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Sample records for crudo maya despuntado

  1. Ancient Maya Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergast, David M.

    1982-08-01

    Discovery of mercury in an ancient Maya offering at Lamanai, Belize, has stimulated examination of possible sources of the material in the Maya area. Two zones of cinnabar and native mercury deposits can be defined in the Maya highlands, and the presence of the native metal suggests that the ancient Maya collected rather than extracted the mercury from ore.

  2. The Maya of Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Allan F.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Maya people who fled Guatemala due to a civil war and illegally entered the U.S. and settled in Florida. Presents a picture of their living conditions, employment opportunities, cultural traditions, community development, and family organization. Discusses a Kanjobal Association and the CORN-MAYA program, and explains immigration…

  3. Maya Education and Pan Maya Ideology in the Yucatan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Allan

    1998-01-01

    A University of Yucatan (Mexico) professor who taught a Mayan linguistics course to indigenous teachers in Mayan discusses three issues that are central to understanding how indigenous education interacts with pan-Maya identity: the importance of locally developed Maya literature, the symbols used to define Maya culture, and a conflict over Maya…

  4. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  5. Becoming Maya? Appropriation of the White Shaman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montejo, Victor D.

    1999-01-01

    The history of anthropology among the Maya consists of both the literal exploitation of archaeological finds and the appropriation of Maya culture and history by the Western academic world to construct distorted theories of the Maya past. In the ultimate disgrace, some Mayan priests are training White anthropologists to become shamans themselves…

  6. Maya Calendars in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Cynthia E.; Rehm, Megan A.; Catepillán, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a lesson in which least common multiples helps students not only develop a perspective on an ancient culture but also draw on the cultural background of classmates. The Maya calendar received a lot of attention in the years leading up to December 21, 2012, because of the mythological end of "creation." Co-author…

  7. Population structure of the Classic period Maya.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Andrew K

    2007-03-01

    This study examines the population structure of Classic period (A.D. 250-900) Maya populations through analysis of odontometric variation of 827 skeletons from 12 archaeological sites in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, and Honduras. The hypothesis that isolation by distance characterized Classic period Maya population structure is tested using Relethford and Blangero's (Hum Biol 62 (1990) 5-25) approach to R matrix analysis for quantitative traits. These results provide important biological data for understanding ancient Maya population history, particularly the effects of the competing Tikal and Calakmul hegemonies on patterns of lowland Maya site interaction. An overall F(ST) of 0.018 is found for the Maya area, indicating little among-group variation for the Classic Maya sites tested. Principal coordinates plots derived from the R matrix analysis show little regional patterning in the data, though the geographic outliers of Kaminaljuyu and a pooled Pacific Coast sample did not cluster with the lowland Maya sites. Mantel tests comparing the biological distance matrix to a geographic distance matrix found no association between genetic and geographic distance. In the Relethford-Blangero analysis, most sites possess negative or near-zero residuals, indicating minimal extraregional gene flow. The exceptions were Barton Ramie, Kaminaljuyu, and Seibal. A scaled R matrix analysis clarifies that genetic drift is a consideration for understanding Classic Maya population structure. All results indicate that isolation by distance does not describe Classic period Maya population structure.

  8. Maya-American Children: A Biocultural View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogin, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses social, economic, and political conditions that influence the growth and health of children of Guatemalan Maya immigrants to the United States. As of 2000, Maya-American children age 6-12 years were, on average, 11 centimeters taller, and also heavier, than their Guatemalan peers. The heaviness is probably due to sedentary lifestyles.…

  9. Amazing Maya Inventions You Can Build Yourself: New Book Designed to Help Kids Learn History of the Ancient Maya Civilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Rehwoldt, Sheri

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her book, "Amazing Maya Inventions You Can Build Yourself," a new book designed to help kids learn the history of the ancient Maya civilization. "Amazing Maya Inventions You Can Build Yourself" offers the reader an engaging exploration of the history and culture of the Maya through building and crafts projects…

  10. Maya utilization of karst groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veni, George

    1990-07-01

    Much of the Maya civilization in pre-Columbian Meso-America was established on karst terrain that included parts of what are now Belize, Guatemala, northern Honduras and southern Mexico. By definition, little surface water exists in karst, so for the Maya to flourish on that terrain they had to effectively and efficiently utilize all their water resources. Access to groundwater was by means of springs and caves. Maya life, urban and rural, lay and elite, religious and secular was often a function of groundwater exploitation and surface water development. The Maya's use of groundwater was predominantly to supplement enhanced surface water supplies and was used more often in semiarid zones than in humid zones. The pattern of Maya settlements, especially in the semiarid zones, occurred in areas with greater access to the groundwater. Maya groundwater retrieval methods were primitive, inefficient, labor intensive, and uninnovative, as compared to their other technologic achievements. Groundwater contamination, from human effluent, could have resulted in widespread disease and contributed to the Maya's downfall.

  11. Archaeoastronomy and the Ancient Maya World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhart, Edwin L.

    2004-01-01

    Nearly two millennia ago, the Maya were putting mathematics and celestial observations to use in their calendrical system, architecture, and ritual. Today, archaeoastronomers are working to piece their science and culture back together.

  12. Mapping the Ancient Maya Landscape from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Tom

    2003-01-01

    This project uses new satellite and airborne imagery in combination with remote sensing, GIS, and GPS technology to understand the dynamics of how the Maya successfully interacted with their karst topographic landscape for several centuries in the northern Peten region of Guatemala. The ancient Maya attained one of the greatest population densities in human history in the tropical forest of the Peten, Guatemala, and it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons around AD 800. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not known at this time. However, a recent NASA-funded project was the first to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Micro-environmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetational associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The recent acquisition of one-meter IKONOS imagery and high resolution STAR-3i radar imagery (2.5m backscatter/ 10m DEM), opens new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karst topographic landscape and their human-induced effects upon the local climate. This understanding is critical for the current population that is presently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through non-traditional farming and grazing techniques

  13. Ownership of Language in Yucatec Maya Revitalization Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrettaz, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    This classroom-based study examined a Yucatec Maya language course for teachers and the pedagogical implementation of national language policy in Mexico. Analysis of this teacher education program focused on various dimensions of teachers' Maya-language expertise, the teaching of the emergent standard Maya, and hegemonic constructions of…

  14. Soil and Human Interactions in Maya Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl

    2013-04-01

    Since the early 1990s, we have studied Maya interaction with soils in Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and elsewhere. We studied upland and lowland soils, but here we focus on seasonal or 'Bajo' wetlands and perennial wetlands for different reasons. Around the bajos, the ancient Maya focused on intensive agriculture and habitation despite the difficulties their Vertisol soils posed. For the perennial wetlands, small populations spread diffusely through Mollisol and Histisol landscapes with large scale, intensive agro-ecosystems. These wetlands also represent important repositories for both environmental change and how humans responded in situ to environmental changes. Work analyzing bajo soils has recorded significant diversity but the soil and sediment record shows two main eras of soil instability: the Pleistocene-Holocene transition as rainfall fluctuated and increased and tropical forest pulsed through the region, and the Maya Preclassic to Classic 3000 to 1000 BP as deforestation, land use intensity, and drying waxed and waned. The ancient Maya adapted their bajo soil ecosystems successfully through agro-engineering but they also withdrew in many important places in the Late Preclassic about 2000 BP and Terminal Classic about 1200 BP. We continue to study and debate the importance of perennial wetland agro-ecosystems, but it is now clear that Maya interaction with these soil landscapes was significant and multifaceted. Based on soil excavation and coring with a broad toolkit of soil stratigraphy, chemistry, and paleoecology from 2001 to 2013, our results show the ancient Maya interacted with their wetland soils to maintain cropland for maize, tree crops, arrow root, and cassava against relative sea level rise, increased flooding, and aggradation by gypsum precipitation and sedimentation. We have studied these interactions across an area of 2000 km2 in Northern Belize to understand how Maya response varied and how these soil environments varied over time and distance

  15. The Ancient Maya Landscape from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Peten, once inhabited by a population of several million before the collapse of the ancient Maya in the 10th and 11th centuries, is being repopulated toward its former demographic peak. Environmental dynamics, however, impose severe constraints to further development. Current practices in subsistence, commercial agriculture, and cattle raising are causing rapid deforestation resulting in the destruction of environmental and archeological resources. The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology is a cost-effective methodology for addressing issues in Maya archeology as well as monitoring the environmental impacts being experienced by the current population.

  16. Mapping The Ancient Maya Landscape From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Tom; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3-I radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The use of the bajos for farming is also an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a question that

  17. Cacao usage by the earliest Maya civilization.

    PubMed

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Tarka, Stanley M; Powis, Terry G; Valdez, Fred; Hester, Thomas R

    2002-07-18

    The Maya archaeological site at Colha in northern Belize, Central America, has yielded several spouted ceramic vessels that contain residues from the preparation of food and beverages. Here we analyse dry residue samples by using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry, and show that chocolate (Theobroma cacao) was consumed by the Preclassic Maya as early as 600 bc, pushing back the earliest chemical evidence of cacao use by some 1,000 years. Our application of this new and highly sensitive analytical technique could be extended to the identification of other ancient foods and beverages.

  18. Maya Art: Classroom and Museum Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuerst, Ann H.

    Illustrated with reproductions of Mayan art and architecture, this activity book contains readings and activities about the Maya, including bilingual lesson sheets. The materials link middle school classroom studies of Mayan culture with history, social studies, and community resources. Eight lesson units explore the central aspects of Mayan art.…

  19. Egyptians, Maya, Minoans. Learning Works Enrichment Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthies, Susanna

    The activities in this instructional resource book are designed to be used by gifted 4-8th grade students as independent research guides or in guided or cooperative learning environments. The activities are organized in three sections which focus the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Maya, and Minoa. The activities presented encourage development of…

  20. The Moon In The Classic Maya World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Giuliano

    During the Classic Period of the Maya civilization (250-900 A.D.) we have many documents in which it is possible to see the interest of this people on the principal lunar phenomena as the phases and the eclipses in particular. On a number of stelae, lintels and many other inscriptions (in Copan, Quirigua, Tikal, etc.), we can see that in correspondence of the dedication date of the monument, the Maya point out the phase of the Moon and its position in a period of six months corresponding to half year of eclipse. In some parts of the Dresda Codex (one of the four original codices of the Maya) we can see some pages in which were indicated the days of the Tzolkin calendar (the religious calendar of 260 days) in which it is possible to observe a lunar or solar eclipse. The periods of 177 or 148 days are allotted in a sequence that corresponds to the exact interval between the eclipses. The accuracy in the observations and in the calculations of the phases of the Moon, also in very old epochs, is an interesting evidence of the fundamental importance of the Moon in the Maya civilisation.

  1. Maya Angelou's "Letter to My Daughter"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.

    2008-01-01

    This article highlights the works of two prolific authors: James Bryant Conant and Maya Angelou. Among the books Conant wrote were: "The American High School Today" (1959), "Slums and Suburbs" (1961), "The Education of American Teachers" (1963), and "The Comprehensive High School" (1967). On the other hand, Angelou's series of autobiographical…

  2. Tectonic development of the Maya plate

    SciTech Connect

    Charleston, S.; Concit, S.C.; Sanchez, R.

    1985-01-01

    The Maya Plate is located at the southern margin of the North American Plate, it comprises from north to south, the following tectonic provinces: The Yucatan Platform, (including the lowlands of Peten and the oil-rich offshore platform of the Campeche Bank), the Macuspana basin, the Salt Basin, the NW-SE trending Sierra de Chiapas Folded Belt, the Chiapas depression and the Ciapas Massif. During the past, the deformation of the Maya Plate, have been attributed to the Laramide Orogeny. The present study develops a model based on the interaction between the Maya, Caribbean and the oceanic Cocos-plates, assuming that during the Middle Miocene, the development of the left-lateral Motagua Fault between the Maya and Caribbean plates, displaced the Yucatan Platform in a southwestward direction. It is consider that the combine action of two opposite forces, was responsible for the development of most of the Sierra de Chiapas major anticlines and synclines. Finally the model suggests that these structures, were later affected by trans-compressive forces, originated as a secondary response, due to the development of several left-lateral transcurrent faults, associated with the Polochic Fault System.

  3. Discovering the Ancient Maya From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use o f limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  4. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  5. Volatile compounds and odor traits of dry-cured ham (Prosciutto crudo) irradiated by electron beam and gamma ray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prosciutto crudo were irradiated at 0, 3 and 6kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam (EB), respectively. The odor scores and volatile compounds were examined after 7 days storage at 4'. Volatile compounds from samples without and with irradiation at 6kGy were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-nine compounds...

  6. Efficient carbon rejection upgrades Mexico's Maya crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Suchanek, A.J.; Moore, A.S.

    1986-08-01

    Poor-quality crude oils and resids can be effectively upgraded by a chemically efficient carbon-rejection process followed by hydrotreating. The effectiveness is demonstrated by utilizing the asphalt residual treating (ART) process to upgrade whole Maya crude oil from Mexico, in a 100,000-b/d refinery. Maya was chosen because it represents most of the world's poor-quality crude oils and resids, and because the results of processing Maya will be similar for other poor-quality feed stocks. Here is a review of the upgrade process, along with investment and operating economics of the Maya upgrade.

  7. Geophysics could explain Ancient Maya Myth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruchez, Margaret Sabom

    According to Maya mythology, the splendor of the principal entity, the Feathered Serpent, is exalted at Lake Atitlán in southwestern Guatemala. A chance look at a phenomenon in the natural environment reveals the possible geophysical basis of this myth.More than poetic fancy, the flight of the Feathered Serpent could refer to the dissipation of a soliton wave formed in the 130-km2 caldera lake. In the myth, recounted in the sixteenth century document los anales de los caqchiqueles, the newly acceded leader of the Kaqchikel-speaking Maya tribe rises from the lake transformed as the Feathered Serpent [Recinos and Goetz, 1953, p. 76]. Residents claim a gigantic serpent, Xocomil, still lives in the waters.

  8. Geophysics Could Explain Ancient Maya Myth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabom Bruchez, Margaret

    2005-03-01

    According to Maya mythology, the splendor of the principal entity, the Feathered Serpent, is exalted at Lake Atitlán in southwestern Guatemala. A chance look at a phenomenon in the natural environment reveals the possible geophysical basis of this myth. More than poetic fancy, the flight of the Feathered Serpent could refer to the dissipation of a soliton wave formed in the 130-km2 caldera lake. In the myth, recounted in the sixteenth century document los anales de los caqchiqueles, the newly acceded leader of the Kaqchikel-speaking Maya tribe rises from the lake transformed as the Feathered Serpent [Recinos and Goetz, 1953, p. 76]. Residents claim a gigantic serpent, Xocomil, still lives in the waters.

  9. Cell scientist to watch--Maya Schuldiner.

    PubMed

    Schuldiner, Maya; Bobrowska, Anna

    2015-11-15

    Maya Schuldiner pursued her PhD degree under the guidance of Prof. Nissim Benvenisty at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. She carried out her postdoctoral training in the laboratory of Prof. Jonathan Weissman at the University of California, San Francisco, with support from the Human Frontiers Science Program and the Sandler Fellows Program. Since 2008, Maya has been running her own laboratory at the Weizmann Institute of Sciences in Rehovot, Israel. She received the Human Frontiers Science Program Career Development Award and the NIH Pathway to Independence Award, and she is a member of the EMBO Young Investigator programme and Faculty of 1000. Her current research interests are focused on unravelling novel functions of yeast proteins that are involved in organelle biology.

  10. Ancient Maya Astronomical Tables from Xultun, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saturno, William A.; Stuart, David; Aveni, Anthony F.; Rossi, Franco

    2012-05-01

    Maya astronomical tables are recognized in bark-paper books from the Late Postclassic period (1300 to 1521 C.E.), but Classic period (200 to 900 C.E.) precursors have not been found. In 2011, a small painted room was excavated at the extensive ancient Maya ruins of Xultun, Guatemala, dating to the early 9th century C.E. The walls and ceiling of the room are painted with several human figures. Two walls also display a large number of delicate black, red, and incised hieroglyphs. Many of these hieroglyphs are calendrical in nature and relate astronomical computations, including at least two tables concerning the movement of the Moon, and perhaps Mars and Venus. These apparently represent early astronomical tables and may shed light on the later books.

  11. Delineating genetic relationships among the Maya.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Rivera, Lisa; Mirabal, Sheyla; Regueiro, Manuela M; Herrera, Rene J

    2008-03-01

    By 250 AD, the Classic Maya had become the most advanced civilization within the New World, possessing the only well-developed hieroglyphic writing system of the time and an advanced knowledge of mathematics, astronomy and architecture. Though only ruins of the empire remain, 7.5 million Mayan descendants still occupy areas of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and Honduras. Although they inhabit distant and distinct territories, speak more than 28 languages, and have been historically divided by warfare and a city-state-like political system, and they share characteristics such as rituals, artistic, architectural motifs that distinguish them as unequivocally Maya. This study was undertaken to determine whether these similarities among Mayan communities mirror genetic affinities or are merely a reflection of their common culture. Four Mayan populations were investigated (i.e., the K'iche and Kakchikel from Guatemala and the Campeche and Yucatan from Mexico) and compared with previously published populations across 15 autosomal STR loci. As a whole, the Maya emerge as a distinct group within Mesoamerica, indicating that they are more similar to each other than to other Mesoamerican groups. The data suggest that although geographic and political boundaries existed among Mayan communities, genetic exchanges between the different Mayan groups have occurred, supporting theories of extensive trading throughout the empire.

  12. The Construction of Orthography by Maya-Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer, Alejandra

    A discussion of the language skills of Maya-speaking children in Mexico describes the relationship of Maya and Spanish languages in this population's education and reports on a study of the construction of orthography by these children. The study first examines how language is used in literacy education and the difficulties of literacy in a…

  13. Handle with Care: A Conversation with Maya Angelou

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    The author opens this conversation with noted educator and authoress, Maya Angelou, by asking: "How does resilience develop, and how can we instill it in others?" Azzam notes that if there is anyone who knows something about "resilience" (the theme of this issue of "Educational Leadership") it is Maya Angelou. Dr.…

  14. The Mayas of Yucatan, Mexico: Their Fight against School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijangos-Noh, Juan Carlos; Cardos-Dzul, Maria Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the strategies that a sample of Maya men and women of Yucatan, Mexico used to avoid dropping out of school. Data from in-depth interviews, focus groups and life stories were analyzed using grounded theory techniques through a non-essentialist gender approach. Among the Maya, statistics show that women drop out of school…

  15. Deciphering Maya Hieroglyphic Writing: The State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Virginia M.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the historical approaches to the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Asserts that Mayan hieroglyphics are recognized as true writing because they represent the sounds and structure of spoken language. Discusses the history of Maya hieroglyphic writing and how it was used in that civilization. (PRA)

  16. Maya: A Simulation of Mayan Civilization during the Seventh Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Peter

    This simulation allows students to explore the lives of the great rulers of the Mayan culture. Students learn the mysterious history of the Maya by decoding glyphs, investigating the unusual religion of the Maya, unraveling the complex Mayan calendar, and discovering the Mayan number system's secret meanings. Specific cooperation skills are taught…

  17. A dearth of hurricanes cannot explain Maya collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-12-01

    A thousand years ago the great Maya culture of Central America collapsed. Climate change was one factor that stressed the civilization until it fractured: A prolonged period of intense and persistent drought left the Maya's descendants to carry on without a robust elite urban class.

  18. Prominence in Yucatec Maya: The Role of Stress in Yucatec Maya Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidder, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Yucatec Maya (YM) is an indigenous language of Mexico that features both phonemic tonal distinctions and phonemic vowel length. These features are primarily associated with the phonetic cues of pitch and duration, which are also considered the primary correlates of stress in language. Though scholars have noted the existence of stress or accent…

  19. Maya Blue Paint: An Ancient Nanostructured Material

    PubMed

    Jose-Yacaman; Rendon; Arenas; Serra Puche MC

    1996-07-12

    Maya blue paint was often used in Mesoamerica. The origin of its color and its resistance to acids and biocorrosion have not been fully understood. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and x-ray microanalysis studies of authentic samples show that palygorskite crystals in the paint form a superlattice that probably occurs as a result of mixing with indigo molecules. An amorphous silicate substrate contains inclusions of metal nanoparticles encapsulated in the substrate and oxide nanoparticles on the surface. The beautiful tone of the color is obtained only when both the particles and the superlattice are present.

  20. [Cleft lip and palate in Campeche Mayas].

    PubMed

    Weiss, K M; Georges, E; Levy, B; Aguirre, A; Portilla, R J; Gaitán, C L; Leyva, E; Rodríguez, T

    1988-07-01

    It has been suggested that among American Indians, as in some genetically-related Asiatic ethnic groups, incidence of cleft lip and/or cleft palate is higher than among people of Caucasian extraction. Such hypothesis, plus growing demand for services observed at a center for the surgery of cleft lip and cleft palate in Campeche state, led the authors to undertake research among the Maya residents of that region. However, neither careful review of case histories nor field research performed in several Indian communities could confirm the hypothesis of a higher incidence among this ethnic community.

  1. The University of Texas Maya Muon Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schwitters, Roy

    2007-05-09

    Plans to explore the ruin of a Maya Pyramid in Belize using cosmic ray muon tomography will be described. Muon tomography was pioneered by Luis Alvarez in the 1960's to explore the Second Pyramid of Chephren in Egypt. Improvements in detector technology since the Alvarez experiment suggest that muon tomography may be a practical method for exploring and monitoring relatively large underground volumes when exposure times of order months are acceptable. A prototype detector based on Fermilab/MINOS scintillator strip/WLS fiber technology has been built and is being tested at UT Austin. Initial results using the detector will be discussed.

  2. Methods and future directions for paleoclimatology in the Maya Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Brenner, Mark; Curtis, Jason H.

    2016-03-01

    A growing body of paleoclimate data indicates that periods of severe drought affected the Maya Lowlands of southeastern Mexico and northern Central America, especially during the Terminal Classic period (ca. 800-950 CE), raising the possibility that climate change contributed to the widespread collapse of many Maya polities at that time. A broad range of paleoclimate proxy methods have been applied in the Maya Lowlands and the data derived from these methods are sometimes challenging for archeologists and other non-specialists to interpret. This paper reviews the principal methods used for paleoclimate inference in the region and the rationale for climate proxy interpretation to help researchers working in the Maya Lowlands make sense of paleoclimate datasets. In particular, we focus on analyses of speleothems and lake sediment cores. These two paleoclimate archives have been most widely applied in the Maya Lowlands and have the greatest potential to provide insights into climate change impacts on the ancient Maya. We discuss the development of chronologies for these climate archives, the proxies for past climate change found within them, and how these proxy variables are interpreted. Finally, we present strategies for improving our understanding of proxy paleoclimate data from the Maya Lowlands, including multi-proxy analyses, assessment of spatial variability in past climate change, combined analysis of climate models and proxy data, and the integration of paleoclimatology and archeology.

  3. Recent Advances in Maya Studies Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Tom; Irwin, Daniel; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3i radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the baJos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The combination of water management and bajo farming is an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a

  4. Peopling the past: new perspectives on the ancient Maya.

    PubMed

    Robin, C

    2001-01-02

    The new direction in Maya archaeology is toward achieving a greater understanding of people and their roles and their relations in the past. To answer emerging humanistic questions about ancient people's lives Mayanists are increasingly making use of new and existing scientific methods from archaeology and other disciplines. Maya archaeology is bridging the divide between the humanities and sciences to answer questions about ancient people previously considered beyond the realm of archaeological knowledge.

  5. Peopling the past: New perspectives on the ancient Maya

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Cynthia

    2001-01-01

    The new direction in Maya archaeology is toward achieving a greater understanding of people and their roles and their relations in the past. To answer emerging humanistic questions about ancient people's lives Mayanists are increasingly making use of new and existing scientific methods from archaeology and other disciplines. Maya archaeology is bridging the divide between the humanities and sciences to answer questions about ancient people previously considered beyond the realm of archaeological knowledge. PMID:11136245

  6. No Metaphorical Timeline in Gesture and Cognition Among Yucatec Mayas

    PubMed Central

    Le Guen, Olivier; Balam, Lorena Ildefonsa Pool

    2012-01-01

    In numerous languages, space provides a productive domain for the expression of time. This paper examines how time-to-space mapping is realized in Yucatec Maya. At the linguistic level, Yucatec Maya has numerous resources to express deictic time, whereas expression of sequential time is highly constrained. Specifically, in gesture, we do not find any metaphorical oriented timeline, but only an opposition between “current time” (mapped on the “here” space) and “remote time” (mapped on the “remote/distant space”). Additionally, past and future are not contrasted. Sequential or deictic time in language and gesture are not conceived as unfolding along a metaphorical oriented line (e.g., left-right or front-back) but as a succession of completed events not spatially organized. Interestingly, although Yucatec Maya speakers preferentially use a geocentric spatial frame of reference (FoR), especially visible in their use of gesture, time is not mapped onto a geocentric axis (e.g., east-west). We argue that, instead of providing a source for time mapping, the use of a spatial geocentric FoR in Yucatec Maya seems to inhibit it. The Yucatec Maya expression of time in language and gesture fits the more general cultural conception of time as cyclic. Experimental results confirmed, to some extent, this non-linear, non-directional conception of time in Yucatec Maya. PMID:22908000

  7. No metaphorical timeline in gesture and cognition among yucatec mayas.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Olivier; Balam, Lorena Ildefonsa Pool

    2012-01-01

    In numerous languages, space provides a productive domain for the expression of time. This paper examines how time-to-space mapping is realized in Yucatec Maya. At the linguistic level, Yucatec Maya has numerous resources to express deictic time, whereas expression of sequential time is highly constrained. Specifically, in gesture, we do not find any metaphorical oriented timeline, but only an opposition between "current time" (mapped on the "here" space) and "remote time" (mapped on the "remote/distant space"). Additionally, past and future are not contrasted. Sequential or deictic time in language and gesture are not conceived as unfolding along a metaphorical oriented line (e.g., left-right or front-back) but as a succession of completed events not spatially organized. Interestingly, although Yucatec Maya speakers preferentially use a geocentric spatial frame of reference (FoR), especially visible in their use of gesture, time is not mapped onto a geocentric axis (e.g., east-west). We argue that, instead of providing a source for time mapping, the use of a spatial geocentric FoR in Yucatec Maya seems to inhibit it. The Yucatec Maya expression of time in language and gesture fits the more general cultural conception of time as cyclic. Experimental results confirmed, to some extent, this non-linear, non-directional conception of time in Yucatec Maya.

  8. Wetland fields as mirrors of drought and the Maya abandonment

    PubMed Central

    Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Beach, Timothy P.; Dunning, Nicholas P.

    2012-01-01

    Getting at the Maya Collapse has both temporal and geographic dimensions, because it occurred over centuries and great distances. This requires a wide range of research sites and proxy records, ranging from lake cores to geomorphic evidence, such as stratigraphy and speleothems. This article synthesizes these lines of evidence, together with previously undescribed findings on Maya wetland formation and use in a key region near the heart of the central Maya Lowlands. Growing lines of evidence point to dryer periods in Maya history, which correlate to major periods of transition. The main line of evidence in this paper comes from wetland use and formation studies, which show evidence for both large-scale environmental change and human adaptation or response. Based on multiproxy studies, Maya wetland fields had a long and varied history, but most evidence indicates the start of disuse during or shortly after the Maya Terminal Classic. Hence, the pervasiveness of collapse extended into a range of wetlands, including perennial wetlands, which should have been less responsive to drought as a driver of disuse. A synthesis of the lines of evidence for canal infilling shows no attempts to reclaim them after the Classic Period. PMID:22371605

  9. Wetland fields as mirrors of drought and the Maya abandonment.

    PubMed

    Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Beach, Timothy P; Dunning, Nicholas P

    2012-03-06

    Getting at the Maya Collapse has both temporal and geographic dimensions, because it occurred over centuries and great distances. This requires a wide range of research sites and proxy records, ranging from lake cores to geomorphic evidence, such as stratigraphy and speleothems. This article synthesizes these lines of evidence, together with previously undescribed findings on Maya wetland formation and use in a key region near the heart of the central Maya Lowlands. Growing lines of evidence point to dryer periods in Maya history, which correlate to major periods of transition. The main line of evidence in this paper comes from wetland use and formation studies, which show evidence for both large-scale environmental change and human adaptation or response. Based on multiproxy studies, Maya wetland fields had a long and varied history, but most evidence indicates the start of disuse during or shortly after the Maya Terminal Classic. Hence, the pervasiveness of collapse extended into a range of wetlands, including perennial wetlands, which should have been less responsive to drought as a driver of disuse. A synthesis of the lines of evidence for canal infilling shows no attempts to reclaim them after the Classic Period.

  10. 78 FR 17744 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Maya: Hidden Worlds...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Maya: Hidden Worlds Revealed... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Maya: Hidden Worlds Revealed,'' imported...

  11. Diagonal Slices of 3D Young Diagrams in the Approach of Maya Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Fang; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    According to the correspondence between 2D Young diagrams and Maya diagrams and the relation between 2D and 3D Young diagrams, we construct 3D Young diagrams in the approach of Maya diagrams. Moreover, we formulate the generating function of 3D Young diagrams, which is the MacMahon function in terms of Maya diagrams.

  12. Meteor Showers in the Ancient Maya Hieroglyphic Codices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsman, J. H.

    2014-07-01

    Researchers of the ancient Maya culture have long been fascinated with the Maya obsession concerning cyclical calendars and precise visual observations of astronomical bodies and phenomena, in particular the Sun, Moon, visible planets, and solar and lunar eclipses. Although considered possible, heretofore no record of specific sightings of comets or meteor showers in the Maya inscriptions has been firmly established by scholars. Besides difficulties with decipherment of the hieroglyphic script, investigators have had to grapple with an ancient Maya calendar that has not been accurately correlated to the European calendar. Recent examination by this researcher has found that it may be possible to recognize written accounts of meteor showers embedded in the hieroglyphic corpus, especially the codices, the screen-fold books that were the tools of the astronomer-priests of that day. By proposing an alternative decipherment of an astronomical sign and using the accompanying hieroglyphic texts and illustrations with appropriate dates, this researcher believes it is possible to demonstrate that the Maya may have recorded meteor showers occurring in the seventh through the tenth centuries AD.

  13. Drought, agricultural adaptation, and sociopolitical collapse in the Maya Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Pagani, Mark; Canuto, Marcello A.; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Curtis, Jason H.

    2015-05-01

    Paleoclimate records indicate a series of severe droughts was associated with societal collapse of the Classic Maya during the Terminal Classic period (∼800-950 C.E.). Evidence for drought largely derives from the drier, less populated northern Maya Lowlands but does not explain more pronounced and earlier societal disruption in the relatively humid southern Maya Lowlands. Here we apply hydrogen and carbon isotope compositions of plant wax lipids in two lake sediment cores to assess changes in water availability and land use in both the northern and southern Maya lowlands. We show that relatively more intense drying occurred in the southern lowlands than in the northern lowlands during the Terminal Classic period, consistent with earlier and more persistent societal decline in the south. Our results also indicate a period of substantial drying in the southern Maya Lowlands from ∼200 C.E. to 500 C.E., during the Terminal Preclassic and Early Classic periods. Plant wax carbon isotope records indicate a decline in C4 plants in both lake catchments during the Early Classic period, interpreted to reflect a shift from extensive agriculture to intensive, water-conservative maize cultivation that was motivated by a drying climate. Our results imply that agricultural adaptations developed in response to earlier droughts were initially successful, but failed under the more severe droughts of the Terminal Classic period.

  14. Drought, agricultural adaptation, and sociopolitical collapse in the Maya Lowlands

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Pagani, Mark; Canuto, Marcello A.; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Curtis, Jason H.

    2015-01-01

    Paleoclimate records indicate a series of severe droughts was associated with societal collapse of the Classic Maya during the Terminal Classic period (∼800–950 C.E.). Evidence for drought largely derives from the drier, less populated northern Maya Lowlands but does not explain more pronounced and earlier societal disruption in the relatively humid southern Maya Lowlands. Here we apply hydrogen and carbon isotope compositions of plant wax lipids in two lake sediment cores to assess changes in water availability and land use in both the northern and southern Maya lowlands. We show that relatively more intense drying occurred in the southern lowlands than in the northern lowlands during the Terminal Classic period, consistent with earlier and more persistent societal decline in the south. Our results also indicate a period of substantial drying in the southern Maya Lowlands from ∼200 C.E. to 500 C.E., during the Terminal Preclassic and Early Classic periods. Plant wax carbon isotope records indicate a decline in C4 plants in both lake catchments during the Early Classic period, interpreted to reflect a shift from extensive agriculture to intensive, water-conservative maize cultivation that was motivated by a drying climate. Our results imply that agricultural adaptations developed in response to earlier droughts were initially successful, but failed under the more severe droughts of the Terminal Classic period. PMID:25902508

  15. Drought, agricultural adaptation, and sociopolitical collapse in the Maya Lowlands.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Peter M J; Pagani, Mark; Canuto, Marcello A; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A; Eglinton, Timothy I; Curtis, Jason H

    2015-05-05

    Paleoclimate records indicate a series of severe droughts was associated with societal collapse of the Classic Maya during the Terminal Classic period (∼800-950 C.E.). Evidence for drought largely derives from the drier, less populated northern Maya Lowlands but does not explain more pronounced and earlier societal disruption in the relatively humid southern Maya Lowlands. Here we apply hydrogen and carbon isotope compositions of plant wax lipids in two lake sediment cores to assess changes in water availability and land use in both the northern and southern Maya lowlands. We show that relatively more intense drying occurred in the southern lowlands than in the northern lowlands during the Terminal Classic period, consistent with earlier and more persistent societal decline in the south. Our results also indicate a period of substantial drying in the southern Maya Lowlands from ∼200 C.E. to 500 C.E., during the Terminal Preclassic and Early Classic periods. Plant wax carbon isotope records indicate a decline in C4 plants in both lake catchments during the Early Classic period, interpreted to reflect a shift from extensive agriculture to intensive, water-conservative maize cultivation that was motivated by a drying climate. Our results imply that agricultural adaptations developed in response to earlier droughts were initially successful, but failed under the more severe droughts of the Terminal Classic period.

  16. Narrative Structures of Maya Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hatala, Andrew R; Waldram, James B; Caal, Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Several Indigenous communities around the globe maintain unique conceptions of mental illness and disorder. The Q'eqchi' Maya of southern Belize represent one Indigenous community that has maintained, due to highly "traditional" ways of life and the strong presence of many active localized healers or bush doctors, distinct conceptions of mental disorders as compared to Western psychiatric nosology. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to understand and interpret Q'eqchi' nosological systems of mental disorders involving the factors--spiritual, cultural, social, historical, cosmological, or otherwise--implicated in their articulation and construction. Over a period of 9 months, and with the help of cultural advisors from several Q'eqchi' communities, 94 interviews with five different traditional Q'eqchi' healers were conducted. This paper demonstrates that the mental illnesses recognized by the Q'eqchi' healers involved narrative structures with recognizable variations unfolding over time. What we present in this paper are 17 recognizable illnesses of the mind grouped within one of four broad "narrative genres." Each genre involves a discernible plot structure, casts of characters, themes, motifs, and a recognizable teleology or "directedness." In narrative terms, the healer's diagnostic and therapeutic work can be understood as an ability to discern plot, to understand and interpret a specific case within the board, empirically based structure of Q'eqchi' medical epistemology.

  17. Effect of prehydrogenation on hydroconversion of Maya residuum, part I

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.; Beret, S.

    1987-01-01

    Maya 650/sup 0/F residuum was mildly prehydrogenated over a standard, commercially available, hydrodesulfurization catalyst. The product was then distilled to yield hydrogenated Maya 650/sup 0/F residuum. This prehydrogenated residuum, and the untreated Maya 650/sup 0/F residuum were separately hydroprocessed further at different process severities. The resulting products were then examined by elemental analyses to determine the effects of the prehydrogenation step on overall conversion and product quality. The primary effect of the prehydrogenation step was to increase the overall conversions for sulfur, MCR, nitrogen, and asphaltenes. As a result, the hydroconversion products derived from the prehydrogenation were substantially better quality than the corresponding direct hydroconversion products. The prehydrogenation step also lowered the severity required for equivalent residuum hydroconversion upgrading.

  18. Diagnostic Emplotment in Q'eqchi' Maya Medicine.

    PubMed

    Hatala, Andrew R; Waldram, James B

    2016-05-04

    Medical diagnosis is a process of illness discrimination, categorization, and identification on the basis of careful observation and is central in biomedicine and many traditional medical systems around the world. Through a detailed analysis of several illness episodes and healer interviews among Maya communities in southern Belize, we observe that the diagnostic processes of traditional Q'eqchi' healers reflect patterns of narrative 'emplotment' that engage not simply the individual patient but also significant spiritual and cosmological forces. Three diagnostic techniques of the Q'eqchi' Maya healers are described and their connections to Maya concepts of personhood and cosmovision are presented. This research fosters an appreciation of how Indigenous knowledge systems shape clinical encounters and healing dramas, widening the spheres of clinical narrative co-construction and dialogue beyond the material and physical contexts implicit within Western clinical encounters.

  19. Effect of prehydrogenation on hydroconversion of Maya residuum, Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.; Beret, S.

    1989-02-01

    Maya 650/sup 0/F residuum was mildly prehydrogenated over a standard, commercially available, hydrdesulfurization catalyst. The product was then distilled to yield hydrogenated Maya 650/sup 0/F residuum. This prehydrogenated residuum, and the untreated Maya 650/sup 0/F residuum were separately hydroprocessed further at different process severities. The resulting products were then examined by elemental analyses to determine the effects of the prehydrogenation step on overall conversion and product quality. The primary effect of the prehydrogenation step was to increase the overall conversions for sulfur, MCR, nitrogen, and asphaltenes. As a result, the hydroconversion products derived from the prehydrogenation were substantially better quality than the corresponding direct hydroconversion products. The prehydrogenation step also lowered the severity required for equivalent residuum hydroconversion upgrading.

  20. Compositional attribution of non-provenienced Maya polychrome vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, R.L.; Harbottle, G.; Reents, D.J.; Sayre, E.V.; van Zelst, L.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures and a few of the results of the Maya ceramic project are discussed from the perspective of non-provenienced vessel attribution ranging from site specific through a more inferential level to the rather hypothetical. The examples presented serve to illustrate the manner in which compositional and stylistic covariation are viewed in an investigation of Maya Ceramic art. The large data base from neutron activation analysis including archaeologically recovered pottery as well as the stylistically and iconographically elaborate vessels requires continued refinement in our methods of statistical analysis along with gaining a greater understanding of the sources of ceramic compositional variation in the Maya area. The mutually beneficial collaboration between science, art, and archaeology are emphasized.

  1. Folkecology and commons management in the Maya Lowlands

    PubMed Central

    Atran, Scott; Medin, Douglas; Ross, Norbert; Lynch, Elizabeth; Coley, John; Ek’, Edilberto Ucan; Vapnarsky, Valentina

    1999-01-01

    Three groups living off the same rainforest habitat manifest strikingly distinct behaviors, cognitions, and social relationships relative to the forest. Only the area’s last native Maya reveal systematic awareness of ecological complexity involving animals, plants, and people and practices clearly favoring forest regeneration. Spanish-speaking immigrants prove closer to native Maya in thought, action, and social networking than do immigrant Maya. There is no overriding “local,” “Indian,” or “immigrant” relationship to the environment. Results indicate that exclusive concern with rational self-interest and institutional constraints do not sufficiently account for commons behavior and that cultural patterning of cognition and access to relevant information are significant predictors. Unlike traditional accounts of relations between culture, cognition, and behavior, the models offered are not synthetic interpretations of people’s thoughts and behaviors but are emergent cultural patterns derived statistically from measurements of individual cognitions and behaviors. PMID:10377461

  2. Soil Development on Maya Structures at Piedras Negras, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D.

    2005-05-01

    Ancient Maya structures and the ambient spaces around them are under-used barometers of soil development. The Piedras Negras region in northwestern Guatemala is uniquely suited to such research because unlike many other parts of the Maya Lowlands it was abandoned after about AD 850-900, and never substantially disturbed by humans thereafter. Recently excavated rural sites near Piedras Negras show that upland soils developed over the last 1100-1200 years are quite thin, and raise the issue of how deep the original upland soils were that were encountered by the first farmers.

  3. Recent Advances in Maya Studies Using Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Tom; Irwin, Daniel; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3i radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of baJos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the baJo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The combination of water management and baJo farming is an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a

  4. Deciding To Be Legal: A Maya Community in Houston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagan, Jacqueline Maria

    This book examines the settlement process of undocumented migrant workers through an ethnographic study of a Houston (Texas) community of Mayas from a township in Totonicapan, Guatemala. The community is traced from its genesis in 1978, when a few men left the township in search of economic opportunity, to the complex effects of the 1986…

  5. Maya Angelou. Humanitarian extraordinary + greatest living American poet.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    Maya Angelou is testimony to the resilience of the human spirit. Rising above poverty and abuse to become one of the 100 best writers of the 20th century, she has used her extraordinary talents to crusade against injustice and prejudice. She measures her success by her ability to love and to care for others.

  6. Maya Angelou: More Than a Poet. African-American Biographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisandrelli, Elaine Silvinski

    This book explores the life of Maya Angelou, the author the autobiographical "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings." The book details her life from the beginning in Stamps, Arkansas, and relates how she has overcome many obstacles throughout her life to become the successful, educated woman she is today--author, political activist, actress,…

  7. The Grammar of Ch'orti' Maya Folktales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, James Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the grammar of the Ch'orti' Maya language as it appears in a collection of oral literature. I collected the stories that form the basis of this study in and around Jocotan, Guatemala, during 2004 and 2005. I worked with bilingual story-tellers to make audio recordings of the original Ch'orti'-language tales, produce textual…

  8. Organic/Inorganic Complex Pigments: Ancient Colors Maya Blue

    SciTech Connect

    Polette-Niewold, L.A.; Manciu, F.S.; Torres, B.; Alvarado, M.; Jr.; Chianelli, R.R.

    2009-06-04

    Maya Blue is an ancient blue pigment composed of palygorskite clay and indigo. It was used by the ancient Maya and provides a dramatic background for some of the most impressive murals throughout Mesoamerica. Despite exposure to acids, alkalis, and chemical solvents, the color of the Maya Blue pigment remains unaltered. The chemical interaction between palygorskite and indigo form an organic/inorganic complex with the carbonyl oxygen of the indigo bound to a surface Al{sup 3+} in the Si-O lattice. In addition indigo will undergo an oxidation to dehydroindigo during preparation. The dehydro-indigo molecule forms a similar but stronger complex with the Al{sup 3+}. Thus, Maya Blue varies in color due to the mixed indigo/dehydroindigo complex. The above conclusions are the result of application of multiple techniques (X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis/thermal gravimetric analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopy) to the characterization of the organic/inorganic complex. A picture of the bonding of the organic molecule to the palygorskite surface forming a surface complex is developed and supported by the results of density functional theory calculations. We also report that other organic molecules such as thioindigo form similar organic/inorganic complexes thus, opening an entirely new class of complex materials for future applications.

  9. Animating a Human Body Mesh with Maya for Doppler Signature Computer Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    February 2009. 3. Remcom Web page. http://www.remcom.com (accessed November 2006). 4. Autodesk Web page. http://www.autodesk.com/ maya (accessed June...Animating a Human Body Mesh with Maya for Doppler Signature Computer Modeling by Getachew Kirose ARL-TN-0351 June 2009...Animating a Human Body Mesh with Maya for Doppler Signature Computer Modeling Getachew Kirose Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate

  10. Effect of prehydrogenation on hydroconversion of Maya residuum, Part 1: Process characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.; Beret, S.

    1987-10-01

    Maya 650/sup 0/F residuum was mildy prehydrogented over a standard, commercially available, hydrodesulfurization catalyst. The product was then distilled to yield hydrogenated Maya 650/sup 0/F residuum. This prehydrogenated residuum, and the untreated Maya 650/sup 0/F residuum were separately hydroprocessed further at different process severities. The resulting products were then examined by elemental analyses to determine the effects of the prehydrogenation step on overall conversion and product quality. 38 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. U/Pb Geochronology of the Maya Block, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, U.; Ratschbacher, L.; McWilliams, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Maya Block can be defined as Guatemala north of the Motagua transform fault, Belize, and part of southern Mexico. The absence of radiometric ages has hindered an understanding of the geologic evolution of the Maya Block and its connections with adjacent blocks in North America, South America and the Caribbean. We present an exploratory study of SHRIMP U/Pb ages from zircons collected in central and western Guatemala that shows ubiquitous Grenvillian inheritance, magmatism at ~ 1020 Ma, ~ 975 Ma and ~ 175 Ma, Devonian-Silurian and Triassic tectonomagmatic events, and Cretaceous metamorphism. Grenvillian orthogneisses were identified in the northern flank of the Sierra de Chuac'{u}s whose magmatic ages are 1020 ± 35 Ma and 975 ± 15 Ma with possible Pb-loss at ~ 420 Ma. Zircons of the Rabinal Granite show an important ~ 975 Ma inheritance and concordant ages in the 400-500 Ma range. We interpret the Devonian-Silurian ages as magmatic and correlate the peraluminous Rabinal Granite with similar intrusions in the Maya Mountains of Belize. Coeval events recorded in Chuac'{u}s orthogneisses and the Rabinal Granite suggest connections since Early Paleozoic time between the Chuac'{u}s complex and the Maya Block north of the Baja Verapaz shear zone that separates rocks of contrasting metamorphic grade. The magmatic age for deformed granites south of Sacapulas in central-western Guatemala is 174 ± 3 Ma. Migmatitic paragneisses collected south of Huehuetenango yield Triassic metamorphic ages at 223 ± 4 Ma, coeval with anatexis in the basement of Chiapas, Mexico. Medium to high-grade metasedimentary rocks on the southern flank of the Sierra de Chuac'{u}s do not record a Silurian-Devonian provenance. Instead, they yield clear Grenvillian and Triassic (240-210 Ma) components. Dating of zircon rims at 74 ± 1 Ma yields a precise age for the peak Cretaceous epidote-amphibolite metamorphic event in the Chuac'{u}s complex. Ductile structures exhibiting at least 4 tectonic

  12. Preliminary Study of Pesticide Drift into the Maya Mountain Protected Areas of Belize

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In Belize, Central America, many farms surrounding the Protected Areas of the Maya Mountains rely heavily on the application of agrochemicals. The purpose of this study was to test whether orographic drift of glyphosate and organophosphates into the nearby Maya Mountain Protected Areas occurred by collecting phytotelmic water from seven sites over 3 years. Regardless of location within the Maya Mountain Protected Areas, glyphosate was present; organophosphates were more common at ridge sites. Although glyphosate concentrations were low, due to the number of threatened species and the human use of stream water outside the Maya Mountain Protected Areas, better understanding of these effects is warranted. PMID:21153805

  13. Preliminary study of pesticide drift into the Maya Mountain protected areas of Belize.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    In Belize, Central America, many farms surrounding the Protected Areas of the Maya Mountains rely heavily on the application of agrochemicals. The purpose of this study was to test whether orographic drift of glyphosate and organophosphates into the nearby Maya Mountain Protected Areas occurred by collecting phytotelmic water from seven sites over 3 years. Regardless of location within the Maya Mountain Protected Areas, glyphosate was present; organophosphates were more common at ridge sites. Although glyphosate concentrations were low, due to the number of threatened species and the human use of stream water outside the Maya Mountain Protected Areas, better understanding of these effects is warranted.

  14. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez del Río, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhée, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-10-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  15. Kax and kol: Collapse and resilience in lowland Maya civilization

    PubMed Central

    Dunning, Nicholas P.; Beach, Timothy P.; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    Episodes of population loss and cultural change, including the famous Classic Collapse, punctuated the long course of Maya civilization. In many cases, these downturns in the fortunes of individual sites and entire regions included significant environmental components such as droughts or anthropogenic environmental degradation. Some afflicted areas remained depopulated for long periods, whereas others recovered more quickly. We examine the dynamics of growth and decline in several areas in the Maya Lowlands in terms of both environmental and cultural resilience and with a focus on downturns that occurred in the Terminal Preclassic (second century Common Era) and Terminal Classic (9th and 10th centuries CE) periods. This examination of available data indicates that the elevated interior areas of the Yucatán Peninsula were more susceptible to system collapse and less suitable for resilient recovery than adjacent lower-lying areas. PMID:22371571

  16. Cumulative Trauma Among Mayas Living in Southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Millender, Eugenia I; Lowe, John

    2016-01-04

    Mayas, having experienced genocide, exile, and severe poverty, are at high risk for the consequences of cumulative trauma that continually resurfaces through current fear of an uncertain future. Little is known about the mental health and alcohol use status of this population. This correlational study explored t/he relationship of cumulative trauma as it relates to social determinants of health (years in the United States, education, health insurance status, marital status, and employment), psychological health (depression symptoms), and health behaviors (alcohol use) of 102 Guatemalan Mayas living in Southeast Florida. The results of this study indicated that, as specific social determinants of health and cumulative trauma increased, depression symptoms (particularly among women) and the risk for harmful alcohol use (particularly among men) increased. Identifying risk factors at an early stage before serious disease or problems are manifest provides room for early screening leading to early identification, early treatment, and better outcomes.

  17. Astronomical and Cosmological Aspects of Maya Architecture and Urbanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šprajc, I.

    2009-08-01

    Archaeoastronomical studies carried out so far have shown that the orientations in the ancient Maya architecture were, like elsewhere in Mesoamerica, largely astronomical, mostly referring to sunrises and sunsets on particular dates and allowing the use of observational calendars that facilitated a proper scheduling of agricultural activities. However, the astronomical alignments cannot be understood in purely utilitarian terms. Since the repeatedly occurring directions are most consistently incorporated in monumental architecture of civic and ceremonial urban cores, they must have had an important place in religion and worldview. The characteristics of urban layouts, as well as architectural and other elements associated with important buildings, reveal that the Maya architectural and urban planning was dictated by a complex set of rules, in which astronomical considerations related to practical needs were embedded in a broader framework of cosmological concepts substantiated by political ideology.

  18. Kax and kol: collapse and resilience in lowland Maya civilization.

    PubMed

    Dunning, Nicholas P; Beach, Timothy P; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl

    2012-03-06

    Episodes of population loss and cultural change, including the famous Classic Collapse, punctuated the long course of Maya civilization. In many cases, these downturns in the fortunes of individual sites and entire regions included significant environmental components such as droughts or anthropogenic environmental degradation. Some afflicted areas remained depopulated for long periods, whereas others recovered more quickly. We examine the dynamics of growth and decline in several areas in the Maya Lowlands in terms of both environmental and cultural resilience and with a focus on downturns that occurred in the Terminal Preclassic (second century Common Era) and Terminal Classic (9th and 10th centuries CE) periods. This examination of available data indicates that the elevated interior areas of the Yucatán Peninsula were more susceptible to system collapse and less suitable for resilient recovery than adjacent lower-lying areas.

  19. Solar forcing of drought frequency in the Maya lowlands.

    PubMed

    Hodell, D A; Brenner, M; Curtis, J H; Guilderson, T

    2001-05-18

    We analyzed lake-sediment cores from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, to reconstruct the climate history of the region over the past 2600 years. Time series analysis of sediment proxies, which are sensitive to the changing ratio of evaporation to precipitation (oxygen isotopes and gypsum precipitation), reveal a recurrent pattern of drought with a dominant periodicity of 208 years. This cycle is similar to the documented 206-year period in records of cosmogenic nuclide production (carbon-14 and beryllium-10) that is thought to reflect variations in solar activity. We conclude that a significant component of century-scale variability in Yucatan droughts is explained by solar forcing. Furthermore, some of the maxima in the 208-year drought cycle correspond with discontinuities in Maya cultural evolution, suggesting that the Maya were affected by these bicentennial oscillations in precipitation.

  20. The Maya Project: Numerical Simulations of Black Hole Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kenneth; Calabrese, Gioel; Garrison, David; Kelly, Bernard; Laguna, Pablo; Lockitch, Keith; Pullin, Jorge; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Tiglio, Manuel

    2001-04-01

    The main objective of the MAYA project is the development of a numerical code to solve the vacuum Einstein's field equations for spacetimes containing multiple black hole singularities. Incorporating knowledge gained from previous similar efforts (Binary Black Holes Alliance and the AGAVE project) as well as one-dimensional numerical studies, MAYA has been built from the ground up within the architecture of Cactus 4.0, with particular attention paid to the software engineering aspects of code development. The goal of this new effort is to ultimately have a robust, efficient, readable, and stable numerical code for black hole evolution. This poster presents an overview of the project, focusing on the innovative aspects of the project as well as its current development status.

  1. Volatile compounds and odor traits of dry-cured ham (Prosciutto crudo) irradiated by electron beam and gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qiulian; Yan, Weiqiang; Yue, Ling; Chen, Zhijun; Wang, Haihong; Qi, Wenyuan; He, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Prosciutto crudo samples were irradiated at 0, 3 and 6 kGy by gamma rays (GR) and electron beam (EB), respectively. The odor scores and volatile compounds were examined after 7 days storage at 4 °C. Volatile compounds from samples without and with irradiation at 6 kGy were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-nine compounds were identified, including terpenes, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, alkanes, esters, aromatic hydrocarbons and acids. Both GR and EB irradiation resulted in formation of (Z)-7-Hexadecenal, cis-9-hexadecenal, tetradecane, E-9-tetradecen-1-ol formate, and losing of hexadecamethyl-heptasiloxane and decanoic acid-ethyl ester in hams. However, GR irradiation caused additional changes, such as formation of undecane and phthalic acid-2-cyclohexylethyl butyl ester, significantly higher level of 1-pentadecene, and losing of (E, E)-2,4-decadienal and octadecane. EB was shown to be better in maintaining ham's original odor than GR. Our results suggest that EB irradiation is a promising method for treatment of ready to eat hams as it exerts much less negative effect on the flavor of hams compared to GR irradiation.

  2. What We Think We Know About Maya Mathematics and Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Stone, M.

    2016-01-01

    In most cultures, mathematics and astronomy are obscure and arcane. Not so to the ancient Maya. Despite what we consider technological “deficiencies”—they lacked both metal tools and the wheel—their public inscriptions paid uniquely sophisticated attention to these sciences. At any given monument, fully half the text is devoted to situating events in time, particularly specifying the precise number of days between events, whether historical or mythological. Often these intervals have numerological significance, and many are precise multiples of the periodicities of heavenly bodies. The Maya apparently were fully aware of the exact length of the tropical year, the sidereal year, the cycles of Venus, and eclipses; and there is evidence that they even celebrated events reflecting the 26,000-year precession cycle. However, Maya illuminati had an agenda quite alien to our way of thinking. Clues to their knowledge are arcane, rare, and often difficult for us to recognize with eyes clouded by our modern worldview. The body of work left to us consists of just a few tantalizing sherds of a once-rich and diverse astromythological tradition. Moreover, there was no single pan-Mayan mythos. An astronomical alignment seen repeatedly in one city will be completely absent in others. Each city-state emphasized specific and often unique features, and they often contradict one another. But we soldier on. The diversity we find so frustrating is simply the fine structure of their worldview. Intellectual historians have for too long been, like Procrustes, trying to force all Maya science and religion into a single universal straitjacket.

  3. Ancient Maya documents concerning the movements of Mars.

    PubMed

    Bricker, H M; Aveni, A F; Bricker, V R

    2001-02-13

    A large part of the pre-Columbian Maya book known as the Dresden Codex is concerned with an exploration of commensurate relationships among celestial cycles and their relationship to other, nonastronomical cycles of cultural interest. As has long been known, pages 43b--45b of the Codex are concerned with the synodic cycle of Mars. New work reported here with another part of the Codex, a complex table on pages 69--74, reveals a concern on the part of the ancient Maya astronomers with the sidereal motion of Mars as well as with its synodic cycle. Two kinds of empiric sidereal intervals of Mars were used, a long one (702 days) that included a retrograde loop and a short one that did not. The use of these intervals, which is indicated by the documents in the Dresden Codex, permitted the tracking of Mars across the zodiac and the relating of its movements to the terrestrial seasons and to the 260-day sacred calendar. While Kepler solved the sidereal problem of Mars by proposing an elliptical heliocentric orbit, anonymous but equally ingenious Maya astronomers discovered a pair of time cycles that not only accurately described the planet's motion, but also related it to other cosmic and terrestrial concerns.

  4. Effect of prehydrogenation on hydroconversion of Maya residuum, part II

    SciTech Connect

    Beret, S. ); Reynolds, J.G. )

    1988-01-01

    Maya 650{sup 0}F residuum (Maya AR) was subjected to mild prehydrogenation over a standard hydroprocessing catalyst. The 650{sup 0}F residuum of this product (HMaya AR) and Maya AR were then subjected to further hydroconversion processing. The products were analyzed by elemental /sup 1/H, and /sup 13/C NMR analyses to determine the incorporation of hydrogen during processing. For all processing steps, hydrogen was incorporated in capping fragments formed during cracking reactions, as well as in hydrogenation reactions. heteroatom removal, and hydrocarbon gas formation, but the distribution of the hydrogen was dependent upon the severity of the process. In general, 30 to 40% of the total hydrogen was incorporated for heteroatom removal and hydrocarbon gas formation. The remaining hydrogen was incorporated in the cracking and hydrogenation reactions. The hydrogen incorporation of each specific processing step is discussed, along with an evaluation of the prehydrogenation step as a residuum conversion process option. The results are also compared to previously reported hydrogen incorporation measurements on other feeds and processing methods.

  5. Ancient Maya documents concerning the movements of Mars

    PubMed Central

    Bricker, Harvey M.; Aveni, Anthony F.; Bricker, Victoria R.

    2001-01-01

    A large part of the pre-Columbian Maya book known as the Dresden Codex is concerned with an exploration of commensurate relationships among celestial cycles and their relationship to other, nonastronomical cycles of cultural interest. As has long been known, pages 43b–45b of the Codex are concerned with the synodic cycle of Mars. New work reported here with another part of the Codex, a complex table on pages 69–74, reveals a concern on the part of the ancient Maya astronomers with the sidereal motion of Mars as well as with its synodic cycle. Two kinds of empiric sidereal intervals of Mars were used, a long one (702 days) that included a retrograde loop and a short one that did not. The use of these intervals, which is indicated by the documents in the Dresden Codex, permitted the tracking of Mars across the zodiac and the relating of its movements to the terrestrial seasons and to the 260-day sacred calendar. While Kepler solved the sidereal problem of Mars by proposing an elliptical heliocentric orbit, anonymous but equally ingenious Maya astronomers discovered a pair of time cycles that not only accurately described the planet's motion, but also related it to other cosmic and terrestrial concerns. PMID:11172084

  6. Print Knowledge in Yucatec Maya-Spanish Bilingual Children: An Initial Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengochea, Alain; Justice, Laura M.; Hijlkema, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    This study serves as an initial inquiry regarding the early print knowledge of emergent bilingual preschool-age children living in an Indigenous community in Mexico. In this research, we examine various dimensions of print knowledge with Yucatec Maya-Spanish bilingual children for whom one of their languages (Yucatec Maya) is seldom seen in print…

  7. Language Revitalisation from the Ground Up: Promoting Yucatec Maya on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cru, Josep

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at current grassroots efforts to revitalise Yucatec Maya, an indigenous language of Mexico, in social media and more specifically on Facebook. In contrast to the limitations of institutional language promotion, the inclusion of Maya on Facebook shows the possibilities that social networks offer not only for actual use of…

  8. Analysis of obsidian from moho cay, belize: new evidence on classic maya trade routes.

    PubMed

    Healy, P F; McKillop, H I; Walsh, B

    1984-07-27

    Trace element analysis of obsidian artifacts from Moho Cay, Belize, reveals that the obsidian derives primarily from the El Chayal outcrop in highland Guatemala and not from the Ixtepeque source. This is contrary to the widely accepted obsidian trade route model for Classic Maya civilization and suggests that Classic Maya obsidian trade was a more complex economic phenomenon than has been recognized.

  9. Early ceremonial constructions at Ceibal, Guatemala, and the origins of lowland Maya civilization.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; Aoyama, Kazuo; Castillo, Victor; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2013-04-26

    The spread of plaza-pyramid complexes across southern Mesoamerica during the early Middle Preclassic period (1000 to 700 BCE) provides critical information regarding the origins of lowland Maya civilization and the role of the Gulf Coast Olmec. Recent excavations at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, documented the growth of a formal ceremonial space into a plaza-pyramid complex that predated comparable buildings at other lowland Maya sites and major occupations at the Olmec center of La Venta. The development of lowland Maya civilization did not result from one-directional influence from La Venta, but from interregional interactions, involving groups in the southwestern Maya lowlands, Chiapas, the Pacific Coast, and the southern Gulf Coast.

  10. A late Holocene tephrochronology for the Maya Lowlands, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooren, K.; Huizinga, A.; Hoek, W.; Bergen, M. V.; Middelkoop, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Maya Lowlands in southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize were densely populated for thousands of years, and have been the subject of intensive studies on the interaction between humans and their environment. Accurate radiocarbon dating of proxy records and disrupting events has proved to be difficult due to the lack of organic material in many deposits and the 'old carbon effect' related to the calcareous geology of the Yucatan Peninsula. So far, tephrostratigraphy has hardly been used to define time markers for palynological, limnological and archaeological studies in this region, despite the frequent occurrence of tephra fall. With the objective to fill this gap, we developed a tephrochronology for the Maya Lowlands using sediment cores from a flood basin of the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta in southern Mexico. Tephrostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating were used to estimate the timing of past volcanic eruptions, and chemical compositions of glass shards were used to identify potential sources. At least six tephralayers were deposited since 2000 BC, the most notable representing eruptions of El Chichón volcano in the 5th and 15th century AD. The high sulphur emissions accompanying El Chichón's eruptions allowed testing of our age-depth model through a correlation with volcanic sulphate peaks in ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. We demonstrate the applicability of the established tephrochronological framework in a detailed chronological reconstruction of the formation of the world's largest late Holocene beach ridge plain in southern Mexico. This plain with over 500 beach ridges is a highly sensitive recorder of combined sea level rise, subsidence, storm activity and changes in climate and upstream land use since the dawn of Olmec and Maya cultures circa 5000 years ago.

  11. Acculturation stress among Maya in the United States.

    PubMed

    Millender, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: As health care disparities become more evident in our multicultural nation, culture sensitive health research needs to be a priority in order for good health care to take place. This article will explore the literature related to acculturation stress and mental health disparities among the Mayan population. Literatures of similar but distinct groups are included due to the limited amount of research of the Mayan population. Using Leiniger's Transcultural nursing theory, these findings suggest that nurses have a large gap to fill to address the mental health disparities of specific cultural groups like the indigenous Maya, thereby satisfying their nursing obligations.

  12. Multi-indexed Jacobi polynomials and Maya diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Kouichi

    2014-11-01

    Multi-indexed Jacobi polynomials are defined by the Wronskian of four types of eigenfunctions of the Pöschl-Teller Hamiltonian. We give a correspondence between multi-indexed Jacobi polynomials and pairs of Maya diagrams, and we show that any multi-indexed Jacobi polynomial is essentially equal to some multi-indexed Jacobi polynomial of two types of eigenfunction. As an application, we show a Wronskian-type formula of some special eigenstates of the deformed Pöschl-Teller Hamiltonian.

  13. Classic Period collapse of the Central Maya Lowlands: Insights about human–environment relationships for sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Turner, B. L.; Sabloff, Jeremy A.

    2012-01-01

    The ninth century collapse and abandonment of the Central Maya Lowlands in the Yucatán peninsular region were the result of complex human–environment interactions. Large-scale Maya landscape alterations and demands placed on resources and ecosystem services generated high-stress environmental conditions that were amplified by increasing climatic aridity. Coincident with this stress, the flow of commerce shifted from land transit across the peninsula to sea-borne transit around it. These changing socioeconomic and environmental conditions generated increasing societal conflicts, diminished control by the Maya elite, and led to decisions to move elsewhere in the peninsular region rather than incur the high costs of maintaining the human–environment systems in place. After abandonment, the environment of the Central Maya Lowlands largely recovered, although altered from its state before Maya occupation; the population never recovered. This history and the spatial and temporal variability in the pattern of collapse and abandonment throughout the Maya lowlands support the case for different conditions, opportunities, and constraints in the prevailing human–environment systems and the decisions to confront them. The Maya case lends insights for the use of paleo- and historical analogs to inform contemporary global environmental change and sustainability. PMID:22912403

  14. Impacts of Climate Change on the Collapse of Lowland Maya Civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Demarest, Arthur A.; Brenner, Mark; Canuto, Marcello A.

    2016-06-01

    Paleoclimatologists have discovered abundant evidence that droughts coincided with collapse of the Lowland Classic Maya civilization, and some argue that climate change contributed to societal disintegration. Many archaeologists, however, maintain that drought cannot explain the timing or complex nature of societal changes at the end of the Classic Period, between the eighth and eleventh centuries ce. This review presents a compilation of climate proxy data indicating that droughts in the ninth to eleventh century were the most severe and frequent in Maya prehistory. Comparison with recent archaeological evidence, however, indicates an earlier beginning for complex economic and political processes that led to the disintegration of states in the southern region of the Maya lowlands that precedes major droughts. Nonetheless, drought clearly contributed to the unusual severity of the Classic Maya collapse, and helped to inhibit the type of recovery seen in earlier periods of Maya prehistory. In the drier northern Maya Lowlands, a later political collapse at ca. 1000 ce appears to be related to ongoing extreme drought. Future interdisciplinary research should use more refined climatological and archaeological data to examine the relationship between climate and social processes throughout the entirety of Maya prehistory.

  15. Classic Period collapse of the Central Maya Lowlands: insights about human-environment relationships for sustainability.

    PubMed

    Turner, B L; Sabloff, Jeremy A

    2012-08-28

    The ninth century collapse and abandonment of the Central Maya Lowlands in the Yucatán peninsular region were the result of complex human-environment interactions. Large-scale Maya landscape alterations and demands placed on resources and ecosystem services generated high-stress environmental conditions that were amplified by increasing climatic aridity. Coincident with this stress, the flow of commerce shifted from land transit across the peninsula to sea-borne transit around it. These changing socioeconomic and environmental conditions generated increasing societal conflicts, diminished control by the Maya elite, and led to decisions to move elsewhere in the peninsular region rather than incur the high costs of maintaining the human-environment systems in place. After abandonment, the environment of the Central Maya Lowlands largely recovered, although altered from its state before Maya occupation; the population never recovered. This history and the spatial and temporal variability in the pattern of collapse and abandonment throughout the Maya lowlands support the case for different conditions, opportunities, and constraints in the prevailing human-environment systems and the decisions to confront them. The Maya case lends insights for the use of paleo- and historical analogs to inform contemporary global environmental change and sustainability.

  16. Astronomical Records in the Hieroglyphic Writing of the PreColumbian Maya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey; Bricker, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    The four screen-fold hieroglyphic books of the Precolumbian Maya that have survived into modern times, known collectively as the Maya codices, provide the most detailed information about the astronomical knowledge and practices that can be attributed to this New World civilization. Four explicitly dated documents in the Dresden Codex treat the cyclical movements of Venus and Mars and both solar and lunar eclipses during several centuries of the Maya Classic and Postclassic, primarily the 8 th through the 14th centuries. In addition, these documents deal with the effects on peoples' lives that were considered to result from these celestial phenomena. A heavily damaged document in the Paris Codex provides information about the Precolumbian Maya view of zodiacal constellations. The lecturers will explain what is in these astronomical records and discuss some of the techniques used to understand them.

  17. Deep data science to prevent and treat growth faltering in Maya children

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Silva, M I; Bogin, B; Sobral, J A G; Dickinson, F; Monserrat-Revillo, S

    2016-01-01

    The Maya people are descended from the indigenous inhabitants of southern Mexico, Guatemala and adjacent regions of Central America. In Guatemala, 50% of infants and children are stunted (very low height-for-age), and some rural Maya regions have >70% children stunted. A large, longitudinal, intergenerational database was created to (1) provide deep data to prevent and treat somatic growth faltering and impaired neurocognitive development, (2) detect key dependencies and predictive relations between highly complex, time-varying, and interacting biological and cultural variables and (3) identify targeted multifactorial intervention strategies for field testing and validation. Contributions to this database included data from the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala Longitudinal Study of Child and Adolescent Development, child growth and intergenerational studies among the Maya in Mexico and studies about Maya migrants in the United States. PMID:27094624

  18. Deep data science to prevent and treat growth faltering in Maya children.

    PubMed

    Varela-Silva, M I; Bogin, B; Sobral, J A G; Dickinson, F; Monserrat-Revillo, S

    2016-06-01

    The Maya people are descended from the indigenous inhabitants of southern Mexico, Guatemala and adjacent regions of Central America. In Guatemala, 50% of infants and children are stunted (very low height-for-age), and some rural Maya regions have >70% children stunted. A large, longitudinal, intergenerational database was created to (1) provide deep data to prevent and treat somatic growth faltering and impaired neurocognitive development, (2) detect key dependencies and predictive relations between highly complex, time-varying, and interacting biological and cultural variables and (3) identify targeted multifactorial intervention strategies for field testing and validation. Contributions to this database included data from the Universidad del Valle de Guatemala Longitudinal Study of Child and Adolescent Development, child growth and intergenerational studies among the Maya in Mexico and studies about Maya migrants in the United States.

  19. On the fringes of conquest: maya-spanish contact in colonial belize.

    PubMed

    Graham, E; Pendergast, D M; Jones, G D

    1989-12-08

    The defeat of the Aztecs of Mexico by Hernán Cortés in 1521 was but the beginning of a long and torturous conquest of Central America that did not always result in the mastery of people and production for which the Spanish had hoped. The Maya of the resource-poor Yucatán peninsula were spared the heavy colonial hand that held fast to central Mexico and its riches. In addition, the dense forests of the peninsula served as a haven for refugees fleeing oppressive conditions in colonial towns. Despite the paucity of documentary information on Maya communities of the frontier, knowledge of Maya-Spanish relations in the 16th and 17th centuries has advanced in recent years through archeological and ethnohistorical research. Work in one region of the Maya lowlands has brought us closer to an understanding of the early interaction of the rulers and the ruled.

  20. Genetic Affiliation of Pre-Hispanic and Contemporary Mayas Through Maternal Linage.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna Isabel; Muñoz, María de Lourdes; Pérez-Ramírez, Gerardo; Beaty, Kristine G; López-Armenta, Mauro; Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Moreno-Galeana, Miguel; Meza, Adrián Martínez; Ramos, Eduardo; Crawford, Michael H; Romano-Pacheco, Arturo

    2016-04-01

    Maya civilization developed in Mesoamerica and encompassed the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize, part of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas, and the western parts of Honduras and El Salvador. This civilization persisted approximately 3,000 years and was one of the most advanced of its time, possessing the only known full writing system at the time, as well as art, sophisticated architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. This civilization reached the apex of its power and influence during the Preclassic period, from 2000 BCE to 250 CE. Genetic variation in the pre-Hispanic Mayas from archaeological sites in the Mexican states of Yucatan, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, and Tabasco and their relationship with the contemporary communities in these regions have not been previously studied. Consequently, the principal aim of this study was to determine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the pre-Hispanic Maya population and to assess the relationship of these individuals with contemporary Mesoamerican Maya and populations from Asia, Beringia, and North, Central, and South America. Our results revealed interactions and gene flow between populations in the different archaeological sites assessed in this study. The mtDNA haplogroup frequency in the pre-Hispanic Maya population (60.53%, 34.21%, and 5.26% for haplogroups A, C, and D, respectively) was similar to that of most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, with haplogroup A exhibiting the highest frequency. Haplogroup B most likely arrived independently and mixed with populations carrying haplogroups A and C based on its absence in the pre-Hispanic Mexican Maya populations and low frequencies in most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, although this also may be due to drift. Maya and Ciboneys sharing haplotype H10 belonged to haplogroup C1 and haplotype H4 of haplogroup D, suggesting shared regional haplotypes. This may indicate a shared genetic ancestry, suggesting more regional interaction

  1. Ancient Maya impacts on the Earth's surface: An Early Anthropocene analog?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Tim; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Cook, Duncan; Dunning, Nicholas; Kennett, Douglas J.; Krause, Samantha; Terry, Richard; Trein, Debora; Valdez, Fred

    2015-09-01

    The measure of the "Mayacene," a microcosm of the Early Anthropocene that occurred from c. 3000 to 1000 BP, comes from multiple Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental records. We synthesized the evidence for Maya impacts on climate, vegetation, hydrology and the lithosphere, from studies of soils, lakes, floodplains, wetlands and other ecosystems. Maya civilization had likely altered local to regional ecosystems and hydrology by the Preclassic Period (3000-1700 BP), but these impacts waned by 1000 BP. They altered ecosystems with vast urban and rural infrastructure that included thousands of reservoirs, wetland fields and canals, terraces, field ridges, and temples. Although there is abundant evidence that indicates the Maya altered their forests, even at the large urban complex of Tikal as much as 40% of the forest remained intact through the Classic period. Existing forests are still influenced by ancient Maya forest gardening, particularly by the large expanses of ancient stone structures, terraces, and wetland fields that form their substrates. A few studies suggest deforestation and other land uses probably also warmed and dried regional climate by the Classic Period (1700-1100 BP). A much larger body of research documents the Maya impacts on hydrology, in the form of dams, reservoirs, canals, eroded soils and urban design for runoff. Another metric of the "Mayacene" are paleosols, which contain chemical evidence for human occupation, revealed by high phosphorus concentrations and carbon isotope ratios of C4 species like maize in the C3-dominated tropical forest ecosystem. Paleosol sequences exhibit "Maya Clays," a facies that reflects a glut of rapidly eroded sediments that overlie pre-Maya paleosols. This stratigraphy is conspicuous in many dated soil profiles and marks the large-scale Maya transformation of the landscape in the Preclassic and Classic periods. Some of these also have increased phosphorous and carbon isotope evidence of C4 species. We synthesize

  2. Land, Water and Society in the Maya Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtha, T.; French, K.; Duffy, C.; Webster, D.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the results of our project investigating the long-term spatial and temporal dynamics of land use management, agricultural decision-making and patterns of resource availability in the tropical lowlands of Central America. Overall, our project combines diachronic environmental simulation with historic settlement pattern survey to address a series of long-standing questions about the coupled natural and human (CNH) landscape history in the Central Maya lowlands (at the UNESCO world heritage site of Tikal in the Maya Biosphere Reserve). The paper describes the preliminary results of our project, including changing patterns of land, water, settlement and political history using climate, soil and hydrologic modeling and time series spatial analysis of population and settlement patterns. The critical period of the study, 1000 BC until the present, begins with dispersed settlements accompanied by widespread deforestation and soil erosion. Population size and density grows rapidly for 800 years, while deforestation and erosion rates decline; however, there is striking evidence of political evolution during this period, including the construction of monumental architecture, hieroglyphic monuments detailing wars and alliances, and the construction of a defensive earthwork feature, signaling political territories and possibly delineating natural resource boundaries. Population decline and steady reforestation followed until more recent migration into the region, which has impacted the biosphere ecology. Building on our previous research regionally and comparative research completed in Belize and Mexico, we are modeling sample periods the 3,000-year landscape history of the region, comparing land and water availability to population distributions and what we know about political history. Simulations are generated using historic climate and land use data, primarily relying on the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) and the Penn State Integrated

  3. Plasticity, political economy, and physical growth status of Guatemala Maya children living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bogin, B; Loucky, J

    1997-01-01

    Migration of Maya refugees to the United States since the late 1970s affords the opportunity to study the consequences of life in a new environment on the growth of Maya children. The children of this study live in Indiantown, Florida, and Los Angeles, California. Maya children between 4 and 14 years old (n = 240) were measured for height, weight, fatness, and muscularity. Overall, compared with reference data for the United States, the Maya children are, on average, healthy and well nourished. They are taller and heavier and carry more fat and muscle mass than Maya children living in a village in Guatemala. However, they are shorter, on average, than children of black, Mexican-American, and white ethnicity living in Indiantown. Children of Maya immigrants born in the United States tend to be taller than immigrant children born in Guatemala or Mexico. Families that invest economic and social resources in their children have taller children. More economic successful families have taller children. Migration theory and political economy theory from the social sciences are combined with plasticity theory and life history theory (parental investment) from biology to interpret these data.

  4. Construction of an Yucatec Maya soil classification and comparison with the WRB framework

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mayas living in southeast Mexico have used soils for millennia and provide thus a good example for understanding soil-culture relationships and for exploring the ways indigenous people name and classify the soils of their territory. This paper shows an attempt to organize the Maya soil knowledge into a soil classification scheme and compares the latter with the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). Methods Several participative soil surveys were carried out in the period 2000-2009 with the help of bilingual Maya-Spanish-speaking farmers. A multilingual soil database was built with 315 soil profile descriptions. Results On the basis of the diagnostic soil properties and the soil nomenclature used by Maya farmers, a soil classification scheme with a hierarchic, dichotomous and open structure was constructed, organized in groups and qualifiers in a fashion similar to that of the WRB system. Maya soil properties were used at the same categorical levels as similar diagnostic properties are used in the WRB system. Conclusions The Maya soil classification (MSC) is a natural system based on key properties, such as relief position, rock types, size and quantity of stones, color of topsoil and subsoil, depth, water dynamics, and plant-supporting processes. The MSC addresses the soil properties of surficial and subsurficial horizons, and uses plant communities as qualifier in some cases. The MSC is more accurate than the WRB for classifying Leptosols. PMID:20152047

  5. Classic Maya civilization collapse associated with reduction in tropical cyclone activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, M. A.; Polanco-Martinez, J. M.; Lases-Hernández, F.; Bradley, R. S.; Burns, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    In light of the increased destructiveness of tropical cyclones observed over recent decades one might assume that an increase and not a decrease in tropical cyclone activity would lead to societal stress and perhaps collapse of ancient cultures. In this study we present evidence that a reduction in the frequency and intensity of tropical Atlantic cyclones could have contributed to the collapse of the Maya civilization during the Terminal Classic Period (TCP, AD. 800-950). Statistical comparisons of a quantitative precipitation record from the Yucatan Peninsula (YP) Maya lowlands, based on the stalagmite known as Chaac (after the Mayan God of rain and agriculture), relative to environmental proxy records of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), tropical Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), and tropical Atlantic cyclone counts, suggest that these records share significant coherent variability during the TCP and that summer rainfall reductions between 30 and 50% in the Maya lowlands occurred in association with decreased Atlantic tropical cyclones. Analysis of modern instrumental hydrological data suggests cyclone rainfall contributions to the YP equivalent to the range of rainfall deficits associated with decreased tropical cyclone activity during the collapse of the Maya civilization. Cyclone driven precipitation variability during the TCP, implies that climate change may have triggered Maya civilization collapse via freshwater scarcity for domestic use without significant detriment to agriculture. Pyramid in Tikal, the most prominent Maya Kingdom that collapsed during the Terminal Classic Period (circa C.E. 800-950) Rainfall feeding stalagmites inside Rio Secreto cave system, Yucatan, Mexico.

  6. Bioarchaeological investigation of ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland Northwest Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Serafin, Stanley; Lope, Carlos Peraza; Uc González, Eunice

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates evidence of changes and continuities in ancient Maya violence and warfare in inland northwest Yucatan, Mexico from the Middle Preclassic (600-300 BC) to the Postclassic (AD 1050-1542) through bioarchaeological analysis of cranial and projectile trauma. It is hypothesized that the frequency of violence increases before the Classic Maya collapse and remains high during the Postclassic period. It is also hypothesized that the flat, open terrain was conducive to warfare and resulted in higher trauma frequencies than in other parts of the Maya area. Results show that the frequency of cranial trauma decreases before the Classic collapse and increases in the Postclassic, partially matching the expected chronological trends. The frequency of cranial trauma does not differ significantly from other Maya regions but the pattern does: for all periods, males have more healed injuries than females and they are concentrated on the left side of the anterior of the skull. Some injuries appear to be from small points hafted in wooden clubs. In addition, projectile trauma is evident in a scapula with an embedded arrowhead tip, the first such case reported in a Maya skeleton. Overall, these results suggest greater reliance on open combat and less on raids in this region compared with other parts of the Maya area, possibly due to the flat, open terrain, though the identification of perimortem trauma in both women and men indicates surprise raids on settlements were also practiced.

  7. The first direct evidence of pre-columbian sources of palygorskite for Maya Blue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Dean E.; Bohor, Bruce F.; Neff, Hector; Feinman, Gary M.; Williams, Patrick Ryan; Dussubieux, Laure; Bishop, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Maya Blue, a nano-structured clay–organic complex of palygorskite and indigo, was used predominantly before the Spanish Conquest. It has fascinated chemists, material scientists, archaeologists and art historians for decades because it is resistant to the effect of acids, alkalis, and other reagents, and its rich color has persisted for centuries in the harsh tropical climate of southern Mesoamerica. One of its components, palygorskite, is part of modern Maya indigenous knowledge, and ethnohistoric and archaeological data suggest that its modern sources were probably utilized in Prehispanic times. Yet no direct evidence verifies that palygorskite was actually mined from these sources to make Maya Blue. Here we characterize these sources compositionally, and compare our analyses to those of Maya Blue from Chichén Itzá and Palenque. We demonstrate that the palygorskite in most of these samples came from modern mines, providing the first direct evidence for the use of these sources for making Maya Blue. These findings reveal that modern Maya indigenous knowledge about palygorskite, its mining, and its source locations, is at least seven centuries old.

  8. The New Emerging Adult in Chiapas, Mexico: Perceptions of Traditional Values and Value Change among First-Generation Maya University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manago, Adriana M.

    2012-01-01

    Social changes in indigenous Maya communities in Chiapas, Mexico toward increasing levels of formal education, commercialization, and urbanization are transforming traditional Maya developmental pathways toward adulthood. This mixed-methods study is based on interviews with a sample of 14 first-generation Maya university students who have also…

  9. 75 FR 6249 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Fiery Pool: The Maya and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Fiery Pool: The Maya and the Mythic... hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Fiery Pool: The Maya and the...

  10. The collapse of the Maya: Effects of natural and human-induced drought

    SciTech Connect

    Oglesby, Robert J; Erickson III, David J

    2010-02-01

    The collapse of the Maya civilization during the ninth century A.D. is a major conundrum in the history of mankind. This civilization reached a spectacular peak but then almost completely collapsed in the space of a few decades. While numerous explanations have been put forth to explain this collapse, in recent years, drought has gained favor. This is because water resources were a key for the Maya, especially to ensure their survival during the lengthy dry season that occurs where they lived. Natural drought is a known, recurring feature of this region, as evidenced by observational data, reconstructions of past times, and global climate model output. Results from simulations with a regional climate model demonstrate that deforestation by the Maya also likely induced warmer, drier, drought-like conditions. It is therefore hypothesized that the drought conditions devastating the Maya resulted from a combination of natural variability and human activities. Neither the natural drought or the human-induced effects alone were sufficient to cause the collapse, but the combination created a situation the Maya could not recover from. These results may have sobering implications for the present and future state of climate and water resources in Mesoamerica as ongoing massive deforestation is again occurring.

  11. Facile preparation of stable palygorskite/methyl violet@SiO2 "Maya Violet" pigment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujie; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-11-01

    Maya Blue pigment has attracted considerable attention owing to their extraordinary stability. The growing interest in this field has largely expanded the study of Maya Blue-like pigments. Inspired by Maya Blue, a stable palygorskite/methyl violet@SiO2 (PAL/MV@SiO2) "Maya Violet" pigment was fabricated via adsorption of MV by PAL, and then deposition of a layer of SiO2 on the surface by polycondensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The weight ratio of MV to PAL is as high as 10%. The pigments were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and a variety of analytical techniques, e.g., Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and zeta potential. The results indicate that MV molecules are fixed onto the exterior surface, the grooves and at the entrances of the channels of PAL. The PAL/MV@SiO2 pigment shows excellent stability against chemical attacks, e.g., 0.1 M HCl, 0.1 M NaOH and various organic solvents. Different from Maya Blue, grinding and heating treatment are virtually ineffective in improving stability of the PAL/MV pigment. CTAB and the SiO2 layer formed on the surface of PAL/MV contribute greatly to the improved stability of the pigment due to shielding effect. The optimal CTAB/TEOS/ammonia/H2O molar ratio for the surface modification of PAL/MV is 0.24/1/2.89/495.

  12. Finds in Belize document Late Classic Maya salt making and canoe transport

    PubMed Central

    McKillop, Heather

    2005-01-01

    How did people in preIndustrial ancient civilizations produce and distribute bulk items, such as salt, needed for everyday use by their large urban populations? This report focuses on the ancient Maya who obtained quantities of salt at cities in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala in an area where salt is scarce. I report the discovery of 41 Late Classic Maya saltworks (anno Domini 600–900) in Punta Ycacos Lagoon on the south coast of Belize, including one with the first-known ancient Maya canoe paddle. The discoveries add important empirical information for evaluating the extent of surplus salt production and river transport during the height of Late Classic civilization in the southern Maya lowlands. The discovery of the saltworks indicates that there was extensive production and distribution of goods and resources outside the cities in the interior of the Yucatan. The discovery of a wooden canoe paddle from one of the Punta Ycacos saltworks, Ka'k' Naab', ties the production of salt to its inland transport by rivers and documents the importance of canoe trade between the coast and the interior during the Late Classic. Archaeological discovery of multiple saltworks on the Belizean coast represents surplus production of salt destined largely for the inland Peten Maya during their Late Classic peak, underscoring the importance of non-state-controlled workshop production in preIndustrial societies. PMID:15809426

  13. Materiales Maria Maya: community-based materials development.

    PubMed

    Moran, B C

    1982-01-01

    Materials Maria Maya (MMM) is a Guatemalan organization which has dedicated itself to making health education more relevant to the rural Mayans who constitute the majority of Guatemala's population. The administration and direction of the project is in the hands of a team of qualified Mayan men and women. Funding is primarily through various charitable international organizations. The content of preexisting health education programs, strongly influenced by the dominant "ladino" Spanish speaking culture was found to be inappropriate to the goal of this program. MMM set about to formulate a new teaching format which would draw upon, rather than trample over, established cultural practices and life styles. By a process of trial and error, involving small scale field tests, a new program format was developed. By questioning local women about perceived priority areas, through the study of morbidity and mortality data, decisions were made as to topics to be covered. Investigators, authors, and artists worked together to form a "materials package" which was then subject to pretesting. Out of this effort, MMM has been able to come up with a method to encourage more effective participative teaching through the use of education materials.

  14. An 8700 year paleoclimate reconstruction from the southern Maya lowlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahl, David B.; Byrne, Roger; Anderson, Lysanna

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of a sediment core from Lago Puerto Arturo, a closed basin lake in northern Peten, Guatemala, has provided an ∼8700 cal year record of climate change and human activity in the southern Maya lowlands. Stable isotope, magnetic susceptibility, and pollen analyses were used to reconstruct environmental change in the region. Results indicate a relatively wet early to middle Holocene followed by a drier late Holocene, which we interpret as reflecting long-term changes in insolation (precession). Higher frequency variability is more likely attributable to changes in ocean/atmosphere circulation in both the North Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Pollen and isotope data show that most of the period of prehispanic agricultural settlement, i.e. ∼5000–1000 cal yr BP, was characterized by drier conditions than previous or subsequent periods. The presence ofZea (corn) pollen through peak aridity during the Terminal Classic period (∼1250–1130 cal yr BP) suggests that drought may not have had as negative an impact as previously proposed. A dramatic negative shift in isotope values indicates an increase in precipitation after ∼950 cal yr BP (hereafter BP).

  15. Migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: Why place matters

    PubMed Central

    Carr, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Virtually all migration research examines international migration or urbanization. Yet understudied rural migrants are of critical concern for environmental conservation and rural sustainable development. Despite the fact that a relatively small number of all migrants settle remote rural frontiers, these are the agents responsible for perhaps most of the tropical deforestation on the planet. Further, rural migrants are among the most destitute people worldwide in terms of economic and human development. While a host of research has investigated deforestation resulting from frontier migration, and a modest literature has emerged on frontier development, this article explores the necessary antecedent to tropical deforestation and poverty along agricultural frontiers: out-migration from origin areas. The data come from a 2000 survey with community leaders and key informants in 16 municipios of migrant origin to the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), Petén, Guatemala. A common denominator among communities of migration origin to the Petén frontier was unequal resource access, usually land. Nevertheless, the factors driving resource scarcity were widely variable. Land degradation, land consolidation, and population growth prevailed in some communities but not in others. Despite similar exposure to community and regional level push factors, most people in the sampled communities did not out-migrate, suggesting that any one or combination of factors is not necessarily sufficient for out-migration. PMID:19657470

  16. An 8700 year paleoclimate reconstruction from the southern Maya lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, David; Byrne, Roger; Anderson, Lysanna

    2014-11-01

    Analysis of a sediment core from Lago Puerto Arturo, a closed basin lake in northern Peten, Guatemala, has provided an ˜8700 cal year record of climate change and human activity in the southern Maya lowlands. Stable isotope, magnetic susceptibility, and pollen analyses were used to reconstruct environmental change in the region. Results indicate a relatively wet early to middle Holocene followed by a drier late Holocene, which we interpret as reflecting long-term changes in insolation (precession). Higher frequency variability is more likely attributable to changes in ocean/atmosphere circulation in both the North Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. Pollen and isotope data show that most of the period of prehispanic agricultural settlement, i.e. ˜5000-1000 cal yr BP, was characterized by drier conditions than previous or subsequent periods. The presence of Zea (corn) pollen through peak aridity during the Terminal Classic period (˜1250-1130 cal yr BP) suggests that drought may not have had as negative an impact as previously proposed. A dramatic negative shift in isotope values indicates an increase in precipitation after ˜950 cal yr BP (hereafter BP).

  17. Deforestation Along the Maya Mountain Massif Belize-Guatemala Border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicas, S. D.; Omine, K.; Arevalo, B.; Ford, J. B.; Sugimura, K.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years trans-boundary incursions from Petén, Guatemala into Belize's Maya Mountain Massif (MMM) have increased. The incursions are rapidly degrading cultural and natural resources in Belize's protected areas. Given the local, regional and global importance of the MMM and the scarcity of deforestation data, our research team conducted a time series analysis 81 km by 12 km along the Belize-Guatemalan border adjacent to the protected areas of the MMM. Analysis drew on Landsat imagery from 1991 to 2014 to determine historic deforestation rates. The results indicate that the highest deforestation rates in the study area were -1.04% and -6.78% loss of forested area per year in 2012-2014 and 1995-1999 respectively. From 1991 to 2014, forested area decreased from 96.9 % to 85.72 % in Belize and 83.15 % to 31.52 % in Guatemala. During the study period, it was clear that deforestation rates fluctuated in Belize's MMM from one time-period to the next. This seems linked to either a decline in deforestation rates in Guatemala, the vertical expansion of deforestation in Guatemalan forested areas and monitoring. The results of this study urge action to reduce incursions and secure protected areas and remaining forest along the Belize-Guatemalan border.

  18. Migration to the Maya Biosphere Reserve, Guatemala: Why place matters.

    PubMed

    Carr, David L

    2008-01-01

    Virtually all migration research examines international migration or urbanization. Yet understudied rural migrants are of critical concern for environmental conservation and rural sustainable development. Despite the fact that a relatively small number of all migrants settle remote rural frontiers, these are the agents responsible for perhaps most of the tropical deforestation on the planet. Further, rural migrants are among the most destitute people worldwide in terms of economic and human development. While a host of research has investigated deforestation resulting from frontier migration, and a modest literature has emerged on frontier development, this article explores the necessary antecedent to tropical deforestation and poverty along agricultural frontiers: out-migration from origin areas. The data come from a 2000 survey with community leaders and key informants in 16 municipios of migrant origin to the Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR), Petén, Guatemala. A common denominator among communities of migration origin to the Petén frontier was unequal resource access, usually land. Nevertheless, the factors driving resource scarcity were widely variable. Land degradation, land consolidation, and population growth prevailed in some communities but not in others. Despite similar exposure to community and regional level push factors, most people in the sampled communities did not out-migrate, suggesting that any one or combination of factors is not necessarily sufficient for out-migration.

  19. Cyanobacteria blooms: Maya peoples between the politics of risk and the threat of disaster.

    PubMed

    Harvey, T S

    2012-01-01

    In October of 2009 an outbreak of cyanobacteria in Lake Atitlán, Guatemala gained international attention and global news coverage with interests coming from environmentalists, microbiologists, and local health agencies. A significantly less well-known aspect of the crisis was the perceptions and predicaments of Maya (indigenous) peoples for whom the lake is the primary source of life and livelihood. This research examines the communication of the public health risk of cyanobacteria to Maya peoples. Using an "ethnography of risk communication" approach, this work traces the circulation of the science of cyanobacteria and the construction of risk from government and public health translations through media transmissions to local Maya interpretations. The findings demonstrate how government and institutional translations (and media transmissions) of the science of cyanobacteria not only unwittingly produced misunderstandings about the health dangers but indirectly associated blame for the outbreak with indigenous peoples, calling into question their way of life.

  20. Redox tuning and species distribution in Maya Blue-type materials: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Carbó, Antonio; Valle-Algarra, Francisco Manuel; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; Domine, Marcelo E; Osete-Cortina, Laura; Gimeno-Adelantado, José Vicente

    2013-08-28

    Maya Blue-type specimens prepared from indigo (1 wt %) plus kaolinite, montmorillonite, palygorskite, sepiolite, and silicalite are studied. Liquid chromatography with diode array detection, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and pyrolysis-silylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the extracts from these specimens combined with spectral and solid-state voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electrochemical microscopy techniques provide evidence for the presence of a significant amount of dehydroindigo and isatin accompanying indigo and other minority organic compounds in all samples. Solid-state electrochemistry data permits the estimatation of indigo loading in archeological Maya Blue, which is in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 wt %. These results support a view of 'genuine' Maya Blue-type materials as complex polyfunctional organic-inorganic hybrids.

  1. Correlating the Ancient Maya and Modern European Calendars with High-Precision AMS 14C Dating

    PubMed Central

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Hajdas, Irka; Culleton, Brendan J.; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Martin, Simon; Neff, Hector; Awe, Jaime; Graham, Heather V.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Newsom, Lee; Lentz, David L.; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Robinson, Mark; Marwan, Norbert; Southon, John; Hodell, David A.; Haug, Gerald H.

    2013-01-01

    The reasons for the development and collapse of Maya civilization remain controversial and historical events carved on stone monuments throughout this region provide a remarkable source of data about the rise and fall of these complex polities. Use of these records depends on correlating the Maya and European calendars so that they can be compared with climate and environmental datasets. Correlation constants can vary up to 1000 years and remain controversial. We report a series of high-resolution AMS 14C dates on a wooden lintel collected from the Classic Period city of Tikal bearing Maya calendar dates. The radiocarbon dates were calibrated using a Bayesian statistical model and indicate that the dates were carved on the lintel between AD 658-696. This strongly supports the Goodman-Martínez-Thompson (GMT) correlation and the hypothesis that climate change played an important role in the development and demise of this complex civilization. PMID:23579869

  2. The effect of prehydrogenation on the hydroconversion of Maya residuum: Part 1, Process characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.; Beret, S.

    1987-10-01

    Maya 650/sup 0/F residuum was subjected to mild prehydrogenation over a standard, commercially available, hydrodesulfurization catalyst. The product was then distilled to yield hydrogenated Maya 650/sup 0/F residuum. This prehydrogenated residuum, and the untreated Maya 650/sup 0/F residuum were separately hydroprocessed further at different process severities. The resulting products were then examined by elemental analyses to determine the effects of the prehydrogenation step on overall conversion and product quality. The primary effect of the prehydrogenation step was to increase the overall conversions for all measured properties of the hydroconversion products. As a result, the hydroconversion products derived from the prehydrogenation were substantially better quality than the corresponding direct hydroconversion products. The prehydrogenation step also lowered the severity required for equivalent residuum hydroconversion upgrading. 38 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Paleoenvironmental and Paleoecological Reconstruction of the Ancient Maya Port Site of Vista Alegre, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissolo, D.; Jaijel, R.; Glover, J. B.; Goodman, B.; Beddows, P. A.; Carter, A.; Smith, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ancient Maya ports along the largely unstudied northeast coast of the Yucatan Peninsula once supported a network of trade routes linking people, goods, and ideas from across Mesoamerica. The Costa Escondida Project has focused on the interrelationships between the ancient Maya and their dynamic coastal environment along the shores of the Laguna Holbox. Central to our interdisciplinary efforts is a paleoenvironmental and paleoecological reconstruction of the key port of Vista Alegre - a low-lying island surrounded by a complex mosaic of costal ecosystems, sedimentological facies, and hydrological conditions. Geoarchaeological field methods, such as sediment coring, have made possible multiproxy analyses that enable us to better understand sea level fluctuations and the morphology of the shoreline and harboring locations over time, as well as changes in ecosystem biodiversity, which would have presented the maritime Maya with unique challenges and opportunities.

  4. Correlating the ancient Maya and modern European calendars with high-precision AMS 14C dating.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Douglas J; Hajdas, Irka; Culleton, Brendan J; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Martin, Simon; Neff, Hector; Awe, Jaime; Graham, Heather V; Freeman, Katherine H; Newsom, Lee; Lentz, David L; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Robinson, Mark; Marwan, Norbert; Southon, John; Hodell, David A; Haug, Gerald H

    2013-01-01

    The reasons for the development and collapse of Maya civilization remain controversial and historical events carved on stone monuments throughout this region provide a remarkable source of data about the rise and fall of these complex polities. Use of these records depends on correlating the Maya and European calendars so that they can be compared with climate and environmental datasets. Correlation constants can vary up to 1000 years and remain controversial. We report a series of high-resolution AMS (14)C dates on a wooden lintel collected from the Classic Period city of Tikal bearing Maya calendar dates. The radiocarbon dates were calibrated using a Bayesian statistical model and indicate that the dates were carved on the lintel between AD 658-696. This strongly supports the Goodman-Martínez-Thompson (GMT) correlation and the hypothesis that climate change played an important role in the development and demise of this complex civilization.

  5. Landscape Archeology: Remote Sensing Investigation of the Ancient Maya in the Peten Rainforest of Northern Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.; Irwin, Daniel E.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Through the use of airborne and satellite imagery we are improving our ability to investigate ancient Maya settlement, subsistence, and landscape modification in this dense forest region. Today the area is threatened by encroaching settlement and deforestation. However, it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons in the 9th century AD. At the time of their collapse they had attained one of the highest population densities in human history. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not well understood at this time. A NASA-funded project used remote sensing technology to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this preliminary research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Microenvironmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetation associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The use of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), one-meter IKONOS satellite imagery, as well as high resolution airborne STAR-3i radar imagery--2.5 meter backscatter/10 meter Digital Elevation Model (DEM)--are opening new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karat topographic landscape. This understanding is critical for the current population that is currently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through

  6. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region

    PubMed Central

    Kamenov, George D.; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A.; Emery, Kitty F.; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region. PMID:27806065

  7. Lead (Pb) Isotope Baselines for Studies of Ancient Human Migration and Trade in the Maya Region.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Ashley E; Kamenov, George D; Gilli, Adrian; Hodell, David A; Emery, Kitty F; Brenner, Mark; Krigbaum, John

    2016-01-01

    We examined the potential use of lead (Pb) isotopes to source archaeological materials from the Maya region of Mesoamerica. The main objectives were to determine if: 1) geologic terrains throughout the Maya area exhibit distinct lead isotope ratios (206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb), and 2) a combination of lead and strontium ratios can enhance sourcing procedures in the Mesoamerica region. We analyzed 60 rock samples for lead isotope ratios and a representative subset of samples for lead, uranium, and thorium concentrations across the Maya region, including the Northern Lowlands of the Mexican Yucatan Peninsula, the Southern Lowlands of Guatemala and Belize, the Volcanic Highlands, the Belizean Maya Mountains, and the Metamorphic Province/Motagua Valley. Although there is some overlap within certain sub-regions, particularly the geologically diverse Metamorphic Province, lead isotopes can be used to distinguish between the Northern Lowlands, the Southern Lowlands, and the Volcanic Highlands. The distinct lead isotope ratios in the sub-regions are related to the geology of the Maya area, exhibiting a general trend in the lowlands of geologically younger rocks in the north to older rocks in the south, and Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the southern highlands. Combined with other sourcing techniques such as strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and oxygen (δ18O), a regional baseline for lead isotope ratios can contribute to the development of lead isoscapes in the Maya area, and may help to distinguish among geographic sub-regions at a finer scale than has been previously possible. These isotope baselines will provide archaeologists with an additional tool to track the origin and movement of ancient humans and artifacts across this important region.

  8. Holocene Biomass Burning, Environmental Change, and Human Land Use in the Southern Maya Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L.; Wahl, D.

    2013-12-01

    For several decades scholars have studied the dynamic relationship between the prehispanic Maya and their environment in order to test hypotheses that environmental change played a role in the abandonment of the Maya lowlands. Fire was inherent in Maya land use practices, arguably the primary tool used to alter the landscape and extract resources. Opening of forest for agriculture, building, and extraction/production of construction material necessitated burning. The extensive production of lime plaster for architectural and domestic use demanded harvesting and burning of vast quantities of green wood. While we understand the fundamental role of fire in Maya land use, there are very few records of prehispanic biomass burning from the Maya lowlands. Consequently, only a limited understanding exists of both natural fire regimes and patterns of anthropogenic burning in the tropical dry forests of Central America. Here we report two new well-dated, high-resolution records of biomass burning based on analysis of fossil charcoal recovered from lacustrine sediment cores, extending from the early Holocene to the present. The study sites, Lagos Paixban and Puerto Arturo are located in the southern Maya lowlands in modern northern Peten, Guatemala. Macroscopic charcoal data are presented along with previously published proxy data from the sites, and interpreted in the context of existing regional and local paleoenvironmental and archeological records. Results show that frequent fires occurred in the closed canopy forests of the region since at least the early mid-Holocene (~9000 BP), prior to occupation by sedentary agriculturalists. Following the arrival of sedentary agriculture at around 4600 BP, the system transitioned from climate controlled to anthropogenic control. During the Maya period, changes in fire regime are muted and do not appear to be driven by changes in climate conditions. Low charcoal influx and fire frequency in the Preclassic period suggest that land use

  9. Transcultural use of narcotic water lilies in ancient Egyptian and Maya drug ritual.

    PubMed

    Emboden, W A

    1981-01-01

    Comparisons are made between ancient ritual uses of the flowers of Nymphaea (Nymphaeaceae) in Maya and Egyptian civilizations. Recurrent motifs encountered in the art of both of these ancient civilizations suggests that the role fo the water lily was that of a narcotic (psychodysleptic) used to mediate ecstasis among a priestly caste. Relevant literature is reviewed as are chemical data. Elements in the complex belief systems of these two civilizations need to be reinterpreted in view of the use of two water lilies as ritual narcotics. The species implicated are Nymphaea caerulea Sav., in Egypt, and N. ampla DC., among the Maya.

  10. Radar mapping, archaeology, and ancient land use in the Maya lowlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R. E. W.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Culbert, T. P.

    1981-01-01

    Data from the use of synthetic aperture radar in aerial survey of the southern Maya lowlands suggest the presence of very large areas drained by ancient canals for the purpose of intensive cultivation. Preliminary ground checks in several very limited areas confirm the existence of canals and raised fields. Excavations and ground surveys by several scholars provide valuable comparative information. Taken together, the new data suggest that Late Classic period Maya civilization was firmly grounded in large-scale and intensive cultivation of swampy zones.

  11. Daily life of the ancient Maya recorded on murals at Calakmul, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco Vargas, Ramón; López, Verónica A. Vázquez; Martin, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Research into ancient societies frequently faces a major challenge in accessing the lives of those who made up the majority of their populations, since the available evidence so often concerns only the ruling elite. Our excavations at the ancient Maya site of Calakmul, Mexico, have uncovered a “painted pyramid:” a structure decorated with murals depicting scenes of its inhabitants giving, receiving, and consuming diverse foods, as well as displaying and transporting other goods. Many are accompanied by hieroglyphic captions that describe the participants, and include spellings of key subsistence items. Collectively, they offer insights into the social mechanisms by which goods were circulated within major Maya centers. PMID:19901331

  12. Daily life of the ancient Maya recorded on murals at Calakmul, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Carrasco Vargas, Ramón; López, Verónica A Vázquez; Martin, Simon

    2009-11-17

    Research into ancient societies frequently faces a major challenge in accessing the lives of those who made up the majority of their populations, since the available evidence so often concerns only the ruling elite. Our excavations at the ancient Maya site of Calakmul, Mexico, have uncovered a "painted pyramid:" a structure decorated with murals depicting scenes of its inhabitants giving, receiving, and consuming diverse foods, as well as displaying and transporting other goods. Many are accompanied by hieroglyphic captions that describe the participants, and include spellings of key subsistence items. Collectively, they offer insights into the social mechanisms by which goods were circulated within major Maya centers.

  13. Intra-population dental morphological variability among the Prehispanic Maya.

    PubMed

    Cucina, A

    2016-10-01

    The present paper proposes a new approach to the estimation of intra-site variability of dental morphological traits when they are dichotomized into presence vs absence. It rests on the assumption that (1) higher intra-site variability is the expression of intense population dynamics and gene flow; and (2) maximum variability is reached when each trait is expressed in the population with a frequency of 50%. The approach simulates the calculation of frequency of heterozygotes in Mendelian traits (2xiyi), where xi and yi are the frequency of presence and absence of the trait. For every population, the final value corresponds to the average of (2xiyi) calculated from all the scored traits. Two separate analyses were performed using 50 and 40 traits recorded in 11 Prehispanic Maya skeletal collections from the Yucatán Peninsula. Resulting average values were related to the sites' positions within the region's social, political and economic sphere of influence. Dental collections that were obtained from important city centers or by grouping many sites from a single region present the highest values of internal variability, followed by sites known to have played an important role in trade activities or in other socio-political contexts. At the other end, dental collections that represent smaller communities or more isolated, kin-related groups are set at the lower ranks of internal variability. One-way ANOVA tests for both 50 and 40 variables show that sample means present significant differences between the extreme ends of the ranked set of samples.

  14. Leveraging Social Networks to Support Reproductive Health and Economic Wellbeing among Guatemalan Maya Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, Alexandra S.; Luippold-Roge, Genevieve P.; Gurman, Tilly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maya women in Guatemala are disproportionately affected by poverty and negative reproductive health outcomes. Although social networks are valued in many Indigenous cultures, few studies have explored whether health education programmes can leverage these networks to improve reproductive health and economic wellbeing. Design: This…

  15. Human and Natural Impacts on Ancient Maya Wetland Formation, Northern Coastal Plain, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, T. P.; Beach, S. L.

    2006-12-01

    We use extensive water, soils, and ecological evidence to understand human management and landscape formation of ancient Maya wetlands and wetland fields in the Northern Coastal Plain of Belize near Blue Creek. Stratigraphic, soils, and dating evidence show these were well drained agricultural fields up to about 2400 BP. After this, the water table rose creating the perennial wetlands that occupy the region today. Aggradation also buried these fields with 1-2 m of sediment by about 1500 BP. Several proximate and ultimate mechanisms caused this aggradation, including accelerated soil erosion, one mega flood at 2170 BP, possible climatic instability, and a rise in a water table saturated with calcium and sulfate ions. This latter mechanism is a rarer geomorphic process and a large scale environmental change that occurred across periods of intensive Maya land use. Evidence for how the ancient Maya adapted to this lies in the stratigraphy of six square km of canalized, wetland fields and ecological proxies like pollen and phytolith data. Canals appear to manage water quality and quantity for crop growth. Pollen evidence also shows evidence of several important cultivars, including Zea mays that amounts to 16 percent of all pollen in the Classic Period (1400-1100 BP). These fields persisted through the Classic Period and some through the abandonment associated with the Terminal Classic Maya Drought.

  16. Story Starters on the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas. A Creative Writing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrich, Steve; Henrich, Jean

    Designed to supplement an established language arts and social studies program, this books deals with the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas of Latin America. All of the "Story Starter" books are intended to give a variety of vocabulary and story ideas to help with the writing process. Each of the books is divided into four main sections: (1) an…

  17. An analysis of modern pollen rain from the Maya lowlands of northern Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bhattacharya, T.; Beach, T.; Wahl, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the lowland Maya area, pollen records provide important insights into the impact of past human populations and climate change on tropical ecosystems. Despite a long history of regional paleoecological research, few studies have characterized the palynological signatures of lowland ecosystems, a fact which lowers confidence in ecological inferences made from palynological data. We sought to verify whether we could use pollen spectra to reliably distinguish modern ecosystem types in the Maya lowlands of Central America. We collected 23 soil and sediment samples from eight ecosystem types, including upland, riparian, secondary, and swamp (bajo) forests; pine savanna; and three distinct wetland communities. We analyzed pollen spectra with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), and found significant compositional differences in ecosystem types' pollen spectra. Forested sites had spectra dominated by Moraceae/Urticaceae pollen, while non-forested sites had significant portions of Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Amaranthaceae pollen. Upland, bajo, and riparian forest differed in representation of Cyperaceae, Bactris-type, and Combretaceae/Melastomataceae pollen. High percentages of pine (Pinus), oak (Quercus), and the presence of Byrsonima characterized pine savanna. Despite its limited sample size, this study provides one of the first statistical analyses of modern pollen rain in the Maya lowlands. Our results show that pollen assemblages can accurately reflect differences between ecosystem types, which may help refine interpretations of pollen records from the Maya area. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Issues of Language Use among the Guatemalan-Maya of Southeast Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladwin, R. F.

    2004-01-01

    Using oral survey methods, this study examined potential language maintenance or loss of Mayan languages among the Guatemalan-Maya communities of Southeast Florida. Among dislocated immigrants and their children, the language of the dominant socio-economic forces often displaces other languages (Fishman, 1967). A Guatemalan community in Los…

  19. Women's Schooling and Other Ecocultural Shifts: A Longitudinal Study of Historical Change among the Zinacantec Maya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Ashley E.; Greenfield, Patricia M.

    2008-01-01

    Women's schooling has been lauded as having a large, important impact on child socialization. Although there may be positive effects of schooling, there may also be effects from concomitant cultural changes that come with modernization. In this article we examine the findings that changes in textile production among the Zinacantec Maya over the…

  20. Critical Pedagogy in HIV-AIDS Education for a Maya Immigrant Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoorman, Dilys; Acosta, Maria Cristina; Sena, Rachel; Baxley, Traci

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors discuss how the perspectives of Paulo Freire were instructive in addressing the challenges of HIV-AIDS education in Guatemalan Maya immigrant communities with minimal formal education and literacy. The forging of a community-based, collaborative, educational program offers several implications for effective teaching and…

  1. Cultural Teaching: The Development of Teaching Skills in Maya Sibling Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Ashley E.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the development of teaching skills in older siblings responsible for teaching their younger siblings to become competent members of their culture among children from a Zinacantec Maya village in Chiapas, Mexico. Found that by age 4, children took responsibility for initiating teaching situations with their younger siblings, and by 8,…

  2. Maya Angelou's Children's Books: Inspiration for Turning Poetry into Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    This column presents books for children penned by Maya Angelou. These poems and stories, based on her experiences as an African American woman living in the United States, Egypt, Ghana, and South Africa, include extraordinary photography and artwork. Suggestions for inclusion in the general music classroom are provided.

  3. Effect of prehydrogenation on hydroconversion of Maya residuum: Part 2, Hydrogen incorporation

    SciTech Connect

    Beret, S.; Reynolds, J.G.

    1988-01-19

    Maya 650/sup 0/F residuum (Maya AR) was prehydrogenated over a standard hydroprocessing catalyst. The 650/sup 0/F residuum of this product (HMaya AR) and Maya AR were then separately hydroprocessed further at selected conditions. The products were examined by elemental, /sup 1/H, and /sup 13/C NMR analyses. For all processing steps, hydrogen was incorporated in capping fragments formed during cracking reactions, as well as in hydrogenation reactions, heteroatom removal, and hydrocarbon gas formation, but the distribution of the hydrogen was dependent upon the type and severity of the process. For the direct hydroconversion of Maya AR, 25 to 30% of the total hydrogen was incorporated for heteroatom removal and hydrocarbon gas formation. The remaining hydrogen was incorporated in hydrogenation and cracking reactions. For the two-step hydroconversion process, 30 to 40% of the total hydrogen was incorporated for heteroatom removal and hydrocarbon gas formation. The remaining was primarily incorporated in hydrogenation reactions. Some was incorporated into cracking reactions in the moderate severity case, but none was seen in the low severity case. The hydrogen incorporation during each specific processing step is discussed, along with an evaluation of the prehydrogenation step as a residuum conversion process option. These results will be also compared to previously reported hydrogen incorporation measurements on other feeds and processing methods. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Effect of prehydrogenation on hydroconversion of Maya residuum; Part II: Hydrogen incorporation

    SciTech Connect

    Beret, S. )

    1990-04-01

    Maya 650{sup 0}F residuum (Maya AR) was prehydrogenated over a standard hydroprocessing catalyst. The 650{sup 0}F residuum of this product (HMaya AR) and Maya AR were then separately hydroprocessed further at selected conditions. The products were examined by elemental, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analyses to determine the how hydrogen was incorporated during processing. For all processing steps, hydrogen was incorporated in capping fragments formed during cracking reactions, as well as in hydrogenation reactions, heteroatom removal, and hydrocarbon gas formation, but the distribution of the hydrogen was dependent upon the type and severity of the process. For the direct hydroconversion of Maya AR, 25 to 30% of the total hydrogen was incorporated for heteroatom removal and hydrocarbon gas formation. The remaining hydrogen was incorporated in hydrogenation and cracking reactions. The hydrogen incorporation during each specific processing step is discussed, along with an evaluation of the prehydrogenation step as a residuum conversion process option. These results are compared to previously reported hydrogen incorporation measurements on other feeds and processing methods.

  5. 77 FR 53959 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Dancing Into Dreams, Maya...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Dancing Into Dreams, Maya Vases From..., 2003), I hereby determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Dancing Into Dreams,...

  6. Using a Geographic Information System to Assess the Risk of Hurricane Hazards on the Maya Civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Sever, T.

    2014-12-01

    The extent of the Maya civilization spanned across portions of modern day Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. Paleoclimatic studies suggest this region has been affected by strong hurricanes for the past six thousand years, reinforced by archeological evidence from Mayan records indicating they experienced strong storms. It is theorized hurricanes aided in the collapse of the Maya, damaging building structures, agriculture, and ceasing industry activities. Today, this region is known for its active tropical climatology, being hit by numerous strong storms including Hurricane Dean, Iris, Keith, and Mitch. This research uses a geographic information system (GIS) to model hurricane hazards, and assess the risk posed on the Maya civilization. GIS has the ability to handle various layer components making it optimal for combining parameters necessary for assessing the risk of experiencing hurricane related hazards. For this analysis, high winds, storm surge flooding, non-storm surge related flooding, and rainfall triggered landslides were selected as the primary hurricane hazards. Data sets used in this analysis include the National Climatic Data Center International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardships (IBTrACS) hurricane tracks, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Digital Elevation Model, WorldClim monthly accumulated precipitation, USGS HydroSHEDS river locations, Harmonized World Soil Database soil types, and known Maya site locations from the Electronic Atlas of Ancient Maya Sites. ArcGIS and ENVI software were utilized to process data and model hurricane hazards. To assess locations at risk of experiencing high winds, a model was created using ArcGIS Model Builder to map each storm's temporal wind profile, and adapted to simulate forward storm velocity, and storm frequency. Modeled results were then combined with physical land characteristics, meteorological, and hydrologic data to identify areas likely affected. Certain areas along the eastern

  7. Chemical Tools of Octopus maya during Crab Predation Are Also Active on Conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Pech-Puch, Dawrin; Cruz-López, Honorio; Canche-Ek, Cindy; Campos-Espinosa, Gabriela; García, Elpidio; Mascaro, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Chávez-Velasco, Daniel; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Octopus maya is a major socio-economic resource from the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. In this study we report for the first time the chemical composition of the saliva of O. maya and its effect on natural prey, i.e. the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the crown conch snail (Melongena corona bispinosa), as well as conspecifics. Salivary posterior glands were collected from octopus caught by local fishers and extracted with water; this extract paralyzed and predigested crabs when it was injected into the third pereiopod. The water extract was fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration with a molecular weight cut-off of 3kDa leading to a metabolic phase (>3kDa) and a neurotoxic fraction (<3kDa). The neurotoxic fraction injected in the crabs caused paralysis and postural changes. Crabs recovered to their initial condition within two hours, which suggests that the effects of the neurotoxic fraction were reversible. The neurotoxic fraction was also active on O. maya conspecifics, partly paralyzing and sedating them; this suggests that octopus saliva might be used among conspecifics for defense and for reduction of competition. Bioguided separation of the neurotoxic fraction by chromatography led to a paralysis fraction and a relaxing fraction. The paralyzing activity of the saliva was exerted by amino acids, while the relaxing activity was due to the presence of serotonin. Prey-handling studies revealed that O. maya punctures the eye or arthrodial membrane when predating blue crabs and uses the radula to bore through crown conch shells; these differing strategies may help O. maya to reduce the time needed to handle its prey. PMID:26895025

  8. Chemical Tools of Octopus maya during Crab Predation Are Also Active on Conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Pech-Puch, Dawrin; Cruz-López, Honorio; Canche-Ek, Cindy; Campos-Espinosa, Gabriela; García, Elpidio; Mascaro, Maite; Rosas, Carlos; Chávez-Velasco, Daniel; Rodríguez-Morales, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Octopus maya is a major socio-economic resource from the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. In this study we report for the first time the chemical composition of the saliva of O. maya and its effect on natural prey, i.e. the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), the crown conch snail (Melongena corona bispinosa), as well as conspecifics. Salivary posterior glands were collected from octopus caught by local fishers and extracted with water; this extract paralyzed and predigested crabs when it was injected into the third pereiopod. The water extract was fractionated by membrane ultrafiltration with a molecular weight cut-off of 3 kDa leading to a metabolic phase (>3 kDa) and a neurotoxic fraction (<3 kDa). The neurotoxic fraction injected in the crabs caused paralysis and postural changes. Crabs recovered to their initial condition within two hours, which suggests that the effects of the neurotoxic fraction were reversible. The neurotoxic fraction was also active on O. maya conspecifics, partly paralyzing and sedating them; this suggests that octopus saliva might be used among conspecifics for defense and for reduction of competition. Bioguided separation of the neurotoxic fraction by chromatography led to a paralysis fraction and a relaxing fraction. The paralyzing activity of the saliva was exerted by amino acids, while the relaxing activity was due to the presence of serotonin. Prey-handling studies revealed that O. maya punctures the eye or arthrodial membrane when predating blue crabs and uses the radula to bore through crown conch shells; these differing strategies may help O. maya to reduce the time needed to handle its prey.

  9. ``Yo soy indígena'': identifying and using traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) to make the teaching of science culturally responsive for Maya girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamlin, Maria L.

    2013-12-01

    This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge—TEK—can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes the current situation of Maya women and girls in Guatemala and emphasizes the important need for educators to create science-learning opportunities that are culturally congruent. The author posits that when considering how to make the teaching and learning of science culturally responsive for Maya girls, educators must begin with the scientific knowledge inherent within Maya communities. Indigenous communities have a wealth of TEK that can be used to contextualize science curricula that can be purposely designed to meet the nuanced cultural needs of traditional Maya girls within and outside Guatemala.

  10. Drought Impacts on Ancient Maya Maize Agriculture Inferred from Isotopic Analyses of Plant Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Maya lowlands of southeastern Mexico and northern Central America coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax hydrogen and carbon analyses in two lake sediment cores from the Yucatan and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change and assess drought impacts on maize agriculture In the Maya lowlands plant-wax hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) are controlled by the isotopic composition of precipitation and evapotranspiration, and are highly sensitive to changes in aridity. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) are largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δD would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analyses of plant-wax δD and δ13C from two lake sediment cores in the Maya lowlands indicate co-evolving changes in hydroclimate and C4 plant coverage over the past 4000 years. Compound-specific radiocarbon analyses of plant-waxes provide independent chronologies for these plant-wax stable isotope records, and plant-wax δD records developed using these chronologies agree closely with other regional records of hydroclimate change. Trends in plant-wax δD and δ13C diverge following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend

  11. a Review of Late Holocene Fluvial Systems in the Karst Maya Lowlands with Focus on the Rio Bravo, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, T.; Luzzadder-Beach, S.; Krause, S.; Doyle, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Maya Lowlands is mostly an internally draining karst region with about 400 m of regional relief. Fluvial and fluviokarst systems drain the edges of this landscape either from low limestone uplands or igneous and metamorphic complexes. Thus far most fluvial research has focused around archaeology projects, and here we review the extant research conducted across the region and new research on the transboundary Rio Bravo watershed of Belize and Guatemala. The Rio Bravo drains a largely old growth tropical forest today, but was partly deforested around ancient Maya cities and farms from 3,000 to 1000 BP. Several studies estimate that 30 to 40 percent of forest survived through the Maya period. Work here has focused on soils and sediment movement along slope catenas, in floodplain sites, and on contributions from groundwater with high dissolved loads of sulfate and calcium. We review radiocarbon dates and present new dates and soil stratigraphy from these sequences to date slope and floodplain movement, and we estimate ancient land use from carbon isotopic and pollen evidence. Aggradation in this watershed occurred by flooding, gypsum precipitation, upland erosion, and ancient Maya canal building and filling for wetland farming. Soil erosion and aggradation started at least by 3,000 BP and continued through the ancient Maya period, though reduced locally by soil conservation, post urban construction, and source reduction, especially in Maya Classic period from 1700 to 1000 BP.

  12. Vital warmth and well-being: steambathing as household therapy among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya of highland Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Groark, Kevin P

    2005-08-01

    Among the Maya, the cultural history of steambathing spans more than two millennia. Although it has largely disappeared from the lowlands, household-level steambathing persists in several highland Maya communities in Chiapas, Mexico. In this article, I present an overview of therapeutic steambathing among the Tzeltal and Tzotzil Maya. Through an extended discussion of the beliefs and practices surrounding steambathing, I develop several features of highland Maya thinking about physical health and "well-being". In particular, I examine a set of ethnophysiological representations relating to the "thermal" nature of functional bodies, and the relationship of these models to the maintenance and restoration of health. The highland Maya have articulated an elaborate understanding of physical health and well-being coded in an idiom of "vital warmth", and directed toward the preservation and augmentation of the endogenous heat necessary for vitality and vigor. These models simultaneously reflect empirical understandings of bodily states in health and illness, as well as metaphorical assumptions about the thermal nature of functional psychosocial identities. Steambathing draws on and reinforces these models, constituting a core cultural technology for radically altering the thermal state of the patient, an experience which the highland Maya regard as deeply beneficial. The paper closes with a discussion of recent biomedical research into the physiological effects of hyperthermal therapies.

  13. Detection of significant demographic differences between subpopulations of prehispanic Maya from Copan, Honduras, by survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Whittington, S L

    1991-06-01

    Heterogeneity and small sample size are problems that affect many paleodemographic studies. The former can cause the overall distribution of age at death to be an amalgam that does not accurately reflect the distributions of any of the groups composing the heterogeneous population. The latter can make it difficult to separate significant from nonsignificant demographic differences between groups. Survival analysis, a methodology that involves the survival distribution function and various regression models, can be applied to distributions of age at death in order to reveal statistically significant demographic differences and to control for heterogeneity. Survival analysis was used on demographic data from a heterogeneous sample of skeletons of low status Maya who lived in and around Copan, Honduras, between A.D. 400 and 1200. Results contribute to understanding the collapse of Classic Maya civilization.

  14. Area group: an example of style and paste compositional covariation in Maya pottery

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, R.L.; Reents, D.J.; Harbottle, G.; Sayre, E.V.; van Zelst, L.

    1983-06-12

    This paper has addressed aspects of ceramic style and iconography as found in Late Classic Maya ceramic art, including the supplemental perspective afforded by the analysis of ceramic paste. The chemical data provide a means to assess the extent of stylistic-paste compositional covariation. Depending upon the strength of that covariation various inferences may be drawn about craft specialization, exchange and information flow within Maya society. At the least, it provides an empirical means of comparing stylistically similar vessels; and when they are members of a chemically homogeneous group, it permits style to be addressed in terms of its variation. Additionally, compositionally defined site or region specific reference units provide a chemical background against which the non-provenienced vessels may be compared, allowing the whole vessels to be related to the archaelogically recovered fragmentary material. Finally, this multidisciplinary approach has been illustrated by preliminary findings concerning a specific group of polychrome vessels, The Area Group.

  15. Epilithic and endolithic bacterial communities in limestone from a Maya archaeological site.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Christopher J; Perry, Thomas D; Bearce, Kristen A; Hernandez-Duque, Guillermo; Mitchell, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Biodeterioration of archaeological sites and historic buildings is a major concern for conservators, archaeologists, and scientists involved in preservation of the world's cultural heritage. The Maya archaeological sites in southern Mexico, some of the most important cultural artifacts in the Western Hemisphere, are constructed of limestone. High temperature and humidity have resulted in substantial microbial growth on stone surfaces at many of the sites. Despite the porous nature of limestone and the common occurrence of endolithic microorganisms in many habitats, little is known about the microbial flora living inside the stone. We found a large endolithic bacterial community in limestone from the interior of the Maya archaeological site Ek' Balam. Analysis of 16S rDNA clones demonstrated disparate communities (endolithic: >80% Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Low GC Firmicutes; epilithic: >50% Proteobacteria). The presence of differing epilithic and endolithic bacterial communities may be a significant factor for conservation of stone cultural heritage materials and quantitative prediction of carbonate weathering.

  16. Putting Us on the Map: Remote Sensing Investigation of the Ancient Maya Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.; Saturno, William

    2004-01-01

    A common problem for archaeologists studying ancient settlement in the Maya Lowlands is overcoming the dense vegetation in order to obtain an accurate regional perspective of the presence of archaeological sites, their exact locations and their overall extents. Most often this is done by extensive ground surveys in which many individuals chop parallel paths through the vegetation in search of sites. Once a site is found an effort is made to mark its location on a regional map and to explore its perimeter. Obtaining locational information has been made dramatically easier in recent years with the advent of improved Global Positioning Systems (GPS), however the process of initial identification of sites and the determination of their borders is exceedingly labor intensive and has remained relatively unchanged since the beginning of settlement surveys in the region in the 1950 s. Currently, we are revolutionizing settlement survey in the Maya Lowlands by using remotely sensed data from IKONOS, Quickbird, and Eo 1, satellites as well as airborne AIRSAR radar data. The Ancient Maya built their cities, towns and even their smallest hamlets using excavated limestone and lime plasters. We propose that the decay of these structures provides a unique microenvironment for the growth of vegetation as the levels of moisture and nutrition within the ruins vary substantially from those in the surrounding forest. These microenvironmental differences on the ground are likewise represented by compositional differences in the forest canopy both in the species present and in leaf color (representing moisture/nutritional stress) visible through the analysis of high-resolution satellite data. In this way the detailed analysis of forest composition can reveal a detailed picture of the ancient settlements that lie beneath it. Preliminary examinations using this technique have been very successful and we are refining these techniques in order to efficiently comprehend the details of

  17. Putting us on the Map: Remote Sensing Investigation of the Ancient Maya Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.; Saturno, William; Irwin, Daniel E.

    2004-01-01

    A common problem for archaeologists studying ancient settlement in the Maya Lowlands is overcoming the dense vegetation in order to obtain an accurate regional perspective of the presence of archaeological sites, their exact locations and their overall extents. Most often this is done by extensive ground surveys in which many individuals chop parallel paths through the vegetation in search of sites. Once a site is found an effort is made to mark its location on a regional map and to explore its perimeter. Obtaining locational information has been made dramatically easier in recent years with the advent of improved Global Positioning Systems (GPS), however the process of initial identification of sites and the determination of their borders is exceedingly labor intensive and has remained relatively unchanged since the beginning of settlement surveys in the region in the 1950's. Currently, we are revolutionizing settlement survey in the Maya Lowlands by using remotely sensed data from IKONOS, Quickbird, and Eol, satellites. The Ancient Maya built their cities, towns and even their smallest hamlets using excavated limestone and lime plasters. We propose that the decay of these structures provides a unique microenvironment for the growth of vegetation as the levels of moisture and nutrition within the ruins vary substantially from those in the surrounding forest. These microenvironmental differences on the ground are likewise represented by compositional differences in the forest canopy both in the species present and in leaf color (representing moisture/nutritional stress) visible through the analysis of high- resolution satellite data. In this way the detailed analysis of forest composition can reveal a detailed picture of the ancient settlements that lie beneath it. Preliminary examinations using this technique have been very successful and we are refining these techniques in order to efficiently comprehend the details of Ancient Maya settlement in the Lowlands.

  18. Paleomagnetic evidence for Post-Jurassic stability of southeastern Mexico: Maya Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Jose C.; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Helsley, Charles E.

    1990-05-01

    The tectonic evolution of southeastern Mexico has been a subject of major controversy, not only in regard to past geometry but also in the timing of proposed geological events as well. For the past 10 years, most, if not all, investigators agree that the Gulf of Mexico Basin was formed by Late Jurassic time and that the Maya Terrane was in its current location prior to the Cretaceous. In order to gain further insight into the drift history of the Maya Terrane we have undertaken a paleomagnetic study of the uppermost Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous (Tithonian-lower Neocomian?) San Ricardo Formation in southeastern Mexico, at 93.7°W, 16.8°N. The sampling site is located east of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, on the southwest side of the Maya block, at the base of the Yucatan Peninsula. A suite of 133 samples was collected in stratigraphic succession from a 114-m-thick sequence of red shales and sandstones near Cintalapa, Chiapas, Mexico. After progressive thermal demagnetization of all samples at six steps from 350°C to 630°C, 89 samples were selected for final paleopole analysis on the basis of their magnetic stability. Four different polarity intervals were observed, the sequence being from bottom to top: N, R, N, R which assists in the assessment of the reliability of the observations. The mean pole position obtained, 160.0°E, 69.8°N, agrees with the mean pole position of the upper part of the Morrison Formation of Colorado, a unit of virtually identical age. These results indicate that no discernible rotation or displacement of the Maya block has occurred since at least early Neocomian times.

  19. Forests, fields, and the edge of sustainability at the ancient Maya city of Tikal.

    PubMed

    Lentz, David L; Dunning, Nicholas P; Scarborough, Vernon L; Magee, Kevin S; Thompson, Kim M; Weaver, Eric; Carr, Christopher; Terry, Richard E; Islebe, Gerald; Tankersley, Kenneth B; Grazioso Sierra, Liwy; Jones, John G; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Ramos Hernandez, Carmen E

    2014-12-30

    Tikal has long been viewed as one of the leading polities of the ancient Maya realm, yet how the city was able to maintain its substantial population in the midst of a tropical forest environment has been a topic of unresolved debate among researchers for decades. We present ecological, paleoethnobotanical, hydraulic, remote sensing, edaphic, and isotopic evidence that reveals how the Late Classic Maya at Tikal practiced intensive forms of agriculture (including irrigation, terrace construction, arboriculture, household gardens, and short fallow swidden) coupled with carefully controlled agroforestry and a complex system of water retention and redistribution. Empirical evidence is presented to demonstrate that this assiduously managed anthropogenic ecosystem of the Classic period Maya was a landscape optimized in a way that provided sustenance to a relatively large population in a preindustrial, low-density urban community. This landscape productivity optimization, however, came with a heavy cost of reduced environmental resiliency and a complete reliance on consistent annual rainfall. Recent speleothem data collected from regional caves showed that persistent episodes of unusually low rainfall were prevalent in the mid-9th century A.D., a time period that coincides strikingly with the abandonment of Tikal and the erection of its last dated monument in A.D. 869. The intensified resource management strategy used at Tikal-already operating at the landscape's carrying capacity-ceased to provide adequate food, fuel, and drinking water for the Late Classic populace in the face of extended periods of drought. As a result, social disorder and abandonment ensued.

  20. Guatemala paleoseismicity: from Late Classic Maya collapse to recent fault creep.

    PubMed

    Brocard, Gilles; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Teyssier, Christian

    2016-11-15

    We combine 'on-fault' trench observations of slip on the Polochic fault (North America-Caribbean plate boundary) with a 1200 years-long 'near-fault' record of seismo-turbidite generation in a lake located within 2 km of the fault. The lake record indicates that, over the past 12 centuries, 10 earthquakes reaching ground-shaking intensities ≥ VI generated seismo-turbidites in the lake. Seismic activity was highly unevenly distributed over time and noticeably includes a cluster of earthquakes spread over a century at the end of the Classic Maya period. This cluster may have contributed to the piecemeal collapse of the Classic Maya civilization in this wet, mountainous southern part of the Maya realm. On-fault observations within 7 km of the lake show that soils formed between 1665 and 1813 CE were displaced by the Polochic fault during a long period of seismic quiescence, from 1450 to 1976 CE. Displacement on the Polochic fault during at least the last 480 years included a component of slip that was aseismic, or associated with very light seismicity (magnitude <5 earthquakes). Seismicity of the plate boundary is therefore either non-cyclic, or dominated by long-period cycles (>1 ky) punctuated by destructive earthquake clusters.

  1. Guatemala paleoseismicity: from Late Classic Maya collapse to recent fault creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocard, Gilles; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Teyssier, Christian

    2016-11-01

    We combine ‘on-fault’ trench observations of slip on the Polochic fault (North America-Caribbean plate boundary) with a 1200 years-long ‘near-fault’ record of seismo-turbidite generation in a lake located within 2 km of the fault. The lake record indicates that, over the past 12 centuries, 10 earthquakes reaching ground-shaking intensities ≥ VI generated seismo-turbidites in the lake. Seismic activity was highly unevenly distributed over time and noticeably includes a cluster of earthquakes spread over a century at the end of the Classic Maya period. This cluster may have contributed to the piecemeal collapse of the Classic Maya civilization in this wet, mountainous southern part of the Maya realm. On-fault observations within 7 km of the lake show that soils formed between 1665 and 1813 CE were displaced by the Polochic fault during a long period of seismic quiescence, from 1450 to 1976 CE. Displacement on the Polochic fault during at least the last 480 years included a component of slip that was aseismic, or associated with very light seismicity (magnitude <5 earthquakes). Seismicity of the plate boundary is therefore either non-cyclic, or dominated by long-period cycles (>1 ky) punctuated by destructive earthquake clusters.

  2. From Maya Blue to 21st century materials -- a spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia; Reza, Layra; Torres, Brenda; Polette, Lori; Chianelli, Russell

    2006-10-01

    Maya Blue is a famous indigo-based pigment produced by the ancient Mayas. Samples for the present work are made by a synthetic route, and demonstrate similar chemical stability as the ancient Maya Blue samples. Since no direct proof exists that the indigo chemically binds to the inorganic palygorskite lattice, there is still controversy on the resting place of the indigo molecules; i.e. are they in the channels of palygorskite, on the surface, or both. Our analysis by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy proves the partial elimination of the selection rules for the centrosymmetric indigo, and shows the disappearance of the indigo N-H bonding, as the organic molecules incorporate into palygorskite material. Infrared data confirm the loss of zeolitic water and a partial removal of structural water after the heating process. Evidence of bonding between cationic aluminum and indigo through nitrogen is revealed by FT-Raman measurements. X-Ray photoemission spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure studies performed at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory support the aluminium bonding to the organic molecules. The oxygen carbonyl is also believed to interact with the metal.

  3. Yellow fever: ecology, epidemiology, and role in the collapse of the Classic lowland Maya civilization.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, R L

    1995-07-01

    Mystery has long surrounded the collapse of the Classic lowland Mayan civilization of the Peten region in Guatemala. Recent population reconstructions derived from archaeological evidence from the central lowlands show population declines from urban levels of between 2.5 and 3.5 million to around 536,000 in the two hundred year interval between 800 A.D. and 1000 A.D., the period known as the Classic Maya Collapse. A steady, but lesser rate of population decline continued until the time of European contact. When knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of yellow fever and its known mosquito vectors are compared with what is known of the ecological conditions of lowland Guatemala as modified by the Classic Maya, provocative similarities are observed. When infection and mortality patterns of more recent urban yellow fever epidemics are used as models for a possible series of Classic Maya epidemics, a correlation is noted between the modeled rate of population decline for a series of epidemics, and population decline figures reconstructed from archaeological evidence.

  4. Mobility and Navigation among the Yucatec Maya: Sex Differences Reflect Parental Investment, Not Mating Competition.

    PubMed

    Cashdan, Elizabeth; Kramer, Karen L; Davis, Helen E; Padilla, Lace; Greaves, Russell D

    2016-03-01

    Sex differences in range size and navigation are widely reported, with males traveling farther than females, being less spatially anxious, and in many studies navigating more effectively. One explanation holds that these differences are the result of sexual selection, with larger ranges conferring mating benefits on males, while another explanation focuses on greater parenting costs that large ranges impose on reproductive-aged females. We evaluated these arguments with data from a community of highly monogamous Maya farmers. Maya men and women do not differ in distance traveled over the region during the mate-seeking years, suggesting that mating competition does not affect range size in this monogamous population. However, men's regional and daily travel increases after marriage, apparently in pursuit of resources that benefit families, whereas women reduce their daily travel after marriage. This suggests that parental effort is more important than mating effort in this population. Despite the relatively modest overall sex difference in mobility, Maya men were less spatially anxious than women, thought themselves to be better navigators, and pointed more accurately to distant locations. A structural equation model showed that the sex by marital status interaction had a direct effect on mobility, with a weaker indirect effect of sex on mobility mediated by navigational ability.

  5. Listening in the Pakal controversy: a matter of care in Ancient Maya studies.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew C

    2014-12-01

    This article explores the fraught historical politics of a 20th-century controversy over a Classic Maya king. The controversy ostensibly concerned the age at death of a ruler discovered in 1952 in an elaborate sarcophagus at the Mexican site of Palenque. Combining osteological and epigraphic techniques, Mexican scholars estimated that the ruler died at about 40 or 50years of age. Two decades later, an emerging collective of US hieroglyph experts claimed to have determined the grammatical structure of Maya glyphs for the first time and reevaluated the sarcophagus inscriptions. They concluded that the king, given the name 'Pakal', lived a remarkably long life of 80years (603-683 CE). This reading sparked a controversy that would persist until 1999. At stake was not just how to tell the story of an ancient Maya lord, but who could tell it, with what evidence, and with what degree of certainty. The inclination of some Mexican archaeologists to adopt nationalist and Marxist orientations came into palpable tension with foreign scholars' liberal, universalist knowledge practices. To address this problem, I rethink Pakal's material mediation through bones and inscriptions as a 'matter of concern' (Bruno Latour) and 'matter of care' (Maria Puig de la Bellacasa). I show how these concepts facilitate the reconsideration of contradictory historical propositions as potential sites of coexistence among actors temporarily ill equipped to listen to each other's claims. Ultimately, I present 'listening' as a technique of cosmopolitical care that complements the extensive emphasis on speech and spokespersonship in Latourian cosmopolitics.

  6. Modern tree species composition reflects ancient Maya "forest gardens" in northwest Belize.

    PubMed

    Ross, Nanci J

    2011-01-01

    Ecology and ethnobotany were integrated to assess the impact of ancient Maya tree-dominated home gardens (i.e., "forest gardens"), which contained a diversity of tree species used for daily household needs, on the modern tree species composition of a Mesoamerican forest. Researchers have argued that the ubiquity of these ancient gardens throughout Mesoamerica led to the dominance of species useful to Maya in the contemporary forest, but this pattern may be localized depending on ancient land use. The tested hypothesis was that species composition would be significantly different between areas of dense ancient residential structures (high density) and areas of little or no ancient settlement (low density). Sixty-three 400-m2 plots (31 high density and 32 low density) were censused around the El Pilar Archaeological Reserve in northwestern Belize. Species composition was significantly different, with higher abundances of commonly utilized "forest garden" species still persisting in high-density forest areas despite centuries of abandonment. Subsequent edaphic analyses only explained 5% of the species composition differences. This research provides data on the long-term impacts of Maya forests gardens for use in development of future conservation models. For Mesoamerican conservation programs to work, we must understand the complex ecological and social interactions within an ecosystem that developed in intimate association with humans.

  7. Patterned Ground in Wetlands of the Maya Lowlands: Anthropogenic and Natural Causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, T.; Beach, S. L.

    2004-12-01

    We use geological and archaeological evidence to understand the formation of patterned ground in perennial and seasonal wetlands in the karst depressions of Belize and Guatemala. Some scholars have argued that these features are the remnants of ancient Maya wetland fields, chinampas, on which intensive cultivation produced food that could begin to nourish the extremely high population of the Late Classic (A.D. 550-850). Others have argued that these were natural features or that they represent landscape manipulation for rising sea level in the Preclassic (1000 B.C. -A.D. 250). We present the evidence for ancient intensive agriculture and natural landscape formation with multiple proxies: excavated field and canal features, artifacts, pollen, soil stratigraphy, and water chemistry. Evidence thus far suggests that many regional depressions have Preclassic (1200 BC to AD 200) or earlier paleosols, buried from 1-2 m by eroded soils induced by Maya land use practices. These paleosols were buried by eroded sediments from uplands and by precipitation of gypsum from rising groundwater. The sedimentation occurred largely between the Preclassic and Late Classic, when ancient Maya farmers built canals in pre-existing low spots to reclaim these wetlands. Thus, stable natural processes, environmental change, and human manipulation have acted together to form patterned wetland ground over the later Holocene.

  8. Guatemala paleoseismicity: from Late Classic Maya collapse to recent fault creep

    PubMed Central

    Brocard, Gilles; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Teyssier, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We combine ‘on-fault’ trench observations of slip on the Polochic fault (North America-Caribbean plate boundary) with a 1200 years-long ‘near-fault’ record of seismo-turbidite generation in a lake located within 2 km of the fault. The lake record indicates that, over the past 12 centuries, 10 earthquakes reaching ground-shaking intensities ≥ VI generated seismo-turbidites in the lake. Seismic activity was highly unevenly distributed over time and noticeably includes a cluster of earthquakes spread over a century at the end of the Classic Maya period. This cluster may have contributed to the piecemeal collapse of the Classic Maya civilization in this wet, mountainous southern part of the Maya realm. On-fault observations within 7 km of the lake show that soils formed between 1665 and 1813 CE were displaced by the Polochic fault during a long period of seismic quiescence, from 1450 to 1976 CE. Displacement on the Polochic fault during at least the last 480 years included a component of slip that was aseismic, or associated with very light seismicity (magnitude <5 earthquakes). Seismicity of the plate boundary is therefore either non-cyclic, or dominated by long-period cycles (>1 ky) punctuated by destructive earthquake clusters. PMID:27845383

  9. The Maya Tropical Forest: Cascading Human impacts from Hillslopes to Floodplains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl; Doyle, Colin; Krause, Samantha; Brokaw, Nicholas; Yaeger, Jason

    2016-04-01

    We review the long-term human impact on fluvial systems in the Maya tropical forest region. Although most of this karstic region is drained by groundwater, the southern and coastal margins have several river systems that drain volcanic and metamorphic as well as sedimentary terrains. Some positive environmental impacts of Maya Civilization were the long-term impacts of both landesque capital, like wetland field systems, and other land uses that have enriched many soils. Some negative impacts included stripped soils and eutrophic rivers, both playing out again today with recent deforestation and intensive agriculture. We review trends in the region's fluvial systems, present new evidence on beneficial and detrimental impacts of Maya civilization, and present a new study using LiDAR mapping of fluvial geomorphology of the Belize River. Our new field research comes from the transboundary Rio Bravo watershed of Belize and Guatemala near the border with Mexico. This watershed today is mainly a well preserved tropical forest but from 3,000 to 1000 years ago was partly deforested by Maya cities, farms, roads, fires, and fields. We present studies of soils and sediment movement along slopes, floodplains, and water quality impacts of high dissolved loads of sulfate and calcium. We use AMS dates and soil stratigraphy to date slope and floodplain flux, and we use multiple proxies like pollen and carbon isotopes to reconstruct ancient land use. Aggradation in the floodplain and colluvial deposits began by at least 3,000 years ago and continued until 1100 years ago in several study sites. Some Classic period sites with peak human population and land use intensity experienced less soil erosion, perhaps due to soil conservation, post urban construction, and source reduction. Additional evidence suggests that ancient terraced sites and colluvial slopes that gained upslope sediment and soil nutrients from ancient Maya erosion had greater biodiversity. Lastly, we map fluvial

  10. "Yo Soy Indígena": Identifying and Using Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to Make the Teaching of Science Culturally Responsive for Maya Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge--TEK--can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes…

  11. Two Holocene paleofire records from Peten, Guatemala: Implications for natural fire regime and prehispanic Maya land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Lysanna; Wahl, David

    2016-03-01

    Although fire was arguably the primary tool used by the Maya to alter the landscape and extract resources, little attention has been paid to biomass burning in paleoenvironmental reconstructions from the Maya lowlands. Here we report two new well-dated, high-resolution records of biomass burning based on analysis of macroscopic fossil charcoal recovered from lacustrine sediment cores. The records extend from the early Holocene, through the full arc of Maya prehistory, the Colonial, and post-Colonial periods (~ 9000 cal yr BP to the present). (Hereafter BP) The study sites, Lago Paixban and Lago Puerto Arturo, are located in northern Peten, Guatemala. Results provide the first quantitative analysis from the region demonstrating that frequent fires have occurred in the closed canopy forests since at least the early Holocene (~ 9000 BP), prior to occupation by sedentary agriculturalists. Following the arrival of agriculture around 4600 BP, the system transitioned from climate controlled to anthropogenic control. During the Maya period, changes in fire regime are muted and do not appear to be driven by changes in climate conditions. Low charcoal influx and fire frequency in the Earliest Preclassic period suggest that land use strategies may have included intensive agriculture much earlier than previously thought. Preliminary results showing concentrations of soot/black-carbon during the middle and late Preclassic periods are lower than modern background values, providing intriguing implications regarding the efficiency of Maya fuel consumption.

  12. Two Holocene paleofire records from Peten, Guatemala: Implications for natural fire regime and prehispanic Maya land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Lysanna; Wahl, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Although fire was arguably the primary tool used by the Maya to alter the landscape and extract resources, little attention has been paid to biomass burning in paleoenvironmental reconstructions from the Maya lowlands. Here we report two new well-dated, high-resolution records of biomass burning based on analysis of macroscopic fossil charcoal recovered from lacustrine sediment cores. The records extend from the early Holocene, through the full arc of Maya prehistory, the Colonial, and post-Colonial periods (~ 9000 cal yr BP to the present). (Hereafter BP) The study sites, Lago Paixban and Lago Puerto Arturo, are located in northern Peten, Guatemala. Results provide the first quantitative analysis from the region demonstrating that frequent fires have occurred in the closed canopy forests since at least the early Holocene (~ 9000 BP), prior to occupation by sedentary agriculturalists. Following the arrival of agriculture around 4600 BP, the system transitioned from climate controlled to anthropogenic control. During the Maya period, changes in fire regime are muted and do not appear to be driven by changes in climate conditions. Low charcoal influx and fire frequency in the Earliest Preclassic period suggest that land use strategies may have included intensive agriculture much earlier than previously thought. Preliminary results showing concentrations of soot/black-carbon during the middle and late Preclassic periods are lower than modern background values, providing intriguing implications regarding the efficiency of Maya fuel consumption.

  13. Is the onset of the 6th century 'dark age' in Maya history related to explosive volcanism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooren, Kees; Hoek, Wim Z.; Van der Plicht, Hans; Sigl, Michael; Galop, Didier; Torrescano-Valle, Nuria; Islebe, Gerald; Huizinga, Annika; Winkels, Tim; Middelkoop, Hans; Van Bergen, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Maya societies in Southern Mexico, Guatemala and Belize experienced a 'dark age' during the second half of the 6th century. This period, also known as the 'Maya Hiatus', is characterized by cultural downturn, political instability and abandonment of many sites in the Central Maya Lowlands. Many theories have been postulated to explain the occurrence of this 'dark age' in Maya history. A possible key role of a large volcanic eruption in the onset of this 'dark age' will be discussed. Volcanic deposits recovered from the sedimentary archive of lake Tuspán and the Usumacinta-Grijalva delta were studied in detail and the combination of multiple dating techniques allowed the reconstruction of the timing of a large 6th century eruption. Volcanic glass shards were fingerprinted to indicate the source volcano and high resolution pollen records were constructed to indicate the environmental impact of the eruption. Results are compared with available archaeological data and causality with the disruption of Maya civilization will be evaluated.

  14. Latent and manifest empiricism in Q'eqchi' Maya healing: a case study of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Waldram, James B; Hatala, Andrew R

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a case study of the traditional treatment of a Q'eqchi' Maya man in southern Belize in 2011 who is suffering from AIDS-related sickness. The purpose is to detail the empirical nature of Q'eqchi' Maya medicine, distinguishing between manifest and latent empiricism, as evidenced in the healers evolving attempts to treat the patient in the absence of knowledge of his biomedical diagnosis. The paper argues for a more complete understanding of the empirical nature of much Indigenous healing, which parallels aspects of scientific medicine, and for better collaboration among traditional healers and biomedical practitioners in strongly Indigenous areas.

  15. The Venus "Shell-over-Star" hieroglyph and Maya warfare: An examination of the interpretation of a Mayan symbol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voit, Claudia Ann

    For decades, Maya scholars have associated the Mayan "Shell-Star" (also referred to as "Star-War") hieroglyph with Maya warfare. Put forward by scholars such as Floyd Lounsbury and David Kelley, and later advanced by Linda Schele, David Freidel, Ian Graham, Peter Matthews, Anthony Aveni and others, there are now dozens of published articles and chapters relating the hieroglyph to Venus and warfare. Venus is one of the most notable celestial objects outside of the Sun and Moon and was highly visible to the inhabitants of the Maya world. The Dresden Codex (an astronomical almanac) contains important information about the planet Venus, and the calendar section was deciphered by the librarian and mathematician, Ernst Förstemann in the late 1800s. In his decipherment, he deduced that the numbers contained in the tables must be connected to the orbital period of the planet. There is no other planet with the same orbital period 3 as Venus. Förstemann suggested that the decoded astronomy tables were used by the Maya to determine when to wage war. This interpretation, along with others, like Floyd Lounsbury`s study of Venus and the Long Count date at Bonampak were the seeds that have led to methodological errors that first began to take root in Maya research. The idea of the Venus association with warfare took hold and continues to propagate. Many scholars continue to assert that the "shell-star" glyph is related to warfare events. Others, like Gerardo Aldana, and Stanley Guenter, have recently come forward to reexamine and question the hieroglyph and its relationship, if any, to Maya warfare. I suggest, further, that methodological errors may have occurred along the way. I propose that these errors include data lost in translation, and inaccurate translations. In addition, the statistical analysis of Venus cycles has weak points. If this identification of the errors is correct, we need to re-evaluate the weakened foundation on which we are building our assertions about

  16. A reassessment of the impact of drought cycles on the Classic Maya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleton, W. Christopher; Campbell, David; Collard, Mark

    2014-12-01

    The study reported here challenges the widely discussed hypothesis that cyclical droughts had a major impact on the Classic Maya. This hypothesis was developed by Hodell et al. (2001, 2005) on the basis of the results of time series analyses of cores from Lake Chichancanab in the Yucatán peninsula. Hodell et al.'s analyses indicated that the Maya region was affected by two drought cycles during the 1st millennium CE, one with a periodicity of 208 years and another with a periodicity of 50 years. The timing of the droughts was such, Hodell et al. argued, that they were likely responsible for several important sociopolitical events, including the collapse of Classic Maya society. In our study, we investigated two potentially important problems with Hodell et al.'s analyses: their use of interpolation to make their data regularly spaced, and their reliance on radiocarbon point estimates to generate age-depth models. We found that interpolation biased Hodell et al.'s results and that when it is avoided there is no evidence for a 208-year drought cycle in the Lake Chichancanab dataset. We also found that when the errors associated with the relevant radiocarbon dates are taken into account, there is no evidence for any drought cycles in the Lake Chichancanab dataset. Together, our analyses indicate that both the 208-year drought cycle and the 50-year drought cycle identified by Hodell et al. are methodological artifacts. The corollary of this is that the drought cycle hypothesis lacks an empirical basis and needs to be treated with skepticism.

  17. Environmental and morphological changes around the Maritime Maya site Vista Alegre.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaijel, Roy; Goodman, Beverly; Glover, Jeffrey; Beddows, Patricia; Carter, Alice; Smith, Derek; Rissolo, Dominique; Ben Avraham, Zvi

    2016-04-01

    The untold story of the Maritime Maya from the ancient port site Vista Alegre, is being written for the first time using a multidisciplinary effort that aims to reconstruct the environmental and morphological history of the site. Vista Alegre is located on the north-eastern tip of the Yucatan peninsula, on the ancient Maritime Maya trade routes. This strategic point between the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, offers an ideal setting for this kind of research, which will add to the general Maritime Maya history. The multidisciplinary effort is part of a larger project called "Costa Escodida". The project's main goals are to learn how the ancient inhabitants adapted to the environment, and to understand how this coastal site was integrated into broader maritime trade routes. The portion of the research presented here concentrates on the sites geomorphology and climate during the past 2-3000 years through the multiproxy analysis of marine sediment core and surface samples combined with archaeological data. This study aids our understanding of the site's possible functions, the environmental challenges the local inhabits contended with, and the identification of ancient harboring locations. The site was inhabited from the 9th century B.C until the mid 16th century A.D., with an apparent two century abandonment phase from the mid 7th to 9th century A.D. According to the results, five depositional phases can be recognized, and the related shoreline reconstruction shows a general trend of a flooded terrestrial landscape. This 'flooding' relates well to relative sea-level curves published in the region. Continued analysis of results from the research, and future research activities, may make it possible to recognize hurricane proxies in the sediment, locate underwater manmade seafaring artifacts and facilities, determine the range of economic opportunities for past inhabitants and quantify the availability of potable water sources.

  18. Forests, fields, and the edge of sustainability at the ancient Maya city of Tikal

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, David L.; Dunning, Nicholas P.; Scarborough, Vernon L.; Magee, Kevin S.; Thompson, Kim M.; Weaver, Eric; Terry, Richard E.; Islebe, Gerald; Tankersley, Kenneth B.; Grazioso Sierra, Liwy; Jones, John G.; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Ramos Hernandez, Carmen E.

    2014-01-01

    Tikal has long been viewed as one of the leading polities of the ancient Maya realm, yet how the city was able to maintain its substantial population in the midst of a tropical forest environment has been a topic of unresolved debate among researchers for decades. We present ecological, paleoethnobotanical, hydraulic, remote sensing, edaphic, and isotopic evidence that reveals how the Late Classic Maya at Tikal practiced intensive forms of agriculture (including irrigation, terrace construction, arboriculture, household gardens, and short fallow swidden) coupled with carefully controlled agroforestry and a complex system of water retention and redistribution. Empirical evidence is presented to demonstrate that this assiduously managed anthropogenic ecosystem of the Classic period Maya was a landscape optimized in a way that provided sustenance to a relatively large population in a preindustrial, low-density urban community. This landscape productivity optimization, however, came with a heavy cost of reduced environmental resiliency and a complete reliance on consistent annual rainfall. Recent speleothem data collected from regional caves showed that persistent episodes of unusually low rainfall were prevalent in the mid-9th century A.D., a time period that coincides strikingly with the abandonment of Tikal and the erection of its last dated monument in A.D. 869. The intensified resource management strategy used at Tikal—already operating at the landscape’s carrying capacity—ceased to provide adequate food, fuel, and drinking water for the Late Classic populace in the face of extended periods of drought. As a result, social disorder and abandonment ensued. PMID:25512500

  19. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of Maya women in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Polanco Rodríguez, Ángel G; Inmaculada Riba López, M; Angel DelValls Casillas, T; León, Jesús Alfredo Araujo; Anjan Kumar Prusty, B; Álvarez Cervera, Fernando J

    2017-02-01

    In this study, 24 breast milk samples, obtained from rural Maya women, from municipalities of Yucatan, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues by gas chromatography. Recent studies have shown that Maya communities have a poor perception about the proper usage and handling of OCP. The karstic soil in this area has a high vulnerability to groundwater pollution by the use of OCP in agriculture and livestock activities. The impact of the ecosystem on human health is much more critical due to the prevailing poverty and a very low educational level of these communities. About 30% of the Maya population consumes water directly from contaminated wells and sinkholes, resulting in a chronic exposure to OCP. The samples served to identify and quantify high levels of OCP residues (18.43 mg/kg of heptachlor epoxide and 1.92 mg/kg of endrin in the metropolitan zone; 2.10 mg/kg of dieldrin, 0.117 mg/kg of endosulfan II, 0.103 mg/kg of heptachlor, 0.178 mg/kg of endrin, and 0.127 mg/kg of endrin aldehyde in the main agricultural zone and on the west coast). The detected levels of OCP residues are a major concern and represent a potential risk to women and children in the region. This could be associated with the high rates of cervical uterine and breast cancer mortality in Yucatan. Thus, regulations on the usage of OCP and their enforcement are necessary, and it is important to establish a yearly monitoring program for OCP residues in breast milk and groundwater, as well as to implement health promotion programs for women in particular and the general population in general.

  20. Thermopreference, tolerance and metabolic rate of early stages juvenile Octopus maya acclimated to different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Noyola, Javier; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Sánchez, Adolfo; Rosas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Thermopreference, tolerance and oxygen consumption rates of early juveniles Octopus maya (O. maya; weight range 0.38-0.78g) were determined after acclimating the octopuses to temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) for 20 days. The results indicated a direct relationship between preferred temperature (PT) and acclimated temperature, the PT was 23.4°C. Critical Thermal Maxima, (CTMax; 31.8±1.2, 32.7±0.9, 34.8±1.4 and 36.5±1.0) and Critical Thermal Minima, (CTMin; 11.6±0.2, 12.8±0.6, 13.7±1.0, 19.00±0.9) increased significantly (P<0.05) with increasing acclimation temperatures. The endpoint for CTMax was ink release and for CTMin was tentacles curled, respectively. A thermal tolerance polygon over the range of 18-30°C resulted in a calculated area of 210.0°C(2). The oxygen consumption rate increased significantly α=0.05 with increasing acclimation temperatures between 18 and 30°C. Maximum and minimum temperature quotients (Q10) were observed between 26-30°C and 22-26°C as 3.03 and 1.71, respectively. These results suggest that O. maya has an increased capability for adapting to moderate temperatures, and suggest increased culture potential in subtropical regions southeast of México.

  1. Dehydroindigo, the forgotten indigo and its contribution to the color of Maya Blue.

    PubMed

    Rondão, Raquel; Seixas de Melo, J Sérgio; Bonifácio, Vasco D B; Melo, Maria J

    2010-02-04

    indole-like moieties deviate from planarity from ca. 20 degrees, whereas in S(1) and T(1) the predicted structure is basically planar; a gradual decrease of the carbon-carbon central bond distance is seen in the order S(0), S(1), T(1). An additional study on the blue pigment Maya Blue was made, and the comparison between the solid-state spectra of indigo, DHI, and Maya Blue suggests that, in line with recent investigations, DHI is present together with indigo in Maya Blue. These results are relevant to the discussion of the involvement of dehydroindigo in the palette of colors of the ancient Maya Blue pigment.

  2. High-resolution speleothem record of precipitation from the Yucatan Peninsula spanning the Maya Preclassic Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Elizalde, Martín; Burns, Stephen J.; Polanco-Martínez, Josué M.; Beach, Timothy; Lases-Hernández, Fernanda; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Wang, Hao-Cheng

    2016-03-01

    We produced a new high-resolution absolute U-Th dated stalagmite oxygen isotope record (δ18O) from Río Secreto, Playa del Carmen, Yucatan Peninsula (YP). This new 1434-year stalagmite record (named Itzamna after the Maya god of creation) spans the time interval between BCE 1037 and CE 397 with an average resolution of 8 ± 2 years. It provides a novel view of climate evolution over the Preclassic and early Classic periods in Maya history. To understand the controls of regional precipitation δ18O on seasonal time scales, we characterized the amount effect between precipitation amount (P) and precipitation δ18O (δP). We found that precipitation δ18O in the Yucatan Peninsula is controlled by the amount effect on seasonal scales (δP/ΔP = - 0.0137 ± 0.0031‰ per mm, r = 0.9), as suspected but never before demonstrated. Cave drip δ18O is consistent with the annual amount-weighted δ18O composition of precipitation. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that stalagmite δ18O reflects isotopic equilibrium conditions and thus stalagmite δ18O changes are interpreted to reflect precipitation amount. We determined quantitative precipitation changes from the stalagmite δ18O record following previous methods (Medina-Elizalde and Rohling, 2012). The stalagmite precipitation record suggests twelve periods of anomalous precipitation reductions ranging between about 30 and 70% below mean conditions at the time and with durations from 6 years to 31 years. Between BCE 520 and 166, the speleothem precipitation record suggests that the YP experienced an interval of high precipitation labeled the Late Preclassic Humid Period (LPHP) with precipitation maxima of up to + 86 ± 20%. Preclassic Maya cultural expansion in El Mirador Basin, located in northern Guatemala, took place while the peninsula transitioned from the LPHP to an interval with below average precipitation. We find that the Preclassic abandonment of major centers in the Mirador Basin and others around the Maya

  3. Mathematical Contributions of the Mayas, Aztecs & Incas: A Native American Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School. NATAM XIX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodola, Janet

    Written to fulfill the requirements for a University of Minnesota College of Education off-campus Indian education course for public school teachers, this Native American curriculum unit for middle and high school reflects the mathematical achievements of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca Indians. The number systems, notation, and calendar techniques of…

  4. High resolution stalagmite climate record from the Yucatán Peninsula spanning the Maya terminal classic period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Elizalde, Martín; Burns, Stephen J.; Lea, David W.; Asmerom, Yemane; von Gunten, Lucien; Polyak, Victor; Vuille, Mathias; Karmalkar, Ambarish

    2010-09-01

    The decline of the Classic Maya civilization was complex and geographically variable, and occurred over a ~ 150-year interval, known as the Terminal Classic Period (TCP, C.E. 800-950). Paleoclimate studies based on lake sediments from the Yucatán Peninsula lowlands suggested that drought prevailed during the TCP and was likely an important factor in the disintegration of the Classic Maya civilization. The lacustrine evidence for decades of severe drought in the Yucatán Peninsula, however, does not readily explain the long 150-year socio-political decline of the Classic Maya civilization. Here we present a new, absolute-dated, high-resolution stalagmite δ18O record from the northwest Yucatán Peninsula that provides a much more detailed picture of climate variability during the last 1500 years. Direct calibration between stalagmite δ18O and rainfall amount offers the first quantitative estimation of rainfall variability during the Terminal Classic Period. Our results show that eight severe droughts, lasting from 3 to 18 years, occurred during major depopulation events of Classic Maya city-states. During these droughts, rainfall was reduced by 52% to 36%. The number and short duration of the dry intervals help explain why the TCP collapse of the Mayan civilization occurred over 150 years.

  5. Translating Maya Angelou's Theme, "We are more alike, my friends/Than we are unalike," into Effective Multicultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neman, Beth S.

    Few would disagree that the essential purpose in multicultural studies is to promote compassionate understanding and to diminish hatred. The two basic approaches to this goal, celebrating differences and emphasizing unity, are suggested by Maya Angelou in her poem, "The Human Family." Most university courses do a good job of honoring…

  6. Testing the ``tropical storm'' hypothesis of Yucatan Peninsula climate variability during the Maya Terminal Classic Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Elizalde, Martín; Polanco-Martínez, Josué Moises; Lases-Hernández, Fernanda; Bradley, Raymond; Burns, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    We examine the "tropical storm" hypothesis that precipitation variability in the Yucatan Peninsula (YP) was linked to the frequency of tropical cyclones during the demise of the Classic Maya civilization, in the Terminal Classic Period (TCP, AD 750-950). Evidence that supports the hypothesis includes: (1) a positive relationship between tropical storm frequency and precipitation amount over the YP today (proof of feasibility), (2) a statistically significant correlation between a stalagmite (Chaac) quantitative precipitation record from the YP and the number of named tropical cyclones affecting this region today (1852-2004) (calibration sensu lato), and, (3) correlations between the stalagmite Chaac precipitation record and an Atlantic basin tropical cyclone count record and two proxy records of shifts in macro-scale climate and ocean states that influence Atlantic tropical cyclongenesis. At face value, regional paleotempestology proxy records suggest that tropical storm activity in the YP was either similar or significantly lower than today during the TCP. The "tropical storm" hypothesis has implications for our understanding of the role the hydrological cycle played in the collapse of Classic Maya polities and the role of tropical storms in possibly ameliorating future drought in the YP and other tropical regions.

  7. Conceptualizing socio-hydrological drought processes: the rise and fall of the Ancient Maya civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuil, Linda; Carr, Gemma; Viglione, Alberto; Prskawetz, Alexia; Bloeschl, Guenter

    2016-04-01

    Different communities have followed different paths to arrive at their present situation as a consequence of the continuous, specific interactions between the hydrological and social system. The need to understand the current and future pathways to water security becomes more and more pressing, considering the increasingly delicate balance between water demand and water supply. To contribute to addressing this challenge, we examine the link between water stress and society through socio-hydrological modeling. Within the spirit of the Easter Island model by Brander and Taylor and drawing from the vulnerability literature, we conceptualize the interactions of an agricultural society with its environment. We apply the model to the case of the ancient Maya, a civilization who occupied the Maya Lowlands (parts of present day Mexico, Guatemala, Belize) from around 2000 BC to after AD 830. The hypothesis that modest drought periods played a major role in the fall of the society is explored. We are able to simulate plausible feedbacks and find that a modest reduction in rainfall is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition in order to observe a collapse of 80 percent of the population. Equally important are actual population density and the impact of drought on crop growth. The model shows that reservoirs allow the society to grow larger, but also that the vulnerability to drought increases.

  8. Speech and gesture in spatial language and cognition among the Yucatec Mayas.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    In previous analyses of the influence of language on cognition, speech has been the main channel examined. In studies conducted among Yucatec Mayas, efforts to determine the preferred frame of reference in use in this community have failed to reach an agreement (Bohnemeyer & Stolz, 2006; Levinson, 2003 vs. Le Guen, 2006, 2009). This paper argues for a multimodal analysis of language that encompasses gesture as well as speech, and shows that the preferred frame of reference in Yucatec Maya is only detectable through the analysis of co-speech gesture and not through speech alone. A series of experiments compares knowledge of the semantics of spatial terms, performance on nonlinguistic tasks and gestures produced by men and women. The results show a striking gender difference in the knowledge of the semantics of spatial terms, but an equal preference for a geocentric frame of reference in nonverbal tasks. In a localization task, participants used a variety of strategies in their speech, but they all exhibited a systematic preference for a geocentric frame of reference in their gestures.

  9. Role of water on formation and structural features of Maya blue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondelli, C.; Sánchez del Río, M.; González, M. A.; Magazzú, A.; Cavallari, C.; Suárez, M.; García-Romero, E.; Romano, P.

    2012-02-01

    The Maya blue (MB) is an artificial pigment created between 500-800 A.D. and used in murals, pottery and sculptures by Mayas and other people in Mesoamerica. MB is resistant to age, acid, weathering, biodegradation and even modern chemical solvents, but the chemical reasons behind the resistance to chemical aggressions are still under debate. Water plays a fundamental role in the interactions between indigo and clay. The dynamics of the clay's zeolitic and structural water molecules during the formation of MB, usually stabilized by moderate heating, has been monitored by means of neutron inelastic scattering. Neutron incoherent scattering in these samples is only due to the hydrogen atoms, so the signal is very sensitive to the amount of released water, providing detailed information on the dehydration process. A simultaneous analysis of the coherent elastic scattering and the incoherent scattering allows observing and quantifying how the structure of the clay is affected by dehydration. Here we show that a quite resistant pigment can be obtained at room temperature simply by dehydrating a palygorskite-indigo mixture employing only vacuum, without any thermal treatment.

  10. Synchroton and Simulations Techniques Applied to Problems in Materials Science: Catalysts and Azul Maya Pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Chianelli, R.

    2005-01-12

    Development of synchrotron techniques for the determination of the structure of disordered, amorphous and surface materials has exploded over the past twenty years due to the increasing availability of high flux synchrotron radiation and the continuing development of increasingly powerful synchrotron techniques. These techniques are available to materials scientists who are not necessarily synchrotron scientists through interaction with effective user communities that exist at synchrotrons such as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). In this article we review the application of multiple synchrotron characterization techniques to two classes of materials defined as ''surface compounds.'' One class of surface compounds are materials like MoS{sub 2-x}C{sub x} that are widely used petroleum catalysts used to improve the environmental properties of transportation fuels. These compounds may be viewed as ''sulfide supported carbides'' in their catalytically active states. The second class of ''surface compounds'' is the ''Maya Blue'' pigments that are based on technology created by the ancient Maya. These compounds are organic/inorganic ''surface complexes'' consisting of the dye indigo and palygorskite, a common clay. The identification of both surface compounds relies on the application of synchrotron techniques as described in this report.

  11. Pathoecology and paleodiet in postclassic: historic Maya from northern coastal Belize.

    PubMed

    White, Christine; Maxwell, Jay; Dolphin, Alexis; Williams, Jocelyn; Longstaffe, Fred

    2006-12-05

    This paper examines the synergism among diet, disease, and ecology at two related coastal Maya sites in Belize (Marco Gonzalez and San Pedro) for the Postclassic and Historic periods (1350-1650 AD), which immediately follow the Classic period collapse. Stable carbon- and nitrogen-isotope ratios in collagen and stable carbon-isotope ratios in structural carbonate were analysed for bones from 65 humans and a wide variety of faunal species. There are no apparent differences in whole diets or degree of carnivory between individuals with lesions indicative of anemia and those without, but those with lesions appear to have consumed significantly more C4 foods and protein from lower trophic levels. Non-specific infection (periostitis) and vitamin C deficiency (scurvy) are also present in high frequencies and appear to co-occur with lesions indicative of anemia, particularly in childhood. Individuals with scurvy also appear to have consumed significantly more C4 foods than normal individuals. Spondyloarthropathy is common in adults. These findings are discussed in light of: (1) the debate on how anemia versus scurvy are manifest and diagnosed, (2) Spanish ethnohistoric descriptions of the poor state of Maya health at the time of contact, and (3) the Osteological Paradox. We suggest that although this coastal environment exacerbated morbidity because of possible parasitic infection, the inhabitants were probably able to survive physiological stresses better than either their inland contemporaries or their modern counterparts.

  12. Feeling the pulse in Maya medicine: an endangered traditional tool for diagnosis, therapy, and tracking patients' progress.

    PubMed

    Balick, Michael J; De Gezelle, Jillian M; Arvigo, Rosita

    2008-01-01

    Throughout history, diagnostic tools utilizing the human senses, such as pulse diagnosis, have developed all over the world. In many areas where medical technology is limited or absent, they persist, whereas in other areas these skills are in danger of extinction. The practice of pulse diagnosis by the accomplished Maya healer, Don Elijio Panti, who lived in Belize, Central America, was observed over the final decade of his life and work. Don Elijio used pulse palpation as a diagnostic tool, therapeutic tool, and as a means for tracking patients' progress. He could diagnose a wide array of both physical and spiritual afflictions and was observed diagnosing 42 different conditions or states throughout this period by feeling the pulse. He recognized at least 28 distinct pulse types. Herein, the authors report the detailed system of an endangered diagnostic tradition as practiced by the late, acclaimed Maya healer, including pulse-type descriptions and corresponding diagnoses. Pulse diagnosis is still practiced today among some of Belize's diminishing population of traditional healers, although no practice appears to be as developed as that of the previous generation of Maya healers. Furthermore, it is unlikely that there are new practitioners of pulse diagnosis in the Maya community to maintain and build on the disappearing tradition. Given the unfortunate paucity of data on Maya pulse diagnosis, the practice of pulse diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is used as an illustrative framework for documenting Don Elijio's practice. Corresponding diagnoses from TCM and Don Elijio's system are compared, elucidating similarities between the two disparate medical systems.

  13. Late Holocene Droughts Recorded in Speleothems From the Maya Lowlands of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endsley, E. A.; Gallup, C. D.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.; Brenner, M.; Gentry, C. L.; Edwards, R. L.; Cheng, H.

    2007-05-01

    Evidence for Holocene droughts in Mesoamerica exists from numerous paleolimnological studies. Speleothems from the Yucatan Peninsula can be used to help constrain the timing, intensity, and regional extent of these droughts. Late Holocene wet/dry cycles are inferred from the oxygen isotope record of speleothem calcite and the timing is constrained using U/Th dating. In the lowland neotropics, there is a strong negative correlation between δ18O of precipitation and rainfall amount, i.e. the "amount effect." The δ18O of speleothem calcite can then be used as a proxy for the relative amount of past precipitation in the Maya lowlands. A speleothem from Cueva Tzabnah, near Tecoh, Yucatan, Mexico, has a basal date of 2711 ±329 yr BP and a top date of 548 ±61 yr BP, indicating growth during most of the period of Maya prehistory. The 25cm-long speleothem has an average growth rate of 0.12mm/yr, and contains several visible hiatuses indicating cessation of growth, possibly due to drier climate conditions. Oxygen isotopes were measured at 0.5mm intervals, with an average value of -5.24‰. δ18O values increase near the hiatuses in speleothem growth, interpreted as evidence for the presence of drought conditions. These relative increases in δ18O will be dated using U/Th methods to constrain the timing of the drought events. In the top 3mm, the average δ18O value is 2.49‰ greater than the average speleothem δ18O value, and possibly represents drier conditions beginning in the mid-15th century AD consistent with a nearby lake sediment core record from Aguada X'camaal (Hodell et al., 2005). Well-dated drought events during the late Holocene will provide insight into the role that climate may have played in the cultural evolution of the Maya civilization. References: Hodell, D.A., Brenner, M., Curtis, J.H., Medina-Gonzalez, R., Ildefonso-Chan Can, E., Albornaz-Pat, A., Guilderson, T.P., 2005. Climate change on the Yucatan Peninsula during the Little Ice Age. Quaternary

  14. Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Avila-Poveda, Omar Hernando; Colin-Flores, Rafael Francisco; Rosas, Carlos

    2009-02-01

    Gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya is described in terms of histological, morphometric, oocytes growth, and somatic-oocyte relationship data obtained from octopus cultured at the UMDI-UNAM, in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. This study is the first publication on gonad development during the early life of Octopus maya. A total of 83 O. maya specimens were used; their sizes ranged from 6.5 to 76 mm of total length (TL), 4 to 28 mm of dorsal mantle length (DML), 2.5 to 20 mm of ventral mantle length (VML), and 0.0180 to 7.2940 g of fixed body weight (fBW). Animals were weighed and measured only after preservation. A loss of 10% of living weight was estimated for juvenile octopuses after formalin preservation. The relation of length to weight (VML, DML, TL/fBW) pooled for both sexes had a strong positive correlation (r), as shown by a potential power function that was quite close to 1. Compound images were produced from numerous microscopic fields. The histological examination revealed that, 4 months after hatching, male octopus (24.5 mm DML and 7.2940 g fBW) were in gonad stages 2 (maturing) to 3 (mature), with spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the tubule wall and abundant spermatids and spermatozoa in the central lumen of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting the occurrence of different phases of gonad development at different maturity stages. In contrast, females (22.5 mm DML and 4.8210 g fBW) at the same time since hatching were immature (stage 1), with many oogonia, few oocytes, and germinal epithelium. This suggests that males reach maturity earlier than females, indicating a probable onset of maturity for males at around 4 months of culture or 8 g of wet body weight. Our results indicate the possibility that the size-at-weight can be recognized early with a degree of certainty that allows the sexes to be separated for culture purposes; but more detailed studies on reproduction in relation to endocrinology and nutrition are needed.

  15. Development and disintegration of Maya political systems in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Douglas J; Breitenbach, Sebastian F M; Aquino, Valorie V; Asmerom, Yemane; Awe, Jaime; Baldini, James U L; Bartlein, Patrick; Culleton, Brendan J; Ebert, Claire; Jazwa, Christopher; Macri, Martha J; Marwan, Norbert; Polyak, Victor; Prufer, Keith M; Ridley, Harriet E; Sodemann, Harald; Winterhalder, Bruce; Haug, Gerald H

    2012-11-09

    The role of climate change in the development and demise of Classic Maya civilization (300 to 1000 C.E.) remains controversial because of the absence of well-dated climate and archaeological sequences. We present a precisely dated subannual climate record for the past 2000 years from Yok Balum Cave, Belize. From comparison of this record with historical events compiled from well-dated stone monuments, we propose that anomalously high rainfall favored unprecedented population expansion and the proliferation of political centers between 440 and 660 C.E. This was followed by a drying trend between 660 and 1000 C.E. that triggered the balkanization of polities, increased warfare, and the asynchronous disintegration of polities, followed by population collapse in the context of an extended drought between 1020 and 1100 C.E.

  16. Human Migration and Agricultural Expansion: An Impending Threat to the Maya Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sader, Steven; Reining, Conard; Sever, Thomas L.; Soza, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    Evidence is presented of the current threats to the Maya Biosphere Reserve in northern Guatemala as derived through time-series Landsat Thematic Mapper observations and analysis. Estimates of deforestation rates and trends are examined for different management units within the reserve and buffer zones. The satellite imagery was used to quantify and monitor rates, patterns, and trends of forest clearing during a time period corresponding to new road construction and significant human migration into the newly accessible forest region. Satellite imagery is appropriate technology in a vast and remote tropical region where aerial photography and extensive field-based methods are not cost-effective and current, timely data is essential for establishing conservation priorities.

  17. The African-American grandmother in autobiographical works by Frederick Douglass, Langston Hughes, and Maya Angelou.

    PubMed

    Hill-Lubin, M A

    1991-01-01

    Using the autobiographies of Frederick Douglass, Langston Hughes, and Maya Angelou, this article demonstrates that the portrait of the African-American grandmother is one of action, involvement, hope, and dignity. In examining the works, we observe her functioning in three areas: as the preserver and most tenacious survivor of the African extended family; second, as repository and distributor of the family history, wisdom, and black lore; this role places her at the foundation of the Black, oral and written, literary and creative traditions; and third, as the retainer and transmitter of values and ideals that support and enhance her humanity, her family, and her community. This function emphasizes her spirituality. It is suggested that the grandmother, having played an important role in the growth, development, and artistic flowering of the autobiographer, can become a model and source of empowerment for future generations.

  18. Coca-colonization and hybridization of diets among the Tz'utujil Maya.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Jason M; Barg, Frances K; Valeggia, Claudia R; Bream, Kent D W

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical health professionals express increasing concern that rising consumption of soft drinks and processed foods in Mayan and Latin American eating patterns may lead to detrimental nutritional and health consequences. Scholars debate whether the pervading presence of Coca-Cola and Pepsi in developing countries represents "Coca-Colonization," synonymous with cultural imperialism, or cultural hybridization. Using mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods, including participant observation and semi-structured interviews, this study explores the development of Coca-Colonization and cultural hybridization among the Tz'utujil Maya of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala. By specifically examining biomedical perspectives, cycles of conquest, the political economy, religion, celebrations, and the physical environment through the lens of soft drinks, this study finds that Coca-Colonization and cultural hybridization are complementary rather than mutually exclusive processes that contribute to dietary transitions, economic development, and differential health beliefs related to soft drink consumption.

  19. A mask for high-intensity heavy-ion beams in the MAYA active target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Pancin, J.; Damoy, S.; Roger, T.; Babo, M.; Caamaño, M.; Farget, F.; Grinyer, G. F.; Jacquot, B.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; Ramos, D.; Suzuki, D.

    2014-12-01

    The use of high-intensity and/or heavy-ion beams in active targets and time-projection chambers is often limited by the strong ionization produced by the beam. Besides the difficulties associated with the saturation of the detector and electronics, beam-related signals may hide the physical events of interest or reduce the detector performance. In addition, space-charge effects may deteriorate the homogeneity of the electric drift field and distort the subsequent reconstruction of particle trajectories. In anticipation of future projects involving such conditions, a dedicated beam mask has been developed and tested in the MAYA active target. Experimental results with a 136Xe beam are presented.

  20. 12C+p resonant elastic scattering in the Maya active target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambi, S.; Raabe, R.; Borge, M. J. G.; Caamano, M.; Damoy, S.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Flavigny, F.; Fynbo, H.; Gibelin, J.; Grinyer, G. F.; Heinz, A.; Jonson, B.; Khodery, M.; Nilsson, T.; Orlandi, R.; Pancin, J.; Perez-Loureiro, D.; Randisi, G.; Ribeiro, G.; Roger, T.; Suzuki, D.; Tengblad, O.; Thies, R.; Datta, U.

    2015-03-01

    In a proof-of-principle measurement, the Maya active target detector was employed for a 12C( p, p) resonant elastic scattering experiment in inverse kinematics. The excitation energy region from 0 to 3MeV above the proton breakup threshold in 13N was investigated in a single measurement. By using the capability of the detector to localize the reaction vertex and record the tracks of the recoiling protons, data covering a large solid angle could be utilized, at the same time keeping an energy resolution comparable with that of direct-kinematics measurements. The excitation spectrum in 13N was fitted using the R-matrix formalism. The level parameters extracted are in good agreement with previous studies. The active target proved its potential for the study of resonant elastic scattering in inverse kinematics with radioactive beams, when detection efficiency is of primary importance.

  1. Chemometric study of Maya Blue from the voltammetry of microparticles approach.

    PubMed

    Doménech, Antonio; Doménech-Carbó, María Teresa; de Agredos Pascual, María Luisa Vazquez

    2007-04-01

    The use of the voltammetry of microparticles at paraffin-impregnated graphite electrodes allows for the characterization of different types of Maya Blue (MB) used in wall paintings from different archaeological sites of Campeche and YucatAn (Mexico). Using voltammetric signals for electron-transfer processes involving palygorskite-associated indigo and quinone functionalities generated by scratching the graphite surface, voltammograms provide information on the composition and texture of MB samples. Application of hierarchical cluster analysis and other chemometric methods allows us to characterize samples from different archaeological sites and to distinguish between samples proceeding from different chronological periods. Comparison between microscopic, spectroscopic, and electrochemical examination of genuine MB samples and synthetic specimens indicated that the preparation procedure of the pigment evolved in time via successive steps anticipating modern synthetic procedures, namely, hybrid organic-inorganic synthesis, temperature control of chemical reactivity, and template-like synthesis.

  2. Inferring Ancient Technology and Practices of the Elite Maya Kingship Through the Application of Materials Engineering Characterization Modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Kristina Alyssa

    This project focuses on the characterization of materials from burial offerings and painted decoration in a royal Maya tomb at El Zotz, Guatemala, and their association with mortuary rituals. Archaeological findings included vessels, jade masks, organic materials (wood, cord, and textiles), specular hematite cubes, shells with powdered cinnabar, green (malachite) painted stucco assumed to have decorated the wooden bier where the king was resting, and caches of lip-to-lip Aguila Orange bowls containing human phalanges. This paper describes findings from non-invasive and non-destructive analytical techniques including XRF, VPSEM-EDS, and XRD, emphasizing the potential of these combined technologies in the identification of organic and inorganic markers to infer burial customs. The nature and location of the findings, the evidence of pigment coloration on the bones employing hematite and cinnabar, and the indication of exposure of the bones to high temperatures suggest highly complex, even protracted mortuary practices of Maya elite.

  3. Analysis of 16 autosomal STRs and 17 Y-STRs in an indigenous Maya population from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sergio; Sevillano, Rubén; Illescas, María J; de Pancorbo, Marian Martínez

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to contribute new data on autosomal STR and Y-STR markers of the Mayas from Guatemala in order to improve available databases of forensic interest. We analyzed 16 autosomal STR markers in a population sample of 155 indigenous Maya and 17 Y-chromosomal STR markers in the 100 males of the sample. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium between autosomal STR markers were not observed at any loci. The combined power of exclusion was estimated as 99.9991% and the combined power of discrimination was >99.999999999999%. Haplotype diversity of Y-STRs was calculated as 0.9984 ± 0.0018 and analysis of pairwise genetic distances (Rst) supported the Native American background of the population.

  4. Population dynamics and stock assessment for Octopus maya (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) fishery in the Campeche Bank, Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arreguín-Sánchez, F; Solís-Ramírez, M J; González de la Rosa, M E

    2000-01-01

    The octopus (Octopus maya) is one of the most important fish resources in the Mexican Gulf of Mexico with a mean annual yield of 9000 ton, and a reasonable number of jobs created; O. maya represents 80% of the total octopus catch, followed by Octopus vulgaris. There are two artisanal fleets based on Octopus maya and a middle-size fleet that covers both species. Catch-at-length structured data from the artisanal fleets, for the 1994 season (August 1st to December 15th) were used to analyze the O. maya population dynamics and stock and to estimate the current level of exploitation. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were: L infinity = 252 mm, mantle length; K = 1.4 year-1; oscillation parameters C = 1.0, WP = 0.6; and tz = 0.842 years. A rough estimate of natural mortality was M = 2.2, total mortality from catch curve Z = 8.77, and exploitation rate F/Z = 0.75. This last value suggests an intensive exploitation, even when yield per recruit analysis indicates both fleets may increase the minimum legal size on about 10% to increase yields. The length-based VPA also shows that the stock is being exploited under its maximum acceptable biological limit. These apparently contradictory results are explained by biological and behavioral characteristics of this species. Because most females die after reproduction, a new gross estimation of natural mortality was computed as M = 3.3. The new estimate of exploitation rate was F/Z = 0.57. This new value coincides with results from the length-VPA and the Thompson and Bell methods, the former suggesting that a reduction of 20% in fishing mortality may provide larger yields. This fishery resource is fully exploited and current management measures must be revised to sustain and probably optimize yields.

  5. High Resolution, Multi-Proxy Records of Holocene Biomass Burning, Environmental Change, and Human Occupation in the Southern Maya Lowlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L.; Wahl, D.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between the prehistoric Maya and their environment continues to be a primary research focus, particularly with respect to discerning the role of humans versus climate in driving environmental change. Fire was fundamental to prehistoric Maya architectural and agricultural land use practices. Burning was used to open forest for cultivation as well as for the construction of site centers and settlements. The production of lime plaster, and important building material, was dependent on significant amounts of green wood for kiln fuel. Large populations employing land use strategies dependent on burning would have put tremendous demands on forest resources. Despite the significance of fire in Maya pre-history, there has been no focused effort to produce records of biomass burning and its impacts. Here we present preliminary high-resolution fossil charcoal data that span the Holocene from a network of lacustrine and paludal sites across Peten, Guatemala. Charcoal influx data from the early to mid Holocene, prior to the arrival of sedentary agriculturalists, provides a baseline to infer natural fire regimes under specific climatic conditions, increasing our understanding of tropical fire ecology. Charcoal deposition that co-varies with evidence of agriculture and human activity can be attributed to anthropogenic burning. Results are synthesized with existing data (pollen, δ18O and δ13C, magnetic susceptibility, and physical properties) in an effort to understand the processes driving the location, timing, and extent of fires across the region. Placed in the context of changes in vegetation, sedimentation regime, and hydrology, these data provide new insight into topical fire ecology before the period of human occupation, as well as the dynamic relationship between the prehistoric Maya and their environment.

  6. “Symptoms, Attitudes and Treatment Choices Surrounding Menopause among the Q’eqchi Maya of Livingston, Guatemala”

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Joanna L.; Veliz, Mario; Soejarto, Doel D.; Caceres, Armando; Mahady, Gail B

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored symptoms, attitudes and treatments surrounding women’s health and menopause among the Q’eqchi Maya of the eastern tropical lowlands of Guatemala. Data were obtained through participant observation, semi-structured interviews, focus groups and plant walks with 50 Q’eqchi community members from the state of Izabal, Municipality of Livingston, including 5 midwives, 5 traditional male healers and 8 postmenopausal women. Results indicate that the Q’eqchi Maya of Livingston possess their own cultural perceptions of women’s health which affect attitudes, symptoms and treatment choices during the menopausal transition. Since discussions of menstruation and menopause are considered cultural taboos among the Q’eqchi, many women mentioned experiencing excessive preoccupation when unanticipated and unfamiliar symptoms occurred. Furthermore, many women suffered from additional hardship when their spouse misinterpreted menopausal symptoms (vaginal dryness, sexual disinterest) as infidelity. Seven of the eight postmenopausal women interviewed indicated experiencing one or more symptoms during the menopausal transition, including headaches, anxiety, muscular pain, depression, and hot flashes. These results differ from the lack of symptomatology reported in previous studies in Mexico, but are in line with the result of menopausal research conducted among other Maya groups from the highlands of Guatemala. Although the Q’eqchi did not use a specific term for “hot flash”, three Q’eqchi women used the expression “baja presion” or a “lowering of blood pressure” to explain symptoms of profuse sweating followed by chills, heart palpitations, and emotional instability. The Q’eqchi Maya mentioned a number of herbal remedies to treat menopausal symptoms. Further research on these botanical treatments is needed in order to ascertain their safety and efficacy for continued use. PMID:16580764

  7. Three-dimensional visualization of nanostructured surfaces and bacterial attachment using Autodesk® Maya®

    PubMed Central

    Boshkovikj, Veselin; Fluke, Christopher J.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in understanding the ways in which bacteria interact with nano-structured surfaces. As a result, there is a need for innovative approaches to enable researchers to visualize the biological processes taking place, despite the fact that it is not possible to directly observe these processes. We present a novel approach for the three-dimensional visualization of bacterial interactions with nano-structured surfaces using the software package Autodesk Maya. Our approach comprises a semi-automated stage, where actual surface topographic parameters, obtained using an atomic force microscope, are imported into Maya via a custom Python script, followed by a ‘creative stage', where the bacterial cells and their interactions with the surfaces are visualized using available experimental data. The ‘Dynamics' and ‘nDynamics' capabilities of the Maya software allowed the construction and visualization of plausible interaction scenarios. This capability provides a practical aid to knowledge discovery, assists in the dissemination of research results, and provides an opportunity for an improved public understanding. We validated our approach by graphically depicting the interactions between the two bacteria being used for modeling purposes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with different titanium substrate surfaces that are routinely used in the production of biomedical devices. PMID:24577105

  8. A likely case of scurvy in a rural Early Classic Maya burial from Actun Uayazba Kab, Belize.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A Maya burial of a late adolescent (Burial 98-3) found in the rockshelter entrance of Actun Uayazba Kab (AUK), Belize, displays a combination of lesions that is consistent with scurvy. Signs include large, active lesions on the posterior surfaces of maxilla; relatively mild porotic hyperostosis along the midline of the skull on the parietals and occipital; cribra orbitalia; potential pinprick lesions on the greater wings of sphenoid and temporal; reactive lesions on the palate, temporal lines of frontal and parietals, and external and internal surfaces of zygomatics; small lesions on the popliteal surfaces of both femora; and periodontal disease. Identification of scurvy at AUK potentially informs the analysis of other primary burials and scattered bone found there and at other nearby sites, which often reveal evidence of nonspecific lesions that are usually attributed to anemia and infection, but that are also consistent with scurvy. The social and ecological context of this Protoclassic (0-AD 300) individual, who lived in a rural agricultural community with no evidence of complex social hierarchy, contrasts with typical discussions of disease among the Maya, which tend to focus on the degrading effects of overcrowding and resource deficiencies. While scurvy has been largely overlooked in the Maya area, this study supports earlier arguments for its presence that were based largely on clinical and ethnographic analogies and suggests the need to incorporate scurvy into broader synergistic models of ancient health.

  9. Development of sedentary communities in the Maya lowlands: coexisting mobile groups and public ceremonies at Ceibal, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Takeshi; MacLellan, Jessica; Triadan, Daniela; Munson, Jessica; Burham, Melissa; Aoyama, Kazuo; Nasu, Hiroo; Pinzón, Flory; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2015-04-07

    Our archaeological investigations at Ceibal, a lowland Maya site located in the Pasión region, documented that a formal ceremonial complex was built around 950 B.C. at the onset of the Middle Preclassic period, when ceramics began to be used in the Maya lowlands. Our refined chronology allowed us to trace the subsequent social changes in a resolution that had not been possible before. Many residents of Ceibal appear to have remained relatively mobile during the following centuries, living in ephemeral post-in-ground structures and frequently changing their residential localities. In other parts of the Pasión region, there may have existed more mobile populations who maintained the traditional lifestyle of the preceramic period. Although the emerging elite of Ceibal began to live in a substantial residential complex by 700 B.C., advanced sedentism with durable residences rebuilt in the same locations and burials placed under house floors was not adopted in most residential areas until 500 B.C., and did not become common until 300 B.C. or the Late Preclassic period. During the Middle Preclassic period, substantial formal ceremonial complexes appear to have been built only at a small number of important communities in the Maya lowlands, and groups with different levels of sedentism probably gathered for their constructions and for public rituals held in them. These collaborative activities likely played a central role in socially integrating diverse groups with different lifestyles and, eventually, in developing fully established sedentary communities.

  10. High-precision radiocarbon dating of political collapse and dynastic origins at the Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; MacLellan, Jessica; Burham, Melissa; Aoyama, Kazuo; Palomo, Juan Manuel; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Pinzón, Flory; Nasu, Hiroo

    2017-02-07

    The lowland Maya site of Ceibal, Guatemala, had a long history of occupation, spanning from the Middle Preclassic Period through the Terminal Classic (1000 BC to AD 950). The Ceibal-Petexbatun Archaeological Project has been conducting archaeological investigations at this site since 2005 and has obtained 154 radiocarbon dates, which represent the largest collection of radiocarbon assays from a single Maya site. The Bayesian analysis of these dates, combined with a detailed study of ceramics, allowed us to develop a high-precision chronology for Ceibal. Through this chronology, we traced the trajectories of the Preclassic collapse around AD 150-300 and the Classic collapse around AD 800-950, revealing similar patterns in the two cases. Social instability started with the intensification of warfare around 75 BC and AD 735, respectively, followed by the fall of multiple centers across the Maya lowlands around AD 150 and 810. The population of Ceibal persisted for some time in both cases, but the center eventually experienced major decline around AD 300 and 900. Despite these similarities in their diachronic trajectories, the outcomes of these collapses were different, with the former associated with the development of dynasties centered on divine rulership and the latter leading to their downfalls. The Ceibal dynasty emerged during the period of low population after the Preclassic collapse, suggesting that this dynasty was placed under the influence from, or by the direct intervention of, an external power.

  11. Development of sedentary communities in the Maya lowlands: Coexisting mobile groups and public ceremonies at Ceibal, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Inomata, Takeshi; MacLellan, Jessica; Triadan, Daniela; Munson, Jessica; Burham, Melissa; Aoyama, Kazuo; Nasu, Hiroo; Pinzón, Flory; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our archaeological investigations at Ceibal, a lowland Maya site located in the Pasión region, documented that a formal ceremonial complex was built around 950 B.C. at the onset of the Middle Preclassic period, when ceramics began to be used in the Maya lowlands. Our refined chronology allowed us to trace the subsequent social changes in a resolution that had not been possible before. Many residents of Ceibal appear to have remained relatively mobile during the following centuries, living in ephemeral post-in-ground structures and frequently changing their residential localities. In other parts of the Pasión region, there may have existed more mobile populations who maintained the traditional lifestyle of the preceramic period. Although the emerging elite of Ceibal began to live in a substantial residential complex by 700 B.C., advanced sedentism with durable residences rebuilt in the same locations and burials placed under house floors was not adopted in most residential areas until 500 B.C., and did not become common until 300 B.C. or the Late Preclassic period. During the Middle Preclassic period, substantial formal ceremonial complexes appear to have been built only at a small number of important communities in the Maya lowlands, and groups with different levels of sedentism probably gathered for their constructions and for public rituals held in them. These collaborative activities likely played a central role in socially integrating diverse groups with different lifestyles and, eventually, in developing fully established sedentary communities. PMID:25831523

  12. Raman and infrared study of synthetic Maya pigments as a function of heating time and dye concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza, Layra; Manciu, Felicia; Polette, Lori; Torres, Brenda; Chianelli, Russell

    2007-03-01

    Maya Blue is a famous indigo-based pigment produced by the ancient Mayas. Samples for the present work are made by a synthetic route, and demonstrate similar chemical stability as the ancient Maya Blue samples. Since no direct proof exists that the indigo chemically binds to the inorganic palygorskite lattice, there is still controversy on the resting place of the indigo molecules; i.e. are they in the channels of palygorskite, on the surface, or both. Our analysis by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy proves the partial elimination of the selection rules for the centrosymmetric indigo, and shows the disappearance of the indigo N-H bonding, as the organic molecules incorporate into palygorskite material. Infrared data confirm the loss of zeolitic water and a partial removal of structural water after the heating process. Evidence of bonding between cationic aluminum and indigo through nitrogen is revealed by FT-Raman measurements. The oxygen carbonyl is also believed to interact with the metal.

  13. Classic Maya Bloodletting and the Cultural Evolution of Religious Rituals: Quantifying Patterns of Variation in Hieroglyphic Texts

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Jessica; Amati, Viviana; Collard, Mark; Macri, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Religious rituals that are painful or highly stressful are hypothesized to be costly signs of commitment essential for the evolution of complex society. Yet few studies have investigated how such extreme ritual practices were culturally transmitted in past societies. Here, we report the first study to analyze temporal and spatial variation in bloodletting rituals recorded in Classic Maya (ca. 250–900 CE) hieroglyphic texts. We also identify the sociopolitical contexts most closely associated with these ancient recorded rituals. Sampling an extensive record of 2,480 hieroglyphic texts, this study identifies every recorded instance of the logographic sign for the word ch’ahb’ that is associated with ritual bloodletting. We show that documented rituals exhibit low frequency whose occurrence cannot be predicted by spatial location. Conversely, network ties better capture the distribution of bloodletting rituals across the southern Maya region. Our results indicate that bloodletting rituals by Maya nobles were not uniformly recorded, but were typically documented in association with antagonistic statements and may have signaled royal commitments among connected polities. PMID:25254359

  14. Three-dimensional visualization of nanostructured surfaces and bacterial attachment using Autodesk® Maya®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshkovikj, Veselin; Fluke, Christopher J.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2014-02-01

    There has been a growing interest in understanding the ways in which bacteria interact with nano-structured surfaces. As a result, there is a need for innovative approaches to enable researchers to visualize the biological processes taking place, despite the fact that it is not possible to directly observe these processes. We present a novel approach for the three-dimensional visualization of bacterial interactions with nano-structured surfaces using the software package Autodesk Maya. Our approach comprises a semi-automated stage, where actual surface topographic parameters, obtained using an atomic force microscope, are imported into Maya via a custom Python script, followed by a `creative stage', where the bacterial cells and their interactions with the surfaces are visualized using available experimental data. The `Dynamics' and `nDynamics' capabilities of the Maya software allowed the construction and visualization of plausible interaction scenarios. This capability provides a practical aid to knowledge discovery, assists in the dissemination of research results, and provides an opportunity for an improved public understanding. We validated our approach by graphically depicting the interactions between the two bacteria being used for modeling purposes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with different titanium substrate surfaces that are routinely used in the production of biomedical devices.

  15. Three-dimensional visualization of nanostructured surfaces and bacterial attachment using Autodesk® Maya®.

    PubMed

    Boshkovikj, Veselin; Fluke, Christopher J; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2014-02-28

    There has been a growing interest in understanding the ways in which bacteria interact with nano-structured surfaces. As a result, there is a need for innovative approaches to enable researchers to visualize the biological processes taking place, despite the fact that it is not possible to directly observe these processes. We present a novel approach for the three-dimensional visualization of bacterial interactions with nano-structured surfaces using the software package Autodesk Maya. Our approach comprises a semi-automated stage, where actual surface topographic parameters, obtained using an atomic force microscope, are imported into Maya via a custom Python script, followed by a 'creative stage', where the bacterial cells and their interactions with the surfaces are visualized using available experimental data. The 'Dynamics' and 'nDynamics' capabilities of the Maya software allowed the construction and visualization of plausible interaction scenarios. This capability provides a practical aid to knowledge discovery, assists in the dissemination of research results, and provides an opportunity for an improved public understanding. We validated our approach by graphically depicting the interactions between the two bacteria being used for modeling purposes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with different titanium substrate surfaces that are routinely used in the production of biomedical devices.

  16. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them.

  17. Classic Maya bloodletting and the cultural evolution of religious rituals: quantifying patterns of variation in hieroglyphic texts.

    PubMed

    Munson, Jessica; Amati, Viviana; Collard, Mark; Macri, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Religious rituals that are painful or highly stressful are hypothesized to be costly signs of commitment essential for the evolution of complex society. Yet few studies have investigated how such extreme ritual practices were culturally transmitted in past societies. Here, we report the first study to analyze temporal and spatial variation in bloodletting rituals recorded in Classic Maya (ca. 250-900 CE) hieroglyphic texts. We also identify the sociopolitical contexts most closely associated with these ancient recorded rituals. Sampling an extensive record of 2,480 hieroglyphic texts, this study identifies every recorded instance of the logographic sign for the word ch'ahb' that is associated with ritual bloodletting. We show that documented rituals exhibit low frequency whose occurrence cannot be predicted by spatial location. Conversely, network ties better capture the distribution of bloodletting rituals across the southern Maya region. Our results indicate that bloodletting rituals by Maya nobles were not uniformly recorded, but were typically documented in association with antagonistic statements and may have signaled royal commitments among connected polities.

  18. XRF geochemistry of Maya mud volcano (SAGAS 08 cruise Alboran Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Germade, Isabel; Fátima López Rodríguez, Carmen; Rubio, Belén.; Comas, Menchu; Rey, Daniel; Vilas, Federico; Álvarez, Paula

    2010-05-01

    Mud ascent as the result of active diapirism and mud volcanoes on the seafloor are common features in the Alboran Sea. It is thought that these have been developed during a compressional tectonic setting that produced folding and wrench tectonics throughout the basin. During the TTR 17 cruise of the R/V Professor Logachev (2008), several new and previously discovered mud volcanoes and structure mounds were sampled in the southwest sector of Alboran Basin. Most of the investigated mud volcanic deposits, such as Melilla and Maya structures, were covered by a thick drape of hemipelagic mud, suggesting that volcanoes are currently inactive. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the ability of high-resolution XRF core scanning based geochemical depth profiles to discriminate between mud volcanoes, mounds and hemipelagic sediments, and also to show high resolution geochemical profiles of the core 419G from Maya mud volcano. For our purpose U-channels were subsampled from the centre of half-split gravity cores. High-resolution XRF data of 28 major and trace elements were acquired for each core on an Itrax Core Scanner at the University of Vigo by using Mo and Cr lamps. The acquisition was performed with in this case a 300 µm resolution and provided about 100,000 data point (i.e. XRF spectra), for each meter of core. We used carbon dating to estimate the age of the Maya mud volcano sediments. We also used a scanning electron microscope to do microanalysis and to study mineralogy. The results show that down-core high resolution XRF scanner based geochemical profiles represented a good and quick screening tool for identifying authigenic methane-related carbonate-rich layers that may represent paleo-indicators for ancient methane seepage. Sedimentary Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios have also been explored to infer the presence of authigenic aragonite (Sr-rich) and Mg-rich carbonate phases (high-Mg calcite, dolomite). The coexistence of methane anaerobic oxidation process and

  19. The Source of Volcanic Ash in Late Classic Maya Pottery at El Pilar, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catlin, B. L.; Ford, A.; Spera, F. J.

    2007-12-01

    The presence of volcanic ash used as temper in Late Classic Maya pottery (AD 600-900) at El Pilar has been long known although the volcano(s) contributing ash have not been identified. We use geochemical fingerprinting, comparing compositions of glass shards in potsherds with volcanic sources to identify the source(s). El Pilar is located in the Maya carbonate lowlands distant from volcanic sources. It is unlikely Maya transported ash from distant sites: ash volumes are too large, the terrain too rugged, and no draft animals were available. Ash layer mining is unlikely because mine sites have not been found despite intensive surveys. Nearest volcanic sources to El Pilar, Belize and Guatemala, are roughly 450 km to the south and east. The ash found in potsherds has a cuspate morphology. This suggests ash was collected during, or shortly after, an ash airfall event following eruption. Analyses of n=333 ash shards from 20 ceramic (pottery) sherds was conducted by electron microprobe for major elements, and LA-ICPMS for trace elements and Pb isotopes. These analyses can be compared to volcanic materials from candidate volcanoes in the region. The 1982 El Chichon eruption caused airfall deposition (< 1 mm isopach) at El Pilar which lead Espindola et. al, 2000 to suggest that earlier eruptions at El Chichon could have caused ash fall at El Pilar during the Late Classic. 333 individual glass shards found within about 20 distinct potsherds have a mean silica content of 78.3±1.1 wt. % (one-sigma). The 1982 El Chichon eruption products have a mean silica content of 60.2±7.2% (one-sigma, n=48); the circa 1475 AD eruptive products of El Chichon have a mean silica content of 53.4±3.4 wt % (one-sigma, n=8). This suggests that El Chichon was not a source of the ash at El Pilar. In order confirm or refute the El Chichon source hypothesis, comparison of trace element ratios between archaeological samples and El Chichon has been made. The atomic ratios of La/Yb, Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf, Sr

  20. The Maya ball game. Comparison of the physical load with modern ball games.

    PubMed

    Blümchen, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    The Maya ball game (MBG) originated more than 3,000 years ago. As best as is now known from archaeological and iconographical sources as well as the structure of the sport courts, this was a very physically taxing and important part of Mayan culture. The objective of this paper was to determine the physical load on those who participated in MBG as best as could be done from present perspectives. The load appears to be similar to that observed in soccer-tennis, in which heart rate rises to 140-160 beats/min and systolic blood pressure to 150-170 mm Hg. This is considered a light-to-moderate workload (4.5-5.5 metabolic equivalents) comparable to intensities reached in baseball, cycling (10 km/h), cross-country skiing (7 km/h), tournament dancing, swimming (2 km/h), doubles tennis and hiking (7 km/h). Thus, the cardiovascular demands of popular sports seem to have remained relatively similar through several millennia.

  1. Cacao domestication I: the origin of the cacao cultivated by the Mayas.

    PubMed

    Motamayor, J C; Risterucci, A M; Lopez, P A; Ortiz, C F; Moreno, A; Lanaud, C

    2002-11-01

    Criollo cacao (Theobroma cacao ssp. cacao) was cultivated by the Mayas over 1500 years ago. It has been suggested that Criollo cacao originated in Central America and that it evolved independently from the cacao populations in the Amazon basin. Cacao populations from the Amazon basin are included in the second morphogeographic group: Forastero, and assigned to T. cacao ssp. sphaerocarpum. To gain further insight into the origin and genetic basis of Criollo cacao from Central America, RFLP and microsatellite analyses were performed on a sample that avoided mixing pure Criollo individuals with individuals classified as Criollo but which might have been introgressed with Forastero genes. We distinguished these two types of individuals as Ancient and Modern Criollo. In contrast to previous studies, Ancient Criollo individuals formerly classified as 'wild', were found to form a closely related group together with Ancient Criollo individuals from South America. The Ancient Criollo trees were also closer to Colombian-Ecuadorian Forastero individuals than these Colombian-Ecuadorian trees were to other South American Forastero individuals. RFLP and microsatellite analyses revealed a high level of homozygosity and significantly low genetic diversity within the Ancient Criollo group. The results suggest that the Ancient Criollo individuals represent the original Criollo group. The results also implies that this group does not represent a separate subspecies and that it probably originated from a few individuals in South America that may have been spread by man within Central America.

  2. Conceptualizing socio‐hydrological drought processes: The case of the Maya collapse

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Gemma; Viglione, Alberto; Prskawetz, Alexia; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With population growth, increasing water demands and climate change the need to understand the current and future pathways to water security is becoming more pressing. To contribute to addressing this challenge, we examine the link between water stress and society through socio‐hydrological modeling. We conceptualize the interactions between an agricultural society with its environment in a stylized way. We apply the model to the case of the ancient Maya, a population that experienced a peak during the Classic Period (AD 600–830) and then declined during the ninth century. The hypothesis that modest drought periods played a major role in the society's collapse is explored. Simulating plausible feedbacks between water and society we show that a modest reduction in rainfall may lead to an 80% population collapse. Population density and crop sensitivity to droughts, however, may play an equally important role. The simulations indicate that construction of reservoirs results in less frequent drought impacts, but if the reservoirs run dry, drought impact may be more severe and the population drop may be larger. PMID:27840455

  3. Chicle harvesting and extractive reserves in the Maya Biosphere b: Reserve

    SciTech Connect

    Dugelby, B.L.

    1995-12-31

    Chicle latex has been extracted from the forests of northern Guatemala for over 100 years and is a key element in the extractive reserve component of the Maya Biosphere Reserve. The carrying capacity of the reserve for chicle extraction can be estimated from a model incorporating ecological data (such as latex yields per tree and population structure of chicle trees, Manilkara zapota, Sapot.) with socio-ecological and political information concerning camp and chicle resource availability, harvester tapping behavior, and historical and present-day institutional organization. I estimate that chicle harvestors currently utilize and area larger than the multiple use zone of the reserve in a unsustainable manner. Simple reduction of harvestors numbers will not ensure sustainability; institutional reforms are also in order. Extractive reserves can play an important role in preserving tropical forests. However, their effectiveness is highly dependent on prevailing ecological, socio-economic, and political conditions. Wise planning and management of extractive reserves demands an understanding of the system`s carrying capacity. In addition, a strong institutional foundation is necessary to assure effective monitoring and enforcement of harvesting regulations.

  4. The influence of power and reason on young Maya children's endorsement of testimony.

    PubMed

    Castelain, Thomas; Bernard, Stéphane; Van der Henst, Jean-Baptiste; Mercier, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Two important parenting strategies are to impose one's power and to use reasoning. The effect of these strategies on children's evaluation of testimony has received very little attention. Using the epistemic vigilance framework, we predict that when the reasoning cue is strong enough it should overcome the power cue. We test this prediction in a population for which anthropological data suggest that power is the prominent strategy while reasoning is rarely relied on in the interactions with children. In Experiment 1, 4- to 6-year-old children from a traditional Maya population are shown to endorse the testimony supported by a strong argument over that supported by a weak argument. In Experiment 2, the same participants are shown to follow the testimony of a dominant over that of a subordinate. The participants are then shown to endorse the testimony of a subordinate who provides a strong argument over that of a dominant who provides either a weak argument (Experiment 3) or no argument (Experiment 4). Thus, when the power and reasoning cues conflict, reasoning completely trumps power.

  5. Evaluation of a siliciclastic diamictite from the Maya Mountains of Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elswick, Erika R.; Johnson, Claudia C.

    2010-04-01

    A diamictite unit 9.2 m thick and 1.5 × 1.0 km in aerial extent lies unconformably on siliciclastics of the Santa Rosa Group in the Maya Mountains of Belize. The diamictite has an irregular scour base with 1.5 m of erosional relief. Matrix accounts for 24-27% of the deposit and consists of coarse sand to clay-sized particles of lithics and mineral grains of various origins. Clasts are granule to boulder in size, sub-rounded, poorly sorted, matrix-supported, oriented randomly and lack grading. Clasts are composed exclusively of sandstone, siltstone and shale lithologies derived from the Santa Rosa. Trace element concentrations are relatively higher in the Santa Rosa sediments, but Cu and Zn are elevated in the diamictite. Some clasts exhibit alteration rinds related to post-depositional hydrothermal processes. The age of the diamictite is unknown, it overlies the latest Pennsylvanian to Middle Permian Santa Rosa Group, and has a present-day erosional top of the unit which prevents further age refinements. The diamictite is interpreted to be of sediment-gravity flow origin related to tectonic activity on the Northern Boundary fault. However, this study points to the potential for future re-evaluation of the deposit with refinement of the depositional models themselves. The diamictite deposit also allows for further interpretation of the broader geologic history of Northern Central America.

  6. Conceptualizing socio-hydrological drought processes: The case of the Maya collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuil, Linda; Carr, Gemma; Viglione, Alberto; Prskawetz, Alexia; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-08-01

    With population growth, increasing water demands and climate change the need to understand the current and future pathways to water security is becoming more pressing. To contribute to addressing this challenge, we examine the link between water stress and society through socio-hydrological modeling. We conceptualize the interactions between an agricultural society with its environment in a stylized way. We apply the model to the case of the ancient Maya, a population that experienced a peak during the Classic Period (AD 600-830) and then declined during the ninth century. The hypothesis that modest drought periods played a major role in the society's collapse is explored. Simulating plausible feedbacks between water and society we show that a modest reduction in rainfall may lead to an 80% population collapse. Population density and crop sensitivity to droughts, however, may play an equally important role. The simulations indicate that construction of reservoirs results in less frequent drought impacts, but if the reservoirs run dry, drought impact may be more severe and the population drop may be larger.

  7. Conceptualizing socio-hydrological drought processes: The case of the Maya collapse.

    PubMed

    Kuil, Linda; Carr, Gemma; Viglione, Alberto; Prskawetz, Alexia; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-08-01

    With population growth, increasing water demands and climate change the need to understand the current and future pathways to water security is becoming more pressing. To contribute to addressing this challenge, we examine the link between water stress and society through socio-hydrological modeling. We conceptualize the interactions between an agricultural society with its environment in a stylized way. We apply the model to the case of the ancient Maya, a population that experienced a peak during the Classic Period (AD 600-830) and then declined during the ninth century. The hypothesis that modest drought periods played a major role in the society's collapse is explored. Simulating plausible feedbacks between water and society we show that a modest reduction in rainfall may lead to an 80% population collapse. Population density and crop sensitivity to droughts, however, may play an equally important role. The simulations indicate that construction of reservoirs results in less frequent drought impacts, but if the reservoirs run dry, drought impact may be more severe and the population drop may be larger.

  8. Architecture as animate landscape: circular shrines in the ancient Maya lowlands.

    PubMed

    Harrison-Buck, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I develop a theory of landscape archaeology that incorporates the concept of “animism” as a cognitive approach. Current trends in anthropology are placing greater emphasis on indigenous perspectives, and in recent decades animism has seen a resurgence in anthropological theory. As a means of relating in (not to) one's world, animism is a mode of thought that has direct bearing on landscape archaeology. Yet, Americanist archaeologists have been slow to incorporate this concept as a component of landscape theory. I consider animism and Nurit Bird-David's (1999) theory of “relatedness” and how such perspectives might be expressed archaeologically in Mesoamerica. I examine the distribution of marine shells and cave formations that appear incorporated as architectural elements on ancient Maya circular shrine architecture. More than just “symbols” of sacred geography, I suggest these materials represent living entities that animate shrines through their ongoing relationships with human and other-than-human agents in the world.

  9. Antifungal Saponins from the Maya Medicinal Plant Cestrum schlechtendahlii G. Don (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Ta, Chieu Anh Kim; Guerrero-Analco, J Antonio; Roberts, Elizabeth; Liu, Rui; Mogg, Christopher D; Saleem, Ammar; Otárola-Rojas, Marco; Poveda, Luis; Sanchez-Vindas, Pablo; Cal, Victor; Caal, Federico; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Smith, Myron L; Arnason, John T

    2016-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract (80% EtOH) of the leaves of Cestrum schlechtendahlii, a plant used by Q'eqchi' Maya healers for treatment of athlete's foot, resulted in the isolation and identification of two spirostanol saponins (1 and 2). Structure elucidation by MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods identified them to be the known saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and new saponin (25R)-1β,2α-dihydroxy-5α-spirostan-3-β-yl-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (2). While 2 showed little or no antifungal activity at the highest concentration tested, 1 inhibited growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15-25 μM), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Fusarium graminearum (MIC of 132-198 μM).

  10. Combined hydrogen and carbon isotopes of plant waxes as an indicator of drought impacts on ancient Maya agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax δD, δ13C, and Δ14C analyses in two lake sediment cores from southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change. Plant-wax specific Δ14C ages indicate a large input of pre-aged plant waxes into lake sediment. Comparison of plant-wax δD records with other regional hydroclimate proxy records suggest that plant-wax ages are evenly distributed around plant-wax radiocarbon ages, and that applying an age model based on plant-wax radiocarbon ages is appropriate for these lake sediments. We evaluate how differences in plant-wax age distributions influence stable isotope records to assess the age uncertainty associated with records of climate and vegetation change derived from plant-wax stable isotopes. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax δ13C is largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δ13C would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analysis of plant-wax δD and δ13C from both lakes indicates increasingly divergent trends following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend to correspond with low plant-wax δ13C values and vice versa. This pattern is consistent with

  11. Evidence disputing deforestation as the cause for the collapse of the ancient Maya polity of Copan, Honduras

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Cameron L.; Burney, David A.; Burney, Lida Pigott

    2009-01-01

    Archaeologists have proposed diverse hypotheses to explain the collapse of the southern Maya lowland cities between the 8th and 10th centuries A.D. Although it generally is believed that no single factor was responsible, a commonly accepted cause is environmental degradation as a product of large-scale deforestation. To date, the most compelling scientific evidence used to support this hypothesis comes from the archaeological site of Copan, Honduras, where the analysis of a sediment core suggested a dramatic increase in forest clearance in the Late Classic period (A.D. 600–900). By contrast, in the work presented here, the authors’ analysis of a longer sediment core demonstrates that forest cover increased from A.D. 400 to A.D. 900, with arboreal pollen accounting for 59.8–71.0% of the pollen assemblage by approximately A.D. 780–980. The highest levels of deforestation are found about 900 B.C. when, at its peak, herb pollen made up 89.8% of the assemblage. A second, although less pronounced, period of elevated deforestation peaked at approximately A.D. 400 when herb pollen reached 65.3% of the assemblage. The first deforestation event likely coincided with the widespread adoption of agriculture, a pattern found elsewhere in Mesoamerica. The second period of forest clearance probably was associated with the incursion of Maya speakers into the Copan Valley and their subsequent construction of the earliest levels of the Copan Acropolis. These results refute the former hypothesis that the ancient Maya responded to their increasingly large urban population by exhausting, rather than conserving, natural resources. PMID:20018691

  12. HLA-class II genes in Mexican Amerindian Mayas: relatedness with Guatemalan Mayans and other populations.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Granados, Julio; Pérez-Hernández, Nonanzit; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Areces, Cristina; Gómez-Prieto, Pablo; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the HLA class II allele frequencies in 50 healthy unrelated Mayan individuals. The relationship with other worldwide populations was studied by using HLA data from 71 different populations. The most frequent alleles were HLA-DRB1*04, HLA-DRB1*01, HLA-DQB1*0302 and HLA-DQB1*0501. When comparisons with other Mexican Amerindian groups were made, some differences were observed. Mayans showed an increased frequency of HLA-DRB1*01 when compared to Nahuas, Mayos, Teenek and Mazatecans (p < 0.05), whereas the HLA-DRB1*04 was increased in Mayans when compared to Nahuas (p < 0.05). The analysis of HLA-DQB1 alleles showed an increased frequency of DQB1*0302 in Mayans when compared to Nahuas and Mazatecans (p < 0.05), whereas the frequency of HLA-DQB1*0301 was decreased in Mayans when compared to Nahuas, Mayos, Teenek and Mazatecans (p < 0.05). Decreased frequency of HLA-DQB1*0501 in Mayans when compared to Nahuas was found. Neighbour Joining dendrogram shows that Mexican Mayans are genetically close to some of the most ancient groups living in Mexico and some South American Amerindians. However, Guatemalan Mayans do not cluster together with Mexican Mayas showing that languages do not correlate with genes, particularly in Amerindians. The data corroborate the restricted polymorphism of HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles and the high frequency of HLA-DRB1*04 and HLA-DQB1*0302 in Mayans from Mexico.

  13. Lacandon Maya ecosystem management: sustainable design for subsistence and environmental restoration.

    PubMed

    Diemont, Stewart A W; Martin, Jay F

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous groups have designed and managed their ecosystems for generations, resulting in biodiversity protection while producing for their family's needs. Here we describe the agroecosystem of the Lacandon Maya, an indigenous group who live in Chiapas, Mexico. The Lacandon practice a form of swidden agriculture that conserves the surrounding rain forest ecosystem while cycling the majority of their land through five successional stages. These stages include an herbaceous stage, two shrub stages, and two forest stages. A portion of their land is kept in primary forest. This study presents the Lacandon traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) for agroforestry and quantitatively describes the plant community and the associated soil ecology of each successional stage. Also documented is the knowledge of the Lacandon regarding the immediate use of plant species and plant species useful for soil fertility enhancement. Woody plant diversity increases during the successional stages of the Lacandon system, and by the beginning of the first forest stage, the diversity is similar to that of the primary forest. In all stages, Lacandon use 60% of the available plant species for food, medicine, and raw materials. Approximately 45% of the woody plant species present in each fallow stage were thought by the Lacandon to enhance soil fertility. Total soil nitrogen and soil organic matter increased with successional stage and with time from intentional burn. Nutrient and soil nematode dynamics in shrub stages related to the presence of introduced and managed plants, indicating engineered soil enhancement by the Lacandon. The effects on biodiversity and soil ecology coupled with productivity for agricultural subsistence indicate that Lacandon TEK may offer tools for environmental conservation that would provide for a family's basic needs while maintaining a biodiverse rain forest ecosystem. Tools such as these may offer options for regional restoration and conservation efforts such as

  14. The Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis and the language development of Yucatec Maya-Spanish bilingual children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrooman, Michael D.

    2000-11-01

    The Linguistic Interdependence Hypothesis as developed by Cummins (1978) argues that certain first language (L1) knowledge can be positively transferred during the process of second language (L2) acquisition. The L1 linguistic knowledge and skills that a child possesses can be extremely instrumental to the development of corresponding abilities in the L2. An integral component of these facilitative aspects of language influence is that the L1 be sufficiently developed prior to the extensive exposure to the L2 as would be found, for example, in an educational environment. An additional theoretical framework that has motivated this study incorporates principles of Universal Grammar, namely, that there are innate properties of language shared by the human species, and that language acquisition is the result of the interaction between these biologically determined aspects of language with the learner's linguistic environment. The principal goal of this dissertation is to examine children's knowledge of one area of Yucatec Maya L1 syntax, specifically, the word order of simple transitive sentences. By means of an experiment conducted with 28 Mayan children of 4 and 5 years of age, data were gathered and analyzed. Overall, the findings suggest that the subjects of the study are still in the process of acquiring the syntactic structure under investigation, that their L1 is still developing. Very few of the subjects demonstrated mastery of the structure under investigation. With regards to pedagogical concerns within the context of minority language education, the potentiality for these findings to enhance or inhibit the subsequent acquisition of Spanish as an L2 is examined.

  15. Will America Fall Apart Like the Maya? Grade 7 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, David

    If a civilization as powerful and technologically advanced during its time as the Maya could disappear, can the same tragic outcome befall the United States? In this lesson, students work in teams to research the ancient Mayan civilization, specifically the circumstances of its demise. Student teams prepare a report of their findings and recommend…

  16. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in the Maya Region: implications for pre-Hispanic animal trade and the timing of turkey domestication.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Erin Kennedy; Emery, Kitty F; Steadman, David W; Speller, Camilla; Matheny, Ray; Yang, Dongya

    2012-01-01

    Late Preclassic (300 BC-AD 100) turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala) represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata), is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.

  17. Two new species of dicyemid mesozoans (Dicyemida: Dicyemidae) from Octopus maya Voss & Solis-Ramirez (Octopodidae) off Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Martinez, Sheila; Aguirre-Macedo, M Leopoldina; Furuya, Hidetaka

    2016-07-01

    Two new dicyemid species are described from the endemic cephalopod Octopus maya Voss & Solis-Ramirez collected off Yucatan, Mexico. The renal sacs of 40 juvenile and adult octopuses from four localities were examined. Dicyema hochbergi n. sp. is a medium-sized species that reaches 2,245 µm in length. The vermiform stages consist of 18-24 peripheral cells, a conical calotte and the extension of the axial cell between the base and middle of the metapolar cells. Infusoriform embryos consist of 39 cells with urn cell containing one germinal cell, two nuclei and solid refringent bodies. Dicyema mexcayae n. sp. is a relatively small species that reaches 1,114 µm in length. The vermiform stages are constituted by 14-16 peripheral cells, an elongate calotte and the axial cell extending forward to the middle of the metapolar cells. The infusoriform embryos consist of 37 cells, two solid refringent bodies and urn cells with two nuclei each. The present study represents the first description of a dicyemid species from O. maya and increases the number of described species from Mexican waters to 11.

  18. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis shows high genetic diversity and ecological niche specificity among haplotypes in the Maya Mountains of Belize.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Kristine; Pollinger, John

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been implicated in amphibian declines around the globe. Although it has been found in most countries in Central America, its presence has never been assessed in Belize. We set out to determine the range, prevalence, and diversity of Bd using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and sequencing of a portion of the 5.8 s and ITS1-2 regions. Swabs were collected from 524 amphibians of at least 26 species in the protected areas of the Maya Mountains of Belize. We sequenced a subset of 72 samples that had tested positive for Bd by qPCR at least once; 30 samples were verified as Bd. Eight unique Bd haplotypes were identified in the Maya Mountains, five of which were previously undescribed. We identified unique ecological niches for the two most broadly distributed haplotypes. Combined with data showing differing virulence shown in different strains in other studies, the 5.8 s - ITS1-2 region diversity found in this study suggests that there may be substantial differences among populations or haplotypes. Future work should focus on whether specific haplotypes for other genomic regions and possibly pathogenicity can be associated with haplotypes at this locus, as well as the integration of molecular tools with other ecological tools to elucidate the ecology and pathogenicity of Bd.

  19. The Role of Deforestation in the Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization: Lessons for the Current Land Use Management in Northern Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, D. K.; Nair, U. S.; Welch, R. M.; Lawton, R. O.; Oglesby, R. J.; Pielke, R. A.; Sever, T. A.; Irwin, D.

    2005-12-01

    The classic Maya civilization produced thriving cities that attained population densities comparable to modern day cities during the zenith of its growth approximately around 750 A.D. The Mayan civilization then experienced a catastrophic collapse between 750-950 A.D. Among the various hypothesis forwarded to explain the sudden collapse, one that has recently attracted attention, is the role of deforestation and decreases of regional rainfall that could have affected the day-to-day lives of the ancient Mayas. Deep-rooted rainforest vegetation has access to water stored in deep soil layers, and this deep water is made available to the hydrological cycle through transpiration. Removal of rainforests for agricultural purposes, which is accompanied by soil compaction and reduction in the organic material at the surface, leads to increased runoff and decreased soil water storage. Shallow-rooted vegetation that replaces the deep-rooted rainforests cannot efficiently access the moisture in the deep soil layers, reducing flux of water vapor to the atmosphere. In this study the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CSU RAMS) is utilized to examine differences in precipitation between current and forested conditions and between current and deforested conditions similar to those that archaeologists believe were prevalent prior to the collapse. Moreover, current deforestation rates in this region is converting the landscape into one that is similar to those prior to the Maya collapse. The simulated rainfall is compared against climatological rain gauge rainfall values. The statistical scores such as probability of detection, false alarm ratio, and the threat scores all compare favorably with those reported in the literature. Our results suggest that with the removal of forests the rainfall can be expected to decrease by 10 to 100mm in the Maya lowlands. Averaged over the entire Maya lowlands region, dry season rainfall for the forested conditions is

  20. Terror, silencing and children: international, multidisciplinary collaboration with Guatemalan Maya communities.

    PubMed

    Lykes, M B

    1994-02-01

    In recent years psychologists and other mental health workers have begun to document the effects of state-sponsored violence and civil war on civilians and to develop specific clinical and community interventions to address these issues. During the past decade between 50,000 to 100,000 Guatemalans have been murdered and at least 38,000 people disappeared. Over 400 rural villages were destroyed and the Guatemalan army's scorched earth policy forced hundreds of thousands who survived to flee, either to another part of the country or to leave Guatemala altogether. State-sponsored terror and silencing persists in Guatemala despite a return to civilian government. This article describes some of the problems encountered by Maya children in situations of ongoing war and state-sponsored terror and the development of one specific response, Creative Workshops for Children, an international, interdisciplinary program organized by mental health workers from Argentina, Guatemala and United States. The inadequacies of psychological theory based on a medical model that sees trauma as an intrapsychic phenomenon and conceptualizes its effects in situations of war as post-traumatic stress are described and a reconceptualization of trauma as psychosocial is proposed. The accompanying need to address the "normal abnormality" of war and state-sponsored terror through a community-based group process is presented. The model incorporates drawing, story telling, collage and dramatization in a group process that seeks to create a space and time in which the child can express him or herself, communicate experiences to others, and discharge energy and emotion connected to previous traumatic experiences. The work draws on existing cultural traditions (e.g. oral story telling and dramatization) and resources (e.g. nature, plants) of indigenous communities, offering additional resources to those seeking to collaborate in the development of mental health in their communities and suggesting

  1. Proyecto Costa Escondida: Interdisciplinary Research at the Ancient Maya Port Site of Vista Alegre, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, J.; Rissolo, D.; Beddows, P. A.; Goodman, B.; Smith, D.

    2013-05-01

    At the northeast tip of the Yucatan Peninsula - where the Caribbean meets the Gulf - lies the ancient Maya port site of Vista Alegre. The inhabitants of this site, much like the people living nearby today, were forced to contend with the challenging coastal environment of Laguna Holbox. The sediment-rich, low gradient of the north coast presents a contrasting landscape compared to the Caribbean coast, where water resources are of much larger magnitude and evident in the extensive systems of cenotes (sinkholes) and underground rivers that supported pre-Columbian sites along this eastern rocky sediment-poor coastline. For past inhabitants the north coast was a mosaic of low-lying, non-arable zones where access to potable water was a challenge for inhabitants well into the 20th century. By bringing together scholars from the fields of archaeology, coastal ecology, geoarchaeology, and hydrogeology, the Proyecto Costa Escondida is focusing on the dynamic relationship between the Maya and their coastal landscape over the past 3000 years. To date we have collected 12 manual push-cores from the shallow waters surrounding Vista Alegre, which have been analyzed at 1 cm resolution using standard methods for Loss on Ignition (LOI), δ18Ocarb and δ13Ccarb of bulk carbonate, granulometry, micropalentology, and AMS radiocarbon dating. In addition to have baseline comparative data, we have conducted near-shore and terrestrial coastal ecological surveys along with the mapping of coastal water salinity and temperatures in the dry and wet seasons. Overall, the chemical proxies, lithology, and paleosalinity model reconstructed to date reveal four onlapping parasequences representing an overall transgression of the coastline with strong seasonality of water chemistry that has been changing under the control of rising sea levels over the past 3000 years. The sedimentation rate and timing of the transition to marine is in reasonable agreement with local sea level curves meaning that the

  2. A tale of two analogues: learning at a distance from the ancient greeks and maya and the problem of deciphering extraterrestrial radio transmissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, Ben; Bentley, Jerry

    The transmission of ancient Greek learning and science to medieval western Europe via the translation of Greek and Arab texts is often cited as a terrestrial example of "learning at a distance" that could occur by means of the decipherment of radio messages from advanced extraterrestrial civilizations. However, the translation between such closely related languages as Greek, Latin and Arabic and the decipherment of radio messages from an extraterrestrial civilization to the point where humans could understand them are only nominally analogous tasks. A terrestrial example of such "learning at a distance" from an ancient civilization that perhaps better prepares us for thinking about the immense task inherent in any interstellar knowledge transmission is provided by the lengthy and troubled efforts of western scholars to decipher the inscriptions left by the ancient Maya and to learn from them about this ancient civilization. Only recently, with the rejection of the ideographic fallacy that Maya glyphs symbolized ideas directly without the mediation of language and with the application of linguistic knowledge of Maya languages has it been possible to decipher the Maya inscriptions and learn from them about their science and culture. This experience suggests that without any knowledge of languages in which extraterrestrial messages might be composed, their decipherment could be most problematic. The Maya case is also relevant to the common suggestion that advanced extraterrestrials would deliberately compose messages not in their own natural languages but in artificial ones using logic, numbers, and scientific constants presumably shared among all intelligent civilizations, or at least those in their radio-communicative phases. Numbers and calendrical dating system were the first parts of the Mayan inscriptions to be translated, albeit with the aid of partial "Rosetta stones" left by the Spanish conquerors. This success served, however, to reinforce the ideographic

  3. Archaeometric study of ceramic figurines from the Maya settlement of La Blanca (Petén, Guatemala)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horcajada, P.; Roldán, C.; Vidal, C.; Rodenas, I.; Carballo, J.; Murcia, S.; Juanes, D.

    2014-04-01

    In this article, analytical results will be presented and discussed regarding a selected set of figurines from the ancient Maya settlement of La Blanca in Petén, Guatemala. The objective is to characterize the ceramic material by two analytical complementary techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The data obtained by means of both XRD and TXRF were compared and analyzed by multivariate statistical techniques in order to obtain sample groups according to their chemical composition. The results of this archaeometric study have been compared to those that have been obtained through macroscopic characterization by means of the traditional classification system know as Type-Variety. Discordances have been found between the clusters obtained by the Type-Variety classification system and the multivariate classification procedures performed on analytical data.

  4. Measurement of the Isoscalar Monopole Response in the Neutron-Rich Nucleus 68Ni using the Active Target MAYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandebrouck, M.; Gibelin, J.; Khan, E.; Achouri, N. L.; Baba, H.; Beaumel, D.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Caamaño, M.; Càceres, L.; Colò, G.; Delaunay, F.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Garg, U.; Grinyer, G. F.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Keeley, N.; Mittig, W.; Pancin, J.; Raabe, R.; Roger, T.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Savajols, H.; Sorlin, O.; Stodel, C.; Suzuki, D.; Thomas, J. C.

    We report the measurement of the isoscalar monopole strength in the unstable nucleus 68Ni using inelastic alpha scattering at 50A MeV in inverse kinematics. This experiment has been performed at GANIL with LISE spectrometer using a dedicated detector: the active target MAYA. A part of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) has been measured at 21.1 ± 1.9 MeV and indications for a soft monopole mode are provided for the first time at 12.9 ± 1.0 MeV. Distorted-wave born approximation (DWBA) with random-phase approximation (RPA) transition densities have been used to study angular distribution and indicate that the L = 0 multipolarity dominates the cross-section for the ISGMR, and significantly contributes to the soft mode.

  5. A 3400 year paleolimnological record of prehispanic human–environment interactions in the Holmul region of the southern Maya lowlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wahl, David B.; Estrada-Belli, Francisco; Anderson, Lysanna

    2015-01-01

    The timing, magnitude and drivers of late Holocene environmental change in the Holmul region of the southern Maya lowlands are examined by combining paleoenvironmental and archeological data. Environmental proxy analyses on a ~ 3350 cal yr lacustrine sediment record include pollen, charcoal, loss on ignition, magnetic suscep- tibility, and elemental geochemistry. Archeological evidence is derived from extensive settlement surveys conducted near the study site. Results indicate nearby settlement and agricultural activity taking place in an environment characterized by open forest from around 3350 to 950 cal yr BP. The fire history shows a dramatic increase in burning during the Classic period, possibly reflecting changing agricultural strategies. A distinct band of carbonate deposited from 1270 to 1040 cal yr BP suggests decreased hydrologic input associated with drier conditions. Abrupt changes in proxy data around 940 cal yr BP indicate a cessation of human disturbance and local abandonment of the area.

  6. Photosensitized reduction of water to hydrogen using novel Maya blue-like organic-inorganic hybrid material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Jin, Zhiliang; Li, Yuexiang; Li, Shuben; Lu, Gongxuan

    2009-05-01

    On the basis of the understanding that membranes play an important role in the separation of the intermediate photoproducts in the photosynthetic process, a novel efficient hydrogen evolution system was constructed with Maya blue-like organic-inorganic hybrid material as a photocatalyst, in which palygorskite acts as matrix and Eosin Y as a photosensitizer. Under visible light irradiation (lambda > or = 420 nm), the highest rate of hydrogen evolution and apparent quantum yield are about 3247.2 micromol h(-1) (g Eosin Y)(-1) and 12.5%, respectively. Negatively charged palygorskite particles could control the photosensitized electron-transfer reaction by means of electrostatic interaction. Based on the activities of hydrogen generation and the experimental measurements of UV-vis absorbance and fluorescence, a probable mechanism for photosensitized hydrogen evolution was postulated.

  7. "I Don't Know the Words He Uses": Therapeutic Communication among Q'eqchi Maya Healers and Their Patients.

    PubMed

    Waldram, James B

    2015-09-01

    Traditional or indigenous healing is often assumed to involve rich forms of dialogical and symbolic communication between healer and patient that serve to explain its salience and efficacy. An ethnographic study of Q'eqchi Maya healing in Belize suggests, however, that communication in some forms of indigenous healing may also be minimal and peripheral to treatment and more akin to that of biomedicine than so-called traditional medicine. While communication may still involve symbolic, intercorporeal, and other forms of subtle intersubjective connection, anthropologists often overreach in an effort to portray such healing systems in contradistinction to biomedicine. It is argued here that Q'eqchi healing might best be thought of as a form of empirically based restorative medicine in which communication is purely instrumental to the healer's task of diagnosing and eliminating pathology and restoring the health of the patient.

  8. Effects of harvest on the sustainability and leaf productivity of populations of two palm species in Maya homegardens.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ballesté, Andrea; Martorell, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traditional management practices are usually thought to be sustainable. The Maya manage Sabal (Arecaceae) palms in homegardens, using their leaves for thatching. The sustainability of such production systems depends on the long-term persistence of palm populations, whereas resource availability also depends on the number of leaves on individual palms. We examined how leaf harvest affects Sabal yapa and S. mexicana population growth rates (λ) and leaf production, comparing traditional and alternative harvest regimes in terms of sustainability and productivity. Demographic, harvest and leaf production data were recorded for three years in two homegardens. We used general integral projection models linked to leaf-production models to describe population dynamics and productivity. Harvest had no effect on S. yapa's vital rates or on λ, but it changed the growth rate of individuals of S. mexicana, with a negligible impact on λ. Homegardens affected λ values, reflecting the species' ecological affinities. S. mexicana, introduced from mesic forests, required watering and shade; therefore, its population declined rapidly in the homegarden that lacked both water and shade. The λ of the xerophilic S. yapa was slightly larger without watering than with watering. Palms usually compensated for leaf extraction, causing the number of leaves harvested per individual to increase with harvest intensity. Nevertheless, traditional management is relatively mild, allowing standing leaves to accumulate but reducing the homegarden's yield. Apparently, the Maya do not seek to maximize annual production but to ensure the availability of large numbers of leaves in homegardens. These leaves may then be used when the entire roof of a hut needs to be replaced every few years.

  9. Effects of Harvest on the Sustainability and Leaf Productivity of Populations of Two Palm Species in Maya Homegardens

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Ballesté, Andrea; Martorell, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Traditional management practices are usually thought to be sustainable. The Maya manage Sabal (Arecaceae) palms in homegardens, using their leaves for thatching. The sustainability of such production systems depends on the long-term persistence of palm populations, whereas resource availability also depends on the number of leaves on individual palms. We examined how leaf harvest affects Sabal yapa and S. mexicana population growth rates (λ) and leaf production, comparing traditional and alternative harvest regimes in terms of sustainability and productivity. Demographic, harvest and leaf production data were recorded for three years in two homegardens. We used general integral projection models linked to leaf-production models to describe population dynamics and productivity. Harvest had no effect on S. yapa’s vital rates or on λ, but it changed the growth rate of individuals of S. mexicana, with a negligible impact on λ. Homegardens affected λ values, reflecting the species’ ecological affinities. S. mexicana, introduced from mesic forests, required watering and shade; therefore, its population declined rapidly in the homegarden that lacked both water and shade. The λ of the xerophilic S. yapa was slightly larger without watering than with watering. Palms usually compensated for leaf extraction, causing the number of leaves harvested per individual to increase with harvest intensity. Nevertheless, traditional management is relatively mild, allowing standing leaves to accumulate but reducing the homegarden’s yield. Apparently, the Maya do not seek to maximize annual production but to ensure the availability of large numbers of leaves in homegardens. These leaves may then be used when the entire roof of a hut needs to be replaced every few years. PMID:25803029

  10. Well-being changes in response to 30 years of regional integration in Maya populations from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gurri, F D; Pereira, G B; Moran, E F

    2001-01-01

    Infant mortality rate (IMR), overall frequency of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH), sexual dimorphism in LEH, age of onset of LEH, and age at menarche were used as indicators to test the hypothesis that the origin and development of the tourist industry and increased state participation on Maya subsistence agriculturists in the early 1970s had improved the well-being of the Maya. Two historical moments where inferred from the data. The first was derived from cheap and effective immunization and sanitation campaigns that reduced IMR from 143.4/1,000 live births in the early 1960s to 97.4 in the early 1970s. State participation broke the undernutrition-disease cycle enough to reduce LEH frequencies significantly (from 71.9% in individuals born before 1971 to 51.5% in those born in 1971 or after, chi(2) = 55.72; 1 df; alpha = 0.00001) and to eliminate the sex difference in LEH expression (from a 14.8% LEH difference between men and women before 1971 [Male/Female Odds Radio = 0.45, alpha significant at 0.05] to a nonsignificant 2% difference). Improvement in overall living conditions reflected in a "modern stage" infant mortality regime and an almost disappearance of LEHs, resulted from gradual improvements in living conditions that did not become apparent until the 1980s. Trends in the age at menarche are not statistically significant, probably due to methodological limitations. However, if overall living conditions continue to improve or stay as they are today, accelerations in maturation should become noticeable.

  11. Medical potential of plants used by the Q'eqchi Maya of Livingston, Guatemala for the treatment of women's health complaints.

    PubMed

    Michel, Joanna; Duarte, Reinel Eduardo; Bolton, Judy L; Huang, Yue; Caceres, Armando; Veliz, Mario; Soejarto, Djaja Doel; Mahady, Gail B

    2007-10-08

    Investigation on the medical ethnobotany of the Q'eqchi Maya of Livingston, Izabal, Guatemala, was undertaken in order to explore Q'eqchi perceptions, attitudes, and treatment choices related to women's health. Through participant observation and interviews a total of 48 medicinal plants used to treat conditions related to pregnancy, childbirth, menstruation, and menopause were collected and identified followed by the evaluation of 20 species in bioassays relevant to women's health. Results of field interviews indicate that Q'eqchi cultural perceptions affect women's health experiences while laboratory results (estrogen receptor and serotonin receptor binding assays) provide a scientific correlation between empirical medicinal plant use among the Q'eqchi and the pharmacological basis for their administration. These data can contribute to Guatemala's national effort to promote a complementary relationship between traditional Maya medicine and public health services and can serve as a basis for further pharmacology and phytochemistry on Q'eqchi medicinal plants for the treatment of women's health conditions.

  12. Two millennia of tropical cyclone-induced mud layers in a northern Yucatán stalagmite: Multiple overlapping climatic hazards during the Maya Terminal Classic "megadroughts"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frappier, Amy Benoit; Pyburn, James; Pinkey-Drobnis, Aurora D.; Wang, Xianfeng; Corbett, D. Reide; Dahlin, Bruce H.

    2014-07-01

    An annually laminated stalagmite from the northern Yucatán Peninsula contains mud layers from 256 cave flooding events over 2240 years. This new conservative proxy for paleotempestology recorded cave flooding events with a recurrence interval of 8.3 years during the twentieth century, with the greatest frequency during the twentieth century and the least frequent during the seventeenth century. Tropical cyclone (TC) events are unlikely to flood the cave during drought when the water table is depressed. Applying TC masking to the Chaac paleorainfall reconstruction suggests that the severity of the Maya "megadroughts" was underestimated. Without a high-resolution radiometric geochronology of individual local TC events, speleothem isotope records cannot resolve whether the Terminal Classic Period in the northern Maya Lowlands was punctuated by several brief drought breaks with normal TCs, or whether the region was very dry and peppered by unusually severe and frequent hurricane seasons.

  13. A late Holocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction from Agua Caliente, southern Belize, linked to regional climate variability and cultural change at the Maya polity of Uxbenká

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Megan K.; Prufer, Keith M.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.

    2014-07-01

    We report high-resolution macroscopic charcoal, pollen and sedimentological data for Agua Caliente, a freshwater lagoon located in southern Belize, and infer a late Holocene record of human land-use/climate interactions for the nearby prehistoric Maya center of Uxbenká. Land-use activities spanning the initial clearance of forests for agriculture through the drought-linked Maya collapse and continuing into the historic recolonization of the region are all reflected in the record. Human land alteration in association with swidden agriculture is evident early in the record during the Middle Preclassic starting ca. 2600 cal yr BP. Fire slowly tapered off during the Late and Terminal Classic, consistent with the gradual political demise and depopulation of the Uxbenká polity sometime between ca. 1150 and 950 cal yr BP, during a period of multiple droughts evident in a nearby speleothem record. Fire activity was at its lowest during the Maya Postclassic ca. 950-430 cal yr BP, but rose consistent with increasing recolonization of the region between ca. 430 cal yr BP and present. These data suggest that this environmental record provides both a proxy for 2800 years of cultural change, including colonization, growth, decline, and reorganization of regional populations, and an independent confirmation of recent paleoclimate reconstructions from the same region.

  14. The role of sensorial processes in Q'eqchi' Maya healing: A case study of depression and bereavement.

    PubMed

    Hatala, Andrew R; Waldram, James B

    2016-02-01

    Theory and research on the healing practices of Indigenous communities around the globe have often been influenced by models of "symbolic healing" that privilege the way patients consciously interpret or derive meaning from a healing encounter. In our work with a group of Q'eqchi' Maya healers in southern Belize, these aspects of "symbolic healing" are not always present. Such empirical observations force us to reach beyond models of symbolic healing to understand how healing might prove effective. Through the extended analysis of a single case study of rahil ch'ool or "depression," we propose to advance understanding of forms of healing which are not dependent on a shared "mythic" or "assumptive world" between patient and healer or where therapeutic efficacy does not rely on the patient's ability to "believe" in or consciously "know" what is occurring during treatment. In this we demonstrate how the body, as a site of experience, transformation, and communication, becomes the therapeutic locus in healing encounters of this kind and argue that embodied mediums of sensorial experience be considered central in attempts to understand healing efficacy.

  15. Round and large: morphological and genetic consequences of artificial selection on the gourd tree Crescentia cujete by the Maya of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre-Dugua, Xitlali; Eguiarte, Luis E.; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Casas, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Artificial selection, the main driving force of domestication, depends on human perception of intraspecific variation and operates through management practices that drive morphological and genetic divergences with respect to wild populations. This study analysed the recognition of varieties of Crescentia cujete by Maya people in relation to preferred plant characters and documents ongoing processes of artificial selection influencing differential chloroplast DNA haplotype distribution in sympatric wild and home-garden populations. Methods Fifty-three home gardens in seven villages (93 trees) and two putative wild populations (43 trees) were sampled. Through semi-structured interviews we documented the nomenclature of varieties, their distinctive characters, provenance, frequency and management. Phenotypic divergence of fruits was assessed with morphometric analyses. Genetic analyses were performed through five cpDNA microsatellites. Key Results The Maya recognize two generic (wild/domesticated) and two specific domesticated (white/green) varieties of Crescentia cujete. In home gardens, most trees (68 %) were from domesticated varieties while some wild individuals (32 %) were tolerated. Cultivation involves mainly vegetative propagation (76 %). Domesticated fruits were significantly rounder, larger and with thicker pericarp than wild fruits. Haplotype A was dominant in home gardens (76 %) but absent in wild populations. Haplotypes B–F were found common in the wild but at low frequency (24 %) in home gardens. Conclusions The gourd tree is managed through clonal and sexual propagules, fruit form and size being the main targets of artificial selection. Domesticated varieties belong to a lineage preserved by vegetative propagation but propagation by seeds and tolerance of spontaneous trees favour gene flow from wild populations. Five mutational steps between haplotypes A and D suggest that domesticated germplasm has been introduced to the region

  16. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2015-09-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. The complex tectonic setting produced an intricate pattern of landscapes that we try to systemize using remote sensing tectonic geomorphology and available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes while lower segments characterized by multiple knickpoints, that adjust to new base-level conditions. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos fore-arc sliver, and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central America Volcanic Arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos fore-arc sliver and the North American plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén basin.

  17. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2016-01-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in a transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low-amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes. Lower reaches adjust to new base-level conditions and are characterized by multiple knickpoints. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos forearc sliver and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central American volcanic arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos forearc sliver and the North American Plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén Basin.

  18. Provenance Ages of Protoliths From the Chiapas Massif Complex and Adjacent Strata of the Southern Maya Block - Implications on the Paleozoic Reconstruction of Middle America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, B.; Schaaf, P.; Valencia, V. A.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Ortega-Gutierrez, F.

    2007-05-01

    The basement of the Maya block is exposed in the Maya Mountains of Belize, the Chuacús Complex of Guatemala, and in the Chiapas Massif Complex (CMC) of SE Mexico. In the CMC medium- to high-grade metasedimentary rocks occur as isolated domains in mostly metaigneous crystalline rocks. The most important tectonothermal event in the entire CMC is of late Permian age, culminating in partial anatexis and the intrusion of the Chiapas batholith. In this work we present U-Pb data obtained by LA-MC-ICPMS from detrital zircon cores of metasediments from the CMC and from detrital zircons of Paleozoic strata exposed in SE Chiapas. The Pennsylvanian-Permian Santa Rosa Formation (SRF) contains mostly Pan-African (500-650 Ma) zircons, minor populations of Silurian-Early Devonian (400-420 Ma) and Grenville (1.0-1.25 Ga) zircons, and few Paleoproterozoic and Archean grains. The maximum sedimentation age is documented by ~320 Ma old zircons. Metagreywacke and metasandstones of the central CMC have inherited detrital zircon cores with age distributions indistinguishable from those of the SRF. High-grade metapelites and para-amphibolites from the CMC, instead, have inherited zircon cores with one single population of 1.0 Ga or with populations at 1.0, 1.2, and 1.5 Ga. In the southern part of the CMC leucocratic granites intrude sedimentary rocks whose detrital zircons yielded mostly 1.53 Ga ages with some grains in the range of 1.6-1.7 Ga, but no younger zircons. White mica grown in contact with the leucogranite has a 40Ar- 39Ar age of 406 ± 4 Ma, defining a minimum age for both deposition of the sediments and intrusion of the leucogranite. Our data indicate that the CMC has a composite pre-metamorphic basement, containing sedimentary protoliths from the Pennsylvanian-Permian SRF and from early Paleozoic strata intruded by Silurian-Early Devonian granites. This favors a similar pre-Permian geologic history for the CMC as for the Maya Mountains of Belize. The early Paleozoic

  19. Cadmium bioaccumulation in Mediterranean spider crab (Maya squinado): human consumption and health implications for exposure in Italian population.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Roberto; Binato, Giovanni; Guidotti, Marco; Morelli, Stefania; Pastorelli, Augusto Alberto; Sagratella, Elisabetta; Ciardullo, Silvia; Stacchini, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    Cd bioaccumulation pattern was investigated in Mediterranean spider crab (Maya squinado, Herbst, 1788) collected from the northern Adriatic Sea. Specimens were caught in the framework of a monitoring plan in order to quantify the Cd distribution into different organs and tissues of crab. For this purpose, Cd level was studied in appendages, cephalothorax, abdomen as well as gonads. Cd concentrations were found largely below the Maximum Level (ML) established at the European Union (EU) level for muscle from crab appendages (found mean 0.011 mg kg(-1)) and approximately amounted to 2% of the EU ML (0.50 mg kg(-1)). The higher Cd concentrations were found in organs and tissues included in crab body such as abdomen, chephalotorax and gonads with respect to appendages. Chephalotorax showed the highest metal concentration (mean value of 1.19 mg kg(-1)). The possible differences in Cd bioaccumulation rate among crab organs and tissues were also investigated applying a parametric linear regression. A major Cd bioaccumulation rate was revealed in chephalotorax with respect to other analyzed organs and tissues. Furthermore, the evaluation of health risk related to human consumption of the Mediterranean spider crab has been studied for median of total population, median and 95th percentile of consumers of Italy. The observed results highlighted that the consumption of organs and tissues included in crab body such as abdomen, gonads and, in particular, chephalotorax substantially increased the Cd intake reaching also alarming Estimated Weekly Intake (EWI) values especially for median and 95th percentile of Italian consumers.

  20. a Web-Based Interactive Tool for Multi-Resolution 3d Models of a Maya Archaeological Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agugiaro, G.; Remondino, F.; Girardi, G.; von Schwerin, J.; Richards-Rissetto, H.; De Amicis, R.

    2011-09-01

    Continuous technological advances in surveying, computing and digital-content delivery are strongly contributing to a change in the way Cultural Heritage is "perceived": new tools and methodologies for documentation, reconstruction and research are being created to assist not only scholars, but also to reach more potential users (e.g. students and tourists) willing to access more detailed information about art history and archaeology. 3D computer-simulated models, sometimes set in virtual landscapes, offer for example the chance to explore possible hypothetical reconstructions, while on-line GIS resources can help interactive analyses of relationships and change over space and time. While for some research purposes a traditional 2D approach may suffice, this is not the case for more complex analyses concerning spatial and temporal features of architecture, like for example the relationship of architecture and landscape, visibility studies etc. The project aims therefore at creating a tool, called "QueryArch3D" tool, which enables the web-based visualisation and queries of an interactive, multi-resolution 3D model in the framework of Cultural Heritage. More specifically, a complete Maya archaeological site, located in Copan (Honduras), has been chosen as case study to test and demonstrate the platform's capabilities. Much of the site has been surveyed and modelled at different levels of detail (LoD) and the geometric model has been semantically segmented and integrated with attribute data gathered from several external data sources. The paper describes the characteristics of the research work, along with its implementation issues and the initial results of the developed prototype.

  1. Settlement patterns and communication routes of the western Maya wetlands: An archaeological and remote-sensing survey, Chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hixson, David R.

    This dissertation investigates the role of the seasonal wetlands in the political economy and subsistence strategies of the ancient Maya of Chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico. A combination of pedestrian surveys and remote-sensing tasks were performed in order to better understand the settlement patterns and potential communication routes in and through the wetlands between Chunchucmil and the Gulf of Mexico. These western wetlands had been proposed as the principal avenue for interregional trade between coastal merchants and inland consumers, yet were thought to be uninhabited and uncultivable. Following the survey tasks outlined in this dissertation, these wetlands were found to contain an abundance of archaeological settlements and features indicating habitation, utilization, and trade throughout this diverse ecological zone. The remote-sensing platforms utilized in this study include both multispectral (Landsat) and synthetic aperture radar (AirSAR), combined with additional remotely sensed resources. One of the goals of this survey was to test the capabilities of these two sensors for the direct detection of archaeological features from air and space. The results indicate that Landsat can be highly successful at detecting site location and measuring site size under certain environmental conditions. The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar proved to be adept at detecting large mounded architecture within the Yucatecan karstic plain, but its further utility is hampered by limitations of resolution, scale, and land cover. One of the salient features of the landscape west of Chunchucmil is a network of stone pathways called andadores. These avenues through the wetlands outline a dendritic network of communication, trade, and extraction routes. The following dissertation places this network and its associated settlements (from suburban centers to diminutive camps) within their regional context, examining the roles they may have played in supporting a large mercantile

  2. Reconstructing the role of landuse change on water yield at the Maya urban center Tikal, Guatemala [700-800 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, L.; Duffy, C.; French, K. D.; Murtha, T., Jr.; Garcia-Gonzalez, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years scientists have been debating the role of climate on the trajectory of Maya culture in the Late Classic period, 600-900 AD. Paleo-climatologists have reconstructed realizations of climate [Haug 2003; Medina-Elizalde 2012; Hodell 1995] that offer evidence for reduced precipitation in the Late Classic period. Recently French et al [2014] proposed that landuse change may also play an important role in the available water supply at Tikal, with the removal of tropical forest and conversion to maize-agriculture and urban landuse leading to extensive development of sophisticated water storage systems and rainfall harvesting for water supply and irrigation. Rapid population growth is a concurrent and compounding factor [Scarborough 2012; Shaw 2003] where landuse impacts the distribution and availability of water storage in the surrounding watershed. Although proposed climate scenarios for the Late Classic offer a quantitative scenario for possible atmospheric conditions at Tikal, the impact of land use change on the distribution and availability of water supply has not been evaluated. In this research we reconstruct the plausible vulnerability of the water supply at Tikal under the combined forces of climatic and land use change. The Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) [Qu and Duffy 2007] is used to simulate the daily-to-seasonal space and time distribution of soil moisture, groundwater and surface water storage for the period 700-800 AD, the peak of Tikal's population history. The analysis includes a quantitative assessment of the likely changes in available water storage as tropical forest is converted to maize agriculture and urban land. In particular we examine the important control that reduced canopy interception plays in the seasonal availability of water. Preliminary simulations suggest that removing tropical forest increases runoff and available water storage, which may serve to moderate seasonal and long-term drought conditions.

  3. Maize dependence or market integration? Caries prevalence among indigenous Maya communities with maize-based versus globalized economies.

    PubMed

    Vega Lizama, Elma Maria; Cucina, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between diet and oral health is widely known, yet data on dental caries prevalence is lacking for many indigenous groups with traditional or rapidly modernizing diets. This research documents caries prevalence in two Maya communities from northern Yucatán (Mexico) with significantly different levels of market integration, subsistence, and diet: Yalsihón, with a traditional, maize-based subsistence economy, and Dzilam, with access to globalized food markets. Each sample was subdivided by sex into 15-19, 20-24, and 25-30 years-of-age classes. Caries prevalence was considered separately both when the lesion affected the enamel superficially (grade 1+) and when it reached the dentin (grade 2+). In both villages, females of all age classes manifest more caries than males. Results show higher prevalence of caries at Dzilam than at Yalsihón, except for grade 1+ caries among 15-19-year-old males and grade 2+ caries among 15-19-year-old females. Though differences are not significant, earlier pregnancies among 15-19-year-old females at Yalsihón could be a causative factor. A survey indicated a more balanced diet at Yalsihón despite a heavier intake of maize than at Dzilam. Striking differences were documented in the ingestion of soda and globalized foods; sodas were virtually absent at Yalsihón, while at Dzilam they were ingested daily in great quantities. The decline in oral health at Dzilam is inferred to result from consumption of industrially processed foods and drinks, while a traditional diet leads to less caries despite daily heavy consumption of maize, which must be considered when interpreting caries rates in archaeological samples.

  4. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of sesquiterpene lactones from Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass., a Q'eqchi' Maya traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Choueiri, Christine; Saleem, Ammar; Asim, Muhammd; Caal, Federico; Cal, Victor; Rojas, Marco Otarola; Pesek, Todd; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John Thor

    2013-08-01

    The widespread use of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. ex Cass. by Q'eqchi' Maya and indigenous healers throughout the Caribbean for inflammatory conditions prompted the study of the anti-inflammatory activity of this traditional medicine. The objectives of this study were to conduct a detailed ethnobotanical investigation of the uses of N. lobata by the Q'eqchi' Maya of Belize for a variety of inflammatory symptoms and to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract and isolated sesquiterpene lactones. The crude 80% EtOH extract of N. lobata leaves administered at 100 μg/mL reduced LPS-stimulated TNF-α production in THP-1 monocytes by 72% relative to the stimulated vehicle control. Isolated sesquiterpene lactones, neurolenins B, C+D, lobatin B and 9α-hydroxy-8β-isovalerianyloxy-calyculatolide were more active (IC50=0.17-2.32 μM) than the positive control parthenolide (IC50=4.79 μM). The results provide a pharmacological and phytochemical basis for the traditional use of this leaf for inflammatory conditions.

  5. Medical potential of plants used by the Q’eqchi Maya of Livingston, Guatemala for the treatment of women’s health complaints

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Joanna; Duarte, Reinel Eduardo; Yao, Ping; Bolton, Judy L.; Huang, Yue; Cáceres, Armando; Veliz, Mario; Soejarto, Djaja Doel; Mahady, Gail B.

    2007-01-01

    Investigation on the medical ethnobotany of the Q’eqchi Maya of Livingston, Izabal, Guatemala, was undertaken in order to explore Q’eqchi perceptions, attitudes, and treatment choices related to women’s health. Through participant observation and interviews a total of 48 medicinal plants used to treat conditions related to pregnancy, childbirth, menstruation, and menopause were collected and identified followed by the evaluation of 20 species in bioassays relevant to women’s health. Results of field interviews indicate that Q’eqchi cultural perceptions affect women’s health experiences while laboratory results (estrogen receptor and serotonin receptor binding assays) provide a scientific correlation between empirical medicinal plant use among the Q’eqchi and the pharmacological basis for their administration. These data can contribute to Guatemala’s national effort to promote a complementary relationship between traditional Maya medicine and public health services and can serve as a basis for further pharmacology and phytochemistry on Q’eqchi medicinal plants for the treatment of women’s health conditions. PMID:17826926

  6. Exploring the nexus between climate change, food security, and deforestation in Q'eqchi' Maya communities, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, I.; Harbor, J.

    2013-12-01

    The challenges of food security in the central Highlands of Guatemala are linked to deforestation, land degradation, and climate change. The Q'eqchi' Maya people that inhabit this region are smallholder farmers who rely on subsistence agriculture for survival. The Q'eqchi' support themselves with timber products and ecosystem services provided by the cloud forest, a unique ecosystem where a substantial portion of water is obtained through the condensation of water droplets onto vegetation via cloud filtration. Over the past 30 years, small-scale deforestation of the cloud forest in the Sierra Yalijux and Sacranix has increased as demand for agricultural land has risen. A link between the decline of cloud forest cover and an increase in severe precipitation events that drive soil erosion has been observed in the study area. As a result, land degradation poses a serious threat to the long-term food security of Q'eqchi' communities. We have examined the social, cultural, and land tenure dynamics that impact the ability of the Q'eqchi' to adapt to the rapidly changing climate, as well as to implement recommendations for grassroots initiatives to enhance these adaptations. Using remote-sensing we constructed three land use change maps that show that deforestation rates have increased by over 200% between 1986-2006 in the Sierra Yaljux and Sacranix mountain ranges, largely due to slash and burn agriculture. Using these land use change maps as an input into the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation we show that implementation of agroecological techniques to counter the impacts of land use change drastically reduces soil erosion and is the best management practice. Surveys and focus groups in several Q'eqchi' villages revealed that precipitation events have become less frequent and more intense over the past 30 years, and temperatures have generally been increasing as well. Q'eqchi' people have observed that increasing severe precipitation events have accelerated soil

  7. First archeointensity determinations on Maya incense burners from Palenque temples, Mexico: New data to constrain the Mesoamerica secular variation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjat, G.; Camps, P.; Alva Valdivia, L. M.; Sougrati, M. T.; Cuevas-Garcia, M.; Perrin, M.

    2013-02-01

    We present archeointensity data carried out on pieces of incense burners from the ancient Maya city of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico, covering much of the Mesoamerican Classic period, from A.D. 400 to A.D. 850. We worked on pieces from 24 incense burners encompassing the five Classic ceramic phases of Palenque: Motiepa (A.D. 400-500), Cascadas (A.D. 500-600), Otulum (A.D. 600-700), Murcielagos (A.D. 700-770), and Balunté (A.D. 770-850). All the samples come from highly elaborate, flanged pedestal of incense burners that are undoubtedly assigned to a ceramic phase by means of their iconographic, morphological and stylistic analyses. Archeointensity measurements were performed with the Thellier-Thellier's method on pre-selected samples by means of their magnetic properties. We obtained archeointensities of very good technical quality from 19 of 24 pieces, allowing the determination of a precise mean value for each ceramic phase, between 29.1±0.9 μT and 32.5±1.2 μT. The firing temperatures of ceramics were estimated with Mössbauer spectroscopy between 700 °C and 1000 °C. These values ensure that a full thermo-remanent magnetization was acquired during the original heating. Our results suggest a relative stability of the field intensity during more than 400 years in this area. The abundance of archeological material in Mesoamerica contrasts with the small amount of archeomagnetic data available that are, in addition, of uneven quality. Thus, it is not possible to establish a trend of intensity variations in Mesoamerica, even using the global databases and secular variation predictions from global models. In this context, our high technical quality data represent a strong constraint for the Mesoamerican secular variation curve during the first millennium AD. The corresponding Virtual Axial Dipole Moments (VADM) are substantially smaller than the ones predicted by the last global geomagnetic models CALS3k.4, suggesting the need for additional data to develop a

  8. Maternal short stature does not predict their children's fatness indicators in a nutritional dual-burden sample of urban Mexican Maya.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Hannah J; Dickinson, Federico; Griffiths, Paula L; Bogin, Barry; Hobbs, Matthew; Varela-Silva, M Inês

    2014-04-01

    The co-existence of very short stature due to poor chronic environment in early life and obesity is becoming a public health concern in rapidly transitioning populations with high levels of poverty. Individuals who have very short stature seem to be at an increased risk of obesity in times of relative caloric abundance. Increasing evidence shows that an individual is influenced by exposures in previous generations. This study assesses whether maternal poor early life environment predicts her child's adiposity using cross sectional design on Maya schoolchildren aged 7-9 and their mothers (n = 57 pairs). We compared maternal chronic early life environment (stature) with her child's adiposity (body mass index [BMI] z-score, waist circumference z-score, and percentage body fat) using multiple linear regression, controlling for the child's own environmental exposures (household sanitation and maternal parity). The research was performed in the south of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico, a low socioeconomic urban area in an upper middle income country. The Maya mothers were very short, with a mean stature of 147 cm. The children had fairly high adiposity levels, with BMI and waist circumference z-scores above the reference median. Maternal stature did not significantly predict any child adiposity indicator. There does not appear to be an intergenerational component of maternal early life chronic under-nutrition on her child's obesity risk within this free living population living in poverty. These results suggest that the co-existence of very short stature and obesity appears to be primarily due to exposures and experiences within a generation rather than across generations.

  9. Combining charcoal sediment and molecular markers to infer a Holocene fire history in the Maya lowlands of Petén, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchgeorg, Torben; Schüpbach, Simon; Colombaroli, Daniele; Beffa, Giorgia; Radaelli, Marta; Kehrwald, Natalie; Barbante, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Holocene vegetation changes in the Maya Lowlands during the Holocene are a result of changing climate conditions, solely anthropogenic activities, or interactions of both factors. As a consequence, it is difficult to assess how tropical ecosystems will cope with projected changes in precipitation and land-use intensification over the next decades. We investigated the role of fire during the Holocene by combining different proxies. We distinguished between three different morphotypes (grass, wood and leaves) in macroscopic charcoal. We also determined the molecular fire proxies levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Combining these different fire proxies allows a more robust understanding of the complex history of fire regimes at different spatial scales during the Holocene. Comparing the two biomass burning proxies may help increase our understanding about advantages and limitations of molecular markers as proxies for past fire reconstruction in lake sediments. In order to infer changes in past biomass burning, we analysed a lake sediment core from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala (17°00'N, 89°50'W, 110 m above sea level), and compared our results with millennial-scale vegetation and climate change data available in this area. Some differences were observed between the two records and we assumed that while macroscopic charcoal represents a local fire signal, the molecular fire proxies records seem to be influenced by regional to supra-regional fire or low temperature fires. During the Holocene we detected three periods of high fire activity: 9500-6000 cal yr BP, 3800 cal yr BP and 2700 cal yr BP. We attributed the first maximum (9500-6000 cal yr BP) to only climate conditions, which corresponds with observations from previous studies in this region. The fast decrease in the relative abundance of woody charcoal to grass charcoal at the 3800 cal yr BP fire maximum may result from human activity, but we cannot exclude that this shift was related to climate conditions

  10. Values for gender roles and relations among high school and non-high school adolescents in a Maya community in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manago, Adriana M

    2015-02-01

    In the current study, I describe values for gender roles and cross-sex relations among adolescents growing up in a southern Mexican Maya community in which high school was introduced in 1999. A total of 80 adolescent girls and boys, half of whom were attending the new high school, provided their opinions on two ethnographically derived vignettes that depicted changes in gender roles and relations occurring in their community. Systematic coding revealed that adolescents not enrolled in high school tended to prioritise ascribed and complementary gender roles and emphasise the importance of family mediation in cross-sex relations. Adolescents who were enrolled in high school tended to prioritise equivalent and chosen gender roles, and emphasised personal responsibility and personal fulfillment in cross-sex relations. Perceptions of risks and opportunities differed by gender: girls favourably evaluated the expansion of adult female role options, but saw risks in personal negotiations of cross-sex relations; boys emphasised the loss of the female homemaker role, but favourably evaluated new opportunities for intimacy in cross-sex relations.

  11. Combining charcoal sediment and molecular markers to infer a Holocene fire history in the Maya Lowlands of Petén, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüpbach, Simon; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Colombaroli, Daniele; Beffa, Giorgia; Radaelli, Marta; Kehrwald, Natalie M.; Barbante, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    Vegetation changes in the Maya Lowlands during the Holocene are a result of changing climate conditions, solely anthropogenic activities, or interactions of both factors. As a consequence, it is difficult to assess how tropical ecosystems will cope with projected changes in precipitation and land-use intensification over the next decades. We investigated the role of fire during the Holocene by combining macroscopic charcoal and the molecular fire proxies levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Combining these two different fire proxies allows a more robust understanding of the complex history of fire regimes at different spatial scales during the Holocene. In order to infer changes in past biomass burning, we analysed a lake sediment core from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala, and compared our results with millennial-scale vegetation and climate change available in the area. We detected three periods of high fire activity during the Holocene: 9500-6000 cal yr BP, 3700 cal yr BP and 2700 cal yr BP. We attribute the first maximum mostly to climate conditions and the last maximum to human activities. The rapid change between burned vegetation types at the 3700 cal yr BP fire maximum may result from human activity.

  12. New insights into the history and origin of the southern Maya block, SE Mexico: U-Pb-SHRIMP zircon geochronology from metamorphic rocks of the Chiapas massif

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, Bodo; Iriondo, Alexander; Premo, Wayne R.; Hecht, Lutz; Schaaf, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The histories of the pre-Mesozoic landmasses in southern México and their connections with Laurentia, Gondwana, and among themselves are crucial for the understanding of the Late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The Permian igneous and metamorphic rocks from the Chiapas massif as part of the southern Maya block, México, were dated by U–Pb zircon geochronology employing the SHRIMP (sensitive high resolution ion microprobe) facility at Stanford University. The Chiapas massif is composed of deformed granitoids and orthogneisses with inliers of metasedimentary rocks. SHRIMP data from an anatectic orthogneiss demonstrate that the Chiapas massif was part of a Permian (∼ 272 Ma) active continental margin established on the Pacific margin of Gondwana after the Ouachita orogeny. Latest Permian (252–254 Ma) medium- to high-grade metamorphism and deformation affected the entire Chiapas massif, resulting in anatexis and intrusion of syntectonic granitoids. This unique orogenic event is interpreted as the result of compression due to flat subduction and accretionary tectonics. SHRIMP data of zircon cores from a metapelite from the NE Chiapas massif yielded a single Grenvillian source for sediments. The majority of the zircon cores from a para-amphibolite from the SE part of the massif yielded either 1.0–1.2 or 1.4–1.5 Ga sources, indicating provenance from South American Sunsás and Rondonian-San Ignacio provinces.

  13. Developmental effects of economic and educational change: cognitive representation in three generations across 43 years in a Maya community.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Ashley E; Greenfield, Patricia M; Childs, Carla P

    2015-02-01

    We studied the implications of social change for cognitive development in a Maya community in Chiapas, Mexico, over 43 years. The same procedures were used to collect data in 1969-1970, 1991, and 2012-once in each generation. The goal was to understand the implications of weaving, schooling and participation in a commercial economy for the development of visual pattern representation. In 2012, our participants consisted of 133 boys and girls descended from participants in the prior two generations. Procedures consisted of placing colored sticks in a wooden frame to make striped patterns, some familiar (Zinacantec woven patterns) and some novel (created by the investigators). Following Greenfield (2009), we hypothesised that the development of commerce and the expansion of formal schooling would influence children's representations. Her theory postulates that these factors move human development towards cognitive abstraction and skill in dealing with novelty. Furthermore, the theory posits that whatever sociodemographic variable is changing most rapidly functions as the primary motor for developmental change. From 1969 to 1991, the rapid development of a commercial economy drove visual representation in the hypothesised directions. From 1991 to 2012, the rapid expansion of schooling drove visual representation in the hypothesised directions.

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in indigenous Maya-Yucateco people: a cross-sectional community-based study.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Ballestas, I; Alvarez-Nemegyei, J; Loyola-Sánchez, A; Escudero, M L

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in indigenous Maya-Yucateco communities using Community-Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) methodology. The study population comprised subjects aged ≥18 years from 11 communities in the municipality of Chankom, Yucatan. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed, and a census was used. Subjects positive for musculoskeletal (MSK) pain were examined by trained physicians. A total of 1523 community members were interviewed. The mean age was 45.2 years (standard deviation (SD) 17.9), and 917 (60.2 %) were women. Overall, 592 individuals (38.8 %; 95 % CI 36.3-41.3 %) had experienced MSK pain in the last 7 days. The pain intensity was reported as "strong" to "severe" in 43.4 %. The diagnoses were rheumatic regional pain syndromes in 165 (10.8 %; 95 % CI 9.4-12.5), low back pain in 153 (10.0 %; 95 % CI 8.5-11.6), osteoarthritis in 144 (9.4 %; 95 % CI 8.0-11.0), fibromyalgia in 35 (2.2 %; 95 % CI 1.6-3.1), rheumatoid arthritis in 17 (1.1 %; 95 % CI 0.6-1.7), undifferentiated arthritis in 8 (0.5 %; 95 % CI 0.2-0.8), and gout in 1 (0.06 %; 95 % CI 0.001-0.3). Older age, being female, disability, and physically demanding work were associated with a greater likelihood of having a rheumatic disease. In conclusion, MSK pain and rheumatic diseases were highly prevalent. The high impact of rheumatic diseases on daily activities in this indigenous population suggests the need to organize culturally-sensitive community interventions for the prevention of disabilities caused by MSK disorders and diseases.

  15. Using spatial metrics and surveys for the assessment of trans-boundary deforestation in protected areas of the Maya Mountain Massif: Belize-Guatemala border.

    PubMed

    Chicas, S D; Omine, K; Ford, J B; Sugimura, K; Yoshida, K

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the trans-boundary deforestation history and patterns in protected areas along the Belize-Guatemala border is of regional and global importance. To assess deforestation history and patterns in our study area along a section of the Belize-Guatemala border, we incorporated multi-temporal deforestation rate analysis and spatial metrics with survey results. This multi-faceted approach provides spatial analysis with relevant insights from local stakeholders to better understand historic deforestation dynamics, spatial characteristics and human perspectives regarding the underlying causes thereof. During the study period 1991-2014, forest cover declined in Belize's protected areas: Vaca Forest Reserve 97.88%-87.62%, Chiquibul National Park 99.36%-92.12%, Caracol Archeological Reserve 99.47%-78.10% and Colombia River Forest Reserve 89.22%-78.38% respectively. A comparison of deforestation rates and spatial metrics indices indicated that between time periods 1991-1995 and 2012-2014 deforestation and fragmentation increased in protected areas. The major underlying causes, drivers, impacts, and barriers to bi-national collaboration and solutions of deforestation along the Belize-Guatemala border were identified by community leaders and stakeholders. The Mann-Whitney U test identified significant differences between leaders and stakeholders regarding the ranking of challenges faced by management organizations in the Maya Mountain Massif, except for the lack of assessment and quantification of deforestation (LD, SH: 18.67, 23.25, U = 148, p > 0.05). The survey results indicated that failure to integrate buffer communities, coordinate among managing organizations and establish strong bi-national collaboration has resulted in continued ecological and environmental degradation. The information provided by this research should aid managing organizations in their continued aim to implement effective deforestation mitigation strategies.

  16. The impact of arthritis on the physical function of a rural Maya-Yucateco community and factors associated with its prevalence: a cross sectional, community-based study.

    PubMed

    Loyola-Sanchez, Adalberto; Richardson, Julie; Pelaez-Ballestas, Ingris; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Michael G; Wilkins, Seanne

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of arthritis on the physical function of people living in a Maya-Yucateco rural community and to assess the association of known modifiable risk factors with the prevalence of overall arthritis and its main types (osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis). Using a cross-sectional, community-based census design, data collected from the adult population (≥18 years) of the Municipality of Chankom, Yucatán, México, were analyzed (n = 1523). Participants' physical function was assessed using a culturized version of the health assessment questionnaire disability index. Social, physical, and behavioral factors linked to overall arthritis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis, were assessed through the "Community-Oriented-Program-for-the-Control-of-Rheumatic-Diseases [COPCORD]" questionnaire. A physiatrist and a rheumatologist confirmed all osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis cases using the American College of Rheumatology criteria. Arthritis was confirmed in 169 cases (22 %, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 19-25) of those assessed for musculoskeletal symptoms (n = 779): osteoarthritis = 144, rheumatoid arthritis = 17, and non-specific arthritis = 8. Arthritis was associated with a higher prevalence of disability after controlling for age, gender, and number of comorbidities (odds ratio = 4.0, 95 % CI 3.0-6.0). Higher level of wealth was associated with lower arthritis prevalence (odds ratio = 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Higher body mass index was associated with higher hip and/or knee osteoarthritis prevalence (odds ratio = 1.1, 95 % CI 1.03-1.1). Arthritis is highly associated with disability in the Mayan people living in Chankom. The prevalence of arthritis in Chankom is associated with social factors, such as people's level of wealth, while the prevalence of low-extremity osteoarthritis is associated with people's body mass index.

  17. ANATOMICAL MNEMONICS OF THE GENETIC CODE: A FUNCTIONAL ICOSAHEDRON AND THE VIGESIMAL SYSTEM OF THE MAYA TO REPRESENT THE TWENTY PROTEINOGENIC AMINO ACIDS.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavez, Fernando

    In programming and bioinformatics, the graphical interface is vital to describe and to abbreviate aspects and concepts of the physical world. The Mayan Culture developed the vigesimal system, a numerical system based on their count of fingers and toes. My objective is to equate the Mayan system and their numerical representation to the twenty amino acids according to size, except for the number one, represented by a dot, that here is given to cysteine, which acts as glue among peptides as one of its properties; in such a way, two vertical dots will be easily used to represent its related selenocysteine. The Mayan numerical system included the zero, represented by the Maya with an empty shell that here is used to represent the stop codons. On the other hand, the Chinese had a binary numerical system, similar to the binary comparisons of the three properties of Nucleotides within the double helix: H-Bonds, C-Rings and Tautomerism, called the I Ching which here is applied to the natural groups of amino acids that result of the 64-codons compared in binary in their H-Bonds versus their C-Rings, used here to successfully represent the mature sequence of the glucagon amino acids. Additional anatomical tools for the mnemonics of the genetic code and of its amino acid groups are also presented, as well as a functional icosahedron to represent them. Concluding, tools are presented for the visual analysis of proteins and peptide sequencing in bioinformatics and education to teach the genetic code and its resulting amino acids, plus their numerical systems.

  18. ANATOMICAL MNEMONICS OF THE GENETIC CODE: A FUNCTIONAL ICOSAHEDRON AND THE VIGESIMAL SYSTEM OF THE MAYA TO REPRESENT THE TWENTY PROTEINOGENIC AMINO ACIDS

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO-CHAVEZ, FERNANDO

    2016-01-01

    In programming and bioinformatics, the graphical interface is vital to describe and to abbreviate aspects and concepts of the physical world. The Mayan Culture developed the vigesimal system, a numerical system based on their count of fingers and toes. My objective is to equate the Mayan system and their numerical representation to the twenty amino acids according to size, except for the number one, represented by a dot, that here is given to cysteine, which acts as glue among peptides as one of its properties; in such a way, two vertical dots will be easily used to represent its related selenocysteine. The Mayan numerical system included the zero, represented by the Maya with an empty shell that here is used to represent the stop codons. On the other hand, the Chinese had a binary numerical system, similar to the binary comparisons of the three properties of Nucleotides within the double helix: H-Bonds, C-Rings and Tautomerism, called the I Ching which here is applied to the natural groups of amino acids that result of the 64-codons compared in binary in their H-Bonds versus their C-Rings, used here to successfully represent the mature sequence of the glucagon amino acids. Additional anatomical tools for the mnemonics of the genetic code and of its amino acid groups are also presented, as well as a functional icosahedron to represent them. Concluding, tools are presented for the visual analysis of proteins and peptide sequencing in bioinformatics and education to teach the genetic code and its resulting amino acids, plus their numerical systems. PMID:27081676

  19. Thermal biology of prey (Melongena corona bispinosa, Strombus pugilis, Callinectes similis, Libinia dubia) and predators (Ocyurus chrysurus, Centropomus undecimalis) of Octopus maya from the Yucatan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Noyola Regil, Javier; Mascaro, Maite; Díaz, Fernando; Denisse Re, Ana; Sánchez-Zamora, Adolfo; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Rosas, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    On the Yucatan Peninsula there is an upwelling which allows access to a body of cold water that controls temperature in this area. This modulates the ecology and distribution of organisms that inhabit the continental shelf. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different acclimation temperatures on the thermal biology of prey as mollusc, crustacean (Melongena corona bispinosa, Strombus pugilis, Callinectes similis, Libinia dubia) and predators as fish (Ocyurus chrysurus, Centropomus undecimalis) of Octopus maya. Octopus prey preferred temperatures between 23.5°C and 26.0°C, while predators preferred temperatures 26.4-28.5°C. The species with largest thermal windows were M. corona bispinosa (328.8°C(2)), C. similis (322.8°C(2)), L. dubia (319.2°C(2)), C. undecimalis (288.6°C(2)), O. chrysurus (237.5°C(2)), while the smallest thermal window was for S. pugilis (202.0°C(2)). The acclimation response ratios (ARR) estimated for prey ranged from 0.24-0.55 in animals exposed to CTMax and 0.21-0.65 in those exposed to CTMin. Amongst predators, ARR ranged from 0.30 to 0.60 and 0.41 to 0.53 for animals exposed to CTMax and CTMin, respectively. Correlating the optimal temperature limits of prey and predators with surface temperatures on the continental shelf and those 4m deep showed that the main prey, Callinectes similis and L. dubia, shared a thermal niche and that an increase in temperature could force these species to migrate to other sites to find optimal temperatures for their physiological functions. As a consequence the continental shelf community would undergo a structural change. Predators were found to be near their optimal temperatures in surface temperatures on the continental shelf. We conclude that they would remain in the area in a warming scenario. The size of the thermal window was related to the type of ecosystem inhabited by these species. These ARR intervals allowed us to categorize the species as temperate or tropical

  20. Sub-seasonally resolved coral records of Caribbean sea surface conditions during the demise of the Maya civilization (~AD 800-1000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. C.; Felis, T.; Scholz, D.; Kölling, M.; Giry, C.; Scheffers, S.

    2012-12-01

    We present a unique collection of annually banded fossil Montastraea coral colonies from Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles) in the southern Caribbean Sea that reveals growth between ~AD 800-1000. Coincidentally, this time interval was known for the demise of the classic Maya civilization in the lowlands of the Yucatán Peninsula termed the Terminal Classic Period (TCP; ~AD 750-1050). Explanations for the downfall ranged from foreign invasion to social turmoil, but recent paleoclimatic evidence suggests climate change such as prolonged dry cycles and decrease in precipitation as the primary influence. The Bonaire corals provide the first sub-seasonally resolved proxy records of surface ocean conditions in the Caribbean region during the TCP, and are completely different than the terrestrial-driven and summer-influenced precipitation proxy records from locations in the Yucatán and the Cariaco Basin. One modern and six fossil Montastraea colonies were analyzed for Sr/Ca and δ18O at sub-seasonal resolution as proxies of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), and hydrological changes. The corals display uninterrupted growth patterns ranging ~30-70 years and overlap each other at various time periods during the TCP with age verification by precision 230Th/U dating. Evaluation of the modern coral record provides a modern baseline condition as basis of comparison to track the changing SST and SSS in the southern Caribbean during the TCP. The modern colony recorded in-phase and tightly coupled variability between the two proxies indicating a similar source of influence that is predominantly driven by SST over seasonal to interannual timescales. However, the fossil coral records display distinct interannual variability and longer-term decadal variability (~11-14 years) in both Sr/Ca and δ18O that are decoupled from each other indicating deviations in SSS and differences in primary drivers of proxy variability between past and modern conditions. In addition

  1. Sub-seasonally resolved coral records of Caribbean sea surface conditions during the demise of the Maya civilization (~AD 800-1050)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Felis, T.; Kölling, M.; Giry, C.; Scholz, D.; Scheffers, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present a unique collection of annually banded fossil Montastraea coral colonies from Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles) in the southern Caribbean Sea that reveals growth between ~AD 800-1050. Coincidentally, this time interval was known for the demise of the classic Maya civilization in the lowlands of the Yucatán Peninsula termed the Terminal Classic Period (roughly AD 750-1050). Explanations for the downfall ranged from foreign invasion to social turmoil, but paleoclimatic evidence suggests severe climate change such as prolonged dry cycles as the primary influence. The Bonaire corals provide the first sub-seasonally resolved proxy records of surface ocean conditions in the Caribbean region during the Terminal Classic Period, and are completely different than the terrestrial-driven and summer-influenced precipitation proxy records from locations in the Yucatán and the Cariaco Basin. The corals display uninterrupted growth patterns ranging ~30-60 years and overlap each other at various time periods during the Terminal Classic Period. Our preliminary coral radiocarbon ages will be refined by precise U-series dating. The aragonitic skeletons of modern and fossil Montastraea colonies have been analyzed for Sr/Ca and δ18O at sub-seasonal resolution as proxies of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), and hydrological changes. Evaluation of the modern coral record provides a modern baseline condition as basis of comparison to track the changing SST and SSS in the southern Caribbean during the Terminal Classic Period. The modern record indicates that seasonal to interannual variability in southern Caribbean Sea coral δ18O is predominantly driven by SST where Sr/Ca and δ18O records are tightly coupled and in-phase reflecting a similar source of influence. However, the fossil coral records display distinct interannual variability and longer-term decadal variability (8-15 years) in both Sr/Ca and δ18O that are decoupled from each other indicating

  2. Kaqchikel Maya Language Analysis Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy de Pappa, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to study the linguistic features of Kaqchikel, a Mayan language currently spoken in Guatemala and increasingly in the United States, in an effort to better prepare teachers of English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) to address the distinct needs of a frequently neglected and…

  3. Theatre of the Ancient Maya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Maxine

    1971-01-01

    There is at least one Western theatre that the historians consistently overlook. This is the theatre of the Mayan Civilization, one that antedates any other in the Western world by hundreds of years. (Author)

  4. Spoken (Yucatec) Maya. [Preliminary Edition].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Robert W.; Vermont-Salas, Refugio

    This two-volume set of 18 tape-recorded lesson units represents a first attempt at preparing a course in the modern spoken language of some 300,000 inhabitants of the peninsula of Yucatan, the Guatemalan department of the Peten, and certain border areas of Belize. (A short account of the research and background of this material is given in the…

  5. Diabetes susceptibility in Mayas: Evidence for the involvement of polymorphisms in HHEX, HNF4α, KCNJ11, PPARγ, CDKN2A/2B, SLC30A8, CDC123/CAMK1D, TCF7L2, ABCA1 and SLC16A11 genes.

    PubMed

    Lara-Riegos, J C; Ortiz-López, M G; Peña-Espinoza, B I; Montúfar-Robles, I; Peña-Rico, M A; Sánchez-Pozos, K; Granados-Silvestre, M A; Menjivar, M

    2015-07-01

    Association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with common variants in HHEX, HNF4α, KCNJ11, PPARγ, CDKN2A/2B, SLC30A8, CDC123/CAMK1D, TCF7L2, ABCA1 and SLC16A11 genes have been reported, mainly in populations of European and Asian ancestry and to a lesser extent in Latin Americans. Thus, we aimed to investigate the contribution of rs1111875 (HHEX), rs1800961 (HNF4α), rs5219 (KCNJ11), rs1801282 (PPARγ), rs10811661 (CDKN2A/2B), rs13266634 (SLC30A8), rs12779790 (CDC123/CAMK1D), rs7903146 (TCF7L2), rs9282541 (ABCA1) and rs13342692 (SLC16A11) polymorphisms in the genetic background of Maya population to associate their susceptibility to develop T2D. This is one of the first studies designed specifically to investigate the inherited component of T2D in the indigenous population of Mexico. SNPs were genotyped by allelic discrimination method in 575 unrelated Maya individuals. Two SNPs rs10811661 and rs928254 were significantly associated with T2D after adjusting for BMI; rs10811661 in a recessive and rs9282541 in a dominant model. Additionally, we found phenotypical alterations associated with genetic variants: HDL to rs9282541 and insulin to rs13342692. In conclusion, these findings support an association of genetic polymorphisms to develop T2D in Maya population.

  6. First report of the presence of Acartia bispinosa Carl, 1907 (Copepoda, Calanoida) in a semi-enclosed Bay (Sharm El-Maya), northern Red Sea with some notes on its seasonal variation in abundance and body size

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M.; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The calanoid copepod, Acartia bispinosa Carl, 1907, is reported for the first time in the Red Sea, where it is found to be an important copepod in the mesozooplankton community structure of the Sharm El-Maya Bay. Female and male are fully redescribed and illustrated of as the mouthparts of this species have never previously been described and figured. Acartia bispinosa was collected in the plankton samples throughout the year and showed two peaks of abundance, a pronounced one in April (4234 individuals m-3), and second smaller peak during November (1784 individuals m-3). The average total length of females varied between 1.32 and 1.53 mm at the end of June and January respectively. For males, the average total length fluctuated between 1.07 and 1.16 mm at end of June and March respectively. Temperature showed an inverse relationship with the body length (P > 0.001) and seemed to be one of the prime factors affecting the body length of both sexes. PMID:25349502

  7. Preliminary results of the correlation between ion concentrations in rainwater samples and atmospheric back trajectories as a part of the study {open_quotes}impact to acid rain in the deterioration of Mexican Maya monuments{close_quotes} (project Conacyt-UNAM: 0128T9106)

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, A.H.; Saavedra, M.I.; Snchez, P.; Camacho, R.

    1996-12-31

    The environmental Pollution Section at the Center of Atmospheric Sciences, National Autonomus University of Mexico (UNAM), has been conducting a research project on their potential of impact of acid rain on the Mexican Maya monuments since 1993. As a part of such study, 49 rainwater samples were collected during the years 1994 through 1995 at the Puerto Morelos Oceanographic Station Located close to the Tulum Maya ruins in the State of Qintana Roo. The rain water samples were collected using an automatic rain collector. After the rain event, the water samples were transferred to clean Nalgene bottles. The bottles were stored under refrigeration prior to their shipment to the UNAM laboratory in Mexico City. Concentrations of anions Cl{sup -}, NO{sup -}{sub 3}, and SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and cations Na{sup +}, NH{sup +}{sub 4}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+} an Ca{sup 2+} were determined by the High Pressure Ion Chromatographic Procedure. The pH of samples was measured in the laboratory. Also, wind back upper trajectories which arrived to the Puerto Morelos are at the same date of each rain event, were calculated using the GMCC atmospheric trajectory program at NOAA. A thorough analysis on the relations between anions and cations is made and preliminary correlations of these results with the calculated long range trajectories are explored in order to find the possible origin of the event.

  8. An Environmental Expedition Course in Search of the Maya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loret, John

    1978-01-01

    Sponsoring an interdisciplinary program (over 30 lecture hours of geology, ecology, anthropology, ethnology, and agriculture of the Yucatan and Meso-America), Queens College and the University of Connecticut provide expeditions to Mexico and study of local geomorphology, stratigraphy, climate, topography, soils, archeological sites, flora, and…

  9. Comets and meteors in the beliefs of ancient mayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yershova, G. G.

    2001-12-01

    Data concerning the Mayan approach to comets and meteors have till now been available mostly from ethnographical and folklore sources which dealt, as a rule, with various beliefs and tokens. The studies of hieroglyphic texts of the Classic Period (AD 600-900) have proved that comets and meteors were undoubtedly known in this culture through astronomical observations and their periodicity.

  10. MayaQuest: A Student-Directed Expedition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefte, Rachel

    1995-01-01

    Describes an educational project linking classrooms using telecommunications with a four-person bicycling team exploring Mayan ruins in Central America. Provides a historical overview of the Mayan civilization. Includes suggested activities and provides information on how to obtain lesson plans on the project. (CFR)

  11. New Concepts for a Unit on the Ancient Maya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmon, Sarah McCulloh

    1990-01-01

    Contends that social studies textbooks do not reflect recent archaeological research on pre-Columbian Americans. Summarizes recent research results and develops new concepts about Mayan civilization. Examines and rates 12 textbooks currently used in public schools regarding how well they incorporate the new research on Mayan civilization. (DB)

  12. Investigating the Maya Polity at Lower Barton Creek Cayo, Belize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollias, George Van, III

    The objectives of this research are to determine the importance of Lower Barton Creek in both time and space, with relation to other settlements along the Belize River Valley. Material evidence recovered from field excavations and spatial information developed from Lidar data were employed in determining the socio-political nature and importance of this settlement, so as to orient its existence within the context of ancient socio-political dynamics in the Belize River Valley. Before the investigations detailed in this thesis no archaeological research had been conducted in the area, the site of Lower Barton Creek itself was only recently identified via the 2013 West-Central Belize LiDAR Survey (WCBLS 2013). Previously, the southern extent of the Barton Creek area represented a major break in our knowledge not only of the Barton Creek area, but the southern extent of the Belize River Valley. Conducting research at Lower Barton Creek has led to the determination of the polity's temporal existence and allowed for a greater and more complex understanding of the Belize River Valley's interaction with regions abutting the Belize River Valley proper.

  13. Las bases y fundamentos del derecho indigena del pueblo maya de Guatemala (The Foundations and Principles of Indigenous Rights of the Maya People of Guatemala).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Marcela; Chavajay, Miriam

    2000-01-01

    The Guatemalan peace accord recognizes the institutions and local authorities of indigenous peoples, as well as their customs, common lands, and the "customary right" (common law) that structures intracommunity relations. However, it is difficult to define "customary right" and its applications and limits. A systematic study of…

  14. Head Marking in Usage and Grammar: A Study of Variation and Change in Yucatec Maya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norcliffe, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Many Mayan languages make use of a special dependent verb form (the Agent Focus, or AF verb form), which alternates with the normal transitive verb form (the synthetic verb form) of main clauses when the subject of a transitive verb is focused, questioned or relativized. It has been a centerpiece of research in Mayan morphosyntax over the last…

  15. Considering the Art History of El Mundo Maya: Some Issues Regarding the Inquiry Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labadie, John Antoine

    The project sees study of art culture through primary source inquiry as a valuable experience for the art educator. Regardless of the culture, artist, or time period studied, the work of art makes itself known through both intellectual and emotive responses to it. Through description of Mayan culture, society, and artifacts, art as an extension…

  16. Cultures of Teaching in Childhood: Formal Schooling and Maya Sibling Teaching at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Ashley E.

    2004-01-01

    Culture can be thought of a set of shared practices, beliefs, and values that are transmitted across generations through language [Bruner, J. (1990). "Acts of meaning". Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. Teaching is one way that culture is transmitted, but forms of teaching vary across cultures and across activity settings within…

  17. "Coming of Age in Methodology": Two Collaborative Inquiries with Shinnecock and Maya Peoples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caracciolo, Diane; Staikidis, Kryssi

    2009-01-01

    In this article the authors tell the story of their separate but related journeys toward "coming of age in methodology," journeys that brought them, as non-indigenous women, into relationships with indigenous peoples, who challenged them to unlearn their taken-for-granted notions about research. The first study highlights the pervasive…

  18. Indigenous Languages: Nahuatl, Quechua, & Maya--A Study of Multilingual Immigrant Students & Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how immigrants from Latin America who speak indigenous languages perceive and respond to social, racial, linguistic, and cultural factors in the United States. It examined the multicultural and multilingual experiences of six participants, five of whom speak an indigenous language. There were three interviews conducted with…

  19. Menominee and Maya: Indigenous Cultures and their Forests Inspire and Support Each Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Sherrole

    2005-01-01

    Historically, indigenous people lived in a sustainable economy, making a living from the land in a way that did not destroy the ecosystem. Today, the market economy is driven by the demands of consumers, and supplying their demands is taking a toll on the environment. This article discusses the Menominee tribe in northeastern Wisconsin, and the…

  20. Teaching as a Sensory Activity: Making the Maya Come to Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Dennis; Gallagher, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    Presents an interdisciplinary instructional unit focusing on the Mayan Civilization. Describes the use of interactive story telling and guided imagery to heighten student interest and involvement. Provides suggestions for using these methods to teach about other countries or civilizations. (CFR)

  1. AGRO-ECOLOGICAL DRIVERS OF RURAL OUT-MIGRATION TO THE MAYA BIOSPHERE RESERVE, GUATEMALA

    PubMed Central

    López-Carr, David

    2013-01-01

    Migration necessarily precedes environmental change in the form of deforestation and soil degradation in tropical agricultural frontiers. But what environmental factors may contribute to these migration streams in the first place? Identifying environmental characteristics related to this process is crucial for understanding how environmental change and migration may form recurrent feedback loops. Further understanding this process could be useful for developing policies to reduce both environmentally induced migration from origin areas and also to palliate significant environmental change unleashed by settler deforestation in destination areas. Evidently, apprehending this holistic process cannot be approached only from the destination since this ignores environmental and other antecedents to rural out-migration. This paper presents data from surveys conducted in areas of high out-migration to the agricultural frontier in northern Guatemala. Results suggest that land scarcity and degradation in origin communities are linked to out-migration in general and to the forest frontier of northern Guatemala in particular. PMID:24069068

  2. Peasant agriculture and global change: A maya response to energy development in southeastern Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, G.A. ); Mountjoy, D.C. ); Nigh, R.B. )

    1994-06-01

    This article combines data and perspectives from anthropology, agricultural economics, and landscape ecology to study how peasant activity mediates the influence of global economic driving forces on land-use patterns. Southeastern Mexico underwent rapid energy development during the 1960's and 1970's. The state used oil revenues to complete projects such as two major new hydroelectric power projects. As energy development went into high gear, the southeastern region, which had been primarily agrarian, began to supply Mexico with 50% of its energy and much of its export oil and the agricultural base declined. Discussed in this article are the following related areas: sectoral changes under the energy development boom; landscape dynamics; off-farm activities of peasants during the energy boom; Ainacanteco agriculture transformed after 1982; off-farm peasant production and agrarian transformation; peasant versatility and environmental policy. 28 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Trace element analysis of obsidian artifacts from a classic Maya residential group at Nohmul, Belize

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, N.; Neivens, M.D.; Harbottle, G.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-nine obsidian artifacts from a classic period residential group at Nohmul, northern Belize, have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis. The majority of the samples originated from Ixtepeque, and the remainder from El Chayal. Increasing prominence of the Ixtepeque source from the late Classic into the Terminal Classic (i.e., before and after ca. A.D. 800) suggests greater use of a coastal distribution route known to have originated in the formative and to have remained in use through the colonial period.

  4. Systems Thinking : Ancient Maya's Evolution of Consciousness and Contemporary Systems Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jere Lazanski, Tadeja

    2010-11-01

    Systems thinking as a modern approach for problem solving was revived after WWII even though it had been an ancient philosophy. We can track systems thinking back to antiquity. Making a distinction from Western rationalist traditions of philosophy, C. West Churchman often identified with the I Ching as a systems approach sharing a frame of reference similar to pre-Socratic philosophy and Heraclitus. In this paper, we will compare the evolutionary system of consciousness, which was presented in the Tun calendar of Mayan Indians and contemporary systems theory and systems thinking, which is nothing else but highly evolved human consciousness in society. We will present Mayan calendar systems to contemporary systems thinking principles and explain the answer to the Ackoff's judgment on four hundred years of analytical thinking as the dominant mode of society. We will use the methods of historical comparison and a method of a systems approach. We will point out the big picture and Mayan divine plan as main systems principles. The Mayan numerical system and long count units has been proven as one of the most accurate systems for describing the present and future of the civilization in which we have all evolved. We will also explain the Mayan nine-level pyramids system that represents the evolutionary system, i.e. the consciousness, which in our time shows the actual level of human consciousness. Deriving from all described, we will show the main systems principles, discussed by contemporary systems authors and Mayan systems principles, which differ only in one expression—they named "the big picture" as "the divine plan". The final results can be perfectly applied to the society we live in. Seeing the world from the big picture point of view is reaching a level of awareness, in which linear thinking is replaced by systems thinking. The Mayans explained that the civilization would achieve the system of conscious co-creation. We can claim that linear thinking guides us to a limited consciousness, whereas systems thinking opens the possibilities of conscious co-creation for the benefits of sustainable society and future of the planet.

  5. Conservation, Community, and Culture? New Organizational Challenges of Community Forest Concessions in the Maya Biosphere Reserve of Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peter Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Community-based forestry has received much recent attention as an effort to protect threatened Southern forests by linking conservation with sustainable livelihoods. Many researchers have emphasized the importance of effective organization for successful community-based forestry. While significant attention has been paid to community-level…

  6. "From la Malinche and Menchu to Modern-Day "Mayas": Women Forging Paths through the Maze of Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Vickie A.

    2010-01-01

    "Beneath the rule of men entirely great, the pen is mightier than the sword." Bulwer-Lytton recognized this strength years ago, and its truth continues to ring true in the works of authors: Tzvetan Todorov, Octavio Paz, Carlos Fuentes, Rigoberta Menchu, and Deborah Tannen. Language is a centuries-old weapon wielded in the struggle against…

  7. Emic-Etic Conflicts as Explanation of Nonparticipation in Adult Education among the Maya of Western Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutz, German; Chandler, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Causes for lack of participation of Mayan adults in literacy programs were investigated in ethnographic interviews. Emic deterrents at the individual, family, community, and national levels included personal needs, self-perception, rigid moral values, machismo, ethnic and cultural identity, community loyalty, and teaching formats. Successful…

  8. How Working Poor Maya Migrant Families Acculturate to an Urban Setting--Daily Routines and Adaptation Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovote, Katrin Erika

    2012-01-01

    Globally, an increasing number of people migrate from their rural communities to large cities. Despite the pervasive thinking that indigenous communities are solidified in space and strictly conserve cultural traditions, indigenous individuals and families increasingly leave their homelands to set up a new life in an urban environment mostly…

  9. What Does Empowerment in Literacy Education Look Like? An Analysis of a Family Literacy Program for Guatemalan Maya Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoorman, Dilys; Zainuddin, Hanizah

    2008-01-01

    Educators in the field of "family literacy" have identified multiple approaches to family literacy programs (FLPs), and have underscored the need to identify and make explicit the philosophical orientations of their own programs. This was the task undertaken in this article, which focused on a FLP in south Florida that served the needs…

  10. From Vatican II to Speaking in Tongues: Theology and Language Policy in a Q'eqchi'-Maya Catholic Parish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoenes del Pinal, Eric

    2016-01-01

    One of the most far-reaching reforms undertaken by the Catholic Church as part of the Second Vatican Council was the adoption of vernacular languages in the liturgy. The transition from Latin to vernaculars was not unproblematic, however, as it raised several practical and theoretical questions regarding the relationship between local churches and…

  11. History through Art and Architecture: The Art and Architecture of the Maya. Teacher's Manual [and] Creative Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ann; Hoag, John, Ed.

    This packet--a teacher's manual, student workbook, and color poster--was designed to accompany a 2-part videotape program. The teacher's manual provides a script of the videotape, and is organized in 2 sections. Part 1, "Kings, Glyphs, Temples and Ball Courts", looks at the written glyph language and the Solar and Ritual calendars of the…

  12. Search for Tikal: Lost City of the Maya. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karem, Kenny

    This curriculum unit takes the form of historical fiction, an original story for middle school students which revolves around the 16th-century Spanish conquest of Guatemala and the Mayan people. Incorporated into the story are many of the Mayan sites, ruins, geography, culture, legends, historical characters, and cities. The climax is set at the…

  13. A Community Health Worker Intervention for Diabetes Self-Management Among the Tz'utujil Maya of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Micikas, Mary; Foster, Jennifer; Weis, Allison; Lopez-Salm, Alyse; Lungelow, Danielle; Mendez, Pedro; Micikas, Ashley

    2015-07-01

    Despite the high prevalence of diabetes in rural Guatemala, there is little education in diabetes self-management, particularly among the indigenous population. To address this need, a culturally relevant education intervention for diabetic patients was developed and implemented in two rural communities in Guatemala. An evaluative research project was designed to investigate if the structured, community-led diabetes self-management intervention improved selected health outcomes for participants. A one-group, pretest-posttest design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational intervention by comparing measures of health, knowledge, and behavior in patients pre- and postintervention. A survey instrument assessed health beliefs and practices and hemoglobin A1c (HgA1c) measured blood glucose levels at baseline and 4 months post initiation of intervention (n = 52). There was a significant decrease (1.2%) in the main outcome measure, mean HgA1c from baseline (10.1%) and follow-up (8.9%; p = .001). Other survey findings were not statistically significant. This study illustrates that a culturally specific, diabetes self-management program led by community health workers may reduce HgA1c levels in rural populations of Guatemala. However, as a random sample was not feasible for this study, this finding should be interpreted with caution. Limitations unique to the setting and patient population are discussed in this article.

  14. Computer Models of the Human Body Signature for Sensing Through the Wall Radar Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    stretched-arms posture using the Maya software package to modify this grid...animation capabilities. An example of the rearticulated fit man mesh, obtained with Maya (and other mesh conversion programs), is presented in figure 6

  15. Antinociceptive and Antihyperalgesic Activity of a Traditional Maya Herbal Preparation Composed of Pouteria Campechiana, Chrysophyllum Cainito, Citrus Limonum, and Annona Muricata.

    PubMed

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; Sanchez-Recillas, Amanda; Flores-Guido, José Salvador; Ramírez Camacho, Mario A

    2017-02-08

    Preclinical Research The purpose of this work was to assess the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic properties of an herbal preparation, composed of four vegetal species: Pouteria campechiana (P. campechiana), Chrysophyllum cainito (C. cainito), Citrus limonum (C. limonum), and Annona muricata (A. muricata), that is commonly used in combination (PCCA) in traditional Mayan medicine for the treatment of diabetes and pain. An ethanolic extract of PCCA was prepared at a ratio of 1:1:1:1 for each plant. The systemic antinociceptive effect of PCCA extract (50-600 mg/kg, p.o.) was dose-dependent in the rat formalin (1%) producing 66% antinociceptive response at 400 mg/kg, p.o. A concentration-dependent antinociceptive effect of the PCCA extract (20-160 mg/paw) was also demonstrated in the rat capsaicin (0.2%) test. The PCCA extract (100-400 mg/kg, p.o.) had antihyperalgesic effects in alloxan diabetic rats. These findings demonstrate the antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects of PCCA and supports the use of the plant extracts in Mayan folk medicine.Drug Dev Res, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Microevolution of Anthrax from a Young Ancestor (M.A.Y.A.) Suggests a Soil-Borne Life Cycle of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Peter; Grass, Gregor; Aceti, Angela; Serrecchia, Luigina; Affuso, Alessia; Marino, Leonardo; Grimaldi, Stefania; Pagano, Stefania; Hanczaruk, Matthias; Georgi, Enrico; Northoff, Bernd; Schöler, Anne; Schloter, Michael; Antwerpen, Markus; Fasanella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    During an anthrax outbreak at the Pollino National Park (Basilicata, Italy) in 2004, diseased cattle were buried and from these anthrax-foci Bacillus anthracis endospores still diffuse to the surface resulting in local accumulations. Recent data suggest that B. anthracis multiplies in soil outside the animal-host body. This notion is supported by the frequent isolation of B. anthracis from soil lacking one or both virulence plasmids. Such strains represent an evolutionary dead end, as they are likely no longer able to successfully infect new hosts. This loss of virulence plasmids is explained most simply by postulating a soil-borne life cycle of the pathogen. To test this hypothesis we investigated possible microevolution at two natural anthrax foci from the 2004 outbreak. If valid, then genotypes of strains isolated from near the surface at these foci should be on a different evolutionary trajectory from those below residing in deeper-laying horizons close to the carcass. Thus, the genetic diversity of B. anthracis isolates was compared conducting Progressive Hierarchical Resolving Assays using Nucleic Acids (PHRANA) and next generation Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). PHRANA was not discriminatory enough to resolve the fine genetic relationships between the isolates. Conversely, WGS of nine isolates from near-surface and nine from near-carcass revealed five isolate specific SNPs, four of which were found only in different near-surface isolates. In support of our hypothesis, one surface-isolate lacked plasmid pXO1 and also harbored one of the unique SNPs. Taken together, our results suggest a limited soil-borne life cycle of B. anthracis. PMID:26266934

  17. A Curriculum Unit on Human Rights of the Mayas of Guatemala. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shilha, Marianne M.

    This curriculum unit is intended for upper-level high school students. The unit aims for students to gain a basic understanding of the history of Mayan human rights in Guatemala and of the present situation in Guatemala. The unit uses a variety of media and teaching techniques. It lists 30 questions which are to be completed after reading the…

  18. A theoretical study of special acoustic effects caused by the staircase of the El Castillo pyramid at the Maya ruins of Chichen-Itza in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Nico F; Degrieck, Joris; Briers, Rudy; Leroy, Oswald

    2004-12-01

    It is known that a handclap in front of the stairs of the great pyramid of Chichen Itza produces a chirp echo which sounds more or less like the sound of a Quetzal bird. The present work describes precise diffraction simulations and attempts to answer the critical question what physical effects cause the formation of the chirp echo. Comparison is made with experimental results obtained from David Lubman. Numerical simulations show that the echo shows a strong dependence on the kind of incident sound. Simulations are performed for a (delta function like) pulse and also for a real handclap. The effect of reflections on the ground in front of the pyramid is also discussed. The present work also explains why an observer seated on the lowest step of the pyramid hears the sound of raindrops falling in a water filled bucket instead of footstep sounds when people, situated higher up the pyramid, climb the stairs.

  19. On the Paleotectonic Evolution of the Pacific Margin of Southern Mexico, the Maya and Juchatengo Terranes and Chochal Formation Guatemala:Insights from Paleomagnetic and Isotopic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero Garcia, J. C.; Herrero-Bervera, E.

    2009-05-01

    In the paleogeographic reconstruction of Mexico and northern Central America, evidence shows that the entire region is a collage of suspect terranes transported from abroad, whose timing and sense of motion are now beginning to be understood. Among these, the Chortis block and the Baja California Peninsula have been proposed as pieces of continent separated from the Pacific coast of southwestern Mexico, that have moved either southeastward by the Farallon plate or northwestward by the Kula plate. Isotopic mineral ages from coastal granites along the coast from Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco (80 Ma) to Puerto Angel, Oaxaca (11 Ma) record systematic decrease of cooling ages from NW to SE. These results also constrain the position of the Kula- Farallon spreading axis north of Puerto Vallarta. Previous studies mainly confined to the northern margin of the Chortis block, confirmed a left-lateral displacement of 130 km in Neogene time. Further studies suggested times of detachment increased to 30 Ma, 40 Ma, and 66 Ma. We conclude that several indicators, namely: (a) the truncated nature of the Pacific coast of SW Mexico; (b) the genesis of the Kula-Farallon ridge at 85 Ma; (c) the 2,600 km of northward transport of Baja British Columbia from the present-day latitude of the Baja California Peninsula, beginning at 85 Ma; (d) the paleomagnetic counterclockwise rotations of areas both in the Chortis block and along the Mexican coast, during Late Cretaceous-Paleogene time, and (e) the systematic NW-SE decrease of radiometric dates beginning at 85 Ma in Puerto Vallarta and ending at approximately 11 Ma in Puerto Angel, Oaxaca , point to this time and region for the onset of strike-slip drifting of the Chortis block toward its current position. On the other hand, in the reconstruction of past movements of tectonic plates, the determination of reliable paleomagnetic poles is of utmost importance. To achieve accurate results, a full knowledge of the rock magnetic properties of the samples is required particularly for Curie points and for grain-size analyses in addition to thermal and af demagnetization experiments. We present the comparative results of 20 sites drilled at 3 different Paleozoic areas: The Permian rocks of the Juchatengo area in Oaxaca, Mexico; the Late Silurian (~418 Ma) Mountain Pine Ridge Granite, the Hummingbird Granite in Belize, and the Early Leonardian Chochal Limestone in Guatemala. The samples of all 20 sites were subjected to AF demagnetization in 16 steps from NRM to 100 mT and the thermally demagnetized cleaned in 15 increasing temperature steps from NRM up to 675 C. Principal component analysis was applied to the samples in order to obtain their respective mean directions. SIRM, hysteresis loops, and coercivity experiments performed indicate that about 90 percent of the samples were characterized by Multi-Domain (MD) grain sizes and the rest were PSD. Curie point determinations results ranged from 190 to 660 C, indicating the presence of titanomagnetites as well as hematite. In the Juchatengo area reliable poles were obtained from 3 sites, in Belize 3 sites and only 2 sites in Guatemala in the Permian Chochal Formation yielded useful results

  20. Maya the Bee, Scooby Doo and Other Stories: How the Public and Private Distinction Is Depicted in Children's Bidialectal Interactions in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sophocleous, Andry

    2013-01-01

    The complex notion of the public/private distinction of social spheres has not been systematically investigated in sociolinguistics; particularly in the case of bidialectal kindergarten age children and how they construct their social lives around this distinction in a public environment such as that of school. No simple continuum can clearly…

  1. Adults' Orientation of Children--And Children's Initiative to Pitch In--To Everyday Adult Activities in a Tsotsil Maya Community.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines how 2-year-old children attempt to actively participate in adult work in a Mayan community in Chiapas, Mexico, and how adults contribute and accommodate to the contributions. As children enter into activities and adults orient and reorient the activity to direct the children, teaching from expert to novice is generated by children's agency in co-participatory interactions. The chapter enriches the LOPI model by focusing on the structure of participation and communication, social and community organization, and the evaluation that occurs in the activity itself.

  2. A theoretical study of special acoustic effects caused by the staircase of the El Castillo pyramid at the Maya ruins of Chichen-Itza in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declercq, Nico F.; Degrieck, Joris; Briers, Rudy; Leroy, Oswald

    2004-12-01

    It is known that a handclap in front of the stairs of the great pyramid of Chichen Itza produces a chirp echo which sounds more or less like the sound of a Quetzal bird. The present work describes precise diffraction simulations and attempts to answer the critical question what physical effects cause the formation of the chirp echo. Comparison is made with experimental results obtained from David Lubman. Numerical simulations show that the echo shows a strong dependence on the kind of incident sound. Simulations are performed for a (delta function like) pulse and also for a real handclap. The effect of reflections on the ground in front of the pyramid is also discussed. The present work also explains why an observer seated on the lowest step of the pyramid hears the sound of raindrops falling in a water filled bucket instead of footstep sounds when people, situated higher up the pyramid, climb the stairs. .

  3. Microevolution of Anthrax from a Young Ancestor (M.A.Y.A.) Suggests a Soil-Borne Life Cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Braun, Peter; Grass, Gregor; Aceti, Angela; Serrecchia, Luigina; Affuso, Alessia; Marino, Leonardo; Grimaldi, Stefania; Pagano, Stefania; Hanczaruk, Matthias; Georgi, Enrico; Northoff, Bernd; Schöler, Anne; Schloter, Michael; Antwerpen, Markus; Fasanella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    During an anthrax outbreak at the Pollino National Park (Basilicata, Italy) in 2004, diseased cattle were buried and from these anthrax-foci Bacillus anthracis endospores still diffuse to the surface resulting in local accumulations. Recent data suggest that B. anthracis multiplies in soil outside the animal-host body. This notion is supported by the frequent isolation of B. anthracis from soil lacking one or both virulence plasmids. Such strains represent an evolutionary dead end, as they are likely no longer able to successfully infect new hosts. This loss of virulence plasmids is explained most simply by postulating a soil-borne life cycle of the pathogen. To test this hypothesis we investigated possible microevolution at two natural anthrax foci from the 2004 outbreak. If valid, then genotypes of strains isolated from near the surface at these foci should be on a different evolutionary trajectory from those below residing in deeper-laying horizons close to the carcass. Thus, the genetic diversity of B. anthracis isolates was compared conducting Progressive Hierarchical Resolving Assays using Nucleic Acids (PHRANA) and next generation Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). PHRANA was not discriminatory enough to resolve the fine genetic relationships between the isolates. Conversely, WGS of nine isolates from near-surface and nine from near-carcass revealed five isolate specific SNPs, four of which were found only in different near-surface isolates. In support of our hypothesis, one surface-isolate lacked plasmid pXO1 and also harbored one of the unique SNPs. Taken together, our results suggest a limited soil-borne life cycle of B. anthracis.

  4. Use of Network Centrality Measures to Explain Individual Levels of Herbal Remedy Cultural Competence among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Common herbal remedy knowledge varies and is transmitted among individuals who are connected through a social network. Thus, social relationships have the potential to account for some of the variation in knowledge. Cultural consensus analysis (CCA) and social network analysis (SNA) were used together to study the association between intracultural variation in botanical remedy knowledge and social relationships in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. CCA, a theory of culture as agreement, was used to assess the competence of individuals in a domain of herbal remedies by measuring individual competence scores within that domain. There was a weak but positive association between these competence scores and network centrality scores. This association disappeared when age was included in the model. People in Tabi, who have higher competence in herbal remedies tend to be older and more centrally located in the herbal remedy inquiry network. The larger implication of the application of CCA and SNA for understanding the acquisition and transmission of cultural knowledge is also explored. PMID:21909235

  5. Transdisciplinary Research on Cancer-Healing Systems Between Biomedicine and the Maya of Guatemala: A Tool for Reciprocal Reflexivity in a Multi-Epistemological Setting.

    PubMed

    Berger-González, Mónica; Stauffacher, Michael; Zinsstag, Jakob; Edwards, Peter; Krütli, Pius

    2016-01-01

    Transdisciplinarity (TD) is a participatory research approach in which actors from science and society work closely together. It offers means for promoting knowledge integration and finding solutions to complex societal problems, and can be applied within a multiplicity of epistemic systems. We conducted a TD process from 2011 to 2014 between indigenous Mayan medical specialists from Guatemala and Western biomedical physicians and scientists to study cancer. Given the immense cultural gap between the partners, it was necessary to develop new methods to overcome biases induced by ethnocentric behaviors and power differentials. This article describes this intercultural cooperation and presents a method of reciprocal reflexivity (Bidirectional Emic-Etic tool) developed to overcome them. As a result of application, researchers observed successful knowledge integration at the epistemic level, the social-organizational level, and the communicative level throughout the study. This approach may prove beneficial to others engaged in facilitating participatory health research in complex intercultural settings.

  6. Validation of Xpatch Computer Models for Human Body Radar Signature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    walking snapshots of the fit man body model, as obtained by Maya software animation...and considered incidence at various azimuth angles. We used the Maya software package (11) to reconfigure the meshes as in figure 9. 10...a) (b) Figure 9. Two walking snapshots of the fit man body model, as obtained by Maya software animation. In our scenario, we

  7. Time-Frequency Analysis of a Moving Human Doppler Signature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    consider a half-space background (as in section 3.6). A software package named Maya (produced by Autodesk , Inc. [10]) allowed us to articulate this mesh...Introduction to Radar Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001. 10. Autodesk Web page. http://www.autodesk.com/ maya (accessed June 2007). 11. Taflove, A...of the fit man mesh in walking motion, created by the Maya software package

  8. Mayan Indigenous Society in Guatemala and Mexico: A Thematic Integrated Unit on the Contributions of the Maya Both Past and Present. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico and Guatemala).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchenski, Michelle

    This curriculum unit focuses on the contributions of the ancient Mayan people and how these contributions have been interwoven with contemporary society. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) "Preface"; (2) "Mayan Civilization" (geography); (3) "Mayan Contributions" (written language); (4) "Mayan…

  9. A Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Application for Iraq War Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    rendering library. Pre-existing art assets were edited and integrated using Alias’ Maya 6 and Autodesk 3D Studio Max 7. New art content was...created primarily in Maya . We are also adding olfactory and tactile stimuli to the experience of the environment. Recently, Virtually Better, Inc. in

  10. Contingency Contracting and Private Volunteer Organization Procurement in Uzbekistan; a Comparative Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    prior to the arrival of a major airlift accompanied by dozens of physicians. Mrs. Maya Eskridge, International Programs Project Director for Heart...humanitarian assistance operations, such as Operation Support Hope in central Africa (1994) and Operation Sea Angel in Bangladesh (1991). Unless...2001. 40. Procedural Guidelines, draft, Heart to Heart International Programs Office, undated. 41. Telephone interview between Maya Eskridge

  11. Clinical Commentary by Barbara Segal, a Consultant Child and Adolescent Psychotherapist Working in University College London Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This moving clinical account describes the psychotherapeutic work of a child psychotherapist undertaken in a hospital room with 13-year-old Maya, after the sudden onset of a terrifying and serious illness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, leaving her with paralysis and extreme weakness. The first session takes place almost three weeks after Maya's…

  12. Meemul Tziij: An Indigenous Sign Language Complex of Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tree, Erich Fox

    2009-01-01

    This article examines sign languages that belong to a complex of indigenous sign languages in Mesoamerica that K'iche'an Maya people of Guatemala refer to collectively as Meemul Tziij. It explains the relationship between the Meemul Tziij variety of the Yukatek Maya village of Chican (state of Yucatan, Mexico) and the hitherto undescribed Meemul…

  13. Increasing Student Engagement by Using Morrowind to Analyze Choices and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadakia, Maya

    2005-01-01

    During the 2004-2005 school year, Maya Kadakia conducted a pilot study of her master's project which focuses on how student engagement is affected by a curriculum that incorporates popular culture. She created a Language Arts unit which incorporates the video game Morrowhid. Maya teaches seventh grade Language Arts and Social Studies at a diverse…

  14. Sister R. Leadership: Doing the Seemingly Impossible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sena, Rachel; Schoorman, Dilys; Bogotch, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Sister R., the first author, is a Dominican Sister of Peace. Until recently, Sister R. had been the director of the Maya Ministry Family Literacy Program, working with the Maya Community in Lake Worth, Palm Beach County, Florida. She described her work with these indigenous, preliterate, hardworking peoples as "a university of the poor"…

  15. Assays for important Mexican crudes updated

    SciTech Connect

    Manriguez, L.; Moreno, A.; Anaya, C.G. )

    1991-03-04

    Compared to Isthmus and Maya, Olmeca crude is the lightest of the Mexican export. It has fewer contaminants, and its 540{degrees} C. TBP distillation produces the largest quantity of distillate. The Olmeca fractions also have the lowest total sulfur content. The Maya crude is heavy, with an API gravity of 22.2{sup {degrees}}. It has a high contaminant content that induces corrosion in process equipment and causes low running times in thermal cracking units, such as visbreakers and cokers. A proposed refining scheme for the bottom of the Maya barrel consists of atmospheric distillation, vacuum distillation, the Impex process, and visbreaking.

  16. La Ciencia de los Antiguos Mexicanos: Una Bibliografia Selecta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz-Franco, Luis; Magana, Maria

    1973-01-01

    Fifty-five citations pertaining to the scientific and mathematic development of ancient Mexicans, particularly the Mayas, are given in this select bibliography. The introduction and descriptions of resource libraries in 8 States are in Spanish. (NQ)

  17. A new species of predaceous midge of the genus Monohelea Kieffer from Mexico (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Felippe-Bauer, M L; Huerta, H; Bernal, S I

    2000-01-01

    A description and illustrations of Monohelea maya, new species, based on male and female characteristics are provided. The specimens were collected in the special biosphere Reserves of Ria Lagartos and Ria Celestun, Yucatan State, Mexico.

  18. The Books of Chilam Balam: astronomical content and the Paris Codex.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, M.

    Written predominantly in the Maya language but almost entirely in European script, the Books of Chilam Balam are post-Conquest counterparts of pre-Columbian hieroglyphic codices. Not all of the texts have been fully analyzed. The Books of Chilam Balam is historical celendrical, astrological, prophetic, medical, and religious, these works offer promise of broad information on pre-Hispanic Maya practices. In reviewing the astronomical content of the sections of the Books of Chilam Balam identified in the Miram study as generally pre-Columbian in origin, it is evident that some passages contain complex metaphors. Thus it is possible to gain some understanding of the celestial concepts of the ancient Maya from the poetic and esoteric accounts. However, as much of this information may pass unnoticed by non-Mayans, the clearest insights concerning pre-Columbian Maya astronomy come from the sections of the Books of Chilam Balam that are more computational in nature.

  19. The Fermion Representation of Quantum Toroidal Algebra on 3D Young Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Fang; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie

    2014-07-01

    We develop an equivalence between the diagonal slices and the perpendicular slices of 3D Young diagrams via Maya diagrams. Furthermore, we construct the fermion representation of quantum toroidal algebra on the 3D Young diagrams perpendicularly sliced.

  20. 78 FR 37781 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator,...

  1. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of...-18, 2013 meeting of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee due to the Government partial shutdown... INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator; by phone...

  2. Leveraging Open Source Software to Create Technical Animations of Scientific Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    packages such as Maya , Houdini, and 3D Studio Max, while in many instances, an open source package such as Blender3D would suffice. 15. SUBJECT TERMS... Autodesk , Inc. 2Houdini is a registered trademark of Side Effects Software, Inc. 3Lightwave is a registered trademark of NewTek, Inc. 4Python is a...Studio Max, and Maya , all professional programs used by Hollywood studios such as Pixar. The user interface for Blender3D is highly customizable and

  3. Ancient Mayan Glyphs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    The Maya civilization developed from about 300 B.C., predating the Aztecs who flourished in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries. One of the challenges of this lesson is to present a cohesive history of the Maya to fourth- and fifth-graders within the context of an art lesson. A glyph is a symbol. A symbol is something that represents something else,…

  4. Interactive chemistry of coal-petroleum processing: Quarterly progress report for March 15, 1987-June 15, 1987. [Effect of coal or resid on reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Guin, J.A.; Tarrer, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The thermal reactions of model compounds NAPH, DMC, PN, BZT, and QN with Maya TLR (topped long resid) showed no reactions. The presence of Maya TLR blocked the intermediate hydrogenation pathway from QN to THQ compared to the reaction without Maya TLR where 13% THQ was formed. Maya TLR served as a strong inhibitor in the catalytic hydrogenations of model compounds, being more detrimental to the hydrogenation and heteroatom removal reactions than coal. The severe inhibition of Maya TLR is caused by the chemical composition of the resid. The resid contains large refractory hydrocarbon species and substantial amounts of metals. Maya TLR was most likely deactivating the NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst as well as possibly interacting with model species present. Catalyst deactivation due to pore-plugging by petroleum crude and residua reaction products from hydrotreating, i.e., metal sulfides and coke has been studied by Newson. In crude oils and residua, vanadium and nickel compounds are the most abundant organometallic constituents and cause major problems in hydrotreating of residuum oils. At hydroprocessing conditions, these metal compounds deposit on and deactivate the catalyst. Pore mouth plugging in the catalyst by the metal deposit has been known as the major cause in the catalyst deactivation. Tamm and co-workers studied two mechanisms of catalyst deactivation by petroleum feed metals: (1) poisoning of the active surface and (2) physical obstruction of the pore structure. Thus, two possible reasons for the severe deactivation observed in the Maya TLR are metal deposition and carbon laydown on the catalyst surface. Another reason why the Maya TLR had a stronger inhibiting effect than coal is that these reactions are at 350/sup 0/C, where the coal was only partially dissolved; therefore, all the bad actors from coal were not available in the system, while those from the resid were. 3 refs., 4 figs., 36 tabs.

  5. AF-TRUST, Air Force Team for Research in Ubiquitous Secure Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-26

    Live Streaming Systems. PhD. June 2008 • Jeffrey Hartline. Incremental Optimization, PhD, January 2008 AF-TRUST Final Performance Report...Against Intrusion in a Live Streaming Multicast System. Maya Haridasan, Robbert van Renesse. In Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference...Walker White. In Proceedings of SIGMOD 2007 2008 Enforcing Fairness in a Live - Streaming System. Maya Haridasan, Ingrid Jansch-Porto, Kenneth Birman

  6. Language and cultural contacts among Yukatekan Mayans.

    PubMed

    Hofling, Charles A

    2004-01-01

    The Yukatekan branch of the Maya language family, spread across the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, northern Guatemala, and Belize, began to diversify approximately 1,000 years ago. Today it has four branches: Mopan Maya, Itzaj Maya, Lakantun Maya and Yukatek Maya proper, which have widely varying language statuses. Lakantun and Itzaj Maya are seriously threatened, while Mopan appears to have a stable or growing population of approximately 10,000 speakers and Yukatek has a very large number of speakers, perhaps 750,000. However, even many Yukateks believe that their language is threatened and that shift to Spanish is underway. During the past millennia there has been a series of contacts involving migration, trade, warfare, and flight among the different branches, as well as with other Mayan languages and with the Spanish. This paper examines a variety of different kinds of contact, and how the different language varieties were involved and affected. One goal of the paper is to better understand how the dynamics of inter-cultural contacts affects language practices resulting in very different language statuses and ideologies.

  7. Acoustical features of two Mayan monuments at Chichen Itza: Accident or design?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubman, David

    2002-11-01

    Chichen Itza dominated the early postclassic Maya world, ca. 900-1200 C.E. Two of its colossal monuments, the Great Ball Court and the temple of Kukulkan, reflect the sophisticated, hybrid culture of a Mexicanized Maya civilization. The architecture seems intended for ceremony and ritual drama. Deducing ritual practices will advance the understanding of a lost civilization, but what took place there is largely unknown. Perhaps acoustical science can add value. Unexpected and unusual acoustical features can be interpreted as intriguing clues or irrelevant accidents. Acoustical advocates believe that, when combined with an understanding of the Maya worldview, acoustical features can provide unique insights into how the Maya designed and used theater spaces. At Chichen Itza's monuments, sound reinforcement features improve rulers and priests ability to address large crowds, and Ball Court whispering galleries permit speech communication over unexpectedly large distances. Handclaps at Kukulkan stimulate chirps that mimic a revered bird (''Kukul''), thus reinforcing cultic beliefs. A ball striking playing field wall stimulates flutter echoes at the Great Ball Court; their strength and duration arguably had dramatic, mythic, and practical significance. Interpretations of the possible mythic, magic, and political significance of sound phenomena at these Maya monuments strongly suggests intentional design.

  8. The Living Astronomy and People of the Mayan World Today: Engaging Hispanic Populations in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, I.; Tapia, F.

    2008-06-01

    From long ago, the Maya civilizations of Mesoamerica have been keenly attuned to the cycles of nature. The Maya have always been careful observers, and more than a thousand years ago, they recorded the motion of the planets, the Sun, and the Moon, and predicted eclipses. These observations were used to create a complex calendar to organize the events of their world. The Maya built great cities containing buildings aligned with the Sun, Moon, and the stars to mark important times of the year. Many astronomical traditions are still practiced today by the Maya of the Yucatán peninsula, Southern states in México, and other areas in Mesoamerica. Traditional farming communities time the cultivation of corn by observing the sky. The living culture of the Mayan people in the Yucatan integrates science and astronomy with every other aspect of their culture. Yucatec Maya, the language spoken by more than 1 million people in the Yucatán today, still carries through oral histories the ancient knowledge of nature. Our hope is that you'll increase your interest and knowledge of the Mayan people and of the enduring wisdom reflected in the daily lives of Mayan families. We present the results of education and public outreach efforts that position astronomy within its cultural context as an effective means of capturing the interest and enabling authentic participation of under-represented populations in science.

  9. Environmental and Archaeological Research in the Peten, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    1999-01-01

    The Peten, Northern Guatemala, was once inhabited by a population of several million Maya before their collapse in the 9th century A.D.. The seventh and eight centuries were a time of crowning glory four millions of Maya; by 930 A.D. only a few scattered houses remained, testifying to the greatest disaster in human history. What is known is that at the time of their collapse the Maya had cut down most of their trees. After centuries of regeneration the Peten now represent the largest remaining tropical forest in Central America but is experiencing rapid deforestation in the wake of an invasion of settlers. The successful adaptive techniques of the indigenous population are being abandoned in favor of the destructive techniques of monoculture and cattle raising. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis are being used to address issues in Maya archeology as well as monitor the effects of increasing deforestation in the area today. One thousand years ago the forests of the Peten were nearly destroyed by the ancient Maya who after centuries of successful adaptation finally overused their resources. Current inhabitants are threatening to do the same thing today in a shorter time period with a lesser population. Through the use of remote sensing/GIS analysis we are attempting to answer questions about the past in order to protect the resources of the future.

  10. Archaeological and Environmental Research of the Peten, Guatemala, Using Remote Sensing/GIS Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    2000-01-01

    The Peten, northern Guatemala, was once inhabited by a population of several million Maya before their collapse in the 9th century AD. Although the seventh and eight centuries were a time of crowning glory for millions of Maya; by 930 A.D. only a few scattered houses remained. What is known, is that at the time of their collapse, the Maya had cut down most of their trees. After centuries of regeneration the Peten now represent the largest remaining tropical forest in Central America but is experiencing rapid deforestation in the wake of an invasion of settlers. The successful adaptive techniques of the indigenous population are being abandoned in favor of the destructive techniques of monoculture and cattle raising. These techniques also contribute to the destruction and looting of unrecorded archeological sites. Remote sensing and GIS analysis are being used to address issues in Maya archeology as well as monitor the effects of increasing deforestation in the area today. One thousand years ago the forests of the Peten were nearly destroyed by the ancient Maya, who, after centuries of successful adaptation, finally overused their resources. Current inhabitants are threatening to do the same thing today in a shorter time period with a lesser population. Through the use of remote sensing/GIS analysis we are attempting to answer questions about the past in order to protect the resources of the future.

  11. Water and sustainable land use at the ancient tropical city of Tikal, Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, Vernon L.; Dunning, Nicholas P.; Tankersley, Kenneth B.; Carr, Christopher; Weaver, Eric; Grazioso, Liwy; Lane, Brian; Jones, John G.; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Lentz, David L.

    2012-01-01

    The access to water and the engineered landscapes accommodating its collection and allocation are pivotal issues for assessing sustainability. Recent mapping, sediment coring, and formal excavation at Tikal, Guatemala, have markedly expanded our understanding of ancient Maya water and land use. Among the landscape and engineering feats identified are the largest ancient dam identified in the Maya area of Central America; the posited manner by which reservoir waters were released; construction of a cofferdam for dredging the largest reservoir at Tikal; the presence of ancient springs linked to the initial colonization of Tikal; the use of sand filtration to cleanse water entering reservoirs; a switching station that facilitated seasonal filling and release; and the deepest rock-cut canal segment in the Maya Lowlands. These engineering achievements were integrated into a system that sustained the urban complex through deep time, and they have implications for sustainable construction and use of water management systems in tropical forest settings worldwide. PMID:22802627

  12. Effects of culture and education on neuropsychological testing: a preliminary study with indigenous and nonindigenous population.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solís, F; Ramirez, M; Ardila, A

    2004-01-01

    We analyzed the influence of education and of culture on the neuropsychological profile of an indigenous and a nonindigenous population. The sample included 27 individuals divided into four groups: (a) seven illiterate Maya indigenous participants, (b) six illiterate Pame indigenous participants, (c) seven nonindigenous participants with no education, and (d) seven Maya indigenous participants with 1 to 4 years of education . A brief neuropsychological test battery developed and standardized in Mexico was individually administered. Results demonstrated differential effects for both variables. Both groups of indigenous participants (Maya and Pame) obtained higher scores in visuospatial tasks, and the level of education had significant effects on working and verbal memory. Our data suggested that culture dictates what it is important for survival and that education could be considered as a type of subculture that facilitates the development of certain skills.

  13. Validating Prehistoric and Current Social Phenomena Upon the Landscape of the Peten, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    1997-01-01

    The Peten, once inhabited by a population of several million before the collapse of the ancient Maya in the 10th and 11th centuries, is being repopulated toward its former demographic peak. Environmental dynamics, however, impose severe constraints to further development. Current practices in subsistence, commercial agriculture, and cattle raising are causing rapid deforestation on a scale that can only result in soil loss and regional degradation. In view of the current deforestation trends, the question emerges as to how millions of ancient Maya lived successfully in the area for centuries when relatively fewer occupants today threaten the sustainability of the landscape with current agricultural practices. The use of remote sensing technology is a cost-effective methodology for addressing issues in Maya archeology as well as monitoring the environmental impacts being experienced by the current population.

  14. Water and sustainable land use at the ancient tropical city of Tikal, Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Scarborough, Vernon L; Dunning, Nicholas P; Tankersley, Kenneth B; Carr, Christopher; Weaver, Eric; Grazioso, Liwy; Lane, Brian; Jones, John G; Buttles, Palma; Valdez, Fred; Lentz, David L

    2012-07-31

    The access to water and the engineered landscapes accommodating its collection and allocation are pivotal issues for assessing sustainability. Recent mapping, sediment coring, and formal excavation at Tikal, Guatemala, have markedly expanded our understanding of ancient Maya water and land use. Among the landscape and engineering feats identified are the largest ancient dam identified in the Maya area of Central America; the posited manner by which reservoir waters were released; construction of a cofferdam for dredging the largest reservoir at Tikal; the presence of ancient springs linked to the initial colonization of Tikal; the use of sand filtration to cleanse water entering reservoirs; a switching station that facilitated seasonal filling and release; and the deepest rock-cut canal segment in the Maya Lowlands. These engineering achievements were integrated into a system that sustained the urban complex through deep time, and they have implications for sustainable construction and use of water management systems in tropical forest settings worldwide.

  15. Astronomy in the Dresden Codex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vail, Gabrielle

    Much of the content of the extant Maya codices concerns astronomical and celestial matters, largely contained within astronomical tables. Originally composed during the Late Classic period (c. 600-900 AD), these tables were subsequently updated for inclusion in Late Postclassic (1250-1521) codices. They served to track a number of different celestial cycles (eclipses, the synodic cycles of Venus and Mars, etc.) that were thought to have a significant influence on everyday events in the lives of Maya people. As such, they serve as an important window onto pre-Hispanic belief systems and conceptions of time.

  16. Market Perception of Defense Mergers in the United States: 1990-2006, A Case of Event Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    0.2076 0.3463 4/1/2005 MAYA Viz Ltd 0.5417 0.1298 8/3/2005 Itronix Corp 0.0910 -0.3888 8/16/2005 Tadpole Computer Inc -0.8786 0.5426...0.2149 0.3507 4/1/2005 MAYA Viz Ltd 0.5467 0.1356 8/3/2005 Itronix Corp 0.0969 -0.3862 8/16/2005 Tadpole Computer Inc -0.8797 0.5483...of defense mergers yields disappointments. Los Angeles Times, p.1 Golbe, Devra L. and White, Lawrence J. (1993). Catch a wave: the time series

  17. A Behavioral Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury-Associated Visual Dysfunction Based on Adult Cortical Plasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    balance between neuronal excitation or inhibition (He, Hodos & Quinlan, 2006,  Maya  Vetencourt, Sale, Viegi, Baroncelli, De Pasquale, O’Leary, Castren...adult visual cortex. J Neurosci, 26 (11), 2951‐2955.  Maya  Vetencourt, J.F., Sale, A., Viegi, A., Baroncelli, L., De Pasquale, R., O’Leary, O.F

  18. U-Pb zircon geochronology of Paleozoic units in Western and Central Guatemala: insights into the tectonic evolution of Middle America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solari, L. A.; Ortega-Gutierrez, F.; Elias-Herrera, M.; Schaaf, P.; Norman, M.; Torres de Leon, R.; Ortega-Obregon, C.; Moran Ical, S.; Chiquin, M.

    2007-05-01

    Precambrian and Paleozoic basements are present in southern Mexico and Central America, where several crustal blocks are recognized by their different geologic record, and juxtaposed along lateral faults. Some of those crustal blocks are currently located between southernmost north America (the Maya block) and Central America (Chortis block).To better understand the geology of these crustal blocks, and to establish comparisons between their geologic history, U-Pb ages of both igneous and metasedimentary key units cropping out in central and western Guatemala are presented here. In the Altos Cuchumatanes (Maya block) granites yield both Permian (269 +/- 29 Ma) and Early Devonian (391 +/- 7.4 Ma) U-Pb ages. LA-ICPMS detrital zircon ages from rocks of the San Gabriel sequence, interpreted as the oldest metasedimentary unit of the Maya block, and overlain by the Late Paleozoic Upper Santa Rosa Group, yield Precambrian detrital zircons bracketed between 920 Ma and 1,000 Ma. The presence of these metasedimentary units, as well as Early Devonian to Silurian granites in the Mayan continental margin, from west (Altos Cuchumatanes), to east (Maya Mountains of Belize) indicate a more or less continuous belt of Lower Paleozoic igneous activity, also suggesting that the continental margin of the Maya block can be extended south of the Polochic fault, up to the Baja Verapaz shear zone. A metasedimentary sample belonging to the Chuacus Complex yielded detrital zircons with ages between 440 Ma and 1,325 Ma. The younger ages are similar to the igneous ages reported from the entire southern Maya continental margin, and show proximity of the Complex in the Middle-Late Palaeozoic. The S. Diego Phyllite, which overlies high-grade basement units of the Chortis block, contains zircons that are Lower Cambrian (538 Ma), Mesoproterozoic (980 to 1,150 Ma) and even Paleoproterozoic (1,820 Ma). Absence of younger igneous zircons in the San Diego Phyllite indicates that either its sedimentation

  19. Monoalkoxy BODIPYs--a fluorophore class for bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Courtis, Alexandra M; Santos, Sofia A; Guan, Yinghua; Hendricks, J Adam; Ghosh, Balaram; Szantai-Kis, D Miklos; Reis, Surya A; Shah, Jagesh V; Mazitschek, Ralph

    2014-06-18

    Small molecule fluorophores are indispensable tools for modern biomedical imaging techniques. In this report, we present the development of a new class of BODIPY dyes based on an alkoxy-fluoro-boron-dipyrromethene core. These novel fluorescent dyes, which we term MayaFluors, are characterized by good aqueous solubility and favorable in vitro physicochemical properties. MayaFluors are readily accessible in good yields in a one-pot, two-step approach starting from well-established BODIPY dyes, and allow for facile modification with functional groups of relevance to bioconjugate chemistry and bioorthogonal labeling. Biological profiling in living cells demonstrates excellent membrane permeability, low nonspecific binding, and lack of cytotoxicity.

  20. Medium scale integration of molecular logic gates in an automaton.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Joanne; Li, Yang; Sutovic, Marko; Lederman, Harvey; Pendri, Kiran; Lu, Wanhong; Andrews, Benjamin L; Stefanovic, Darko; Stojanovic, Milan N

    2006-11-01

    The assembly of molecular automata that perform increasingly complex tasks, such as game playing, presents an unbiased test of molecular computation. We now report a second-generation deoxyribozyme-based automaton, MAYA-II, which plays a complete game of tic-tac-toe according to a perfect strategy. In silicon terminology, MAYA-II represents the first "medium-scale integrated molecular circuit", integrating 128 deoxyribozyme-based logic gates, 32 input DNA molecules, and 8 two-channel fluorescent outputs across 8 wells.

  1. "Reconstructing" Lives: A Reading-for-Empowerment Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McJamerson, Nanthalia W.; And Others

    A Reading-for-Empowerment project used a critical social science approach. Phase I of the project was an in-depth study of successful lives to discern the critical factors which lead to success. Four graduate counselor trainees at South Carolina State University examined the autobiographies of Maya Angelou, Zora Neal Hurston, John H. Johnson, and…

  2. A Rainbow of Threads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Stevie

    2011-01-01

    In the highlands of Guatemala, the Maya Indians weave colorful, vibrant textiles. Many of these beautiful fabrics are used to make traditional clothing for the men, women, and children who live in the rural villages. In Mayan culture, dress is important for more than just keeping warm and covered. It serves as a sort of uniform that immediately…

  3. Expanding Horizons and Encouraging New Perspectives through Myths: Experiments in Interactive Storytelling in an Elementary School Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giffard, Sue

    2016-01-01

    The scenario that the author encountered when she began working in her present position was not unusual for an elementary school library: the students study a culture, and the librarian reads the stories of that culture to them to enrich the study and to make the culture come alive. The fourth-graders studied the Maya in the fall and the ancient…

  4. Counting Lunar Phase Cycles in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, Stanisław

    Though ancient Mesoamericans did not develop formal lunar calendars, they nevertheless timed diverse agricultural activities with the lunar phases. Only the Classic Period Maya created a complex system of recording the lunar cycles, called the Lunar Series, attached to various mythological or historical narratives. It is probable that the structure of the Lunar Series was used to make eclipse predictions.

  5. The Mexican American Heritage: With Writing Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Carlos M.

    Written by a Los Angeles history teacher frustrated by the lack of culturally relevant materials, this book covers some of the most interesting events in the history of Mexico and the heritage of Mexican Americans. Chapters are: (1) Indian Mexico (Teotihuacan, the Maya, the Toltecs, and the Aztecs); (2) La Conquista (Cortes and Moctezuma, conquest…

  6. Learning Achievement Packages. Mexican American Studies, English-Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astacio, Ramon; Iruegas, Efrain

    Developed originally for grades 7-12, the three bilingual Mexican American studies curriculum units on the pre-Hispanic cultures of the Olmecs, Mayas, and Aztecs present information for the teacher and for the student, a glossary, worksheets, an answer key, a test, and a bibliography in Spanish and English. The cross section of materials are…

  7. Population structure and group composition of western lowland gorillas in north-western Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, F; Querouil, S; Gautier-Hion, A

    1999-01-01

    Population studies are an essential part of conservation actions. Under exceptional observation conditions we studied a western lowland gorilla population visiting the Maya salt-clearing (north of the Parc national d'Odzala, P.N.O., Congo) over an 8 month period; 36 groups and 18 solitary individuals (a total of 420 individuals) have been identified visiting the clearing, which suggests a high gorilla density in the region. Ninety-six percent of the gorillas entered the clearing in groups. One-male groups had a mean size of 11.2. Ninety percent of solitary individuals were silver-back males. Compared with other populations of both lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas, the Maya population had the highest immature rate and the highest number of infants per female. Ecological correlates that could explain the attractiveness of the Maya clearing are discussed. The present status and the renewal rate of the Maya population indicate the need for further studies and confirm the importance of developing eco-tourism in this region as part of the sustainable park management activities developed by the ECOFAC programme (European Union). The results also provide arguments to support the proposal for extending the P.N.O. to include this region, which is rich in salt-clearings and attracts many other key-species of mammal such as forest elephants.

  8. A Theory of the Origin of the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Robert L.

    1970-01-01

    Suggests that states evolve in response to ecological or social circumscription, or resource concentration. When dense populations develop, fighting over land forces loser into political subordination or incorporation. This modification of coercive theories explain lack of state in Amazon basin and origin of Inca, Maya, Hwang Valley states.…

  9. Political Ideology: A Comparative Study of Three Chicano Youth Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Richard A.

    The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…

  10. Minorities in Clinical Trials: Patients, Physicians, Clinical Trial Characteristics, and Their Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Alameda, Contra Costa, Los Angeles , Marin, Monterey, San Benito, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, and Santa Cruz) through cancer trial search engines...Thank you for completing the survey! Please email, fax, or mail this survey to: Maya Yoshida - Research Coordinator Mail: UCSFBox 0856 / San

  11. The Courage of Their Convictions: Empowering Voices of Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Katherine

    1994-01-01

    Reviews childhood trauma/abuse experienced by Maya Angelou and discusses how Angelou survived and triumphed over these experiences. Relates Angelou's story to moral developmental theory for women proposed by Carol Gilligan, focusing on Gilligan's metaphor of having a "voice." (NB)

  12. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Issues Regarding the Inclusion of Refined Petroleum Products as Part of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-12

    in the future. Officials at the Ports of Los Angeles , Long Beach, Oakland, Houston, Savannah, and Charleston reported congestion and emphasized in... Maya —a common heavy crude oil—has traded for about $12 less per barrel on average than West Texas Intermediate—a common light crude oil. If this price

  13. Portraits: Biography and Autobiography in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret, Ed.; McGinnis, Jo, Ed.

    Prepared by experienced classroom teachers from all levels, the articles in this book explain how to use biography and autobiography as a basis for the thorough study of a topic in literature, history, the social sciences, or other subject areas. The nine articles in the first section of the book use Maya Angelou's "I Know Why the Caged Bird…

  14. Let the Caged Bird Sing: Using Literature to Teach Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyatzis, Chris J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of fictional literature in a college-level developmental psychology class. Focuses specifically on Maya Angelou's "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" and its relation to several child development topics. Contends that literature should be used more often as part of instruction, especially in the sciences. (CFR)

  15. Rainbows in the clouds.

    PubMed

    Disch, Joanne; Steffen, Lori

    2008-01-01

    On October 14, 2007 master storyteller, scholar, and poet Maya Angelou launched the second Summit of Sages, hosted by the University of Minnesota School of Nursing. This event was a forum for people with a common interest in examining social justice--to become informed, engaged, and committed to action. Presented below are our separate, yet complementary, thoughts about the impact of her words.

  16. Ethnic Succession in a Highland Chiapas Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmeyer, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    Since the 1950s, ethnic relations in Tenejapa (Chiapas, Mexico) have shifted toward greater equality and less antagonism between formerly dominant mestizos and formerly dominated "indigenas" (Maya Indians). An important cause is the long-term promotion of indigenous education by a national agency, Instituto Nacional Indigenista,…

  17. Synthesis of PSA Inhibitors as SPECT- and PET-Based Imaging Agents for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    for their ability to inhibit PSA and chymotrypsin. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer , PSA inhibitors, boronic acids, peptidomimetics, serine protease...prostate cancer . First, all men undergoing androgen ablation, eventually relapse and no longer respond to hormone treatment . Therefore, there is an...Imaging Agents for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Maya Kostova, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Johns Hopkins University

  18. The Risks We Are Willing to Take: Youth Civic Development in "Postwar" Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellino, Michelle J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Michelle J. Bellino explores contrasting approaches to civic education in two rural schools serving indigenous Maya youth in post-civil war Guatemala. Through comparative ethnography, she examines how youth civic pathways intersect with legacies of authoritarianism while young people shape their identity as members of historically…

  19. Mayan Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Mayas of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras developed an urban civilization in the tropical rain forests. In their cities are many monuments, mainly stone, which contain accounts of their rulers' families, conquests, sacrifices, rituals and building programs. These are integrated into an elaborate calendrical system, which gives dates to the day. We also have pottery, painted with elabora...

  20. International Reports on Literacy Research: Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Maya K.; Amer, Aly Anwar

    2004-01-01

    Maya K. David reports an interesting view of reading in Malaysia through the eyes of graduate student Mohd Nazri bin Hamid (2003), who conducted an exploratory study about the culture of reading in an academy of Islamic studies. The purposes of Nazri's investigation were (a) to examine undergraduate students' reading habits, (b) to offer a…

  1. Dialectal Variation in the Lexical Tone System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remijsen, Bert

    2001-01-01

    Discusses dialectal variation in the lexical tone system of Ma'ya, an Austronesian language featuring three lexically contrastive tonemes. Representative acoustic data were collected from the Missol, Slawati, and Laganyan dialects, and on the basis of these data, an account is given of their tone systems and of how these tone systems compare to…

  2. Lighting the Flame: Teaching High School Students To Love, Not Loathe, Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how Francine Prose accuses English teachers of assigning simplistic, badly written books that breed incompetent writers and readers who loathe literature. Notes that Prose focuses her contempt upon "To Kill a Mockingbird" and Maya Angelou's "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings." Suggests that students show teachers how to help them love…

  3. Making Friends with Locals Helps Community College Win Referendum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beja, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Nearly three years ago, in a span of just nine months, the North Harris Montgomery Community College District lost a bond referendum and its chancellor. Nine months later, the Houston-area district had a new leader, a new name, and a victorious bond issue. And this May--a year after the successful bond vote--the college bought an office complex…

  4. Clinical Commentary by Dorothy Judd, Child and Adolescent and Couple Psychotherapist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's observations on a clinical extract which describes a child psychotherapist working with Maya, a seriously ill child, in a hospital. The author said that the hospital setting raises the question of what it is like to apply child psychotherapists' thinking within a hospital setting, and how they adapt the way they…

  5. Grandparenting: Enriching Lives. An Essential Guide for Today's Grandparents. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CIVITAS Initiative, Chicago, IL.

    Hosted by poet and author Maya Angelou, this video focuses on the important, grandparent, parent, and child relationship. The 30-minute video features real-life grandparents and is based on the most current child development research. The video: (1) highlights the profound effects grandparents can have on the lives of their grandchildren; (2)…

  6. Linguistic Relativity in Japanese and English: Is Language the Primary Determinant in Object Classification?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazuka, Reiko; Friedman, Ronald S.

    2000-01-01

    Tested claims by Lucy (1992a, 1992b) that differences between the number marking systems used by Yucatec Maya and English lead speakers of these languages to differentially attend to either the material composition or the shape of objects. Replicated Lucy's critical objects' classification experiments using speakers of English and Japanese.…

  7. A Response to Louise Pascale, "Dispelling the Myth of the Non-Singer: Embracing Two Aesthetics for Singing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Maya

    2005-01-01

    In her paper, Louise Pascale encouraged a redefinition of the word "singer" and suggested ways to make it apply to a broader spectrum of people. The problem with the current definition, she believes, is that it is outdated and needs to be changed in order to better embrace the ideals of current society. Maya Hoover, responds by saying that in…

  8. Racism against the Mayan Population in Yucatan, Mexico: How Current Education Contradicts the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijangos-Noh, Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The discriminatory situation suffered by the Maya population in the Mexican state of Yucatan is discussed using the concept of neo-racism. Statistical evidence about the school system is presented, along with testimonies of Mayan speakers which uncover a phenomena frequently denied or obliterated by politically correct speeches that actually serve…

  9. Best Audiobooks of 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzyk, Raya

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a list of the best audiobooks of 2008, selected by intrepid band of audio reviewers, range from tales of Bengali and Haitian immigrants to political autobiographies. There's "cake" from Sloane Crosley and emotional pyromania from David Sedaris; a biographical tribute to Maya Angelou and debut novels laced with the…

  10. "Greco-Roman Knowledge Only" in Arizona Schools: Indigenous Wisdom Outlawed Once Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Roberto Cintli

    2010-01-01

    Students at Tucson High School in Arizona, part of Tucson Unified School District's highly successful Mexican American Studies (MAS) K-12 program, the largest in the nation, are taught Indigenous concepts, including Panche Be (seek the root of the truth), and the Aztec and Maya calendars. The author speaks to the students about the relationship…

  11. The Tree of Life as a Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Vivian M. Jimenez

    2005-01-01

    This paper is grounded on the premise that research, as a colonising practice, needs constant reconceptualisation and rethinking. I propose a methodology based on some of the values, visions and stories from my own Maya Indigenous culture and knowledge in addition to other Indigenous cultures across the world. I argue that researchers need to…

  12. Learning in Order To Teach in Chicxulub Puerto, Yucatan, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilber, Cynthia J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a community-based computer education program for the young people (and adults) of Chicxulub Puerto, a small fishing village in Yucatan, Mexico. Notes the children learn Maya, Spanish, and English in the context of learning computer and telecommunication skills. Concludes that access to the Internet has made a profound difference in a…

  13. "Mayan Eyes Have Seen the Glory..." or "Please Don't Squeeze the Shaman!" An Interdisciplinary, Integrated, Thematic Study "Chaac" Full of Culture and "Jaded" History of the Mayan Civilization. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2000 (Mexico/Guatemala).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radkey, Tom

    This curriculum unit, intended for students in grade 6, covers the Mayas, Mayan history, and ancient civilizations. The unit was developed using Roger Taylor's collaborative team model "Connecting the Curriculum: Using an Integrated, Interdisciplinary, Thematic Approach." The unit addresses multiple intelligences, brain research,…

  14. Astute Activities: Increasing Cognitive and Creative Development in the Language Arts Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Lois Marie Zinke

    Using Mark Twain's "Huckleberry Finn," John Knowles'"A Separate Peace," and Maya Angelou's "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings," a study examined the effects of Astute Activities--teaching techniques which increase students' cognitive ability and creativity--on student performance in two senior English classes in a small…

  15. High Energy Materials. New Preparation Approaches to Nitro and Nitroso Derivatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    detailed investigation of the nearly colorless solid product is planned. 55 References and Notes. 1. C. Grundmann, G. W. Nickel, R. K. Bansel, Justus ... Liebigs Ann. Chem., 1975, 1029. 2. E. F. Witucki, W. Maya, M. B. Frankel, Org. Prep. Procedure Int., 1980, 12 197. 3. E. S. Lipina, F. Z. Pavlova, V. V

  16. An Argument for an Integrated Approach to Teaching Southern Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Grace

    1978-01-01

    In addition to such writers as William Faulkner, Flannery O'Connor, Carson McCullers, and Eudora Welty, a good course in modern Southern fiction should include black writers such as Zora Hurston, Nella Larsen, Jean Toomer, Richard Wright, Maya Angelou, and Alice Walker. (MKM)

  17. On Being a Good Neighbor, or Things I Learned in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, William C.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of anthropology as Bildung, or self-cultivation. As an educational mode, Bildung is focused on the moral education of students, encouraging them to broaden themselves in their encounters with others. I will discuss this process in terms of a lesson I learned from the highland Maya about being a good neighbor…

  18. Columbus's Legacy, Conquest or Invasion? A Guatemalan Example of Counterhegemonic Teacher Practice and Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Ronald W.

    Evidence is presented that demonstrates the projection in some school settings of nuanced interpretations of the historical events and meanings related to 1492 and to the subsequent Spanish settlement of the Americas. In particular, the Maya language-Spanish language bilingual curriculum (Programa Nacional de Educacion Bilingue, PRONEBI) and Maya…

  19. Chicanos: Mexicans in the United States. A Stepping-Stone Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Patricia Miles

    Written for second and third grade children, the book gives an account of Chicanos in the United States. Beginning with the Mayas, Toltecs, and Aztecs, it explains the history of Mexico, the Spanish conquest, and the northward movement of the "Mestizos". Subsequent chapters detail the immigration movement across the Rio Grande in search of work.…

  20. Pre-Cenozoic tectonic framework of Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Central America (C.A.) lies along the junctions of five crustal plates at the western edge of the Caribbean. Major fault zones divide it into at least three blocks, each of which has experienced a distinct tectonic history. Although the region has been dominated by plate interactions during the Cenozoic, paleogeographic and palinspastic relations among the various blocks is increasingly obscure and conjectural back through the Phanerozoic. Pre-Mesozoic rocks are unknown in southern C.A., but are widespread as metamorphic basement complexes in northern C.A. The Maya basement consists of Precambrian igneous massifs and Lower Paleozoic metasedimentary sequences cut by mid-Paleozoic plutons, unconformably overlain locally by Upper Paleozoic terrestrial-to-marine strata. The Chorotega-Choco basement is a Late Mesozoic ophiolite sequence accreted with Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary deep marine volcanic and sedimentary strata into a forearc subduction complex along the Pacific margin. By contrast, Mesozoic successions on the Maya and Chortis blocks are cratonic and grossly similar, consisting of basal transgressive clastics, one or more thick Lower Cretaceous rudistid limestone units, and fluvial-deltaic terrigenous redbed sequences; sections vary in detail locally, and evaporites are common on the Maya block. The Late Cretaceous along the Maya-Chortis boundary was characterized by plate collision, ophiolite obduction, and sinistral block translation.

  1. Academy Engages Incarcerated Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    It's not easy to keep young people on task for learning in a youth prison, but David Domenici, the principal of the Maya Angelou Academy, a charter-like school serving incarcerated juveniles, is trying to do it while at the same time creating a model program for improving educational services for young offenders. Located at the New Beginnings…

  2. 78 FR 34035 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    .../spf/coop/frcc/ , and written comments will be accepted up to the morning of each conference call.../spf/coop/frcc/ . Public participants are encouraged to RSVP to Maya Solomon via phone at 202-205-1376... Committee Web site http://www.fs.fed.us/spf/coop/frcc/ . Comments and issues of particular interest for...

  3. The Power of Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    American Indians and other Native peoples are using maps to chart their resources, fight for their land, and remember their history. Describes the efforts of the Zuni Pueblo in the Southwest; the Gitxsan Nation (Canada); the Kuna, Embera, and Wounaan tribes (Panama); and the Mayas (Belize). A sidebar lists Geographic Information Systems (GIS)…

  4. Community-Based Education in San Juan La Laguna, Solola, Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abreo, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous education in Guatemala is currently undergoing a massive overhaul in the depth and breadth of its reach in Maya areas. Although much can be said about the re-evaluation and incorporation of indigenous culture, language and worldview into the schools' curricula, it is still failing to reach the country's adult population. As a result of…

  5. A Quest for Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary Teague

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of Quest, an internet activity that encourages higher-order thinking. Led by Dan Buettner and his team of "adventurers," students can tour with the Quest team as they explore different countries (AsiaQuest, MayaQuest, AfricaQuest, and GalapagosQuest). Provides examples of how three different teachers utilized Quest. (CMK)

  6. To Create the American Film Institute as an Independent Agency; Hearings before the Select Subcommittee on Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 93rd Congress, Second Session, on H.R. 17021, A Bill to Amend the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act of 1965 to Create the American Film Institute as an Independent Agency, Held in Washington, D.C. Oct. 7 and 8, 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This report is on the hearings before the House Select Subcommittee on Education, conducted on October 7 and 8, 1974, to consider the creation of the American Film Institute as an independent agency. Witnesses testifying before the subcommittee included: Maya Angelou, Ellen Burstyn, John Culkin, Ed Emshwiller, John Hancock, Nancy Hanks, Charlton…

  7. Boletin del Consejo Hispano de Alfabetizacion (Bulletin of the Hispanic Literacy Council).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boletin del Consejo Hispano de Alfabetizacion, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The three issues of this newsletter published during 1990 contain the following articles: "You Can't Run before You Learn To Walk" (Jose Manuel Ventura); "The Truth about Police Torture" (J. Maya R.); "A Student's Testimony"; "Voices from the Community" (Gabriel Ramirez and Others); "Books and Authors" (Jose Hunter); "You and Your Health" (Arnaldo…

  8. Guatemala, the Peace Accords and Education: A Post-Conflict Struggle for Equal Opportunities, Cultural Recognition and Participation in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poppema, Margriet

    2009-01-01

    The Guatemalan educational system has been the most unequal system in the Latin American region ever since the 1950s. The indigenous Maya people, who constitute around half of the population, experienced the state mainly through repression, exploitative labour relationships and exclusion from education. The return to democracy and the peace…

  9. Female Role Models: Implications for Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Roberta R.

    1995-01-01

    The lives of six prominent female leaders (Sandra Day O'Connor, Maya Angelou, Wilma Mankiller, Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and Mary Kay Ash) are summarized. Similarities are noted and questions and activities provided to encourage discussion by teachers and students. (DB)

  10. The Power of Podcasting: Perspectives on Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palenque, Stephanie Maher

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the origins of podcasting, the value of podcasting in higher education, the influence of podcasting on student learning and engagement, and possibilities for future development in this area. The writings of other researchers in this field, such as Perkins (1999), Mayas, and de Freitas (2004), who postulate that podcasting…

  11. Women's Voices in Experiential Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Karen, Ed.

    This book is a collection of feminist analyses of various topics in experiential education, particularly as it applies to outdoors and adventure education, as well as practical examples of how women's experiences can contribute to the field as a whole. Following an introduction, "The Quilt of Women's Voices" (Maya Angelou), the 25…

  12. Late Silurian plutons in Yucatan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, M. B.; Walker, J. Douglas

    1996-08-01

    U-Pb measurements of zircons from two composite plutons in the Maya Mountains of the Yucatan Block (Belize) give Late Silurian ages. Zircons from one of the five compositional phases of the Mountain Pine Ridge pluton yield an age of 418±3.6 Ma. A second compositional phase gives a minimum age of 404 Ma, and zircons from a third phase, although plagued with high common Pb, yield ages consistent with the other two. Zircons from one compositional phase of the Hummingbird-Mullins River pluton indicate an age of about 410-420 Ma. These data demonstrate that two of the three Maya Mountains plutons residing among the strata of the Late Pennsylvanian through Permian Santa Rosa Group are older than that sedimentation. Although the third pluton was not dated, both the similarity of sedimentary facies patterns adjacent to it to those adjacent to one of the plutons dated as Late Silurian and a published single Rb-Sr age of 428 ± 41 Ma suggest this third pluton also was emergent during Santa Rosa deposition. Thus the new U/Pb dates and other data suggest that all three Maya Mountains plutons pre-date Late Carboniferous sedimentation and that none intrude the Santa Rosa Group. Although very uniform ages of about 230 Ma amongst all plutons, derived from abundant earlier dating by the K-Ar system, led to the conclusion that intrusion mostly had occurred in the Late Triassic, the U-Pb ages (obtained from the same sites as the K-Ar dates) demonstrate that the K-Ar ages do not derive from a Late Triassic intrusive episode. The K-Ar dates probably are a signature of the rifting associated with Pangean breakup and formation of the Gulf of Mexico. In a reconstructed Pangea, the position of the Maya Mountains Late Silurian plutons suggests that the Late Silurian Acadian-Caledonian orogen of eastern North America extended through the region of the future Gulf of Mexico. Finally, the U-Pb ages of the Maya Mountains plutons are the same as those of a group of shocked zircons found in the

  13. Enhanced platelet adhesion in essential thrombocythemia after in vitro activation.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Andreas C; Lotfi, Kourosh; Whiss, Per A

    2010-06-05

    AMAÇ: Esansiyel trombositemi (ET) platelet sayısının artması ve yüksek tromboz riski ile karakterize kronik bir myeloproliferatif bozukluktur. Ex vivo veriler tromboz riskine uygun olarak artan platelet reaktivitesini öne sürerken in vitro testler sıklıkla platelet aktivitesinde azalma tespit etmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı ET-hastalarında az sayıda çalışmaya dahil edilmiş bir platelet fonksiyonu konusu olan ET-plateletleri adezyonunun in vitro incelenmesidir. YÖNTEMLER: Çalışmaya 30 ET hastası ile 14 sağlıklı kontrol dahil edilmiştir. Statik platelet adezyonu tayini ile platelet adezyonu ölçülmüştür.

  14. Guatemala's green revolution: synthetic fertilizer, public health, and economic autonomy in the Mayan highland.

    PubMed

    Carey, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite extensive literature both supporting and critiquing the Green Revolution, surprisingly little attention has been paid to synthetic fertilizers' health and environmental effects or indigenous farmers' perspectives. The introduction of agrochemicals in the mid-twentieth century was a watershed event for many Mayan farmers in Guatemala. While some Maya hailed synthetic fertilizers' immediate effectiveness as a relief from famines and migrant labor, other lamented the long-term deterioration of their public health, soil quality, and economic autonomy. Since the rising cost of agrochemicals compelled Maya to return to plantation labor in the 1970s, synthetic fertilizers simply shifted, rather than alleviated, Mayan dependency on the cash economy. By highlighting Mayan farmers' historical narratives and delineating the relationship between agricultural science and postwar geopolitics, the constraints on agriculturists' agency become clear. In the end, politics, more than technology or agricultural performance, influenced guatemala's shift toward the Green Revolution.

  15. Meta!Blast computer game: a pipeline from science to 3D art to education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneller, William; Campbell, P. J.; Bassham, Diane; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2012-03-01

    Meta!Blast (http://www.metablast.org) is designed to address the challenges students often encounter in understanding cell and metabolic biology. Developed by faculty and students in biology, biochemistry, computer science, game design, pedagogy, art and story, Meta!Blast is being created using Maya (http://usa.autodesk.com/maya/) and the Unity 3D (http://unity3d.com/) game engine, for Macs and PCs in classrooms; it has also been exhibited in an immersive environment. Here, we describe the pipeline from protein structural data and holographic information to art to the threedimensional (3D) environment to the game engine, by which we provide a publicly-available interactive 3D cellular world that mimics a photosynthetic plant cell.

  16. Aggregates structure analysis of petroleum asphaltenes with small-angle neutron scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, R.; Hunt, J. E.; Winans, R. E.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Sato, S.; Takanohashi, T.; Idemitsu Kosan Co.; National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine changes in the structures of petroleum asphaltene aggregates in situ with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Asphaltenes were isolated from three different crude oils: Maya, Khafji, and Iranian Light. An aliquot of the 5 wt % asphaltene solution in deuterated Decalin, 1-methylnaphthalene, or quinoline was loaded in a special stainless steel cell for SANS measurements. SANS data measured at various temperatures from 25 to 350 {sup o}C showed various topological features different with asphaltene or solvent species. A fractal network was formed only with asphaltene of Maya in Decalin, and it remained even at 350 {sup o}C. In all of the solvents, asphaltenes aggregate in the form of a prolate ellipsoid with a high aspect ratio at 25 {sup o}C and got smaller with increasing temperature. That became a compact sphere with the size of around 25 {angstrom} in radius at 350 {sup o}C.

  17. Platinum potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs in the western part of the Dambuka ore district (Upper Amur Region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Stepanov, V. A.; Moiseenko, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    New data on the Pt potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs of the Khani-Maya, Uldegit, and Dzhalta complexes in the western part of the Dambuka ore district are discussed. The Khani-Maya Complex is represented by metamorphosed gabbro, gabbronorites, gabbro anorthosites, subordinate pyroxenites, hornblendites, and peridotites. The Uldegit Complex is composed of pyroxenites, hornblendites, gabbro, gabbronorites, norites, troctolites, peridotites, dunites, actinolite-tremolites, serpentinites, anthophyllites, and tremolite-plagioclase rocks. The Dzhalta Complex is formed of peridotites, gabbro, eclogitized gabbro, hornblendites, cortlandites, and pyroxenites. All these complexes differ from each other by the concentrations of Ni, Cu, Co, Au, and platinoids depending on the composition of the constituting rocks and the presence of sulfide minerals.

  18. Role of the resid solvent in catalytic coprocessing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.

    1995-07-01

    The research reported in this progress report describes the continuation of coal-resid coprocessing reactions that were discussed in the July to September 1994 Quarterly Report. During previous quarters, Maya and FHC-623 resids were evaluated in noncatalytic and catalytic reactions at 400{degrees}C with Pittsburgh No. 8 and DECS-17 Blind Canyon coals. From the complete reaction matrix containing the two coals and two resids, it was found that the influence of resids on coprocessing depended on the type of coal used; for example, under catalytic reaction conditions, the hexane solubles of Maya resid increased coal conversion of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal but decreased that of DECS-17. In order to observe the intrinsic behavior of resids during coprocessing, another resid, Manji, and another coal, Illinois No. 6, are being tested. These reactions were begun this quarter. The results obtained are reported in this report.

  19. First inverse-kinematics fission measurements in a gaseous active target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Farget, F.; Acosta, L.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Babo, M.; Boulay, F.; Caamaño, M.; Damoy, S.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Galaviz, D.; Grinyer, G. F.; Grinyer, J.; Harakeh, M. N.; Konczykowski, P.; Martel, I.; Pancin, J.; Randisi, G.; Renzi, F.; Roger, T.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Teubig, P.; Vandebrouck, M.

    2017-02-01

    The fission of a variety of actinides was induced by fusion and transfer reactions between a 238U beam and 12C nuclei, in the active target MAYA. The performance of MAYA was studied, as well as its capability to reconstruct the fission-fragment trajectories. Furthermore, a full characterization of the different transfer reactions was achieved, and the populated excitation-energy distributions were investigated as a function of the kinetic energy in the entrance channel. The ratio between transfer- and fusion-induced fission cross-sections was also determined, in order to investigate the competition between both reaction types and its evolution with the incident energy. The experimental results will be discussed with a view to forthcoming radioactive-ion beam facilities, and next-generation active-target setups.

  20. Early Earthquakes of the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, James

    2004-11-01

    Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.

  1. 3800 Years of Quantitative Precipitation Reconstruction from the Northwest Yucatan Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Bastos, Alicia; Islebe, Gerald A.; Torrescano-Valle, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation over the last 3800 years has been reconstructed using modern pollen calibration and precipitation data. A transfer function was then performed via the linear method of partial least squares. By calculating precipitation anomalies, it is estimated that precipitation deficits were greater than surpluses, reaching 21% and <9%, respectively. The period from 50 BC to 800 AD was the driest of the record. The drought related to the abandonment of the Maya Preclassic period featured a 21% reduction in precipitation, while the drought of the Maya collapse (800 to 860 AD) featured a reduction of 18%. The Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a period of positive phases (3.8–7.6%). The Little Ice Age was a period of climatic variability, with reductions in precipitation but without deficits. PMID:24391940

  2. Formalization of an environmental model using formal concept analysis - FCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdon-García, Rubén D.; Burgos-Salcedo, Javier D.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, there is a huge necessity to generate novel strategies for social-ecological systems analyses for resolving global sustainability problems. This paper has as main purpose the application of the formal concept analysis to formalize the theory of Augusto Ángel Maya, who without a doubt, was one of the most important environmental philosophers in South America; Ángel Maya proposed and established that Ecosystem-Culture relations, instead Human-Nature ones, are determinants in our understanding and management of natural resources. Based on this, a concept lattice, formal concepts, subconcept-superconcept relations, partially ordered sets, supremum and infimum of the lattice and implications between attributes (Duquenne-Guigues base), were determined for the ecosystem-culture relations.

  3. Climate regime shifts in paleoclimate time series from the Yucatán Peninsula: from the Preclassic to Classic period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanco Martínez, Josue M.; Medina-Elizalde, Martin; Burns, Stephen J.; Jiang, Xiuyang; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted by the paleoclimate and archaeology communities that extreme climate events (especially droughts) and past climate change played an important role in the cultural changes that occurred in at least some parts of the Maya Lowlands, from the Pre-Classic (2000 BC to 250 AD) to Post-Classic periods (1000 to 1521 AD) [1, 2]. In particular, a large number of studies suggest that the decline of the Maya civilization in the Terminal Classic Period was greatly influenced by prolonged severe drought events that probably triggered significant societal disruptions [1, 3, 4, 5]. Going further on these issues, the aim of this work is to detect climate regime shifts in several paleoclimate time series from the Yucatán Peninsula (México) that have been used as rainfall proxies [3, 5, 6, 7]. In order to extract information from the paleoclimate data studied, we have used a change point method [8] as implemented in the R package strucchange, as well as the RAMFIT method [9]. The preliminary results show for all the records analysed a prominent regime shift between 400 to 200 BCE (from a noticeable increase to a remarkable fall in precipitation), which is strongest in the recently obtained stalagmite (Itzamna) delta18-O precipitation record [7]. References [1] Gunn, J. D., Matheny, R. T., Folan, W. J., 2002. Climate-change studies in the Maya area. Ancient Mesoamerica, 13(01), 79-84. [2] Yaeger, J., Hodell, D. A., 2008. The collapse of Maya civilization: assessing the interaction of culture, climate, and environment. El Niño, Catastrophism, and Culture Change in Ancient America, 197-251. [3] Hodell, D. A., Curtis, J. H., Brenner, M., 1995. Possible role of climate in the collapse of Classic Maya civilization. Nature, 375(6530), 391-394. [4] Aimers, J., Hodell, D., 2011. Societal collapse: Drought and the Maya. Nature 479(7371), 44-45 (2011). [5] Medina-Elizalde, M., Rohling, E. J., 2012. Collapse of Classic Maya civilization related to modest reduction

  4. Monoalkoxy BODIPYs—A Fluorophore Class for Bioimaging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Small molecule fluorophores are indispensable tools for modern biomedical imaging techniques. In this report, we present the development of a new class of BODIPY dyes based on an alkoxy-fluoro-boron-dipyrromethene core. These novel fluorescent dyes, which we term MayaFluors, are characterized by good aqueous solubility and favorable in vitro physicochemical properties. MayaFluors are readily accessible in good yields in a one-pot, two-step approach starting from well-established BODIPY dyes, and allow for facile modification with functional groups of relevance to bioconjugate chemistry and bioorthogonal labeling. Biological profiling in living cells demonstrates excellent membrane permeability, low nonspecific binding, and lack of cytotoxicity. PMID:24797834

  5. Distribution of Herbal Remedy Knowledge in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi. PMID:23539665

  6. Enhancing the Immunogenicity of a Tetravalent Dengue DNA Vaccine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0029 TITLE: Enhancing the Immunogenicity of a Tetravalent Dengue DNA Vaccine PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Maya...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhancing the Immunogenicity of a Tetravalent Dengue DNA 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Vaccine 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...the top infectious diseases that afflict US Military personnel deployed overseas. Developing a successful vaccine to prevent dengue fever in DoD

  7. Nanoparticles for cultural heritage conservation: calcium and barium hydroxide nanoparticles for wall painting consolidation.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Rodorico; Ambrosi, Moira; Toccafondi, Nicola; Baglioni, Piero

    2010-08-16

    Nanotechnology provides new concepts and materials for the consolidation and protection of wall paintings. In particular, humble calcium and barium hydroxide nanoparticles offer a versatile and highly efficient tool to combat the main degradation processes altering wall paintings. Clear example of the efficacy and potentiality of nanotechnology is represented by the conservation in situ of Maya wall paintings in the archaeological area in Calakmul (Mexico).

  8. Department of Defense Fuel Spending, Supply, Acquisition, and Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-20

    Canadian Alberta Syncrude (d) 38.7 0.19 1,900 Saudi Arabia Arab Extra Light/ Heavy (d) 37.2 – 27.4 1.15 – 2.80 11,500 – 28,000 Mexico Maya/ Olmeca (d) 39.8...Medium Bonny Medium Mexico Olmeca Arab Light 22º Heavy Venezuela Heavy DFM (diesel fuel marine) has been used in all shipboard propulsion plants

  9. 50 Years of Army Computing From ENIAC to MSRC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    Institute for Advanced Study. 8 United Nations Educational, Scientifi c, and Cultural Organiza- tion (UNESCO). 9 This conference was in Paris, in May...a major cultural change, I think, in the way the people who had the problems dealt with the computation. 2 See Salus (1995) and Hafner and Lyon...not work at Disneyland . We are not trying to make motion pictures for entertainment. We are trying to solve problems for scientifi c analysis, for

  10. Professional Military Ethics and the Laws of War: More Important Now than Ever Before

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-23

    the commander’s soldiers as well as noncombatant personnel, making the best, most informed decision is imperative . Additionally, these decisions may...as 3:1,” and “Count Gerhard Scharnhorst, first chief of the Prussian General Staff, made the reading of Kant compulsory at the L’Ecole Militaire, the... categorization illuminates the stark reality of the profession of arms and compels one to realize that any decision made by management ought to be one that

  11. Children's Attributions of Beliefs to Humans and God: Cross-Cultural Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Nicola; Sousa, Paulo; Barrett, Justin L.; Atran, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The capacity to attribute beliefs to others in order to understand action is one of the mainstays of human cognition. Yet it is debatable whether children attribute beliefs in the same way to all agents. In this paper, we present the results of a false-belief task concerning humans and God run with a sample of Maya children aged 4-7, and place…

  12. Classroom Simulations: Proceed with Caution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    When Maya Saakvitne's parents sent her for a three-day school field trip two years ago at Nature's Classroom, a camp in western Massachusetts, they did not expect her to come home with a tale of her feet falling asleep after counselors asked her to kneel in the hold of a make-believe slave ship and keep her head down even though some of the other…

  13. A case for archaeological reconnaissance of the Cabo Catoche-Porvenir region of the northeastern Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duller, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology is a tool with which archaeologists can, with relative ease, survey a region that is otherwise inaccessible. The northeast corner of the Yucatan Peninsula is such an area: it is isolated and sparsely inhabited, with dense forest and extensive swamps. From Cabo Catoche inland to Cancun, this remote corner of the ancient Maya world is virtually unexplored. Recent satellite images disclose evidence of past human activity in this unexplored region and offer a compelling argument for an archaeological reconnaissance.

  14. Atmospheric Rivers and Their Role in Extreme Precipitation in the Midwest U.S.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    97 viii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Pineapple Express Feb 2004...defined. An AR over the Pacific Ocean extending toward the West Coast is often called the “ Pineapple Express,” as it is a warm, moist air that...central U.S. as the “Maya Express.” 4 Figure 1. Pineapple Express Feb 2004. Integrated Water Vapor Values Exceeding 20mm, with Local IWV Exceeding

  15. SERDP and ESTCP Workshop on Investment Strategies to Optimize Research and Demonstration Impacts in Support of DoD Restoration Goals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    that was developed through SERDP project ER-1349 (Integrated Protocol for the Assessment of the Long-Term Sustainability of MNA of Chlorinated Solvent ...plume, so that the sustained flux of contaminants to downgradient sites or to a groundwater extraction well may be very low. Although such sites may...as part of ESTCP project ER-0530 and now being promoted in the upcoming Interstate Technology and Regulatory (ITRC) guidance for chlorinated solvent

  16. Review of the Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Naucoridae) with the description of a new species from Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Sites, Robert W; Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    The Neotropical Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex is reviewed and includes A. bifidus La Rivers & Nieser, A. scolius La Rivers, A. stali La Rivers, and A. tricuspis La Rivers. Ambrysus oblongulus Montandon is removed as a member of this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and associated structures. Ambrysus maya n. sp. is the fifth species in the complex and is described from Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico based on specimens from recent collecting and museum collections.

  17. Development of Archaeoastronomy in the English-Speaking World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salt, Alun

    While there are early examples of work that are now recognized as archaeoastronomy, the development of archaeoastronomy as a discipline has nearly all happened in the past 50 years. Development accelerated with the foundation of regular conference series. This in turn widened interest in astronomy from Megalithic Europe and the Maya to encompass wider geographical and historical range. This is turn has required archaeoastronomers to embrace a variety of methodological approaches.

  18. Applications of ecological concepts and remote sensing technologies in archaeological site reconnaissance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. Frank; Sever, Thomas L.; Lee, C. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The concept of integrating ecological perspectives on early man's settlement patterns with advanced remote sensing technologies shows promise for predictive site modeling. Early work with aerial imagery and ecosystem analysis is discussed with respect to the development of a major project in Maya archaeology supported by NASA and the National Geographic Society with technical support from the Mississippi State Remote Sensing Center. A preliminary site reconnaissance model will be developed for testing during the 1991 field season.

  19. E-Group Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Group E at Uaxactún has long been considered an ancient Maya observatory in which an observer could see the sun rise along architectural alignments at the solstices and equinoxes. E-Groups named for the architectural complex list identified in Group E at Uaxactún, typically consist of a large radial pyramid on their west side and three temples on a raised platform on their east side.

  20. The Categorification of Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Na; Wang, Rui; Wang, Zhi-Xi; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie; Yang, Zi-Feng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we lift Fermions to functors acting on some homotopy category by the Boson-Fermion correspondence and get the categorified relations of Fermions. In this way, both the categorified Bosons and the categorified Fermions can be viewed as functors on the same category. We also give actions of these functors on the charged Young diagrams (or equivalently Maya diagrams), so that the classical theory of Boson-Fermion correspondence is very well recovered as a result of such a categorification.

  1. Governor's Palace at Uxmal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šprajc, Ivan

    The orientation of the Governor's Palace at the Classic Maya city of Uxmal can be related to the extremes of the planet Venus on the horizon. While the sculptural decoration of the building contains iconographic elements clearly indicating an association with the planet, two opposing interpretations have been forwarded regarding its orientation, one linking it with the southernmost rising point of the morning star and the other suggesting it refers to the northerly extremes of the evening star.

  2. The role of the resid solvent in coprocessing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.

    1993-12-31

    The reactions with anthracene as a hydrogen acceptor were performed to determine how much hydrogen could be transferred by the hexane soluble resid fraction and hydrogen atmosphere to anthracene. The product distributions obtained by anthracene are given in Table 4. The products obtained from anthracene (ANT) were dihydroanthracene (DHA) and hexahydroanthracene (HHA). When FHC-365 was the resid used in the reaction, very similar amounts of ANT, DHA, and HHA were present after the reaction in both the catalytic and noncatalytic reaction. The predominant product was DHA at 51 to 53 mol%. Slightly more than one-fourth of the ANT remained unreacted. The production of HHA was between 20 and 22%. The amount of H{sub 2} accepted by ANT was the same for both catalytic and noncatalytic reactions. For the reactions with Maya, ANT reacted differently under noncatalytic and catalytic conditions. The reaction products produced were DHA and HHA, with DHA being the predominant product. In the catalytic reaction, substantially more DHA was produced under catalytic conditions and substantially less ANT remained than in the noncatalytic reaction. Under both reaction conditions nearly the same amount of HHA was produced. Under catalytic conditions, nearly twice as much hydrogen was accepted by ANT than under noncatalytic conditions. The product distribution from ANT obtained for the noncatalytic reaction with Maya was similar to dig obtained from ANT when ANT was reacted with FHC-365. The catalyst only seemed to have an effect with Maya resid. The catalyst also had a strong effect on the GC fraction obtained from the reaction using hexane solubles of Maya with ANT. The average boiling point showed a substantial shift toward low boiling constituents.

  3. Extremely Lightweight Intrusion Detection (ELIDe)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    conventional computing platform (Dell Inspiron 15N laptop running Mint Maya as the operating system, dual-core Core i5 CPU, 8 GB RAM ), Snort exhibited a peak... RAM usage of approximately 1.2 GB as measured by the Massif memory profiler within the Valgrind suite (3). While this is very reasonable for...equipped with only 512 MB of RAM and would, therefore, be overwhelmed by the runtime demands of Snort. Consequently, any packet analysis solution in the

  4. Ethnicity and lipoprotein(a) polymorphism in Native Mexican populations

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo; De La Peña-Díaz, Aurora; Zamora-González, José; Gomez-Ortega, Rocio; Posadas-Romero, Carlos; Izaguirre-Avila, Raul; Malvido-Miranda, Elsa; Morales-Anduaga, Maria Elena; Angles-Cano, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Background Lp(a) is a lipoparticle of unknown function mainly present in primates and humans. It consists of a low-density lipoprotein and apo(a), a polymorphic glycoprotein. Apo(a) shares sequence homology and fibrin-binding with plasminogen inhibiting its fibrinolytic properties. Lp(a) is considered a link between atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Marked inter-ethnic differences in Lp(a) concentration related to the genetic polymorphism of apo(a), have been reported in several populations. Aim To study the structural and functional features of Lp(a) in three Native Mexican populations (Mayos, Mazahuas and Mayas) and in Mestizo subjects. Methods We determined the plasma concentration of Lp(a) by immunonephelometry, apo(a) isoforms by Western blot, Lp(a) fibrin-binding by immuno-enzymatic assay and STR polymorphic markers genetic analysis by capillary electrophoresis. Results Mestizos presented the less skewed distribution and the highest median Lp(a) concentration (13.25 mg/dL) relative to Mazahuas (8.2 mg/dL), Mayas (8.25 mg/dL) and Mayos (6.5 mg/dL). Phenotype distribution was different in Mayas and Mazahuas as compared to the Mestizo group. The higher Lp(a) fibrin-binding capacity was found in the Maya population. There was an inverse relationship between the size of apo(a) polymorphs and both Lp(a) levels and Lp(a) fibrin binding. Conclusion There is evidence of significative differences in Lp(a) plasma concentration and phenotype distribution in Native Mexican and the Mestizo group. PMID:16684693

  5. The politics and semiotics of sounds--Mayan linguistics and nation-building in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    French, Brigittine M

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development Mayan linguistics as an authoritative field of knowledge in Guatemala. In particular, it links missionary linguists' and Maya linguists' activities with shifting nationalist agendas from the 1920s in to the late 1980s. It is argued that during the historical and intellectual moment that linguistics becomes an authoritative epistemology, phonetic analysis functions as a creative index that constitutes "expert" knowledge for particular semiotic and ideological reasons tied to competing versions of the Guatemalan imagined community.

  6. Hydroarchaeology: Measuring the Ancient Human Impact on the Palenque Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, K. D.; Duffy, C. J.

    2010-03-01

    Palenque, one of the best known Classic Maya centers, has what is arguably the most unique and intricate system of water management known anywhere in the Maya Lowlands. Years of archaeological research, including intensive mapping between 1997 and 2000, reveal that this major center, situated on a narrow escarpment at the base of a high mountain range in northern Chiapas, Mexico, began as a modest settlement about AD 100. Then, during the seventh and eighth centuries, Palenque experienced explosive growth, mushrooming into a dense community with an estimated population of 6000 and approximately 1500 structures — residences, palaces, and temples¬ - under a series of powerful rulers. This process of "urban" growth led to obvious changes in landcover. In order to better understand the effects that landcover and climate change have on the availability of water for an ancient city a new approach is required. In this paper we explore a hydroarchaeological approach that utilizes simulated daily paleoclimate data, watershed modeling, and traditional archaeology to view the response of ancient human impact within the watershed surrounding Palenque. There is great potential for watershed-climate modeling in developing plausible scenarios of water use and supply, and the effect of extreme conditions (flood and drought), all of which cannot be fully represented by atmosphere-based climate and weather projections. The first objective of the paper is to test the hypothesis that drought was a major cause for Palenque’s collapse. Did the Maya abandon Palenque in search of water? Secondly, we evaluate the hydraulic design of the water management features at Palenque against extreme meteorological events. How successful was the hydraulic engineering of the Maya in coping with droughts and floods? The archaeological implications for this non-invasive "virtual" method are many, including detecting periods of stress within a community, estimating population by developing caps

  7. STAR - Copperhead Interface.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    distribution unlimited. f?. OISTRIOUTION STATEMENT (al the 0baiwaen.d in Steak Ŕ. It aitoo I ipo W) Is. SUPPLEMENTARY Mayas Is. K CY MeOS (Conff an...established and veri- fied portion of the FA module. The missions generated by these routines simulate those whizh would normally be called in by an PO...than the target itself may reflect some portion of laser energy creating false signals at the COPPERHEAD seeker. Attempts to model this phenomenom

  8. Structure and Electrical Properties of an Assembly of Au Nanoclusters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Nanoclusters DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Materials Research...Materials Research Society Structure and Electrical Properties of an Assembly of Au Nanoclusters G. Muralidharan, L. Maya and T. Thundat Oak Ridge National...interest both for understanding the fundamental physics involved and for potential applications. In this study, we describe a technique for preparing

  9. Stable carbon isotope analysis of coprocessing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lancet, M.S.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1991-02-01

    Consol R D is developing and demonstrating stable carbon isotope analysis as a method to quantitatively distinguish coal-derived and petroleum-derived carbon in products from coal/petroleum coprocessing. The approach taken is develop the method, then demonstrate its application on authentic continuous-unit products. The significance of selective isotopic fractionation is being determined and, when necessary, corrections are applied to account for it. Precision, accuracy and range of applicability are being defined. The value of accessory analytical techniques also is being assessed. Previously reported data on samples from HRI bench-scale coprocessing Runs 227-53 (Texas lignite/Maya ASB and Texas lignite/Maya VSB) and 238-1 (Westerholt coal/Cold Lake VSB) were corrected for selective isotopic fractionation. Carbon sourcing was performed on samples from HRI bench-scale coprocessing Run 227-60 (Texas lignite/Maya VSB) and samples from UOP bench-scale coprocessing Run 26 (Illinois 6 coal/Lloydminster vacuum resid); the latter data were corrected for isotopic fractionation, though the former could not be corrected. A paper presented at the 1990 DOE Direct Liquefaction Contractor's Review Meeting is appended. 15 refs., 21 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Development of analytical procedures for coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Vogh, J.W.; Anderson, R.P.

    1990-05-01

    Maya crude residue and Illinois No. 6 coal have been processed together over a range of reactant ratios to produce material for study of the product composition and of the coprocessing chemistry. The reaction conditions have been described in previous reports. Acid fractions have been derivatized to produce {sup 13}C tagged products suitable for NMR analysis. The acids have been identified as phenols and other oxygen acids, nitrogen acids including carbazoles, and benzylic and sulfur acids. All of the acid fractions appear to be essentially monofunctional. Base fractions were analyzed by nonaqueous titration and were shown to consist of azaarenes and arylamines. Two of the distillates boiling below 175{degrees}C were analyzed by PIANO capillary gas chromatography. Maya crude petroleum fractions similar to those obtained from coprocessing products have been analyzed for carbon isotope ratios. These fractions were prepared directly from the Maya crude without application of hydrogenation or other processing chemistry. Trends indicating isotopic fractionation coprocessing to that reported earlier for coprocessing products were observed. 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Physicochemical properties and biodegradability of crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiura, Keiji; Ishihara, Masami; Shimauchi, Toshitsugu; Harayama, Shigeaki

    1997-01-01

    The biodegradation of four different crude oil samples, namely, Arabian light, Dubai, Maya, and Shengli, by acinetobacter sp. T4 and by a microbial consortium called SM8 was examined. SM8 exhibited higher activity than Acinetobacter for the biodegradation of all four crude oil samples. The degree of biodegradation of crude oil components differed according to the crude oil, the saturated fraction being more susceptible to biodegradation than the aromatic fraction in all the crude oil samples. The extent of biodegradation by acinetobacter and SM8 was found to be in the order of Arabian light > Dubai > Maya = Shengli; the crude oil samples with higher APl gravity being more susceptible to biodegradation. Saturated compounds of smaller molecular weight were preferentially degraded by both cultures. Acinetobacter could not degrade polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples such as (alkyl)naphthalenes, (alky)phenanthrenes, (alkyl)fluorenes, and (alkyl)dibenzothiophenes. However, this strain was capable of degrading more than 10% of the molecules in the aromatic fraction of Arabian light crude oil. An NMR analysis demonstrated that the alkyl side chain of some aromatic molecules was degraded by this organism. In contrast, SM8 degraded the polycyclic aromatic compounds in the crude oil samples, the extent of degradation being in the order of Maya > Shengli > Arabian light > Dubai. 17 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Beyond medical pluralism: characterising health-care delivery of biomedicine and traditional medicine in rural Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hoyler, Elizabeth; Martinez, Roxana; Mehta, Kurren; Nisonoff, Hunter; Boyd, David

    2016-07-14

    Although approximately one half of Guatemalans are indigenous, the Guatemalan Maya account for 72% of the extremely poor within the country. While some biomedical services are available in these communities, many Maya utilise traditional medicine as a significant, if not primary, source of health care. While existing medical anthropological research characterises these modes of medicine as medically dichotomous or pluralistic, our research in a Maya community of the Western Highlands, Concepción Huista, builds on previous studies and finds instead a syncretistic, imbricated local health system. We find significant overlap and interpenetration of the biomedical and traditional medical models that are described best as a framework where practitioners in both settings employ elements of the other in order to best meet community needs. By focusing on the practitioner's perspective, we demonstrate that in addition to patients' willingness to seek care across health systems, practitioners converse across seemingly distinct systems via incorporation of certain elements of the 'other'. Interventions to date have not accounted for this imbrication. Guatemalan governmental policies to support local healers have led to little practical change in the health-care landscape of the country. Therefore, understanding this complex imbrication is crucial for interventions and policy changes.

  13. Preliminary Geochemical and Rock Magnetic Study of a Stalagmite From Quintana Roo, Northeastern Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Perez-Cruz, L.; Zhao, X.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.; Rodriguez, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present the preliminary results of geochemical, stable isotopes and rock magnetic studies of a stalagmite from a cave in eastern Quintana Roo, northern Yucatan peninsula. In the past years, there has been increased interest in understanding the paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental evolution of the Yucatan peninsula and northern Central America, investigating the relationships between climate variations and the development of the Maya civilization. In particular, the variations in regional precipitation and occurrence of several drought periods, which might have been related to the collapse of the Classic Maya period. Stable isotope data on speleothems from different sites in Yucatan and Central America have provided evidence on changes in precipitation, which have affected the Maya region. The stalagmite is ~47 cm long and about 4-5 cm wide at its base. It was collected from the Hilariós Well cave in Tulum, Quintana Roo. Magnetic susceptibility and geochemical analyses have been completed as part of the initial characterization of the stalagmite, with measurements taken every centimeter. Geochemical analyses have been carried out for x-ray fluorescence, with a Niton XRF analyzer. Magnetic susceptibility was determined with a Bartington MS2 instrument using the high resolution surface probe. Additional rock magnetic analyses include magnetic hysteresis loops and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition, and saturation IRM demagnetization, which have been measured with a MicroMag instrument. Hysteresis loops are diamagnetic, with small varying low-coercivity ferromagnetic components. The elemental compositions of major oxides and trace elements vary with depth. Calcium is the major element and displays a pattern of small amplitude fluctuations with a trend to lower values at the bottom, which are also shown in other elements such as barium. Silica and elements such as titanium and strontium are positively correlated and show an apparent cyclic pattern

  14. Correlation between the Mayan calendar and ours: Astronomy helps to answer why the most popular correlation (GMT) is wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klokočník, J.; Kostelecký, J.; Böhm, V.; Böhm, B.; Vondrák, J.; Vítek, F.

    2008-05-01

    The Maya used their own very precise calendar. When transforming data from the Mayan calendar to ours, or vice versa, a surprisingly large uncertainty is found. The relationship between the two calendars has been investigated by many researchers during the last century and about 50 different values of the transformation coefficient, known as the correlation, have been deduced. They can differ by centuries, potentially yielding an incredibly large error in the relation of Mayan history to the history of other civilizations. The most frequently used correlation is the GMT one (of Goodman-Martínez-Thompson), based largely on historical evidence from colonial times. Astronomy (celestial mechanics) may resolve the problem of the correlation, provided that historians have correctly decoded the records of various astronomical phenomena discovered, namely, in one extremely important and rare Mayan book, the Dresden Codex (DC). This describes (among other matters) observations of various astronomical phenomena (eclipses, conjunctions, maximum elongations, heliacal aspects, etc), made by the Maya. Modern celestial mechanics enables us to compute exactly when the phenomena occurred in the sky for the given place on the Earth, even though far back in time. Here we check (by a completely independent method), confirming the value of the correlation obtained by Böhm & Böhm (1996, 1999). In view of these tests, we advocate rejecting the GMT correlation and replacing it by the Böhm's correlation. We also comment on the criticism of GMT by some investigators. The replacement of GMT by another correlation seems, however, unacceptable to many Mayanists, as they would need to rewrite the whole history of Mesoamerica. The history of the Maya would be - for example with Böhm's correlation - closer to our time by 104 years.

  15. Analysis of Polymorphisms in Interleukin-10, Interleukin-6, and Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist in Mexican-Mestizo Women with Pre-eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Valencia Villalvazo, Elith Yazmin; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Romero Arauz, Juan Fernando; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Coronel, Agustín; Carlos Falcón, Juan; Hernández Rivera, Jaime; Ibarra, Roberto; Polanco Reyes, Lucila

    2012-01-01

    Due to the fact that studies seeking associations of polymorphisms in regulatory regions of cytokine genes with pre-eclampsia (PE) have not always been consistent in different population analyses, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between rs1800896 of interleukin-10 (IL-10), rs1800795 of interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in intron 2 of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), as well as gene–gene interactions between these three polymorphisms with the presence of PE in Mexican-Mestizo women and one Amerindian population from México (Maya). A case–control study was performed where 411 pre-eclamptic cases and 613 controls were genotyped. For the rs1800896 of IL-10 and rs1800795 of IL-6, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allelic discrimination and for the VNTR of IL-1Ra, PCR. Allele frequency differences were assessed by Chi-squared test; logistic regression was used to test for associations; a gene–gene interaction was conducted. Genotypic and allelic distribution of the polymorphisms was similar in our population. The estimated of the gene–gene interaction between the polymorphisms did not differ significantly. However, we observed important differences in the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of the three polymorphisms analyzed between Mestiza-Mexicanas and Maya-Mestizo women. In conclusion, we did not find an association between polymorphisms in IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1Ra and PE in Mexican-Mestizo and Maya-Mestizo women. To our knowledge, this is the first time that these three polymorphisms were analyzed together with gene–gene interaction in women with PE. PMID:23013217

  16. Mayan urbanism: impact on a tropical karst environment.

    PubMed

    Deevey, E S; Rice, D S; Rice, P M; Vaughan, H H; Brenner, M; Flannery, M S

    1979-10-19

    From the first millennium B.C. through the 9th-century A.D. Classic Maya collapse, nonurban populations grew exponentially, doubling every 408 years, in the twin-lake (Yaxha-Sacnab) basin that contained the Classic urban center of Yaxha. Pollen data show that forests were essentially cleared by Early Classic time. Sharply accelerated slopewash and colluviation, amplified in the Yaxha subbasin by urban construction, transferred nutrients plus calcareous, silty clay to both lakes. Except for the urban silt, colluvium appearing as lake sediments has a mean total phosphorus concentration close to that of basin soils. From this fact, from abundance and distribution of soil phosphorus, and from continuing post-Maya influxes (80 to 86 milligrams of phosphorus per square meter each year), which have no other apparent source, we conclude that riparian soils are anthrosols and that the mechanism of long-term phosphorus loading in lakes is mass transport of soil. Per capita deliveries of phosphorus match physiological outputs, approximately 0.5 kilogram of phosphorus per capita per year. Smaller apparent deliveries reflect the nonphosphatic composition of urban silt; larger societal outputs, expressing excess phosphorus from deforestation and from food waste and mortuary disposal, are probable but cannot be evaluated from our data. Eutrophication is not demonstrable and was probably impeded, even in less-impacted lakes, by suspended Maya silt. Environmental strain, the product of accelerating agroengineering demand and sequestering of nutrients in colluvium, developed too slowly to act as a servomechanism, damping population growth, at least until Late Classic time.

  17. Impact of the 3-D model strategy on science learning of the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Mohammed

    The purpose of this mixed method study, quantitative and descriptive, was to determine whether the first-middle grade (seventh grade) students at Saudi schools are able to learn and use the Autodesk Maya software to interact and create their own 3-D models and animations and whether their use of the software influences their study habits and their understanding of the school subject matter. The study revealed that there is value to the science students regarding the use of 3-D software to create 3-D models to complete science assignments. Also, this study aimed to address the middle-school students' ability to learn 3-D software in art class, and then ultimately use it in their science class. The success of this study may open the way to consider the impact of 3-D modeling on other school subjects, such as mathematics, art, and geography. When the students start using graphic design, including 3-D software, at a young age, they tend to develop personal creativity and skills. The success of this study, if applied in schools, will provide the community with skillful young designers and increase awareness of graphic design and the new 3-D technology. Experimental method was used to answer the quantitative research question, are there significant differences applying the learning method using 3-D models (no 3-D, premade 3-D, and create 3-D) in a science class being taught about the solar system and its impact on the students' science achievement scores? Descriptive method was used to answer the qualitative research questions that are about the difficulty of learning and using Autodesk Maya software, time that students take to use the basic levels of Polygon and Animation parts of the Autodesk Maya software, and level of students' work quality.

  18. The importance of weeds in ethnopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Stepp, J R; Moerman, D E

    2001-04-01

    Tropical primary forest is often considered to be the most important habitat for traditional peoples to gather medicinal plants. However, the role of weeds, commonly found in disturbed areas, in traditional medicinal floras has been overlooked. Data are presented showing the significant representation of weeds in the medicinal floras of the Highland Maya in Chiapas, Mexico and in the medicinal flora of Native North Americans as a whole. The frequency with which weeds appear in these pharmacopoeias is significantly larger (P<0.0001) than what would be predicted by the frequency of weed species in general. Explanations based on human ecology and biochemical ecology are presented.

  19. A simple mathematical model of society collapse applied to Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, M.; Flores, J. C.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper we consider a mathematical model for the evolution and collapse of the Easter Island society. Based on historical reports, the available primary resources consisted almost exclusively in the trees, then we describe the inhabitants and the resources as an isolated dynamical system. A mathematical, and numerical, analysis about the Easter Island community collapse is performed. In particular, we analyze the critical values of the fundamental parameters and a demographic curve is presented. The technological parameter, quantifying the exploitation of the resources, is calculated and applied to the case of another extinguished civilization (Copán Maya) confirming the consistency of the adopted model.

  20. Mass of {sup 11}Li from the {sup 1}H({sup 11}Li,{sup 9}Li){sup 3}H reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Roger, T.; Savajols, H.; Mittig, W.; Caamano, M.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Tanihata, I.; Alcorta, M.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Bieri, R.; Buchmann, L.; Davids, B.; Galinski, N.; Howell, D.; Mills, W.; Mythili, S.; Openshaw, R.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Ruprecht, G.; Sheffer, G.; Shotter, A. C.

    2009-03-15

    The mass of {sup 11}Li has been determined from Q-value measurements of the {sup 1}H({sup 11}Li,{sup 9}Li){sup 3}H reaction. The experiment was performed at TRIUMF laboratory with the GANIL active target MAYA. Energy-energy and angle-angle kinematics reconstruction give a Q value of 8.119(22) MeV for the reaction. The derived {sup 11}Li two-neutron separation energy is S{sub 2n}=363(22) keV.

  1. Measurement of the Two-Halo Neutron Transfer Reaction {sup 1}H({sup 11}Li,{sup 9}Li){sup 3}H at 3A MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tanihata, I.; Alcorta, M.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Bieri, R.; Buchmann, L.; Davids, B.; Galinski, N.; Howell, D.; Mills, W.; Mythili, S.; Openshaw, R.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Ruprecht, G.; Sheffer, G.; Shotter, A. C.; Trinczek, M.; Walden, P.; Savajols, H.; Roger, T.; Caamano, M.

    2008-05-16

    The p({sup 11}Li,{sup 9}Li)t reaction has been studied for the first time at an incident energy of 3A MeV at the new ISAC-2 facility at TRIUMF. An active target detector MAYA, built at GANIL, was used for the measurement. The differential cross sections have been determined for transitions to the {sup 9}Li ground and first excited states in a wide range of scattering angles. Multistep transfer calculations using different {sup 11}Li model wave functions show that wave functions with strong correlations between the halo neutrons are the most successful in reproducing the observation.

  2. Regulation of MDM2 Activity by Nucleolin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    bacterially expressed human El, E2 (GST-UbcH5), p53 (1 i1l produced in a wheat germ transcription-coupled in vitro translation system [Promega]), GST...pre rRNA synthesis in CHO cells. Nucl Acids Res 12: 3025-3035 Bunz F, Dutriaux A, Lengauer C, Waldman T, Zhou S, Brown JP, Sedivy JM, Kinzler KW...40S ribosomal subunit accumulation. Nucl Acids Res 23: 1912-1918 Haupt Y, Maya R, Kazaz A, Oren M (1997) Mdm2 promotes the rapid degradation of p53

  3. Department of Defense Fuel Spending, Supply, Acquisition, and Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-22

    Alberta Syncrude (d) 38.7 0.19 1,900 Saudi Arabia Arab Extra Light/ Heavy (d) 37.2 – 27.4 1.15 – 2.80 11,500 – 28,000 Mexico Maya/ Olmeca (d) 39.8 – 22.2...API Gravity Sweet 0.0% - 0.5% Medium Sour 0.5% - 1.5% Sour 1.5% -3.0+% 40º Light West Texas Interm. 33º Medium Bonny Medium Mexico Olmeca

  4. Population geography of calamity: the sixteenth and seventeenth century Yucatan.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, T M

    1996-12-01

    "This historical demography for Yucatan [Mexico] at the time of Spanish contact presents a number of problems. There were multiple Maya-Spaniard contacts before the Spaniards established a continuous presence after the protracted conquest of the Yucatan. The area of Yucatan that was controlled by the Spanish at any one time is not precisely known, and Yucatan offered ¿refuge' areas where the indigenous population could avoid Spanish control and counts. These issues are addressed here by considering different regions of the Yucatan and using a numerical computer simulation to generate new estimates of population that result from migration, warfare, agricultural calamity, and epidemics."

  5. Traditional medicine in Latin America, with particular reference to Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zolla, C

    1980-03-01

    The present research on Mexican traditional medicine points to the resources made available by the Mexican Institutions for the study of the plants used in popular medicine which, in rural areas, follows the Aztec and Maya traditions. The most interesting feature of traditional medicine is its partial integration with many elements of modern medicine. The study of medicinal plants has been undertaken mostly by a research institute, IMEPLAM, which, under the auspices of CEESTEM, has information on computer on over 500 plants. The screening of these plants in progress with the aim of evaluating their therapeutic properties, both at the pharmacological and chemical level.

  6. The political collapse of Chichén Itzá in climatic and cultural context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoggarth, Julie A.; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Ebert, Claire E.; Masson, Marilyn A.; Kennett, Douglas J.

    2016-03-01

    Chichén Itzá dominated the political landscape of the northern Yucatán during the Terminal Classic Period (AD 800-1000). Chronological details of the rise and fall of this important polity are obscure because of the limited corpus of dated hieroglyphic records and by a restricted set of radiocarbon dates for the site. Here we compile and review these data and evaluate them within the context of political and climatic change in northern Yucatán at the end of the Classic period. The available data point to the end of elite activity at Chichén Itzá around AD 1000, a century after the collapse of Puuc Maya cities and other interior centers. Evidence supports a population shift in the eleventh century towards some coastal locations during a time associated with the end of monumental construction and art at Chichén Itzá. Our results suggest that regional political disintegration came in two waves. The first was the asynchronous collapse of multiple polities between AD 850 and 925 associated with a regional drying trend and punctuated by a series of multi-decadal droughts in the ninth and tenth centuries. The second wave was the political collapse at Chichén Itzá that coincides with the longest and most severe drought recorded in regional climate records between AD 1000 and 1100. This is a time that some scholars have characterized as a "dark age" across the northern Maya lowlands. Political developments during the Postclassic period (AD 1000-1517) correspond with a return to higher rainfall. These patterns support a strong relationship between political disintegration and climatic stress in the Maya lowlands. This research employs Bayesian radiocarbon models in conjunction with calendar dates on carved monuments and climate proxies to evaluate the rise and fall of Maya political centers and serves as an example of the impact of climate change on rainfall-dependent societies in Mesoamerica.

  7. Mineral resource of the month: mica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Humans have been using mica for millennia. Mica was first mined in India about 4,000 years ago, where it was used primarily in medicines, and some Hindu physicians still incorporate biotite mica into medicines today. Early civilizations also used mica for decorations, as windows and as surfaces on which to draw or paint. Maya temples were decorated with mica pigments, which were incorporated into the stucco to make it sparkle in the sun. In North America, ancient inhabitants adorned gravesites and burial mounds with animal figures made of mica.

  8. Source of lead in Central American and Caribbean mineralization, II. Lead isotope provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumming, George L.; Kesler, Stephen E.; Krstic, Dragan

    1981-12-01

    In an earlier study of Mesozoic and Cenozoic mineralization in Central America and the Caribbean region, we found that lead isotopic compositions of deposits in northern Central America, which is underlain by a pre-Mesozoic craton, ranged to higher 206Pb/ 204Pb and 207Pb/ 204Pb compositions than did deposits from elsewhere in the region, where the basement is Mesozoic oceanic material. Using 16 analyses for 12 new deposits, as well as new analyses for 11 of the samples studied previously, we have found that lead isotopic compositions correlate closely with crustal type but show little or no correlation with depth to the M-discontinuity. The deposits are divisible into three main groups including (in order of increasing 207Pb/ 204Pb and 208Pb/ 204Pb ratio): (1) deposits in southern Central America and all deposits in the Greater Antilles except Cuba; (2) all deposits in northern Central America; and (3) the Cuban deposits. Southern Central American and Caribbean lead is higher in 207Pb/ 204Pb and 208Pb/ 204Pb than most mid-ocean ridge basalts but could have been derived directly or indirectly from undepleted mantle. Northern Central America can be divided into the Maya block, which belongs to the Americas plate, and the Chortis block, which belongs to the Caribbean plate. Maya block deposits fall along a linear array whereas those of the Chortis block (except the Monte Cristo deposit) form a cluster. These results suggest that the Maya block is underlain by crust or mantle with a large range of U/Pb and Th/U ratios, whereas the Chortis block basement is more homogeneous. Two-stage model calculations indicate an age of about 2280±310 m.y. for the Maya block basement, although no such rocks are known in the region. Comparison of the Chortis block data to our recently published lead isotopic analyses of Mexican deposits shows considerable similarities suggesting that the Chortis block could have been derived from Mexico.

  9. Cognitive anthropological fieldwork.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    In their introduction, Beller et al. point to important issues regarding the problematic interaction of anthropology and cognitive sciences (CS). I address some of these issues in stressing first some limitations of the current state of the fields of anthropology and CS. In the second half of this article, using data from studies I have been conducting among the Yucatec Mayas (Mexico), I present some concrete cases where anthropological and CS methods and approaches are complementary. Finally, I propose some solutions to find common ground and ways to improve cross-disciplinary collaboration.

  10. Astronomy at the Universidad de Sonora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sänchez-Ibarra, A.

    Astronomy has been a long tradition in Mexico since the Mayas culture. However, most of the development of this science has been concentrated in the center-south region of this country. The creation of the Astronomy Area at the Universidad de Sonora, permitted since 1990 a different perspective for the development of this science, not only related with the scientific work, but also with the participation in education and public outreach, as also develop facilities, as a fundamental part of the future for this science. I present here a description of the work made and the projects in development for the near future.

  11. Archeological/Environmental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Landsat/Seasat remote sensing was used by Ames Research Center to evaluate environmental influence on ancient Mayan civilization. Over 35 archeological sites were imaged and valuable information concerning Maya settlement patterns, environment, and resource usage resulted. The imagery was also used by Mexican authorities to develop coastal management plans, establish Biosphere Reserves and assess damage from the 1988 Hurricane Gilbert. Imagery showed evidence of ancient coastlines, changes in sea level, an ancient river plain and Mayan canal systems. Previously unknown Mayan reservoirs were discovered. The project is considered a pioneering effort combining remote sensing, environmental studies and archeology.

  12. Miocene mollusks from the Simojovel area in Chiapas, southwestern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Carmen Perrilliat, María; Vega, Francisco J.; Coutiño, Marco A.

    2010-11-01

    The fauna of gastropods and bivalves from the amber-bearing lithostratigraphic units of the Simojovel area, Chiapas is reported, including the description of two new species and one subspecies: Turbinella maya new species, Melongena corona tzeltal new subspecies and Agladrillia ( Eumetadrillia) vermeiji new species. Stratigraphic affinities of the previously described species suggest an Early Miocene age for the Mazantic Shale, and a Middle Miocene age for the overlying Balumtum Sandstone. One specimen of gastropod, with a relatively large piece of amber attached to the adapertural part of the shell is representative for an Early Miocene age and estuarine paleoenvironmental interpretation for the Mazantic Shale. Mollusca, Miocene, Chiapas, Amber, Mexico.

  13. Production and Characterization of the 7H Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Caamano, M.; Cortina, D.; Demonchy, C. E.; Jurado, B.; Mittig, W.; Rejmund, F.; Rejmund, M.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Savajols, H.; Chartier, M.; Fernandez, B.; Gomez Hornillos, M. B.; Gillibert, A.; Obertelli, A.; Lemmon, R.; Wolski, R.

    2007-05-22

    The 7H resonance was produced via one-proton transfer reaction between a 8He beam at 15.4A MeV and a 12C gas target. The experimental setup was based on the active-target MAYA which allowed a complete reconstruction of the reaction kinematics. The characterization of the identified 7H events resulted in a resonance energy of 600 keV above the 3H+4n threshold and a resonance width of 100 keV. This study represents the first unambiguous proof of the existence of the 7H state.

  14. Archaeoastronomy in the New World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aveni, Anthony F.

    2010-01-01

    List of contributors; 1. Introduction A. F. Aveni; 2. Archaeoastronomy in the Maya region A. F. Aveni; 3. Historical archaeoastronomy: the Hopi example S. C. McCluskey; 4. The Sidereal Lunar Calendar of the Incas R. T. Zuidema; 5. Astronomical norms in Mesoamerican rituals and time-reckoning G. Brotherston; 6. Astronomical knowledge and its uses at Bonampak, Mexico F. G. Lounsbury; 7. Lunar markings of Fajada Butte, Chaco Canyon A. Sofaer, R. M. Sinclair and L. E. Doggett; 8. The Skidi Pawnee earth lodge as an observatory V. D. Chamberlain; 9. Caldendrical petroglyphs of Northern Mexico W. B. Murray; 10. Casa Rinconada, twelfth-century Anasazi Kiva R. A. Williamson.

  15. Astronomy at Teotihuacan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaniszewski, Stanisław

    Located 37 km from Mexico City, during the first part of the first millennium AD, Teotihuacan was one of the world's largest and most populated cities. The city controlled the obsidian mines and developed far-reaching economic and political interactions, especially with the Classic Maya dynasties, Monte Albán in the Valley of Oaxaca and the Mexican Gulf Coast. Teotihuacan-made pottery and jewelry along with talud-tablero architectural style and the cult of the Feathered Serpent and Rain gods was spread throughout Mesoamerica.

  16. 3DRT-MPASS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lickly, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Data from all current JPL missions are stored in files called SPICE kernels. At present, animators who want to use data from these kernels have to either read through the kernels looking for the desired data, or write programs themselves to retrieve information about all the needed objects for their animations. In this project, methods of automating the process of importing the data from the SPICE kernels were researched. In particular, tools were developed for creating basic scenes in Maya, a 3D computer graphics software package, from SPICE kernels.

  17. I-deas TMG to NX Space Systems Thermal Model Conversion and Computational Performance Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somawardhana, Ruwan

    2011-01-01

    CAD/CAE packages change on a continuous basis as the power of the tools increase to meet demands. End -users must adapt to new products as they come to market and replace legacy packages. CAE modeling has continued to evolve and is constantly becoming more detailed and complex. Though this comes at the cost of increased computing requirements Parallel processing coupled with appropriate hardware can minimize computation time. Users of Maya Thermal Model Generator (TMG) are faced with transitioning from NX I -deas to NX Space Systems Thermal (SST). It is important to understand what differences there are when changing software packages We are looking for consistency in results.

  18. Automated Information System (AIS) Support for FMF Units When Deployed or in Combat (1985-1995).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-13

    and Mobile Electric Power 5-17 - 5.14 CRT Acquisition for Emerging Class I Systems 5-18 5.15 Military Pay for Navy Personnel 5-19 5.16 Replacement of...in August 1972 which tasked the Navy Electronics Laboratory Center (NELC) to define combat teleprocess- ing requirements for each FMF command. In May...a necessary reality for RDF operations. 5.13 STRATEGIC MOBILITY, MOBILITY AND MOBILE ELECTRIC POWER (MEP) MASCs are deployable by land, sea or air

  19. A phase-transition model for the rise and collapse of ancient civilizations: A pre-ceramic Andean case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    For ancient civilizations, the shift from disorder to organized urban settlements is viewed as a phase-transition simile. The number of monumental constructions, assumed to be a signature of civilization processes, corresponds to the order parameter, and effective connectivity becomes related to the control parameter. Based on parameter estimations from archaeological and paleo-climatological data, this study analyzes the rise and fall of the ancient Caral civilization on the South Pacific coast during a period of small ENSO fluctuations (approximately 4500 BP). Other examples considered include civilizations on Easter Island and the Maya Lowlands. This work considers a typical nonlinear third order evolution equation and numerical simulations.

  20. Optimum phase-behavior formulation of surfactant/oil/water systems for the determination of chromium in heavy crude oil and in bitumen-in-water emulsion.

    PubMed

    Burguera, José L; Avila-Gómez, Rita M; Burguera, Marcela; Antón de Salager, Raquel; Salager, Jean-Louis; Bracho, Carlos L; Burguera-Pascu, Margarita; Burguera-Pascu, Constantin; Brunetto, Rosario; Gallignani, Máximo; Petit de Peña, Yaneita

    2003-11-04

    An "oil in water" formulation was optimized to determine chromium in heavy crude oil (HCO) and bitumen-in-water emulsion (Orimulsion-400(R)) samples by transversally heated electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (TH-ET AAS) using Zeeman effect background correction. The optimum proportion of the oil-water mixture ratio was 7:3 v/v (70 ml of oil as the internal phase) with a non-ionic surfactant concentration (Intan-100) in the emulsion of 0.2% w/w. Chromium was determined in different crude oil samples after dilution of the emulsions 1:9 v/v with a 0.2% w/w solution of surfactant in order to further reduce the viscosity from 100 to 1.6 cP and at the same time to bring the concentration of chromium within the working range of the ET AAS technique. The calibration graph was linear from 1.7 to 100 mug Cr l(-1). The sensitivity was of 0.0069 s l mug(-1), the characteristic mass (m(o)) was of 5.7 pg per 0.0044 s and the detection limit (3sigma) was of 0.52 mug l(-1). The relative standard deviation of the method, evaluated by replicate analyses of three crude oil samples varied in all cases between 1.5 and 2.6%. Recovery studies were performed on four Venezuelan crude oils, and the average chromium recovery values varied between 95.9-104.8, 90.6-107.6, 95.6-104.0 and 98.8-103.9% for the Cerro Negro, Crudo Hamaca and Boscán crude oils and for the Orimulsión(R)-400, respectively. The results obtained in this work for the Cerro Negro, Crudo Hamaca and Boscán crude oils and for the Orimulsión(R)-400 following the proposed procedure were of 0.448+/-0.008, 0.338+/-0.004 0.524+/-0.021 and 0.174+/-0.008 mg Cr l(-1), respectively, which were in good agreement with the values obtained by a tedious recommended standard procedure (respectively: 0.470+/-0.05, 0.335+/-0.080, 0.570+/-0.021 and 0.173+/-0.009 mg Cr l(-1)).

  1. A new cryptogonimid (Digenea) from the Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), in several localities of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2008-12-01

    Oligogonotylus mayae n.sp. is described from the intestine of the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) in Ría Lagartos, Ría Celestún, and Estero Progreso, Yucatán State. This is the second species described for Oligogonotylus Watson, 1976, the other being O.manteri Watson, 1976. The new species is readily distinguished from O. manteri by the anterior extension of the vitelline follicles. In O. Manteri, Vitelline follicles are found entirely in the hindbody, extending posteriorly to mid-testicular level. Vitelline follicles in the new species extend from teh anterior margin of posterior testis to the region between the bentral sucker and the pharynx. comparison of approximately 1,850 bases of ribosomal DNA (ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S, and 28S), and 400 bases of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) strongly supports the status of O. mayae as a new species, as compared to O. manteri collected from cichlids in other localities of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala.

  2. Role of the resid solvent in catalytic coprocessing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The research reported in this progress report describes the continuation of coal-resid coprocessing reactions that were discussed in the January to March 1995 Quarterly Report. During previous quarters, Maya and FHC-623 resids were evaluated in non-catalytic and catalytic reactions at 400{degrees}C with Pittsburgh No. 8 and DECS-17 Blind Canyon coals. From the complete reaction matrix containing the two coals and two resids, it was found that the influence of resids on coprocessing depended on the type of coal used; for example, under catalytic reaction conditions, the hexane solubles of Maya resid increased coal conversion of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal but decreased that of DECS-17. In order to observe the intrinsic behavior of resids during coprocessing, another resid, Manjii, and another coal, Illinois No. 6, are being tested. These reactions were begun this quarter. The results are reported herein. In order to evaluate the role of the different components in resids, the resids were separated into hexane soluble materials and hexane insoluble materials. The hexane solubles, which should contain the naphthenes present in the resid, and the untreated whole resids were reacted with coal at equivalent liquefaction conditions and at the same conditions as when the resids were reacted individually.

  3. Phytoremediation and removal mechanisms in Bouteloua curtipendula growing in sterile hydrocarbon spiked cultures.

    PubMed

    Reynoso-Cuevas, L; Gallegos-Martínez, M E; Cruz-Sosa, F; Gutiérrez-Rojas, M

    2011-07-01

    Tolerance index and phytoremediation factors of side oats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula) with recalcitrant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and the resulting impact on phenotypic response, were evaluated in sterile conditions with whole plant growing in test-tube cultures with MS medium with PAH and compared with Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), control for this study. PAH mixture of PHE, PYR and BaP (1:1:1 w/w/w) blended with Maya crude oil (1:1 w/w), final concentration of 1500 mg kg(-1) was used. After 40 days, BaP removal, in the presence of Maya crude was superior compared with PHE and PYR removal Although the presence of PAH negatively affects the phenotypic response of the plants; sterile conditions experiments were helpful to evaluate phytoremediation factors to elucidate some important questions regarding phytoremediation mechanisms; in this study, B. curtipendula was able to phytostabilizate BaP associated to a significant hydrocarbon removal (57.4%) with high root accumulation but attenuated transport to stems, here reported as translocation factor. To our knowledge, this is the first time that quantifiable phytoremediation factors were used to evaluate the tolerance and removal capacity of a native semi-arid climate plant which is probably able to phytoremediate hydrocarbon contaminated soils.

  4. High resolution renderings and interactive visualization of the 2006 Huntington Beach experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, T.; Nayak, A.; Keen, C.; Samilo, D.; Matthews, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Visualization Center at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography investigates innovative ways to represent graphically interactive 3D virtual landscapes and to produce high resolution, high quality renderings of Earth sciences data and the sensors and instruments used to collect the data . Among the Visualization Center's most recent work is the visualization of the Huntington Beach experiment, a study launched in July 2006 by the Southern California Ocean Observing System (http://www.sccoos.org/) to record and synthesize data of the Huntington Beach coastal region. Researchers and students at the Visualization Center created visual presentations that combine bathymetric data provided by SCCOOS with USGS aerial photography and with 3D polygonal models of sensors created in Maya into an interactive 3D scene using the Fledermaus suite of visualization tools (http://www.ivs3d.com). In addition, the Visualization Center has produced high definition (HD) animations of SCCOOS sensor instruments (e.g. REMUS, drifters, spray glider, nearshore mooring, OCSD/USGS mooring and CDIP mooring) using the Maya modeling and animation software and rendered over multiple nodes of the OptIPuter Visualization Cluster at Scripps. These visualizations are aimed at providing researchers with a broader context of sensor locations relative to geologic characteristics, to promote their use as an educational resource for informal education settings and increasing public awareness, and also as an aid for researchers' proposals and presentations. These visualizations are available for download on the Visualization Center website at http://siovizcenter.ucsd.edu/sccoos/hb2006.php.

  5. Estimating the length of incomplete long bones: forensic standards from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wright, Lori E; Vásquez, Mario A

    2003-03-01

    We report on new standards for estimating long bone length from incomplete bones for use in forensic and archaeological contexts in Central America. The measurements we use closely follow those defined by Steele ([1970] Personal Identification in Mass Disasters; Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution), but we add several new landmarks. We measured the femur, humerus, tibia, and fibula of 100 Maya skeletons (68 males, 32 females) recovered from forensic exhumations. We derived the equations by regressing bone segment length on bone length, and solved for bone length to maximize the utility of the equations for taller populations. We generated equations for all segments that were significantly correlated with bone length for males, for females, and for both sexes combined, but accepted only regressions with r(2) > 0.85 as reliable. Landmarks defined by muscle attachment sites were more variable in location than landmarks on articular architecture; thus we retained few equations that use these landmarks. We tested the male and combined sex equations on 36 males of unknown ethnicity exhumed from a military base in Guatemala, and found that the equations performed satisfactorily. We also evaluated the performance of equations by Steele ([1970] Personal Identification in Mass Disasters; Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution) and Jacobs ([1992] Am J Phys Anthropol 89:333-345) on the Maya bones, and conclude that significant population variation in long bone proportions hinders their application in Central America.

  6. Catalytic gasification fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Last year it was found that Maya coke gasification could be greatly accelerated if the colting took place in the presence of small amounts (below 1%) of caustic. When the Maya coke thus prepared was impregnated with 1% of CaO-KO[sub x] catalyst, the rate of gasification was doubled. During the past year, this phenomenon has been further investigated and the work has been extended to two other and very different cokes. As shown in Figure 2, a Statfjord Bottoms coke prepared in the presence of 1% NaOH and then impregnated with CaO[sub x]-KO[sub x] catalyst gasified very much faster than the same material coked in the absence of NaOH. The same phenomenon is exhibited in Figure 3 for a Torrance Hondo coke, although in this case the difference between the cokes prepared in the presence and absence of NaOH is somewhat smaller. It is concluded that the preparation method of the coke is of major importance for the rate of gasification and that the phenomenon that presence of alkali during coking is helpful is a generic one.

  7. New Siberian Paleomagnetic Poles for 1050-1100 Ma: Further Testing of the Siberia-Laurentia Mesoproterozoic Connection.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, V.

    2015-12-01

    The similarity of Siberian and Laurentian APWPs for the ~1050-950 Ma interval is, probably, the most strong among available to date scanty evidence for placing the Siberian platform into the Rodinia supercontinent. There are numerous Laurentian paleomagnetic poles with ages 1150-1050 Ma. However, Siberian paleomagnetic poles for this period are virtually absent, that hampers further paleomagnetic testing of the hypothesis of Siberian- Laurentian Mesoproterosoic connection within the Rodinia. In order to develop the Late Mesoproterosoic Siberian APWP we have undertaken paleomagnetic study of red siltstone of the Totta Formation from the Belaya River valley (northern part of the Uchur-Maya region, eastern disturbed margin of the Siberian platform). The Totta Fm contain detrital zircons with younger ages ~1100 Ma and underlies the Malgina Fm with a reported Pb-Pb age is 1043+-14 Ma. Thus age of the Totta Fm can be estimated to be between 1050 and 1100 Ma. At the same time in order to estimate possible vertical axes rotations of the study area relatively to the Siberian platform we have studied limestones of the Malgina Fm, which paleomagnetic pole for the platform part of the Uchur-Maya region is well known. In our report we present new obtained data and discuss their significance for verification of the Laurentia-Siberia mesoproterosoic connection hypothesis.

  8. The role of the resid solvent in coprocessing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, April 1994--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.

    1994-10-01

    The research reported in this progress report describes the continuation of coal-resid coprocessing reactions which were begun last quarter (January to March 1994). During last quarter, Maya and FHC-623 resid were evaluated as whole resids and as the hexane soluble fraction in noncatalytic and catalytic reactions at 400{degrees}C with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. During this current quarter, reactions were performed using Blind Canyon bituminous coal and several different solvents including Maya and FHC-623 resids. In order to evaluate the role of the different components in resids, the resids were separated into hexane soluble materials and hexane insoluble materials. The hexane solubles, which should contain the naphthenes present in the resid, and the untreated whole resids were reacted with coal at the same liquefaction conditions as when the resids were reacted individually. In the catalytic reactions, a Mo naphthenate precursor was used in the presence of sulfur. The catalyst generated in situ was MoS{sub 2}. The effect of different reaction conditions on the resid was monitored by gas chromatography in which the retention times of the eluting peaks were determined. The amount of eluent present at different retention times was determined and compared. The effect of the reaction system on coal behavior during liquefaction was determined by coal conversion to THF solubles and solvent fractionation of the reaction products.

  9. Catalytic gasification fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1992-11-01

    Last year it was found that Maya coke gasification could be greatly accelerated if the coking took place in the presence of small amounts (below 1%) of caustic. When the Maya coke thus prepared was impregnated with 1% of CaO-KO{sub x} catalyst, the rate of gasification was doubled. During the past year, this phenomenon has been further investigated and the work has been extended to two other and very different cokes. As shown in Figure 2, a Statfjord Bottoms coke prepared in the presence of 1% NaOH and then impregnated with CaO{sub x}-KO{sub x} catalyst gasified very much faster than the same material coked in the absence of NaOH. The same phenomenon is exhibited in Figure 3 for a Torrance Hondo coke, although in this case the difference between the cokes prepared in the presence and absence of NaOH is somewhat smaller. It is concluded that the preparation method of the coke is of major importance for the rate of gasification and that the phenomenon that presence of alkali during coking is helpful is a generic one.

  10. The role of the resid solvent in coprocessing with finely divided catalysts. Quarterly report, January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.

    1994-07-01

    The research reported in this progress report describes the continuation of coal-resid coprocessing reactions which were begun last quarter (October to December 1993). During, last quarter, Maya and FHC-623 resid were evaluated as whole resids and as the hexane soluble fraction in noncatalytic and catalytic reactions at 400{degree}C. During this current quarter, reactions were performed using Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal and several different solvents including Maya and FHC-623 resids. In order to evaluate the role of the different components in resids, the resids were separated into hexane soluble materials and hexane insoluble materials. The hexane solubles, which should contain the naphthene present in the resid, and the untreated whole resids were reacted with coal at the same liquefaction conditions as when the resids were reacted individually. In the catalytic reactions, a Mo naphthenate precursor was used in the presence of sulfur. The catalyst generated in situ was MoS{sub 2} . The effect of different reaction conditions on the resid was monitored by gas chromatography in which the retention times of the eluting peaks were determined. The amount of eluent present at different retention times was determined and compared. The effect of the reaction system on coal behavior during liquefaction was determined by coal conversion to THF solubles and solvent fractionation of the reaction products.

  11. Delta-sarcoglycan gene polymorphism frequency in Amerindian and Mestizo populations of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ordoñez-Razo, Rosa María; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Peñaloza, Rosenda; Minauro-Sanmiguel, Fernando; Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Canto, Patricia; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio

    2010-04-01

    Mutations on the delta-sarcoglycan gene have been associated with the development of both hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy. Recently, the polymorphism c.-94C>G was associated with HCM in Japanese patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of c.-94C>G polymorphism in Mexican-Amerindian and Mexican-Mestizo populations. We analyzed the frequency of this polymorphism in 165 Mexican-Amerindian individuals (23 Triquis, 25 Zapotecos, 24 Mayas, 41 Nahuas, and 52 Mixtecos) and 100 unrelated Mexican-Mestizos. Allele frequencies were similar in all Amerindian groups (0.33 Triquis, 0.54 Zapotecos, 0.54 Mayas, 0.46 Nahuas, and 0.49 Mixtecos). When compared with Mexican-Mestizos, only Triquis were different (p = 0.00742). However, when comparing the total sample of the Amerindian population with the Mestizos, the difference was not significant (p = 0.12225). Allele frequencies of Mexican populations were higher than in Asians and less than African and European populations (p < 0.05). These data show that the distribution of the C allele is higher in Mexican populations studied and consequently it is necessary to define if this may be associated with genetic susceptibility for HCM in the Mexican patients.

  12. Prediction of reservoir geometries in the Morrow of southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, L.J.

    1991-08-01

    The Morrow Formation of southeastern New Mexico is comprised of facies that were deposited in a complex of mixed siliciclastic and carbonate depositional environments. Reservoir geometries in gas-bearing sandstones are highly variable and identify a number of different depositional environments. In particular, environments identified within marginal marine facies tracts in the Morrow indicate that the shoreline was constantly shifting in response to relative sea level changes. Depositional processes were sensitive to varying sediment discharge rates as well sheltering by offshore carbonate mounds. Sandstone/carbonate sequences also indicate periodic reworking or drowning of marginal marine sediment throughout the Morrowan, which was especially prevalent in middle Morrowan time. The southern shelf of Belize, Central America, offers an excellent analog to depositional process that were operative during the Morrowan in southeastern New Mexico. Modern facies tracts along the Belizean shoreline respond to varying discharge rates of sediment from the Maya Mountains source area to the west and to sheltering from the Maya Mountains source area to the west and to sheltering from the offshore barrier reed and other carbonate mounds. Carbonates are actively developing upon drowned beach ridges and channel mouth bars, and there is evidence of drowned fluvial channels several miles from present-day shoreline. Depositional patterns in Belize are identical in scale to those believed to the operative in the Morrow and offer analogs that are useful as predictive tools for exploration and development.

  13. Octopus lipid and vitamin E composition: interspecies, interorigin, and nutritional variability.

    PubMed

    Torrinha, Alvaro; Cruz, Rebeca; Gomes, Filipa; Mendes, Eulália; Casal, Susana; Morais, Simone

    2014-08-20

    Octopus vulgaris, Octopus maya, and Eledone cirrhosa from distinct marine environments [Northeast Atlantic (NEA), Northwest Atlantic (NWA), Eastern Central Atlantic, Western Central Atlantic (WCA), Pacific Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea] were characterized regarding their lipid and vitamin E composition. These species are those commercially more relevant worldwide. Significant interspecies and interorigin differences were observed. Unsaturated fatty acids account for more than 65% of total fatty acids, mostly ω-3 PUFA due to docosahexaenoic (18.4-29.3%) and eicosapentanoic acid (11.4-23.9%) contributions. The highest ω-3 PUFA amounts and ω-3/ω-6 ratios were quantified in the heaviest specimens, O. vulgaris from NWA, with high market price, and simultaneously in the lowest graded samples, E. cirrhosa from NEA, of reduced dimensions. Although having the highest cholesterol contents, E. cirrhosa from NEA and O. maya from WCA have also higher protective fatty acid indexes. Chemometric discrimination allowed clustering the selected species and several origins based on lipid and vitamin E profiles.

  14. Comparative effects of the water accommodated fraction of three oils on mussels. 2. Quantitative alterations in the structure of the digestive tubules.

    PubMed

    Cajaraville, M P; Marigómez, J A; Díez, G; Angulo, E

    1992-05-01

    1. Mussels have been exposed to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of Ural and Maya crude oils and of a lubricant oil for 91 days and the digestive gland structure has been studied (a) by planimetry, to calculate the mean epithelial thickness (MET), the mean diverticular radius (MDR) and the mean luminal radius (MLR) of the digestive tubules and (b) by subjective tubule grading, to determine the relative (%) occurrence of the different tubule types found in the digestive gland (holding, absorpting, disintegrating, reconstituting and necrotic tubules). 2. Exposure to the 3 types of WAF leads to lowered MET and MET/MDR values, and concomitant higher MLR/MET values. In the case of lubricant- and Ural-WAF exposures, MDR decreases significantly at increasing exposure-doses. 3. Exposure to oil WAFs leads to decreased percentages of holding and absorpting tubules. This decrease is concomitant with an increase of disintegrating tubules in lubricant- and Ural-WAF exposures, and with an increase of regenerating tubules in the Maya-WAF exposure. 4. The statistical significance of the differences found between control and exposed mussels is better at Day 21 than at any other further sampling day (35, 77 and 91). 5. Multiple correlation coefficients between all the percentages of tubule types and each planimetric parameter present an excellent statistical significance.

  15. Pathways of decision making among Yucatan Mayan traditional birth attendants.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara A; Anderson, E N; Franklin, Tracy; Dzib-Xihum de Cen, Aurora

    2004-01-01

    In rural, developing world communities, women are often isolated from biomedical services. Frequently, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are the only caregivers during childbirth, both normal and complicated. Women trust their TBAs to manage their births. Globally, government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have sought to upgrade TBAs' skills and to encourage them to refer complications. However, most training programs have failed to change TBAs' practice substantially. Logistical barriers in reaching biomedical services in a timely manner are a key issue. Another is the difference between biomedical and traditional practitioners in the cognitive frameworks that shape decision making and management behaviors. The purpose of this study, conducted in Quintana Roo State, Mexico, was to listen to the voices of practicing Yucatec Maya TBAs (parteras) as they described decision making and management of complicated births. In-depth interviews with six practicing parteras in rural, isolated communities revealed that the parteras used traditional Maya ethnomedicine while valuing biomedical approaches. We isolated themes in decision making and mapped management of birth complications. Integrating TBAs' traditional knowledge into biomedical training programs is one way to honor their knowledge and make training relevant.

  16. Technical report on the surface reconstruction of stacked contours by using the commercial software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Chung, Min Suk; Hwang, Sung Bae; Park, Jin Seo

    2007-03-01

    After drawing and stacking contours of a structure, which is identified in the serially sectioned images, three-dimensional (3D) image can be made by surface reconstruction. Usually, software is composed for the surface reconstruction. In order to compose the software, medical doctors have to acquire the help of computer engineers. So in this research, surface reconstruction of stacked contours was tried by using commercial software. The purpose of this research is to enable medical doctors to perform surface reconstruction to make 3D images by themselves. The materials of this research were 996 anatomic images (1 mm intervals) of left lower limb, which were made by serial sectioning of a cadaver. On the Adobe Photoshop, contours of 114 anatomic structures were drawn, which were exported to Adobe Illustrator files. On the Maya, contours of each anatomic structure were stacked. On the Rhino, superoinferior lines were drawn along all stacked contours to fill quadrangular surfaces between contours. On the Maya, the contours were deleted. 3D images of 114 anatomic structures were assembled with their original locations preserved. With the surface reconstruction technique, developed in this research, medical doctors themselves could make 3D images of the serially sectioned images such as CTs and MRIs.

  17. Climate change and archaeology in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Timothy

    2016-03-01

    I first encountered Mesoamerican paleoclimate in a graduate seminar taught by Herb Wright, Jr. in Geology at the University of Minnesota in 1984. Herb passed away in 2015 at 98 after decades of studying paleoclimate and many other aspects of Quaternary studies. In 1984 there were few Maya paleoclimate studies, and a Science article on Mayan Urbanism by Deevey et al. (1979) was still current. Mark Brenner was one of the authors of that piece and he has been constant over these decades, appearing again as a coauthor of two articles in this issue. Several recent articles have noted the expansion in Maya climate studies from the perspectives of Climate Science, to Paleotempestology, and to Archeology (Douglas et al., in this issue;Beach et al., 2015; Luzzadder-Beach et al., in press). This special issue grew out of the recognition of that explosion of studies and the need to bring some important current findings together in one issue. This special issue does that by incorporating new reviews and specific studies that help us refine the trends of climate change and the drivers of climate and their connections to what we know of human history and archeology in the region.

  18. Reconstructed summer Palmer Drought Severity Index since 1850 AD based on δ13C of larch tree rings in eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tei, Shunsuke; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Sugimoto, Atsuko; Ohta, Takeshi; Maximov, Trofim C.

    2015-10-01

    We present a tree-ring reconstruction of Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) in Ust-Maya region (60°00‧N, 133°49‧E), central part of eastern Siberia using total ring (TR) widths and latewood (LW) δ13C chronologies from larch trees (1850-2008 AD). Summer (JJA) PDSI was correlated positively and negatively with the TR widths and LW δ13C, respectively. Using a multiple liner regression approach, we reconstructed summer PDSI using the time series of TR widths and LW δ13C. The reconstruction showed an interannual to decadal wet/dry fluctuation with several moist periods before 1950s and a severe drought event from 1991 to 1993. Comparison of the reconstruction with reconstructed July PDSI for the Yakutsk region, 300 km northwest of Ust-Maya, showed heterogeneous changes in the mean states of soil moisture, but synchronous year-to-year changes. These results indicate that regional studies are quite important to precisely depict the spatio-temporal variability of hydrological changes in the central part of eastern Siberia.

  19. [Effect of age on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Spain between 2001 and 2012].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Mejías, Eladio; Olvera Porcel, María C; Amezcua Prieto, Carmen; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Martínez Ruiz, Virginia; Jiménez Moleón, José Juan

    2014-06-01

    Objetivo: Valorar el efecto de la edad sobre el incremento en la prevalencia de DM en España entre 2001 y 2012. Métodos: Partiendo de las prevalencias de DM de las Encuestas Nacionales de Salud realizadas en España en 2001, 2006 y 2012 y de la distribución etaria de la población, se calcularon, mediante método directo, las prevalencias ajustadas por edad para cada año, tomando como población de referencia la de 2006. Asimismo, se calcularon los incrementos porcentuales crudos y ajustados para el periodo total y para los subperíodos 2001-2006 y 2006-2012. Resultados: El 12,5% del incremento en la prevalencia cruda de DM es atribuible al envejecimiento poblacional durante el período total. Aunque las tendencias son diferentes en los dos subperíodos considerados, las prevalencias ajustadas también muestran una tendencia creciente. Conclusiones: Además del envejecimiento poblacional, existen otros factores responsables del incremento en las tasas de diabetes en España en 2001-2012 que es preciso conocer.

  20. The determination of residence times in a pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, F. Pablo; Cortés, M. Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that residence time distributions (RTD) are very important in many chemical processes such as separation, reforming, hydrocracking, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrodesulfuration, hydrogenation among others [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. In addition, tracers can be used to measure the velocity, distribution and residence time of any stream through any part of an industrial [Guidebook on Radioisotope Tracers in Industry, IAEA, Vienna, 1990] or experimental system. Perhaps the best quality of radiotracers is that they do not interfere with normal unit operations or production scheduling. In this paper are presented the RTDs obtained in a pilot plant for a hydrogenation process [IMP, Technical Report, Determinación del tiempo de residencia promedio en el reactor de la planta piloto de hidroagotamiento de crudo, 2002]. The RTDs show a random phenomenon, which is not typical of this type of chemical processes. Several RTDs were determined in order to confirm this random behavior. The data were obtained using as a tracer a radioactive form of sodium iodide containing iodine-131 [The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 10th Ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, USA, 1981]. The process works with two phases in a countercurrent flow, inside a packed column. The liquid phase goes down by gravity. The gas phase goes up due to pressure difference [3 Procédés de transformation, Editions Technip, Institute Francais du Petrole, Paris, France, 1998]. The tracer was selected such that it would follow the liquid phase.