for two markets, Brent was more influenced by Gulf Wars. In addition, we also verified that the multifractal structures of two markets’ indices are not only mainly attributed to the broad fat-tail distributions and persistence, but also affected by some other factors.

  16. An in-situ electropolymerization based sensor for measuring salt content in crude oil.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, Rashed M; Akmal, Naim

    2015-01-01

    Determining salt content is a vital procedure in the petroleum industry during the process of crude oil transportation, refining and production. Monitoring the salinity value using a fast and direct technique can substantially lower the cost of crude oil in its processing and its production stages. In the present work, a novel analytical method was developed to detect the amount of salt present in crude oil in a quick and reliable manner. The measurement is based on the rate of in-situ electropolymerization of a monomer such as aniline in association with the salt content in the crude oil. The salt dispersed in the hydrocarbon matrix is used as an electrolyte in the electrolytic system to induce an electropolymerization reaction upon the induction of voltages, in which the salt content is measured corresponding to the polymeric film formation on the working electrode surface. Acetonitrile and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) were used in the electrochemical cell as solvents, and cyclic voltammetry tests were performed for Arabian crude oil solutions in the presence of aniline. The method has shown an excellent detection response for very low concentrations of salt. Four Arabian crude oils with salt concentrations of 34.2, 28.5, 14.3 and 5.71 mg L(-1) have produced current intensity of 180.1, 172.6, 148.1 and 134.2 µA at an applied current potential of 1.75 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively. A Calibration curve was obtained in the range of 5-35 mg L(-1), giving limits of detection and quantitation at 1.98 and 5.95 mg L(-1), respectively. The in-situ electropolymerization based sensor has significant advantages over the existing techniques of salt monitoring in crude oil such as fast response, temperature independency, electrode stability, and minimum sample preparation.

  17. Dynamic Response of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to BP Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Jae; Kweon, Ohgew; Sutherland, John B; Kim, Hyun-Lee; Jones, Richard C; Burback, Brian L; Graves, Steven W; Psurny, Edward; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the response of the hydrocarbon-degrading Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to crude oil from the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill, using substrate depletion, genomic, and proteome analyses. M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 cultures were incubated with BP DWH crude oil, and proteomes and degradation of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at four time points over 30 days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a chain length-dependent pattern of alkane degradation, with C12 and C13 being degraded at the highest rate, although alkanes up to C28 were degraded. Whereas phenanthrene and pyrene were completely degraded, a significantly smaller amount of fluoranthene was degraded. Proteome analysis identified 3,948 proteins, with 876 and 1,859 proteins up- and downregulated, respectively. We observed dynamic changes in protein expression during BP crude oil incubation, including transcriptional factors and transporters potentially involved in adaptation to crude oil. The proteome also provided a molecular basis for the metabolism of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon components in the BP DWH crude oil, which included upregulation of AlkB alkane hydroxylase and an expression pattern of PAH-metabolizing enzymes different from those in previous proteome expression studies of strain PYR-1 incubated with pure or mixed PAHs, particularly the ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO) responsible for the initial oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on these results, a comprehensive cellular response of M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 to BP crude oil was proposed. This study increases our fundamental understanding of the impact of crude oil on the cellular response of bacteria and provides data needed for development of practical bioremediation applications.

  18. Dynamic Response of Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to BP Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Jae; Kweon, Ohgew; Sutherland, John B.; Kim, Hyun-Lee; Jones, Richard C.; Burback, Brian L.; Graves, Steven W.; Psurny, Edward

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the response of the hydrocarbon-degrading Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 to crude oil from the BP Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill, using substrate depletion, genomic, and proteome analyses. M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 cultures were incubated with BP DWH crude oil, and proteomes and degradation of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed at four time points over 30 days. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a chain length-dependent pattern of alkane degradation, with C12 and C13 being degraded at the highest rate, although alkanes up to C28 were degraded. Whereas phenanthrene and pyrene were completely degraded, a significantly smaller amount of fluoranthene was degraded. Proteome analysis identified 3,948 proteins, with 876 and 1,859 proteins up- and downregulated, respectively. We observed dynamic changes in protein expression during BP crude oil incubation, including transcriptional factors and transporters potentially involved in adaptation to crude oil. The proteome also provided a molecular basis for the metabolism of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon components in the BP DWH crude oil, which included upregulation of AlkB alkane hydroxylase and an expression pattern of PAH-metabolizing enzymes different from those in previous proteome expression studies of strain PYR-1 incubated with pure or mixed PAHs, particularly the ring-hydroxylating oxygenase (RHO) responsible for the initial oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on these results, a comprehensive cellular response of M. vanbaalenii PYR-1 to BP crude oil was proposed. This study increases our fundamental understanding of the impact of crude oil on the cellular response of bacteria and provides data needed for development of practical bioremediation applications. PMID:25888169

  19. Chemical interesterification of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil: physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schäfer De Martini; da Silva, Roberta Claro; Hazzan, Márcia; Capacla, Isabele Renata; Viccola, Elise Raduan; Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio

    2012-02-15

    trans-Free interesterified fat was produced for possible usage as a margarine. Palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil were used as substrates for chemical interesterification. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of blends of palm stearin, coconut oil, and canola oil submitted to chemical interesterification using sodium methoxide as the catalyst. The original and interesterified blends were examined for fatty acid composition, softening and melting points, solid fat content, and consistency. Chemical interesterification reduced softening and melting points, consistency, and solid fat content. The interesterified fats showed desirable physicochemical properties for possible use as a margarine. Therefore, our result suggested that the interesterified fat without trans-fatty acids could be used as an alternative to partially hydrogenated fat.

  20. Influence of Sweet Crude Oil on Nucleation and Corrosion Resistance of Calcareous Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoseinieh, S. M.; Shahrabi, T.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Farrokhi Rad, M.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of sweet crude oil on calcareous scale deposition under cathodic protection of carbon steel in artificial seawater was investigated using chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope/energy-dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. In the presence of crude oil, calcareous deposit formation is influenced in terms of both kinetic and nucleation mostly in high volume concentrations. It is indicated that the CaCO3 deposition is hindered by absorption of active surface compounds present in oil on to the surface mainly due to strong covalent bonding of aromatic compounds.

  1. Phytoremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil employing Crotalaria pallida Aiton.

    PubMed

    Baruah, P; Deka, S; Baruah, P P

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potentiality of a herb named Crotalaria pallida which are abundantly grown on crude oil-contaminated soil of oil field situated at upper Assam, India, so that this plant could be used to remediate hydrocarbon from contaminated soil. To evaluate the potentiality of the plant, a pot culture experiment was conducted taking 3 kg of rice field soil mixed with crude oil at a concentration of 10,000 (10 g/kg), 20,000 (20 g/kg), 30,000 (30 g/kg), 40,000 (40 g/kg), 50,000 (50 g/kg), 60,000 (60 g/kg), 70,000 (70 g/kg), 80,000 (80 g/kg), 90,000 (90 g/kg), and 100,000 (100 g/kg) ppm. Ten numbers of healthy seeds of C. pallida were sown in three pots of each concentration for germination, and after 15 days of germination, single healthy seedling in each pot was kept for the study. A control setup was also maintained without adding crude oil. The duration of the experiment was fixed for 6 months. The results showed that uptake of hydrocarbon by the plants was increased with increasing the concentration of crude oil in the soil up to 60,000 ppm. After that, uptake of hydrocarbon by the plants was found to be lower with increasing doses of crude oil concentration. Uptake of hydrocarbon by the shoot was found to be maximum, i.e., 35,018 ppm in 60,000 ppm concentration. Dissipation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from the soil was also gradually increased with increasing concentration of crude oil in the soil up to 60,000 ppm. Maximum dissipation, i.e., 78.66 %, occurred in 60,000 ppm concentration of crude oil-mixed soil. The plant could not survive in 100,000 ppm concentration of crude oil-mixed soil. The results also demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with an increase of crude oil concentration. Furthermore, results revealed that the shoot biomass was higher than root biomass in all the treatments.

  2. Film-forming properties of castor oil polyol ester blends in elastohydrodynamic conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The viscosities and elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness properties of binary blends of castor oil with polyol esters were determined experimentally. Predicted blend viscosity was calculated from the viscosity of the pure blend components. Measured viscosity values were closer to the values pre...

  3. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Measurement of asphaltene particle size distributions in crude oils diluted with n-heptane

    SciTech Connect

    Ferworn, K.A.; Svrcek, W.Y.; Mehrotra, A.K. )

    1993-05-01

    The formation and growth of asphaltene particles from heavy crude oils diluted with n-heptane at 22 C and atmospheric pressure was studied using a laser particle analyzer. The results obtained with six crude oil samples indicate that the asphaltene precipitation is an instantaneous process leading to a unimodal, log-normal distribution. At typical laboratory conditions, the particles remained essentially unaltered in size and population density. A vast majority of the particles were noted to be far from round in shape, with the mean particle size ranging from 4.5 to 291 [mu]m. It was found that the oil-to-diluent ratio is an important parameter in determining the size of the generated asphaltene particles; higher dilution ratios yielded larger particles. The mean asphaltene particle size was also found to increase with the average molar mass and the asphaltene content of crude oils.

  5. Inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Smith, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    Results from a series of studies of methanogenic processes in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated aquifers indicated that acetoctastic methanogenesis is inhibited near non-aqueous sources. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was more susceptible to the toxic inhibition of crude oil and creosote than either hydrogen- or formate-utilizing methanogenesis. The effect of this toxic inhibition was apparent in the population of the methanogenic trophic groups near nonaqueous crude oil at the Bemidji, MN, site. At that site, acetoclastic methanogens were < 2/g within or near the oil where hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanogens were 10-100/g. The geochemical effect of this toxic inhibition was the buildup of low molecular weight volatile acids, particularly acetate. Wastewater reactor studies indicated that this toxicity will result in a decrease in the biodegradation rate of contaminants at sites where toxic compounds are present.

  6. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  7. Crude oil prices and U. S. economic performance: Where does the asymmetry reside

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, H.G. . Terman Engineering Center)

    1998-01-01

    Sustained decreases in crude oil prices appear to affect the US economy differently than sustained increases. This paper shows that a significant part of the observed asymmetry is due to adjustments within the energy sector and not within the rest of the economy. In particular, sustained decreases in petroleum product or general energy prices do not appear to have qualitatively different macroeconomic impacts than do sustained price increases. The singular focus on crude oil prices changes in previous studies is misplaced. Moreover, the 1986 oil price collapse did not operate in isolation from other important events. As crude oil prices fell in the 1986 period, other factors caused a major devaluation of the US dollar that had potentially important effects on the US economy.

  8. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  9. Toxicity of crude oil to the mayfly, Hexagenia bilineata (Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ort, Mark P.; Finger, Susan E.; Jones, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of crude oil on survival and behavior of the mayfly Hexagenia bilineata were evaluated in laboratory studies. Mayfly nymphs were exposed to the water soluble and oil residue fractions of crude oil. Mayfly survival was not reduced by a 96-h exposure to either the water soluble fraction or the oil residue mixed with sediment. However, significant mortality did result from a 21-day exposure to oil residue mixed with sediment at concentrations as low as 500 μg g−1. Survival was also reduced after a 21-day exposure to oil-contaminated sediments (1905 μg g−1) collected 6 weeks after a crude oil spill in the Chariton River, Missouri. In a behavioral test measuring habitat exclusion, organisms did not avoid contact with sediment containing oil residue (50–800 μg g−1). Collectively, results from these studies indicate that exposure to oil residue in sediment will reduce survival of H. bilineata in the laboratory and may reduce survival in the environment for 6 weeks or more after an oil spill,

  10. Geochemical study of crude oils from the Xifeng oilfield of the Ordos basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Y.; Wang, C. Y.; Zheng, C. Y.; Wu, B. X.; Zheng, G. D.

    2008-01-01

    The Xifeng oilfield is the largest newly-discovered oilfield in the Ordos basin. In order to determine the possible source, crude oils collected systematically from the oilfield and an adjacent oilfield have been examined isotopically and molecularly. The predominance of long-chain n-alkanes, high abundance of C 29 sterane, lower ratios of C 25/C 26 tricyclic terpane and C 25 tricyclic terpane/C 24 tetracyclic terpane and high C 24 tetracyclic terpane/(C 24 tetracyclic terpane + C 26 tricyclic terpanes ratio in the studied oils suggest generation from a source with mixed terrigenous and algal-bacterial organic matter. The presence of diterpenoid hydrocarbon with abietane skeletons is characteristic of the main contribution of higher land plants to the oils. The biomarker distributions in the oils show that they were formed under a weakly reducing freshwater environment. Molecular maturity parameters indicate that the crude oils are mature. The oil-source rock correlation and oil migration investigation suggest that the oils in the Xifeng oilfield originated from the source rocks of the Yanchang formation deposited in a shallow to deep freshwater lacustrine environment, especially Chang-7 source rocks. The data from the distribution of pyrrolic nitrogen compounds indicate that the charging direction of the Chang-8 crude oils is mainly from the Zhuang 12 well northeast of the oilfield toward the southwest. This direction of oil migration is consistent with that indicated by regional geological data.

  11. Optical fiber sensor temperature coded for concentration measurement of oil-biodiesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possetti, Gustavo Rafael Collere; Kamikawachi, Ricardo Canute; Muller, Marcia; Fabris, José Luís

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the operation of an optical fiber sensor employed in the determination of remaining oil concentration in oil-biodiesel blends. The sensor is based both on the sensitivity of a long period grating to changes in the surroundings refractive index and on the thermo-optical properties of oil-biodiesel blends. The sensor response is provided by a temperature coded interrogation unit that employs an auxiliary fiber Bragg grating. The standard metrological analysis of an optimized sensor showed that is possible to detect until 0.10% v/v of oil in oil-biodiesel blends.

  12. Influence of an organic acid blend and essential oil blend, individually or in combination, on growth performance, carcass parameters, apparent digestibility, intestinal microflora and intestinal morphology of broilers.

    PubMed

    Basmacioğlu-Malayoğlu, H; Ozdemir, P; Bağriyanik, H A

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of an organic acid (OA) and essential oil (EO) blends, individually or in combination, on growth performance, carcass parameters, apparent digestibility, intestinal microflora and intestinal morphology of broilers. A total of 480 one-d-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatments consisting of 4 replicates each (n = 30 birds in each replicate). Dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control), and basal diet supplemented with 2 g/kg OA blend (OAB), 300 mg/kg EO blend (EOB), or with 2 g/kg OA and 300 mg/kg EO blend (OAB-EOB) for 42 d. The dietary supplementation with EO blend or in combination with OA blend increased body weight gain and improved feed efficiency as compared to control. Dietary treatments had no significant effects on feed consumption or relative organ weights of broilers. The OAB diet increased carcass yield compared to the control diet but the lowest carcass yield occurred with the OAB-EOB combination. Birds fed on EOB and OAB-EOB diets had lower ileum Escherichia coli counts than birds fed on the control diet. There was no significant effect of treatments on apparent digestibility at 16-21 d but the EOB and OAB-EOB diets increased apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein during the finisher period (d 37-42) compared to the control diet. Birds fed on the EOB and OAB-EOB diets had greater villus height in the ileum at 21 and 42 d of age and had lower crypt depth in the ileum at 42 d of age than birds given the control diet. In conclusion, beneficial effects of the use of EO blend individually or in combination with the OA blend were observed but the OA blend alone was ineffective. Furthermore, the use of the combination of OA and EO was more effective, in some respects, than their individual use.

  13. Wettability Alteration of Sandstones by Silica Nanoparticle Dispersions with Light and Heavy Crude Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pales, A. R.; Huibers, B. M. J.; Bai, L.; Li, C.; Mu, L.; Ladner, D.; Daigle, H.; Darnault, C. J. G.

    2016-12-01

    In enhanced oil recovery (EOR), nanoparticles with their unique physico-chemical properties present a promising method for altering wettability. Nanoparticles could create a water-wet surface in a reservoir rather than an oil-wet one which would ease petroleum recovery. This research examines how uncoated silica nanoparticles alter the wettability of two sandstone surfaces, Berea and Boise, by measuring the contact angle and interfacial tension of different systems as an indicator of wettability. The silica nanoparticles were suspended in brine and brine plus a nonionic surfactant at concentrations of 0, 0.001, and 0.01 wt%. The differential impact on heavy and light crude oils was characterized as well. The study showed that surfactants had a greater impact on interfacial tension (IFT). The IFT decreased with the introduction of surfactants by 79% and 54% for light and heavy crude oils respectively. This reduction in IFT translates to less pressure needed for petroleum recovery. For the contact angle, images collected depict the reduction of contact angle with increased nanoparticle concentration across all oil, sandstone, and reservoir types. In addition to the images taken, the contact angles measured significantly decreased when nanoparticles were introduced with reductions reaching up to 93% between 0 and 0.001 wt% nanoparticles with light oil on the Berea sandstone. As nanoparticle concentration increased, the sandstones became increasingly water-wet for both oil types, and the increasing concentration impacted the light crude oil more than the heavy crude oil. The research evinced that nanoparticles can be used with surfactants in light and heavy crude oil systems to increase the hydrophilicity of Berea and Boise sandstones.

  14. Chemical and physical properties of butterfat-vegetable oil blend spread prepared with enzymatically transesterified canola oil and caprylic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hee; Akoh, Casimir C

    2005-06-15

    Structured Lipid was synthesized from canola oil and caprylic acid with sn-1,3 specific lipase from Rhizomucor miehei. Cold spreadable butter was made by blending butterfat with the SL at a weight ratio of 80:20. Its chemical and physical properties were compared with pure butter and butterfat-canola oil 80:20 blend spread. The butterfat-SL blend had lower contents of hypercholesterolemic fatty acids (FAs) and the lowest atherogenic index (AI) as compared to the others. Melting and crystallization behaviors of butterfat-SL blend were similar to those of butterfat-canola oil blend above 0 degrees C. It showed solid fat contents (SFCs) similar to butterfat-canola oil blend but lower than pure butterfat. The butterfat-SL blend was shown to crystallize in the beta' form. There were no differences between the hardness of butterfat-SL blend spread and butterfat-canola oil blend spread. Rheological analysis showed that butterfat-SL blend spread lost its elastic behavior at 5 degrees C, a lower temperature than pure butter.

  15. Number of oil-killed birds and fate of bird carcasses at crude oil pits in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flickinger, Edward L.; Bunck, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    A survey was taken of bird losses in crude oil pits near the central Texas Gulf Coast and in northwestern Texas. At one pit near the Texas Coast, 297 bird carcasses (largely ducks) were counted. Duck losses from oil pollution in northwestern Texas occurred largely in playa basins of the Permian Basin south of the Panhandle. To determine the fate of birds that die in oil pits, 40 carcasses of nine bird species were placed in two crude oil pits near the central Texas Coast in October (19) 1981 and December (15) 1981 and April (6) 1982 and studied for 5 months. Rate of sinking and disappearance of carcasses were positively related to carcass size. In a comparison of three seasons, the time required for a carcass to disappear was longer in winter when oil temperatures were lowest and shorter in spring and fall when oil temperatures were highest.

  16. Natural Gas and Crude Oil Prices in AEO (released in AEO2009)

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    If oil and natural gas were perfect substitutes in all markets where they are used, market forces would be expected to drive their delivered prices to near equality on an energy-equivalent basis. The price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil generally is denominated in terms of barrels, where 1 barrel has an energy content of approximately 5.8 million Btu. The price of natural gas (at the Henry Hub), in contrast, generally is denominated in million Btu. Thus, if the market prices of the two fuels were equal on the basis of their energy contents, the ratio of the crude oil price (the spot price for WTI, or low-sulfur light, crude oil) to the natural gas price (the Henry Hub spot price) would be approximately 6.0. From 1990 through 2007, however, the ratio of natural gas prices to crude oil prices averaged 8.6; and in the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 projections from 2008 through 2030, it averages 7.7 in the low oil price case, 14.6 in the reference case, and 20.2 in the high oil price case.

  17. Washing of field weathered crude oil contaminated soil with an environmentally compatible surfactant, alkyl polyglucoside.

    PubMed

    Han, Mei; Ji, Guodong; Ni, Jinren

    2009-07-01

    Weathered crude oil contaminated soils (COCSs), which are much more difficult to remediate than those freshly contaminated, are widespread especially at the sites of oil fields and industries. Surfactant enhanced ex situ soil washing could be used to remediate COCSs, but surfactant toxicity becomes one of the major concerns. In this study, a class of green surfactants, alkyl polyglucosides (APGs), were tested in washing the field weathered COCS with relatively high oil concentration (123 mgg(-1) dry soil) from Jilin Oilfield, Northeastern China. APG1214, characterized with longer alkyl chain, was more effective than APG0810 in crude oil removal. Adding inorganic sodium salts into APG1214 solution further improved the crude oil removal efficiency (CORE). Washing parameters (temperature, washing time, agitation speed and solution/soil ratio) were investigated and further optimized integratedly with an orthogonal design. At the optimum conditions, the CORE reached 97%. GC/MS analysis showed that the proportion of small n-alkanes (C(16)-C(23)) in residual crude oil gradually increased, which was helpful to interpret the oil removal mechanism. Moreover, eminent effect on removal of large n-alkanes was achieved from the synergy between APG1214 and inorganic salts, which was opposite to the effect when they were added separately. This study demonstrated a promising way to remediate COCS with ecologically compatible surfactant and provided guidelines for its practical application.

  18. Effects of different remediation treatments on crude oil contaminated saline soil.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Chao; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wang, Jia-Ning; Li, Dan; Wang, Hui; Zeng, De-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil is essential to maintain the sustainable development of soil ecosystem. Bioremediation using microorganisms and plants is a promising method for the degradation of crude oil contaminants. The effects of different remediation treatments, including nitrogen addition, Suaeda salsa planting, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi inoculation individually or combined, on crude oil contaminated saline soil were assessed using a microcosm experiment. The results showed that different remediation treatments significantly affected the physicochemical properties, oil contaminant degradation and bacterial community structure of the oil contaminated saline soil. Nitrogen addition stimulated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon significantly at the initial 30d of remediation. Coupling of different remediation techniques was more effective in degrading crude oil contaminants. Applications of nitrogen, AM fungi and their combination enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency of S. salsa significantly. The main bacterial community composition in the crude oil contaminated saline soil shifted with the remediation processes. γ-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the pioneer oil-degraders at the initial stage, and Firmicutes were considered to be able to degrade the recalcitrant components at the later stage.

  19. Partition coefficients for acetic, propionic, and butyric acids in a crude oil/water system

    SciTech Connect

    Reinsel, M.A.; Borkowski, J.J.; Sears, J.T. . National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Biofilm Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic acid concentration on the partition coefficients for short-chain organic acids were measured in a crude oil/water system. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids, as probable substrates for microbial souring of oil reservoirs, were used in conjunction with two types of crude oil. Temperatures of 35--75 C, pH values of 4.0--7.0, and acid concentrations of 10--1,000 mg/L were studied. Initial naturally occurring levels of organic acids in the crude oils were also determined. pH had by far the largest effect on the partition coefficient for all three organic acids for both types oil. At conditions normally seen in an oil reservoir (pH 5--7), the great percentage (85+%) of these acids were dissolved in the aqueous phase. The log of the partition coefficient K increased approximately linearly with the number of carbon atoms in the acid. It was seen that organic acids are readily available carbon sources for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) at normal reservoir conditions, and that crude oil may provide a source of organic acids in a low-pH, water-flooded reservoir.

  20. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Key drivers for EIA's short-term U.S. crude oil production outlook

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil production increased by 790,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) between 2011 and 2012, the largest increase in annual output since the beginning of U.S. commercial crude oil production in 1859. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects U.S. crude oil production to continue rising over the next two years represented in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).