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Sample records for crustacea decapoda alimentado

  1. Comparative study of cadmium and lead accumulations in Cambarus bartoni (Fab. ) (Decapoda, Crustacea) from an acidic and a neutral lake

    SciTech Connect

    Keenan, S.; Alikhan, M.A. )

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to compare concentrations of lead and cadmium in the sediment and water, as well as in the crayfish, Cambarus Bartoni (Fab.) (Decapoda - Crustacea) trapped from an acidic and a neutral lake in the Sudbury district of Northeastern Ontario. Hepatopancreatic, alimentary canal, tail muscles and exoskeletal concentrations in the crayfish are also examined to determine specific tissue sites for these accumulations.

  2. The complete mitogenome of blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Liang; Jia, Fu-Long; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1766 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae) was determined in this study. The full length mitogenome is 16 157 bp in size, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region, with the base composition of 33.70% for A, 18.99% for C, 12.22% for G, and 35.09% for T. The gene order of P. pelagicus mainly retains as the pancrustacean ground pattern, except for a single translocation of tRNA(His) gene. The mitogenome data provide a basis for further studies on population genetics and phylogenetics.

  3. First record of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) from south of Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Agus Alim; Mashar, Ali; Butet, Nurlisa Alias; Adrianto, Luky; Farajallah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Three specimens of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) were collected from Palabuhanratu Bay, southern Java, Indonesia. There is no previous record on the presence of the species in Indonesia. This finding represents the first record of this species in Java, Indonesia, and confirms that the species is present in the Indian Ocean. The morphological characters of the species are described. New information This paper contains a new distribution record of a lobster species from Indonesian waters. PMID:27099562

  4. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the

  5. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese snapping shrimp Alpheus japonicus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea): gene rearrangement and phylogeny within Caridea.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Li, Xiao; Sha, Zhongli; Yan, Binlun; Xu, Qihua

    2012-07-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Japanese snapping shrimp Alpheus japonicus Miers (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) is presented here. A comparative analysis based on the currently available mitochondrial genomic data revealed many previously unknown characteristics of the mitochondrial genomes of caridean shrimps. The A. japonicus mitochondrial genome is 16487 bp long and contains the typical set of 37 metazoan genes. The gene arrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of four previously studied carideans (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, M. nipponense, M. lanchesteri and Halocaridina rubra) were found to be identical to the pancrustacean ground pattern; thus, it was considered that gene rearrangements probably did not occur in the suborder Caridea. In the present study, a translocation of the trnE gene involving inversion was found in Alpheus mitochondrial genomes. This phenomenon has not been reported in any other crustacean mitochondrial genome that has been studied so far; however, the translocation of one transfer RNA gene (trnP or trnT) was reported in the mitochondrial genome of Exopalaemon carinicauda. When the ratios of the nonsynonymous and synonymous substitutions rates (Ka/Ks) for the 13 protein coding genes from two Alpheus species (A. japonicus and A. distinguendus) and three Macrobrachium species (M. rosenbergii, M. nipponense, M. lanchesteri) were calculated, the Ka/Ks values for all the protein coding genes in Alpheus and Macrobrachium mitochondrial genomes were found to be less than 1 (between 0.0048 and 0.2057), indicating that a strong purification selection had occurred. The phylogenetic tree that was constructed based on the mitochondrial protein coding genes in the genomes of nine related species indicated that Palaemonidae and Alpheidae formed a monophyly and shared a statistically significant relationship, (Palaemonidae+Alpheidae)+Atyidae, at the family level.

  6. First inventory of the Crustacea (Decapoda, Stomatopoda) of Juan de Nova Island with ecological observations and comparison with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel (Europa, Glorieuses, Mayotte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupin, J.

    2016-04-01

    Crustacea Decapoda and Stomatopoda are inventoried for the first time in Juan de Nova Island, Iles Eparses, Mozambique channel. In total, 112 species are reported: 69 crabs, 28 anomurans, 11 shrimps, 3 mantis shrimps and 1 lobster. A comparison is made with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel: Glorieuses Islands (157 species), Europa Island (178 species), and Mayotte Island (505 species). The lower species richness at Juan de Nova is explained by the small size of the island and by the difficulties to collect the crustaceans on the reef flat hardly accessible at low tide. The crustaceans are listed by main habitats from land to outer reef (2-20 m). The presence of the coconut crab (Birgus latro), an endangered species vulnerable to human predation, is confirmed.

  7. Occurrence and behaviour of Paromola cuvieri (Crustacea, Decapoda) in the Santa Maria di Leuca cold-water coral community (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capezzuto, Francesca; Maiorano, Porzia; Panza, Michele; Indennidate, Antonella; Sion, Letizia; D'Onghia, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Occurrence and behaviour of Paromola cuvieri (Crustacea, Decapoda) were recorded by means of the MEMO lander equipped with two digital cameras and deployed in the cold-water coral community of the Santa Maria di Leuca (Mediterranean Sea). A total of 14 individuals were observed at depths between 547 and 648 m; 10 in the coral habitat on coral mounds and 4 off the coral habitat on muddy bottoms. Thirteen specimens recorded were females, one male and all were shown to scavenge the bait. All the specimens carried a sponge on their exoskeleton using the fifth pereiopods. The specimens were distinguishable by the size and shape of the carried sponge. The present observations demonstrate both passive covering behaviour and active behaviour of discouraging approach and attack from competitors or predators, respectively. This study represents the first in situ documentation of Paromola cuvieri behaviour interacting with other deep-sea species in the Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Uca (Xeruca), a new subgenus for the Taiwanese fiddler crab Uca formosensis Rathbun, 1921 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae), based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsi-Te

    2015-06-22

    The fiddler crab Uca formosensis Rathbun, 1921 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae), restricted to the western part of Taiwan and the offshore Penghu (Pescadores) Islands in the Taiwan Strait, has been placed under the subgenus Uca (Gelasimus) Latreille, 1817 (= Uca (Thalassuca) Crane, 1975) based on only less than a dozen specimens, but later suggested under the subgenus Tubuca Bott, 1973 because the similarity of external morphology. A suite of characters of carapace, major cheliped, gastric mill, male first gonopod, and chela handedness, as well as the phylogenic relationships (mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and nuclear 28S rDNA), nevertheless support this species belongs to its own subgenus. A new subgenus Uca (Xeruca) subgen. nov. is herein established for U. formosensis.

  9. Lilliput effect in a retroplumid crab (Crustacea: Decapoda) across the K/Pg boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Díaz, José Luis; Phillips, George E.; Nyborg, Torrey; Espinosa, Belinda; Távora, Vladimir de Araújo; Centeno-García, Elena; Vega, Francisco J.

    2016-08-01

    The genus Costacopluma (Brachyura: Decapoda: Retroplumidae) had a wide distribution during the early Paleogene and is currently represented by 14 species across the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene. Described early Paleogene species have a smaller mean body size compared to Campanian-Maastrichtian populations of Africa, northeastern Mexico, and southeastern United States. Originally described from the Paleocene and Eocene of Alabama, Costacopluma grayi Feldmann and Portell, 2007, is now documented from the uppermost Maastrichtian (66.2 Ma) of northeastern Mexico and Mississippi and Lower Paleocene of Arkansas, all representing medium size specimens. The morphological features of latest Maastrichtian (66.2 Ma) individuals are identical to those observed among populations of C. grayi from the Paleogene of Alabama and Arkansas, which have a smaller mean size. This size reduction, or dwarfism, in C. grayi across the K-Pg boundary is an example of the Lilliput effect. Dwarfism has been documented in several invertebrate groups as a response to environmental stress, but this is the first record of the Lilliput effect in brachyuran crustaceans. The stratigraphic and geographic range for Costacopluma mexicana Vega and Perrilliat, 1989, is extended to the upper Campanian in northeastern Mexico and lower Maastrichtian in Mississippi and is suggested as a possible ancestor of C. grayi. Different preservational modes for this species in northeastern Mexico are discussed.

  10. Comparative Ultrastructure and Carbohydrate Composition of Gastroliths from Astacidae, Cambaridae and Parastacidae Freshwater Crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Luquet, Gilles; Fernández, María S.; Badou, Aïcha; Guichard, Nathalie; Roy, Nathalie Le; Corneillat, Marion; Alcaraz, Gérard; Arias, José L.

    2012-01-01

    Crustaceans have to cyclically replace their rigid exoskeleton in order to grow.Most of them harden this skeleton by a calcification process. Some decapods (land crabs, lobsters and crayfish) elaborate calcium storage structures as a reservoir of calcium ions in their stomach wall, as so-called gastroliths. For a better understanding of the cyclic elaboration of these calcium deposits, we studied the ultrastructure of gastroliths from freshwater crayfish by using a combination of microscopic and physical techniques. Because sugars are also molecules putatively involved in the elaboration process of these biomineralizations, we also determined their carbohydrate composition. This study was performed in a comparative perspective on crayfish species belonging to the infra-order Astacidea (Decapoda, Malacostraca): three species from the Astacoidea superfamily and one species from the Parastacoidea superfamily. We observed that all the gastroliths exhibit a similar dense network of protein-chitin fibers, from macro- to nanoscale, within which calcium is precipitated as amorphous calcium carbonate. Nevertheless, they are not very similar at the molecular level, notably as regards their carbohydrate composition. Besides glucosamine, the basic carbohydrate component of chitin, we evidenced the presence of other sugars, some of which are species-specific like rhamnose and galacturonic acid whereas xylose and mannose could be linked to proteoglycan components. PMID:24970155

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the bass yabby Trypaea australiensis Dana 1852, (Crustacea; Decapoda; Callianassidae) - a new gene order for the Decapoda.

    PubMed

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Bass yabby Trypaea australiensis was obtained from a partial genome scan using the MiSeq sequencing system. The T. australiensis mitogenome is 16,821 bp in length (70.25% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a putative 1977 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This Trypaea mitogenome sequence is the 5th for the family Callianassidae and represents a new gene order for the Decapoda involving protein-coding, rRNA and tRNA genes and the control region.

  12. Systematic and Evolutionary Insights Derived from mtDNA COI Barcode Diversity in the Decapoda (Crustacea: Malacostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Matzen da Silva, Joana; Creer, Simon; dos Santos, Antonina; Costa, Ana C.; Cunha, Marina R.; Costa, Filipe O.; Carvalho, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Decapods are the most recognizable of all crustaceans and comprise a dominant group of benthic invertebrates of the continental shelf and slope, including many species of economic importance. Of the 17635 morphologically described Decapoda species, only 5.4% are represented by COI barcode region sequences. It therefore remains a challenge to compile regional databases that identify and analyse the extent and patterns of decapod diversity throughout the world. Methodology/Principal Findings We contributed 101 decapod species from the North East Atlantic, the Gulf of Cadiz and the Mediterranean Sea, of which 81 species represent novel COI records. Within the newly-generated dataset, 3.6% of the species barcodes conflicted with the assigned morphological taxonomic identification, highlighting both the apparent taxonomic ambiguity among certain groups, and the need for an accelerated and independent taxonomic approach. Using the combined COI barcode projects from the Barcode of Life Database, we provide the most comprehensive COI data set so far examined for the Order (1572 sequences of 528 species, 213 genera, and 67 families). Patterns within families show a general predicted molecular hierarchy, but the scale of divergence at each taxonomic level appears to vary extensively between families. The range values of mean K2P distance observed were: within species 0.285% to 1.375%, within genus 6.376% to 20.924% and within family 11.392% to 25.617%. Nucleotide composition varied greatly across decapods, ranging from 30.8 % to 49.4 % GC content. Conclusions/Significance Decapod biological diversity was quantified by identifying putative cryptic species allowing a rapid assessment of taxon diversity in groups that have until now received limited morphological and systematic examination. We highlight taxonomic groups or species with unusual nucleotide composition or evolutionary rates. Such data are relevant to strategies for conservation of existing decapod

  13. Ecological remarks and re-description of the hermit crab-associated pleustid amphipod Pleusymtes japonica (Gurjanova, 1938) (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Pleustidae: Pleusymtinae) from the Russian coasts of the Sea of Japan.

    PubMed

    Ivan, Marin; Sinelnikov, Sergey; Agniya, Sokolova

    2013-01-01

    Numerous specimens of poorly known pleustid amphipod Pleusymtes japonica (Gurjanova, 1938) (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Pleustidae: Pleusymtinae) were found in association with large hermit crab Pagurus ochotensis Brandt, 1851 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Paguridae) near Furugelma Island in the Sea of Japan. This is the first report of the species in association with hermit crabs. Amphipods were found living close to the shell aperture and hermit crab feeding appendages. Color photographs, remarks on ecology and re-description of the species are given.

  14. Characterization of microsatellite markers in Homarus (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Tam, Y K; Kornfield, I

    1996-09-01

    Three variable microsatellite loci have been isolated from the American lobster, Homarus americanus. In a population sample from the Gulf of Maine, the effective numbers of alleles (Ne) for the two most variable loci were 16.33 and 13.19, respectively. Reduced variability at all three loci was seen in the European lobster, H. gammarus, for which the maximum Ne was 4.00. The reduction in variability in H. gammarus is consistent with a bottleneck event. Inheritance analysis using H. americanus demonstrated segregation of codominant alleles and the absence of linkage. Null alleles were observed at two loci in inheritance studies. This study demonstrates that microsatellite loci should be useful in studying the population structure of clawed lobsters.

  15. Balsscallichirus Sakai, 2011 (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) in the fossil record: systematics and palaeobiogeography

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2016-01-01

    The fossil record of the ghost shrimp genus Balsscallichirus Sakai, 2011 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Callianassidae) is revised. Barnardcallichirus Sakai, 2011 and Tirmizicallichirus Sakai, 2011 are considered subjective synonyms of Balsscallichirus. Based on the examination of extant species it is argued that the morphology of the major cheliped merus, in combination with other hard part morphology characters, is sufficient for assignment of the fossil material into the genus. Main identifying characters are on merus which is keeled along its midline and its lower half is tuberculated; its lower margin possesses broad proximal meral hook continuing into a lobe distally; the entire lower margin is subdivided into numerous irregularly spaced spines. Three species, Callianassa sismondai A. Milne-Edwards, 1860, C. floriana Glaessner, 1928, and Podocallichirus laepaensis Hyžný & Muñiz, 2012, originally described from the Miocene of Italy, Austria and Spain, respectively, are assigned to Balsscallichirus herein. Neocallichirus wellsi Schweitzer, Feldmann & Gingerich, 2004 from the Upper Eocene of Pakistan is tentatively assigned to that genus as well. Spatial and temporal distribution of the genus indicates that at least since the Oligocene, and possibly even sooner (the Late Eocene), the genus has been restricted to the Western Tethys Region. Later, it migrated also into West Atlantic establishing present day communities. PMID:27499568

  16. New Early Cenozoic ghost shrimps (Decapoda, Axiidea, Callianassidae) from Pakistan and their palaeobiogeographic implications.

    PubMed

    Hyžný, Matúš; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Merle, Didier; Lashari, Rafique Ahmed; Bartolini, Annachiara; Mètais, Grégoire

    2016-09-01

    A new set of Paleocene and Eocene decapod crustaceans is described from the Kirthar Range of Pakistan. Two new ghost shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda, Callianassidae) are described: Neocallichirus khadroensis Hyžný & Charbonnier, n. sp. from the Paleocene (Danian, Khadro Formation) of Gawar Band, Ranikot District, and Neocallichirus lakhraensis Hyžný & Charbonnier, n. sp. from the Early Eocene (Ypresian, Lakhra Formation) of Rbod Nala, Jhirak District. Both new species exhibit chelipeds which are morphologically surprisingly close to extant Neocallichirus karumba (Poore & Griffin, 1979) from the Indo-West Pacific. A group of species sharing this same cheliped morphology is provisionally called the "karumba group" based on Neocallichirus karumba, best documented species. The "karumba group" encompasses seven fossil species: the two new Pakistani species, Neocallichirus tuberculatus (Lőrenthey in Lőrenthey & Beurlen, 1929) n. comb. from the Eocene of Hungary, Neocallichirus borensis Beschin, De Angeli, Checchi & Mietto, 2006 from the Eocene of Italy, Neocallichirus birmanicus (Noetling, 1901) n. comb. from the Miocene of Myanmar, Neocallichirus dijki (Martin, 1883) from the Miocene of Java and Philippines, and the subfossil Neocallichirus maximus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1870) from Thailand. Based upon the extant and fossil occurrences, it is difficult to reconstruct migration pattern of the "karumba group". For now, it can be concluded, that at the genus level, a relative homogeneity of the ghost shrimps is observed between the Eastern and the Western Tethyan regions, as already suggested by Merle et al. (2014) for the assemblage of volutid gastropods from the Lakhra Formation.

  17. Structure and Ultrastructure of the Endodermal Region of the Alimentary Tract in the Freshwater Shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Sonakowska, Lidia; Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Poprawa, Izabela; Binkowski, Marcin; Śróbka, Joanna; Kamińska, Karolina; Kszuk-Jendrysik, Michalina; Chajec, Łukasz; Zajusz, Bartłomiej; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena Maria

    2015-01-01

    The freshwater shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Decapoda) originates from Asia and is one of the species that is widely available all over the world because it is the most popular shrimp that is bred in aquaria. The structure and the ultrastructure of the midgut have been described using X-ray microtomography, transmission electron microscopy, light and fluorescence microscopes. The endodermal region of the alimentary system in N. heteropoda consists of an intestine and a hepatopancreas. No differences were observed in the structure and ultrastructure of males and females of the shrimp that were examined. The intestine is a tube-shaped organ and the hepatopancreas is composed of two large diverticles that are divided into the blind-end tubules. Hepatopancreatic tubules have three distinct zones – proximal, medial and distal. Among the epithelial cells of the intestine, two types of cells were distinguished – D and E-cells, while three types of cells were observed in the epithelium of the hepatopancreas – F, B and E-cells. Our studies showed that the regionalization in the activity of cells occurs along the length of the hepatopancreatic tubules. The role and ultrastructure of all types of epithelial cells are discussed, with the special emphasis on the function of the E-cells, which are the midgut regenerative cells. Additionally, we present the first report on the existence of an intercellular junction that is connected with the E-cells of Crustacea. PMID:25996951

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of the mantid shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Stomatopoda): Novel non-coding regions features and phylogenetic implications of the Stomatopoda.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2010-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of Oratosquilla oratoria (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Stomatopoda) was determined; a circular molecule of 15,783 bp in length. The gene content and arrangement are consistent with the pancrustacean ground pattern. The mt control region of O. oratoria is characterized by no GA-block near the 3' end and different position of [TA(A)]n-blocks compared with other reported Stomatopoda species. The sequence of the second hairpin structure is relative conserved which suggests this region may be a synapomorphic character for the Stomatopoda. In addition, a relative large intergenic spacer (101 bp) with higher A+T content than that in control region was identified between the tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Phe) genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the current dataset of complete mt genomes strongly support the Stomatopoda is closely related to Euphausiacea. They in turn cluster with Penaeoidea and Caridea clades while other decapods form a separate group, which rejects the monophyly of Decapoda. This challenges the suitability of Stomatopoda as an outgroup of Decapoda in phylogenetic analyses. The basal position of Stomatopoda within Eumalacostraca according to the morphological characters is also questioned.

  19. New Early Cenozoic ghost shrimps (Decapoda, Axiidea, Callianassidae) from Pakistan and their palaeobiogeographic implications

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Merle, Didier; Lashari, Rafique Ahmed; Bartolini, Annachiara; Mètais, Grégoire

    2017-01-01

    A new set of Paleocene and Eocene decapod crustaceans is described from the Kirthar Range of Pakistan. Two new ghost shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda, Callianassidae) are described: Neocallichirus khadroensis Hyžný & Charbonnier, n. sp. from the Paleocene (Danian, Khadro Formation) of Gawar Band, Ranikot District, and Neocallichirus lakhraensis Hyžný & Charbonnier, n. sp. from the Early Eocene (Ypresian, Lakhra Formation) of Rbod Nala, Jhirak District. Both new species exhibit chelipeds which are morphologically surprisingly close to extant Neocallichirus karumba (Poore & Griffin, 1979) from the Indo-West Pacific. A group of species sharing this same cheliped morphology is provisionally called the “karumba group” based on Neocallichirus karumba, best documented species. The “karumba group” encompasses seven fossil species: the two new Pakistani species, Neocallichirus tuberculatus (Lőrenthey in Lőrenthey & Beurlen, 1929) n. comb. from the Eocene of Hungary, Neocallichirus borensis Beschin, De Angeli, Checchi & Mietto, 2006 from the Eocene of Italy, Neocallichirus birmanicus (Noetling, 1901) n. comb. from the Miocene of Myanmar, Neocallichirus dijki (Martin, 1883) from the Miocene of Java and Philippines, and the subfossil Neocallichirus maximus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1870) from Thailand. Based upon the extant and fossil occurrences, it is difficult to reconstruct migration pattern of the “karumba group”. For now, it can be concluded, that at the genus level, a relative homogeneity of the ghost shrimps is observed between the Eastern and the Western Tethyan regions, as already suggested by Merle et al. (2014) for the assemblage of volutid gastropods from the Lakhra Formation. PMID:28255262

  20. [Nutrition of juvenile prawn Macrobrachium carcinus (Crustacea: Decapoda) with diets of vegetable and marine residues].

    PubMed

    Casas-Sánchez, R; Vaillard-Nava, Y; Re-Araujo, A D

    1995-01-01

    Juvenile prawn Macrobrachium carcinus were fed two different diets: restaurant by-products (diet I) and fish and vegetable market by-products (diet II). These diets were evaluated by proximal analysis, assimilation efficiency and the factor conversion rate (FCR). Diet I registered a higher efficiency, but there was no difference in the growth rate. The growth mean (G. L.) for three months was 0.254 +/- 0.13 cm (diet I) and 0.191 +/- 0.1 cm (diet II). The conversion rate was good for both, suggesting that 6 to 7 kg of food are needed to obtain 1 kg of prawn. Survival was 76% and 100% for diets I and II, respectively.

  1. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    VanMaurik, Lauren N.; Wortham, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM), orange-clawed males (OC) and blue-clawed males (BC). The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes) were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming) while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which Macrobrachium rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present. PMID:25561831

  2. Evolutionary history of true crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) and the origin of freshwater crabs.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Schubart, Christoph D; Ahyong, Shane T; Lai, Joelle C Y; Au, Eugene Y C; Chan, Tin-Yam; Ng, Peter K L; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-05-01

    Crabs of the infra-order Brachyura are one of the most diverse groups of crustaceans with approximately 7,000 described species in 98 families, occurring in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. The relationships among the brachyuran families are poorly understood due to the high morphological complexity of the group. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive phylogeny of Brachyura to date using sequence data of six nuclear protein-coding genes and two mitochondrial rRNA genes from more than 140 species belonging to 58 families. The gene tree confirms that the "Podotremata," are paraphyletic. Within the monophyletic Eubrachyura, the reciprocal monophyly of the two subsections, Heterotremata and Thoracotremata, is supported. Monophyly of many superfamilies, however, is not recovered, indicating the prevalence of morphological convergence and the need for further taxonomic studies. Freshwater crabs were derived early in the evolution of Eubrachyura and are shown to have at least two independent origins. Bayesian relaxed molecular methods estimate that freshwater crabs separated from their closest marine sister taxa ~135 Ma, that is, after the break up of Pangaea (∼200 Ma) and that a Gondwanan origin of these freshwater representatives is untenable. Most extant families and superfamilies arose during the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary.

  3. Mass sedimentation of the swimming crab Charybdis smithii (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the deep Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Bernd; Boetius, Antje

    During cruise Meteor 33/1 in the northern Arabian Sea in September/October 1995, large numbers of the portunid crab Charybdis smithii were observed swimming in the open ocean. In a photographic survey at three abyssal stations in the northern Arabian Sea (NAST, WAST, CAST), even higher densities of Charybdis smithii - up to 1 crab m -2 - were found dead on the sea floor. Average sizes of the crabs were around 34-44 mm carapace width, indicating that the animals died prematurely, before returning to the breeding grounds presumable on the shelves of India or Oman. The average weight of the crabs was 10-14 g wet weight. From the photographic quantification it can be deduced that these large food falls represent a significant carbon input of at least 10-30% of the annual flux of POC as measured in sediment traps in this region. The exceptionally high microbial chitinase activity in the surface sediment layers detected at the same stations indicates that this energy is utilized and channelled into the deep-sea benthic food web of the deep Arabian Sea. There are frequent observations of dense Charybdis smithii swarms in the Arabian Sea from different years; however, it is not certain whether such large food falls as observed during M 33/1 are regular seasonal events that repeat each year.

  4. Population Genetic History of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Annamaria; Mona, Stefano; Sà, Rui M.; D’Onghia, Gianfranco; Maiorano, Porzia

    2015-01-01

    Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i) the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii) a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from “virgin” deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective ‘rescue effect’ contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman’s coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be particularly relevant to sample the deepest ones directly. PMID:25775363

  5. A new species of crinoid-associated Periclimenes from Honduras (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    De Grave, Sammy

    2014-05-02

    A new species of crinoid associated Periclimenes, P. rincewindi sp. nov. is described from the Bay Islands (Honduras) in the Caribbean. The species associates with the swimming crinoid, Analcidometra armata and displays a unique colour pattern. Morphologically, the new species is closely related to the other known crinoid associates in the Caribbean, specifically Periclimenes crinoidalis, from which it can be distinguished by a suite of relatively minor morphological features.

  6. Ontogeny of osmoregulatory structures and functions in the green crab Carcinus maenas (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Cieluch, Ude; Anger, Klaus; Aujoulat, Fabien; Buchholz, Friedrich; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille; Charmantie, Guy

    2004-01-01

    The ontogeny of osmoregulation, the development of branchial transporting epithelia and the expression of the enzyme Na+/K+-ATPase were studied in Carcinus maenas (L.) obtained from the North Sea, Germany. Laboratory-reared zoea larvae, megalopae and young crabs were exposed to a wide range of salinities, and hemolymph osmolality was measured after 24 h exposure time (72 h in juveniles). Zoea I larvae slightly hyper-regulated in dilute media (10.2 per thousand and 17.0 per thousand ) and osmoconformed at >17 per thousand. All later zoeal stages (II-IV) osmoconformed in salinities from 10.2 per thousand to 44.3 per thousand. The megalopa hyper-regulated at salinities from 10.2 to 25.5 per thousand. Young crabs hyperregulated at salinities from 5.3 per thousand to 25.5 per thousand, showing an increase in their osmoregulatory capacity. The development of transporting epithelia and the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy. In the zoea IV, only a very light fluorescence staining was observed in gill buds. Epithelial cells were rather undifferentiated, without showing any features of ionocytes. Gills were present in the megalopa, where Na+/K+-ATPase was located in basal filaments of the posterior gills. In crab I juveniles and adults, Na+/K+-ATPase was noted in the three most posterior pairs of gills, but lacking in anterior gills. Ionocytes could first be recognized in filaments of megalopal posterior gills, persisting through subsequent stages at the same location. Thus, the development of the gills and the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase are closely correlated with the ontogeny of osmoregulatory abilities. The morphological two-step metamorphosis of C. maenas can also be regarded as an osmo-physiological metamorphosis, (i) from the osmoconforming zoeal stages to the weakly regulating megalopa, and (ii) to the effectively hyper-regulating juvenile and adult crabs.

  7. [In life determination of the physiological status of decapod crustaceans (Crustacea: Decapoda) by hematological characteristics].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, E N; Kovacheva, N P

    2010-01-01

    The application of hematological analysis techniques to detecting the physiological status of the economically valued decapods during their culturing, and in monitoring of the condition of their natural populations, is restrained by the incomplete knowledge of these invertebrates circulatory system and its properties. Scarce data on the use of hematological indicators for determining the physiological status of decapods may be found sporadically in published sources; there is shortage of basic standards needed for interpretation of the analytical results. In this regard the paper considers some data on the major properties of hemolymph and its cellular elements; on methods of their examination; and on the results of application of hematological characteristics to assessing the physiological condition of various species of decapods. The hematological indicators suitable for the analysis of live decapods include: time of coagulation and buffer characteristic of hemolymph; concentration of total proteins, copper, calcium, glucose and lactates in it; total number of hemocytes with the consideration of granulocytes share.

  8. Let’s be pals again: major systematic changes in Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Charles H.J.M.; Page, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the systematic position of genera in the shrimp families Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae has been under debate, with phylogenetic studies suggesting the families are not real family level units. Here, we review the molecular evidence as well as the morphological characters used to distinguish both families, leading to the conclusion that neither family is valid. Further, we studied the structural details of the single morphological character which distinguishes the two subfamilies (Palaemoninae, Pontoniinae) in Palaemonidae, as well as their phylogenetic relationship. As the supposed character distinction plainly does not hold true and supported by the phylogenetic results, the recognition of subfamilies in Palaemonidae is not warranted. As a consequence, all three supra-generic taxa (Gnathophyllidae, Hymenoceridae, Pontoniinae) are thus herein formally synonymised with Palaemonidae. PMID:26339545

  9. Multiple host switching events shape the evolution of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Horká, Ivona; De Grave, Sammy; Fransen, Charles H J M; Petrusek, Adam; Ďuriš, Zdeněk

    2016-06-01

    The majority of the almost 1,000 species of Palaemonidae, the most speciose family of caridean shrimp, largely live in symbioses with marine invertebrates of different phyla. These associations range from weak epibiosis to obligatory endosymbiosis and from restricted commensalism to semi-parasitism, with the specialisation to particular hosts likely playing a role in the diversification of this shrimp group. Our study elucidates the evolutionary history of symbiotic palaemonids based on a phylogenetic analysis of 87 species belonging to 43 genera from the Indo-West Pacific and the Atlantic using two nuclear and two mitochondrial markers. A complementary three-marker analysis including taxa from GenBank raises this number to 107 species from 48 genera. Seven larger clades were recovered in the molecular phylogeny; the basal-most one includes mostly free-living shrimp, albeit with a few symbiotic species. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed that free-living forms likely colonised cnidarian hosts initially, and switching between different host phyla occurred multiple times in palaemonid evolutionary history. In some cases this was likely facilitated by the availability of analogous microhabitats in unrelated but morphologically similar host groups. Host switching and adaptations to newly colonised host groups must have played an important role in the evolution of this diverse shrimp group.

  10. Dead Shrimp Blues: A Global Assessment of Extinction Risk in Freshwater Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats). PMID:25807292

  11. Larval descriptions of the family Porcellanidae: A worldwide annotated compilation of the literature (Crustacea, Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Vela, María José; González-Gordillo, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract For most of the family Porcellanidae, which comprises 283 species, larval development remains to be described. Full development has been only described for 52 species, while part of the larval cycle has been described for 45 species. The importance of knowing the complete larval development of a species goes beyond allowing the identification of larval specimens collected in the plankton. Morphological larval data also constitute a support to cladistic techniques used in the establishment of the phylogenetic status (see Hiller et al. 2006, Marco-Herrero et al. 2013). Nevertheless, the literature on the larval development of this family is old and widely dispersed and in many cases it is difficult to collect the available information on a particular taxon. Towards the aim of facilitating future research, all information available on the larval development of porcellanids has been compiled. Following the taxonomic checklist of Porcellanidae proposed by Osawa and McLaughlin (2010), a checklist has been prepared that reflects the current knowledge about larval development of the group including larval stages and the method used to obtain the larvae, together with references. Those species for which the recognised names have been changed according to Osawa and McLaughlin (2010) are indicated. PMID:27081332

  12. The complete mitogenome of the New Zealand freshwater crayfish Paranephrops planifrons White 1842 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Yin Peng; Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Lys, Isabelle; Page, Rachel; Dias Wanigasekera, Beatrice; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The mitogenome of Paranephrops planifrons, was obtained by next generation sequencing. This crayfish has a mitochondrial genome of 16,174 base pairs with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), and a non-coding AT-rich region of 771 bp. The P. planifrons nucleotide composition is: 33.63% for T, 21.92% for C, 34.46% for A, and 9.98% for G and has a 68.09% AT bias. While the mitogenome gene order for this species is consistent with aspects of the highly distinctive parastacid crayfish mitogenome gene arrangement, it has a novel gene order involving the rearrangements of a protein coding and several tRNA genes.

  13. Thermal biology of the sub-polar-temperate estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae).

    PubMed

    Cumillaf, Juan P; Blanc, Johnny; Paschke, Kurt; Gebauer, Paulina; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Chimal, María E; Vásquez, Jorge; Rosas, Carlos

    2016-02-15

    Optimum temperatures can be measured through aerobic scope, preferred temperatures or growth. A complete thermal window, including optimum, transition (Pejus) and critical temperatures (CT), can be described if preferred temperatures and CT are defined. The crustacean Hemigrapsus crenulatus was used as a model species to evaluate the effect of acclimation temperature on: (i) thermal preference and width of thermal window, (ii) respiratory metabolism, and (iii) haemolymph proteins. Dependant on acclimation temperature, preferred temperature was between 11.8°C and 25.2°C while CT was found between a minimum of 2.7°C (CTmin) and a maximum of 35.9°C (CTmax). These data and data from tropical and temperate crustaceans were compared to examine the association between environmental temperature and thermal tolerance. Temperate species have a CTmax limit around 35°C that corresponded with the low CTmax limit of tropical species (34-36°C). Tropical species showed a CTmin limit around 9°C similar to the maximum CTmin of temperate species (5-6°C). The maximum CTmin of deep sea species that occur in cold environments (2.5°C) matched the low CTmin values (3.2°C) of temperate species. Results also indicate that the energy required to activate the enzyme complex (Ei) involved in respiratory metabolism of ectotherms changes along the latitudinal gradient of temperature.

  14. A new species of Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) from the Northwest Indian Ocean Ridge.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dong; Li, Xinzheng; Zhou, Yadong; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-08-23

    A new species, Munidopsis militaris n. sp., from the Carlsberg Ridge, Northwest Indian Ocean Ridge is described herein. The species belongs to a group of species having a pair of epigastric spines, mesial and lateral eye-spines, abdominal tergites unarmed, five or six spines on the lateral margin of the carapace, and a denticulate carina on the distolateral margin of the P1 fixed finger. It can be distinguished from its relatives by the spinous lateral margin of the palm and dorsal carinae on the P2-4 propodus. The Munidopsis fauna of the Indian Ocean Ridge is seldom reported on; this new species is the sixth member of this genus found inhabiting the Indian Ocean Ridge.

  15. Agononida Baba and de saint Laurent, 1996 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheoidea: Munididae) from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    The present paper reports five species of squat lobster, genus Agononida Baba and de Saint Laurent, 1996, of which A. squamosa (Henderson, 1885) and A. cf. variabilis (Baba, 1988) were not previously reported in Chinese waters. All the specimens are kept in the Marine Biological Museum collection in the Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao. To date, there have been 11 species of this genus recorded from China's seas. A key to those species is provided in this paper.

  16. The complete mitogenome of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Nephropidae).

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Huan You; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-09-01

    The clawed lobster Nephrops norvegicus is an important commercial species in European waters. We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the species from a partial genome scan using Next-Gen sequencing. The N. norvegicus has a mitogenome of 16,132 base pairs (71.22% A+ T content) comprising 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 21 transfer RNAs, and a putative 1259 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This mitogenome is the second fully characterized for the family Nephropidae and the first for the genus Nephrops. The mitogenome gene order is identical to the Maine lobster, Homarus americanus with the exception of the possible loss of the trnI gene.

  17. Molecular phylogenetics of American snapping shrimps allied to Alpheus floridanus Kingsley, 1878 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae).

    PubMed

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Robles, Rafael; Felder, Darryl L

    2014-12-17

    Widely distributed populations of the snapping shrimp, Alpheus floridanus Kinglsey, 1878, from the eastern Pacific and western and eastern Atlantic Ocean have long been suspected to represent different species due to extreme morphological variation among conspecifics. A companion study (Bracken-Grissom & Felder 2014) contains redescriptions of two western Atlantic species (A. floridanus Kingsley 1878 sensu stricto and A. platycheirus Boone, 1927), assignments of the original syntypes for A. floridanus, descriptions of three new species from the Atlantic and eastern Pacific (A. hephaestus Bracken-Grissom & Felder, 2014; A. roblesi Bracken-Grissom & Felder, 2014; A. ulalae Bracken-Grissom & Felder, 2014), and discussion of the relationship of the eastern Atlantic A. floridanus africanus Balss, 1916. The present study underpins all these findings by application of molecular phylogenetic techniques. Analysis of partial sequences of the 16S, 12S, and COI mitochondrial genes separate species throughout the eastern Pacific and the eastern and western Atlantic. Morphological comparisons suggested that the two syntypes of A. floridanus belong to different species, and molecular results in this study confirm this separation. Genetic data suggest a strong affinity between the western Atlantic A. platycheirus and the eastern Pacific A. hephaestus. Close relationships are evident between trans-Atlantic species, A. floridanus africanus and A. floridanus, a pattern also seen for other cryptic and pseudocryptic species of Alpheus. Alpheus roblesi and A. ulalae represent early-branching lineages within the complex. In some cases, molecular phylogenetic relationships between members of the A. floridanus complex can be reconciled with postulated biogeographic history.

  18. Linking Eye Design with Host Symbiont Relationships in Pontoniine Shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Nicola C.; De Grave, Sammy; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiosis is prevalent in the marine environment with many studies examining the effects of such interactions between host and symbiont. Pontoniine shrimps are a group whose ecology is characterised by symbiotic interactions. This investigation examines the gross morphology of Pontoniinae compound eyes and superficial optical parameters with reference to their symbiotic relationship or lifestyle category; free-living, ectosymbiont, endosymbiont (bivalves) or endosymbiont (non-bivalves). The eye morphologies of free-living and ectosymbiotic species are very similar, yet differ from both forms of endosymbiotic species. Endosymbionts have significantly smaller and simpler eyes with larger facets and bigger interommatidial angles and eye parameters for increased sensitivity levels. However bivalve endosymbionts form an intermediary group between non-bivalve endosymbionts and ectosymbionts as a result of their more active lifestyle. The accessory eye or “nebenauge”, although of uncertain function, commonly occurs in free-living Pontoniinae species but rarely in endosymbionts apart from in more primitive species. The variation in morphology reflects tensions between functional requirements and ecological pressures that have strongly influenced eye design in Pontoniinae. PMID:24950292

  19. Insights into the morphology of symbiotic shrimp eyes (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae); the effects of habitat demands

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Magnus L.; De Grave, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Morphometric differences in the optical morphology of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps can be observed among species symbiotic with different host organisms. Discriminant functional analysis revealed three distinct groups within the species examined. Of these, bivalve symbionts appear to have an eye design that is solely unique to this host-symbiont grouping, a design that spans across multiple genera of phylogenetically unrelated animals. Although some taxonomic effects may be evident, this does not explain the difference and similarities in eye morphology that are seen within these shrimps. Therefore evolutionary pressures from their host environments are having an impact on the optical morphology of their eyes however, as indicated by host-hopping events there ecological adaptations occur post host invasion. PMID:27168962

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of red frog crab Ranina ranina (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Raninidae).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiao; Jiang, Wei; Shi, Huafeng; Sha, Zhongli

    2016-01-01

    Although the brachyuran nature of Raninoidea is widely accepted, there is no consensus over the precise position of the Raninoidea within Brachyura. Long PCR and primer walking methods are employed to determine the first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of raninoidian crab, Ranina ranina. It is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 15,563 base pairs (bp) in length with a standard set of 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) as well as a putative non-coding control region. The gene order is substantially consistent with that of the pancrustacean ground pattern with the tRNA(His) gene rearrangement. The basal placement of R. ranina in the phylogenetic tree integrated with a similar genomic organization to ancestral pancrustacea confirmed the primitive position of R. ranina in the Brachyura.

  1. Zehntneriana serrata n. sp., a new species of pilumnid crab from southern Taiwan (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Lin, Chia-Wei

    2015-02-03

    A new species of rhizopine crab, Zehntneriana serrata (Pilumnidae) is described from a coral reef in southern Taiwan. The new species differs from congeners by its smooth and glabrous carapace, prominently serrated anterolateral margins, elongated ambulatory legs with a serrated anterior margin of the merus, and the diagnostic morphology of the male first gonopod. 

  2. Tritodynamia serratipes sp. nov., a new marine crab from Singapore (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Macrophthalmidae).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Ng, Peter K L

    2014-06-30

    Tritodynamia serratipes sp. nov. is described based on a female specimen dredged on soft mud at a depth of 6.3-6.5 m, near Marina East, only a few kilometers from Singapore's city centre. The new species differs from all other species of Tritodynamia Ortmann, 1894 by a unique combination of morphological characters, including the posterior margin of the propodus of the second ambulatory leg armed with a row of particularly strong teeth, and the cutting edges of dactylus and pollex each proximally armed with two stout teeth. Tritodynamia serratipes sp. nov. is the second species of the genus described from tropical Asia.

  3. Sensitivity of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium lanchesteri (Crustacea: Decapoda), to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Yakub, Nadzifah; Ramle, Nur-Amalina; Abas, Ahmad

    2011-07-01

    Adult Macrobrachium lanchesteri were exposed for a 4-day period in laboratory conditions to a range of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) concentrations. Mortality was assessed and median lethal times (LT₅₀) and concentrations (LC₅₀) were calculated. At the end of the 4-day period, live prawns were used to determine bioconcentration of the metals. LT₅₀ and LC₅₀ increased with the decrease in mean exposure concentrations and times, respectively, for all metals. LC₅₀s for 96 hours for Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb were 32.3, 7.0, 525.1 and 35.0 µg/L, respectively. Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb bioconcentration in M. lanchesteri increases with exposure to increasing concentrations and Cd was the most toxic to M. lanchesteri, followed by Pb, Cu and Zn. Comparison of LC₅₀ values for metals for this species with those for other freshwater crustacean organisms reveals that M. lanchesteri is equally or more sensitive to heavy metals than most other tested crustaceans.

  4. Leucosiid crabs from Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of eight new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Galil, Bella S; Ng, Peter K L

    2015-10-06

    Twenty-five species of leucosiid crabs are reported from Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Of these, seven are new to science: two each are included in Alox Tan & Ng, 1995 and Tanaoa Galil, 2003, and one each in Ryphila Galil, 2009, Seulocia Galil, 2005, and Urnalana Galil, 2005. Fifteen additional species are new records for Papua New Guinea: Alox rugosum (Stimpson, 1858), Ancylodactyla nana (Zarenkov, 1990), Arcania heptacantha De Man, 1907, Heterolithadia fallax (Henderson, 1893), Hiplyra longimana (A. Milne Edwards, 1874), Myra curtimana Galil, 2001, M. digitata Galil 2004, Nursilia dentata Bell, 1855, Oreotlos etor Tan & Richer de Forges, 1993, Parilia major Sakai, 1961, Raylilia coniculifera Galil, 2001, R. uenoi (Takeda, 1995), Toru pilus (Tan, 1996), Urashima pustuloides (Sakai, 1961) and Leucosia rubripalma Galil, 2003. The new species are described and illustrated, and their affinities with allied taxa discussed. Colour photographs are provided for 20 species.

  5. Extended hatching periods in the subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Lithodidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thatje, S.; Calcagno, J. A.; Lovrich, G. A.; Sartoris, F. J.; Anger, K.

    2003-06-01

    Temporal pattern of hatching was studied in the subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Molina) and Paralomis granulosa (Jaquinot) from the Argentine Beagle Channel. In both species, larval hatching occurred in low daily numbers over an extended period of up to several weeks, depending on hatch size. Low daily hatching activity and low oxygen-consumption rates in freshly hatched P. granulosa larvae are discussed as life history adaptations to, and/or physiological constraints by, the environmental conditions of high latitudes.

  6. From the Palaeontological Collection of the Universalmuseum Joanneum – The Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Gross, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Cenozoic decapod crustaceans housed in the collections of the Universalmuseum Joanneum (Graz, Austria) are reviewed. Previous descriptions, geographic and stratigraphic provenance and collection history are discussed. Altogether 72 specimens are figured, including five holotypes. Taxonomic affinity of previously unpublished material is addressed. Gebiacantha sp. from the middle Miocene of Wetzelsdorf is the first fossil record of the genus from the Paratethys. PMID:28239309

  7. The complete mitogenome of the ghost crab Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Mun Hua; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-05-01

    The mitochondrial genome sequence of the ghost crab, Ocypode ceratophthalmus, is documented (GenBank accession number: LN611669) in this article. This is the first mitogenome for the family Ocypodidae and the second for the order Ocypodoidea. Ocypode ceratophthalmus has a mitogenome of 15,564 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the O. ceratophthalmus mitogenome is 35.78% for T, 19.36% for C, 33.73% for A and 11.13% for G, with an AT bias of 69.51% and the gene order is the typical arrangement for brachyuran crabs.

  8. Preliminary observations on the mandibles of palaemonoid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonoidea)

    PubMed Central

    De Grave, Sammy; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2015-01-01

    The mandibles of caridean shrimps have been widely studied in the taxonomy and functional biology of the group. Within the Palaemonoidea the mandibles reach a high level of structural diversity reflecting the diverse lifestyles within the superfamily. However, the majority of studies have been restricted to light microscopy, with the ultrastructure at finer levels poorly known. This study investigates the mandible of nine species belonging to six of the recognised families of the Palaemonoidea using SEM and analyses the results in a phylogenetic and dietary framework. The results of the study indicate that little phylogenetic information is conveyed by the structure of the mandible, but that its form is influenced by primary food sources of each species. With the exception of Anchistioides antiguensis, all species examined possessed cuticular structures at the distal end of the pars molaris (molar process). Five types of cuticular structures are recognised herein, each with a unique form, but variable in number, placement and arrangement. Each type is presumed to have a different function which is likewise related to diet. PMID:25825676

  9. Fine silver staining analysis of the nucleolar organizer regions during oogenesis in Penaeus kerathurus (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Erkan, M; Sousa, M; Carvalho, E; Oliveira, E; Baldaia, L

    2001-01-01

    In previtellogenic oocytes, nucleoli showed segregated components, with the dense fibrillar component (DFC) appearing highly developed and presenting several fibrillar centers (FC). The granular component (GC) was less developed and formed a wide-spaced reticulum. Only the DFC appeared stained by silver, with higher intensities being found at its periphery. During early vitellogenesis, the nucleolar components were kept segregated but both the DFC and the GC enlarged, without evident changes being noticed in the silver staining pattern. In mid and late vitellogenesis, the nucleoli showed integrated components, with the DFC being intermeshed with the GC. Both nucleolar components were highly developed, no evident FC were noticed, and silver stained the DFC in a heterogeneous pattern. During cortical vesicle formation, the nuclear chromatin condensed and nucleoli appeared disintegrated, showing high levels of accelerated exportation of silver stained materials. Results suggest that the size of the DFC is kept high and the size of the GC kept low (low rDNA transcription levels and RNP exportation accelerated), in the segregated nucleoli of the previtellogenic oocyte, as the cell stores nuages but shows absence of rough endoplasmic reticulum and thus low protein svnthesis; that the size of the DFC and of the GC is increased in the segregated nucleoli of early vitellogenic oocytes (intermediate levels of rDNA transcription and of protein synthesis), which is in accordance with the appearance of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and of yolk vesicles formed with endogenous and exogenous sources; that during mid and late vitellogenesis the DFC and the GC appear highly developed and integrated (high levels of rDNA transcription and of protein synthesis) as the rough endoplasmic reticulum expands and the large yolk vesicles grow by endogenous synthesis; and that chromatin condense and nucleoli disintegrate (very low levels of rDNA transcription with accelerated RNP exportation) when cortical vesicles are formed.

  10. A new record of pasiphaeid shrimp of the genus Pasiphaea (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) in Korean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Nyun; Choi, Jung Hwa; Jo, Hyun-su

    2016-09-01

    A single specimen of the pelagic shrimps, Pasiphaea japonica Omori, 1976 (Pasiphaeidae) collected in the southeastern waters of Korea is described and illustrated. Although this species occurs widely in the Indo-West Pacific including the Japanese coast of the East/Japan Sea and the middle and southern parts of the East China Sea, this is the first record of the species and the genus in Korean waters. The species is distinguished from other congeners by the following combination of characteristics: non-carinate dorsal sixth abdominal somite with a terminal tooth, rudimentary pleurobranch on the eighth thoracic somite, merus of the first pereopod with more than eight spines, and almost entirely transparent white color.

  11. Pleonal muscle development in the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Decapoda: Dendrobranchiata).

    PubMed

    Hertzler, Philip L; Freas, William R

    2009-05-01

    Penaeoidean shrimp pleonal muscle is a valuable economic resource worldwide, but little is known of its development during larval stages. The development of pleonal muscle in Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei was studied by rhodamine-phalloidin staining and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Dorsal pleonal muscle was first evident at the protozoea I stage while ventral pleonal muscle was present by the protozoea II stage. Identifiable ventral pleonal muscles were evident by the protozoea III stage and all ventral muscle types were present in the mysis I. The tail flex response began at the mysis stage and growth of existing pleonal muscles continued. The pleopods formed during the mysis stages, with coxal and basis muscles developed by mysis III. The pleopods became functional beginning with the first post-larval stage. We conclude that the pleonal muscle pattern of P. vannamei larvae is similar to that of adult Penaeus setiferus, and that homologous muscles are present. The major formation of dorsal pleonal muscles occurs during the protozoea II stage, while significant development of ventral pleonal muscles occurs during the protozoea III stage.

  12. From the Palaeontological Collection of the Universalmuseum Joanneum - The Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Hyžný, Matúš; Gross, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Cenozoic decapod crustaceans housed in the collections of the Universalmuseum Joanneum (Graz, Austria) are reviewed. Previous descriptions, geographic and stratigraphic provenance and collection history are discussed. Altogether 72 specimens are figured, including five holotypes. Taxonomic affinity of previously unpublished material is addressed. Gebiacantha sp. from the middle Miocene of Wetzelsdorf is the first fossil record of the genus from the Paratethys.

  13. Effects of late-cenozoic glaciation on habitat availability in Antarctic benthic shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    Dambach, Johannes; Thatje, Sven; Rödder, Dennis; Basher, Zeenatul; Raupach, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates inhabiting the high Antarctic continental shelves are challenged by disturbance of the seafloor by grounded ice, low but stable water temperatures and variable food availability in response to seasonal sea-ice cover. Though a high diversity of life has successfully adapted to such conditions, it is generally agreed that during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the large-scale cover of the Southern Ocean by multi-annual sea ice and the advance of the continental ice sheets across the shelf faced life with conditions, exceeding those seen today by an order of magnitude. Conditions prevailing at the LGM may have therefore acted as a bottleneck event to both the ecology as well as genetic diversity of today's fauna. Here, we use for the first time specific Species Distribution Models (SDMs) for marine arthropods of the Southern Ocean to assess effects of habitat contraction during the LGM on the three most common benthic caridean shrimp species that exhibit a strong depth zonation on the Antarctic continental shelf. While the shallow-water species Chorismus antarcticus and Notocrangon antarcticus were limited to a drastically reduced habitat during the LGM, the deep-water shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes found refuge in the Southern Ocean deep sea. The modeling results are in accordance with genetic diversity patterns available for C. antarcticus and N. lanceopes and support the hypothesis that habitat contraction at the LGM resulted in a loss of genetic diversity in shallow water benthos.

  14. Comments on two questionably new axiidean taxa from the Gulf of Mexico (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Felder, Darryl L; Dworschak, Peter C

    2015-12-10

    A recent descriptive account based on material in the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum included descriptions of two new fossorial axiidean shrimp from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Both were based on fragmentary immature specimens, and the accompanying illustrations appeared to potentially represent known species. The types were obtained on loan for study in each of our labs. In one case we conclude that erroneous interpretations of a mangled immature specimen of Axianassa arenaria Kensley & Heard, 1990, led to its assignment to the wrong infraorder, and thus its erroneous description as a new genus and species. In the second case, misinterpretations of morphology of four fragmentary juvenile specimens led to assignment of a name for a population already known in literature to be separated genetically and developmentally from Atlantic populations of Callichirus major (Say, 1818) and Gulf of Mexico populations of C. islagrande (Schmitt, 1935). While no diagnostic characters of value were furnished with the description, we nonetheless conclude that the new name must be used.

  15. Chirostylidae of Australia's western continental margin (Crustacea : Decapoda: Anomura), with the description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Mccallum, Anna W; Poore, Gary C B

    2013-01-01

    Five new species from the squat lobster family Chirostylidae are described from the continental margin of western Australia: Uroptychus albus sp. nov., Uroptychus bardi sp. nov., Uroptychus jawi sp. nov., Uroptychus taylorae sp. nov., and Uroptychus worrorra sp. nov. New records of Indo-West Pacific species for Australia are: Gastroptychus brachyterus Baba, 2005, Gastroptychus investigatoris Alcock, 1899, Uroptychodes grandirostris (Yokoya, 1933), Uroptychodes inortenseni (Van Dam, 1939), Uroptychus scandens Benedict, 1902, Uroptychus ciliatus (Van Dam, 1933) and Uroptychus vandamae Baba, 1988. New distributional records are given for species previously recorded from Australia: Uroptychus flindersi Ahyong & Poore, 2004, Uroptychus hesperius Ahyong & Poore, 2004, Uroptychusjoloensis Van Dam, 1939, Uroptychus nigricapillis Alcock, 1901, and Uroptychus spinirostris (Ahyong & Poore, 2004). These new records expand the number of chirostylid species in Australia from 34 to 46. Keys to Australian species of the genera Gastroptychus, Uroptychodes and Uroptychus are provided.

  16. Plesionika sanctaecatalinae Wicksten, 1983 (Crustacea Decapoda Caridea Pandalidae) from off the west coast of Pacific Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Michel E

    2016-05-17

    A large series of specimens of Plesionika sanctaecatalinae was obtained during sampling operations off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula in 2012 and 2014 (TALUD cruises). This material was examined and compared to the original description, the holotype and two paratypes. Although the fresh material fit well with the type material examined, some discrepancies were noted in the illustrations of the original description, particularly regarding scaphocerite and the telson, and new illustrations are provided. The series of sample available from the TALUD cruises allow to increase considerably the number of localities known for this species in the California Current area. A series of unpublished records corresponding to material examined in the original description but not listed in details, allows for further increase of the number of reported localities where P. sanctaecatalinae has been collected. Its vertical distribution in the water column, however, remains unclear due to the fact that no discrete samples are available for this species.

  17. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    De Grave, Sammy; Smith, Kevin G; Adeler, Nils A; Allen, Dave J; Alvarez, Fernando; Anker, Arthur; Cai, Yixiong; Carrizo, Savrina F; Klotz, Werner; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Page, Timothy J; Shy, Jhy-Yun; Villalobos, José Luis; Wowor, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats).

  18. A comprehensive and integrative reconstruction of evolutionary history for Anomura (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The infraorder Anomura has long captivated the attention of evolutionary biologists due to its impressive morphological diversity and ecological adaptations. To date, 2500 extant species have been described but phylogenetic relationships at high taxonomic levels remain unresolved. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history—phylogeny, divergence times, character evolution and diversification—of this speciose clade. For this purpose, we sequenced two mitochondrial (16S and 12S) and three nuclear (H3, 18S and 28S) markers for 19 of the 20 extant families, using traditional Sanger and next-generation 454 sequencing methods. Molecular data were combined with 156 morphological characters in order to estimate the largest anomuran phylogeny to date. The anomuran fossil record allowed us to incorporate 31 fossils for divergence time analyses. Results Our best phylogenetic hypothesis (morphological + molecular data) supports most anomuran superfamilies and families as monophyletic. However, three families and eleven genera are recovered as para- and polyphyletic. Divergence time analysis dates the origin of Anomura to the Late Permian ~259 (224–296) MYA with many of the present day families radiating during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that carcinization occurred independently 3 times within the group. The invasion of freshwater and terrestrial environments both occurred between the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary. Diversification analyses found the speciation rate to be low across Anomura, and we identify 2 major changes in the tempo of diversification; the most significant at the base of a clade that includes the squat-lobster family Chirostylidae. Conclusions Our findings are compared against current classifications and previous hypotheses of anomuran relationships. Many families and genera appear to be poly- or paraphyletic suggesting a need for further taxonomic revisions at these levels. A divergence time analysis provides key insights into the origins of major lineages and events and the timing of morphological (body form) and ecological (habitat) transitions. Living anomuran biodiversity is the product of 2 major changes in the tempo of diversification; our initial insights suggest that the acquisition of a crab-like form did not act as a key innovation. PMID:23786343

  19. New species of hippolytid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Hippolytidae) from a southwest Indian Ocean seamount.

    PubMed

    Nye, Verity

    2013-01-01

    Two specimens representing two hippolytid genera were sampled recently from the Coral Seamount, southwest Indian Ocean, at 732 m water depth. Lebbeus ketophilos sp. nov. and Eualus oreios sp. nov. are described and illustrated and their morphologies are compared with those of previously described species. The new species are closest in morphology to L. indicus Holthuis, 1947 and E. kinzeri Tiefenbacher, 1990 respectively. They are distinguished clearly from these and other species by a suite of morphological features. This record enhances our present knowledge of seamount biodiversity and species richness of decapod crustaceans in the Indian Ocean.

  20. Multiple host switching events shape the evolution of symbiotic palaemonid shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Horká, Ivona; De Grave, Sammy; Fransen, Charles H. J. M.; Petrusek, Adam; Ďuriš, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the almost 1,000 species of Palaemonidae, the most speciose family of caridean shrimp, largely live in symbioses with marine invertebrates of different phyla. These associations range from weak epibiosis to obligatory endosymbiosis and from restricted commensalism to semi-parasitism, with the specialisation to particular hosts likely playing a role in the diversification of this shrimp group. Our study elucidates the evolutionary history of symbiotic palaemonids based on a phylogenetic analysis of 87 species belonging to 43 genera from the Indo-West Pacific and the Atlantic using two nuclear and two mitochondrial markers. A complementary three-marker analysis including taxa from GenBank raises this number to 107 species from 48 genera. Seven larger clades were recovered in the molecular phylogeny; the basal-most one includes mostly free-living shrimp, albeit with a few symbiotic species. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed that free-living forms likely colonised cnidarian hosts initially, and switching between different host phyla occurred multiple times in palaemonid evolutionary history. In some cases this was likely facilitated by the availability of analogous microhabitats in unrelated but morphologically similar host groups. Host switching and adaptations to newly colonised host groups must have played an important role in the evolution of this diverse shrimp group. PMID:27246395

  1. Changes in amino acids and lipids during embryogenesis of European lobster, Homarus gammarus (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Rosa, R; Calado, R; Andrade, A M; Narciso, L; Nunes, M L

    2005-02-01

    We studied the amino acid and lipid dynamics during embryogenesis of Homarus gammarus. Major essential amino acids (EAA) in the last stage of embryonic development were arginine, lysine and leucine; major nonessential amino acids (NEAA) were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, valine and glycine. The highest percent of utilization occurred in respect to EAA (27.8%), mainly due to a significant decrease (p<0.05) of methionine (38.3%) and threonine (36.0%). NEAA also decreased significantly (p<0.05, 11.4%), namely serine (38.1%), tyrosine (26.4%) and glutamic acid (25.7%). In contrast, the free amino acid content increased significantly (p<0.05) during embryonic development, especially the free nonessential amino acids (FNEAA). In the last stage, the most abundant FNEAA were glycine, proline, alanine and taurine, and the major free essential amino acids (FEAA) were arginine, lysine and leucine. Lipid content decreased significantly (p<0.05) during embryonic development. A substantial decrease in all neutral lipid classes was observed (>80% of utilization). Major fatty acids were 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. Unsaturated (UFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA) were used up at similar rates (76.5% and 76.3%, respectively). Within UFA, monounsaturates (MUFA) were consumed more than polyunsaturates (PUFA) (82.9% and 67.5%, respectively).

  2. A unique form of light reflector and the evolution of signalling in Ovalipes (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae)

    PubMed Central

    Parker, A. R.; Mckenzie, D. R.; Ahyong, S. T.

    1998-01-01

    The first demonstration, to our knowledge, of an evolutionary shift in communication mode in animals is presented. Some species of Ovalipes display spectacular iridescence resulting from multilayer reflectors in the cuticle. This reflector is unique in animals because each layer is corrugated and slightly out of phase with adjacent layers. Solid layers are separated from fluid layers in the reflector by side branches acting as support struts. An effect of this reflector is that blue light is reflected over a 'broad' angle around a plane parallel to the sea floor when the host crab is resting. Species of Ovalipes all possess stridulatory structures. The shallow-water species with the best developed stridulatory structures are non-iridescent and use sound as a signal. Deep-water species possess poorly developed stridulatory structures and display iridescence from most regions of the body. In deep water, where incident light is blue, light display is highly directional in contrast to sound produced via stridulation. Sound and light display probably perform the same function of sexual signalling in Ovalipes, although the directional signal is less likely to attract predators. Deep-water species of Ovalipes appear to have evolved towards using light in conspecific signalling. This change from using sound to using light reflects the change in habitat light properties, perhaps the hunting mechanisms of cohabitees, and its progression is an indicator of phylogeny. The changes in sexual signalling mechanisms, following spatial–geographical isolation, may have promoted speciation in Ovalipes.

  3. Thermal biology of the sub-polar–temperate estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cumillaf, Juan P.; Blanc, Johnny; Paschke, Kurt; Gebauer, Paulina; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Chimal, María E.; Vásquez, Jorge; Rosas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Optimum temperatures can be measured through aerobic scope, preferred temperatures or growth. A complete thermal window, including optimum, transition (Pejus) and critical temperatures (CT), can be described if preferred temperatures and CT are defined. The crustacean Hemigrapsus crenulatus was used as a model species to evaluate the effect of acclimation temperature on: (i) thermal preference and width of thermal window, (ii) respiratory metabolism, and (iii) haemolymph proteins. Dependant on acclimation temperature, preferred temperature was between 11.8°C and 25.2°C while CT was found between a minimum of 2.7°C (CTmin) and a maximum of 35.9°C (CTmax). These data and data from tropical and temperate crustaceans were compared to examine the association between environmental temperature and thermal tolerance. Temperate species have a CTmax limit around 35°C that corresponded with the low CTmax limit of tropical species (34–36°C). Tropical species showed a CTmin limit around 9°C similar to the maximum CTmin of temperate species (5–6°C). The maximum CTmin of deep sea species that occur in cold environments (2.5°C) matched the low CTmin values (3.2°C) of temperate species. Results also indicate that the energy required to activate the enzyme complex (Ei) involved in respiratory metabolism of ectotherms changes along the latitudinal gradient of temperature. PMID:26879464

  4. [Lecithin essay in the diet of young Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda)].

    PubMed

    Re-Araujo, Ana Denisse; Acosta Ruiz, M de Jesús

    2003-01-01

    The effect of different lecithin sources and presentations on growth, food conversion ratio and survival of P. vannamei (290 mg +/- 0.02) was studied. The bioassay was designed in order to compare different dietary levels and different quality of lecithin. Squid lecithin, crude soybean (7%), deoiled soybean lecithin (3.48%) in combination with fish oil or squid neutral lipids, in a partially dilapidate formula. The isoenergetic diets were fed ad libitum to four replicate groups (tanks) of 15 shrimps each (5 x 4 x 15), during 28 days. The result of the bioassay with the partially dilapidate formulas was; the best growth rate (191%) and FCR (1.69 +/- 0.041) were obtained with the diet containing 7% of soybean crude lecithin as the unique lipid source. Followed by the diet countering 3.94% deoiled lecithin and 2.42% Menhaden oil (172% and 2.03 +/- 0.054 respectively). As expected, the worst results were obtained without the dietary lecithin 121% and 2.42 +/- 0.129). Crude soybean lecithin alone covered the phospholipid and neutral lipids requirements as well as the combination of deoiled soybean lecithin with fish or squid oil.

  5. [Biodiversity, morphometry and diet of Callinectes crabs (Decapoda: Portunidae) in Santiago de Cuba].

    PubMed

    Gómez Luna, Liliana; Sosa Montano, Antonio; Moreno Castillo, Isabel; Jover Capote, Abdiel

    2009-09-01

    On the basis of fishery intensity and proximity to river mouth, a total of 257 swimming Callinectes crabs were collected from March 2007 to April 2008 in eight localities. Captures were made with hanging nets, to a maximal depth of 1.5 m, establishing a top time of 2 hr. The genus was widely distributed, and it is represented at least by four species: C. sapidus, C. similis, C. rathbunae and C. larvatus, the last two not included in the last list of Cuban crustaceans (Crustacea: Decapoda). The size and shape of the gonopods were very useful as taxonomical criteria, considering the prevalence of males. The most abundant species were C. sapidus (47.08%), and C. similis (30.35%). C rathbunae, which was identified at 75% (6) of the localities, showed a better distribution, followed by C. sapidus, which appears in the 63% (5). Sex rate (R(s)) by species (male:female) was 6.20 for C. rathbunae, 3.58 for C. similis, 1.40 for C. larvatus and 0.40 for C. sapidus. The most abundant species had a lower R value. Morphometrical analysis and weight allowed us to know the average carapace width (CW) and weight (W). C. sapidus had an average CW = 110.57 mm (DS 21.55, n = 121) and W = 84.46 g (SD 43.25, n = 121); C. rathbunae a CW = 115.50 mm (DS 14.94, n = 36) and W = 140.44 g (DS 55.02, n = 36); C. larvatus a CW = 76.04 mm (DS 10.88, n = 22) and W = 31.70 g (DS 14.67, n = 22); and C. similis had the minimal parameter values, with a CW = 59.77 mm (DS 14.09, n = 78) and W = 13.80 g (DS 10.00, n = 78). These are the first records of the coastal crabs in the area. All values are lower than in previous reports. The largest individuals (CW>140 mm: C. rathbunae and C. sapidus) were captured in localities with adequate environmental characteristics. The stomach content suggests nine dietary categories, mainly fishes and macroalgae. The genus Callinectes has a diversified trophic spectrum. These crabs eat the available food, but they have a preference for the most abundant items.

  6. Biological Survey of Marine Communities around Triangular Island (Shoalwater Bay, Queensland),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    FAMILY PORCELLANIDAE* (M) SECTION BRACHYURA* (M) OTHER DECAPODA* (M) PHYLUM CHAETOGNATHA* (H) PHYLUM CHORDATA SUB-PHYLUM UROCHORDATA CLASS ASCIDIACEA...PHYLUM ARTHROPODA CLASS CRUSTACEA ORDER DECAPODA FAMILY PENAEIDAE Penaeus plebejus Hess Eastern king prawn PHYLUM CHORDATA CLASS ELASMOBRANCHII ORDER

  7. Cytoarchitectural features of Ucides cordatus (Crustacea Decapoda) hepatopancreas: structure and elemental composition of electron-dense granules.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, J D; Farina, M; Allodi, S

    2002-10-01

    Hepatopancreal tissue of the crab Ucides cordatus was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The observed epithelial cells were: E-cells (embryonic), located in the distal portion of the hepatopancreal tubules, R-cells (resorptive) F-cells (fibrillar) and B-cells (blister or secretory), found in its intermediate and proximal regions. Two types of electron-dense granules (EDGs) were found frequently in the cells of the proximal portion of the hepatopancreal tubule. Both types of EDGs presented alternating concentric electron-dense and electron-lucent layers. In order to better characterize these granules, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) cytochemistry were performed. One type of spherical granule was seen inside vacuoles surrounded by an association of myelin-like membranes as well as some small membrane-bound vesicles. This type of granule neither presented detectable Ca and P on EDXA spectra nor G6Pase cytochemical reaction products. The second type of granule had O, P and Ca characteristic peaks. G6Pase cytochemical products were observed inside these structures and showed that this mineralized type was surrounded by endoplasmic reticulum membranes. This result suggests that in U. cordatus the endoplasmic reticulum is associated with the genesis of mineralized EDGs. While amorphous mineral granules may be associated with a storage of Ca and P for the new carapace synthesis, EDGs covered by the non-mineralized spherical multi-layered membranes may be associated with late endosomes. No specific secretory pathway however was determined for the EDGs at the epithelial proximal portion.

  8. Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Southwestern Atlantic, including the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge area.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N

    2014-11-26

    The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888.

  9. A new species of troglobitic crab of the genus Stygothelphusa Ng, 1989, from Sarawak, Malaysia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Grinang, Jongkar

    2014-03-04

    A new species of cave crab, Stygothelphusa antu new species, is described from limestone formations in Temurang, Sarawak, Malaysia. The new species is the most highly adapted to a cavericolous lifestyle among the four known species of Stygothelphusa, having a pale body pigmentation, reduced eyes and elongated pereopods. In contrast, the other three species have normal eyes that almost completely fill the orbits. The new species also differs from its congeners by a number of carapace, pereopod and gonopod characters.

  10. A new species of the pontoniine shrimp genus Eupontonia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Minemizu, Ryo

    2014-03-27

    A third species of the pontoniine shrimp genus Eupontonia Bruce, 1971, E. gracilipes n. sp., is described and illustrated on the basis of a single female specimen collected from shallow water of Ishigaki Island, southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The new species is readily distinguished from the two congeneric species, E. noctalbata Bruce, 1971 and E. oahu Bruce, 2010, by a number of morphological characters, including the presence of a distinct postrostral median ridge and of the postrostral median tooth on the carapace. It is considered to be a free-living species. The generic diagnosis of Eupontonia is slightly emended to accommodate the present new species. A key in aid of identification of species of Eupontonia is provided.

  11. Perfusion of gills isolated from the hyper-hyporegulating crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Crustacea, Decapoda): adaptation of a method.

    PubMed

    Pierrot, C; Pequeux, A; Thuet, P

    1995-08-01

    This paper reports the adaptation of a branchial perfusion technique to the gills of the small hyper-hyporegulating crab, Pachygrapsus marmoratus. The physiological quality of the preparation has been established and preliminary measurements of the transepithelial potential difference (PD) and sodium fluxes were reported. A clear-cut distinction has to be made between anterior and posterior gills. With symmetrical bathing conditions (same saline on both sides of the epithelium), a significant transepithelial PD was measured only in posterior gills isolated from crabs acclimated to dilute sea water. This hemolymph-side negative PD is shown to require biological energy and to be sensitive to ouabain. Na+ influx was larger than efflux, indicating the occurrence of a net inward of Na+. The active nature of the Na+ influx was established.

  12. The role of lipoic acid in the protection against of metallic pollutant effects in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Lobato, Roberta Oliveira; Nunes, Silvana Manske; Wasielesky, Wilson; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Monserrat, José Marìa; Ventura-Lima, Juliane

    2013-08-01

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As), dosed alone or in combination have been poorly investigated in crustaceans. Besides, it is not known if dietary supplementation of exogenous antioxidants, like lipoic acid (LA), might prevent or even reverse toxic effects of Cd and As. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of lipoic acid in modulating biochemical responses after Cd and As exposures in Litopenaeus vannamei. Muscle from shrimp exposed to Cd alone or Cd+As showed a decrease in glutathione (GSH) levels, while the pre-treatment with LA reversed this situation. In this tissue, the pre-treatment with LA also induced an increase in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in all groups. In hepatopancreas it was observed a marked accumulation of Cd and As, a decrease in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration in response to Cd exposure alone (-LA); concomitant in the same group it was observed an increment of metallothionein-like content. As exposure induced an increase in GSH levels but LA reversed this increase. Also, LA showed to increase the GST activity in all groups treated. Besides, in this organ LA showed to augment total antioxidant competence. Obtained results indicate that LA can be used as a chemo-protectant against oxidative insults in shrimp.

  13. Report on two deep-water caridean shrimp species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alvinocarididae, Acanthephyridae) from the northeastern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinzheng

    2015-01-16

    Two deep-water species of caridean shrimps collected during recent dives by the Chinese manned submersible "Jiaolong" represents new records for the South China Sea: Alvinocaris longirostris Kikuchi & Ohta, 1995 (Alvinocarididae) and Acanthephyra faxoni Calman, 1939 (Acanthephyridae). Specimens of these two species were collected from Jiaolong Cold Seep I, off Guangdong Province, China (depth 1138 m). Alvinocaris longirostris is known to be associated with chemosynthetic community, whereas Acanthephyra faxoni is a bathypelagic inhabitant, of which the occurrence in seep site is merely opportunistic. An identification key to species of Alvinocaris is provided. 

  14. The Effect of the Crayfish Orconectes virilis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Cambaridae) in the Decomposition and Succession of Submerged Small Mammal Carrion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, G. D.; Chadwick, J. W.

    2005-05-01

    The role of the crayfish Orconectes virilis in the decomposition of submerged rat carrion and succession of other benthic macroinvertebrates was experimentally investigated in Slaughterhouse Gulch, a small, urban stream in Littleton, Colorado. Crayfish participation in carrion decomposition significantly altered the decomposition rate of the carrion. Nine carcasses were exposed in anchored minnow traps at three degrees of crayfish access: crayfish always present, crayfish having free access, and crayfish excluded. These three treatments required 23 days, 29 days, and 65 days, respectively, for complete decomposition of the rat carrion (<2% original biomass). Sample variability increased with number of crayfish present, especially as decomposition proceeded. Seven other macroinvertebrate taxa were collected from the carcasses, but their presence or absence could not be correlated with crayfish presence. The leech Haemopis marmoratus was generally the first macroinvertebrate to arrive at the carrion, being present in densities of <5 individuals/carcass early in succession and in larger densities (up to 25 individuals/carcass) after extensive decomposition and exposure of the viscera.

  15. Molecular detection methods developed for a systemic rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) in Penaeus monodon (Decapoda: Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Poulos, Bonnie; Redman, Rita; Le Groumellec, Marc; Lightner, Donald V

    2003-01-22

    Molecular detection methods were developed to aid in the diagnosis of a rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) which caused severe mortalities of farm-raised Penaeus monodon in Madagascar. Using primers derived from the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria, a PCR assay was optimized to amplify this region of the genome of the RLB, using extracted DNA from infected P. monodon tissue as the template. The resulting amplified PCR product was sequenced and 2 novel primers were selected from the variable region of the gene. These primers amplified a 532 bp fragment of DNA originating from the rickettsia-infected samples. The PCR assay was optimized and tested on DNA extracted from specific pathogen-free (SPF) P. vannamei tissue and several other strains of bacteria. The PCR assay with the rickettsia-specific primers was specific for this RLB and did not amplify the other DNA samples tested. The 532 bp PCR-amplified fragment was labeled with digoxigenin (DIG) for in situ hybridization assays. This probe was tested on SPF, RLB and bacteria-infected shrimp specimens preserved in Davidson's fixative. The probe was specific for both natural and experimental rickettsial infections. Hybridization with this probe required a stringent temperature of 65 degrees C, otherwise cross-reactivity was observed with other types of bacteria.

  16. "Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei," an intracellular pathogenic enteric bacterium in the hepatopancreas of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Pantoja, Carlos R; Gomez-Jimenez, Silvia; Lightner, Donald V

    2013-02-01

    The bacteria that cause necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in Penaeus vannamei adversely affect penaeid shrimp cultured in the western hemisphere. 16S rRNA and gyrase B gene analyses determined the taxonomic position of these bacteria. The name "Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei" is proposed for these pathogenic bacteria, which are members of the Rickettsiales order.

  17. A new species of the genus Nihonotrypaea Manning & Tamaki, 1998 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Axiidea, Callianassidae) from the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenliang; Liu, Ruiyu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Nihonotrypaea Manning & Tamaki, 1998, Nihonotrypaea hainanensis sp. n., collected from the South China Sea, is described and illustrated. It is distinguishable from Nihonotrypaea harmandi (Bouvier, 1901), Nihonotrypaea japonica (Ortmann, 1891), Nihonotrypaea thermophila Lin, Komai & Chan, 2007 and Nihonotrypaea makarovi Martin, 2013 by having the elongated carpus of the male and female major cheliped. The new species is distinguishable from Nihonotrypaea petalura (Stimpson, 1860) by the proximolower margin of the carpus of the male major cheliped bearing several small denticles. PMID:25561829

  18. Yuebeipotamon calciatile, a new genus and new species of freshwater crab from southern China (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Shih, Hsi-Te; Mao, Si Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Yuebeipotamon calciatile gen. n., sp. n., is described from southern China. While the carapace features are superficially similar to species of Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, Longpotamon Shih, Huang & Ng, 2016, and Tenuilapotamon Dai, Song, Li, Chen, Wang & Hu, 1984, the new genus possesses a distinctive combination of carapace, ambulatory leg, male thoracic sternal, male abdominal, and gonopodal characters that distinguish it from these and other genera. Molecular evidence derived from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA supports the establishment of a new genus. PMID:27667941

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of Australian spiny lobster, Panulirus cygnus (George, 1962) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae) from coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyungryul; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Park, Won Gyu; Park, Jung Youn; Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-11-01

    We characterized the total mitochondrial genome of Australian spiny lobster, Panulirus cygnus (George, 1962), which is found along the western coast of Australia. Total mitochondrial genome length of P. cygnus was 15 724 bp, in which 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a putative control region were encoded. Nine and four protein-coding genes are encoded on the H-strand and on the L-strand, respectively. According to the phylogenetic analysis, P. cygnus was most closely related to Panulirus japonicus among the compared six species belonging to Palinuridae. Although overall gene organization was the same, the putative control region (between SrRNA gene and tRNA(Ilel)) is least similar to one another among mitochondrial genomes from the compared six species belonging to Palinuridae.

  20. Light-dependent genetic and phenotypic differences in the squat lobster Munida tenuimana (Crustacea: Decapoda) along deep continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguzzi, J.; Costa, C.; Ketmaier, V.; Angelini, C.; Antonucci, F.; Menesatti, P.; Company, J. B.

    2013-11-01

    The levels of environmental light experienced by organisms during the behavioral activity phase deeply influence the performance of important ecological tasks. As a result, their shape and coloring may experience a light-driven selection process via the day-night rhythmic behavior. In this study, we tested the phenotypic and genetic variability of the western Mediterranean squat lobster (Munida tenuimana). We sampled at depths with different photic conditions and potentially, different burrow emergence rhythms. We performed day-night hauling at different depths, above and below the twilight zone end (i.e., 700 m, 1200 m, 1350 m, and 1500 m), to portray the occurrence of any burrow emergence rhythmicity. Collected animals were screened for shape and size (by geometric morphometry), spectrum and color variation (by photometric analysis), as well as for sequence variation at the mitochondrial DNA gene encoding for the NADH dehydrogenase subunit I. We found that a weak genetic structuring and shape homogeneity occurred together with significant variations in size, with the smaller individuals living at the twilight zone inferior limit and the larger individuals above and below. The infra-red wavelengths of spectral reflectance varied significantly with depth while the blue-green ones were size-dependent and expressed in smaller animals, which has a very small spectral reflectance. The effects of solar and bioluminescence lighting are discussed as depth-dependent evolutionary forces likely influencing the behavioral rhythms and coloring of M. tenuimana.

  1. A new species of the ghost shrimp genus Lepidophthalmus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidea) from the southwestern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Felder, Darryl L

    2015-07-13

    A new species of Lepidophthalmus lacking a ventral median sclerite on the second abdominal somite is described from coastal waters of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Lepidophthalmus statoni sp. nov., originally recognized only as a unique population in allozyme studies, is sympatric with the ventrally plated species Lepidophthalmus manningi Felder & Staton, 2000, but more closely resembles Lepidophthalmus louisianensis (Schmitt, 1935) from the northern and northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Apparently restricted to intertidal and shallow subtidal tropical waters, the new species is known to range from western Campeche to middle-upper reaches of Veracruz, Mexico. As many members of the genus, it commonly inhabits euryhaline inlets, estuaries, and protected shorelines, including richly organic muddy to clayey sands and sandy muds adjacent to shoreline vegetation. Coloration is documented and discussed as a tool to facilitate field identifications, as are morphological characters.

  2. Thampramon tonvuthi, a new genus and new species of cavernicolous crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Vidthayanon, Chavalit

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of potamid cavernicolous crab, Thampramon tonvuthi sp. nov., is described from Thailand. While superficially similar to Tiwaripotamon Bott, 1970, Phaibulamon Ng, 1992, and Nemoron Ng, 1996, the new genus possesses a unique combination of morphological characters including a distinctive carapace form, possession of a relatively long third maxilliped exopod, long ambulatory legs and a unique male first gonopod.

  3. Taxonomy and ecology of the Cape Town Spider Crab, Macropodia falcifera (Stimpson, 1858) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Inachidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Richer De Forges, Bertrand; Jones, Georgina

    2013-01-01

    The nomenclature and taxonomy of the Cape Town Spider Crab, Macropodia falcifera Stimpson, 1858, is treated. The species is rediagnosed and figured, and its ecology discussed. A key is also provided of the Indo-West Pacific species of Macropodia.

  4. Cebudonus poppeorum, a new genus and new species of eumedonine crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Pilumnidae) from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L

    2014-06-12

    A new genus and new species of eumedonine crab, Cebudonus poppeorum, is described from the central Philippines. Superficially similar to Eumedonus H. Milne Edwards, 1834, Gonatonotus White, 1847, Zebrida White, 1847, Zebridonus Chia, Ng & Castro, 1995, and Tiaramedon Chia & Ng, 1998, Cebudonus n. gen. is easily characterised by possessing two long pseudorostral spines, a gently convex and unarmed dorsal carapace surface, elongated chelipeds that have the chela and merus unarmed and not cristate, elongated and slender ambulatory legs in which the merus is not cristate, a relatively narrow anterior male thoracic sternum, and a proportionately broader male abdomen. The general structure and colour pattern (with longitudinal stripes) suggests Cebudonus n. gen. is an obligate symbiont with echinoids.

  5. Aletheiana tenella, a new genus and new species of freshwater hymenosomatid crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Lukhaup, Christian

    2015-11-03

    A new genus and new species of free-living hymenosomatid crab, Aletheiana tenella, is described from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The two known Sulawesi hymenosomatid species, Cancrocaeca xenomorpha Ng, 1991, and Sulaplax ensifer Naruse, Ng & Guinot, 2008, are both from cave habitats. Aletheiana gen. nov. is most similar to Neorhynchoplax Sakai, 1938 (from freshwater and intertidal habitats in the Indo-West Pacific), and Sulaplax, but can be distinguished by its front possessing only one subventral rostral lobe, the base of the antenna is positioned between the base of the ocular peduncle and antennular fossa, the posterior margin of the epistome has two low, rounded median lobes, the merus of the third maxilliped is elongated, the ambulatory dactylus has a prominent subdistal spine, the cutting edges of the chela are armed with distinct teeth proximally, and the male abdomen is slender and elongate with the telson linguiform.

  6. A new species of Malayopotamon Bott, 1968 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae), a freshwater crab from northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L

    2014-02-28

    A new species of potamid freshwater crab, Malayopotamon weh sp. nov., is described from the island of Pulau Weh off northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The species superficially resembles three Sumatran species: M. batak Ng & Wowor, 1991, M. tobaense (Bott, 1968), and M. turgeo Ng & Tan, 1999, but can easily be distinguished by various carapace as well as gonopod characters.

  7. A new species of sesarmid crab of the genus Chiromantes (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Ng, Peter K L

    2013-01-01

    A new species of sesarmid crab, Chiromantes magnus, is described from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Is., Japan. The new species was previously confused with C. dehaani (H. Milne Edwards, 1853). The different carapace shape, proportionally longer ambulatory legs, large adult size and the distinct live coloration distinguish the new species from its two closest congeners, C. dehaani and C. neglectus (De Man, 1887). Available information indicates that C. magnus n. sp. is endemic to the Ogasawara Is.; there is no evidence of the occurrence of the true C. dehaani in the Ogasawara Is.

  8. Taxonomy of the freshwater crabs of Costa Rica, with a revision of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Célio; Wehrtmann, Ingo S; Lara, Luis Rólier; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2015-01-13

    The taxonomy and geographic distribution of the freshwater crabs of the family Pseudothelphusidae Ortmann, 1893, of Costa Rica, Central America, particularly of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964, are revised. Historical materials deposited in major collections of several institutions were examined, as well as valuable collections in the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica that include abundant specimens obtained recently (2007-2010) in the southern region of the country. The pseudothelphusids of Costa Rica consists of 15 currently valid species belonging to Achlidon Smalley, 1964 (two species), Allacanthos Smalley, 1964 (two species), Potamocarcinus H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (three species), and Ptychophallus (eight species). Two species seem to be restricted to the Atlantic drainage, while seven are known only from the Pacific drainage; six species occur in both drainages. Ptychophallus comprises 13 valid species; four new synonymies are proposed: P. osaensis Rodríguez, 2001, P. campylus Pretzmann, 1968, P. tumimanus ingae            Pretzmann, 1978, and P. barbillaensis Rodríguez & Hedström, 2001, as junior synonyms of P. paraxantusi (Bott, 1968), P. tristani (Rathbum 1896), P. tumimanus (Rathbun, 1898), and P. uncinatus Campos & Lemaitre, 1999, respectively. Two species, P. colombianus (Rathbun, 1896) and P. exilipes (Rathbun, 1898), are considered species inquerendae. Lectotype designations are made for P. montanus and P. colombianus. Three species of Ptychophallus are known exclusively from Costa Rica, five exclusively from Panama, and five species occur in both countries; one species appears to be exclusive of the Atlantic drainage, whereas five are known only from the Pacific drainage and seven occur in both drainages. The gonopod morphology of all species is redescribed and illustrated, and maps of their geographic distribution are furnished. A key to the species of Pseudothelphusidae from Costa Rica and to all species of Ptychophallus is provided. 

  9. A new species of the genus Calliaxina Ngoc-Ho, 2003 from the South China Sea (Crustacea, Decapoda, Axiidea, Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenliang; Liang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Calliaxina Ngoc-Ho, 2003, Calliaxina xishaensissp. n., collected from the South China Sea is described and illustrated. It is distinguishable from Calliaxina thomassini Ngoc-Ho, 2014 by having the rostrum broadly triangular with pointed tip and is distinguishable from Calliaxina novaebritanniae (Borradaile, 1900) and Calliax punica (de Saint Laurent & Manning, 1982) by the posterior margin of telson being convex. It is also the first record of this genus from the China seas. A key to the species of Calliaxina is given.

  10. Two new species and new records of Microprosthema Stimpson, 1860 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidea: Spongicolidae) from the Indo-West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomomi; Anker, Arthur

    2014-08-28

    Two new species of the spongicolid shrimp genus Microprosthema Stimpson, 1860 are described and illustrated on the basis of material collected recently in Australia and Japan. Type specimens of Microprosthema ningaloo sp. nov. were collected on Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, whereas type specimens of Microprosthema pallidum sp. nov. were collected on a coral reef off Ishigaki Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan. Microprosthema ningaloo sp. nov. and M. pallidum sp. nov. differ from all other species of the genus by a combination of morphological characters, including the gill-exopod formulae, and by their diagnostic colour patterns. This study increases the total number of species described in the genus Microprosthema to 16, nine of them in the Indo-West Pacific. In addition, new records are provided for M. lubricum Saito & Okuno, 2011 (Guam), M. plumicorne (Richters, 1880) (Red Sea, Mariana and Marshall Islands, French Polynesia), M. scabricaudatum (Richters, 1880) (Red Sea, Glorieuses and Tuamotu Islands), and M. validum Stimpson, 1860 (Red Sea, Madagascar, Singapore, French Polynesia), significantly extending their previously known distribution ranges. 

  11. Prediction of the neuropeptidomes of members of the Astacidea (Crustacea, Decapoda) using publicly accessible transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequence data.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Chi, Megan

    2015-12-01

    The decapod infraorder Astacidea is comprised of clawed lobsters and freshwater crayfish. Due to their economic importance and their use as models for investigating neurochemical signaling, much work has focused on elucidating their neurochemistry, particularly their peptidergic systems. Interestingly, no astacidean has been the subject of large-scale peptidomic analysis via in silico transcriptome mining, this despite growing transcriptomic resources for members of this taxon. Here, the publicly accessible astacidean transcriptome shotgun assembly data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts; these sequences were used to predict the structures of mature neuropeptides. One hundred seventy-six distinct peptides were predicted for Procambarus clarkii, including isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide (ACP), allatostatin A (AST-A), allatostatin B, allatostatin C (AST-C) bursicon α, bursicon β, CCHamide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)/ion transport peptide (ITP), diuretic hormone 31 (DH31), eclosion hormone (EH), FMRFamide-like peptide, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, RYamide, short neuropeptide F (sNPF), SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP). Forty-six distinct peptides, including isoforms of AST-A, AST-C, bursicon α, CCHamide, CHH/ITP, DH31, EH, intocin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, red pigment concentrating hormone, sNPF and TRP, were predicted for Pontastacus leptodactylus, with a bursicon β and a neuroparsin predicted for Cherax quadricarinatus. The identification of ACP is the first from a decapod, while the predictions of CCHamide, EH, GSEFLamide, intocin, neuroparsin and RYamide are firsts for the Astacidea. Collectively, these data greatly expand the catalog of known astacidean neuropeptides and provide a foundation for functional studies of peptidergic signaling in members of this decapod infraorder.

  12. A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Yusuke

    2015-06-03

    The palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 is currently represented by 21 formally described species worldwide, of which 17 species are known from the Indo-West Pacific. In this study, a new species, P. okunoi, is described and illustrated on the basis of two ovigerous female specimens collected from coastal waters in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, at depths of 5-30 m. The new species closely resembles P. hachijo Okuno, 1999, but the shorter rostrum, more anteriorly located postrostral teeth on the carapace, the presence of a pair of submedian teeth on the fourth thoracic sternite and the less slender pereopods distinguish P. okunoi n. sp. from P. hachijo. The discovery of the present new species raises the number of Japanese species of Palaemonella to eight. An updated key to the Indo-West Pacific species of the genus is presented.

  13. Identification, Characterization, and Diel Pattern of Expression of Canonical Clock Genes in Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Decapoda) Eyestalk

    PubMed Central

    Sbragaglia, Valerio; Lamanna, Francesco; M. Mat, Audrey; Rotllant, Guiomar; Joly, Silvia; Ketmaier, Valerio; de la Iglesia, Horacio O.; Aguzzi, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, is a burrowing decapod with a rhythmic burrow emergence (24 h) governed by the circadian system. It is an important resource for European fisheries and its behavior deeply affects its availability. The current knowledge of Nephrops circadian biology is phenomenological as it is currently the case for almost all crustaceans. In attempt to elucidate the putative molecular mechanisms underlying circadian gene regulation in Nephrops, we used a transcriptomics approach on cDNA extracted from the eyestalk, a structure playing a crucial role in controlling behavior of decapods. We studied 14 male lobsters under 12–12 light-darkness blue light cycle. We used the Hiseq 2000 Illumina platform to sequence two eyestalk libraries (under light and darkness conditions) obtaining about 90 millions 100-bp paired-end reads. Trinity was used for the de novo reconstruction of transcriptomes; the size at which half of all assembled bases reside in contigs (N50) was equal to 1796 (light) and 2055 (darkness). We found a list of candidate clock genes and focused our attention on canonical ones: timeless, period, clock and bmal1. The cloning of assembled fragments validated Trinity outputs. The putative Nephrops clock genes showed high levels of identity (blastx on NCBI) with known crustacean clock gene homologs such as Eurydice pulchra (period: 47%, timeless: 59%, bmal1: 79%) and Macrobrachium rosenbergii (clock: 100%). We also found a vertebrate-like cryptochrome 2. RT-qPCR showed that only timeless had a robust diel pattern of expression. Our data are in accordance with the current knowledge of the crustacean circadian clock, reinforcing the idea that the molecular clockwork of this group shows some differences with the established model in Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:26524198

  14. Phylogeography and genetic structure of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Ta-Jen; Lee, Ying-Chou

    2017-01-01

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is mainly distributed in East Asia. The phylogeography, population genetic structure and historical demography of this species in the East Asia were examined by using partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA in mitochondrial DNA. Ten populations that included 239 individuals were collected from Taiwan (Shihmen Reservoir, SMR, Mingte Reservoir, MTR and Chengching Lake Reservoir, CLR), mainland China (Taihu Lake, TLC, Min River, MRC, Jiulong River, JRC and Shenzhen Reservoir, SRC), Japan (Biwa Lake, BLJ and Kasumigaura Lake, KLJ) and Korea (Han River, HRK). The nucleotide diversity (π) of all individuals was 0.01134, with values ranging from 0.0089 (BLJ, Japan) to 0.01425 (MTR, Taiwan). A total of 83 haplotypes were obtained, and the haplotypes were divided into 2 main lineages: lineage A included the specimens from BLJ, KLJ, CLR, MTR, TLC, MRC and JRC, and lineage B comprised the ones from HRK, SRC, SMR, MTR, TLC, MRC and JRC. Lineage A could be further divided two sub-lineages (A1 and A2). Individuals of lineage A2 were only from TLC. Demographic expansion was observed in each lineage, starting within the second-to-latest interglacial period for lineage A and within the last glacial period for lineage B. All FST values among the ten populations were significantly different, except for the values between MRC and JRC, and SMR and SRC. The phylogeography and genetic structure of M. nipponense in East Asia might be influenced by Pleistocene glacial cycles, lake isolation and human introduction. The possible dispersal routes of M. nipponense in the East Asia were also discussed. PMID:28267807

  15. A new species of the genus Calliaxina Ngoc-Ho, 2003 from the South China Sea (Crustacea, Decapoda, Axiidea, Callianassidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenliang; Liang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Calliaxina Ngoc-Ho, 2003, Calliaxina xishaensis sp. n., collected from the South China Sea is described and illustrated. It is distinguishable from Calliaxina thomassini Ngoc-Ho, 2014 by having the rostrum broadly triangular with pointed tip and is distinguishable from Calliaxina novaebritanniae (Borradaile, 1900) and Calliax punica (de Saint Laurent & Manning, 1982) by the posterior margin of telson being convex. It is also the first record of this genus from the China seas. A key to the species of Calliaxina is given. PMID:27917058

  16. Revision of the freshwater genus Atyaephyra (Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae) based on morphological and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Magdalini; Antoniou, Aglaia; Antonios Magoulas;  Athanasios Koukouras

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Atyaephyra de Brito Capello, 1867 was described from the Mediterranean region almost 200 years ago. Since then, the genus has been recorded from various freshwater habitats in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. Despite its long history, the taxonomic status of Atyaephyra species remains confusing and uncertain. Consequently numerous specimens from the known range of Atyaephyra were analysed using morphological characters and mitochondrial COI sequences in an attempt to clarify the taxonomy of this genus. The present study recognises seven Atyaephyra species, more than twice as many as previously recorded (three), four of which are considered as new. The new species are described, additional information to the original descriptions are provided for the remaining three taxa, while neotypes of Atyaephyra desmarestii Millet, 1831 and Atyaephyra stankoi Karaman, 1972 are designated to stabilize their taxonomy. Non-overlapping distinguishing morphological characters are used to discriminate the examined material into five species, e.g., Atyaephyra desmarestii, Atyaephyra stankoi, Atyaephyra orientalis Bouvier, 1913, Atyaephyra thyamisensis sp. n., Atyaephyra strymonensis sp. n. In addition, the genetic analysis supports the existence of multiple phylogenetic clades in the broader Mediterranean area and distinguishes two new cryptic species, namely Atyaephyra tuerkayi sp. n. and Atyaephyra acheronensis sp. n. The geographic distribution of these species is confirmed and their phylogenetic relationships are described. PMID:23166474

  17. The description of a new species of the Neotropical land crab genus Gecarcinus Leach, 1814 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Perger, Robert; Wall, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution a new species of the land crab genus Gecarcinus Leach, 1814, from the Neotropical Pacific coast of South America is described and illustrated. In addition to its unique body color, Gecarcinus nobilii sp. n. is distinguished from congeners by a distinctly wider carapace front and differences in the shape of the infraorbital margin. The new species is not isolated from Gecarcinus populations from the Pacific coast of Central America by an insurmountable geographic barrier. Considering the closure of the Panamanian Isthmus as a calibration point for morphological divergence between the trans-isthmian mainland populations of Gecarcinus, the virtual lack of morphological differentiation (other than color) between them and the distinctness of G. nobilii sp. n. suggests that G. nobilii sp. n. evolved from a common ancestor before the Isthmus closed. PMID:25152688

  18. Cambarus (Puncticambarus) smilax, a new species of crayfish (Crustacea: Decapoda: Cambaridae) from the Greenbrier River basin of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Simon, Thomas P.; Welsh, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Cambarus (Puncticambarus) smilax is a stream-dwelling crayfish that appears to be endemic to the Greenbrier River basin in the Valley and Ridge province of West Virginia. Within the Greenbrier system it occurs primarily in tributaries to the Greenbrier mainstem, with stable populations in the East and West Fork, and Thorny, Knapp, and Deer creeks. The new species is morphologically most similar to C. (P.) robustus, from which it can be distinguished by a combination of the following characters: adult palm length comprising 73–76% of palm width as opposed to 63–70% in C. (P.)robustus; ventral surface of chela of cheliped with 0–2 subpalmar tubercles compared to 3–6 subpalmar tubercles in C. (P.) robustus; lack of tubercles on the dorsal surface of chela; longer, more tapering, less rectangular rostrum (47–52% rostrum width/length ratio) compared to C. (P.) robustusshorter, less tapering rectangular rostrum (54–63% rostrum width/length ratio); and the central projection of the form-I male gonopod curved ≤90 degrees to the shaft.

  19. Histopathological changes in gills of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata (Crustacea-Decapoda) following acute exposure to ammonia.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Rebelo, M; Rodriguez, E M; Santos, E A; Ansaldo, M

    2000-02-01

    Histopathological effects of ammonia on the gills of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata (Dana, 1851) were evaluated after acute exposure to ammonia concentrations around LC(50) value (17.85 Mm). Disruption of pilaster cells and a subsequent collapse of gill lamellae were the main effects observed. Epithelial necrosis and hyperplasia were also detected. Significant (P<0.05) increases in pCO(2) and lactate, and significant decreases of pO(2) were detected in the haemolymph of ammonia-exposed crabs. These changes suggest that the observed histopathological damage affected gas exchange, possibly leading to death.

  20. Light intensity determines temporal niche switching of behavioral activity in deep-water Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Juan José; Aguzzi, Jacopo; García, José Antonio; Sardà, Francesc; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2010-08-01

    The temporal distribution of behavioral programs throughout the 24-h day, known as temporal niche of a species, is determined by ecological factors that directly affect the adaptive value of the timing of specific behaviors. Temporal niche switching has been described in several species and is likely adaptive in habitats where the daily timing of those factors changes. Benthic species whose habitats span a wide range of water depths are exposed to considerable depth-dependent environmental changes. Temporally scheduled trawl surveys of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, reveal that animals emerge from burrows at night on the shallow shelf (10-50 m deep), at crepuscular hours on the lower shelf (50-200 m), and at daytime on the slope (200-400 m). The mechanisms underlying nocturnality/diurnality switches are chiefly unknown, and Nephrops offers a unique model for their study. The depth-dependent decrease in luminance is a likely candidate determining the temporal distribution of behavior. The authors explored this possibility in the laboratory by exposing Nephrops to light:dark (LD) cycles of 470-nm monochromatic lighting that mimic conditions at the 100-m-deep shelf (10 lux) or the 300-m slope (0.1 lux). Two groups of animals were respectively exposed to each light intensity according to the following protocol: an initial 12:12 LD stage followed by constant darkness (DD), followed in turn by a second 12:12 LD stage. Activity at the burrow opening (door-keeping = DK), as well as full emergence (E), was continuously monitored. Under 10-lux LD cycles, most animals showed nocturnal DK activity-with some being crepuscular or diurnal-and all animals showed nocturnal E activity. In contrast, both behaviors were clearly diurnal in animals under 0.1-lux LD cycles. The phase of the nocturnal and diurnal DK rhythms detected respectively at 10 and 0.1 lux upon release into DD revealed that these rhythms are entrained circadian rhythms. The present data indicate that nocturnality/diurnality switches in Nephrops in its natural habitat, evidenced by captures at different depths, are likely determined by light intensity. This temporal niche switching involves different patterns of photic entrainment, leading to bona fide circadian diurnal or nocturnal phenotypes, as well as exogenous masking of behavioral outputs.

  1. A new species of semi-terrestrial freshwater crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Doweld, Van Tu; Dang, Van Dong; Cao, Thi Kim Thu; Hoang, Ngoc Khac

    2016-10-31

    A new species of semi-terrestrial crab of the family Potamidae, Rathbunamon chumomrayense sp. nov. is described from Chu Mom Ray National Park, the Central Highlands of Vietnam. The new species can be distinguished from R. lacunifer (Rathbun, 1904), the only other species in the genus, by a suite of characters, including the slightly more rugose anterolateral regions, confluent epigastric and postorbital cristae that are sinuous, less convex anterolateral margins, relatively shorter fingers of the chelipeds, and the terminal segment of the male first gonopod being slightly curved outwards, with narrower dorsal flap.

  2. Evolutionary morphology of the organ systems in squat lobsters and porcelain crabs (crustacea: Decapoda: Anomala): an insight into carcinization.

    PubMed

    Keiler, Jonas; Richter, Stefan; Wirkner, Christian S

    2015-01-01

    Porcelain crabs (Porcellanidae) are one of three taxa within anomuran crustaceans (Anomala) which possess a crab-like body form. Curiously, these three lineages evolved this shape independently from true crabs (Brachyura) in the course of the evolutionary process termed carcinization. The entire pleon in porcelain crabs is flexed under the cephalothorax and the carapace is approximately as broad as long. Despite their crab-like habitus, porcelain crabs are phylogenetically nested within squat lobsters (Munidopsidae, Munididae, Galatheidae). With a pleon which is only partly flexed under the cephalothorax and a cephalothorax which is longer than it is broad, squat lobsters represent morphologically intermediate forms between lobster-like and crab-like body shapes. Carcinization has so far mostly been studied with respect to outer morphology; however, it is evident that internal anatomical features are influenced through this change of body shape too. In this paper, the situation in Galatheoidea is elucidated by adding more taxa to existing descriptions of the hemolymph vascular systems and associated structures and organs. Micro-computer tomography and 3D reconstruction provide new insights. Autapomorphic states of various internal anatomical characters are present in nearly all the studied species, also reflecting some degree of anatomical disparity found within Galatheoidea. The ventral vessel system of porcelain crabs differs distinctly from that of squat lobsters. The differences in question are coherent (i.e. structural dependent) with morphological transformations in the integument, such as the shortening of the sternal plastron, which evolved in the course of carcinization. Shifts in the gonads and the pleonal neuromeres are coherent with the loss of the caridoid escape reaction, which in turn is a consequence of carcinization. The arterial transformations, however, are minor compared to other instances of carcinization in anomuran crustaceans since the last common ancestor of squat lobsters and porcelain crabs was already "half carcinized".

  3. Intersexuality in Crustacea: an environmental issue?

    PubMed

    Ford, Alex T

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims to give a historical overview of current understanding about intersexuality in crustaceans, assesses gaps in our knowledge and asks whether it should be an environmental concern. The oldest known cases of intersexuality come from 70 million year old fossil crabs whilst the oldest published case of intersex crustacean stems from a 1730 Royal Society report of a gynandromorph lobster. Many crustacean species are sequential hermaphroditic or simultaneous hermaphrodites. Consequently, there has been confusion as to whether accounts of intersex in the literature are correct. Intersexuality is fairly common throughout the Crustacea and it has been suggested that intersex may arise through different mechanisms. For example, sexual gynandromorphism may arise through disruption in early embryonic development whereas intersexuality may also arise through perturbations of androgenic gland hormone and sexual differentiation in later development. The causes of intersex are multifaceted and can occur through a number of mechanisms including parasitism, environmental sex determination, genetic abnormalities and increasingly pollution is being implicated. Despite many studies on the effects of endocrine disrupters on crustaceans, very few have focussed on wild populations or male related endpoints; rather many laboratory studies have been attempting to assess biomarkers of feminisation. This is surprising as many of the seminal papers on endocrine disruption focussed on effects found in the wild and male specimens. This paper argues that we might have been addressing the right questions (i.e. pollution induced intersex), but in the wrong way (feminisation); and therefore gives recommendations for future directions for research. Biomarker development has been hampered by paucity of genomic and endocrine knowledge of many crustacean model species; however this is rapidly changing with the advent of cheaper affordable genomic techniques and high throughput sequencing.

  4. A new species of freshwater crab of the genus Sodhiana Yeo & Ng, 2012 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifian, Sana; Kamrani, Ehsan; Sharifian, Salim

    2014-10-29

    A new species of freshwater crab, Sodhiana iranica n. sp. (Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae), is described from Bastak, Iran. This is fourth species of Sodhiana Yeo & Ng, 2012, described, and is the second one known from Iran. It can be distinguished from congeners by the form of its carapace and the structure of the male first gonopod.

  5. Collecting and Preserving Marine and Freshwater Isopoda (Crustacea: Peracarida)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Isopoda are the most diverse Crustacea. In order to encourage the study of isopod crustaceans and their use in biodiversity studies, systematics, ecology, physiology and more, one needs to know who the isopods are and where to find them. New information This is a short “how to” guide focusing on the free-living marine and freshwater isopods: where they live and how to collect and preserve them. The tools and techniques described here are simple, but invaluable in accessing the natural history of these remarkable creatures. PMID:26023284

  6. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a..., tree nuts, milk, soybeans, eggs (including putrescent eggs), fish, crustacea, and wheat are...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a..., tree nuts, milk, soybeans, eggs (including putrescent eggs), fish, crustacea, and wheat are...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a..., tree nuts, milk, soybeans, eggs (including putrescent eggs), fish, crustacea, and wheat are...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a..., tree nuts, milk, soybeans, eggs (including putrescent eggs), fish, crustacea, and wheat are...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1071 - Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans... Peanuts, Tree Nuts, Milk, Soybeans, Eggs, Fish, Crustacea, and Wheat; exemption from the requirement of a..., tree nuts, milk, soybeans, eggs (including putrescent eggs), fish, crustacea, and wheat are...

  11. First stage larva of the mud shrimp Nihonotrypaea makarovi Marin, 2013
    (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) obtained in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Korn, Olga M; Kornienko, Elena S; Golubinskaya, Darya D

    2016-02-19

    First stage larva of a new mud shrimp Nihonotrypaea makarovi Marin, 2013 (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) obtained from the ovigerous female is described and illustrated for the first time. The first zoea of N. makarovi is well distinguished from the first larvae of N. japonica and N. petalura, sympatric callianassid species inhabiting Russian waters of the Sea of Japan, only by the greater size and by the presence of two terminal setae on the antennal endopod.

  12. Names and publication dates of the Brachyura in F.É. Guérin (Guérin-Méneville) (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Low, Martyn E Y; Ng, Peter K L; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2013-11-12

    The names and dates of the publications of Brachyura of Guérin (Guérin-Méneville from 1836) are reviewed, and previously unidentified or overlooked names are identified. Several identical new names used in multiple publications by Guérin (also under the name Guérin-Méneville), and others that appeared in the same year necessitated the accurate determination of publication dates to establish priority. The authorships of three names should be credited to Guérin (1832): Gecarcinus lateralis (Gecarcinidae), Halimus aries (Majidae), and Libinia spinosa (Epialtidae), the first previously attributed to Fréminville (1835), the last two to H. Milne Edwards (1834). The overlooked genus- and species-group names Cyclocarcinus pinnotheroides Guérin-Méneville, 1838, are determined to be senior subjective synonyms of the genus- and species-group names Hapalonotus reticulatus (De Man, 1879) (Pilumnidae). Applying Article 23.9.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, precedence is reversed between the genus-group names and the correct name is Hapalonotus pinnotheroides (Guérin-Méneville, 1838). Current and widespread use of the genus-group name Thalamita Latreille, 1829 (31 March) (Portunidae) is threatened by the overlooked Thalamites Guérin, 1829 (21 March), and the precedence of the names is also reversed to maintain usage of the former. The genus-group name Eurypodius Guérin (Inachidae) is shown to have been established in 1828, not 1825. Included is a complete bibliography of the publications in which Guérin (also under Guérin-Méneville) established new names for Brachyura, with their accurate publication dates.

  13. Drawn to the dark side: a molecular phylogeny of freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Atyidae) reveals frequent cave invasions and challenges current taxonomic hypotheses.

    PubMed

    von Rintelen, Kristina; Page, Timothy J; Cai, Yixiong; Roe, Kevin; Stelbrink, Björn; Kuhajda, Bernard R; Iliffe, Thomas M; Hughes, Jane; von Rintelen, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Atyid freshwater shrimps are globally distributed and form an important part of freshwater ecosystems, particularly in the tropics and subtropics. Despite their widespread distribution and ecological importance, their phylogenetic relationships are largely unresolved. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the Atyidae investigating the evolutionary relationships among 32 of the 42 genera using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Our data indicate that the established classification of the Atyidae is in need of substantial taxonomic revision at all taxonomic levels. We suggest a new suprageneric systematization of atyids and discuss problematic issues at the generic level, particularly in the most speciose genus, Caridina. Molecular clock based divergence time estimates for atyids vary widely, but invariably support the assumption that atyids are an ancient freshwater lineage with an origin in the mid-Cretaceous at the very latest. Atyid distribution patterns are the result of instances of both long-distance dispersal and vicariance, depending largely on the reproductive mode of taxa. From an evolutionary perspective, the high frequency of independent origin of both a complete (landlocked) freshwater life cycle and a cave-dwelling mode of life is remarkable and unparalleled among crustaceans.

  14. A re-appraisal of the widely-distributed freshwater crab genus Sinopotamon Bott, 1967, from China, with establishment of a new genus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Potamidae).

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsi-Te; Huang, Chao; Ng, Peter K L

    2016-07-15

    Freshwater crabs of the genus Sinopotamon Bott, 1967 (family Potamidae) are widely distributed along the Yangtze River (= Chang Jiang) drainage and are endemic to China. Two distinct clades can be distinguished within Sinopotamon s. lato. on the basis of morphological and molecular data. One clade corresponds to Sinopotamon s. str., with the type species Potamon (Potamon) davidi Rathbun, 1904, and 11 other species, all which occur in the Sichuan Basin (including Sichuan Province and Chongqing City) and reach the border areas of adjacent Shaanxi, Hubei, and Guizhou provinces. A new genus, Longpotamon gen. nov., is proposed for the second clade, with Sinopotamon exiguum Dai, 1997, designated as the type species. Sinopotamon s. str. can be distinguished from Longpotamon gen. nov. by the shape of the male telson and by characters of the male first gonopod and the female vulvae. These differences are supported by the mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genetic data. Longpotamon gen. nov. is the largest clade, with 73 known species and a wide distribution along the Yangtze River drainage extending north to the Yellow River drainage and south to the eastern side of Wuyishan Range. The two genera overlap in the Sichuan Basin and the adjacent provinces.

  15. The identity of the semiterrestrial crab Terrathelphusa kuchingensis (Nobili, 1901) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae), with descriptions of four new species from southwestern Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Grinang, Jongkar; Ng, Peter K L

    2015-04-10

    Four new species of semiterrestrial gecarcinucid crabs are described from limestone and sandstone habitats in southwestern Sarawak, Malaysia: Terrathelphusa aglaia n. sp., T. cerina n. sp., T. kundong n. sp., and T. mas n. sp. The taxonomy of T. kuchingensis (Nobili, 1901) is discussed, its precise identity ascertained from fresh material, and its actual distribution determined. This increases the number of Terrathelphusa species in Borneo to eight.

  16. Two new species of ghost shrimp assigned to the genus Cheramus Spence Bate, 1888 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Maenosono, Tadafumi; Fujita, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-17

    Two new species of the callianassid ghost shrimp are described and illustrated on the basis of specimens from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. These are provisionally assigned to the genus Cheramus Spence Bate, 1888, and appear closest to Callianassa acutirostella Sakai, 1988, also provisionally transferred to Cheramus herewith. These three species can be differentiated by characters of the telson, third maxilliped, chelipeds and uropod. The taxonomic status of Cheramus is briefly discussed.

  17. New records of two species of the coral reef shrimp genus Thor Kingsley, 1878 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Thoridae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Okuno, Junji; Minemizu, Ryo

    2015-09-09

    The caridean shrimp genus Thor Kingsley, 1878 (Thoridae) is currently represented by 14 species distributed in shallow tropical to subtropical waters in the Indo-Pacific, East Pacific and West Atlantic oceans. In this study, two species of the genus are reported on the basis of material from Okinawa and Kume islands in the Ryukyu Archipelago, southern Japan. Thor leptochelus (Xu & Li, 2015) n. comb., recently described from Xisha Islands, China and originally assigned to Thinora Bruce, 1997, is transferred to Thor. Relationship of the species to three congeneric species (T. cordelli Wicksten, 1996, T. spinipes Bruce, 1983 and T. spinosus Boone, 1935) is discussed. The second is T. marguitae Bruce, 1973, representing the rediscovery since the original description and new record for Japanese waters. The four specimens of T. leptochelus were all free-living, whereas the single specimen of T. marguitae was found to be associated with a solitary fungiid coral, as previously reported.

  18. New records of Pagurixus Melin, 1939 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Paguridae) from the Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Masayuki; Kawai, Takashi; Sakamaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Seven hermit crab species of the pagurid genus Pagurixus Melin, 1939 are reported on the basis of material recently collected from the northern and central islands of the Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan. Four species are new to the hermit crab fauna of the Ryukyu Islands: P. acanthocarpus Komai & Okuno, 2009; P. fasciatus Komai & Myorin, 2005; P. formosus Komai, 2010; and P. tweediei (Forest, 1956). One species is described as new to science: P vicinus sp. nov. is closely similar to P. fasciatus in both morphology and coloration, but distinguished by the armature on the left cheliped and right second pereopod. Paguruxus carininanus Komai & Osawa, 2006 and P. pseliophorus Komai & Osawa, 2006, both previously known from the Ryukyu Islands, are here reported from new localities.

  19. A new cave-dwelling species of the alpheid shrimp genus Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from the Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Yusuke; Yunokawa, Kyo

    2015-10-09

    A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Salmoneus Holthuis, 1955, S. antricola n. sp., is described and illustrated on the basis of a single ovigerous specimen from an aphotic marine cave at a depth of 12 m, off Ie Island, Okinawa Islands, the Ryukyu Archipelago. It is morphologically similar to five species presently referred to the S. jarli (Holthuis, 1951) species group: S. erasimorum Dworschak, Anker & Abed-Navandi, 2000, S. komaii Anker, 2011, S. paulayi Anker, 2011, S. poupini Anker, 2011, and S. sketi Fransen, 1991. However, the minor cheliped with an elongate carpus being subequal to the chela, the lack of teeth on the cutting edges of the minor cheliped fingers, and the very slender third to fifth pereopods are obvious characters that distinguish S. antricola n. sp. from all of its presumed close relatives. Among the 50 species of Salmoneus, only S. sketi and the present new species are known from marine caves.

  20. A new strikingly-colored species of the genus Galathea Fabricius, 1793 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheidae) from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Masayuki

    2015-11-06

    A new shallow-water squat lobster, Galathea ryuguu, is described on the basis of material obtained from a colony of unidentified sea fan of the genus Muricella Verrill, 1868. The new species is most closely allied to G. squamea Baba, 1979, but is distinguished by the ornamentation and armature of the carapace, third maxilliped, and ambulatory legs.

  1. Colombiathelphusa, a new genus of freshwater crab from Colombia, and the first location record of Eidocamptophallus chacei (Pretzmann, 1967) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Martha R; Magalhães, Célio

    2014-09-14

    A new genus of pseudothelphusid crab, Colombiathelphusa gen. nov., is established to include Colombiathelphusa culmarcuata n. sp., from the Chocó Department, western Colombia. The new genus is characterized by the morphology of the male first gonopod, which has a prominent lateral process, a cephalic surface with two spine-like cephalic processes subdistally, and the outline of the apex strongly recurved, resembling a bow's arch. The new species is described and illustrated. The first location record of Eidocamptophallus chacei (Pretzmann, 1967), is made and its male first gonopod is redescribed and illustrated. Possible affinities of both taxa are discussed.

  2. Taxonomic study of the Pagurus forbesii "complex" (Crustacea: Decapoda: Paguridae). Description of Pagurus pseudosculptimanus sp. nov. from Alborán Sea (Southern Spain, Western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, J Enrique García; Cuesta, Jose A; Raso, J Enrique García

    2014-01-03

    Study of hermit crabs from Alboran Sea has allowed recognition of two different morphological forms under what had been understood as Pagurus forbesii. Based on morphological observations with various species of Pagurus, and molecular studies, a new species is described as P. pseudosculptimanus. An overview of species of Pagurus from the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea is provided.

  3. Ankerius aenigmaticus, a new genus and new species of aphanodactylid crab symbiotic with polychaetes from the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Aphanodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Rahayu, Dwi Listyo; Shih, Hsi-Te

    2016-10-31

    A new genus and new species of pinnotheroid crab of the family Aphanodactylidae, Ankerius aenigmaticus n. sp., is described from the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. The genus is unusual among aphanodactylids in possessing more gaping third maxillipeds, strongly spiniform chelipeds and ambulatory legs, as well as a relatively longer ambulatory dactylus.

  4. A new species of the thorid genus Paralebbeus Bruce & Chace, 1986 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from the deep sea of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Liu, Feng; Ding, Zhongjun; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-03-01

    During recent dives by the Chinese manned submersible "Jiaolong", some shrimp specimens were sampled from the deep sea of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. A new species of the caridean family Thoridae, Paralebbeus jiaolongi sp. nov., is described and illustrated in this study. The rostrum armed with only one subterminal ventral tooth can easily distinguish the new species from its congeners.

  5. A new genus of freshwater crab of the tribe Kingsleyini Bott, 1970 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae) with description of a new species from Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Manuel; Tavares, Marcos; Magalhães, Célio

    2016-10-02

    A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Melothelphusa apiaka n. gen., n. sp., from Mato Grosso, Central Brazil is described and illustrated. Brasiliothelphusa dardanelosensis Magalhães & Türkay, 2010, is assigned to the new genus Melothelphusa. Therefore, the genus Brasiliothelphusa Magalhães & Türkay, 1986, is restricted to its type species B. tapajoense Magalhães & Türkay, 1986. The new taxa can be easily separated from their close relatives by a suite of morphological characters from the first gonopod.

  6. Digging deeper: new gene order rearrangements and distinct patterns of codons usage in mitochondrial genomes among shrimps from the Axiidea, Gebiidea and Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Poore, Gary C.B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Whole mitochondrial DNA is being increasingly utilized for comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies at deep and shallow evolutionary levels for a range of taxonomic groups. Although mitogenome sequences are deposited at an increasing rate into public databases, their taxonomic representation is unequal across major taxonomic groups. In the case of decapod crustaceans, several infraorders, including Axiidea (ghost shrimps, sponge shrimps, and mud lobsters) and Caridea (true shrimps) are still under-represented, limiting comprehensive phylogenetic studies that utilize mitogenomic information. Methods Sequence reads from partial genome scans were generated using the Illumina MiSeq platform and mitogenome sequences were assembled from these low coverage reads. In addition to examining phylogenetic relationships within the three infraorders, Axiidea, Gebiidea, and Caridea, we also investigated the diversity and frequency of codon usage bias and mitogenome gene order rearrangements. Results We present new mitogenome sequences for five shrimp species from Australia that includes two ghost shrimps, Callianassa ceramica and Trypaea australiensis, along with three caridean shrimps, Macrobrachium bullatum, Alpheus lobidens, and Caridina cf. nilotica. Strong differences in codon usage were discovered among the three infraorders and significant gene order rearrangements were observed. While the gene order rearrangements are congruent with the inferred phylogenetic relationships and consistent with taxonomic classification, they are unevenly distributed within and among the three infraorders. Discussion Our findings suggest potential for mitogenome rearrangements to be useful phylogenetic markers for decapod crustaceans and at the same time raise important questions concerning the drivers of mitogenome evolution in different decapod crustacean lineages. PMID:28265498

  7. “Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei,” an Intracellular Pathogenic Enteric Bacterium in the Hepatopancreas of the Marine Shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Pantoja, Carlos R.; Gomez-Jimenez, Silvia; Lightner, Donald V.

    2013-01-01

    The bacteria that cause necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in Penaeus vannamei adversely affect penaeid shrimp cultured in the western hemisphere. 16S rRNA and gyrase B gene analyses determined the taxonomic position of these bacteria. The name “Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei” is proposed for these pathogenic bacteria, which are members of the Rickettsiales order. PMID:23241970

  8. A histological study of ovarian development in the giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea (Crustacea: Decapoda: Aristeidae) from the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Perdichizzi, Anna; Pirrera, Laura; Micale, Valeria; Muglia, Ugo; Rinelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive features of the giant red shrimp, Aristaeomorpha foliacea, were investigated in the southern Tyrrhenian sea by experimental trawl sampling. The annual length-frequency distribution showed a multimodal trend in females, ranging between 16 and 67 mm carapace length (CL), and a unimodal trend in males (18-45 mm CL). Mature males occurred in different proportions all year round, while females displayed seasonal maturity (June-September), with a peak in July. Six oocyte developmental stages were identified, the most advanced of which (Pv, postvitellogenic) had never been described before in this species. Ovary development followed a group-synchronous pattern, with the yolked oocyte stock clearly separated from the reservoir of unyolked oocytes, suggesting that A. foliacea is a total spawner, with determinate fecundity. Based upon histological findings, a revision of macroscopic maturity staging employed in Mediterranean bottom trawl surveys (MEDITS) is proposed.

  9. Towards a revision of the genus Periclimenes: resurrection of Ancylocaris Schenkel, 1902, and designation of three new genera (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ďuriš, Zdeněk; Horká, Ivona

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Based on recently published molecular phylogenies of Indo-West Pacific palaemonid shrimps and further morphological evidence, the systematic position of several species of the polyphyletic genus Periclimenes is revised. The generic name Ancylocaris Schenkel, 1902 is re-established for the anemone-associated Periclimenes brevicarpalis. Actinimenes gen. n., is proposed for the anemone-associated Periclimenes inornatus, Periclimenes ornatellus and Periclimenes ornatus, all of which have a subspatulate first pereiopod. Cristimenes gen. n., is designated for the echinoderm-associated species, Periclimenes commensalis, Periclimenes cristimanus, and Periclimenes zanzibaricus, all with a unique carpo-propodal articulation of the second pereiopods. Rapimenes gen. n. is established for the hydroid and antipatharian-associated Periclimenes brucei, Periclimenes granulimanus, and Periclimenes laevimanus, for which the long, slender and unequal second pereiopods and prehensile ambulatory propodi are the main synapomorphic characters. PMID:28228674

  10. A new species of the genus Petrolisthes Stimpson (Crustacea, Decapoda, Porcellanidae) from the Central Pacific, with remarks and new records for P. aegyptiacus Werding & Hiller

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Alexandra; Werding, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Petrolisthes paulayi sp. n. is described from specimens collected in French Polynesia. The new species belongs to an assemblage of morphologically similar Indo-West Pacific (IWP) species, here designated as the “mesobranchial-spine group”. All species in the group bear carapace spines, including one or more mesobranchial spines, and transverse, piliferous striations on the dorsal surface of carapace and chelipeds. Petrolisthes paulayi sp. n. is distinguishable from all species in the group by its forwardly produced, trilobate front, and a characteristic combination of carapace spines. We also report on the range extension and live coloration of Petrolisthes aegyptiacus Werding & Hiller, another species of the mesobranchial-spine group, so far considered a Red Sea endemic. Specimens from the Mascaréne Islands confirm that the geographic range of the species extends to the southern Indian Ocean. While specimens morphologically similar to Petrolisthes aegyptiacus, and collected in the Line and Society Islands, suggest a large range extension to the Central Pacific, it is probable that these individuals represent an undescribed species closely related to Petrolisthes aegyptiacus. PMID:27667952

  11. Significance of the sexual openings and supplementary structures on the phylogeny of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura), with new nomina for higher-ranked podotreme taxa.

    PubMed

    Guinot, Danièle; Tavares, Marcos; Castro, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The patterns of complexity of the male and female sexual openings in Brachyura, which have been the source of uncertainties and conflicting opinions, are documented, together with a study of the morphologies of the coxal and sternal gonopores in both sexes, penises, spermathecae, and gonopods. The vulvae, male gonopores and penises are described among selected taxa of Eubrachyura, and their function and evolution examined in the context of a wide variety of mating behaviours. The location of female and male gonopores, the condition of the penis (coxal and sternal openings and modalities of protection), and related configurations of thoracic sternites 7 and 8, which are modified by the intercalation of a wide sternal part (thoracic sternites 7 and 8) during carcinisation, show evidence of deep homology. They represent taxonomic criteria at all ranks of the family-series and may be used to test lineages. Of particular significance are the consequences of the posterior expansion of the thoracic sternum, which influences the condition, shape, and sclerotisation of the penis, and its emergence from coxal (heterotreme) to coxo-sternal, which is actually still coxal (heterotreme), in contrast to a sternal emergence (thoracotreme). The heterotreme-thoracotreme distinction results from two different trajectories of the vas deferens and its ejaculatory duct via the P5 coxa (Heterotremata) or through the thoracic sternum (Thoracotremata). Dissections of males of several families have demonstrated that this major difference not only affects the external surface (perforation of the coxa or the sternum by the ejaculatory duct) but also the internal anatomy. There is no evidence for an ejaculatory duct passing through the articular membrane between the P5 coxa and the thoracic sternum in any Brachyura, even when the sternal male gonopore is very close to the P5 coxa. Trends towards the coxo-sternal condition are exemplified by multistate characters, varying from a shallow depression to a long groove along expanded sternites 7 and 8, and ultimately their complete, extended junction typifying the most derived coxo-sternal condition. The coxo-sternal condition is indicative of a long evolutionary history, as evidenced by the presence of multistate characters (e.g., Dorippidae, Goneplacoidea) or by a single, well-established condition (e.g., Chasmocarcinidae, Ethusidae, Panopeidae Eucratopsinae, Rhizopidae, Scalopidiidae). The penial area proves to be an essential diagnostic feature in Brachyura, with a value comparable to that of the gonopods. Penis protection is ubiquitous in Brachyura irrespective of length, and several modalities of protection prevail, which necessitate different modifications of associated structures. A long penis in a gutter developed from a partial invagination of sternite 8 induces the formation of a new "suture" at the same level as the preceding suture 6/7. Such a "supplementary suture 7/8" exists among unrelated heterotreme families (e.g., Ethusidae, Panopeidae Eucratopsinae, Pseudorhombilidae, Rhizopidae). A fully protected penis, concealed in a groove within a complete invagination of sternite 8 in the form of two contiguous plates, evolved independently (homoplasy) in Palicoidea and Chasmocarcinidae (Goneplacoidea), with sternite 8 present as a single plate in females. In condylar protection, described for the first time and occurring in several heterotreme families, the penis emerges from the extremity of the P5 coxo-sternal condyle or from its anterior border instead of from the coxa itself. A penis precisely lodged in a small excavation on sternite 8, which is lined by a row of stiff setae, is unique to Brachyura, and represents a new synapomorphy of the Homoloidea. Five modalities of penis protection are recognised in Podotremata, eight in Eubrachyura (six in Heterotremata and two in Thoracotremata). Special attention has been paid to Dorippoidea (Dorippidae and Ethusidae), which shows transformation series from coxal to coxo-sternal conditions. The coxo-sternal condition is not an int

  12. Re-examination of the eastern Pacific and Atlantic material of Alpheus malleator Dana, 1852, with the description of Alpheus wonkimi sp. nov. (Crustacea, Decapoda, Alpheidae).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Pachelle, Paulo P G

    2013-01-01

    The bumpy-clawed snapping shrimp, Alpheus malleator Dana, 1852 (Alpheidae), is revised based on the recently collected and older museum material from the eastern Pacific (Panama, Ecuador), Caribbean (Panama, Puerto Rico, Trinidad & Tobago), Brazil (São Paulo), and West Africa (Cape Verde, Senegal, Guinea, Equatorial Guinea, Congo). The eastern Pacific material is assigned to A. wonkimi sp. nov., based on one morphological difference in the colour and thickness of the uropodal spiniform seta, as well as previously published molecular data. The Caribbean, Brazilian and West African material is considered to represent a single, widespread, morphologically variable, amphi-Atlantic taxon, A. malleator. Alpheus pugilator A. Milne-Edwards, 1878 is retained as ajunior synonym of A. malleator, whereas A. tuberculosus Osorio, 1892, A. malleator var. edentatus Zimmer, 1913 and A. belli Coutière, 1898, the latter two based on juvenile specimens, are tentatively placed in the synonymy of A. malleator. Illustrations, including colour photographs, are provided for A. wonkimi sp. nov. and A. malleator and their morphological variability is discussed and illustrated.

  13. Uroptychus atlanticus, a new species of squat lobster (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Chirostylidae) from the western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Baba, Keiji; Wicksten, Mary K

    2017-02-02

    A new species of squat lobster, Uroptychus atlanticus, is described on the basis of a female specimen taken at a depth of 713-841 m in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico. The new species is readily distinguished from all known species of the genus from the western Atlantic by the very spinose carapace and pereopods, and a transverse row of spines on each of the abdominal tergites 1 and 2.

  14. A new species of the genus Alvinocaris Williams and Chace, 1982 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alvinocarididae) from the Manus Basin hydrothermal vents, Southwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Rong; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2017-01-25

    One new species of alvinocaridid Alvinocaris kexueae sp. nov. is described from hydrothermal vents on the Manus Basin, Southwest Pacific. This is the fifteenth species in Alvinocaris Williams & Chace, 1982. The new species is easily recognized by the combination of the rostrum distinctively overreaching the distal end of the antennular peduncle, and the armature of its dorsal and ventral margins; the unarmed third abdominal segment, and by the posterior margin of the telson having one triangular tooth medially and 6 pairs unequal spines. It is morphologically most similar to A. brevitelsonis Kikuchi & Hashimoto, 2000 described from Minami-Ensei Knoll, Okinawa Trough, but can easily be distinguished from it by the proportionally longer rostrum, by the dorsal teeth of the rostrum, by the shape of the chela of the first pereiopod, and by the teeth on the fourth abdominal segment. The genetic divergence of COI gene analyzed clearly supports the new taxon.

  15. Provisional revision of American snapping shrimp allied to Alpheus floridanus Kingsley, 1878 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) with notes on A. floridanus africanus.

    PubMed

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L

    2014-12-17

    Alpheus floridanus Kingsley, 1878 has been previously treated as a single, morphologically diverse species with a broad distribution in the eastern and western Atlantic Ocean and eastern Pacific Ocean. However, variations in morphology and color patterns, in addition to genetic evidence, have prompted futher investigation. Morphological characters, including curvature and length of the scaphocerite, number teeth on the incisor process of the mandible, number of pereopodal spines, proportions of the major chela, as well as color patterns, support recognition of several species in the Alpheus floridanus complex. Alpheus floridanus sensu stricto (s.s.) is redescribed based upon a lectotype selected from the former syntypic pair. The mutilated second specimen of the syntypic pair is identified as A. platycheirus Boone, 1927, which is fully redescribed. Three species are described as new: A. hephaestus sp. nov. from the eastern Pacific, and A. roblesi sp. nov. and A. ulalae sp. nov. from the western Atlantic. Morphological comparisions to the eastern Atlantic A. floridanus africanus Balss, 1916 are discussed, however a formal treatment of this subspecies is not the objective of this study. Our proposed taxonomic revisions of the A. floridanus complex are supported in a companion molecular genetic analysis (following paper, this volume). 

  16. Cherax (Astaconephrops) pulcher, a new species of freshwater crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) from the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula, Irian Jaya (West Papua), Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Lukhaup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Cherax (Astaconephrops) pulcher sp. n., from Hoa Creek, close to the village Teminabuan in the southern-central part of the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia, is described, figured and compared with the morphologically closest species, Cherax boesemani Lukhaup & Pekny, 2008. PMID:26019660

  17. Binhthuanomon vinhtan, a new genus and new species of semi-terrestrial freshwater crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae) from south central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Do, Van Tu; Le, Van Tho; Phan, Doan Dang

    2015-12-01

    A new genus and new species of semi-terrestrial crab of the family Potamidae, Binhthuanomon vinhtan n. sp., is described from south central Vietnam. The new genus is morphologically closest to Villopotamon Dang & Ho, 2003, and Balssipotamon Dang & Ho, 2008, in the shapes of the carapace and first gonopod but is easily distinguished by distinct carapace characteristics and gonopod 1 structures, and the habitat occupied.

  18. A new species of sand crab Jonas Hombron & Jacquinot, 1846 (Crustacea:
    Decapoda: Brachyura: Corystidae) from the southeastern coast of India.

    PubMed

    Barathkumar, S; Das, N P I; Satpathy, K K

    2016-02-15

    A new species of sand crab of the genus Jonas Hombron & Jacquinot, 1846 (family Corystidae) is described from specimens collected from Kalpakkam, southeastern coast of India. Two other species, J. indicus (Chopra, 1935), and J. choprai Serène, 1971, have previously been recorded from this area. A detailed description of the new species is given and compared with the closely related J. formosae Balss, 1922, also from the Indo-West Pacific.

  19. The identification and distribution of progesterone receptors in the brain and thoracic ganglion in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Ye, Haihui; Huang, Huiyang; Song, Ping; Wang, Guizhong

    2010-11-01

    The existence of progesterone receptors (PR) in the Scylla paramamosain (mud crab) was studied using immunological techniques. By Western blotting, PR with an apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa is identified in both the brain and the thoracic ganglion. By immunohistochemistry, PR immunoreactive neurons are detected mainly in the protocerebrum, the subesophageal ganglion and the leg ganglion. PR immunoreactivity is localized mainly in the nuclei of these neurons, while only a few neurons show such activities in their cytoplasm. Our results provide evidence that progesterone modulates the neuroendocrine system mainly via nucleus receptors.

  20. A new species of false spider crab of the genus Elamena H. Milne Edwards, 1837 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Hymenosomatidae), from Davao Gulf, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Husana, Daniel Edison M; Kase, Tomoki; Mendoza, Jose Christopher E

    2013-02-22

    A new species of hymenosomatid crab of the genus Elamena H. Milne Edwards, 1837, is described from the island of Samal, in the Davao Gulf, Mindanao, southern Philippines. Elamena samalensis sp. nov. belongs to the Elamena truncata species-group and is most similar to E. simplidenta Ng & Chuang, 1996, in the general form of the carapace and in the presence of only one subdistal tooth on the ambulatory dactyli. It can be distinguished from this species, however, by its more projecting rostrum, relatively longer and more slender ambulatory legs, and by the pointed apex of the female pleotelson.

  1. Redescription of a poorly known epialtid crab Pugettia pellucens Rathbun, 1932 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea) and description of a new species from Sagami Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuchi, Naoya; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Takeda, Masatsune

    2014-02-21

    A poorly known epialtid crab species, Pugettia pellucens Rathbun, 1932, is redescribed and a closely allied new species P. vulgaris n. sp. is described and illustrated on the basis of material from Sagami Bay, Japan. Pugettia pellucens was originally described as a subspecies of P. quadridens (De Haan, 1839), but it is confirmed that the taxon is distinct from P. quadridens. The superficially similar Pugettia vulgaris n. sp. can be distinguished from P. pellucens by several morphological characters. The new species is also similar to P. elongata Yokoya, 1933, and P. intermedia Sakai, 1938, but can also be separated by various carapace and gonopodal characters.

  2. The 'scorpion shrimp', a new species of the genus Metapontonia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from Taiwan, with new generic record from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Ďuriš, Zdeněk; Lin, Chia-Wei

    2016-07-18

    A new species of shrimp Metapontonia scorpio symbiotic with scleractinian coral Diploastrea heliopora is described from Taiwan. The species belongs to the smallest symbiotic shrimps of the family Palaemonidae. It is remarkable by a unique ability to turn its last two pleonites with tail fan dorsally over the 4th and preceding pleonal segments, thus resembling scorpions. For such movement, the respective opposing dorsal margins of the 4th-6th segments are deeply concave. The new species is characterized by a short dorsally directed rostrum, incomplete orbit, semicircular scaphocerite, and medially concave basal antennular segment. The only species of the genus, M. fungiacola, is compared with the new species based on morphology and DNA. Metapontonia fungiacola is for the first time reported from Taiwan and Papua New Guinea. The morphological and colour variability of the species is discussed. The scleractinian corals Platygyra lamellina (Merulinidae), Lobophyllia hemprichii, cf. Micromusa sp., Symphyllia cf. radians (Lobophylliidae), and Galaxea sp. (Oculinidae), are new host records for the species.

  3. Relative growth and morphological sexual maturity size of the freshwater crab Trichodactylus borellianus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae) in the Middle Paraná River, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Williner, Verónica; Torres, María Victoria; Carvalho, Débora Azevedo; König, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The relative growth of a number of morphological dimensions of the South American freshwater crab Trichodactylus borellianus (Trichodactylidae) were compared and related to sexual dimorphism. Crabs were collected from ponds in the Middle Paraná River in Argentina. A regression model with segmented relationship was used to test for relative growth between these measurements where breakpoints infer the body size at which crabs reach sexual maturity. In both sexes the carapace width and the length, height, and thickness of the right and left chelae were measured, as well as the male pleopod length and the female abdomen width. All of these measurements were found to show positive allometry with the exception of the male pleopod length and the left chelae, which did not show a breakpoint. In females the breakpoint for the abdomen width inferred a morphological sexual maturity at carapace width 6.9 mm. In males the break point for the pleopod length was at carapace width 6.6 mm, with that for the chelae measurements was between carapace widths 6.4 and 6.9 mm. The relative growth pattern in Trichodactylus borellianus was found to be similar to that recorded for other species of the family Trichodactylidae. PMID:25561835

  4. A new genus and new species of Paguridae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) from shallow subtidal waters in Okinawa Island, the Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-02-11

    During a survey on decapod crustacean fauna of shallow coral reefs and nearby environments in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, four specimens of a small but distinctive undescribed species of pagurid hermit crab, which could not be referred to any known genus, were collected. The new taxon, Eutrichopagurus shirakawai n. gen., n. sp., is described and illustrated herein. The new genus is characterized by the possession of 11 pairs of deeply quadriserial phyllobranchiate gills, the third maxilliped with well-developed crista dentata and one or two accessory teeth on the ischium, the presence of unpaired left gonopore in the female, the absence of paired first pleopods in the female, and the telson with prominent tuft of setae on the lateral margin of the posterior lobes; the male is unknown at present. It appears close to Trichopagurus de Saint Laurent, 1968, but the deeply quadriserial gills immediately distinguish Eutrichopagurus from Trichopagurus. The new genus is also compared with other genera characterized by the possession of 11 pairs of quadriserial phyllobranchiate gills and the lack of paired first pleopods in females.

  5. Additional record of Rayllianassa amboinensis (de Man, 1888) from Japan, and description of a new species from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands (Crustacea: Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Maenosono, Tadafumi

    2014-07-14

    Two species referred to the callianassid ghost shrimp genus Rayllianassa Komai & Tachikawa, 2008 are reported herewith. Additional locality records from Japan are provided for R. amboinensis (de Man, 1888), and the synonymy of Callianassa ngochoae Sakai, 1999 with R. amboinensis is discussed. It is shown that R. amboinensis is associated with sponges or alcyonacean soft corals, representing unusual habitats for callianassids. Rayllianassa rudisulcus n. sp. is described on the basis of a single ovigerous female from shallow soft sediment in Ohura Bay, Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands. The new species is distinguished from R. amboinensis by the absence of a dorsal oval on the carapace, the antennal peduncle being longer than the antennular peduncle, and the different shape of the third maxilliped. The status of Rayllianassa is also briefly discussed.

  6. Phylogenetic and transcriptomic analyses reveal the evolution of bioluminescence and light detection in marine deep-sea shrimps of the family Oplophoridae (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Wong, Juliet M; Pérez-Moreno, Jorge L; Chan, Tin-Yam; Frank, Tamara M; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D

    2015-02-01

    Bioluminescence is essential to the survival of many organisms, particularly in the deep sea where light is limited. Shrimp of the family Oplophoridae exhibit a remarkable mechanism of bioluminescence in the form of a secretion used for predatory defense. Three of the ten genera possess an additional mode of bioluminescence in the form of light-emitting organs called photophores. Phylogenetic analyses can be useful for tracing the evolution of bioluminescence, however, the few studies that have attempted to reconcile the relationships within Oplophoridae have generated trees with low-resolution. We present the most comprehensive phylogeny of Oplophoridae to date, with 90% genera coverage using seven genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) across 30 oplophorid species. We use our resulting topology to trace the evolution of bioluminescence within Oplophoridae. Previous studies have suggested that oplophorid visual systems may be tuned to differentiate the separate modes of bioluminescence. While all oplophorid shrimp possess a visual pigment sensitive to blue-green light, only those bearing photophores have an additional pigment sensitive to near-ultraviolet light. We attempt to characterize opsins, visual pigment proteins essential to light detection, in two photophore-bearing species (Systellaspis debilis and Oplophorus gracilirostris) and make inferences regarding their function and evolutionary significance.

  7. Fine structure of the spermatozoon in three species of Cambaridae (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Decapoda) Cambarus robustus, Orconectes propinquus and Orconectes rusticus: a comparative biometrical study

    PubMed Central

    Yazicioglu, Buket; Hamr, Přemek; Kozák, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The ultrastructure of spermatozoa in three species of cambarid crayfish, Cambarus robustus, Orconectes propinquus, and Orconectes rusticus, were studied and compared with eight previously studied species from different crayfish families using morphological features and biometrical data. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa show a generally conserved pattern including an acrosome and nucleus in the anterior and posterior parts of the cell, respectively, radial arms that wrap around the nucleus, and the whole cell is enclosed by an extracellular capsule. The most outstanding morphological feature in spermatozoa of three studied cambarid crayfish is the crest-like protrusions in the anterior part of the acrosome that can be used as one of the features for distinguishing the members of this family. Results of biometrical data reveal that acrosome size in the representatives of Parastacidae are the smallest, while representatives of Astacidae show the biggest acrosome. The acrosome size in species belonging to Cambaridae occupy an intermediate position between the two other families of freshwater crayfish. In conclusion, a combination of morphological features and biometrical data of spermatozoa can help distinguishing different species of the freshwater crayfish. PMID:27635333

  8. Five new species of freshwater crabs of the genera Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014, and Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae Rathbun, 1904) from the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Pati, S K; Thackeray, T; Khaire, A

    2016-02-23

    Five new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crabs, Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp., Ghatiana splendida n. sp., Gubernatoriana alcocki Pati n. sp., Gubernatoriana thackerayi Pati n. sp., and Gubernatoriana waghi Pati n. sp. are described from the Western Ghats in Maharashtra and Goa states of India. Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp. can be differentiated from other species of Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014 by the shape and colour of its carapace, and the sigmoid-shaped male first pleopod (G1). Ghatiana splendida n. sp. is separated from its congeners mainly by its long anterolateral margin of the carapace and short terminal article of the G1. Besides, the colour pattern (deep pink carapace and chelipeds, orange ambulatory legs) of G. splendida n. sp. is exceptional among its congeners. Gubernatoriana alcocki n. sp. is unique among species of Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970 due to its inwardly curved tip of the terminal article of the G1. The stout and cone-shaped terminal article of the G1 of G. thackerayi n. sp. is characteristic among its congeners. In addition, G. thackerayi n. sp. has a unique colouration amongst congeners (violet-red carapace and ambulatory legs, orange-red chelipeds). Gubernatoriana waghi n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the quadrate-shaped carapace, narrow frontal margin, pointed tips of the cheliped fingers, short terminal article of the G1 and very short or vestigial terminal article of the male second pleopod (G2). The body colour (burnt orange carapace and ivory coloured chelipeds and ambulatory legs) of G. waghi n. sp. is also important to distinguish live crabs of the genus. Key to the species of Ghatiana and Gubernatoriana is provided.

  9. A new genus and new species of Potamidea (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamoidae), the first stygomorphic cave crab known from China and East Asia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chao; Shih, Hsi-Te; Ng, Peter K L

    2017-02-15

    A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Diyutamon cereum n. gen., n. sp., is described from a cave in Guizhou, China. This is the first record of a true stygomorphic crab from China and East Asia, possessing pale body coloration, strongly reduced eyes, and long ambulatory legs. While superficially similar to Chinapotamon Dai & Naiyanetr, 1994, and Tiwaripotamon Bott, 1970, the new genus possesses a diagnostic combination of carapace, ambulatory leg, thoracic sternal, and male abdominal characters that easily distinguishes it from other genera. Molecular data derived from the mitochondrial 16S rDNA supports the establishment of the new genus.

  10. Description of two new species of the genus Automate De Man, 1888 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Rong; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2017-03-02

    Three species of the genus Automate De Man, 1888 are described herein, including two new species: A. anacanthopusoides sp. nov. and A. spinosa sp. nov.. Automate anacanthopusoides sp. nov. can be easily identified by the presence of a rostrum, the notch on the lower margin of the major chela, the stout minor cheliped and the cutting edge of the pollex not dentate, and by the absence of spines on the ventral margin of the propodus of the third and fourth pereiopod. Automate spinosa sp. nov. can be easily identified by the nearly straight anterior margin of the carapace, and the presence of spines on the ventral margin of the propodus of third and fourth pereiopod. A key of all species of the Automate is provided.

  11. Cryptic speciation of Greek populations of the freshwater shrimp genus Atyaephyra de Brito Capello, 1867 (Crustacea, Decapoda), evidence from mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, J Enrique García; Raso, J Enrique García; Rodríguez, Antonio

    2014-04-22

    The freshwater shrimp genus Atyaephyra de Brito Capello, 1867 is a complex of cryptic species with morphologically overlapping features, which has led to invalid identifications until recently. The genus is distributed around the entire Mediterranean Basin and surrounding areas. In 2009 we used a molecular approach with 16S and Cox1 genes to identify the European and African populations and to show the existence of different species and groups of haplotypes (García Muñoz et al. 2009). Christodoulou et al. (2012) recently identified four species in Greece (Atyaephyra stankoi, A. thyamisensis, A. strymonensis and A. acheronensis) based on morphology and some partial sequences of Cox1. In the present study we analyse several Greek populations of Atyaephyra spp. using morphology and two mitochondrial markers (16S and Cox1). Our molecular data confirm the taxonomic validity of A. stankoi, A. thyamisensis and A. strymonensis but show that A. acheronensis should be considered a synonym of A. desmarestii. The limited distribution of A. desmarestii in only a few rivers in the Ionian region is probably the result of a posterior introduction from neighbouring European areas. After the genetic identification and as a consequence of the high variability observed within species and between rivers, mainly in A. thyamisensis, we re-describe this species and provide morphological data for the other species. We also give information on the chromatophore pattern in larvae, which could be very useful in the future for recognizing species and their distribution. The distribution of Greek Atyaephyra species seems to be related to the very complex paleogeographical history of the Paratethys and Mediterranean Sea in the Balkan Peninsula. Three areas can be recognized in relation to the distribution of these species: a global region, a western region separated from the eastern region by the Pindos Mountains, and a Macedonia-Thracian region. 

  12. A new species of decorator crabs, genus Menaethiops Alcock, 1895 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea: Epialthidae), from Abu-Musa Island, Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Naderloo, Reza

    2015-03-02

    Menaethiops abumusa n. sp. is closely similar to M. bicornis Alcock, 1985, and M. gadaniensis Kazmi & Tirmizi, 1999, regarding the relatively contiguous rostral spines. The new species is easily distinguishable from its two congeners by having distinctly round angles of orbital eaves and distally divergent rostral spines. Whereas in M. bicornis, and M. gadaniensis, the angles of orbital eaves are anteriorly produced and rostral spines are closely attached to each other along their entire length.  Other morphological differences include the carapace spination/granulation, basal antennal segments, and morphology of the male's first gonopod. Menaethiops gadaniensis was described from Gadani, Pakistan and was only known from the type locality, but is here recorded for the first time from the Gulf of Oman.

  13. Three new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Pseudothelphusa (De Saussure, 1857) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ojeda-Escoto, Juan Carlos; Villalobos, José Luis; Álvarez, Fernando

    2017-01-11

    Three new species of freshwater crabs of the genus Pseudothelphusa (De Saussure, 1857) from south-central Mexico are described: Pseudothelphusa acahuizotla n. sp., P. ixtapan n. sp., and P. purhepecha n. sp. The new species are included in Pseudothelphusa due to a male gonopod with torsion and the presence of the characteristic mesial process and caudomarginal projection. Pseudothelphusa acahuizotla n. sp. is morphologically similar to P. belliana Rathbun, 1898, but can be distinguished by the relative size of the distal lobe of the caudomarginal projection and by the presence of a conical tooth on the caudal surface of the mesial process of the male gonopod. Pseudothelphusa ixtapan n. sp. is similar to P. dilatata Rathbun, 1898, and P. morelosis Pretzmann, 1968, and can be distinguished by a mesial process of the male gonopod with only one lateral tooth and an inferior margin with small teeth. Pseudothelphusa puerhepechae n. sp. exhibits a mesial process of the male gonopod with two triangular spines on its lateral margin, a character that with some variations is present in P. nayaritae Álvarez & Villalobos, 1994, P. rechingeri Pretzmann, 1965, P. lophophallus Rodríguez & Smalley, 1969, and P. parabelliana Álvarez 1989; but it can be distinguished by the separation and shape of the two spines of the mesial process and the shape of the lobes of the caudomarginal projection. With the new species described herein there are now 29 species in the genus Pseudothelphusa.

  14. A new species of the hermit crab genus Areopaguristes Rahayu & McLaughlin (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura, Paguroidea, Diogenidae) from the Mexican Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ayón-Parente, Manuel; Hendrickx, Michel E

    2016-10-05

    A new species of hermit crab, Areopaguristes espetacioni, family Diogenidae, is described and illustrated in detail, including the color pattern in live/fresh specimens. This is the fifth species of Areopaguristes reported from the eastern Pacific. Given the morphological similarity between Areopaguristes espetacioni n. sp. and A. tudgei Lemaitre & Felder, 2012, these can be considered sister species. The presence of a long rostrum, the antennal flagella with short setae, chelipeds and ambulatories legs with dense plumose setae, and telson with calcareous teeth on the posterior margin allow to separate Areopaguristes espetacioni n. sp. from all other species in the genus previously described for the region. A key for Areopaguristes species from the eastern tropical Pacific is provided.

  15. Two species of the deep-water shrimp genus Nematocarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea, Nematocarcinidae) from the Mexican Pacific.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Payan, J C; Hendrickx, M E

    2016-06-21

    The distribution of two species of the deep-water shrimp genus Nematocarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1881, occurring off the west coast of Mexico is analyzed based on a large series of recently collected material. Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2000, is by far the most common and abundant species in the area and it is distributed throughout the central and southern Gulf of California and off the entire Baja California Peninsula south to 17º10'15"N. Based on characteristics observed in the new samples and in the type material, N. agassizii Faxon, 1893, is reinstalled as a valid species, and no longer considered a junior of N. gracilipes A. Milne-Edwards, 1881, as proposed by Cardoso & Burukovsky (2014). Along the Pacific coast of Mexico, N. agassizii exhibits a more restricted distribution and it was collected only off the Baja California Peninsula. Previous records of this species in the Gulf of California, where N. faxoni was the only representative of the genus captured during this survey, are considered doubtful.

  16. Phylogeographic patterning among two codistributed shrimp species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) reveals high levels of connectivity across biogeographic regions along the South African coast

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Louisa E.; De Grave, Sammy; Daniels, Savel R.

    2017-01-01

    We compare the genetic structuring and demographic history of two sympatric caridean shrimp species with distinct life history traits, one amphidromous species Palaemon capensis and one marine/estuarine species Palaemon peringueyi, in the historical biogeographical context of South Africa. A total of 103 specimens of P. capensis collected from 12 localities and 217 specimens of P. peringueyi collected from 24 localities were sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase one (CO1) locus. Results from analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA), pairwise ΦST comparisons and haplotype networks demonstrate weak to moderate genetic differentiation in P. capensis and P. peringueyi respectively. P. peringueyi exhibits partial isolation between populations associated with distinct biogeographic regions, likely driven by the region’s oceanography. However, there is minimal evidence for the occurrence of discrete regional evolutionary lineages. This demonstrated lack of genetic differentiation is consistent with a marine, highly dispersive planktonic phase in both the amphidromous P. capensis and the marine/estuarine P. peringueyi. Bayesian skyline plots, mismatch expansions and time since expansion indicate that both species maintained stable populations during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), unlike other southern African aquatic species. PMID:28282399

  17. Monitoring PAH contamination in the field (South west Iberian Peninsula): biomonitoring using fluorescence spectrophotometry and physiological assessments in the shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.) (Crustacea: Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Bamber, Shaw D

    2010-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants of the marine environment, arising predominantly from petrochemical contamination and pyrogenic sources. A biomarker of PAH exposure was employed in a field study (South West, Spain) in both captured (indigenous) and deployed (caged) shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) in the chronic PAH-exposed Bays of Algeciras and Gibraltar (from associated harbour and boating activity) compared to a relatively 'clean' site (Cadiz). Metabolite fluorescence was attributed to the following key priority PAH groups; naphthalenes (NAPs), pyrenes (PYRs) and benzo[a]pyrenes (BAPs). Temporal variability was assessed using deployed populations over an eight week period. Petrogenic and pyrogenic PAH contamination (as an indicator of the PAH type) was demonstrated using a ratio between FF(BAP + PYR)/FF(NAP). Physiological assessments from deployed crabs demonstrated both physiological and cellular alterations as shown by reduced heart rates (at rest) and increased cellular stress in crabs from the PAH contaminated sites.

  18. A new species of the genus Petrolisthes Stimpson (Crustacea, Decapoda, Porcellanidae) from the Central Pacific, with remarks and new records for P. aegyptiacus Werding & Hiller.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Alexandra; Werding, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Petrolisthes paulayi sp. n. is described from specimens collected in French Polynesia. The new species belongs to an assemblage of morphologically similar Indo-West Pacific (IWP) species, here designated as the "mesobranchial-spine group". All species in the group bear carapace spines, including one or more mesobranchial spines, and transverse, piliferous striations on the dorsal surface of carapace and chelipeds. Petrolisthes paulayi sp. n. is distinguishable from all species in the group by its forwardly produced, trilobate front, and a characteristic combination of carapace spines. We also report on the range extension and live coloration of Petrolisthes aegyptiacus Werding & Hiller, another species of the mesobranchial-spine group, so far considered a Red Sea endemic. Specimens from the Mascaréne Islands confirm that the geographic range of the species extends to the southern Indian Ocean. While specimens morphologically similar to Petrolisthes aegyptiacus, and collected in the Line and Society Islands, suggest a large range extension to the Central Pacific, it is probable that these individuals represent an undescribed species closely related to Petrolisthes aegyptiacus.

  19. Systematic status of the caridean families Gnathophyllidae Dana and Hymenoceridae Ortmann (Crustacea: Decapoda): a further examination based on molecular and morphological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Zhibin; Li, Xinzheng; Kou, Qi; Chan, Tinyam; Chu, Kahou; Huang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The four palaemonoid (sub)families Anchistioididae, Gnathophyllidae, Hymenoceridae, and Pontoniinae are similar in morphology, and all live in marine habitats. Their systematic relationships are controversial. In this study, we used sequences from a mitochondrial ribosomal gene (16S rRNA) and three nuclear genes (H3, NaK, and enolase) to explore the phylogenetic relationships of these four taxa. Our tree based on 43 species belonging to 28 genera shows that Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae are nested within Pontoniinae. This result is consistent with evidence from larval morphology. The defining characteristics of Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae, a vestigial or missing mandibular incisor process and a broadened third maxilliped, can also be found in Pontoniinae; conversely, on the basis of published species descriptions, gnathophyllids and hymenocerids meet most of the defining characteristics of Pontoniinae. The peculiar form of the third maxilliped in gnathophyllids and hymenocerids might be the result of adaptive evolution, as these particular features are also present in pontoniines. According to our phylogenetic tree, Anchistioididae are more remote from Pontoniinae, which is consistent with the distinct morphological differences in the pleopods. The pontoniine genera analyzed (together with Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae) are divided into two clades. The members of Clade I exhibit primordial characteristics similar to those of the Palaemoninae, and might be direct descendants of the ancestor of the Pontoniinae; members of Clade II are more specialized.

  20. Calyptraeotheres sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pinnotheridae), symbiont of the slipper shell Crepidula striolata Menke, 1851 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae) from the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ayón-Parente, Manuel; Hendrickx, Michel E

    2014-10-07

    Calyptraeotheres camposi sp. nov. is described from the Gulf of California, Mexico. The new species is close to C. granti (Glassell, 1933) and C. pepeluisi Campos & Hernández-Ávila, 2010 from the Mexican Pacific and to C. hernandezi Hernández-Ávila & Campos 2006 from the Western Atlantic. These four species feature a third maxilliped with a 2-segmented endopod palp and the exopod with unsegmented flagellum. Calyptraeotheres camposi sp. nov. differs from C. granti and C. hernandezi by having the eyes visible in dorsal view, the carapace with arcuate anterolateral margins, the dorsal, longitudinal depressions connected with the transversal depression, and the propodus of pereiopod 2 equal or slightly longer than the carpus. From C. pepeluisi it is distinguished by the absence of a transversal depression on the carapace and the longitudinal depressions not connecting, the carpus and propodus of the third maxilliped being sub-trapezoidal and sub-conical, respectively, in lieu of subrectangular, and the inner surface of the fixed finger nude instead of bearing short setae near the cutting edge and ventral margin.

  1. First record of the hermit crab genus Cestopagurus Bouvier, 1897 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridae) from the South Pacific Ocean and description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Tsuchida, Shinji; Clark, Malcolm R

    2014-09-14

    A fifth species of the pagurid genus Cestopagurus Bouvier, 1897, is described and illustrated on the basis of a single male specimen collected at a depth of 499 m from Hinepuia submarine volcano in the Kermadec Arc, New Zealand. The new species, C. hinepuia, appears similar to C. puniceus Komai & Takeda, 2005 known from waters off Japan, but the different armature of chelipeds distinguishes the new species. It is the first representative of the genus recorded from the South Pacific Ocean. A key for identification of species of the genus is presented. 

  2. First records of Lithodes longispina Sakai, 1971 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Lithodidae) from southwestern Taiwan, including a site in the vicinity of a cold seep.

    PubMed

    Wang, Teng-Wei; Ahyong, Shane T; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2016-01-14

    Lithodid crabs (Lithodidae Samouelle, 1819), commonly known as king crabs, are frequent targets of commercial fishing worldwide with most of them living in deep water (Sakai 1971; Ahyong et al. 2010). Lithodes Latreille, 1806, is the second largest genus of lithodid crabs, currently including 29 species worldwide (Ahyong 2010). In Taiwanese waters, however, only two species, L. turritus Ortmann, 1892, and L. formosae Ahyong & Chan, 2010, have been reported (Wu et al. 1998; Ahyong & Chan 2010; Ahyong et al. 2010). We report herein the discovery of L. longispina Sakai, 1971, previously known reliably only from Japan (Sakai 1971; Ikeda 1998; Ahyong 2010), from off southwestern Taiwan, including a specimen collected in the vicinity of a cold seep.

  3. Cherax snowden, a new species of crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) from the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula in Irian Jaya (West Papua), Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Lukhaup, Christian; Panteleit, Jörn; Schrimpf, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Cherax snowden sp. n., from the Oinsok River Drainage, Sawiat District in the central part of the Kepala Burung (Vogelkop) Peninsula, West Papua, Indonesia, is described, figured and compared with the closest related species, Cherax holthuisi Lukhaup & Pekny, 2006. This species is collected and exported for ornamental purposes and its commercial name in the pet trade is “orange tip” or “green orange tip”. Both species may be easily distinguished morphologically or by using sequence divergence, which is substantial, for considering Cherax snowden sp. n. to be a new species. PMID:26448698

  4. A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) from Japan, associated with the innkeeper worm Ikedosoma elegans (Annelida: Echiura: Echiuridae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-12-15

    A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798, Alpheus ikedosoma, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from Boso Peninsula and Ariake Sea, Japan. All examined specimens were extracted with the help of a bait suction pump from burrows of innkeeper worm (Annelida: Echiura), constructed on easily accessible intertidal sand beaches or sand flats. The host worm from Boso Peninsula was identified as Ikedosoma elegans (Ikeda, 1904) (Echiuridae). The new species is tentatively referred to the A. brevirostris (Olivier, 1811) species group, but it is characteristic in having several unusual features for the group, such as the very short rostrum without dorsal ridge, the absence of adrostral grooves on the carapace, the strongly reduced dorsolateral spines on the telson, the unarmed antennal basicerite, the non-elongate, almost glabrous major chela, and the lack of movable spines or spinules on ventromesial margin of each cheliped merus. The new species represents the sixth species of Alpheus associated with echiuran burrows.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Pollicipes mitella (Crustacea, Maxillopoda, Cirripedia): non-monophylies of maxillopoda and crustacea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jong Tae; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2006-12-31

    The whole mitochondrial genome (14,915 nt) of Pollicipes mitella (Crustacea, Maxillopoda, Cirripedia, Thoracica) was sequenced and characterized. It is the shortest of the 31 completely sequenced crustacean mitochondrial genomes, with the exception of a copepod Tigriopus japonicus (14,628 nt). It consists of the usual 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 relatively short non-coding region (294 nt). The thoracican cirripeds apart from Megabalanus volcano have the same arrangement of protein-coding genes as Limulus polypemus, but there are frequent tRNA gene translocations (at least 8). Some interesting translocation features that may be specific to the thoracican cirriped lineage are as follows: 1) trnK-trnQ lies between the control region and trnI, 2) trnA-trnE lies between trnN and trnS1, 3) trnP lies between ND4L and trnT, and 4) trnY-trnC lies between trnS2 and ND1. In P. mitella there are two trnL genes (L1 and L2) in the typical crustacean positions (ND1-L1-LrRNA and CO1-L2-CO2). The present result is compared and discussed with the other three cirriped mitochondrial genomes from one pedunculate (Pollicipes polymerus) and two sessiles (Tetraclita japonica and M. volcano) published so far. Mitochondrial protein phylogenies reconstructed by the BI and ML algorithms show that the thoracican Cirripedia is monophyletic (BPP 100/BP 100) and associated with Remipedia (BPP 98/BP 35). In addition, Oligostraca, including Ostracoda, Branchiura, and Pentastomida, is a monophyletic group (BPP 99/BP 68), and is basal to all the other examined arthropods. Remipedia + Cirripedia appears as an independent lineage within Arthropoda, apart from Thoracopoda (Malacostraca, Branchiopda, and Cephalocarida). The Thoracopoda is paraphyletic to Hexapoda. The present result suggests that the monophylies of Crustacea and Maxillopoda should be reconsidered.

  6. Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida) database

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Ana I.; Dorda, Beatriz A.; Rey, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This is the first published database of Bathynellacea. It includes all data of bathynellids (Crustacea, Bathynellacea) collected in the last 64 years (1949 to 2013) on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island. The samples come from groundwater (caves, springs, wells and hyporrheic habitat associated rivers) from both sampling campaigns and occasional sampling conducted throughout the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The dataset lists occurrence data of bathynellids distribution, sampling sites (with localities, county and geographic coordinates), taxonomic information (from family to species level) and sampling sources (collector and sampling dates) for all records. The descriptions of new species and species identifications have been carried out by an expert taxonomist (AIC) with 25 years experience in the bathynellids studies (see references). Many of the sampling sites are type localities of endemic species from Iberian Peninsula. The dataset includes 409 samples record corresponding to two families, 12 genera and 58 species, 42 of them formally described plus 16 taxa unpublished and 47 samples in study. All species known from the study area are included, which nearly sum up a quarter of species of Bathynellacea known in the world (250 species). PMID:24693212

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Violet-spotted reef lobster Enoplometopus debelius (Crustacea, Astacidea, Enoplometopidae).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong-Ha; Min, Gi-Sik; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-05-01

    The violet-spotted reef lobster Enoplometopus debelius Holthuis, 1983 (Decapoda, Astacidea, Enoplometopidae) is found in the tropical reef areas of the Indo-Pacific region, and is a highly prized and very popular species in the aquarium trade industry. The complete mitochondrial genome of E. debelius has 15,641 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region of 746 bp. The base composition of E. debelius is 36.4% A, 35.3% T, 18.1% C, 10.3% G, and the species has an AT content of 71.7%. The E. debelius mitogenome was found to have a gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity identical to that of the Homarus americanus mitogenome, a representative of the arthropod ground pattern. Here, we present the complete mitogenome sequence of E. debelius, which is the first in the superfamily Enoplometopoidea. These data will provide a useful molecular resource for the phylogenetic study of the infraorder Astacidea/order Decapoda.

  8. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Lepidophthalmus (Decapoda, Callianassidae), with re-examination of its species composition.

    PubMed

    Robles, Rafael; Felder, Darryl L

    2015-09-23

    Ghost shrimps (Decapoda: Callianassidae) are common estuarine and marine burrowing organisms of tropical to temperate waters, typically found in intertidal to shallow subtidal habitats. Except for an abbreviated planktonic larval phase, most callianassids live as obligate burrowers and appear to depend on the burrow for shelter, reproduction, and feeding. Recent studies have shown the genus Lepidophthalmus, a group largely restricted to estuaries and river mouths, to be surprisingly speciose, but relationships among these taxa and driving forces for their separation remain poorly understood. We include fifteen described species of Lepidophthalmus in a molecular phylogenetic analysis based upon sequence analyses of the 16S and 12S mitochondrial genes. Our findings clarify the monophyletic membership of the genus and confirm postulated species separations. We reconfirm validity of Lepidophthalmus eiseni, reject two recently proposed new genera for selected members of Lepidophthalmus, and define ecologically and morphologically informative clades among congeners. Limited capability for larval dispersal and regional biogeographic history could well account for high diversity and regional endemism observed within the genus. Biogeographic scenarios, including continental drift, closure of the Panamanian Isthmus, and post-glacial dispersals, are invoked to account for proposed reconstructions of historical relationships.

  9. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (Decapoda: Cambaridae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Chai, Xin-Yue; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Xuan, Fu-Jun; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Here we present the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Procambarus clarkii (Decapoda: Cambaridae) and provide its annotation. The complete mt genome was determined to be 15 929 bp and contains 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, and a D-loop region. The nucleotide composition was biased toward A + T nucleotides (72.91%) and the AT skew of this mt genome was slightly negative. All the 22 tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). About 13 PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cox1 and nad2 genes which were initiated by ACG and GTG, respectively. Six of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T or TA. The D-loop region of the mt genome was 1188 bp in length and the A + T content was 81.08%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the placement of P. clarkii was within the Cambaridae. This mt genome sequence will provide a better understanding for crayfish evolution in the future.

  10. On the occurrence of Ctenocheles (Decapoda, Axiidea, Ctenochelidae) in the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin

    PubMed Central

    HYŽNÝ, MATÚŠ; VESELSKÁ, MARTINA KOČOVÁ; DVOŘÁK, PAVEL

    2015-01-01

    Because of close morphological affinities, fossil cheliped fragments of the ghost shrimp Ctenocheles (Decapoda, Axiidea, Ctenochelidae) can be easily misidentified as remains of different decapod crustacean taxa. Re-examination of the Cretaceous decapods deposited in the National Museum in Prague revealed that all supposed specimens of the lobster genus Oncopareia found in the Middle Coniacian calcareous claystones of the Březno Formation, including one of the Fritsch’s original specimens of Stenocheles parvulus, actually belong to Ctenocheles. This material together with newly collected specimens from the same locality, allowed for erection of a new species, Ctenocheles fritschi. Its major chela possesses a serrated ischium and ovoid, unarmed merus; therefore, it is considered a close relative of the extant C. collini and C. maorianus. Ctenocheles fritschi sp. nov. represents the first report on the occurrence of the genus from the Bohemian Cretaceous Basin. It is one of the oldest records of Ctenocheles and simultaneously one of the best preserved fossils of the genus reported to date. Confusing taxonomy of S. parvulus is reviewed and shortly discussed. PMID:25983568

  11. The complete mitogenome of the hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda, Brachyura) and comparison with brachyuran crabs.

    PubMed

    Ki, Jang-Seu; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda: Brachyura) obtained from the hydrothermal vents off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan, which extend from the deep sea Okinawa Trench. The mitogenome of X. testudinatus was 15,796 bp in length and contained the same 37 genes (e.g. 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 13 PCGs) found in other metazoan mitogenomes. Analysis of the structural mt gene order in X. testudinatus revealed that the 13 PCGs, excluding a translocation of ND6-Cyt b cluster, were similarly ordered when compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern; however the tRNAs were severely rearranged. Phylogenetic analysis of decapod mitogenomes showed that the molecular taxonomy of the vent crab was in accordance with its morphological systematics. Together, these findings suggest that the vent crab studied here has little mitochondrial genetic variation when compared with morphologically defined conspecifics from other marine habitats.

  12. Diversity of bacteria isolated from crustacea larvae and their rearing water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryanti; Sugama, Ketut; Nishijima, Toshitaka

    2003-04-01

    The bacteria in the genus Vibrio are heterothrophic, which exist in the larval rearing water of Crustacea and often show diverse pathogenicities to marine animals. In order to assess the bacterial diversity associated with Crustacean seed production, 32 strains were isolated from black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and mangrove crab (Scylla paramamosain) larvae and their rearing-water and characterized using biochemical and molecular approaches. Two or more genotypically different species were identified. The vibriosis of black tiger shrimp was causes by V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus and Vibrio spp. predominantly, while that of crab by V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus only.

  13. First Record of Hippa adactyla (Fabricius, 1787; Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) from Indonesian Waters.

    PubMed

    Ardika, Puji Utari; Farajallah, Achmad; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2015-12-01

    Specimens of Hippa adactyla (Crustacea, Anomura, Hippidae) were collected from several coasts of Indonesia (Sumatera, Java, Bali-Lombok and Sulawesi). This finding represents the first record of this species in Indonesia and confirms its presence in the Indian Ocean and in the Wallacea region. Its systematic and morphological characteristics are described, and its distribution in Indonesia is presented. One of the main characteristics of this species is a median lobe in the anterior part of the carapace, which has 3-4 lobes. Likewise, the left antenna has 2-6 articles.

  14. Biochemical and physiological responses after exposure to microcystins in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus (Decapoda, Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Dewes, L J; Sandrini, J Z; Monserrat, J M; Yunes, J S

    2006-10-01

    Microcystins are usually the predominant cyanotoxins present in both drinking and recreational waters after cyanobacterial blooms. Their classic toxic effect is hepatotoxicity through inhibition of serine/threonine phosphatases. However, recent studies also reported oxidative stress generation and disruption of ion regulation in aquatic organisms after microcystins exposure. In the present study, aqueous extracts of Microcystis aeruginosa were administered to the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulatus (Decapoda, Brachyura) by gavage in variable doses (from 34 to 860 microg kg(-1)) and exposure times (6, 12, and 72 h). A control group was exposed to saline solution. Analyzed variables included oxygen consumption, lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzyme activities (glutathione S-transferases or GST; alanine aminotransferase or ALT; aspartate aminotransferase or AST; and lactate dehydrogenase or LDH), glycogen, and microcystins content. Oxygen consumption increased in organisms exposed for 12h to 860 microg kg(-1) of microcystins and a similar result was observed after 72 h at doses equal to or higher than 34 microg kg(-1). LPO levels increased in doses equal to or higher than 34 microg kg(-1) after 72 h. GST and LDH activities increased after 12 h (at a dose of 860 microg kg(-1)), but ALT and AST activities remained unaltered in all experimental conditions. Glycogen content decreased after 72 h exposure at doses equal to or higher than 172 microg kg(-1). After 12h of exposure to 860 microg kg(-1) of microcystins, the concentration found in the hepatopancreas of C. granulatus was 13.17+/-0.56 microg kg(-1). In crabs exposed to doses higher than 172 microg kg(-1) during 72 h this value raised to 32.14+/-4.12 microg kg(-1). The obtained results indicated that microcystins exposure led the tissue to an oxidative stress condition (high LPO levels), at least in part favored by the augment of oxygen consumption, altering the glycogen metabolism. GST responses were only observed

  15. Natural porous and nano fiber chitin structure from Gammarus argaeus (Gammaridae Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Murat; Tozak, Kabil Özcan; Baran, Talat; Sezen, Göksal; Sargin, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Chitin and its derivatives are commercially important biopolymers due to their applications in medicine, agriculture, water treatment, cosmetics and various biotechnological areas. Since chitin and its derivatives exhibit different chemical and physical properties depending on the source and isolation method, there is a growing demand for new chitin sources other than crab and shrimp worldwide. In this study Gammarus, a Crustacea, was investigated as a novel chitin source. Gammarus, which belongs to the family Gammaridae Crustacea, lives in the bottom of aquatic ecosystems. More than 200 species are known worldwide. One of these species, G. argaeus was investigated for chitin isolation. The alpha chitin isolated from G. argaeus was characterized by using analysis techniques such as infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All these analyses confirmed that the isolated chitin from G. argaeus was in the alpha form. Furthermore, we described that dry weight of this species contained 11-12 % chitin. SEM examination of the isolated α-chitin revealed that it was composed of nanofibrils (15-55 nm) and pores (about 150 nm). PMID:26966425

  16. A new bathyal mysid of the family Petalophthalmidae (Crustacea: Mysida) from the Bismarck Sea (Western Tropical Pacific Ocean).

    PubMed

    San Vicente, Carlos; Corbari, Laure

    2015-02-27

    A new species of the genus Petalophthalmus (Crustacea: Mysida: Petalophthalmidae) is described, based on one specimen collected from the Bismarck Sea (Papua New Guinea, Western Pacific Ocean). This species can be distinguished from the other species of the genus Petalophthalmus by the globular cornea and the armature of the telson. This new species lives between 800 and 1065 m depth. A discussion on the geographic and bathymetric distribution and an identification key to world species of Petalophthalmus are provided.

  17. A replacement name for Dayus Gerken, 2001 (Crustacea, Peracarida, Cumacea), preoccupied by Dayus Mahmood, 1967 (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Bo; Gerken, Sarah; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A replacement name is proposed for genus Dayus Gerken, 2001 (Crustacea: Peracarida: Cumacea), preoccupied by Dayus Mahmood, 1967 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The following changes are proposed: Jennidayus new replacement name = Dayus Gerken, 2001 (nec Mahmood 1967); Jennidayus pharocheradus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus pharocheradus Gerken, 2001; Jennidayus acanthus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus acanthus Gerken, 2001; Jennidayus makrokolosus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus makrokolosus Gerken, 2001.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein coding genes confirms the reciprocal paraphyly of Hexapoda and Crustacea

    PubMed Central

    Carapelli, Antonio; Liò, Pietro; Nardi, Francesco; van der Wath, Elizabeth; Frati, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Background The phylogeny of Arthropoda is still a matter of harsh debate among systematists, and significant disagreement exists between morphological and molecular studies. In particular, while the taxon joining hexapods and crustaceans (the Pancrustacea) is now widely accepted among zoologists, the relationships among its basal lineages, and particularly the supposed reciprocal paraphyly of Crustacea and Hexapoda, continues to represent a challenge. Several genes, as well as different molecular markers, have been used to tackle this problem in molecular phylogenetic studies, with the mitochondrial DNA being one of the molecules of choice. In this study, we have assembled the largest data set available so far for Pancrustacea, consisting of 100 complete (or almost complete) sequences of mitochondrial genomes. After removal of unalignable sequence regions and highly rearranged genomes, we used nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences of the 13 protein coding genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among major lineages of Pancrustacea. The analysis was performed with Bayesian inference, and for the amino acid sequences a new, Pancrustacea-specific, matrix of amino acid replacement was developed and used in this study. Results Two largely congruent trees were obtained from the analysis of nucleotide and amino acid datasets. In particular, the best tree obtained based on the new matrix of amino acid replacement (MtPan) was preferred over those obtained using previously available matrices (MtArt and MtRev) because of its higher likelihood score. The most remarkable result is the reciprocal paraphyly of Hexapoda and Crustacea, with some lineages of crustaceans (namely the Malacostraca, Cephalocarida and, possibly, the Branchiopoda) being more closely related to the Insecta s.s. (Ectognatha) than two orders of basal hexapods, Collembola and Diplura. Our results confirm that the mitochondrial genome, unlike analyses based on morphological data or nuclear

  19. A new microsporidium, Triwangia caridinae gen. nov., sp. nov. parasitizing fresh water shrimp, Caridina formosae (Decapoda: Atyidae) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tai-Chuan; Nai, Yu-Shin; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Solter, Leellen F; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Wang, Chung-Hsiung; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2013-03-01

    A new microsporidium was isolated from the endemic, Taiwanese shrimp, Caridina formosae (Decapoda, Atyidae) from northern Taiwan. A conspicuous symptom of infection was presence of opaque white xenomas located in the proximity of the alimentary tract, the surface of the hepatopancreas, and the gills. A fully developed xenoma consisted of a hard, thick capsule filled with sporophorous vesicles containing multiple spores. Microsporidia developed synchronously within the same sporophorous vesicle, although the stage of parasite development differed among the vesicles. Fresh spores were pyriform, mononucleated and measured 6.53 × 4.38 μm. The polar filament was anisofilar with 9-11 coils. Phylogenetic analysis based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA sequence showed that the isolate is most similar to the fish microsporidian clade containing the genera Kabatana, Microgemma, Potaspora, Spraguea, and Teramicra. The highest sequence identity, 80%, was with Spraguea spp. Based on pathogenesis, life cycle and phylogenetic analysis, we erect a new genus and species, Triwangia caridinae for the novel microsporidium.

  20. How do mandibles sense? The sensory apparatus of larval mandibles in Palaemon elegans Rathke, 1837 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Geiselbrecht, Hannes; Melzer, Roland R

    2013-01-01

    The mandibles of decapod zoea-I larvae are robustly built masticating mouthparts equipped with several processes and spines. Superficial examination of these sturdy, inflexible structures can suggest that they are lacking sensory receptors. However, detailed TEM analysis of their ultrastructure revealed up to 11 sensillar cell clusters on the gnathal edges of the mandibles of the zoea-I in Palaemon elegans Rathke, 1837. Based on ultrastructural criteria we distinguish 7 types of sensilla: mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors and mechano- and chemoreceptors. One sensory unit located at the base of the 'lacinia mobilis' exhibits the typical features of a crustacean mechanosensitive sensillum with an external seta and corresponding ultrastructure. Another unit shows features indicating bimodal contact chemosensitivity. A third one is similar to known olfactory chemoreceptors. Using the concept of modality-specific structures we analyse the structure and functional morphology of each sensillum, and give a comprehensive overview of the sensory abilities of zoea mandibles. We take a closer look at the ultrastructure of the 'lacinia mobilis', providing further features to trace its evolutionary history in Decapoda, and thus contributing to a better understanding of malacostracan phylogeny.

  1. The biogeography of the yeti crabs (Kiwaidae) with notes on the phylogeny of the Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura).

    PubMed

    Roterman, C N; Copley, J T; Linse, K T; Tyler, P A; Rogers, A D

    2013-08-07

    The phylogeny of the superfamily Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura) has been poorly understood owing to limited taxon sampling and discordance between different genes. We present a nine-gene dataset across 15 chirostyloids, including all known yeti crabs (Kiwaidae), to improve the resolution of phylogenetic affinities within and between the different families, and to date key divergences using fossil calibrations. This study supports the monophyly of Chirostyloidea and, within this, a basal split between Eumunididae and a Kiwaidae-Chirostylidae clade. All three families originated in the Mid-Cretaceous, but extant kiwaids and most chirostylids radiated from the Eocene onwards. Within Kiwaidae, the basal split between the seep-endemic Kiwa puravida and a vent clade comprising Kiwa hirsuta and Kiwa spp. found on the East Scotia and Southwest Indian ridges is compatible with a hypothesized seep-to-vent evolutionary trajectory. A divergence date estimate of 13.4-25.9 Ma between the Pacific and non-Pacific lineages is consistent with Kiwaidae spreading into the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean via the newly opened Drake Passage. The recent radiation of Kiwaidae adds to the list of chemosynthetic fauna that appear to have diversified after the Palaeocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum, a period of possibly widespread anoxia/dysoxia in deep-sea basins.

  2. A waterborne behavioral cue for the actinotroch larva of Phoronis pallida (Phoronida) produced by Upogebia pugettensis (Decapoda: Thalassinidea).

    PubMed

    Santagata, Scott

    2004-10-01

    Phoronis pallida (Phoronida) occurs as a commensal within the burrow of Upogebia pugettensis (Decapoda: Thalassinidea). Upogebia-conditioned seawater (UCSW) induced an exploratory swimming behavior in competent larvae of P. pallida in a dosage-dependent manner. This behavior included a significant increase in swimming speed that was directed downward, along with the repeated probing of the bottom with the sensory portion of the oral hood. The waterborne cue from the shrimp was present in the gut effluent, and the swimming behavior was not the result of the elevated ammonia concentration. Molecular weight separation of the UCSW estimated that the cue was between 10 and 50 kDa. Enzymatic treatments showed that the cue's activity could be eliminated by arginase and significantly reduced by lipase. Competent larvae were also induced to metamorphose when exposed to 20 mM CsCl for 30 min. Larvae did not respond to CsCl when cultured about 4 weeks past the onset of competence. Compared with actinotroch larvae of other phoronid species, P. pallida larvae exhibit greater behavioral specificity and neuronal differences within the hood sense organ. These anatomical and behavioral differences may have been maintained through a coevolutionary process among P. pallida and species of thalassinid shrimps that share Upogebia life-history characteristics.

  3. Male meiosis in Crustacea: synapsis, recombination, epigenetics and fertility in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rocío; Van Damme, Kay; Gosálvez, Jaime; Morán, Eugenio Sánchez; Colbourne, John K

    2016-09-01

    We present the first detailed cytological study of male meiosis in Daphnia (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera)-an aquatic microcrustacean with a cyclical parthenogenetic life cycle. Using immunostaining of the testes in Daphnia magna for baseline knowledge, we characterized the different stages of meiotic division and spermiogenesis in relation to the distribution of proteins involved in synapsis, early recombination events and sister chromatid cohesion. We also studied post-translational histone modifications in male spermatocytes, in relation to the dynamic chromatin progression of meiosis. Finally, we applied a DNA fragmentation test to measure sperm quality of D. magna, with respect to levels of inbreeding. As a proxy for fertility, this technique may be used to assess the reproductive health of a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems. Daphnia proves to be a model species for comparative studies of meiosis that is poised to improve our understanding of the cytological basis of sexual and asexual reproduction.

  4. Calappid and leucosiid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Kerala, India, with the description of a new species of Mursia Desmarest, 1823, from the Arabian Sea and redescription of M. bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Biju A; Kumar, M Sushil; Galil, Bella S

    2013-12-13

    Eleven species of calappid and leucosiid crabs were identified from by-catch landed by trawlers at four fishing ports in Kerala, India that were surveyed in 2007 and supplemented by material obtained in January 2013. Four species are reported for the first time from India, six are new records for Kerala. The status of Mursia bicristimana Alcock & Anderson, 1894, is clarified and the species redescribed. A new species of Mursia is described from the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea. 

  5. A new subtidal species of the genus Petrolisthes Stimpson, 1858 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Porcellanidae) from Okinawa, with an account of species of the genus known from the Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Masayuki; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    A new porcellanid crab, Petrolisthes uruma sp. nov., is described based on a single specimen collected from Okinawajima Island in the Ryukyus, southwestern Japan. The unique holotype was collected from a subtidal depth of 10 m, though vast majority of the genus occur in intertidal to shallow subtidal zone. The new species is morphologically closest to P. noluccensis (De Man, 1888), but is distinguished by the weaker striation on the carapace, the proportionally longer carpus of the cheliped, the number of the anterior marginal teeth of the carpus of the cheliped, and the meri of the second and third pereopods each with a much stronger spine at the lateroventral distal angle. A brief note on species of Petrolisthes presently known from the Ryukyu Islands is given.

  6. New records of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Munididae) from deep-water off Okinawa Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Higashiji, Takuo

    2016-05-11

    Two species of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820, M. pollioculus n. sp. and M. zebra Macpherson, 1994, are recorded from deep-waters off Okinawa Islands, the Ryukyu Islands, at depths of 1000 m and 495 m, respectively. The new species closely resembles M. clevai Macpherson, 1999 and M. microps Alcock, 1894, but it differs from the latter two in the absence of a proximal spine on the mesial margin of the cheliped dactylus and the more stout dactylus of the second pereopod. Munida zebra is first recorded from the Northwest Pacific, as well as Japanese waters, with its geographical range extended to the north from the previously known southwestern Pacific localities.

  7. "Symmetrical" hermit crabs of the family Pylochelidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura) collected by the "BIOPAPUA" and "PAPUA NIUGINI" expeditions in the Papua New Guinea, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2016-03-09

    Collections made during the recent expeditions to Papua New Guinea ("BIOPAPUA", 2010; "PAPUA NIUGINI", 2012) yielded a total of 12 species from the "symmetrical" hermit crab family Pylochelidae, including two new to science: Bathycheles incisus (Forest, 1987), B. integer (Forest, 1987), Cheiroplatea laticauda Boas, 1926, C. pumicicola Forest, 1987, C. rotundioculus n. sp., Pylocheles mortensenii Boas, 1926, and Xylocheles macrops (Forest, 1987) (Pylochelinae); Parapylocheles scorpio (Alcock, 1894), Trizocheles manningi Forest, 1987, T. moosai Forest, 1987, T. sakaii Forest, 1987, and T. spinidigitus n. sp. (Trizochelinae). Affinities of the two new species are discussed. Parapylocheles scorpio, Trizocheles manningi and T. sakaii are recorded from the South Pacific for the first time. Revised identification keys to species of Cheiroplatea and Trizocheles are provided.

  8. Morphological differences between Stenocionops furcatus (Olivier, 1791) and S. coelatus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1878) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura, Majoidea).

    PubMed

    Colavite, Jessica; Santana, William; Tavares, Marcos

    2016-11-07

    Stenocionops furcatus (Olivier, 1791) and S. coelatus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1878) have been treated either as subspecies or as species in their own right, but never as each other's synonyms. Compared to S. coelatus, S. furcatus has been regarded as having smoother dorsal surface carapace, shorter rostral spines, straighter and less divergent rostrum. and smaller interorbital width. These morphological differences between the two species, however, can be attributed to changes over ontogeny and, therefore, cannot be used as distinguishing characters. Adults of S. coelatus and S. furcatus can, however, be safely separated from each other by the presence in S. coelatus of a strong crenation on the anterior margin of the male sterno-abdominal cavity, which is absent in S. furcatus. A lectotype for S. coelatus is designated. The synonymy between S. furcatus, Cancer cornudo Herbst, 1804, and Chorinus armatus Randall, 1839, is confirmed based on the holotypes of the latter two species.

  9. Parapleisticantha Yokoya, 1933, a valid genus of deep-sea inachid spider crab from Japan and the Philippines (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Majoidea), with the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    De Forges, Bertrand Richer; Ng, Peter K L; Ahyong, Shane T

    2013-01-01

    The inachid spider crab genus, Parapleisticantha Yokoya, 1933 [type species: Parapleisticantha japonica Yokoya, 1933] is removed from the synonymy of Pleistacantha Miers, 1879 [type species: Pleistacantha sanctijohannis Miers, 1879], and recognised as a valid genus. Parapleisticantha differs from Pleistacantha sensu stricto primarily by having a less spiny carapace, stouter and more inflated male chelipeds, and by lacking a slender subdistal process on the male first gonopod. We redescribe Parapleisticantha japonica based on the Japanese type material and describe as new a second species, Parapleisticantha ludivinae n. sp., recently discovered in the Philippines.

  10. On a New Species of Parasitic Barnacle (Crustacea: Rhizocephala), Sacculina shiinoi sp. nov., Parasitizing Japanese Mud Shrimps Upogebia spp. (Decapoda: Thalassinidea: Upogebiidae), Including a Description of a Novel Morphological Structure in the Rhizocephala.

    PubMed

    Lützen, Jørgen; Itani, Gyo; Jespersen, Åse; Hong, Jae-Sang; Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    The rhizocephalan Sacculina shiinoi sp. nov. parasitizes three species of Upogebia in Japan. It is described morphologically and compared with another Upogebia parasite, Sacculina upogebiae Shiino, 1943 from Japan and Korea. These two species are the only sacculinids that parasitize mud shrimps. DNA analyses clearly show the two species to be separate and not closely related. The cuticle differs in being provided with close-set, branched, and spiny excrescences in S. shiinoi, while it lacks excrescences, but forms small scales in S. upogebiae. In S. upogebiae, the bulbous sperm-producing part and the narrow receptacle duct are separated by a compartmentalized mid portion, which is missing in S. shiinoi. A ridge, having a thickened, fluffy cuticle with a U-shaped course, passes across the visceral mass between the two receptacle openings in S. shiinoi. Such a structure has never been described in other rhizocephalans, and its function is uncertain.

  11. First stage zoeal morphology of four ghost crabs Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772), O. cordimanus Latreille, 1818, O. sinensis Dai, Song & Yang, 1985 and O. stimpsoni Ortmann, 1897 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guo-Chen; Liu, Hong-Chang; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chan, Benny K K

    2014-02-03

    Light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to examine the first zoeal stage of four ghost crabs, Ocypode ceratophthalmus (Pallas, 1772), O. cordimanus Latreille, 1818, O. sinensis Dai, Song & Yang, 1985 and O. stimpsoni Ortmann, 1897. Finding diagnostic characters to distinguish between the four species proved difficult because their setal appendage patterns were identical. However the rectangular and pockmarked patterns on the ventral carapace are rather pronounced in O. ceratophthalmus and O. stimpsoni but weak in O. cordimanus and O. sinensis. The spinulation on the furca of the telson is less in O. cordimanus than in the other three species.

  12. A new species of fiddler crab from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan, separated from the widely-distributed sister species Uca (Paraleptuca) crassipes (White, 1847) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsi-Te; Komai, Tomoyuki; Liu, Min-Yun

    2013-12-10

    A new species of fiddler crab (Brachyura: Ocypodidae), Uca boninensis sp. nov., is described from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan. The new species has previously been identified with the widely distributed U. crassipes (White, 1847), from which it differs by having a slightly differently shaped carapace, and relatively stouter male first gonopods (G1). The recognition of the new species is also supported by differences in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and control region (CR) genes. U. boninensis sp. nov., appears to be endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, and as the only known population is small, urgent conservation measures are needed for its protection. Our study brings the total number of the Japanese fiddler crab species to 12.

  13. A new iphiculid crab (Crustacea, Brachyura, Leucosioidea) from the Middle Miocene of Austria, with notes on palaeobiogeography of Iphiculus

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, Matúš; Gross, Martin

    2017-01-01

    A new fossil species of the iphiculid genus Iphiculus Adams & White, 1849, (Crustacea, Brachyura) is described on the basis of three specimens from the Middle Miocene Florian Beds of Styria, Austria. Iphiculus eliasi sp. nov. constitutes the first European record of the genus. This occurrence represents the oldest record of Iphiculus, having implications for the palaeobiogeographic history of the family Iphiculidae. It is suggested that Iphiculus may have originated in the Western Tethys and migrated subsequently into the Indo-West Pacific. Alternatively, its current geographic restriction to the Indo-West Pacific can be a remnant of an ancient broader geographic distribution. PMID:27811673

  14. A new iphiculid crab (Crustacea, Brachyura, Leucosioidea) from the Middle Miocene of Austria, with notes on palaeobiogeography of Iphiculus.

    PubMed

    Hyžný, Matúš; Gross, Martin

    2016-10-31

    A new fossil species of the iphiculid genus Iphiculus Adams & White, 1849, (Crustacea, Brachyura) is described on the basis of three specimens from the Middle Miocene Florian Beds of Styria, Austria. Iphiculus eliasi sp. nov. constitutes the first European record of the genus. This occurrence represents the oldest record of Iphiculus, having implications for the palaeobiogeographic history of the family Iphiculidae. It is suggested that Iphiculus may have originated in the Western Tethys and migrated subsequently into the Indo-West Pacific. Alternatively, its current geographic restriction to the Indo-West Pacific can be a remnant of an ancient broader geographic distribution.

  15. Phylogeny and evolution of life history strategies of the parasitic barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Rhizocephala).

    PubMed

    Glenner, Henrik; Hebsgaard, Martin Bay

    2006-12-01

    The barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia) consist of three well-defined orders: the conventional filter-feeding barnacles (Thoracica), the burrowing barnacles (Acrothoracica), and the parasitic barnacles (Rhizocephala). Thoracica and Acrothoracica feed by catching food particles from the surrounding seawater using their thoracic appendages while members of Rhizocephala are exclusively parasitic. The parasite consists of a sac-shaped, external reproductive organ situated on the abdomen of its crustacean host and a nutrient-absorbing root system embedded into the heamolymph of the host. In order to resolve the phylogenetic relationship of the order Rhizocephala and elucidate the evolution of the different life history strategies found within the Rhizocephala, we have performed the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the group. Our results indicate that Rhizocephala is monophyletic with a filter-feeding barnacle-like ancestor. The host-infective stage, the kentrogon larva, inserted in the lifecycle of the rhizocephalan suborder, Kentrogonida, is shown to be ancestral and most likely a homologue of the juvenile stage of a conventional thoracican barnacle. The mode of host inoculation found in the suborder Akentrogonida, where the last pelagic larval stage directly injects the parasitic material into the heamolymph of the host is derived, and has evolved only once within the Rhizocephala. Lastly, our results show that the ancestral host for extant rhizocephalans appears to be the anomuran crustaceans (Anomura), which includes hermit crabs and squat lobsters.

  16. A new species and two new records of Minicopenaeon Bourdon, 1981 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Bopyridae) from China.

    PubMed

    An, Jianmei; Boyko, Christopher B; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-07-01

    Three species of the parasitic isopod genus Minicopenaeon Bourdon, 1981 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Bopyridae) are reported from China, one new to science and two new records from mainland China. Minicopenaeon crosnieri (Bourdon, 1979) formerly known from Madagascar, the Philippines and Taiwan, is recorded from Zhejiang province. Minicopenaeon intermedium Bourdon, 1981 previously recorded from the Philippines and Japan, is recorded from China for the first time. The new species Minicopenaeon liuruiyui n. sp. is recorded from the East and South China Seas. As with other species of the genus, females of the new species have rudimentary coxal plates on the second pereomeres on the short side. The new species can be distinguished from other species by the presence of a widely open brood pouch, head with bilobate anterior edge and median concave groove, and male head with curved posterior margin of the pleon. A key to species of Minicopenaeon is provided and the subspecies M. intermedium curvatum Bourdon, 1981 is synonymised with M. intermedium Bourdon, 1981. Metapenaeopsis philippii (Bate, 1881) and M. coniger (Wood-Mason, 1891) are newly recorded as host species for bopyrids.

  17. Paleocene decapod Crustacea from northeastern Mexico: Additions to biostratigraphy and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Díaz, José Luis; Aguillón-Martínez, Martha Carolina; Luque, Javier; Vega, Francisco J.

    2017-03-01

    New decapod specimens from mid-Paleocene shallow marine deposits of NE Mexico represents an important addition to the diversity, paleobiogeography and evolution of the Crustacea record. In this work, we describe additions to the decapod assemblage from the Paleocene (Selandian) Rancho Nuevo Formation (Difunta Group, Parras Basin, Coahuila). Due to the evident size differences with other decapod assemblages, we compare the new assemblage with those from the Lower Paleocene (Danian) Mexia Clay Member of the Wills Point Formation, Texas, and the Lower Eocene (Ypresian) El Bosque Formation in Chiapas. Species reported from the mid-Paleocene (Selandian) assemblage of the Porters Creek Formation (Alabama), are correlatable to the decapod species from NE Mexico in age, size and systematic composition. The erymid lobster Enoploclytia gardnerae (Rathbun, 1935) is represented by several carapaces and chelae remains. One isolated palm of Callianassidae is included. Numerous carapaces of Linuparus wilcoxensis Rathbun, 1935 are described, representing the most abundant lobster. A new record for the raninid Notopoides sp., and presence of Quasilaeviranina sp. cf. arzignagnensis and Quasilaeviranina ovalis are here reported. New raninids, Claudioranina latacantha sp. nov. and Claudioranina sp. (Cyrtorhininae) are also part of this assemblage. Paraverrucoides alabamensis (Rathbun, 1935), and Tehuacana americana (Rathbun, 1935) are represented by several carapaces exhibiting intraspecific morphological variation. Different sizes among the Early and Middle Paleocene and Early Eocene decapod populations suggests a possible effect of variation in seawater temperatures and/or a Lilliput effect after the K/Pg event.

  18. Eco-morphological studies on pleopodal lungs and cuticle in Armadillidium species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Szabó, Péter; Mrak, Polona; Strus, Jasna; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2013-05-01

    Terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) have adapted to land life by diverse morphological, physiological and behavioral changes. Woodlice species exhibit a large variety in this respect, their preferences ranging from moist to dry habitats. These moisture preference values are related to various morphological adaptations, rendering terrestrial isopods amenable to studying morphological adaptations to terrestrial life. We performed a comparison of four Armadillidium species (Armadillidium zenckeri, Armadillidium nasatum, Armadillidium versicolor, Armadillidium vulgare), by quantifying two morphological traits: the extent of the interfacial endothelium between the respiratory space and the hemolymph within pleopodal lungs and the thickness of tergite cuticle, which are 'key factors' in determining protection from desiccation. These values were measured from light micrographs of cross-sectioned lungs. The cosmopolitan A. vulgare, as a habitat generalist, seems to be the most resistant against desiccation and other environmental conditions, while A. zenckeri is the most sensitive one. Light microscopic studies revealed that the four species can be ordered similarly, if we compare them by the extension of the endothelial interface and cuticle thickness, suggesting that these morphological traits are important determinants of their distribution on habitat, microhabitat scales and through the existence of suitable habitats - together with many other factors - the geographical pattern of species occurence.

  19. Effects of landfill leachate treatment on hepatopancreas of Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Manti, Anita; Canonico, Barbara; Mazzeo, Roberto; Santolini, Riccardo; Ciandrini, Eleonora; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco Bruno Luigi; Nannoni, Francesco; Protano, Giuseppe; Papa, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The major environmental impact of landfills is emission of pollutants via the leachate and gas pathways. The hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Crustacea, Latreille 1804) plays an important role in the bioaccumulation of contaminants, such as heavy metals. To evaluate the effects of landfill leachate treatment, 2 different approaches were applied: 1) the detection of accumulation of trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Sb, Zn, Pb, Ni, V) in hepatopancreatic cells, and 2) the evaluation of biological effect of contaminants on fresh hepatopancreatic cells by flow-cytometric analyses. The presence of 2 different cell types (herein referred to as "small" [S] cells and "big" [B] cells, in agreement with the literature based on morphological examinations) was detected for the first time by flow cytometry, which also highlighted their different response to stress stimuli. In particular, B cells appeared more sensitive to landfill leachate treatment, being more damaged in the short term, while S cells seemed more adaptive. Furthermore, S cells could represent a pool from which they are able to differentiate into B cells. These findings were also confirmed by principal component analyses, underlining that S SYBR Green I bright cells correlate with specific chemicals (Ca, Cu, Co), confirming their resistance to stress stimuli, and suggesting that the decrease of specific cell types may prime other elements to replace them in a homeostasis-preservation framework.

  20. The summer assemblage of large pelagic Crustacea in the Gully submarine canyon: Major patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacIsaac, K. G.; Kenchington, T. J.; Kenchington, E. L. R.; Best, M.

    2014-06-01

    We describe the trawl-vulnerable crustacean micronekton and macrozooplankton of the Gully, a large, shelf-incising submarine canyon off Nova Scotia, Canada, and a Marine Protected Area. Over 68 species of pelagic crustacea were collected with an International Young Gadoid Pelagic Trawl during three annual summer surveys at one fixed station in the canyon. Depths sampled ranged from the surface to the upper bathypelagic zone, concentrated in the upper 1250 m, with a maximum depth of 1500 m. The crustacean fauna was dominated by cold temperate species typical of mid- to higher-latitudes in the North Atlantic. Meganyctiphanes norvegica and Eusergestes arcticus were particularly dominant in terms of both observed biomass and abundance above 750 m depth. At least 17 species were new records for Canadian waters. The species assemblage of the station varied primarily with depth and diel cycle, the only dominant members of the assemblage showing pronounced inter-annual variations in catch being M. norvegica and Themisto gaudichaudii, both relatively shallow living species.

  1. The early development of the onychopod cladoceran Bythotrephes longimanus (Crustacea, Branchiopoda)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Within arthropods, several crustacean groups are unique in their early development due to their stereotyped cell division patterns and cell lineages. However, it is still unclear whether these cell division patterns are homologous between the various crustacean groups and whether they could indicate the ground pattern of Tetraconata (Crustacea and Hexapoda). In this study we describe the early development of the raptorial water flea Bythotrephes longimanus as a representative of the Cladocera within branchiopods. Results In B. longimanus the early cell lineage and the cell division pattern are stereotyped up to the fifth cell division cycle. As a morphological marker a nurse cell remnant (ncr) identifies the cell lineage of the smallest and division delayed blastomere up to the 16-cell stage. This marker might be indicative of the germ line. By combining histology, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 4D microscopy, we reconstruct the early cell lineage and cell division pattern and follow transient formations of cell morphological structures in their temporal and spatial behavior up to gastrulation. Conclusions Correspondences to the early cleavage pattern of other Cladocera suggest that the described pattern can be assumed to be ancestral for either the entire Cladocera or for the majority of the Cladocera comprising Anomopoda, Ctenopoda and Onychopoda. The comparison to the cell division patterns of other crustacean groups such as Malacostraca, Ostracoda, and Copepoda reveals similarities that allow for a discussion of a common pattern for the crustacean groups and a ground pattern for the Tetraconata. PMID:24507018

  2. Production of male neonates in Daphnia magna (Cladocera, Crustacea) exposed to juvenile hormones and their analogs.

    PubMed

    Oda, Shigeto; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Watanabe, Hajime; Morita, Masatoshi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2005-12-01

    We exposed the water flea Daphnia magna (Cladocera, Crustacea) to either juvenile hormone I (JH I), juvenile hormone II (JH II), or the juvenile hormone-mimicking insecticides kinoprene, hydroprene, epofenonane, or fenoxycarb. By 21-day reproduction tests, we investigated the effects on the number of neonates born per female and the offspring sex ratio. All six chemicals induced D. magna to produce male neonates; the male sex ratio of the offspring increased as the chemical concentration increased. EC50 values for production of male neonates were estimated as 400 (JH I), 410 (JH II), 190 (kinoprene), 2.9 (hydroprene), 64 (epofenonane), and 0.92 (fenoxycarb) microg/l. The number of neonates produced was reduced with all chemicals at the concentrations investigated. At the EC50 for male production, five of the six chemicals reduced the reproductive rate to less than 50%; the exception was epofenonane, which caused only a slight reduction in reproductive rate. These results were similar to those obtained for five juvenoids studied previously, one of which was studied here again. There are now 10 chemical substances--all juvenile hormones or their analogs-that are known to induce D. magna to produce male neonates. This suggests that juvenile hormone is involved in initiating male production followed by sexual reproduction in D. magna, and probably in most cladocerans that exhibit cyclic parthenogenesis.

  3. Species Diversity and Phylogeographical Affinities of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Nicholas W.; Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Adamowicz, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    The region of Churchill, Manitoba, contains a wide variety of habitats representative of both the boreal forest and arctic tundra and has been used as a model site for biodiversity studies for nearly seven decades within Canada. Much previous work has been done in Churchill to study the Daphnia pulex species complex in particular, but no study has completed a wide-scale survey on the crustacean species that inhabit Churchill's aquatic ecosystems using molecular markers. We have employed DNA barcoding to study the diversity of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) in a wide variety of freshwater habitats and to determine the likely origins of the Churchill fauna following the last glaciation. The standard animal barcode marker (COI) was sequenced for 327 specimens, and a 3% divergence threshold was used to delineate potential species. We found 42 provisional and valid branchiopod species from this survey alone, including several cryptic lineages, in comparison with the 25 previously recorded from previous ecological works. Using published sequence data, we explored the phylogeographic affinities of Churchill's branchiopods, finding that the Churchill fauna apparently originated from all directions from multiple glacial refugia (including southern, Beringian, and high arctic regions). Overall, these microcrustaceans are very diverse in Churchill and contain multiple species complexes. The present study introduces among the first sequences for some understudied genera, for which further work is required to delineate species boundaries and develop a more complete understanding of branchiopod diversity over a larger spatial scale. PMID:21610864

  4. Species diversity and phylogeographical affinities of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    The region of Churchill, Manitoba, contains a wide variety of habitats representative of both the boreal forest and arctic tundra and has been used as a model site for biodiversity studies for nearly seven decades within Canada. Much previous work has been done in Churchill to study the Daphnia pulex species complex in particular, but no study has completed a wide-scale survey on the crustacean species that inhabit Churchill's aquatic ecosystems using molecular markers. We have employed DNA barcoding to study the diversity of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) in a wide variety of freshwater habitats and to determine the likely origins of the Churchill fauna following the last glaciation. The standard animal barcode marker (COI) was sequenced for 327 specimens, and a 3% divergence threshold was used to delineate potential species. We found 42 provisional and valid branchiopod species from this survey alone, including several cryptic lineages, in comparison with the 25 previously recorded from previous ecological works. Using published sequence data, we explored the phylogeographic affinities of Churchill's branchiopods, finding that the Churchill fauna apparently originated from all directions from multiple glacial refugia (including southern, Beringian, and high arctic regions). Overall, these microcrustaceans are very diverse in Churchill and contain multiple species complexes. The present study introduces among the first sequences for some understudied genera, for which further work is required to delineate species boundaries and develop a more complete understanding of branchiopod diversity over a larger spatial scale.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments, mussels and crustacea around a former gasworks site in Shoreham-by-Sea, UK.

    PubMed

    Law, R J; Kelly, C A; Baker, K L; Langford, K H; Bartlett, T

    2002-09-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been determined in sediments, mussels and crustacea in the vicinity of a former gasworks site by Shoreham Harbour, UK. Very high concentrations of PAH were found in the substrate, an ash-like material deposited on the former gasworks site, which exhibited a profile consistent with the major source of contamination being coal or coke tar produced during the period of gas production at the site. Elevated PAH concentrations were also found in mussels both from the beach below the former gasworks site, and from sites further to the east in Portslade and Hove. The significance of these concentrations were assessed using an approach which involved the calculation of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent conoentrations (BaPEs), summing concentrations of individual PAH on the basis of their comparative potency as carcinogens. BaPE ranged from values of, or close to, zero for crustacea, to 336 microg kg(-1) wet weight in mussels from Southwick Beach. The contaminated mussels are not exploited commercially but may be taken by casual gatherers, and notices have been posted to warn potential consumers.

  6. Seamount influences on mid-water shrimps (Decapoda) and gnathophausiids (Lophogastridea) of the South-West Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letessier, Tom B.; De Grave, Sammy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Kemp, Kirsty M.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Rogers, Alex D.

    2017-02-01

    Maintenance of often-observed elevated levels of pelagic diversity and biomass on seamounts, of relevance to conservation and fishery management, involves complex interactions between physical and biological variables that remain poorly understood. To untangle these biophysical processes we explore factors influencing the distribution of epi- and meso-pelagic (0-1000 m) micronektonic crustaceans (>15 mm; order Lophogastridea, family Gnathophausiidea; and order Decapoda) on and off seamounts along the South West Indian Ridge (SWIR, 27° to 42°S) and on a seamount off the Madagascar Ridge (31.6°S, 42.8°E). Thirty-one species of micronektic crustaceans were caught using mid-water trawls within the study area but there was no apparent latitude-related patterns in species richness or abundance. Species richness predicted by rarefraction curves and numerical abundance was highest in the vicinity (<1 km) of seamounts (species richness: 15 to 21; abundance: 10±2 to 20±1 ind.10-3 m-1) compared with over the abyssal plains and ridge slopes (species richness: 9.2-9.9; abundance: 24±2 to 79±8 ind.10-3 m-1). Multivariate analysis of assemblage composition revealed significant groupings of individual trawl samples with respect to whether the sample was on or off a seamount and hydrographic region, but not with time of sampling relative to diel cycle (day/night or dawn) or depth of sampling (0-500, 500-800, >800 m). The dominant species assemblage comprised the shrimps Systellaspis debilis (37%) and Sergia prehensilis (34%), and was restricted to seamounts on the subtropical SWIR. Our observations suggest that the 'oasis effect' of seamounts conventionally associated with higher trophic levels is also applicable to pelagic micronektic crustaceans at lower trophic levels. We suggest that the enhanced biomass and species richness attributed is due to 'habitat enrichment', whereby seamounts provide favourable habitats for both pelagic and bentho-pelagic mid-water crustaceans.

  7. Cell Death in the Epithelia of the Intestine and Hepatopancreas in Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Sonakowska, Lidia; Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Wilczek, Grażyna; Wilczek, Piotr; Student, Sebastian; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena Maria

    2016-01-01

    The endodermal region of the digestive system in the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca) consists of a tube-shaped intestine and large hepatopancreas, which is formed by numerous blind-ended tubules. The precise structure and ultrastructure of these regions were presented in our previous studies, while here we focused on the cell death processes and their effect on the functioning of the midgut. We used transmission electron microscopy, light and confocal microscopes to describe and detect cell death, while a quantitative assessment of cells with depolarized mitochondria helped us to establish whether there is the relationship between cell death and the inactivation of mitochondria. Three types of the cell death were observed in the intestine and hepatopancreas–apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. No differences were observed in the course of these processes in males and females and or in the intestine and hepatopancreas of the shrimp that were examined. Our studies revealed that apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy only involves the fully developed cells of the midgut epithelium that have contact with the midgut lumen–D-cells in the intestine and B- and F-cells in hepatopancreas, while E-cells (midgut stem cells) did not die. A distinct correlation between the accumulation of E-cells and the activation of apoptosis was detected in the anterior region of the intestine, while necrosis was an accidental process. Degenerating organelles, mainly mitochondria were neutralized and eventually, the activation of cell death was prevented in the entire epithelium due to autophagy. Therefore, we state that autophagy plays a role of the survival factor. PMID:26844766

  8. Mitochondrial DNA reveals multiple Northern Hemisphere introductions of Caprella mutica (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Ashton, Gail V; Stevens, Mark I; Hart, Mark C; Green, David H; Burrows, Michael T; Cook, Elizabeth J; Willis, Kate J

    2008-03-01

    Caprella mutica (Crustacea, Amphipoda) has been widely introduced to non-native regions in the last 40 years. Its native habitat is sub-boreal northeast Asia, but in the Northern Hemisphere, it is now found on both coasts of North America, and North Atlantic coastlines of Europe. Direct sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) was used to compare genetic variation in native and non-native populations of C. mutica. These data were used to investigate the invasion history of C. mutica and to test potential source populations in Japan. High diversity (31 haplotypes from 49 individuals), but no phylogeographical structure, was identified in four populations in the putative native range. In contrast, non-native populations showed reduced genetic diversity (7 haplotypes from 249 individuals) and informative phylogeographical structure. Grouping of C. mutica populations into native, east Pacific, and Atlantic groups explained the most among-region variation (59%). This indicates independent introduction pathways for C. mutica to the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America. Two dominant haplotypes were identified in eastern and western Atlantic coastal populations, indicating several dispersal routes within the Atlantic. The analysis indicated that several introductions from multiple sources were likely to be responsible for the observed global distribution of C. mutica, but the pathways were least well defined among the Atlantic populations. The four sampled populations of C. mutica in Japan could not be identified as the direct source of the non-native populations examined in this study. The high diversity within the Japan populations indicates that the native range needs to be assessed at a far greater scale, both within and among populations, to accurately assess the source of the global spread of C. mutica.

  9. The ventral nerve cord in Cephalocarida (Crustacea): new insights into the ground pattern of Tetraconata.

    PubMed

    Stegner, Martin E J; Brenneis, Georg; Richter, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Cephalocarida are Crustacea with many anatomical features that have been interpreted as plesiomorphic with respect to crustaceans or Tetraconata. While the ventral nerve cord (VNC) has been investigated in many other arthropods to address phylogenetic and evolutionary questions, the few studies that exist on the cephalocarid VNC date back 20 years, and data pertaining to neuroactive substances in particular are too sparse for comparison. We reinvestigated the VNC of adult Hutchinsoniella macracantha in detail, combining immunolabeling (tubulin, serotonin, RFamide, histamine) and nuclear stains with confocal laser microscopy, complemented by 3D-reconstructions based on serial semithin sections. The subesophageal ganglion in Cephalocarida comprises three segmental neuromeres (Md, Mx1, Mx2), while a separate ganglion occurs in all thoracic segments and abdominal segments 1-8. Abdominal segments 9 and 10 and the telson are free of ganglia. The maxillar neuromere and the thoracic ganglia correspond closely in their limb innervation pattern, their pattern of mostly four segmental commissures and in displaying up to six individually identified serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons per body side, which exceeds the number found in most other tetraconates. Only two commissures and two serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons per side are present in abdominal ganglia. The stomatogastric nervous system in H. macracantha corresponds to that in other crustaceans and includes, among other structures, a pair of lateral neurite bundles. These innervate the gut as well as various trunk muscles and are, uniquely, linked to the unpaired median neurite bundle. We propose that most features of the cephalocarid ventral nerve cord (VNC) are plesiomorphic with respect to the tetraconate ground pattern. Further, we suggest that this ground pattern includes more serotonin-like neurons than hitherto assumed, and argue that a sister-group relationship between Cephalocarida and Remipedia, as

  10. Toxicity of imidacloprid to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Drobne, Damjana; Blazic, Mateja; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Leser, Vladka; Zidar, Primoz; Jemec, Anita; Trebse, Polonca

    2008-04-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide with neurotoxic action that, as a possible alternative for commonly used organophosphorus pesticides, has gained registration in about 120 countries for use in over 140 agricultural crops. Only few data are available on its toxicity for soil invertebrates. We therefore assessed the effects of imidacloprid on survival, weight gain, feeding rate, total protein content, glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), and digestive gland epithelial thickness in juveniles and adults of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. After two weeks of feeding on imidacloprid-dosed food, weight gain (NOEC 5 microg/g dry food) and feeding rate (NOEC 10 microg/g) in juveniles, and feeding rate (NOEC<10 microg/g) and digestive gland epithelial thickness (NOEC<10 microg/g) in adults were most affected. In juveniles induction of GST activity and increase of total protein content per wet animal weight was detected at 5 microg/g dry food, whereas in adults a reduction of GST was observed at 25 microg/g (NOEC 10 microg/g). An estimate of actual intake rates suggests that imidacloprid affects isopods at similar exposure concentrations as insects. The toxicity of imidacloprid was similar to that of the organophosphorus pesticide diazinon, tested earlier using the same methods [Stanek, K., Drobne, D., Trebse, P., 2006. Linkage of biomarkers along levels of biological complexity in juvenile and adult diazinon fed terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea). Chemosphere 64, 1745-1752]. At actual environmental concentrations, diazinon poses a higher risk to P. scaber. Due to its increasing use in crop protection and higher persistence in soil, imidacloprid might however, be potentially more dangerous after long-term application. We conclude that toxicity testing with P. scaber provides relevant, repeatable, reproducible and comparable toxicity data that is useful for the risk assessment of pesticides in the terrestrial environment.

  11. Histological studies on the marsupium of two terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The marsupium, a brood pouch in peracarid crustaceans (Crustacea, Malacostraca) has evolved in terrestrial environment for providing nutrition and optimal conditions for embryogenesis. In the present study we give details on the histology and ultrastructure of its constituting elements such as oostegites and cotyledons. Marsupia of two different eco-morphological types of woodlice, namely the non-conglobating species Trachelipusrathkii Brandt, 1833 and the conglobating species Cylisticusconvexus De Geer, 1778 were investigated. Light microscopic (LM) studies showed some differences in the main structure of the two species' brood pouch: in Trachelipusrathkii, a 'clinger' type woodlice, the oostegites bend outwards during brood incubation as growing offspring require more space, while in Cylisticusconvexus, a 'roller' type isopod, the sternites arch into the body cavity to ensure space for developing offspring and still allowing conglobation of the gravid females. The quantitative analysis of the oostegites' cuticle proved that the outer part is about 2.5 - 3 times thicker compared to the inner part in both species. Electron microscopic (TEM) examinations show only small histological differences in the oostegites and cotyledon structure of the two species. Cellular elements and moderately electron dense fleecy precipitate are found in the hemolymph space between the two cuticles of oostegites. The cells contain PAS positive polysaccharide areas. TEM studies revealed some differences in the cotyledon ultrastructure of the two species. Cotyledons of Trachelipusrathkii consist of cells with cristate mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum with cisterns. Cotyledons of Cylisticusconvexus consist of cells with densely cristate mitochondria and ribosomes attached to vesicular membrane structures. In both species cells with electron dense bodies were observed. We conclude that - besides the differences in marsupial shapes - the fine structure of the oostegites and

  12. Evasion of predators contributes to the maintenance of male eyes in sexually dimorphic Euphilomedes ostracods (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Speiser, Daniel I; Lampe, Rebecca I; Lovdahl, Valerie R; Carrillo-Zazueta, Brenna; Rivera, Ajna S; Oakley, Todd H

    2013-07-01

    Sexual dimorphisms have long drawn the attention of evolutionary biologists. However, we still have much to learn about the evolutionary, genetic, and developmental drivers of sexual dimorphisms. Here, we introduce ostracods of the genus Euphilomedes (Myodocopida, Ostracoda, and Crustacea) as a promising new system in which to investigate why and how sexual dimorphisms evolve. First, we ask whether male-skewed selective pressure from pelagic predators may help explain a dramatic sexual dimorphism in which male Euphilomedes have compound eyes, but females do not. Manipulative experiments demonstrate that blindfolding reduces the survival rate of male Euphilomedes when they are exposed to predatory fish. Blindfolding of the female rudimentary eyes (rudiments) does not, however, similarly influence the survival rate of brooding females. Further, numerical estimates of sighting distances, based on reasonable extrapolations from Euphilomedes's eye morphology, suggest that the eyes of male Euphilomedes are useful for detecting objects roughly the size of certain pelagic predators, but not conspecifics. We conclude that eyes do not mediate direct interactions between male and female Euphilomedes, but that differences in predation pressure-perhaps associated with different reproductive behaviors-contribute to maintaining the sexually dimorphic eyes of these ostracods. Second, through transcriptome sequencing, we examined potential gene regulatory networks that could underlie sexual dimorphism in Euphilomedes' eyes. From the transcriptome of juvenile male Euphilomedes' eyes, we identified phototransduction genes and components of eye-related developmental networks that are well characterized in Drosophila and other species. The presence of suites of eye regulatory genes in our Euphilomedes juvenile male transcriptome will allow us, in future studies, to test how ostracods regulate the development of their sexually dimorphic eyes.

  13. Histological studies on the marsupium of two terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Csonka, Diána; Halasy, Katalin; Hornung, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The marsupium, a brood pouch in peracarid crustaceans (Crustacea, Malacostraca) has evolved in terrestrial environment for providing nutrition and optimal conditions for embryogenesis. In the present study we give details on the histology and ultrastructure of its constituting elements such as oostegites and cotyledons. Marsupia of two different eco-morphological types of woodlice, namely the non-conglobating species Trachelipus rathkii Brandt, 1833 and the conglobating species Cylisticus convexus De Geer, 1778 were investigated. Light microscopic (LM) studies showed some differences in the main structure of the two species’ brood pouch: in Trachelipus rathkii, a ‘clinger’ type woodlice, the oostegites bend outwards during brood incubation as growing offspring require more space, while in Cylisticus convexus, a ‘roller’ type isopod, the sternites arch into the body cavity to ensure space for developing offspring and still allowing conglobation of the gravid females. The quantitative analysis of the oostegites’ cuticle proved that the outer part is about 2.5 - 3 times thicker compared to the inner part in both species. Electron microscopic (TEM) examinations show only small histological differences in the oostegites and cotyledon structure of the two species. Cellular elements and moderately electron dense fleecy precipitate are found in the hemolymph space between the two cuticles of oostegites. The cells contain PAS positive polysaccharide areas. TEM studies revealed some differences in the cotyledon ultrastructure of the two species. Cotyledons of Trachelipus rathkii consist of cells with cristate mitochondria and granular endoplasmic reticulum with cisterns. Cotyledons of Cylisticus convexus consist of cells with densely cristate mitochondria and ribosomes attached to vesicular membrane structures. In both species cells with electron dense bodies were observed. We conclude that - besides the differences in marsupial shapes - the fine

  14. Two new species and one newly recorded species of the genus Kamaka (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from the Hainan Province, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xian-qiu; Sha, Zhong-li

    2013-01-01

    A total of 5 species of the genus Kamaka (Crustacea: Amphipoda) are identified from Hainan Province, South China Sea. In those, one species, Kamaka excavata Ariyama, 2007, is recorded for the first time in Chinese waters. Two new species, Kamaka corophina sp. n. and Kamaka foliacea sp. n., are described. A key to the Chinese species is provided. They were collected from littoral zone, mud flat in seaweed of mangrove side, brackish water and seawater, sifted out with sieve.

  15. Fine structure and ecdysis of mandibular sensilla associated with the lacinia mobilis in Neomysis integer (Leach, 1814) (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Peracarida).

    PubMed

    Geiselbrecht, Hannes; Melzer, Roland R

    2014-05-01

    The external and internal structures of adult Neomysis integer mandibles were studied using light and electron microscopy with special reference to the lacinia mobilis, a highly specialized appendage on the gnathal edge of many crustaceans. The right and left lacinia mobilis are equipped with ciliary primary sensory cells revealing that both laciniae are also mechanosensory organs in addition to their mechanical function during mastication. A detailed character analyses indicated that the right lacinia is probably a highly derived sensory seta, whereas two alternative interpretations are considered for the left lacinia; it could be a sensillar appendage equipped with two mechanosensory units, or it could be a movable appendage of the incisor process containing two sensilla deprived of external appendages. The ecdysis of the lacinia mobilis corresponds very well to type I sensillar ecdysis, suggesting classification as a sensillar appendage. These features support a possible homology of the right lacinia mobilis in Peracarida and Decapoda, tracing them to an origin as a member of the setal row. Whether the left lacinia mobilis is a sensillum or an appendage with sensilla cannot be resolved presently.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the red-banded lobster Metanephrops thomsoni (Crustacea, Astacidea, Nephropidae): a novel gene order.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong-Ha; Min, Gi-Sik; Park, Joong-Ki; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the red-banded lobster, Metanephrops thomsoni (Decapoda, Astacidea, Nephropidae), is 19,835 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 24 transfer RNAs (including additional copies of trnW and trnL1), and 2 control regions (CR). The mitogenome of M. thomsoni has 10 long intergenic sequences (71-237 bp) with a high AT content (70.0%). The two CRs show 59.6% similarity and have an identical sequence region with a length of 295 bp. The mitogenome of M. thomsoni shows a novel gene arrangement compared with the pancrustacean ground pattern and is identical to that of M. sibogae, except for the two additional tRNAs (trnW and trnL1). Phylogenetic tree from maximum likelihood analysis using the concatenated sequences of 13 PCGs depicted M. thomsoni as one of the members of the superfamily Nephropoidea within Astacidea.

  17. Bioaccumulation in Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) as a measure of the EDTA remediation efficiency of metal-polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Udovic, Metka; Drobne, Damjana; Lestan, Domen

    2009-10-01

    Leaching using EDTA applied to a Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil significantly reduced soil metal concentrations and the pool of metals in labile soil fractions. Metal mobility (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), phytoavailability (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extraction) and human oral-bioavailability (Physiologically Based Extraction Test) were reduced by 85-92%, 68-91% and 88-95%, respectively. The metal accumulation capacity of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) was used as in vivo assay of metal bioavailability, before and after soil remediation. After feeding on metal contaminated soil for two weeks, P. scaber accumulated Pb, Zn and Cd in a concentration dependent manner. The amounts of accumulated metals were, however, higher than expected on the basis of extraction (in vitro) tests. The combined results of chemical extractions and the in vivo test with P. scaber provide a more relevant picture of the availability stripping of metals after soil remediation.

  18. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care as key features of the evolution of freshwater Decapoda.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Günter

    2013-02-01

    The transition from marine to freshwater habitats is one of the major steps in the evolution of life. In the decapod crustaceans, four groups have colonized fresh water at different geological times since the Triassic, the freshwater shrimps, freshwater crayfish, freshwater crabs and freshwater anomurans. Some families have even colonized terrestrial habitats via the freshwater route or directly via the sea shore. Since none of these taxa has ever reinvaded its environment of origin the Decapoda appear particularly suitable to investigate life-history adaptations to fresh water. Evolutionary comparison of marine, freshwater and terrestrial decapods suggests that the reduction of egg number, abbreviation of larval development, extension of brood care and lecithotrophy of the first posthatching life stages are key adaptations to fresh water. Marine decapods usually have high numbers of small eggs and develop through a prolonged planktonic larval cycle, whereas the production of small numbers of large eggs, direct development and extended brood care until the juvenile stage is the rule in freshwater crayfish, primary freshwater crabs and aeglid anomurans. The amphidromous freshwater shrimp and freshwater crab species and all terrestrial decapods that invaded land via the sea shore have retained ocean-type planktonic development. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care are interpreted as adaptations to the particularly strong variations of hydrodynamic parameters, physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton availability in freshwater habitats. These life-history changes increase fitness of the offspring and are obviously favoured by natural selection, explaining their multiple origins in fresh water. There is no evidence for their early evolution in the marine ancestors of the extant freshwater groups and a preadaptive role for the conquest of fresh water. The costs of the shift from relative r- to K-strategy in freshwater decapods are traded

  19. Composition and distribution of selected munnopsid genera (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) in Icelandic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurr, Sarah; Brandt, Angelika; Brix, Saskia; Fiorentino, Dario; Malyutina, Marina; Svavarsson, Jörundur

    2014-02-01

    The Greenland-Scotland Ridge (GSR) is a major topographic feature, extending from Greenland to Scotland. It constrains the water exchange between the northernmost North Atlantic Ocean and the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Seas (GIN Seas) and thus forms a potential barrier for faunal exchange from the Arctic to the North Atlantic (and vice versa). Recently an increase in Atlantic water inflow has been observed, leading to changes in physical parameters (i.e. temperature and salinity), which may have an impact on the resident fauna. In this study, we analyzed the composition and distribution of six selected genera of the isopod family Munnopsidae (Crustacea) occurring north and south of the GSR. We examined 82 epibenthic sledge samples and 26 additional sub-samples taken in the course of the Benthic Invertebrates of Icelandic Waters (BIOICE) and Icelandic Marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology (IceAGE) projects, respectively, covering a total depth range from 103 to 2752 m depth. Overall, 58 of the evaluated stations originated in the area north of the GSR, while the remaining 50 samples were collected south of the ridge. In total, 10517 individuals could be assigned to 15 species, most belonging to the genus EurycopeSars, 1864. Due to the presence of the GSR as well as differences in the environment, we expected significant dissimilarities in faunal composition between the two study areas. However, most species (8) occurred on both sides of the ridge, while four species were restricted to the region north of Iceland, and three to the region south of the ridge. Depth (or factors related to depth) appeared to be the most important factor in driving distributional patterns of the studied species. Temperature was also an important driver, but not to the same extent as depth. On the contrary, salinity and sediment type did not have much influence on munnopsid distribution patterns. Hence, the presence of the ridge does not restrict faunal exchange between the northern

  20. Intra- and extracellular osmotic regulation in the hololimnetic Caridea and Anomura: a phylogenetic perspective on the conquest of fresh water by the decapod Crustacea.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Samuel Coelho; Augusto, Alessandra Silva; McNamara, John Campbell

    2011-02-01

    We investigate extra- and intracellular osmoregulatory capability in two species of hololimnetic Caridea and Anomura: Macrobrachium brasiliense, a palaemonid shrimp, and Aegla franca, an aeglid anomuran, both restricted to continental waters. We also appraise the sharing of physiological characteristics by the hololimnetic Decapoda, and their origins and role in the conquest of fresh water. Both species survive salinity exposure well. While overall hyperosmoregulatory capability is weak in A. franca and moderate in M. brasiliense, both species strongly hyporegulate hemolymph [Cl(-)] but not osmolality. Muscle total free amino acids (FAA) increase slowly but markedly in response to the rapid rise in hemolymph osmolality consequent to hyperosmotic challenge: 3.5-fold in A. franca and 1.9-fold in M. brasiliense. Glycine, taurine, arginine, alanine and proline constitute ≈85% of muscle FAA pools in fresh water; taurine, arginine, alanine each contribute ≈22% in A. franca, while glycine predominates (70%) in M. brasiliense. These FAA also show the greatest increases on salinity challenge. Muscle FAA titers correlate strongly (R = 0.82) with hemolymph osmolalities across the main decapod sub/infraorders, revealing that marine species with high hemolymph osmolalities achieve isosmoticity of the intra- and extracellular fluids partly through elevated intracellular FAA concentrations; freshwater species show low hemolymph osmolalities and exhibit reduced intracellular FAA titers, consistent with isosmoticity at a far lower external osmolality. Given the decapod phylogeny adopted here and their multiple, independent invasions of fresh water, particularly by the Caridea and Anomura, our findings suggest that homoplastic strategies underlie osmotic and ionic homeostasis in the extant freshwater Decapoda.

  1. External morphology of Lightiella monniotae (Crustacea, Cephalocarida) in the light of Cambrian 'Orsten' crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Jørgen; Haug, Joachim T; Maas, Andreas; Waloszek, Dieter

    2011-09-01

    The species-poor meiofaunal Cephalocarida have played an important role in discussions of the phylogeny and evolution of Crustacea since their discovery in 1955. One reason may be that the morphology of cephalocarids includes some aspects of putatively ancient appearance, such as the simple roof-shaped head shield, the anterior three head appendages resembling those of a nauplius larva, or the trunk-limb-like second maxilla. Cephalocarida have even been suggested to represent the sister taxon to all other Eucrustacea. Presence of possibly plesiomorphic characters, however, does not necessarily point to a basal position in the system. Growing evidence demonstrates that the modification of the fourth post-antennular cephalic appendage, the 'maxilla', into a "mouth part" may have occurred independently in the different eucrustacean lineages, so a trunk-limb-like maxilla is an ancient feature that does not hold only for cephalocarids. Retention of its plesiomorphic shape and function in the Cephalocarida remains, however, noteworthy. Cephalocarids are still little studied and incompletely known, especially their external morphology. By examining several adults and one young specimen of Lightiella monniotae Cals and Delamare Deboutteville, 1970 from New Caledonia, we aimed to a) document as many details as possible, and b) compare these data with other species of Cephalocarida. We also aimed to reconstruct aspects of the ground pattern of Cephalocarida, which is a pre-requisite for any comparisons in a broader perspective of crustacean phylogeny. Among the new findings or conclusions are: (1) Lightiella is in need of a revision since several assumed differences between the species are questionable or subject to intra-specific variability; (2) the cuticle of the trunk-limb basipod is sub-divided into a number of smaller sclerotized areas as in various exceptionally 3D preserved fossil crustaceans from Cambrian 'Orsten' faunal assemblages; (3) a small transitional portion

  2. Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa in male and female specimens of an ostracod Cypria ophtalmica (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Late Glacial lacustrine sediments of Southern Carpathians, Romania.

    PubMed

    Iepure, Sanda; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Valdecasas, Antonio G; Magyari, Enikö K

    2012-07-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa observed between abundant decalcified carapace valves of ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) were found in Late Glacial to Holocene (14,400 to 10,000 cal years BP) lacustrine sediments in the southern Romanian Carpathians. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed good preservation of the appendages enabling specific identification as Cypria ophtalmica (Candonidae) and indication of the presence of both female and male specimens based on the sexual dimorphism of the second antenna. This record represents the oldest and richest direct evidence of virtually morphologically unaltered animal spermatozoa preserved in females after mating.

  3. Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa in male and female specimens of an ostracod Cypria ophtalmica (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Late Glacial lacustrine sediments of Southern Carpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iepure, Sanda; Namiotko, Tadeusz; Valdecasas, Antonio G.; Magyari, Enikö K.

    2012-07-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved giant spermatozoa observed between abundant decalcified carapace valves of ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) were found in Late Glacial to Holocene (14,400 to 10,000 cal years bp) lacustrine sediments in the southern Romanian Carpathians. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed good preservation of the appendages enabling specific identification as Cypria ophtalmica (Candonidae) and indication of the presence of both female and male specimens based on the sexual dimorphism of the second antenna. This record represents the oldest and richest direct evidence of virtually morphologically unaltered animal spermatozoa preserved in females after mating.

  4. Three new species of the Eriopisa group (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Eriopisidae) from Japan, with the description of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Ariyama, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-23

    Three new species of the Eriopisa group (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Eriopisidae) are described from coastal areas in Japan. Paraflagitopisa gen. nov. is established with P. excavata sp. nov. as its type species. This new genus is characterized by (1) entire lateral cephalic lobe, (2) unfused flagellum of antenna 2, (3) 3-articulated mandibular palp, (4) carpus of gnathopod 1 longer than propodus, (5) transverse palm of gnathopod 1, and (6) slender outer ramus of uropod 3 with long second article, and can be distinguished from the closely related genus, Flagitopisa, by the article 2 of mandibular palp longer than article 3, the undilated bases of pereopods 3-4, and the slender inner ramus of uropod 3. Psammogammarus lobatus sp. nov. is characterized by (1) male gnathopod 2 with excavated palm, (2) posterodistally projected bases of pereopods 5-7, (3) quadrate posteroventral corner of pleonal epimeron 3, (4) short inner ramus of uropod 3, and (5) article 2 of uropod 3 outer ramus longer than article 1. Victoriopisa wadai sp. nov. has the following characters: (1) eyes absent, (2) peduncle of antenna 1 not heavily setose, (3) accessory flagellum with 1-2 articles, (4) flagellum of antenna 2 composed of 2 long and 3 short articles, (5) gnathopod 2 in both sexes with excavated palm, (6) merus of pereopod 7 moderately expanded, and (7) ventral margin of pleonite 2 slightly setose. Key to species of the Eriopisa group in Japan is provided.

  5. The effect of starvation and re-feeding on mitochondrial potential in the midgut of Neocaridina davidi (Crustacea, Malacostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Sonakowska, Lidia; Kamińska, Karolina; Marchewka, Angelika; Wilczek, Grażyna; Wilczek, Piotr; Student, Sebastian; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The midgut in the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina davidi (previously named N. heteropoda) (Crustacea, Malacostraca) is composed of a tube-shaped intestine and a large hepatopancreas that is formed by numerous blind-ended tubules. The precise structure and ultrastructure of these regions were presented in our previous papers, while here we focused on the ultrastructural changes that occurred in the midgut epithelial cells (D-cells in the intestine, B- and F- cells in the hepatopancreas) after long-term starvation and re-feeding. We used transmission electron microscopy, light and confocal microscopes and flow cytometry to describe all of the changes that occurred due to the stressor with special emphasis on mitochondrial alterations. A quantitative assessment of cells with depolarized mitochondria helped us to establish whether there is a relationship between starvation, re-feeding and the inactivation/activation of mitochondria. The results of our studies showed that in the freshwater shrimp N. davidi that were analyzed, long-term starvation activates the degeneration of epithelial cells at the ultrastructural level and causes an increase of cells with depolarized (non-active) mitochondria. The process of re-feeding leads to the gradual regeneration of the cytoplasm of the midgut epithelial cells; however, these changes were observed at the ultrastructural level. Additionally, re-feeding causes the regeneration of mitochondrial ultrastructure. Therefore, we can state that the increase in the number of cells with polarized mitochondria occurs slowly and does not depend on ultrastructural alterations. PMID:28282457

  6. Behavioural and Physiological Implications of a Burrow-dwelling Lifestyle for Two Species of Upogebiid Mud-shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astall, C. M.; Taylor, A. C.; Atkinson, R. J. A.

    1997-02-01

    Upogebia stellataand U. deltaura(Crustacea: Thalassinidea) construct burrows in nearshore sediments in U.K. waters. Burrow structure is similar in both species; the basic burrow consisting of a two-opening, U-shaped section with a vertical shaft descending from the mid-point of the U. This structure may be variously elaborated. Burrow cross-section is circular, dilations allow turning by somersaulting and surface openings are often constricted. Conditions within the burrows are usually hypoxic and hypercapnic. Burrow water PO 2in the parts normally occupied by the mud-shrimp was between 80-110 Torr, but was much lower (10-45 Torr) in the deepest, poorly-irrigated parts. Both species irrigate their burrows by episodes of pleopod beating of variable duration (mean=8·5±3·5 min and 2·8±0·5 min for U. deltauraand U. stellata, respectively), which draws oxygenated water into the burrow and also particulate food for suspension feeding. When exposed to hypoxia, U. deltauraand U. stellatawere able to maintain their rates of oxygen consumption approximately constant over a wide range of PO 2( Pc=30-50 Torr). Under these conditions, there was a pronounced increase in scaphognathite beat rate but heart rate remained relatively constant. Below the Pc, however, both rates declined.

  7. Linkage of biomarkers along levels of biological complexity in juvenile and adult diazinon fed terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Stanek, Katja; Drobne, Damjana; Trebse, Polonca

    2006-09-01

    In parallel laboratory experiments, we determined the effect of a typical representative of organophosphorous pesticides, diazinon, on AChE activity, lipid, protein and glycogen content, weight change, feeding activity and mortality of juvenile and adult terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). Organophosphorous pesticides (OP) are among the most extensively used pesticides, which have replaced organochlorine pesticides. OPs inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in neurotoxicity. They have more widespread effects on non-target organisms than do organochlorine pesticides. The aim of this study was to link effect of diazinon on target enzyme to energy reserves and to integrated biomarker responses in juvenile and adult P. scaber. The non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) for AChE activity after diazinon exposure in two weeks toxicity study with isopods was below 5 microg/g diazinon. There was a good agreement between concentrations at which AChE and survival were affected (10 microg/g diazinon in juveniles, 100 microg/g diazinon in adults). We revealed a link among AChE activity, protein content and mortality. Glycogen and lipid content, feeding activity and weight change were not affected in two weeks diazinon exposure up to 100 microg/g diazinon. Juveniles were affected at concentrations that were an order of magnitude lower than those provoking similar effects on adults. Recommendations are made for future toxicity studies with terrestrial isopods.

  8. "Candidatus Bacilloplasma," a novel lineage of Mollicutes associated with the hindgut wall of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna; Avgustin, Gorazd

    2007-09-01

    Pointed, rod-shaped bacteria colonizing the cuticular surface of the hindgut of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) were investigated by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and electron microscopy. The results of phylogenetic analysis, and the absence of a cell wall, affiliated these bacteria with the class Mollicutes, within which they represent a novel and deeply branched lineage, sharing less than 82.6% sequence similarity to known Mollicutes. The lineage has been positioned as a sister group to the clade comprising the Spiroplasma group, the Mycoplasma pneumoniae group, and the Mycoplasma hominis group. The specific signature sequence was identified and used as a probe in in situ hybridization, which confirmed that the retrieved sequences originate from the attached rod-shaped bacteria from the hindgut of P. scaber and made it possible to detect these bacteria in their natural environment. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed a spherically shaped structure at the tapered end of the rod-shaped bacteria, enabling their specific and exclusive attachment to the tip of the cuticular spines on the inner surface of the gut. Specific adaptation to the gut environment, as well as phylogenetic positioning, indicate the long-term association and probable coevolution of the bacteria and the host. Taking into account their pointed, rod-shaped morphology and their phylogenetic position, the name "Candidatus Bacilloplasma" has been proposed for this new lineage of bacteria specifically associated with the gut surface of P. scaber.

  9. Prolonged feeding of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) on TiO (2) nanoparicles. Absence of toxic effect.

    PubMed

    Novak, Sara; Drobne, Damjana; Menard, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide are one of most widely used nanomaterials in different products in everyday use and in industry, but very little is known about their effects on non- target cells and tissues. Terrestrial isopods were exposed to food dosed with nano-TiO(2) to give final nominal concentration 1000 and 2000 µg TiO(2)/g dry weight of food. The effects of ingested nano-TiO(2) on the model invertebrate Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) after short-term (3 and 7 days) and prolonged (14 and 28 days) dietary exposure was assessed by conventional toxicity measures such as feeding rate, weight change and mortality. Cell membrane destabilization was also investigated. No severe toxicity effects were observed after 3, 7, 14 or 28 days of dietary exposure to nano-TiO(2), but some animals, particularly those exposed to lower concentrations of nanoparticles, had severely destabilized digestive cell membranes. It was concluded that strong destabilization of the cell membrane was sporadic, and neither concentration- nor time-related. Further research is needed to confirm this sporadic toxic effect of nanoparticles.

  10. Lunar-rhythmic molting in laboratory populations of the noble crayfish Astacus astacus (Crustacea, Astacidea): an experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Franke, Robert; Hoerstgen-Schwark, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile noble crayfish, Astacusastacus (Crustacea, Astacidea) in the second year of age were kept in the laboratory for a twelve-month period under continuing "summer conditions" (LD 16:8, 19°C). Molting processes in this population could be synchronized by artificial moonlight cycles. Peaks of exuviations occurred at "new moons". Males showed a slightly higher degree of synchronization than females. A phase-shift of the artificial lunar cycle in relation to the natural cycle resulted in a corresponding shift of the molting cycle. This clearly demonstrates that changes in the nocturnal light regime provide the primary external information for the lunar-monthly molting rhythm. There is a first indication that lunar photic stimuli do not act directly but as a zeitgeber which entrains an endogenous molting rhythm to the lunar cycle. Moreover, the results of the long-term experiments suggest that the hibernal resting period of A. astacus in the field (no molts between October and April) may also involve some endogenous programming. Continuing artificial summer conditions can delay but not completely suppress this resting period. The adaptive significance of the phenomena and how the findings may be applied to improve the management of crowded crayfish stocks are discussed.

  11. Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea): identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous vertebrate-type steroids.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim; De Wasch, Katia; De Brabander, Hubert F; Janssen, Colin R

    2002-04-01

    Testosterone metabolism by Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) was assessed to obtain initial data on its metabolic capacity. N. integer were exposed to both testosterone and [(14)C]testosterone. Identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous steroids was performed using thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography with multiple mass spectrometry. Endogenous production of testosterone in mysids was detected for the first time. N. integer were exposed to testosterone and metabolized administered testosterone extensively. At least 11 polar testosterone metabolites (R(f,metabolite) < R(f,testosterone)), androstenedione, dihydrotestosterone, and testosterone were produced in vivo by N. integer. A sex-specific testosterone metabolism was also observed, although this observation requires further confirmation. The anabolic steroid beta-boldenone was also identified for the first time in invertebrates. The metabolic pathway leading to the formation of beta-boldenone remains unknown, since the steroidal precursor androstadienedione could not be detected. These results reveal interesting similarities in enzyme systems in invertebrate and vertebrate species. Alterations in steroid hormone metabolism may be used as a new biomarker for the effects of endocrine disruptors in invertebrates.

  12. Petalophthalmus papilloculatus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Mysida: Petalophthalmidae), a new bathyal suprabenthic mysid from the Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic Ocean).

    PubMed

    Vicente, Carlos San; Frutos, Inmaculada; Cartes, Joan E

    2014-02-14

    A new species of the genus Petalophthalmus (Crustacea: Mysida: Petalophthalmidae) is described, based on specimens collected from the Galicia Bank (northeastern Atlantic Ocean). This species can be distinguished from the other species of the genus Petalophthalmus by the presence of an ocular papilla on its eyes. P. papilloculatus sp. nov. is morphologically close to the cosmopolitan species P. armiger Willemoes-Suhm, 1875, but can be easily distinguished by the presence of an ocular papilla, the longer antennal scales bearing an apical lobe, the unique chitinous ridge on the molar process, the outwards lengthening of the three cuspidate setae on the outer margin of the uropodal exopod and the armature of the telson. This new species lives on fine and very fine sandy bottoms at the bank flanks, between 1536 and 1809 m depths. Probably related to the special biogeographic characteristics of seamounts, the morphological affinity between the new species and P. armiger supports the hypothesis on a common ancestry and recent divergence between both deep sea mysids. An identification key to world species of Petalophthalmus is provided.

  13. The model barnacle Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) mitochondrial genome and gene rearrangements within the family Balanidae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsoi, Kwok-Ho; Cheang, Chi-Chiu

    2016-05-01

    Balanus balanus Linnaeus, 1758, the model organism in the order Sessilia (Crustacea: Maxillopoda) is a cold water acorn barnacle in the family Balanidae distributing over the entire northern hemisphere. We present complete mitochondrial genome of this barnacle and analyze mitochondrial genomic characters of the family Balanidae. The length of mitochondrial genome is 15,955 bp, which is larger than those of the other barnacles in the same family. An inversion of a six-gene block (trnPro- nad4L- nad4- trnHis- nad5- trnPhe) is found between B. balanus and two Megabalanus (M. ajax and M. volcano). Three types of mitochondrial gene arrangements revealed in Balanidae have indicated the non-conserved gene orders even at intrafamilial level. Compared to pancrustacean ground pattern, large-scale gene rearrangements are found in B. balanus. Translocations of at least six tRNAs (trnAla, trnGlu/trnSer(AGY), trnPro/trnThr, trnLys, trnGln and trnCys) are identified and translocation and inversion occurred simultaneously in one tRNAs (trnTyr).

  14. Reproductive biology and seasonality of the Indo-Australasian mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Crustacea: Mysida) in a tropical mangrove estuary, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanamura, Yukio; Siow, Ryon; Chee, Phaik-Ean

    2008-04-01

    A year-round survey of the tropical shallow-water mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Tattersall, 1908) (Crustacea, Mysidacea) was conducted in the Merbok mangrove estuary, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. The mysid formed dense aggregations at the river's edge close to the mangrove forest during the daytime, but very few were captured elsewhere in the estuary system. The sampled population was found in a wide range of salinities from 16 to 32, demonstrating broad euryhalinity, and the number of the catch at the littoral zone ranged from 11.8 to 2273 ind m -2. The overall annual mean was 709.2 ind m -2. Females predominated over males in the entire population, and brooding females were present at every monthly sample, indicating that reproduction is continuous year round. The clutch size positively correlated with female body length. The diameter of eggs (Stage I embryos) was unaffected by the seasonality and independent of the maternal size within an observed size range. The life history pattern of the estuarine population of M. orientalis showed close similarity to that of the coastal counterpart. However, the former was found to produce fewer but larger eggs, and the specimens in this population were larger than those in the coastal population at the embryo, juvenile, and adult stages. This evidence indicates that the life history features of the estuarine population would differ to some degree from those of the coastal counterpart.

  15. Using field data to assess the effects of pesticides on crustacea in freshwater aquatic ecosystems and verifying the level of protection provided by water quality guidelines.

    PubMed

    Guy, Martha; Singh, Lucina; Mineau, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how well single-species laboratory data predict real-world pesticide toxicity effects on Crustacea. Data from field pesticide exposures from experimental mesocosm and small pond studies were converted into toxicity units (TUs) by dividing measured pesticide concentrations by the L(E)C50 for Daphnia or acute 5% hazard concentration for Crustacea (HC5-C). The proportion of crustacean taxa significantly affected by the pesticide treatment, called the count ratio of effect, was used in logistic regression models. Of 200 possible logistic model combinations of the TUs, fate, physicochemical variables, and structural variables versus the count ratio of effect for the mesocosm data, the best model was found to incorporate log(TU HC5-C). This model was used to convert pesticide water quality guidelines from around the world into estimates of the proportion of crustacean taxa predicted to be impacted by exposure to a pesticide at the water quality guideline concentration. This analysis suggests 64% of long-term water quality guidelines and 88% of short-term pesticide water quality guidelines are not protective of the aquatic life they are designed to protect. We conclude that empirically derived data from mesocosm studies should be incorporated into water quality guideline derivation for pesticides where available. Also, interspecific differences in susceptibility should be accounted for more accurately to ensure water quality guidelines are adequately protective against the adverse effects of pesticide exposure.

  16. Species diversity of fiddler crabs, genus Uca Leach, 1814 (Crustacea: Ocypodidae), from Taiwan and adjacent islands, with notes on the Japanese species.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsi-Te; Lee, Jung-Hsiang; Ho, Ping-Ho; Liu, Hung-Chang; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Teng, Shao-Jyun

    2016-02-18

    The fiddler crabs, genus Uca Leach, 1814 (Decapoda, Ocypodidae) of Taiwan, including the offshore islands of Penghu (Pescadores), Kinmen (Quemoy), Matsu (Matzu), and Dongsha (Pratas), are revised, with the recognition of five subgenera and 15 species, viz. Uca (Austruca) Bott, 1973: U. lactea (De Haan, 1835), U. perplexa (H. Milne Edwards, 1837), U. triangularis (A. Milne-Edwards, 1873); U. (Gelasimus) Latreille, 1817: U. borealis Crane, 1975, U. jocelynae Shih, Naruse & Ng, 2010, U. tetragonon (Herbst, 1790), U. vocans (Linnaeus, 1758); U. (Paraleptuca) Bott, 1973: U. crassipes (White, 1847), U. splendida (Stimpson, 1858); U. (Tubuca) Bott, 1973: U. acuta (Stimpson 1858), U. arcuata (De Haan, 1835), U. coarctata (H. Milne Edwards, 1852), U. dussumieri (H. Milne Edwards, 1852), U. paradussumieri (Bott, 1973); and U. (Xeruca) Shih, 2015: U. formosensis Rathbun, 1921. Among them, U. acuta, U. paradussumieri, and U. vocans are confirmed to be distributed in Taiwan. Uca formosensis is endemic to Taiwan. The Uca species of the main islands of Japan are also listed. Four species (U. arcuata, U. lactea, U. crassipes and U. borealis) are known, but the recent additional records of U. perplexa and U. vocans need further confirmation. Except U. acuta, U. borealis, U. formosensis, U. lactea, and U. paradussumieri, other 10 Taiwanese species can be found from the Ryukyus too. Only one endemic species, U. boninensis, is reported from the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands. A key to the 18 species of Uca found in East Asia is also provided in this study.

  17. Spatial distribution of digestive proteinases in the midgut of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) indicates the existence of endo-ectoperitrophic circulation in Crustacea.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Daniel; Ozório, Renata A; Derner, Roberto B; Fracalossi, Débora M; Oliveira, Gabriel B; Samuels, Richard I; Terra, Walter R; Silva, Carlos P

    2014-01-01

    The effect of dietary protein concentration on the spatial distribution of digestive proteinases in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei indicates the existence of endo-ectoperitrophic enzyme circulation in this species. Samples recovered from the midgut gland tissues, stomach contents, three different portions of the midgut and feces were used for quantitative and qualitative analyses of the composition and distribution of the digestive proteinases. Animals were divided into three different groups: (1) animals (controls) fed with a commercial 35% protein diet, (2) animals fed with a commercial diet supplemented with ovalbumin to a final protein concentration of 60%; (3) animals fed with an 80% protein diet. Quantitative determinations using different substrates and zymograms showed that increasing protein concentration in the diet alters the distribution of proteinases along the digestive tract. Composition of proteinases in the midgut gland, stomach contents, midgut sections and feces were similar, but not identical. Chymotrypsin and trypsin paralogues were identified in all enzyme sources in a concentration gradient along the midgut in the control shrimp, the expected distribution supporting the existence of a recycling mechanism. The occurrence of a peritrophic membrane in other Decapoda suggests that endo-ectoperitrophic circulation of digestive enzymes and nutrients may also occur in other crustaceans and also extends beyond the Insecta.

  18. Effects of extracts from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa on ion regulation and gill Na+,K+-ATPase and K+-dependent phosphatase activities of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata (Decapoda, Grapsidae).

    PubMed

    Vinagre, T M; Alciati, J C; Yunes, J S; Richards, J; Bianchini, A; Monserrat, J M

    2002-01-01

    Recent discoveries indicate that microcystins affect enzymes, such as Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, involved in ion regulation of aquatic animals, through K(+)-dependent phosphatase inhibition. In vitro studies showed the inhibitory effect of Microcystis aeruginosa extracts on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and K(+)-dependent phosphatase activities in gills of Chasmagnathus granulata (Decapoda, Grapsidae). Extracts of M. aeruginosa were prepared from lyophilized or cultures cells of the cyanobacterium. For lyophilized cells, IC(50) values were estimated as 0.46 microg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.40-0.52 microg/L) and 1.31 microg/L (95% CI=1.14-1.51 microg/L) for Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and K(+)-dependent phosphatase, respectively. However, extracts prepared from cultured cells presented a much lower inhibitory potency against both enzymes. Gas chromatography revealed long-chain fatty acids in the lyophilized cell extracts, indicating that they are in part responsible for the enzyme inhibition. In vivo studies showed that the toxin inhibited Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in anterior gills, whereas an increased augmented activity of glutathione-S-transferase was observed in both kind of gills, indicating that the crab has increased its ability to conjugate the toxin. No significant differences in hemolymph sodium or chloride concentration were detected. This result is in agreement with the lack of effects of microcystin on Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity of posterior (osmoregulating) gills.

  19. Brain architecture of the largest living land arthropod, the Giant Robber Crab Birgus latro (Crustacea, Anomura, Coenobitidae): evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several lineages within the Crustacea conquered land independently during evolution, thereby requiring physiological adaptations for a semi-terrestrial or even a fully terrestrial lifestyle. Birgus latro Linnaeus, 1767, the giant robber crab or coconut crab (Anomura, Coenobitidae), is the largest land-living arthropod and inhabits Indo-Pacific islands such as Christmas Island. B. latro has served as a model in numerous studies of physiological aspects related to the conquest of land by crustaceans. From an olfactory point of view, a transition from sea to land means that molecules need to be detected in gas phase instead of in water solution. Previous studies have provided physiological evidence that terrestrial hermit crabs (Coenobitidae) such as B. latro have a sensitive and well differentiated sense of smell. Here we analyze the brain, in particular the olfactory processing areas of B. latro, by morphological analysis followed by 3 D reconstruction and immunocytochemical studies of synaptic proteins and a neuropeptide. Results The primary and secondary olfactory centers dominate the brain of B. latro and together account for ca. 40% of the neuropil volume in its brain. The paired olfactory neuropils are tripartite and composed of more than 1,000 columnar olfactory glomeruli, which are radially arranged around the periphery of the olfactory neuropils. The glomeruli are innervated ca. 90,000 local interneurons and ca. 160,000 projection neurons per side. The secondary olfactory centers, the paired hemiellipsoid neuropils, are targeted by the axons of these olfactory projection neurons. The projection neuron axonal branches make contact to ca. 250.000 interneurons (per side) associated with the hemiellipsoid neuropils. The hemiellipsoid body neuropil is organized into parallel neuropil lamellae, a design that is quite unusual for decapod crustaceans. The architecture of the optic neuropils and areas associated with antenna two suggest that B. latro has

  20. A revision of the genus Paracallisoma Chevreux, 1903 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Scopelocheiridae: Paracallisominae) with a redescription of the type species of the genus Paracallisoma and the description of two new genera and two new species from the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Horton, Tammy; Thurston, Michael H

    2015-08-05

    The genus Paracallisoma (Crustacea: Amphipoda) is revised and the type species, Paracallisoma alberti is redescribed based on holotype material supplemented with new material from the region of the type locality. This revision results in the establishment of two new genera, Pseudocallisoma gen. nov. and Haptocallisoma gen. nov., and the description of a new species of Haptocallisoma and a new species of Paracallisoma from the North Atlantic Ocean. An account of all known species within the three genera is given and updated keys to the genera and species are provided.

  1. Position of the dentifera-group in the Coronatella-branch and its relocation to a new genus: Magnospina gen. n. (Crustacea, Chydoridae, Aloninae).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Francisco Diogo R; Elmoor-Loureiro, Lourdes Maria Abdu; Santos, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Magnospina gen. n. was created to relocate species of the dentifera-group from Alona sensu lato (Crustacea: Cladocera) and include Magnospina dentifera comb. n. and Magnospina siamensis comb. n. The synapomorphies of the Magnospina gen. n. are (1) basal spines longer than 2/3 of the postabdominal claw, (2) presence of 1-4 large denticles, broad at their bases, protruding downwards, without setules between them. Morphological traits such as habitus, rostrum and postabdomen shape, armature of IDL setae, number of setae on the exopod of limb III are also important in the distinction between Magnospina gen. n. and other genera from the Coronatella-branch. The morphology of Magnospina dentifera comb. n. male confirms the closer relationship with the clade composed by the elgans-group from Alona sensu lato, Ovalona and Leberis, but the external morphology, morphology of the postabdominal claw, basal spine and setae 2-3 of IDL support their separation from any of the group cited. It is concluded that the Coronatella-lineage of Aloninae is composed of the genera Coronatella, Anthalona, Karualona, Bergamina, Extremalona, Ovalona, Celsinotum, Leberis and Magnospina gen. n. The elegans-group from Alona sensu lato also belongs to Coronatella-lineage, but still need formal allocation.

  2. Complicated evolution of the caprellid (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Peracarida: Amphipoda) body plan, reacquisition or multiple losses of the thoracic limbs and pleons.

    PubMed

    Ito, Atsushi; Aoki, Masakazu N; Yahata, Kensuke; Wada, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    The Caprellidea (Crustacea) have undergone an interesting morphological evolution from their ancestral gammarid-like form. Although most caprellid families have markedly reduced third and fourth pereopods (the walking thoracic limbs) and pleons (the posterior body parts), one family, Caprogammaridae, has developed pleon with swimming appendages (pleopods), whereas another family, Phtisicidae, possesses well-developed functional third and fourth pereopods. The unique character status of these families implies that there has been reacquisition or multiple losses of both pereopods and the pleon within the Caprellidea lineages. Although the Caprellidea are fascinating animals for the study of morphological evolution, the phylogenetic relationships among the Caprellidea are poorly understood. One obstacle to studying the evolution of the Caprellidea is the difficulty of collecting samples of caprogammarid species. In this study, we obtained live samples of a Caprogammaridae species and confirmed that its pleon and pleopods could perform similar locomotive functions and swimming movements as observed in gammarids. From the phylogenetic analyses on 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, we identified three distinct clades of Caprellidea. The ancestral state reconstruction based on the obtained phylogeny suggested that once lost, the third and fourth pereopods were regained in the Phtisicidae, while the pleon was regained in the Caprogammaridae, while we could not exclude the possibility of independent losses. In either case, the caprellid lineage underwent a quite complicated morphological evolution, and possibly the Caprellidea may be an exception to Dollo's law.

  3. Variations in sensitivity of two populations of Corophium orientale (Crustacea: Amphipoda) towards cadmium and sodium laurylsulphate. Comparison of two populations of Corophium orientale.

    PubMed

    Lera, S; Macchia, S; Dentone, L; Pellegrini, D

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to monitor the sensitivity of two populations of Corophium orientale (Crustacea: Amphipoda) living at the outfall of two rivers (Magra and Serchio), comparing their responses towards two different toxicant solutions. Sensitivity was monthly checked performing the 96h-LC50 static water only test with Cd(NO3)2 and SDS. If no significant differences were found between the two populations, they could have been employed without distinction to perform sediment toxicity bioassays. As regard to Cd, an increasing in LC50 values from summer to winter was evident in each population (Serchio River: August 2003 = 1,36 mg/l, February 2004 = 7,23 mg/l; Magra River: August = 1,21 mg/l, April = 5,01 mg/l). This pattern was correlated to the droop of temperatures in winter period. The responses of the two populations towards the cadmium were compared using the ANOVA. The analysis showed any significant differences between the populations (p = 0.12). The pattern of sensitivity towards SDS for the population living on Magra River was similar to the same pattern found for Cd; as regard to the population living on Serchio River, data were not enough to describe the annual pattern. Anyway, statistical analysis was performed and no significant differences were found between the two populations (p = 0.34).

  4. Five species of the family Cyproideidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from Japan, with the description of a new genus and two new species.

    PubMed

    Ariyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-31

    Five species of the family Cyproideidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) are described from shallow sea in Japan. Cyproidea liodactyla Hirayama, 1978 was collected from Kanagawa and Shizuoka Prefectures and Ariake Sea. Morphological character of the antenna 1 in these specimens is different from the original description. Examining the paratypes of C. liodactyla, the shape of the antenna 1 in the holotype is revealed to be abnormal. Cyproidea okinawensis sp. nov. was collected from Okinawa Island. Its morphological characters resemble C. liodactyla and C. robusta Ren, 2006; however, this new species is different from the former in the smaller eyes, the narrower coxa 5 and the coloration, and from the latter in the ovoid telson. Metacyproidea gen. nov. is established with M. makie sp. nov. from Hachijo Island in Tokyo Prefecture as its type species. This new genus resembles Cyproidea, especially in the peduncular article 2 of antenna 1 with a distinct distal tooth and the posterodorsal end of urosomites with a strong projection. However, Metacyproidea can be distinguished from Cyproidea by the coalesced urosomites 2-3 and the antenna 1 with a 10-16-articulated flagellum. Moolapheonoides acutifalcatus Kobayashi & Ishimaru, 2005 and Terepeltopes dolichorhunia Hirayama, 1983 were also collected from Wakayama and Fukui Prefectures and Kanagawa, Shizuoka and Yamaguchi Prefectures, respectively. A key to species of the family Cyproideidae in Japan is provided.

  5. The water flea Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera) as a test species for screening and evaluation of chemicals with endocrine disrupting effects on crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Tatarazako, Norihisa; Oda, Shigeto

    2007-02-01

    The water flea Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera) is a cyclical parthenogen, which can reproduce both by parthenogenesis and by sexual reproduction. With its ease of handling in the laboratory, several testing methods using D. magna exist for regulatory toxicity testing. Recently, several studies revealed that one of the major hormone groups in insects and crustaceans, juvenile hormones, are involved in the shift of reproductive mode from parthenogenesis to sexual reproduction (production of male neonates). Using offspring sex ratio as a new endpoint has made it possible to identify chemicals with juvenile hormone-like effects on crustaceans. The testing method using D. magna, in which offspring sex ratio is incorporated as a new endpoint, is now being proposed to the OECD as an enhanced version of the existing OECD Test Guideline 211: Daphnia magna reproduction test. No other clear-cut endpoint for identifying juvenile-hormone disrupting effects has ever been found in crustaceans than the induction of male neonates production in cladocerans. In this regard, it is expected that testing methods using D. magna are suitable for screening and risk assessment of chemicals with juvenile-hormone disrupting effects.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the black mud crab, Scylla serrata (Crustacea: Brachyura: Portunidae) and its phylogenetic position among (pan)crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Jondeung, Amnuay; Karinthanyakit, Wirangrong; Kaewkhumsan, Jitlada

    2012-12-01

    The black mud crab, Scylla serrata (Forskål 1775), is the most economically important edible crab in South-East Asia. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of black mud crab, S. serrata, was determined with the sequential polymerase chain reaction and primer walking sequencing. The complete mitochondrial genome was 15,721 bp in length with an A+T content of 69.2 % and contained 37 mitochondrial genes (13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes) and a control region (CR). The analysis of the CR sequence shows that it contains a multitude of repetitive fragments which can fold into hairpin-like or secondary structures and conserved elements as in other arthropods. The gene order of S. serrata mainly retains as the pancrustacean ground pattern, except for a single translocation of trnH. The gene arrangement of S. serrata appears to be a typical feature of portunid crabs. Phylogenetic analyses with concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs establishes that S. serrata in a well-supported monophyletic Portunidae and is consistent with previous morphological classification. Moreover, the phylogenomic results strongly support monophyletic Pancrustacea (Hexapoda plus "Crustaceans"). Within Pancrustacea, this study identifies Malacostraca + Entomostraca and Branchiopoda as the sister group to Hexapoda, which confirms that "Crustacea" is not monophyletic. Cirripedia + Remipedia appear to be a basal lineage of Pancrustacea. The present study also provides considerable data for the application of both population and phylogenetic studies of other crab species.

  7. A New Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Species of Ostracoda (Crustacea) from the Western Pacific: Implications for Adaptation, Endemism, and Dispersal of Ostracodes in Chemosynthetic Systems.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hayato; Yasuhara, Moriaki

    2016-10-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are among the most extreme habitats on Earth. Major research interests in these ecosystems have focused on the anomalous macrofauna, which are nourished by chemoautotrophic bacterial endosymbionts. In contrast, the meiofauna is largely overlooked in this chemosynthetic environment. The present study describes a new species, Thomontocypris shimanagai sp. nov. (Crustacea: Ostracoda), which was collected from the surface of colonies of neoverrucid barnacles and paralvinellid worms on the chimneys at the Myojin-sho submarine caldera. This is the first discovery of an ostracode from deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments in the western Pacific region. In addition to the species description, we discuss three aspects: 1) adaptation, 2) endemism, and 3) dispersal strategy of the hydrothermal vent ostracodes. Regarding these aspects, we conclude the following: 1) the new species may feed on sloughed-off tissues, mucus secretions, or fecal pellets of sessile organisms, rather than depend on chemoautotrophic bacteria as symbionts for energy; 2) as has been pointed out by other studies, Thomontocypris does not likely represent a vent-specific genus; however, this new species is considered to be endemic at the species level, as it has not been found outside of the type locality; and 3) this new species may have migrated from adjacent deep-sea chemosynthesis-based habitats, such as hydrothermal vents, with wood falls potentially having acted as stepping stones.

  8. Position of the dentifera-group in the Coronatella-branch and its relocation to a new genus: Magnospina gen. n. (Crustacea, Chydoridae, Aloninae)

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Francisco Diogo R.; Elmoor-Loureiro, Lourdes Maria Abdu; Santos, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Magnospina gen. n. was created to relocate species of the dentifera-group from Alona sensu lato (Crustacea: Cladocera) and include Magnospina dentifera comb. n. and Magnospina siamensis comb. n. The synapomorphies of the Magnospina gen. n. are (1) basal spines longer than 2/3 of the postabdominal claw, (2) presence of 1–4 large denticles, broad at their bases, protruding downwards, without setules between them. Morphological traits such as habitus, rostrum and postabdomen shape, armature of IDL setae, number of setae on the exopod of limb III are also important in the distinction between Magnospina gen. n. and other genera from the Coronatella-branch. The morphology of Magnospina dentifera comb. n. male confirms the closer relationship with the clade composed by the elgans-group from Alona sensu lato, Ovalona and Leberis, but the external morphology, morphology of the postabdominal claw, basal spine and setae 2–3 of IDL support their separation from any of the group cited. It is concluded that the Coronatella-lineage of Aloninae is composed of the genera Coronatella, Anthalona, Karualona, Bergamina, Extremalona, Ovalona, Celsinotum, Leberis and Magnospina gen. n. The elegans-group from Alona sensu lato also belongs to Coronatella-lineage, but still need formal allocation. PMID:27199609

  9. Functional morphology of amplexus (clasping) in spinicaudatan clam shrimps (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) and its evolution in bivalved branchiopods: A video-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Sigvardt, Zandra M S; Rogers, D Christopher; Olesen, Jørgen

    2017-04-01

    Male clam shrimps (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata, and Cyclestherida) have their first one or two trunk limb pairs modified as "claspers," which are used to hold the female during mating and mate guarding. Clasper morphology has traditionally been important for clam shrimp taxonomy and classification, but little is known about how the males actually use the claspers during amplexus (clasping). Homologies of the various clasper parts ("movable finger," "large palp," "palm," "gripping area," and "small palp") have long been discussed between the three clam shrimp taxa, and studies have shown that only some structures are homologous while others are convergent ("partial homology"). We studied the clasper functionality in four spinicaudatan species using video recordings and scanning electron microscopy, and compared our results with other clam shrimp groups. General mating behavior and carapace morphology was also studied. Generally, spinicaudatan and laevicaudatan claspers function similarly despite some parts being nonhomologous. We mapped clasper morphology and functionality aspects on a branchiopod phylogeny. We suggest that the claspers of the three groups were adapted from an original, simpler clasper, each for a "stronger" grip on the female's carapace margin: 1) Spinicaudata have two clasper pairs bearing an elongated apical club/gripping area with one setal type; 2); Cyclestherida have one clasper pair with clusters of molariform setae on the gripping area and at the movable finger apex; and 3) Laevicaudata have one clasper pair, but have incorporated an additional limb portion into the clasper palm and bear a diverse set of setae. J. Morphol. 278:523-546, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Alona iheringula Sinev & Kotov, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae, Aloninae): Life Cycle and DNA Barcode with Implications for the Taxonomy of the Aloninae Subfamily

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Erika dos Santos; de Abreu, Cínthia Bruno; Orlando, Tereza Cristina; Wisniewski, Célio; dos Santos-Wisniewski, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of reproductive rates and life cycle of the Cladocera species is essential for population dynamic studies, secondary production and food webs, as well as the management and preservation of aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to understand the life cycle and growth of Alona iheringula Kotov & Sinev, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae), a Neotropical species, as well as its DNA barcoding, providing new information on the Aloninae taxonomy. The specimens were collected in the dammed portion of the Cabo Verde River (21°26′05″ S and 46°10′57″ W), in the Furnas Reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Forty neonates were observed individually two or three times a day under controlled temperature (25±1°C), photoperiod (12 h light/12 h dark) and feeding (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at a concentration of 105 cells.mL−1 and a mixed suspension of yeast and fish feed in equal proportion). Individual body growth was measured daily under optical microscope using a micrometric grid and 40× magnification. The species had a mean size of 413(±29) µm, a maximum size of 510 µm and reached maturity at 3.24(±0.69) days of age. Mean fecundity was 2 eggs per female per brood and the mean number of eggs produced per female during the entire life cycle was 47.6(±6.3) eggs per female. The embryonic development time was 1.79(±0.23) days and the maximum longevity was 54 days. The species had eight instars throughout its life cycle and four instars between neonate and primipara stage. The present study using molecular data (a 461 bp smaller COI fragment) demonstrated a deep divergence in the Aloninae subfamily. PMID:24878503

  11. Mitochondrial genome of the intertidal acorn barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Sessilia): Gene order comparison and phylogenetic consideration within Sessilia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the intertidal barnacle Tetraclita serrata Darwin, 1854 (Crustacea: Maxillopoda: Sessilia) is presented. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,200 bp, which encodes 13 PCGs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. All non-coding regions are 591 bp in length, with the longest one speculated as the control region (389 bp), which is located between srRNA and trnK. The overall A+T content of the mitochondrial genome of T. serrata is 65.4%, which is lowest among all the eight mitochondrial genomes reported from sessile barnacles. There are variations of initiation and stop codons in the reported sessile barnacle mitochondrial genomes. Large-scale gene rearrangements are found in these genomes as compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. ML and Bayesian analyses of all 15 complete mitochondrial genomes available from Maxillopoda lead to identical phylogenies. The phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial PCGs shows that Argulus americanus (Branchiura) cluster with Armillifer armillatus (Pentastomida), distinct from all ten species from Cirripedia. Within the order Sessilia, Amphibalanus amphitrite (Balanidae) clusters with Striatobalanus amaryllis (Archaeobalanidae), and Nobia grandis (Pyrgomatidae). However, the two Megabalanus (Balanidae) are separated from the above grouping, resulting in non-monophyly of the family Balanidae. Moreover, the two Megabalanus have large-scale rearrangements as compared to the gene order shared by former three species. Therefore, both phylogenetic analysis using PCG sequences and gene order comparison suggest that Balanidae is not a monophyletic group. Given the limited taxa and moderate support values of the internal branches, the non-monophyly of the family Balanidae requires further verification.

  12. Latitudinal patterns in the diversity of two subgenera of the genus Daphnia O.F. Müller (Crustacea: Cladocera: Daphniidae).

    PubMed

    Popova, Ekaterina Y; Kotov, Alexey A

    2013-11-12

    Daphnia O.F. Müller (Crustacea: Cladocera: Daphniidae) is an important model in biology. It was concluded earlier that subgenus Daphnia s.str. occurs mainly in the northern hemisphere, subgenus Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia) in the southern hemisphere, which could suggest that: (1) the subgeneric differentiation is correlated with the Laurasia-Gondwanaland subdivision and (2) D. (Ctenodaphnia) is a taxon of Gondwanian origin. Some authors even discussed mechanisms of maintaince of the "ancient subgeneric north-south split", regarding such a pattern as paradoxical. But both molecular clock calculations and fossils of both subgenera from the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary of Mongolia compromise such ideas and suggest an earlier, Pangaean, differentiation of the subgenera.        We discuss the distribution of Daphnia worldwide based on recent literature. Our analysis covers literature data on all described and on undescribed taxa revealed by genetical methods. Distributional data were associated with five main zones: southern cold (I), southern temperate (II), tropical (III), northern temperate (IV), and northern cold (V) zone. We found no "subgeneric north-south split": the distribution of Daphnia s.str. is dissymmetric between the hemispheres (antipolar), while that of Ctenodaphnia is sub-symmetric (bipolar). We suggest that both patterns are not of Mesozoic, but of Cenozoic origin. Mesozoic differentiation of the subgenera does not contradict a recent origin of the extant species, as found in e.g. Notostraca. A superficially attractive hypothesis about a Gondwanian origin of a taxon (Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia)) therefore did not pass the test of the fossil records. In addition, we agree with the opinion that an antipolar is only a variant of a bipolar pattern, as a result of an extinction in the southern hemisphere, and that these patterns are mid-late Cenozoic instead of Mesozoic.

  13. Parallel reduction in expression, but no loss of functional constraint, in two opsin paralogs within cave populations of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gammarus minus, a freshwater amphipod living in the cave and surface streams in the eastern USA, is a premier candidate for studying the evolution of troglomorphic traits such as pigmentation loss, elongated appendages, and reduced eyes. In G. minus, multiple pairs of genetically related, physically proximate cave and surface populations exist which exhibit a high degree of intraspecific morphological divergence. The morphology, ecology, and genetic structure of these sister populations are well characterized, yet the genetic basis of their morphological divergence remains unknown. Results We used degenerate PCR primers designed to amplify opsin genes within the subphylum Crustacea and discovered two distinct opsin paralogs (average inter-paralog protein divergence ≈ 20%) in the genome of three independently derived pairs of G. minus cave and surface populations. Both opsin paralogs were found to be related to other crustacean middle wavelength sensitive opsins. Low levels of nucleotide sequence variation (< 1% within populations) were detected in both opsin genes, regardless of habitat, and dN/dS ratios did not indicate a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave populations with reduced or absent eyes. Maximum likelihood analyses using codon-based models also did not detect a relaxation of functional constraint in the cave lineages. We quantified expression level of both opsin genes and found that the expression of both paralogs was significantly reduced in all three cave populations relative to their sister surface populations. Conclusions The concordantly lowered expression level of both opsin genes in cave populations of G. minus compared to sister surface populations, combined with evidence for persistent purifying selection in the cave populations, is consistent with an unspecified pleiotropic function of opsin proteins. Our results indicate that phototransduction proteins such as opsins may have retained their function in cave

  14. Nervous system development in the fairy shrimp Branchinella sp. (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca): Insights into the development and evolution of the branchiopod brain and its sensory organs.

    PubMed

    Frase, Thomas; Richter, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Using immunohistochemical labeling against acetylated a-tubulin and serotonin in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3D-reconstruction, we investigated the temporary freshwater pond inhabitant Branchinella sp. (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca) for the first time to provide detailed data on the development of the anostracan nervous system. Protocerebral sense organs such as the nauplius eye and frontal filament organs are present as early as the hatching stage L0. In the postnaupliar region, two terminal pioneer neurons grow from posterior to anterior to connect the mandibular neuromeres. The first protocerebral neuropil to emerge is not part of the central complex but represents the median neuropil, and begins to develop from L0+ onwards. In stage L3, the first evidence of developing compound eyes is visible. This is followed by the formation of the visual neuropils and the neuropils of the central complex in the protocerebrum. From the deutocerebral lobes, the projecting neuron tract proceeds to both sides of the lateral protocerebrum, forming a chiasma just behind the central body. In the postnaupliar region, the peripheral nervous system, commissures and connectives develop along an anterior-posterior gradient after the fasciculation of the terminal pioneer neurons with the mandibular neuromere. The peripheral nervous system in the thoracic segments consists of two longitudinal neurite bundles on each side which connect the intersegmental nerves, together with the ventral nervous system forming an orthogon-like network. Here, we discuss, among other things, the evidence of a fourth nauplius eye nerve and decussating projecting neuron tract found in Branchinella sp., and provide arguments to support our view that the crustacean frontal filament (organ) and onychophoran primary antenna are homologous. J. Morphol. 277:1423-1446, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Control of molting in crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, D.M.; Graham, D.E.; Holland, C.A.; Mykles, D.L.; Soumoff, C.; Yamaoka, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    The single, overriding event that occurs during all proecdysial periods in crustaceans is the synthesis of a new exoskeleton that encompasses an enlarged animal when the old shell is cast off. Regeneration of missing appendages and larval or puberty metamorphoses also occur during proecdysis. Proecdysial periods have been divided into substages defined by the occurrence of specific events. Although a number of factors must be postulated to account for individual proecdysial events, only the molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, has been identified and isolated. Much evidence indicates that the X-organ sinus glands complex, a neurosecretory tissue located in the eyestalks, is the source of a molt inhibiting hormone (MIH) responsible for maintaining animals in anecdysis. An exuviation factor has been proposed to support the extrication of the animal from the old exoskeleton. There is evidence for a limb growth inhibitory factor (LGIF) that affects the rate of growth of regenerating limbs. We are proposing an anecdysial limb autotomy factor (LAF/sub an/) that propels into precocious molts anecdysial limb autotomy factor (LAF/sub pro/) that interrupts the proecdysial period of animals that lose one or more normal or partially regenerated pereopods before a critical time in proecdysis.

  16. Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; Ganesh, T.; Jaikumar, M.; Raman, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    The caprellid fauna of India is investigated. A total of 538 samples (including algae, seagrasses, sponges, hydroids, ascidians, bryozoans, encrusted dead corals, coral rubble, fine and coarse sediments) were collected from 39 stations along the coast of India, covering a wide diversity of habitats from intertidal to 12 m water depth. A new species ( Jigurru longimanus n.sp.) is described, and figures of the 11 valid species reported so far from India are given together with a key for their identification. No caprellids were found in sediments from the northeast (16-20ºN) coast of India while they were abundant in the southeast and west coast. Decreases in salinity due to river discharges associated with lower values of oxygen, higher water temperatures and lower nutrient inputs along the east coast could explain these differences in caprellid composition between the two coastlines. Significantly, lower abundance of caprellids in India, as in other tropical ecosystems, is probably related to the lack of species belonging to the genus Caprella, which reach very high abundances in temperate waters.

  17. Diversity of the Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods are protelean parasites of different groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Only their first naupliar, preadult, and adult phases are planktonic. Monstrilloids are currently represented by more than 115 nominal species contained in four genera. Its taxonomic knowledge has been hampered by nomenclatural and descriptive problems derived from their peculiar ontogeny and poor definitions of taxa. One of the most important difficulties is that of matching males to females. The only reliable methods to link the sexes of a species are the confirmation of particular apomorphies shared by both sexes, finding both sexes in the same host or as a pre-copulatory male-female pair in the plankton, or by the use of molecular markers. A general overview of the morphology of the group and its life cycle is provided herein. Recently, upgraded descriptive standards have been established and the relevance of redescribing taxa based on type and museum specimens has been demonstrated. The rate of species description per decade has had several peaks between 1840 and 2010: (1971-1980, 1991-2000, 2001-2010), each related to the activity of a few researchers. An analysis of the world distribution of published records of the Monstrilloida revealed that the Northeast Atlantic is the best studied region (45% of all records), followed by the Northwestern Atlantic (17%); the least surveyed areas include regions of the southern hemisphere (less than 3%). The Northeast Atlantic region harbors the highest number of known species (32 nominal species), followed by the Caribbean Sea/Gulf of Mexico (24), the Mediterranean/Black Sea (19), Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines region (17), Japanese waters (17), and the Brazil-Argentina area (16). Other than these generalized patterns, little can be concluded concerning the biogeography of the group. Many species records are doubtful or improbable, and purportedly cosmopolitan nominal species are being revealed as species complexes yet to be studied.

  18. Diversity of the Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods are protelean parasites of different groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Only their first naupliar, preadult, and adult phases are planktonic. Monstrilloids are currently represented by more than 115 nominal species contained in four genera. Its taxonomic knowledge has been hampered by nomenclatural and descriptive problems derived from their peculiar ontogeny and poor definitions of taxa. One of the most important difficulties is that of matching males to females. The only reliable methods to link the sexes of a species are the confirmation of particular apomorphies shared by both sexes, finding both sexes in the same host or as a pre-copulatory male-female pair in the plankton, or by the use of molecular markers. A general overview of the morphology of the group and its life cycle is provided herein. Recently, upgraded descriptive standards have been established and the relevance of redescribing taxa based on type and museum specimens has been demonstrated. The rate of species description per decade has had several peaks between 1840 and 2010: (1971–1980, 1991–2000, 2001–2010), each related to the activity of a few researchers. An analysis of the world distribution of published records of the Monstrilloida revealed that the Northeast Atlantic is the best studied region (45% of all records), followed by the Northwestern Atlantic (17%); the least surveyed areas include regions of the southern hemisphere (less than 3%). The Northeast Atlantic region harbors the highest number of known species (32 nominal species), followed by the Caribbean Sea/Gulf of Mexico (24), the Mediterranean/Black Sea (19), Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines region (17), Japanese waters (17), and the Brazil-Argentina area (16). Other than these generalized patterns, little can be concluded concerning the biogeography of the group. Many species records are doubtful or improbable, and purportedly cosmopolitan nominal species are being revealed as species complexes yet to be studied. PMID:21853055

  19. Sperm ultrastructure of the spider crab Maja brachydactyla (Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Simeó, Carles G; Kurtz, Kathryn; Rotllant, Guiomar; Chiva, Manel; Ribes, Enric

    2010-04-01

    This study describes the morphology of the sperm cell of Maja brachydactyla, with emphasis on localizing actin and tubulin. The spermatozoon of M. brachydactyla is similar in appearance and organization to other brachyuran spermatozoa. The spermatozoon is a globular cell composed of a central acrosome, which is surrounded by a thin layer of cytoplasm and a cup-shaped nucleus with four radiating lateral arms. The acrosome is a subspheroidal vesicle composed of three concentric zones surrounded by a capsule. The acrosome is apically covered by an operculum. The perforatorium penetrates the center of the acrosome and has granular material partially composed of actin. The cytoplasm contains one centriole in the subacrosomal region. A cytoplasmic ring encircles the acrosome in the subapical region of the cell and contains the structures-organelles complex (SO-complex), which is composed of a membrane system, mitochondria with few cristae, and microtubules. In the nucleus, slightly condensed chromatin extends along the lateral arms, in which no microtubules have been observed. Chromatin fibers aggregate in certain areas and are often associated with the SO-complex. During the acrosomal reaction, the acrosome could provide support for the penetration of the sperm nucleus, the SO-complex could serve as an anchor point for chromatin, and the lateral arms could play an important role triggering the acrosomal reaction, while slightly decondensed chromatin may be necessary for the deformation of the nucleus.

  20. Spermatogenesis of the spider crab Maja brachydactyla (Decapoda: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Simeó, Carles G; Kurtz, Kathryn; Chiva, Manel; Ribes, Enric; Rotllant, Guiomar

    2010-04-01

    This study describes spermatogenesis in a majid crab (Maja brachydactyla) using electron microscopy and reports the origin of the different organelles present in the spermatozoa. Spermatogenesis in M. brachydactyla follows the general pattern observed in other brachyuran species but with several peculiarities. Annulate lamellae have been reported in brachyuran spermatogenesis during the diplotene stage of first spermatocytes, the early and mid-spermatids. Unlike previous observations, a Golgi complex has been found in mid-spermatids and is involved in the development of the acrosome. The Golgi complex produces two types of vesicles: light vesicles and electron-dense vesicles. The light vesicles merge into the cytoplasm, giving rise to the proacrosomal vesicle. The electron-dense vesicles are implicated in the formation of an electron-dense granule, which later merges with the proacrosomal vesicle. In the late spermatid, the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex degenerate and form the structures-organelles complex found in the spermatozoa. At the end of spermatogenesis, the materials in the proacrosomal vesicle aggregate in a two-step process, forming the characteristic concentric three-layered structure of the spermatozoon acrosome. The newly formed spermatozoa from testis show the typical brachyuran morphology.

  1. Development of a non-denaturing 2D gel electrophoresis protocol for screening in vivo uranium-protein targets in Procambarus clarkii with laser ablation ICP MS followed by protein identification by HPLC-Orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Frelon, Sandrine; Simon, Olivier; Lobinski, Ryszard; Mounicou, Sandra

    2014-10-01

    Limited knowledge about in vivo non-covalent uranium (U)-protein complexes is largely due to the lack of appropriate analytical methodology. Here, a method for screening and identifying the molecular targets of U was developed. The approach was based on non-denaturing 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis (ND-PAGE and ND-2D-PAGE (using ND-IEF as first dimension previously described)) in conjunction with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP MS) for the detection of U-containing proteins. The proteins were then identified by µbore HPLC-Orbitrap MS/MS. The method was applied to the analysis of cytosol of hepatopancreas (HP) of a model U-bioaccumulating organism (Procambarus clarkii). The imaging of uranium in 2D gels revealed the presence of 11 U-containing protein spots. Six protein candidates (i.e. ferritin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), glutathione S transferase D1 and H3 histone family protein) were then identified by matching with the data base of crustacea Decapoda species (e.g. crayfish). Among them, ferritin was the most important one. This strategy is expected to provide an insight into U toxicology and metabolism.

  2. The structure and distribution of satellite cells of cardiac muscles in decapod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Midsukami, M

    1981-01-01

    The structure and distribution of satellite cells of cardiac muscles were examined in twenty-one species of animals chosen from each tribe within the order Decapoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea). The satellite cells were found in all animals observed. Most of them are morphologically identical with those described in different striated muscles of other species, but some cells have unusual features. The decapod satellite cell occasionally lies right over the region corresponding to the intercalated disc between the apposed cardiac muscle cells. The cell sends cytoplasmic processes into the adjacent muscle cells, enabling the plasma membrane to make close contact with the cleft opening of the intercalated disc, and with the myofibril at the level of the Z-line. Another characteristic feature is the presence of "paired" cells. Such cells are clearly separated from each other over most of the contact area by the respective plasma membranes, which are smooth in appearance and devoid of specialized regions. The significance of the presence of satellite cells in decapod cardiac muscle and its possible role are discussed and compared with those described for other species.

  3. Looking back on a decade of barcoding crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Radulovici, Adriana E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Species identification represents a pivotal component for large-scale biodiversity studies and conservation planning but represents a challenge for many taxa when using morphological traits only. Consequently, alternative identification methods based on molecular markers have been proposed. In this context, DNA barcoding has become a popular and accepted method for the identification of unknown animals across all life stages by comparison to a reference library. In this review we examine the progress of barcoding studies for the Crustacea using the Web of Science data base from 2003 to 2014. All references were classified in terms of taxonomy covered, subject area (identification/library, genetic variability, species descriptions, phylogenetics, methods, pseudogenes/numts), habitat, geographical area, authors, journals, citations, and the use of the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD). Our analysis revealed a total number of 164 barcoding studies for crustaceans with a preference for malacostracan crustaceans, in particular Decapoda, and for building reference libraries in order to identify organisms. So far, BOLD did not establish itself as a popular informatics platform among carcinologists although it offers many advantages for standardized data storage, analyses and publication. PMID:26798245

  4. Foraging by marine scavengers: Effects of relatedness, bait damage and hunger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, P. G.; Howarth, J.

    1996-12-01

    Field studies using fish-baited creels have confirmed that Carcinus maenas, Necora puber and Pagurus bernhardus (Crustacea: Decapoda), Buccinum undatum (Gastropoda) and Asterias rubens (Echinodermata) are prominent scavenging species in shallow waters in the Clyde Sea area. Capture rates of these species by creels baited with dead fish plus variously damaged C. maenas were examined in the field. The addition of substantially fractured C. maenas significantly reduced the capture of conspecifics, but significantly enhanced the capture of the taxonomically unrelated species A. rubens. The remaining crustacean taxa (of the above) were unaffected by this treatment. The magnitude of th response was related strongly to the extent to which C. maenas were damaged. The effects of hunger on these responses were tested in a laboratory experiment in which the responses of starved and fed batches of C. maenas were investigated. Starved crabs remained attracted to fish bait, despite the proximity of dead conspecifics. Conversely, crabs of the fed batch were significantly more reluctant to enter creels containing damaged conspecifics. The localized presence of odours emanating from dead conspecifics did not cause crabs to remain inactive in shelter. We conclude that taxonomic relatedness to bait, degree of carcass damage and hunger of the scavenger all interact in determining foraging decision-making even by so-called generalist scavengers.

  5. Uca (Petruca), a new subgenus for the rock fiddler crab Uca panamensis (Stimpson, 1859) from Central America, with comments on some species of the American broad-fronted subgenera.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsi-Te; Ng, Peter K L; Christy, John H

    2015-10-30

    Among the fiddler crabs from the Americas, Uca panamensis (Stimpson, 1859) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ocypodidae) is unusual in its behavior and ecology, living in stony habitats rather than sandy or muddy substrates. This species also has several unusual morphological characters of the carapace and major and minor chelae, and had been placed in either the subgenera Minuca Bott, 1954, or Leptuca Bott, 1973. The armature at the inner corner of the orbital floor, as well as the morphology of the urocardiac ossicles of the gastric mill of U. panamensis, are, however, plesiomorphic characters, and are closer to the condition in species belonging the subgenera Uca and Afruca. Phylogenetic relationships, based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I, and nuclear 28S rDNA, supported by its unusual morphological features indicate that this species belongs to its own subgenus. A new subgenus Uca (Petruca) subgen. nov. is herein established for U. panamensis. In addition, the status of Uca thayeri Rathbun, 1900, U. umbratila Crane, 1941, U. virens Salmon & Atsaides, 1968, and U. longisignalis Salmon & Atsaides, 1968, are revised and discussed based on a reappraisal of their phylogenetic relationships.

  6. Responses of Crustaceans to Contaminant Exposure: a Holistic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebel, D. K.; Jones, M. B.; Depledge, M. H.

    1997-02-01

    Typically, the sublethal effects of exposure to environmental contaminants are assessed by measuring the responses of one, or few, biochemical or physiological systems within organisms. An individual's survival potential, however, is determined by the integrated phenotypic response of all its systems working in concert. This concept is illustrated here by reviewing the repertoire of responses at several levels of organization (from the molecular to the behavioural) available to the common shore crab, Carcinus maenas(L.) (Crustacea: Decapoda), during exposure to water-borne copper. Behavioural responses may include avoidance reactions, changes in feeding and mating behaviour, as well as altered locomotory activity. Physiological responses are manifest as alterations in iono- and osmoregulation, circulation and respiration. Cellular responses are reflected in ultrastructural changes, lysosomal alterations, induction of metallothionein and stress proteins, and alterations in the activity of enzymes. Particular attention is focused on the integrated response of the gill since it represents the primary target for water-borne contaminants. It is concluded that to gain a holistic view of the impact of chemical exposure on organisms, the simultaneous measurement of numerous biological variables in a multi-system approach is required. This permits the determination of intra- and inter-specific variability in the repertoire of responses of organisms to chemicals (and other stressors), enabling potential impacts on populations and communities to be better assessed.

  7. The parthenogenetic Marmorkrebs (marbled crayfish) produces genetically uniform offspring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Peer; Kohlmann, Klaus; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2007-10-01

    Genetically identical animals are very much in demand as laboratory objects because they allow conclusions about environmental and epigenetic effects on development, structures, and behavior. Furthermore, questions about the relative fitness of various genotypes can be addressed. However, genetically identical animals are relatively rare, in particular, organisms that combine a high reproduction rate and a complex organization. Based on its exclusively parthenogenetic reproduction mode, it has been suggested that the Marmorkrebs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Astacida), a recently discovered crayfish, is an excellent candidate for research addressing the aforementioned questions. However, until now, a study using molecular markers that clearly proves the genetic uniformity of the offspring has been lacking. Here, with this first molecular study, we show that this crayfish indeed produces genetically uniform clones. We tested this with 19 related individuals of various generations of a Marmorkrebs population by means of six different microsatellite markers. We found that all examined specimens were identical in their allelic composition. Furthermore, half of the analyzed loci were heterozygous. These results and the absence of meioses in previous histological studies of the ovaries lead us to conclude the Marmorkrebs propagates apomictically. Thus, a genetically uniform organism with complex morphology, development, and behavior is now available for various laboratory studies.

  8. Incongruous larvae and the origin of some invertebrate life-histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, D. I.

    It is postulated that some groups of animals have hybrid life-histories, with the larva originating in a different evolutionary line from that which produced the adult. Later the two developmental phases came together to form parts of the same life-history, and only after this synthesis did the larva and adult evolve as products of the same genome. This theory is put forward to try to explain apparent contradictions between the affinities of some larvae and those of their corresponding adults. Examples of groups showing such incongruity are (1) the Dromioidea (Crustacea, Decapoda), (2) the Echinodermata, in its relationships with other phyla and at all taxonomic levels within the phylum, and (3) the Annelida, Echiura, Sipuncula and Mollusca, all of which contain species with trocophore larvae. The theory also seeks to explain forms of metamorphosis in which most larval structures are discarded. It is suggested that these anomalies have all resulted from occasional transfers of the genetic material to dictate a larval form from one species to a distantly related or unrelated one. Heterosperm fertilisation is considered as a possible mechanism, leading to the expression of paternal genes specifying the larval form followed by the expression of maternal genes specifying later development. The theory that different phases in the life-history of a species or group might have different evolutionary geneaologies has profound implications for phylogeny and classification at all taxonomic levels.

  9. [Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, the microcrustacea: Copepoda (Crustacea: Maxillopoda)].

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, A

    2001-12-01

    This report is part of a series that summarizes the species and localities of Costa Rican marine taxa. A review of the literature on copepods, both pelagic and benthic for the Pacific and Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, includes eighty species. Sixty seven pelagic species have been found, distributed between sixteen calanoid, one cyclopoid, three harparticoid and four poecilostomatoid families. Moreover, thirteen benthonic species distributed into six families, all harparticoids, are reported. Among the pelagic families, Pontellidae has six species, while Paracalanidae and Eucalanidae had five each. Other families, like Calanidae, Pseudodiaptomidae and Acartiidae had four species and most families only one. Forty five species are reported only for the Pacific coast, thirteen for the Caribbean coast, only nine species occurred in both coasts; being a direct consequence of the more intensive research effort in the Pacific. Pelagic copepod biodiversity reflects different oceanographic conditions in both coasts. Typical estuarine species were found in the lower region of the Gulf of Nicoya, while a mixture of estuarine and oceanic species were found in Golfo Dulce. Diversity in the Caribbean, specially at the Cahuita coral reef is lower in comparison with the copepod diversity found in other regions in the Caribbean sea. This may be due to the high sediment resuspension rate characteristic of the Cahuita coral reef, which could affect the reproduction of many holozooplankters, specially copepods. Although sixty seven pelagic copepod species appears to be in low numbers, in terms of specific biodiversity it is as high when compared to numbers found in other tropical areas. Thirteen species are reported in the literature, all harparticoids. Five species, three sub-species and one genera were new to science. Balacopsylla is reported for the first time from a neotropical regions, while the genus Karllangia, represented by two coexisting species in the Caribbean coast, belong to a few circumtropical-subtropical genera. The most diverse family was Tetragonicipitidae. This is the first effort to summarize the available information about the biodiversity of marine copepods for Costa Rica's coasts.

  10. Phylogenetic position of Antarctic Scalpelliformes (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linse, Katrin; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Fitzcharles, Elaine; Sands, Chester J.; Buckeridge, John S.

    2013-03-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of seven Antarctic barnacle species, one verrucomorph and six scalpelliforms from the Scotia, Weddell and Ross seas were investigated using DNA sequences from two nuclear genes (18 S and 28 S) and one mitochondrial gene (COI), with a combined total length of 3,151 base pairs. Analyses of these new sequences, together with those of previously published ibliform, lepadiform, scalpelliform, balanomorph and verrucomorph species, confirm that the Scalpelliformes are not monophyletic. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses consistently recovered a monophyletic group which comprised Ornatoscalpellum stroemii (Sars) and the Southern Ocean scalpellomorphs; Arcoscalpellum sp. from the Weddell Sea, Arcoscalpellum africanum from Elephant Island, A. bouveti from Bouvet Island, the circum-Antarctic Litoscalpellum discoveryi, Litoscalpellum sp. from Shag Rocks and Scalpellum sp. from the Falkland Trough. We also used multiple fossil constraints in a relaxed clock Bayesian framework to estimate divergence times for the 18 S+28 S phylogeny. Our results indicate a mid Cretaceous divergence for the Weddell Sea Arcoscalpellum sp, followed by a late Cretaceous divergence from the North Atlantic O. stroemii. Subsequent to this, the Antarctic scalpellomorphs began to radiate at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Monophyly within the scalpellid genera Arcoscalpellum, Litoscalpellum and Scalpellum was strongly rejected by all loci. Our results show incongruence between taxonomy and molecular systematics and highlight the need for more species to be sequenced as well as taxonomic revisions to resolve uncertainties in the phylogenetic relationships of the stalked barnacles.

  11. Cryptic Species in Putative Ancient Asexual Darwinulids (Crustacea, Ostracoda)

    PubMed Central

    Schön, Isa; Pinto, Ricardo L.; Halse, Stuart; Smith, Alison J.; Martens, Koen; Birky, C. William

    2012-01-01

    Background Fully asexually reproducing taxa lack outcrossing. Hence, the classic Biological Species Concept cannot be applied. Methodology/Principal Findings We used DNA sequences from the mitochondrial COI gene and the nuclear ITS2 region to check species boundaries according to the evolutionary genetic (EG) species concept in five morphospecies in the putative ancient asexual ostracod genera, Penthesilenula and Darwinula, from different continents. We applied two methods for detecting cryptic species, namely the K/θ method and the General Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC). We could confirm the existence of species in all five darwinulid morphospecies and additional cryptic diversity in three morphospecies, namely in Penthesilenula brasiliensis, Darwinula stevensoni and in P. aotearoa. The number of cryptic species within one morphospecies varied between seven (P. brasiliensis), five to six (D. stevensoni) and two (P. aotearoa), respectively, depending on the method used. Cryptic species mainly followed continental distributions. We also found evidence for coexistence at the local scale for Brazilian cryptic species of P. brasiliensis and P. aotearoa. Our ITS2 data confirmed that species exist in darwinulids but detected far less EG species, namely two to three cryptic species in P. brasiliensis and no cryptic species at all in the other darwinulid morphospecies. Conclusions/Significance Our results clearly demonstrate that both species and cryptic diversity can be recognized in putative ancient asexual ostracods using the EG species concept, and that COI data are more suitable than ITS2 for this purpose. The discovery of up to eight cryptic species within a single morphospecies will significantly increase estimates of biodiversity in this asexual ostracod group. Which factors, other than long-term geographic isolation, are important for speciation processes in these ancient asexuals remains to be investigated. PMID:22802945

  12. Two new species of Floresorchestia (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wongkamhaeng, Koraon; Dumrongrojwattana, Pongrat; Pattaratumrong, Manasawan Saengsakda

    2016-01-01

    The beach-hopper and land-hopper genus Floresorchestia Bousfield, 1984 is most widespread in terrestrial and marine littoral habitats and has been recorded from the South African coasts through to tropical Indo-Pacific and Caribbean Sea. In Thailand, there is only Floresorchestia samroiyodensis Azman, Wongkamhaeng & Dumrongrojwattana, 2014 reported from the swamp of Prachuab Kiri Khan, southern Thailand. In this work, two new species of Floresorchestia from Phutsa Reservoir in Nakhon Ratchasima and the man-made swamp in Burapha University are described. The new species are characterised by the mandible left lacinia mobilis 4-dentate; the posterior margin of merus, carpus and propodus covered in palmate setae; the uropod 3 peduncle with two robust setae and the telson longer than broad. The characters of the specimens are described and illustrated in this paper. All specimens are deposited in the Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Natural History Museum, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.

  13. Two new species of Floresorchestia (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae) in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Wongkamhaeng, Koraon; Dumrongrojwattana, Pongrat; Pattaratumrong, Manasawan Saengsakda

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The beach-hopper and land-hopper genus Floresorchestia Bousfield, 1984 is most widespread in terrestrial and marine littoral habitats and has been recorded from the South African coasts through to tropical Indo-Pacific and Caribbean Sea. In Thailand, there is only Floresorchestia samroiyodensis Azman, Wongkamhaeng & Dumrongrojwattana, 2014 reported from the swamp of Prachuab Kiri Khan, southern Thailand. In this work, two new species of Floresorchestia from Phutsa Reservoir in Nakhon Ratchasima and the man-made swamp in Burapha University are described. The new species are characterised by the mandible left lacinia mobilis 4-dentate; the posterior margin of merus, carpus and propodus covered in palmate setae; the uropod 3 peduncle with two robust setae and the telson longer than broad. The characters of the specimens are described and illustrated in this paper. All specimens are deposited in the Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Natural History Museum, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand. PMID:27917056

  14. Fennerosquilla heptacantha (Crustacea: Stomatopoda: Squillidae) in South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lucatelli, Débora

    2015-10-07

    Fennerosquilla is a monotypic genus that belongs to the family Squillidae, which has the highest generic diversity within Stomatopoda. This genus has been recorded in the north Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, between 105 and 458 m depth. The present specimen was collected during the project "Avaliação da Biota Bentônica e Planctônica na porção offshore das Bacias Potiguar e Ceará", in 2011, from the continental slope region of Brazil. In this expedition Fennerosquilla heptacantha was found at 178-193 m depth, and represents the first record of the species in the south Atlantic Ocean (Rio Grande do Norte State, northeastern Brazil), expanding the southern limit distribution. The specimen is the largest recorded, measuring 149 mm total length. The pigmentation zone on median region of telson and all diagnostic characters are still preserved and agree with the original description. Fennerosquilla heptacantha has a disjunct deep water distribution (more than 100 m) in the tropical western Atlantic, mostly along the continental slope.

  15. Talitrid amphipods (Crustacea) as biomonitors for copper and zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainbow, P. S.; Moore, P. G.; Watson, D.

    1989-06-01

    Data are presented on the copper and zinc concentrations of four talitrid amphipod species (standard dry weight 10 mg), i.e. Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas), O. mediterranea Costa, Talitrus saltator Montagu and Talorchestia deshayesii (Audouin), from 31 sites in S.W. Scotland, N. Wales and S.W. England. More limited data are also presented for cadmium in O. gammarellus (three sites) and T. deshayesii (one site). In S.W. Scotland, copper concentrations were raised significantly in O. gammarellus from Whithorn and Auchencairn (Solway) and Loch Long and Holy Loch (Clyde). In S.W. England, copper concentrations were highest at Restronguet Creek, Torpoint and Gannel (Cornwall). Samples of O. gammarellus from Islay (inner Hebrides) taken adjacent to the effluent outfalls of local whisky distilleries fell into two groups based on copper concentrations (presumably derived from copper stills), the higher copper levels deriving from the more productive distilleries. High copper levels were found in T. saltator and Tal. deshayesii from Dulas Bay (Wales). Zinc levels in O. gammarellus were high in Holy Loch and Auchencairn (Scotland), Gannel and Torpoint (England) but extremely elevated (as was Zn in O. mediterranea) at Restronguet Creek. Zinc was also high in T. saltator from Dulas Bay (Wales), but not in Tal. deshayesii. Cadmium levels in O. gammarellus from Kilve (Bristol Channel) were much raised. These differences (a) conform with expectations of elevated bioavailability of these metals from well researched areas (S.W. England & N. Wales), and (b) identify hitherto unappreciated areas of enrichment in S.W. Scotland. Orchestia gammarellus is put forward as a suitable biomonitor for copper and zinc in British coastal waters.

  16. Phylogeny of the Paracalanidae Giesbrecht, 1888 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida).

    PubMed

    Cornils, Astrid; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio

    2013-12-01

    The Paracalanidae are ecologically-important marine planktonic copepods that occur in the epipelagic zone in temperate and tropical waters. They are often the dominant taxon - in terms of biomass and abundance - in continental shelf regions. As primary consumers, they form a vital link in the pelagic food web between primary producers and higher trophic levels. Despite the ecological importance of the taxon, evolutionary and systematic relationships within the family remain largely unknown. A multigene phylogeny including 24 species, including representatives for all seven genera, was determined based on two nuclear genes, small-subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA and Histone 3 (H3) and one mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). The molecular phylogeny was well supported by Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis; all genera were found to be monophyletic, except for Paracalanus, which was separated into two distinct clades: the Paracalanus aculeatus group and Paracalanus parvus group. The molecular phylogeny also confirmed previous findings that Mecynocera and Calocalanus are genera of the family Paracalanidae. For comparison, a morphological phylogeny was created for 35 paracalanid species based on 54 morphological characters derived from published descriptions. The morphological phylogeny did not resolve all genera as monophyletic and bootstrap support was not strong. Molecular and morphological phylogenies were not congruent in the positioning of Bestiolina and the Paracalanus species groups, possibly due to the lack of sufficient phylogenetically-informative morphological characters.

  17. Use of neomysis mercedis (crustacea: mysidacea) for estuarine toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, O.M.; Fujimura, R.W.; Finlayson, B.J. )

    1993-03-01

    The mysid Neomysis mercedis was examined as a test organism for use in acute toxicity tests at intermediate salinities characteristic of estuarine waters. Several sensitive invertebrate species are available for marine assessments (mysids) and freshwater tests (cladocerans), but few are available for estuarine toxicity tests. Observations in the laboratory indicate that Neomysis mercedis can be reared successfully at a temperature of 17[degrees]C, a salinity of 2%, and a population density less than 5/L. Brine shrimp nauplii Artemia salina, algae, and commercial foods were used to sustain mysid cultures. Neomysis mercedis is vivaparous and can complete its life cycle in 3-4 months. Neomysis mercedis is as sensitive as or more sensitive to toxicants than the marine mysid Mysidopsis bahia and the freshwater cladocerans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Simocephalus serrulatus. The mean 96-h LC50 values (concentrations lethal to half the test animals) for N. mercedis, in increasing order, were 0.20 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and for malathion, 14 [mu]g/L for carbofuran, 150 [mu]g/L for copper sulfate, 280 [mu]g/L for thiobencarb, and 1,600 [mu]g/L for molinate. Neonates (5 d postrelease) were generally more sensitive than older juveniles. Coefficients of variation (100[center dot]SD/mean) of LC50 values varied from 21 to 35%. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Global biodiversity and phylogenetic evaluation of remipedia (crustacea).

    PubMed

    Neiber, Marco T; Hartke, Tamara R; Stemme, Torben; Bergmann, Alexandra; Rust, Jes; Iliffe, Thomas M; Koenemann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Remipedia is one of the most recently discovered classes of crustaceans, first described in 1981 from anchialine caves in the Bahamas Archipelago. The class is divided into the order Enantiopoda, represented by two fossil species, and Nectiopoda, which contains all known extant remipedes. Since their discovery, the number of nectiopodan species has increased to 24, half of which were described during the last decade. Nectiopoda exhibit a disjunct global distribution pattern, with the highest abundance and diversity in the Caribbean region, and isolated species in the Canary Islands and in Western Australia. Our review of Remipedia provides an overview of their ecological characteristics, including a detailed list of all anchialine marine caves, from which species have been recorded. We discuss alternative hypotheses of the phylogenetic position of Remipedia within Arthropoda, and present first results of an ongoing molecular-phylogenetic analysis that do not support the monophyly of several nectiopodan taxa. We believe that a taxonomic revision of Remipedia is absolutely essential, and that a comprehensive revision should include a reappraisal of the fossil record.

  19. The tropical talitrid genus Floresorchestia (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Springthorpe, R T

    2015-03-17

    Floresorchestia floresiana (Weber, 1892) from Flores, F. anomala (Chevreux, 1901) from the Seychelles, F. malayensis (Tattersall, 1922) from Singapore and F. thienemanni (Schellenberg, 1931) from Java are redescribed based on original type material or newly collected material from near the type locality. Nine new species are described, in the widespread Indo-West Pacific and Caribbean talitrid genus Floresorchestia: F. andrevo sp. nov. and F. itampolo sp. nov. from Madagascar; F. kalili sp. nov. from the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea; F. laurenae sp. nov. from Timor-Leste; F. oluanpi sp. nov. from southern Taiwan; F. papeari sp. nov. from Tahiti; F. serejoae sp. nov. from far north Queensland, Australia; F. seringat sp. nov. from Singapore; and F. yap sp. nov. from Micronesia; plus Floresorchestia sp. 1 from Hainan Island, South China Sea, Floresorchestia sp. 2 from Kilakarai and other sites in south-eastern India and Floresorchestia sp. 3 from Phuket Island, Thailand. Floresorchestia contains 28 species. In this paper all are catalogued and diagnosed.

  20. The talitrid amphipods of Tonga (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Bopiah, Arundathi

    2013-01-01

    One new genus and four species of talitrid amphipods are described from Tonga: Platorchestia ano sp. nov.; Talorchestia spinipalma (Dana, 1852); Tongorchestia pangaimotu gen. nov., sp. nov.; T. towneri sp. nov.

  1. Molecular effects of diethanolamine exposure on Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Booth, Andy; Vang, Siv-Hege; Frenzel, Max; Sørheim, Kristin Rist; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar; Størseth, Trond R

    2010-08-15

    Alkanolamines are surface-active chemicals used in a wide range of industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical applications and products. Of particular interest is the use of alkanolamines such as diethanolamine (DEA) in the removal of CO(2) from natural gas and for CO(2) capture following fossil fuel combustion. Despite this widespread use, relatively little is known about the ecotoxicological impacts of these compounds. In an attempt to assess the potential effects of alkanolamines in the marine environment, a key species in the North Atlantic, the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus, was studied for molecular effects following sublethal exposure to DEA. DEA-induced alterations in transcriptome and metabolome profiling were assessed using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) gene library method and high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR), respectively. Effects were observed on transcription of genes reportedly involved in lipid metabolism, antioxidant systems, metal binding, and amino acid and protein catabolism. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of fatty acid derivates, amino acids (threonine, methionine, glutamine, arginine, alanine and leucine) and cholines (choline, phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine). Together, SSH and HR-MAS NMR offer complementary screening tools for the assessment of molecular responses of C. finmarchicus to DEA and can be used in the study of other chemicals and organisms. Concentration-response and time-response relationships between DEA exposure and single gene transcription were investigated using quantitative PCR. Specific relationships were found between DEA exposure and the transcription of genes involved in protein catabolism (ubiquitin-specific protease-7), metal ion homeostasis (ferritin) and defence against oxidative stress (gamma-glutamylcysteine synthase, glutathione synthase and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase). At the lowest alkanolamine concentration used in these experiments, which corresponded to 0.5% of the LC(50) concentration, no transcriptional effects were observed, giving information regarding the lower molecular effect level. Finally, similar transcription patterns were observed for a number of different genes following exposure to DEA, which indicates analogous mechanisms of toxicity and response.

  2. Amphipoda (Crustacea) from Palau, Micronesia: Families Maeridae and Melitidae.

    PubMed

    Myers, A A

    2016-09-26

    Seven species of senticaudate amphipods belonging to the families Maeridae and Melitidae are recorded from Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, and are figured. Three species are new to science and are fully described and figured.

  3. Global Biodiversity and Phylogenetic Evaluation of Remipedia (Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Neiber, Marco T.; Hartke, Tamara R.; Stemme, Torben; Bergmann, Alexandra; Rust, Jes; Iliffe, Thomas M.; Koenemann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Remipedia is one of the most recently discovered classes of crustaceans, first described in 1981 from anchialine caves in the Bahamas Archipelago. The class is divided into the order Enantiopoda, represented by two fossil species, and Nectiopoda, which contains all known extant remipedes. Since their discovery, the number of nectiopodan species has increased to 24, half of which were described during the last decade. Nectiopoda exhibit a disjunct global distribution pattern, with the highest abundance and diversity in the Caribbean region, and isolated species in the Canary Islands and in Western Australia. Our review of Remipedia provides an overview of their ecological characteristics, including a detailed list of all anchialine marine caves, from which species have been recorded. We discuss alternative hypotheses of the phylogenetic position of Remipedia within Arthropoda, and present first results of an ongoing molecular-phylogenetic analysis that do not support the monophyly of several nectiopodan taxa. We believe that a taxonomic revision of Remipedia is absolutely essential, and that a comprehensive revision should include a reappraisal of the fossil record. PMID:21625553

  4. Anostracan (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) zoogeography I. North American bioregions.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher

    2014-07-18

    Nine anostracan biogeographical regions are defined for North America: Appalachia/Ozark, Southwest Arid, Great Plains, Coastal Plain, Neotropical, California, Cold Deserts, Beringia/Canadian Shield, and Transmontane. These regions are quantitatively defined using species distributions compared through Jaccard's Coefficient of Community Similarity, and qualitatively defined using climate data, following the ecoregions protocol of the US Environmental Protection Agency for North America and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México for Mexico. Community assemblages are quantified using Fager's Index of Recurring Species Groups. The average Fager's Index for each bioregion, as well as the percentage of taxa co-occurring, generally decreases with the length of time the region has been available for colonisation. The strong Fager's Index/colonisation time availability relationship suggests that the Monopolization Hypothesis of De Meester et al. may function at larger landscape scales.

  5. A new species of Branchinecta (Crustacea: Anostraca) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher; Lorenz, Helen Racz

    2015-10-22

    Branchinecta uruguayensis, a new species of fairy shrimp, is described from a single seasonally astatic aquatic habitat in coastal Uruguay. This is the first record of an anostracan from the nation of Uruguay. Male B. uruguayensis n. sp. are separated from other Branchinecta species by the form of the second antennae. Branchinecta uruguayensis n. sp. share the distal antennomere lobiform projection with B. papillata Rogers, De los Rios, & Zúñiga, 2008 and B. achalensis César, 1985. Branchinecta uruguayensis n. sp. females are readily separated from all other Branchinecta by the presence of posteriolateral thoracic spines and lateral crenulations on the first abdomen segment margins. A key is provided to the Branchinectidae of South America.

  6. [Euphausiids (Crustacea: Melacostraca) from the southern Mexican Caribbean Sea].

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Iván; Gasca, Rebeca

    2002-03-01

    The composition, abundance and distribution of euphausiids from the southern part of the Mexican Caribbean Sea (August 1986) were sampled during the ARCOMM I cruise on board the R/V "Justo Sierra" of UNAM. Sampling was done using a Bongo-net (0.5 mm mesh size) performing oblique hauls from 200 m to the surface at 28 stations. Of the total euphausiid numbers, the most abundant species was Stylocheiron carinatum (49%), followed by Euphausia americana (9.8%) and E. tenera with (7.8%). The highest total density and that of the three most abundant species occurred during the night sampling, and probably was related to vertical migration patterns. The Bray-Curtis index revealed three station assemblages, related to the day-night variations of the euphausiid community. Species were distributed mainly in the oceanic area, and were absent in the neritic zones. The local fauna shows a strong affinity for the euphausiid community of the Gulf of Mexico and other areas of the Caribbean Sea. Four species are considered to be new records for the western Caribbean Sea.

  7. Transformations of mercury in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Jereb, Vesna; Horvat, Milena; Drobne, Damjana; Pihlar, Boris

    2003-03-20

    The biological cycle of mercury in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber was investigated. Testing the possibility of in vivo Hg(2+) methylation was divided into two methodologically different parts. Firstly, concentrations of total mercury and MeHg in isopods P. scaber and their environment from a Hg-unpolluted area were measured by the use of validated methods (CV AAS, CV AFS). The data obtained show that the percentage of MeHg in leaves, soil and faeces was less than 1%. In contrast, the percentage of MeHg in gut and hepatopancreas was increased to 14 and 77%, respectively, indicating methylation of Hg(2+) in the gut and its further accumulation in glands. To confirm this assumption, the second methodology was applied-a radiotracer technique with 203Hg(2+) of high specific activity. There are few radiotracer techniques for Hg-methylation assays; for our work we chose the method of Czuba et al. which includes alkaline leaching of Hg species, their extraction into dithizone-toluene, followed by specific separation of Hg dithizonates by thin-layer chromatography and gamma counting. All steps of the analytical protocol were checked and optimised by the use of aqueous solutions of 203Hg(2+) and Me(203)Hg(+). The most important finding was that cleaning-up the extract through a florisil column is not appropriate, because the column retains different percentages of Hg(2+) and MeHg(+) and consequently affects the accuracy of the final result. This optimised protocol was then applied to Hg transformation studies in the terrestrial isopod P. scaber. Leaching Hg species from P. scaber fed with 203Hg(2+) or Me(203)Hg(+) dosed food was completely efficient only at elevated temperatures. Preliminary results of methylation/demethlytion studies are rather variable but they show that both processes (Hg(2+)<-->MeHg(+)) take place in the isopod P. scaber. Additionally, an assessment of the mass balance of Hg in isopods P. scaber exposed to 203Hg(2+) indicates that volatile Hg species are also formed.

  8. Predation of schistosomiasis vector snails by ostracoda (crustacea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, I.G.; Kornicker, L.S.

    1972-01-01

    An ostracod species of Cypretta is an effective predator in laboratory experiments on 1- to 3-day-old Biomphalaria glabrata, a vector snail of the blood fluke that causes the tropical and subtropical disease schistosomiasis.

  9. Northwestward range extension for Diacyclops harryi (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Janet W.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    A recent find of the groundwater-inhabiting copepod crustacean Diacyclops harryi extended the known range of this species far northwestward, to include northern Ohio and the drainage basin of the Laurentian Great Lakes. The species was previously collected in drainages of the Atlantic Slope from New York to North Carolina. Ostracodes tentatively identified as ?Nannocandona n. sp., and amphipods belonging to the subterranean species Bactrurus mucronatus were also found at the Ohio locality.

  10. Historical biogeography of the neotropical Diaptomidae (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diaptomid copepods are prevalent throughout continental waters of the Neotropics, yet little is known about their biogeography. In this study we investigate the main biogeographical patterns among the neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods using Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) based on species records within ecoregions. In addition, we assess potential environmental correlates and limits for species richness. Results PAE was efficient in identifying general areas of endemism. Moreover, only ecoregion area showed a significant correlation with diaptomid species richness, although climatic factors were shown to provide possible upper limits to the species richness in a given ecoregion. Conclusion The main patterns of endemism in neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods are highly congruent with other freshwater taxa, suggesting a strong historical signal in determining the distribution of the family in the Neotropics. PMID:25057279

  11. A new species of Chirocephalus (Crustacea: Anostraca) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher; Soufi, Mahmoud

    2013-01-30

    Chirocephalus soulukliensis, an insular new species of fairy shrimp, is described from the Soulukli Wetland in Golestan National Park in northeastern Iran. The new species shares several characters with the loosely organized "Pristicephalus" group. It is readily separated from all congeners by the short, monolamellar form of the antennal appendage, which is un-armed, the distally expanded form of the apophyses, and the sinuate form of the second antennal distal antennomere.

  12. Taxonomic Review of the Orders Mysida and Stygiomysida (Crustacea, Peracarida)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The order Mysida (2 families, 178 genera, 1132 species) contains species across a broad range of habitats, such as subterranean, fresh, brackish, coastal, and surface to deep-sea habitats. The Stygiomysida (2 families, 2 genera, 16 species), however, are found primarily in subterranean waters, but always in waters with a marine influence. The Mysida and Stygiomysida body is divided into three main regions: cephalon, thorax, and abdomen. They are shrimp-like in appearance, containing morphological features earlier referred to as defining a "caridoid facies". The shrimp-like morphology was to some extent diagnostic for the historic Decapod taxon Schizopoda, containing the Nebalia, Mysida, Lophogastrida, and Euphausiacea. In 1904 the concept of Schizopoda was abandoned, and the Mysidacea (Mysida and Lophogastrida) along with Cumacea, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Tanaidacea were placed in a new taxon, the Peracarida. Later discoveries of groundwater mysids led to the establishment of Stygiomysida, but placement to either Lophogastrida or Mysida remained unclear. The presence of oostegites and absence of podobranchiae, coupled with non-statocyst bearing uropods have been used to classify the Stygiomysida as a primitive Mysida family, comparable to Petalophthalmidae. On the other hand, equally suggestive characters, but for a Lophogastrida affiliation, was suggested for the archaic foregut characters and again, non-statocyst bearing uropods. With the inclusion of DNA sequence data of ribosomal genes, sister group relationships between Stygiomysida, Lophogastrida, and Mictacea within the Peracarida are observed, which supports a classification of the Stygiomysida as a separate order removed from the Mysida. PMID:25927358

  13. Nerocila species (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Indian marine fishes.

    PubMed

    Trilles, Jean-Paul; Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2013-03-01

    Eleven Nerocila species are recorded from 22 marine fishes belonging to 15 families. Three, Nerocila arres, Nerocila depressa, and Nerocila loveni, are new for the Indian fauna. N. arres and Nerocila sigani, previously synonymized, are redescribed and their individuality is restored. Nerocila exocoeti, until now inadequately identified, is described and distinctly characterized. A neotype is designated. New hosts were identified for N. depressa, N. loveni, Nerocila phaiopleura, Nerocila serra, and Nerocila sundaica. Host-parasite relationships were considered. The parasitologic indexes were calculated. The site of attachment of the parasites on their hosts was also observed. A checklist of the nominal Nerocila species until now reported from Indian marine fishes was compiled.

  14. Records of Australian Fouling Organisms: Sessile Barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    4a-d; Broch 1931:116. Specific features: Parietes longitudinally ribbed, white or pinkish with summits tinged greenish blue (Plate le, f). Articular...1921). Later authors describe the presence of the spines ( Broch 1931; Rosell, 1972). A. zuiho Hiro (1936:632), figs. 8, 9), collected near Darwin...at MRL. 11 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bishop, M.W.H. (1951), Distribution of barnacles by ships. Nature, Lond. 167, 531. Broch , H. (1931), Indomalayan Cirripedia

  15. The effects of power station entrainment passage on three species of marine planktonic crustacean, Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Crangon crangon (Decapoda) and Homarus gammarus (Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Bamber, Roger N; Seaby, Richard M H

    2004-05-01

    Experiments have been undertaken exposing larval common shrimp (Crangon crangon) and lobster (Homarus gammarus) and adult copepods (Acartia tonsa) to the key stresses of entrainment within power-station cooling-water systems. The apparatus has enabled the testing of mechanical, thermal, chlorine and realistic pressure effects both alone and in combination, the range of stressors spanning the standard conditions found within a temperate coastal direct-cooled power station. Mechanical stresses affected only lobster larvae, pressure changes affected only the Acartia adults. Residual chlorine caused significant mortality of Acartia and shrimp larvae, but had no effect on lobster larvae even at 1 ppm. The temperature increment significantly affected all three species, with a synergistic effect on chlorine sensitivity in the shrimp larvae, but only temperatures higher than would be experienced in a normally-operating power station affected the copepods. The majority of individuals of each species would survive passage through a power-station system under normal conditions. It is notable that, within the species tested, generalizations from the responses of one species to those of another are not valid.

  16. The importance of feeding in the larval development of the ghost shrimp Callichirus major (Decapoda: Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, Fernando A; Arruda, Danielle C B; Simith, Darlan J B; Palmeira, Carlos A M

    2008-09-01

    The present study investigated whether the callianassid Callichirus major shows a lecithotrophic behaviour during larval development. Two experiments were carried out. In the first experiment, larvae were subjected to an initial period of feeding, while in the second they were subjected to an initial period of starvation. In Experiment 1, 80% of C. major larvae succeeded moulting to juvenile stage in treatment with larvae fed every day. In the treatments with larvae fed for 1, 2 and 3 days there was total mortality before they reached the megalopal stage. In Experiment 2, zoea larvae showed more resistance when subjected to an initial period of starvation in which larvae starved for 1, 2 and 3 days and had survival rates of 100, 60 and 80%, respectively. But, a delay in the development duration of the zoeal stages was observed. Total mortality was observed for larvae reared in the treatment with entire starvation. The results suggest that zoeal stages of C. major are not lecithotrophic.

  17. Lunar rhythms in the egg hatching of the subtidal crustacean: Callinectes arcuatus Ordway (Decapoda: Brachyura)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVries, M. C.; Epifanio, C. E.; Dittel, A. I.

    1983-12-01

    Gravid female portunid crabs, Callinectes arcuatus, were held in a recirculating seawater system and the development of the eggs was observed. Based on morphological criteria, nine developmental stages were noted. The relationship between a given stage and the subsequent time to hatching was determined. Based on this, an index was devised that predicted hatching date from microscopic observation of an egg mass. This index was used to predict the date of hatching of eggs from 439 crabs collected in the Gulf of Nicoya, Central America, and the frequency of hatching was analysed in relation to the lunar and tidal cycles. Significantly more eggs hatched during periods of spring than neap tides. The adaptive significance of this rhythmicity is unclear at present.

  18. Multiple drivers of decline in the global status of freshwater crayfish (Decapoda: Astacidea).

    PubMed

    Richman, Nadia I; Böhm, Monika; Adams, Susan B; Alvarez, Fernando; Bergey, Elizabeth A; Bunn, John J S; Burnham, Quinton; Cordeiro, Jay; Coughran, Jason; Crandall, Keith A; Dawkins, Kathryn L; DiStefano, Robert J; Doran, Niall E; Edsman, Lennart; Eversole, Arnold G; Füreder, Leopold; Furse, James M; Gherardi, Francesca; Hamr, Premek; Holdich, David M; Horwitz, Pierre; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Jones, Clive M; Jones, Julia P G; Jones, Robert L; Jones, Thomas G; Kawai, Tadashi; Lawler, Susan; López-Mejía, Marilu; Miller, Rebecca M; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Reynolds, Julian D; Richardson, Alastair M M; Schultz, Mark B; Schuster, Guenter A; Sibley, Peter J; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Taylor, Christopher A; Thoma, Roger F; Walls, Jerry; Walsh, Todd S; Collen, Ben

    2015-02-19

    Rates of biodiversity loss are higher in freshwater ecosystems than in most terrestrial or marine ecosystems, making freshwater conservation a priority. However, prioritization methods are impeded by insufficient knowledge on the distribution and conservation status of freshwater taxa, particularly invertebrates. We evaluated the extinction risk of the world's 590 freshwater crayfish species using the IUCN Categories and Criteria and found 32% of all species are threatened with extinction. The level of extinction risk differed between families, with proportionally more threatened species in the Parastacidae and Astacidae than in the Cambaridae. Four described species were Extinct and 21% were assessed as Data Deficient. There was geographical variation in the dominant threats affecting the main centres of crayfish diversity. The majority of threatened US and Mexican species face threats associated with urban development, pollution, damming and water management. Conversely, the majority of Australian threatened species are affected by climate change, harvesting, agriculture and invasive species. Only a small proportion of crayfish are found within the boundaries of protected areas, suggesting that alternative means of long-term protection will be required. Our study highlights many of the significant challenges yet to come for freshwater biodiversity unless conservation planning shifts from a reactive to proactive approach.

  19. Suspension feeding in adult Nephrops norvegicus (L.) and Homarus gammarus (L.) (decapoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loo, Lars-Ove; Pihl Baden, Susanne; Ulmestrand, Mats

    Suspension feeding in adults of the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus (40-74 g) and the European lobster Homarus gammarus (280-350 g) was tested in experiments offering planktonic food items of different sizes from 200 to 600 μm and measuring the clearing capacity. Both lobster species were found to effectively clear water of food particles comprising nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina of about 600 μm in size. These were reduced to 50% of the initial concentration within 5 h and to 90% within 12 h. When N. norvegicus was offered food particles averaging 200 μm, a significant reduction in average size occurred, indicating that the minimum retention size is around 200 μm. Fluorescently dyed Artemia salina were recovered in the stomach and intestine of lobsters proving that the filtered particles are passed to the digestive tract. Results from other experiments, using the blood pigment (haemocyanin) concentration as an index of nutritional state, indicated that the lobsters can get some nutritional advantage from suspension feeding. Suspension feeding in larger decapods has not been described previously, so the significance of this finding is discussed with respect to changes in behavioural and ecological role.

  20. New records of coral-associated crabs (Decapoda: Brachyura: Carpilioidea, Trapezoidea) from Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Christopher B; Mendoza, Jose C E; Castro, Peter

    2017-01-10

    A review is made of those brachyurans that are symbiotic or otherwise associated with scleractinian corals on Easter Island, southeastern Pacific Ocean. A total of seven species is reported, including three species from two families not previously known from the island. Earlier records of Trapezia are analyzed and, although as many as six species have been previously reported, we conclude that only three species are known to occur on the island with certainty.

  1. Structural changes of oviduct of freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), during spawning*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian-ping; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Yu, Xiao-yun

    2006-01-01

    The structural change of the oviduct of freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense) during spawning was examined by electron microscopy. The oviduct wall structural characteristics seem to be influenced significantly by the spawning process. Before the parturition and ovulation, two types of epithelial cells (types I and II) are found in the epithelium. The free surfaces of type I and type II cells have very dense long microvilli. Under the type I and type II cells, are a relatively thick layer of secreting material and a layer of mostly dead cells. After ovulation, two other types of epithelial cells (types III and IV) are found in the oviduct wall epithelium. The free surface of type III cells only has short microvilli scattered on the surface. The thick layer with secreting material and the dead cell layer disappeared at this stage. In some type III cells, the leaking out of cytoplasm from broken cell membrane led to the death of these type III cells. The transformation of all four types of epithelial cells was in the order: IV→I→II→III. PMID:16365928

  2. Phylogeny and biogeography of the freshwater crayfish Euastacus (Decapoda: Parastacidae) based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Shull, Heather C; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Blair, David; Sewell, Kim; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Lawler, Susan; Ponniah, Mark; Crandall, Keith A

    2005-10-01

    Euastacus crayfish are endemic to freshwater ecosystems of the eastern coast of Australia. While recent evolutionary studies have focused on a few of these species, here we provide a comprehensive phylogenetic estimate of relationships among the species within the genus. We sequenced three mitochondrial gene regions (COI, 16S, and 12S) and one nuclear region (28S) from 40 species of the genus Euastacus, as well as one undescribed species. Using these data, we estimated the phylogenetic relationships within the genus using maximum-likelihood, parsimony, and Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses. Using Bayes factors to test different model hypotheses, we found that the best phylogeny supports monophyletic groupings of all but two recognized species and suggests a widespread ancestor that diverged by vicariance. We also show that Euastacus and Astacopsis are most likely monophyletic sister genera. We use the resulting phylogeny as a framework to test biogeographic hypotheses relating to the diversification of the genus.

  3. [Spatial distribution of Ocypode quadrata (Decapoda: Ocypodidae) in eight beaches of North-Eastern Cuba].

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Frank A; Vega, Antonio; Córdova, Elier A

    2012-09-01

    Studies on the ecology of Ocypode quadrata have been mostly carried out in the Northern and Southern part of its distribution range. In despite that this species is common in Cuban beaches, there are no quantitative studies regarding its abundance and spatial distribution. The aim of this study was to report some aspects about the spatial variation of O. quadrata density in sandy beaches, with different levels of human influence, in the North coast of Eastern Cuba. For this, on May 2010, eight beaches with different levels of human influence were surveyed. On each beach, the number of crabs burrows were counted in 45 quadrats of 4m2 located in three different strata (P1, P2 and P3). According to burrow opening diameter, crabs were separated into young and adults forms. To determine the existence of statistical differences in the density of crab burrows among beaches and strata, a two-way ANOVA was developed with a Scheffé-procedure post hoc test. A total of 355 burrows were counted in 360 sample units. The composition by size classes was 237 burrows for young and 118 for adults. From the total of burrows, 74% were located in P1, 20% in P2 and 6% in P3. The higher concentration of burrows was found at Jiguaní beach (0.52 +/- 0.08 burrows/m2) while the lesser concentration was found at Estero Ciego beach (0.06 +/- 0.01 burrows/m2). Most of the beaches did not present significant differences in the burrows density (Scheffé, p>0.05), according to ANOVA results, in despite their different human influence level. Density of individuals was significantly higher in the upper intertidal (P1) areas (Scheffé, p<0.05) with predominance of young crabs. Total density diminished in P2 and P3 strata where a predominance of adult individuals was observed. The interaction term of beach and strata evidenced that the pattern of variation among strata was not the same for all beaches. The general pattern of adults and young specimen spatial distribution in the beaches was very similar to those reported in the literature. In the present study, the first conducted in Cuban beaches, we did not find evidence of direct relationship between the level of human impact and the density of ghost crab burrows.

  4. Diversity and distribution of Chirostyloidea and Galatheoidea (Decapoda, Anomura) in the Southern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Bader, Ana Rosa; Gracia, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We examined the diversity, abundance, distribution, and average size of squat lobsters collected during eight cruises conducted on the continental shelf and slope of the Gulf of Mexico (Mexican/USA border to the Caribbean Sea). Six species belonging to two genera of Chirostyloidea, and 25 species of four genera of Galatheoidea are reported. A total of 1513 specimens were obtained of which 95 were Chirostylidae, two Galatheidae, 285 Munidopsidae, and 1131 Munididae. Of the species collected, 13.8% were only known from Caribbean Sea. Three species of Chirostylidae—Gastroptychus salvadori, Uroptychus capillatus, and Uroptychus spiniger—as well two of Munidopsidae, Munidopsis bradleyi and Munidopsis riveroi, are recorded for the first time in the Gulf of Mexico. The upper bathymetric range of one species and the lower one for eight species are extended. Biological and ecological traits of squat lobsters in the southern Gulf of Mexico are also provided. PMID:27667921

  5. Phylogeny and Evolutionary Patterns in the Dwarf Crayfish Subfamily (Decapoda: Cambarellinae)

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Doadrio, Ignacio; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Crandall, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    The Dwarf crayfish or Cambarellinae, is a morphologically singular subfamily of decapod crustaceans that contains only one genus, Cambarellus. Its intriguing distribution, along the river basins of the Gulf Coast of United States (Gulf Group) and into Central México (Mexican Group), has until now lacked of satisfactory explanation. This study provides a comprehensive sampling of most of the extant species of Cambarellus and sheds light on its evolutionary history, systematics and biogeography. We tested the impact of Gulf Group versus Mexican Group geography on rates of cladogenesis using a maximum likelihood framework, testing different models of birth/extinction of lineages. We propose a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for the subfamily based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci (3,833 bp) using Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods. The phylogenetic structure found two phylogenetic groups associated to the two main geographic components (Gulf Group and Mexican Group) and is partially consistent with the historical structure of river basins. The previous hypothesis, which divided the genus into three subgenera based on genitalia morphology was only partially supported (P = 0.047), resulting in a paraphyletic subgenus Pandicambarus. We found at least two cases in which phylogenetic structure failed to recover monophyly of recognized species while detecting several cases of cryptic diversity, corresponding to lineages not assigned to any described species. Cladogenetic patterns in the entire subfamily are better explained by an allopatric model of speciation. Diversification analyses showed similar cladogenesis patterns between both groups and did not significantly differ from the constant rate models. While cladogenesis in the Gulf Group is coincident in time with changes in the sea levels, in the Mexican Group, cladogenesis is congruent with the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Our results show how similar allopatric divergence in freshwater organisms can be promoted through diverse vicariant factors. PMID:23155379

  6. Escape behavior and neuronal responses to looming stimuli in the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus (Decapoda: Grapsidae).

    PubMed

    Oliva, Damián; Medan, Violeta; Tomsic, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Behavioral responses to looming stimuli have been studied in many vertebrate and invertebrate species, but neurons sensitive to looming have been investigated in very few animals. In this paper we introduce a new experimental model using the crab Chasmagnathus granulatus, which allows investigation of the processes of looming detection and escape decision at both the behavioral and neuronal levels. By analyzing the escape response of the crab in a walking simulator device we show that: (i) a robust and reliable escape response can be elicited by computer-generated looming stimuli in all tested animals; (ii) parameters such as distance, speed, timing and directionality of the escape run, are easy to record and quantify precisely in the walking device; (iii) although the magnitude of escape varies between animals and stimulus presentations, the timing of the response is remarkably consistent and does not habituate at 3 min stimulus intervals. We then study the response of neurons from the brain of the crab by means of intracellular recordings in the intact animal and show that: (iv) two subclasses of previously identified movement detector neurons from the lobula (third optic neuropil) exhibit robust and reliable responses to the same looming stimuli that trigger the behavioral response; (v) the neurons respond to the object approach by increasing their rate of firing in a way that closely matches the dynamics of the image expansion. Finally, we compare the neuronal with the behavioral response showing that: (vi) differences in the neuronal responses to looming, receding or laterally moving stimuli closely reflect the behavioral differences to such stimuli; (vii) during looming, the crab starts to run soon after the looming-sensitive neurons begin to increase their firing rate. The increase in the running speed during stimulus approach faithfully follows the increment in the firing rate, until the moment of maximum stimulus expansion. Thereafter, the neurons abruptly stop firing and the animal immediately decelerates its run. The results are discussed in connection with studies of responses to looming stimuli in the locust.

  7. Acute toxicity of sodium metabisulphite on mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Decapoda, Ucididae).

    PubMed

    Pedale, Adriana B; Fujimoto, Rodrigo Y; Santos, Rudã F B; Abrunhosa, Fernando A

    2012-12-01

    The sodium metabisulphite salt is usually used in shrimp culture to prevent black spot. Unfortunately the toxicological effect of this xenobiotic in decapod crabs is unknown. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the sodium metabisulphite LC(50) - 96 h in the mangrove species Ucides cordatus. Crabs were collected in the tidal creek margins in Bragança estuarine and were submitted to preliminary test (screening) and posterior definitive test. Crabs were exposed in five different concentrations and a control group in five replicates, two crabs per recipient (5 L) during 96 hours. A negative correlation was observed to sodium metabisulphite concentration in relation to dissolved oxygen and pH. At the end of the experiment were obtained the following mortality index in relation to sodium metabisulphite concentrations: 100% in 86.0 mg.L(-1), 74% in 62.0 mg.L(-1), 52% in 52.0 mg.L(-1), 44% in 38.0 mg.L(-1). The value of LC(50) - 96 h for U. cordatus was determinate at 42.58 mg.L(-1)/Na(2)S(2)O(5). The results strongly indicate that sodium metabisulphite is toxic for U. cordatus, and this crab could be used for biomonitoring the environmental impact.

  8. Phylogeny and New Classification of Hydrothermal Vent and Seep Shrimps of the Family Alvinocarididae (Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Kulagin, Dmitry N.; Lunina, Anastasia A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the phylogeny and classification of the hydrothermal vent shrimp family Alvinocarididae. Two morphological cladistic analyses were carried out, which use all 31 recognized species of Alvinocarididae as terminal taxa. As outgroups, two species were included, both representing major caridean clades: Acanthephyra purpurea (Acanthephyridae) and Alpheus echiurophilus (Alpheidae). For additional support of the clades we utilised available data on mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I gene (CO1) and 16S ribosomal markers. Both morphological and molecular methods resulted in similar tree topologies and nearly identical clades. We consider these clades as evolutionary units and thus erect two new subfamilies: Rimicaridinae (Alvinocaridinides, Manuscaris, Opaepele, Shinkaicaris, Rimicaris), Alvinocaridinae (Alvinocaris), whilst recognising Mirocaridinae (with genera Mirocaris and Nautilocaris) at subfamily level. One genus, Keldyshicaris could not be assigned to any subfamily and is thus left as incertae sedis. The monophyly of Alvinocardinae was supported by morphological data, but not supported by molecular data (two analyses); the monophyly of all subfamilies was supported both by morphological and molecular data. Chorocaris is herein synonymized with Rimicaris, whilst Opaepele vavilovi is herein transferred to a new genus Keldyshicaris. Morphological trends within Alvinocarididae are discussed and short biogeographical remarks are given. We provide emended diagnoses for all subfamilies and genera along with keys to all recognized species. PMID:26161742

  9. Reproductive biology of the prawn Melicertus kerathurus (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in Thermaikos Gulf (N. Aegean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevrekidis, Kosmas; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The reproductive biology including insemination frequency, ovarian maturation, gonadosomatic index (GSI), size at first maturity, and fecundity of Melicertus kerathurus were investigated using monthly samples from Thermaikos Gulf. Insemination was recorded by the presence of a spermatophore in the thelycum, and ovarian development was based on macroscopic ovarian staging (ST1-ST5). Inseminated females were found throughout the year with high percentages recorded from April to July. Although all ovarian stages were represented in mated females, insemination increased with size and ovarian maturation. High percentages of vitellogenic or mature ovarian stages were observed from May to July, while immature and developing ovaries were predominant mainly in winter. Spawned ovaries occurred from May to October. Carapace length at first maturity based on the presence of a spermatophore (CL50sp) was estimated at 39.20 mm, while that based on the presence of vitellogenic and mature ovaries (CL50ov) at 40.70 mm. The seasonal peak in the proportion of mature females (ST4) varied with size. Inseminated females at ST4 and GSI peaked in June-July. GSI varied in relation to insemination status and ovarian stage. In large females (>50 mm CL), the decline in mature ovaries and GSI increment with size indicates a relative reduction in the reproductive output. The number of oocytes ranged from 62,742 to 602,947 (mean ± SD: 268,000 ± 113,000). As the prawns are targeted during the spawning season, mainly by the artisanal fishery, and female size at first maturity is selected by artisanal net size, managerial measures toward artisanal fishery should be implemented.

  10. Shrimps Down Under: Evolutionary Relationships of Subterranean Crustaceans from Western Australia (Decapoda: Atyidae: Stygiocaris)

    PubMed Central

    Page, Timothy J.; Humphreys, William F.; Hughes, Jane M.

    2008-01-01

    Background We investigated the large and small scale evolutionary relationships of the endemic Western Australian subterranean shrimp genus Stygiocaris (Atyidae) using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Stygiocaris is part of the unique cave biota of the coastal, anchialine, limestones of the Cape Range and Barrow Island, most of whose nearest evolutionary relations are found in coastal caves of the distant North Atlantic. The dominance of atyids in tropical waters and their food resources suggest they are pivotal in understanding these groundwater ecosystems. Methodology/Principle Findings Our nuclear and mitochondrial analyses all recovered the Mexican cave genus Typhlatya as the sister taxon of Stygiocaris, rather than any of the numerous surface and cave atyids from Australia or the Indo-Pacific region. The two described Stygiocaris species were recovered as monophyletic, and a third, cryptic, species was discovered at a single site, which has very different physiochemical properties from the sites hosting the two described species. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that Stygiocaris and Typhlatya may descend from a common ancestor that lived in the coastal marine habitat of the ancient Tethys Sea, and were subsequently separated by plate tectonic movements. This vicariant process is commonly thought to explain the many disjunct anchialine faunas, but has rarely been demonstrated using phylogenetic techniques. The Cape Range's geological dynamism, which is probably responsible for the speciation of the various Stygiocaris species, has also led to geographic population structure within species. In particular, Stygiocaris lancifera is split into northern and southern groups, which correspond to population splits within other sympatric subterranean taxa. PMID:18286175

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of the furry lobster Palinurellus wieneckii (De Man, 1881) (Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chien-Hui; Liu, Yuan; Cui, Zhaoxia; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2014-08-01

    Complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) for the rare lobster genus Palinurellus (species P. wieneckii) is reported for the first time. The genus Palinurellus is peculiar looking and was previously considered to belong to a distinct family Synaxidae. However, recent molecular phylogenetic analyses based on partial sequences of various genes showed that Synaxidae is an invalid family and Palinurellus should be placed inside Palinuridae. The complete mitogenome of P. wieneckii is compared to the genetic structures with six other Achelata species with mitogenome sequence reported. The gene order of P. wieneckii is identical to the other Achelata lobsters, but with lower A + T content (63.6% versus 64.5-67.5%). Sequence nucleotide dissimilarity of P. wieneckii is considerably higher (37.7-40.3%) than amongst the five Palinuridae s.s. species (17.1-32.9%), and approximate to the range between Palinuridae s.s. and Scyllaridae (39.1-40.4%).

  12. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae): implications for developing aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Carter, Chris G; Westbury, Heath; Crear, Bradley; Simon, Cedric; Thomas, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The Southern rock lobster, Jasusedwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasusedwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11), avoidance (6) and others (12). Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture.

  13. Foregut morphology and ontogeny of the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Smith, 1869) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Panopeidae).

    PubMed

    Castejón, Diego; Ribes, Enric; Durfort, Mercè; Rotllant, Guiomar; Guerao, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of the foregut of the Say's mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi was described in adults and larvae. The ossicle system was illustrated based on a staining method with Alizarin-Red. The gastric teeth and cardio-pyloric valve were dissected and examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. In the adults, the morphology of ossicles and gastric teeth of D. sayi is very similar to the related species Rhithropanopeus harrisii. The foregut of first zoea (ZI) presented a functional cardio-pyloric valve while the filter press was lacking. The filter press was observed in the pyloric chamber from ZII. The most significant changes in morphology take place after metamorphosis from ZIV to megalopa, including the occurrence of the gastric mill. The organization and morphology of many megalopal foregut ossicles are recognizable in the adult phase, although the morphology of the gastric teeth differs from the morphology of adults. A correlation of gastric mill structures with food preferences and their contribution to the phylogeny are briefly discussed.

  14. Crangonidae and Glyphocrangonidae (Decapoda; Caridea) of the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Bader, Ana Rosa; Gracia, Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and abundance of species of Crangonidae and Glyphocrangonidae in the Mexican deep-waters of the Gulf of Mexico were analyzed through six research cruises onboard of the R/V Justo Sierra of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México using an otter trawl in a depth range of 300-1200 m. We collected two and five species of the Crangonidae and Glyphocrangonidae families, respectively. We provide information about its depth and geographic distribution, abundance, frequency of occurrence and size structure. Glyphocrangon, composed of five species (G. aculeata, G. alispina, G. haematonotus, G. longleyi and G. spinicauda), was the most common and abundant component during the benthic trawls with a total of 1125 individuals. The family Crangonidae recorded only one genus and two species (Parapontocaris caribbaea and P vicina) with 21 individuals. A taxonomic key for these crangonid and glyphocrangonid shrimps of the Gulf of Mexico is also provided.

  15. Influence of starvation and feeding on the hepatopancreas of larval Hyas araneus (Decapoda, Majidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, V.; Anger, K.

    1983-03-01

    Zoea-1 larvae of Hyas araneus were kept under different nutritional conditions. Their midgut glands were investigated with a transmission electron microscope. The glandular epithelium consists of the cell types known from adult decapods. It is mainly the R-cell type that undergoes ultrastructural alterations which reflect nutritional conditions. R-cells of fed larvae are characterized by large lipid inclusions; after a certain period of food deprivation (point-of-no-return) the original ultrastructure cannot be reestablished. Refeeding results in large glycogen deposits in these cells.

  16. Caught in speciation? A new host for Conchodytes meleagrinae Peters, 1852 (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Fransen, Charles H J M; Reijnen, Bastian T

    2013-01-01

    During fieldwork in 2009 at Ternate, Indonesia, a pair of a pontoniine shrimp species belonging to the genus Conchodytes was collected from a bivalve mollusk of the genus Spondylus. This constitutes the first record of a species of the genus Conchodytes associated with a spondylid host. The specimens can be distinguished from other known Conchodytes species based on both morphology and colour pattern. Its COI barcode however, strongly resembles those obtained from three specimens of C. meleagrinae and is nested in the C. meleagrinae clade of the reconstructed phylogeny. Based on morphology and colouration only the specimens associated with the Spondylus bivalve would have been described as a species new to science. The modest conflicting molecular data have lead the authors to fully describe and figure the Spondylus associated specimens and compare them with the Pinctada associated specimens. Based on the present information it is decided not to give the Spondylus associated specimens the status as a distinct species but regard them as host-related (colour)morph of Conchodytes meleagrinae.

  17. A new genus and species of freshwater crab from Madagascar (Decapoda, Brachyura, Potamoidea, Potamonautidae).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Kirstin S; Cumberlidge, Neil; Koppin, Jennifer C

    2014-11-12

    A new genus and species of freshwater crab is described from Madagascar. The new species is morphologically closest to the three species of the genus Foza Reed & Cumberlidge, 2006, but can easily be distinguished by having a completely smooth carapace with an unarmed anterolateral margin and a mandible with a distinctly shortened anterior lobe. This unusual suite of characters is sufficient to warrant the recognition of a new monotypic genus to accommodate this species.

  18. First complete mitochondrial genome of primitive crab Homologenus malayensis (Decapoda: Brachyura: Podotremata: Homolidae).

    PubMed

    Hui, Min; Liu, Yuan; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy and phylogeny of brachyuran crabs, and particularly of the Podotremata, have been the subjects of controversy due to their morphological diversity and complexity. The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of primitive crab Homologenus malayensis has been determined. The mitogenome is 15,793 bp in length, with A + T content 71.7%. The gene content and order are consistent with those in typical brachyuran crabs. A putative control region of 883 bp is identified due to its position (between srRNA and tRNA(Ile)) and AT richness (75.5%). Notably, the control region in H. malayensis contains nine identical specific repeat units of 42 bp and 11 identical repeat units of 2 bp with a total length of 400 bp, which is different from other crabs. These results are expected to provide useful information on both genomics and the future phylogenetic study of primitive crabs.

  19. Muscular anatomy of the legs of the forward walking crab, Libinia emarginata (Decapoda, Brachyura, Majoidea).

    PubMed

    Vidal-Gadea, A G; Belanger, J H

    2009-05-01

    Decapod crustaceans have been the focus of neuroethological studies for decades. With few exceptions, however, their musculature remains scarcely described. We study the neuroethology of legged locomotion in the portly spider crab, Libinia emarginata (Brachyura, Majoidea), which preferentially walks forward. Majoid crabs are thought to be among the first to have adopted the crab form (carcinification) from lobster-like ancestors, making them interesting subjects for comparative and phylogenetic studies. The radial arrangement of the legs around the thorax, coupled with its unidirectional walking modality makes L. emarginata a good candidate for the presence of anterior and posterior limb specializations. Here we describe the complete muscular anatomy of all the pereopods of L. emarginata and compare our findings with other decapods described in the literature. The number of proximal muscle bundles differs between the anterior and posterior pereopods of L. emarginata. We describe an intersegmental bundle of the flexor muscle similar to the one present in distantly related, forward walking macruran species. The behavioral repertoire, amenability to experimental investigations, and phylogenetic position make spider crabs useful species for the study of the neural control of legged locomotion. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of a complete description and comparison of the musculature in all the locomotor appendages of one species.

  20. Influence of starvation on the larval development of Hyas araneus (Decapoda, Majidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, K.; Dawirs, R. R.

    1981-09-01

    The influence of starvation on larval development of the spider crab Hyas araneus (L.) was studied in laboratory experiments. No larval stage suffering from continual lack of food had sufficient energy reserves to reach the next instar. Maximal survival times were observed at four different constant temperatures (2°, 6°, 12° and 18 °C). In general, starvation resistance decreased as temperatures increased: from 72 to 12days in the zoea-1, from 48 to 18 days in the zoea-2, and from 48 to 15 days in the megalopa stage. The length of maximal survival is of the same order of magnitude as the duration of each instar at a given temperature. “Sublethal limits” of early starvation periods were investigated at 12 °C: Zoea larvae must feed right from the beginning of their stage (at high food concentration) and for more than one fifth, approximately, of that stage to have at least some chance of surviving to the next instar, independent of further prey availability. The minimum time in which enough reserves are accumulated for successfully completing the instar without food is called “point-of-reserve-saturation” (PRS). If only this minimum period of essential initial feeding precedes starvation, development in both zoeal stages is delayed and mortality is greater, when compared to the fed control. Starvation periods beginning right after hatching of the first zoea cause a prolongation of this instar and, surprisingly, a slight shortening of the second stage. The delay in the zoea-1 increases proportionally to the length of the initial fasting period. If more than approximately 70 % of the maximum possible survival time has elapsed without food supply, the larvae become unable to recover and to moult to the second stage even when re-fed (“point-of-no-return”, PNR). The conclusion, based on own observations and on literature data, is that initial feeding is of paramount importance in the early development of planktotrophic decapod larvae. Taking into account hormonal and other developmental processes during the first moult cycle, a general hypothesis is proposed to explain the key role of first food uptake as well as the response pattern of the zoea-1 stage to differential starvation periods.

  1. Mitochondrial genome of the Caribbean king crab Damithrax spinosissimus (Lamarck, 1818) (Decapoda: Majidae).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Edna J; Hurtado-Alarcón, Julio C; Isaza, Juan P; Alzate, Juan F; Campos, Néstor H

    2016-05-01

    The Caribbean king crab Damithrax spinosissimus (former Mithrax spinosissimus) is a large brachyuran in the tropical and subtropical western Atlantic. This is the first report of the complete mitochondrial genome of D. spinosissimus, which was pyrosequenced by FLX 454 technology. The mtDNA encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of brachyuran.

  2. Zoogeography, taxonomy, and conservation of West Virginia’s Ohio River floodplain crayfishes (Decapoda, Cambaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Simon, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The crayfish fauna of West Virginia consists of 23 species and several undescribed taxa. Most survey efforts documenting this fauna have been conducted in lotic waterways throughout the Appalachian plateau, Allegheny Mountains, and Ridge and Valley physiographic provinces. Bottomland forests, swamps, and marshes associated with large river floodplain such as the Ohio River floodplain historically have been under-surveyed in the state. These habitats harbor the richest primary burrowing crayfish fauna in West Virginia, and are worthy of survey efforts. In an effort to fill this void, the crayfish fauna of West Virginia’s Ohio River floodplain was surveyed from 2004 through 2009. From this survey, nine species from four genera were documented inhabiting the floodplain. Zoogeography, biology, and conservation status is provided for all nine crayfishes. The dominant genus along the floodplain is Cambarus, which includes Cambarus (Cambarus) carinirostris, Cambarus (Cambarus) bartonii cavatus, Cambarus (Procambarus) robustus and Cambarus (Tubericambarus) thomai. Cambarus (Tubericambarus) thomai is the most prevalent burrowing species occurring along the floodplain. The genus Orconectes consists of two native species, Orconectes (Cambarus) obscurus and Orconectes (Cambarus) sanbornii; and two invasive taxa, Orconectes (Gremicambarus) virilis and Orconectes (Procambarus) rusticus. Orconectes (Cambarus) obscurus has experienced a range extension to the south and occupies streams formerly occupied by Orconectes (Cambarus) sanbornii. Both invasive taxa were allied with anthropogenic habitats and disturbance gradients. The genera Fallicambarus and Procambarus are represented by a single species. Both Fallicambarus (Cambarus) fodiens and Procambarus (Orconectes) acutus are limited to the historic preglacial Marietta River Valley. PMID:21594135

  3. Systematics, phylogeny, and taphonomy of ghost shrimps (Decapoda): a perspective from the fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.

    2016-01-01

    Ghost shrimps of Callianassidae and Ctenochelidae are soft-bodied, usually heterochelous decapods representing major bioturbators of muddy and sandy (sub)marine substrates. Ghost shrimps have a robust fossil record spanning from the Early Cretaceous (~ 133 Ma) to the Holocene and their remains are present in most assemblages of Cenozoic decapod crustaceans. Their taxonomic interpretation is in flux, mainly because the generic assignment is hindered by their insufficient preservation and disagreement in the biological classification. Furthermore, numerous taxa are incorrectly classified within the catch-all taxon Callianassa. To show the historical patterns in describing fossil ghost shrimps and to evaluate taphonomic aspects influencing the attribution of ghost shrimp remains to higher level taxa, a database of all fossil species treated at some time as belonging to the group has been compiled: 250 / 274 species are considered valid ghost shrimp taxa herein. More than half of these taxa (160 species, 58.4%) are known only from distal cheliped elements, i.e., dactylus and / or propodus, due to the more calcified cuticle locally. Rarely, ghost shrimps are preserved in situ in burrows or in direct association with them, and several previously unpublished occurrences are reported herein. For generic assignment, fossil material should be compared to living species because many of them have modern relatives. Heterochely, intraspecific variation, ontogenetic changes and sexual dimorphism are all factors that have to be taken into account when working with fossil ghost shrimps. Distal elements are usually more variable than proximal ones. Preliminary results suggest that the ghost shrimp clade emerged not before the Hauterivian (~ 133 Ma). The divergence of Ctenochelidae and Paracalliacinae is estimated to occur within the interval of Hauterivian to Albian (133–100 Ma). Callichirinae and Eucalliacinae likely diverged later during the Late Cretaceous (100–66 Ma), whereas Callianassinae did not appear before the Eocene (56 Ma). PMID:27499814

  4. West Virginia crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae): observations on distribution, natural history, and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Simon, Thomas P.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    West Virginia's crayfishes have received moderate attention since publication of Jezerinac et al.'s (1995) monograph of the state fauna. Survey efforts were initiated over the summers of 2006 and 2007 to gather voucher material for the Indiana Biological Survey's Crustacean Collection. These collections have provided new information regarding the distribution, natural history, life history, taxonomy, and conservation status of Cambarus (Cambarus) carinirostris, C. (C.) bartonii cavatus, C. (C.) sciotensis, C. (Hiaticambarus) chasmodactylus, C. (H.) elkensis, C. (H.) longulus, C. (Jugicambarus) dubius, C. (Puncticambarus) robustus, Orconectes (Procericambarus) cristavarius, and O. (P.) rusticus. Orconectes (Faxonius) limosus has apparently been extirpated from West Virginia and should be removed from the state's list of extant crayfishes.

  5. Phylogenetics reveals the crustacean order Amphionidacea to be larval shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    De Grave, Sammy; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chu, Ka Hou; Yang, Chien-Hui; Landeira, José M

    2015-12-08

    We present evidence that the single representative of the crustacean order Amphionidacea is a decapod shrimp and not a distinct order. After reviewing available morphological evidence, it is concluded that Amphionides is a larval form, but with an as yet unknown parentage. Although the most likely adult form is in the family Pandalidae, the limited molecular data available cannot fully resolve its affinity. We therefore propose to treat Amphionides reynaudii as incertae sedis within Caridea, rather than a separate family. In view of the large scale, tropical and subtropical distribution of the taxon, the possibility is discussed that Amphionides is more likely to be a composite taxon at generic level, rather than larvae of a single shrimp species.

  6. West Virginia crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae): observations on distribution, natural history, and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Simon, Thomas P.; Welsh, Stuart A.

    2009-01-01

    West Virginia's crayfishes have received moderate attention since publication of Jezerinac et al.'s (1995) monograph of the state fauna. Survey efforts were initiated over the summers of 2006 and 2007 to gather voucher material for the Indiana Biological Survey's Crustacean Collection. These collections have provided new information regarding the distribution, natural history, life history, taxonomy, and conservation status of Cambarus (Cambarus) carinirostris, C. (C.) bartonii cavatus, C. (C.) sciotensis, C. (Hiaticambarus) chasmodactylus, C. (H.) elkensis, C. (H.) longulus, C. (Jugicambarus) dubius, C. (Puncticambarus) robustus, Orconectes (Procericambarus) cristavarius, and O. (P.) rusticus. Orconectes (Faxonius) limosus has apparently been extirpated from West Virginia and should be removed from the state's list of extant crayfishes.

  7. Use of intertidal areas by shrimps (Decapoda) in a Brazilian Amazon estuary.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Hebert A; Martinelli-Lemos, Jussara M

    2014-03-01

    The present work investigated the occupation and the correlation of the shrimp abundance in relation to environmental variables in different habitats (mangroves, salt marshes and rocky outcrops) in an Amazon estuary. The collections were made in August and November 2009, at low syzygy tide on Areuá Beach, situated in the Extractive Reserve of Mãe Grande de Curuçá, Pará, Brazil totaling 20 pools. In each environment, we recorded the physical-chemical factors (pH, salinity, and temperature) and measured the area (m2) and volume (m3) of every pool through bathymetry. The average pH, salinity, temperature, area and volume of tide pools were 8.75 (± 0.8 standard deviation), 35.45 (± 3), 29.49 °C (± 2.32), 27.41 m2 (± 41.18), and 5.19 m3 (± 8.01), respectively. We caught a total of 4,871 shrimps, distributed in three families and four species: Farfantepenaeus subtilis (98.36%) (marine) followed by Alpheus pontederiae (0.76%) (estuarine), Macrobrachium surinamicum (0.45%) and Macrobrachium amazonicum (0.43%) predominantly freshwater. The species F. subtilis and A. pontederiae occurred in the three habitats, whereas M. surinamicum occurred in salt marsh and rocky outcrop and M. amazonicum only in marisma. Temperature and pH were the most important environmental descriptors that significantly affected the density and biomass of shrimps.

  8. Effects of androgenic gland ablation on growth and reproductive parameters of Cherax quadricarinatus males (Parastacidae, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Tropea, Carolina; Hermida, Gladys N; López Greco, Laura S

    2011-11-01

    This work investigates the effects of androgenic gland (AG) ablation on the structure of the reproductive system, development of secondary sexual characters and somatic growth in Cherax quadricarinatus males. The AG ablation, which was performed at an early developmental stage (initial weight: 1.85±0.03 g), had no effect on the somatic growth parameters (specific growth rate and growth increment), but it prevented the re-formation of male gonopores and appendices masculinae. However, the red patch differentiation and chelae size were similar to those in control males. All the ablated animals developed a male reproductive system. Testis structure was macroscopically and histologically normal. The distal portion of the vas deferens (DVD) was enlarged in some animals, with histological alterations of the epithelium and the structure of the spermatophore. Results suggest that the higher growth in males than in females may be due to an indirect effect of the AG on energy investment in reproduction rather than to a direct effect of an androgen. This is the first report of a potential action of the AG on the secretory activity of the distal VD and the structural organization of the spermatophore. Although the AG may play a role in the development of male copulatory organs, its association with the red patch development deserves further research. The results obtained in the present study support and complement those from intersexes of the same species.

  9. Phylogenetics reveals the crustacean order Amphionidacea to be larval shrimps (Decapoda: Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    De Grave, Sammy; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chu, Ka Hou; Yang, Chien-Hui; Landeira, José M.

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that the single representative of the crustacean order Amphionidacea is a decapod shrimp and not a distinct order. After reviewing available morphological evidence, it is concluded that Amphionides is a larval form, but with an as yet unknown parentage. Although the most likely adult form is in the family Pandalidae, the limited molecular data available cannot fully resolve its affinity. We therefore propose to treat Amphionides reynaudii as incertae sedis within Caridea, rather than a separate family. In view of the large scale, tropical and subtropical distribution of the taxon, the possibility is discussed that Amphionides is more likely to be a composite taxon at generic level, rather than larvae of a single shrimp species. PMID:26642937

  10. Population ecology of fiddler crab, Uca lactea annulipes (Decapoda: Ocypodidae) in Sirik mangrove estuary, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhtari, Mohammad; Savari, Ahmad; Rezai, Hamid; Kochanian, Preeta; Bitaab, Amir

    2008-01-01

    Fiddler crabs are known as the most conspicuous bioturbating animals in mangrove forest, which by their burrowing activities promote nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Mangroves, crabs and bacteria are connected in the form of positive feedback loop, whereby an increase in the activity of any participant will tend to increase the activity of all others as well. Population structure, growth, mortality, recruitment, biomass and production of fiddler crabs as dominant species of deposit-feeder crabs have been investigated from May 2005 to March 2006 in the Sirik mangrove estuary in the eastern part of Strait of Hormuz. Ten 1 m 2 squares of the substrate were randomly sampled during low tide. There was a significant change in organic content in the sampling area during study period. The sex ratio was significantly deviated from 1:1 ratio in large sizes, where males were dominated year around. Fiddler crabs showed seasonal growth pattern during a year, which the maximum growth was observed during autumn and early summer and ceased during winter by low temperature. Growth parameters were estimated by Appeldoorn's method and fitted with seasonalized von Bertalanffy growth models. The Kimura likelihood ratio test revealed significant differences in the overall growth curves between males and females, originated from the differences in k and L between sexes. Males were found to exhibit higher growth rate and larger size than females, this could be attributed to the higher investment of energy for reproduction in females. Reproduction was restricted to spring and early summer, while recruitment occurs at the end of summer. Total annual production of males and females was 37.90 and 10.05 g dry weight/10 m 2 respectively and major production took place during early summer. Because of impact of temperature on the activity of fiddler crabs in subtropical regions, density of crabs has significant positive correlation with temperature ( P < 0.01), while growth rate shows significant negative correlation with organic matter of sediment ( P < 0.05). In conclusion these crabs showed lower mortality and production rate with the seasonal growth and recruitment in comparison with tropical species.

  11. Influence of natural settlement cues on the metamorphosis of fiddler crab megalopae, Uca vocator (Decapoda: Ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Simith, Darlan J B; Diele, Karen; Abrunhosa, Fernando A

    2010-06-01

    Megalopae of many decapod crab species accelerate their development time to metamorphosis (TTM) when exposed to natural physical and/or chemical cues characteristic of the parental habitat. In the present study, the influence of natural settlement cues on the moulting rates and development TTM in megalopae of the fiddler crab Uca vocator was investigated. The effects of mud from different habitats (including well-preserved and degraded-polluted mangrove habitats) and conspecific adult 'odours' (seawater conditioned with crabs) on the induction of metamorphosis were compared with filtered pure seawater (control). 95 to 100% of the megalopae successfully metamorphosed to first juvenile crab stage in all treatments, including the control. However, the development TTM differed significantly among treatments. Settlement cues significantly shortened development, while moulting was delayed in their absence. The fact that megalopae responded to metamorphosis-stimulating cues originating from both adult and non-adult benthic habitats demonstrates that settlement in this species may occur in a wider range of habitats within the mangrove ecosystem, including impacted areas.

  12. Functional anatomy of the fiddler crab compound eye (Uca vomeris: Ocypodidae, Brachyura, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Alkaladi, Ali; Zeil, Jochen

    2014-04-15

    We describe the structural organization of the ommatidium in the compound eye of the fiddler crab, Uca vomeris, at both the light- and the electron-microscopy levels. We pay particular attention to the organization of the optical system, the retinular cells, the rhabdom, and of pigment cells. Although the fiddler crab compound eye is of the apposition type, typical for Brachyuran crabs, we identify a number of novel, functionally relevant aspects of ommatidial organization that have not previously been described. The flat corneal facet lenses provide the main focusing power and therefore must contain a gradient of refractive index. Each ommatidium has the typical set of eight retinular cells, with a distal retinular cell R8 lying close to the proximal tip of the crystalline cone. R8 is shaped into four lobes, which are separated by proximal extensions of the four crystalline cone cells and of distal extensions of retinular cells R1-R7. The microvilli in the R8 rhabdom are not aligned in a uniform direction, while the microvilli of the main rhabdom show the typical crustacean pattern of alternating bands of horizontally (R3, R4, R7) and vertically aligned microvilli (R1, R2, R5, R6). We describe in detail the distribution and structural properties of screening pigment granules in the two types of pigment cells and in the retinular cells in the equatorial eye. We discuss the functional significance of this fine-structural organization of the fiddler crab compound eye in relation to visual processing and visual ecology.

  13. Inhibition of ovarian growth by cadmium in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator (Decapoda, ocypodidae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, E M; López Greco, L S; Fingerman, M

    2000-06-01

    The effect of cadmium chloride (1 mg/L) on oocyte growth of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, was studied during the slow vitellogenesis phase of ovarian maturation of this carb. In vivo experiments were done with both intact and eyestalkless crabs. The intact cadmium-exposed crabs exhibited a significantly lower oocyte diameter than the controls at the end of the 2-week exposure period, but no significant differences were detected among the eyestalkless crabs, suggesting that the effect of cadmium could be on the sinus gland in the eyestalks, increasing secretion of the gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH). To test this hypothesis, in vitro experiments were done, incubating pieces of ovary with and without eyestalk tissue, in the presence of thoracic ganglion, needed for oocyte growing due to the secretion of the gonad-stimulating hormone (GSH). Only when eyestalk tissue was present in the incubation media was oocyte growth inhibited by cadmium compared to the controls. These results strongly suggest that cadmium acts at least in part to increase the secretion of GIH from the sinus gland. GIH could then in turn act by (a) inhibiting secretion of GSH by the thoracic ganglion, (b) directly inhibit the oocytes, or (c) both (a) and (b).

  14. Diversity and distribution of Chirostyloidea and Galatheoidea (Decapoda, Anomura) in the Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Bader, Ana Rosa; Gracia, Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    We examined the diversity, abundance, distribution, and average size of squat lobsters collected during eight cruises conducted on the continental shelf and slope of the Gulf of Mexico (Mexican/USA border to the Caribbean Sea). Six species belonging to two genera of Chirostyloidea, and 25 species of four genera of Galatheoidea are reported. A total of 1513 specimens were obtained of which 95 were Chirostylidae, two Galatheidae, 285 Munidopsidae, and 1131 Munididae. Of the species collected, 13.8% were only known from Caribbean Sea. Three species of Chirostylidae-Gastroptychus salvadori, Uroptychus capillatus, and Uroptychus spiniger-as well two of Munidopsidae, Munidopsis bradleyi and Munidopsis riveroi, are recorded for the first time in the Gulf of Mexico. The upper bathymetric range of one species and the lower one for eight species are extended. Biological and ecological traits of squat lobsters in the southern Gulf of Mexico are also provided.

  15. Cheramus iranicus, a new species of ghost shrimp (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) from the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sepahvand, Vahid; Momtazi, Farzaneh; Tudge, Christopher

    2015-11-10

    A new species of callianassid ghost shrimp is described from the Persian Gulf, Iran. Cheramus iranicus sp. nov. is the first member of Cheramus described from Iranian subtidal waters and can be differentiated by a large cheliped with a ventroproximal spine on the merus and 7 spines on the ventral margin of the ischium, the endopod of the uropod has 4 movable spines on the distal margin and the posterior margin of the telson is strongly bilobed with a prominent medial tooth and two pairs of lateral movable spines. It is compared to other described Cheramus-like species showing a high degree of morphological similarity.

  16. The male reproductive system of Hippolyte inermis Leach 1815 (Decapoda, Caridea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, Vanesa; Díaz, Vanessa; Raso, Jose Enrique García; Manjón-Cabeza, M. E.

    2011-03-01

    The present work completes a series of studies on the biology of the shrimp Hippolyte inermis Leach 1815, where we suggested the species to be gonochoristic. The morphology of the male reproductive system (testes, vasa deferentia, gonopores) and the different stages of male germ cell development are described for the first time in the genus Hippolyte, using TEM, SEM, and histological methods. All males from 1.70 to 3.42 mm in carapace length had active testes and well-developed vasa deferentia. No case of sex reversal could be found.

  17. [Reproduction of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the Colombian Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Paramo, Jorge; Pérez, Daniel; Wolff, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The shallow water pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus notialis) is among the socioeconomically most important resources of the Caribbean. The lack of biological and fishery information is of great concern for the fisheries management authorities. The presented study therefore aimed at the investigation of the reproductive cycle, the size composition and the size at first maturity of this species as a basis for the ordination and management of this resource. The study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 off the coast of the Caribbean Sea of Colombia. A total of 5 356 individuals were collected, identified, classified and preserved for their subsequent analysis in the laboratory. Size, weight, sex and gonad stage were recorded for each specimen. Significant differences were found in sex ratio in all months sampled with a clear predominance of females. Mature females were found year-around, but two reproductive peaks were identified during the periods October-December and April-June. The mean catch total length size (MCS) for females and males was 148.00mm and 122.54mm, respectively. The mean size at maturity (LT50%) was 129.34mm for females and 97.77mm for males. MCS was always above LT50% for both sexes. Considering the large reduction in fishing effort in the Colombian Caribbean Sea over the last years, we could expect that the shrimp population is in a rebuilding process or perhaps it may be already restored.

  18. Etisus evamuellerae, a new xanthid crab (Decapoda, Brachyura) from the Middle Miocene of Austria and Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Hyžný, M.; van Bakel, B.W.M.; Guinot, D.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of several carapaces, a new species of xanthid crab, Etisus evamuellerae, is described from the Middle Miocene of the Vienna (Austria) and Great Hungarian basins. It differs from the coeval xanthids, Xantho moldavicus and Pilodius vulgaris, in having a distinctly protruding front and comparatively longer carapace. Contrary to those two species, the new one makes up for just a small percentage in the decapod crustacean assemblages studied. PMID:25983383

  19. Ploidy manipulation and polyploid detection in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931) (Decapoda, Penaeidae).

    PubMed

    Aloise, Débora de Almeida; Maia-Lima, Francisco de Assis; de Oliveira, Ruth Medeiros; Cabral, Thiago de Melo; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2011-02-01

    Ploidy manipulation has been rarely used in the genetic improvement of cultured marine shrimps. Although polyploid induction has been proven to be successful in Penaeids, including the species Litopenaeus vannamei, the methodology still requires some improvements. In the present work, different thermal shock treatments on ploidy manipulation were tested and a protocol for detecting polyploid individuals was also established. Fertilized eggs were treated by cold (10°C) and heat (38°C) thermal shocks for 8, 12, 15, 18, 20, and 22 min to induce polyploidy. Nuclear measurements within distinct treatments revealed a significant deviation in relation to the mean diameter of nuclei in the control individuals. Triploid and tetraploid metaphases were observed within treated individuals, confirming the increase of interphasic nuclear diameter. The cold thermal shock was more efficient than the hot ones, besides leading to a higher and more homogeneous hatchery rate. A mean number of three nucleoli per nucleus were observed in diploid individuals, while treated samples usually presented up to five nucleoli per nucleus. The standardization of protocols to obtain and detect polyploid products allows further utilization of such methods on a commercial scale in order to evaluate the performance of polyploid individuals in the genetic improvement of L. vannamei.

  20. Identification of the complete mitochondrial genome of the pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Chai, Xin-Yue; Jiang, Sen-Hao; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Xuan, Fu-Jun; Zhang, Dai-Zhen; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Litopenaeus vannamei was determined to be 15 989 bp in size, it contains 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes and a D-loop region. The nucleotide composition was biased toward A + T nucleotides (67.8%) and the AT skew of this mitogenome was slightly negative (-0.025). All tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure, except for trnS1 (AGN). Thirteen PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cox1 gene which was initiated by ACG. Four of the 13 PCGs had the incomplete termination codon by T. The rrnL was 1371 bp and the rrnS was 853 bp, and the AT content of the combined rRNA genes was 70.9%. The D-loop region of the mitogenome was 985 bp in length and the A + T content was 82.7%, and no tandem repeat was found in this region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the placement of L. vannamei was within the Penaeidae.

  1. Conservation status of North American freshwater crayfish (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from the southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Welsh, Stuart; Fetzner, James W.; Thoma, Roger F.

    2015-01-01

    A list is provided of all crayfishes (family Cambaridae) in the southern United States, which includes common names, global conservation status, an alternative review of the conservation status based on the IUCN red list criteria, and state distribution. This list includes 357 native crayfishes, of which 12 (3.4%) are critically endangered, 37 (10.4%) are endangered, 126 (35.3%) are vulnerable, 181 (50.7%) are lower risk, and 1 (0.3%) is not evaluated. The leading factors causing imperilment are restricted ranges caused by anthropogenic impacts from changes in land use, contaminants, invasion by non-indigenous species, and habitat fragmentation. In order to conserve and manage diversity of native crayfish, consistency is needed in determining conservation status and more complete distribution and life history information are needed for about 60% of species.

  2. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov., a new alpheid shrimp from Panama and Venezuela (Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Caripe, Jonathan Vera

    2016-06-22

    A new species of the infaunal alpheid shrimp genus Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 is described based on material from three localities on the Caribbean coast of Panama and Isla Chimana Grande, Venezuela. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov. belongs to a group of species characterised by the presence of well-developed adhesive disks on the major chela and appears to dwell in burrows of the large callianassid ghost shrimp, Glypturus acanthochirus Stimpson 1866.

  3. Multiple drivers of decline in the global status of freshwater crayfish (Decapoda: Astacidea)

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Nadia I.; Böhm, Monika; Adams, Susan B.; Alvarez, Fernando; Bergey, Elizabeth A.; Bunn, John J. S.; Burnham, Quinton; Cordeiro, Jay; Coughran, Jason; Crandall, Keith A.; Dawkins, Kathryn L.; DiStefano, Robert J.; Doran, Niall E.; Edsman, Lennart; Eversole, Arnold G.; Füreder, Leopold; Furse, James M.; Gherardi, Francesca; Hamr, Premek; Holdich, David M.; Horwitz, Pierre; Johnston, Kerrylyn; Jones, Clive M.; Jones, Julia P. G.; Jones, Robert L.; Jones, Thomas G.; Kawai, Tadashi; Lawler, Susan; López-Mejía, Marilu; Miller, Rebecca M.; Pedraza-Lara, Carlos; Reynolds, Julian D.; Richardson, Alastair M. M.; Schultz, Mark B.; Schuster, Guenter A.; Sibley, Peter J.; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Taylor, Christopher A.; Thoma, Roger F.; Walls, Jerry; Walsh, Todd S.; Collen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Rates of biodiversity loss are higher in freshwater ecosystems than in most terrestrial or marine ecosystems, making freshwater conservation a priority. However, prioritization methods are impeded by insufficient knowledge on the distribution and conservation status of freshwater taxa, particularly invertebrates. We evaluated the extinction risk of the world's 590 freshwater crayfish species using the IUCN Categories and Criteria and found 32% of all species are threatened with extinction. The level of extinction risk differed between families, with proportionally more threatened species in the Parastacidae and Astacidae than in the Cambaridae. Four described species were Extinct and 21% were assessed as Data Deficient. There was geographical variation in the dominant threats affecting the main centres of crayfish diversity. The majority of threatened US and Mexican species face threats associated with urban development, pollution, damming and water management. Conversely, the majority of Australian threatened species are affected by climate change, harvesting, agriculture and invasive species. Only a small proportion of crayfish are found within the boundaries of protected areas, suggesting that alternative means of long-term protection will be required. Our study highlights many of the significant challenges yet to come for freshwater biodiversity unless conservation planning shifts from a reactive to proactive approach. PMID:25561679

  4. Histological Description of Gonadal Development of Females and Males of Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 (Decapoda: Portunidae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Saucedo, Liliana; Ramírez-Santiago, Cecilia; Pérez, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of male and female germ cells during gonadal development and the gonadal maturity scale of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. A total of 20 specimens were collected monthly from June to November 2012, in two areas off the coast of the Gulf of Mexico: the San Andrés Lagoon and Alvarado Lagoon. The gonads were removed and processed following the standard technique of hematoxylin and eosin staining. An important event in oogenesis (pre-vitellogenesis) was the appearance of a perinuclear vesicle in the cytoplasm and the accumulation of yolk granules. Later, vitellogenesis began and there was an accumulation of nutritive droplets and fragmentation of the perinuclear vesicle. During spermatogenesis, the accumulation of two fluids was observed that were involved in the formation of the spermatophore and the delay of spermiogenesis. Based on the histological features of gonad maturity, five stages were described (inactive, early gametogenesis, development, maturity, and resorption), in females and males. This proposal can be useful for the study of reproductive seasonality of this species.

  5. Unrecognized diversity in New Guinean crayfish species (Decapoda, Parastacidae): The evidence from molecular data.

    PubMed

    Bláha, Martin; Patoka, Jiří; Kozák, Pavel; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-11-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among imported ornamental crayfish belonging to the genus Cherax were inferred from a combined dataset of 3 mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S and 12S) and by comparison with available GenBank sequences of 14 Cherax species. Furthermore, the concordance of previously described species obtained from a wholesaler (Cherax boesemani, C. holthuisi and C. peknyi) with available GenBank sequences was verified based on COI with special respect to comparison with sequences assigned as Cherax species. Recently described species C. gherardiae, C. pulcher and C. subterigneus belong to the northern group of Cherax species. Comparison and analysis with other GenBank COI sequences show previously unreported diversity of New Guinean species, suggesting 5 putative new species. Surprisingly, species assigned to the subgenus Astaconephrops do not form a monophyletic clade; this subgenus should be reappraised relative to the purported typical morphological characteristic of the uncalcified patch on male chelae. Increasing importation of crayfish underscores the importance of accurate species identification. Use of basic molecular methods is a necessary requisite for documenting occurrence, abundance and population trends of target species. Consequently, it helps to support eventual conservation decision-making by stakeholders.

  6. Cherax (Astaconephrops) gherardii, a new crayfish (Decapoda: Parastacidae) from West Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kouba, Antonín

    2015-06-05

    Cherax (Astaconephrops) gherardii n. sp. is a moderate burrowing crayfish endemic to the Ajamaru Lakes of West Papua, Indonesia. This species is one of the crayfish species from this region that are exploited for ornamental purposes. Its commonly used commercial name in the pet trade is "Rainbow Crayfish" or "Blue Moon Crayfish", and its native name is "udang kuku biru". The new species is genetically and morphologically similar to Cherax boesemani, however, both species may be easily distinguished morphologically or by using sequence divergence, which is substantial for considering C. gherardii n. sp. to be a valid species.

  7. Thalassinoides burrows (decapoda dwelling structures) in lower cretaceous sections of southwestern and central Crimea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanin, B. T.; Baraboshkin, E. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    Burrows of Thalassinoides, which are attributed to the group of dwelling structures, occur in all the marine and coastal facies. The Lower Cretaceous sections of southwestern and central Crimea yielded the representative collection of Thalassinoides burrows belonging to the ichnospecies Th. suevicus (Rieth, 1932), which served as an object for this investigation. The burrows are confined to coarse-grained terrigenous, carbonate, and mixed sediments and contain assemblages of ichnofossils indicating coastal and shallow-water marine Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies. In the Mesozoic-Cenozoic, the producers of the Thalassinoides burrows were decapods, confirmed by finds of crayfish Hoploparia in them.

  8. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Michael J; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences.

  9. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C.; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences. PMID:26417993

  10. Naupliar and Metanaupliar Development of Thysanoessa raschii (Malacostraca, Euphausiacea) from Godthåbsfjord, Greenland, with a Reinstatement of the Ancestral Status of the Free-Living Nauplius in Malacostracan Evolution.

    PubMed

    Akther, Hasna; Agersted, Mette Dalgaard; Olesen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a characteristic crustacean larval type, the nauplius, in many crustacean taxa has often been considered one of the few uniting characters of the Crustacea. Within Malacostraca, the largest crustacean group, nauplii are only present in two taxa, Euphauciacea (krill) and Decapoda Dendrobranchiata. The presence of nauplii in these two taxa has traditionally been considered a retained primitive characteristic, but free-living nauplii have also been suggested to have reappeared a couple of times from direct developing ancestors during malacostracan evolution. Based on a re-study of Thysanoessa raschii (Euphausiacea) using preserved material collected in Greenland, we readdress this important controversy in crustacean evolution, and, in the process, redescribe the naupliar and metanaupliar development of T. raschii. In contrast to most previous studies of euphausiid development, we recognize three (not two) naupliar (= ortho-naupliar) stages (N1-N3) followed by a metanauplius (MN). While there are many morphological changes between nauplius 1 and 2 (e.g., appearance of long caudal setae), the changes between nauplius 2 and 3 are few but distinct. They involve the size of some caudal spines (largest in N3) and the setation of the antennal endopod (an extra seta in N3). A wider comparison between free-living nauplii of both Malacostraca and non-Malacostraca revealed similarities between nauplii in many taxa both at the general level (e.g., the gradual development and number of appendages) and at the more detailed level (e.g., unclear segmentation of naupliar appendages, caudal setation, presence of frontal filaments). We recognize these similarities as homologies and therefore suggest that free-living nauplii were part of the ancestral malacostracan type of development. The derived morphology (e.g., lack of feeding structures, no fully formed gut, high content of yolk) of both euphausiid and dendrobranchiate nauplii is evidently related to their non

  11. Myogenesis of Malacostraca – the “egg-nauplius” concept revisited

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malacostracan evolutionary history has seen multiple transformations of ontogenetic mode. For example direct development in connection with extensive brood care and development involving planktotrophic nauplius larvae, as well as intermediate forms are found throughout this taxon. This makes the Malacostraca a promising group for study of evolutionary morphological diversification and the role of heterochrony therein. One candidate heterochronic phenomenon is represented by the concept of the ‘egg-nauplius’, in which the nauplius larva, considered plesiomorphic to all Crustacea, is recapitulated as an embryonic stage. Results Here we present a comparative investigation of embryonic muscle differentiation in four representatives of Malacostraca: Gonodactylaceus falcatus (Stomatopoda), Neocaridina heteropoda (Decapoda), Neomysis integer (Mysida) and Parhyale hawaiensis (Amphipoda). We describe the patterns of muscle precursors in different embryonic stages to reconstruct the sequence of muscle development, until hatching of the larva or juvenile. Comparison of the developmental sequences between species reveals extensive heterochronic and heteromorphic variation. Clear anticipation of muscle differentiation in the nauplius segments, but also early formation of longitudinal trunk musculature independently of the teloblastic proliferation zone, are found to be characteristic to stomatopods and decapods, all of which share an egg-nauplius stage. Conclusions Our study provides a strong indication that the concept of nauplius recapitulation in Malacostraca is incomplete, because sequences of muscle tissue differentiation deviate from the chronological patterns observed in the ectoderm, on which the egg-nauplius is based. However, comparison of myogenic sequences between taxa supports the hypothesis of a zoea-like larva that was present in the last common ancestor of Eumalacostraca (Malacostraca without Leptostraca). We argue that much of the developmental

  12. Biogeography of the deep-sea galatheid squat lobsters of the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, Enrique; Richer de Forges, Bertrand; Schnabel, Kareen; Samadi, Sarah; Boisselier, Marie-Catherine; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni

    2010-02-01

    We analyzed the distribution patterns of the galatheid squat lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae) of the Pacific Ocean. We used the presence/absence data of 402 species along the continental slope and continental rise (200-2000 m) obtained from 54 cruises carried out in areas around the Philippines, Indonesia, Solomon, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna and French Polynesia. The total number of stations was ca. 3200. We also used published data from other expeditions carried out in the Pacific waters, and from an exhaustive search of ca. 600 papers on the taxonomy and biogeography of Pacific species. We studied the existence of biogeographic provinces using multivariate analyses, and present data on latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of species richness, rate of endemism and the relationship between body sizes with the size of the geographic ranges. Latitudinal species richness along the Western and Eastern Pacific exhibited an increase from higher latitudes towards the Equator. Longitudinal species richness decreased considerably from the Western to the Central Pacific. Size frequency distribution for body size was strongly shifted toward small sizes and endemic species were significantly smaller than non-endemics. This study concludes that a clear separation exists between the moderately poor galatheid fauna of the Eastern Pacific and the rich Western and Central Pacific faunas. Our results also show that the highest numbers of squat lobsters are found in the Coral Sea (Solomon-Vanuatu-New Caledonia islands) and Indo-Malay-Philippines archipelago (IMPA). The distribution of endemism along the Pacific Ocean indicates that there are several major centres of diversity, e.g. Coral Sea, IMPA, New Zealand and French Polynesia. The high proportion of endemism in these areas suggests that they have evolved independently.

  13. Cloning and Functional Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 in Nuclear Shaping during Spermatogenesis of the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang-Li; Kang, Xian-Jiang; Guo, Ming-Shen; Mu, Shu-Mei; Zhang, Zhao-Hui

    2015-01-01

    During spermatogenesis in most animals, the basic proteins associated with DNA are continuously changing and somatic-typed histones are partly replaced by sperm-specific histones, which are then successively replaced by transition proteins and protamines. With the replacement of sperm nuclear basic proteins, nuclei progressively undergo chromatin condensation. The Chinese Mitten Crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is also known as the hairy crab or river crab (phylum Arthropoda, subphylum Crustacea, order Decapoda, and family Grapsidae). The spermatozoa of this species are aflagellate, and each has a spherical acrosome surrounded by a cup-shaped nucleus, peculiar to brachyurans. An interesting characteristic of the E. sinensis sperm nucleus is its lack of electron-dense chromatin. However, its formation is not clear. In this study, sequences encoding histones H3 and H4 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Western blotting indicated that H3 and H4 existed in the sperm nuclei. Immunofluorescence and ultrastructural immunocytochemistry demonstrated that histones H3 and H4 were both present in the nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and mature spermatozoa. The nuclear labeling density of histone H4 decreased in sperm nuclei, while histone H3 labeling was not changed significantly. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of histones H3 and H4 were higher at mitotic and meiotic stages than in later spermiogenesis. Our study demonstrates that the mature sperm nuclei of E. sinensis contain histones H3 and H4. This is the first report that the mature sperm nucleus of E. sinensis contains histones H3 and H4. This finding extends the study of sperm histones of E. sinensis and provides some basic data for exploring how decapod crustaceans form uncondensed sperm chromatin.

  14. Effect of deltamethrin (pyrethroid insecticide) on two clones of Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera): a proteomic investigation.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Héla; Boumaiza, Moncef; Immel, Françoise; Sohm, Bénédicte; Felten, Vincent; Férard, Jean-François

    2014-03-01

    Deltamethrin is a class II pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in agriculture. It is hazardous to freshwater ecosystems, especially for the cladoceran Daphnia magna (Straus 1820). The results of our previous studies based on acute and chronic ecotoxicity experiments revealed differences in the sensitivity between two different clones. In this work, to investigate deltamethrin toxicity mechanisms in two clones of D. magna, we used a proteomic approach in order to analyze changes in protein expression profiles after 48 h of exposure. We detected 1339 spots; then applying statistical criteria (ANOVA p<0.001 and minimum fold change 1.5), only 128 spots were significantly different in the normalized volume. Among the preselected proteins there were 88 up-regulated and 40 down-regulated proteins. Results showed differences in sensitivities after deltamethrin exposure between the clones. Moreover, using the 2-DIGE method, proteomic investigation for deltamethrin exposure proved to be a reliable and powerful approach to investigate effects of deltamethrin as part of research for new metabolic and cellular biomarkers. After identification by mass spectrometry, there were 39 proteins recognized and identified, in which 21 and 18 were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in deltamethrin-exposed clone A compared to three other conditions (controls of each clone and deltamethrin-exposed clone 2). Up- and down-regulated proteins belonged to 12 biological processes (i.e. metabolic processes, apoptosis and stimulus response) and 5 molecular functions (i.e. catalytic activity, binding, structural molecular activity, antioxidant and receptor activities). Identification of these deregulated proteins opens a new way in discovering new molecular targets and putative biomarkers in daphnids exposed to deltamethrin.

  15. Dominant infaunal communities at risk in shoreline habitats: Burrowing Thalassinid Crustacea. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Felder, D.L.; Griffis, R.B.

    1994-04-01

    Oil contamination and physical perturbation of intertidal and shallow subtidal substrates threaten mass mortalities of ghost shrimp (Lepidophthalmus and Callichirus) that occur in extensive populations in coastal habitats of the northern Gulf of Mexico. These species may play important ecological roles in determining coastal habitat quality and reductions in densities may substantially alter the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of benthic habitats. In the Gulf of Mexico, ghost shrimp burrows form traps for entrainment of oil into sediments and beachfront oil accumulations may result in mass mortalities. This study documents the population biology and ecological role of ghost shrimp in beachfront and bay habitats of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Seasonal variation in breeding, recruitment, growth, abundance and biomass is presented for two species. Restoration of diminished populations occurs through planktonic recruitment and relocation of burrowed postlarvae. Populations increase the sediment-water interface by adding 1-2 sq m of burrow wall beneath each sq m sediment surface, and increase the flux of nutrients from sediments to the water column by pumping nutrient-rich water from burrows.

  16. [Abundance and body size of Menippe mercenaria (Crustacea: Brachyura), in artificial refuges in Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Martínez, A; Ramírez-González, A

    2001-01-01

    In Florida and Cuba the stone crab Menippe mercenaria (Say, 1818) is under strong fishing-pressure; nevertheless in the Mexican Caribbean it is considered as sub-utilized and poorly known resource. Artificial shelters ("condominios cubanos") were used to study relative abundance, age structure, claw length-carapace amplitude relation, and population in three seasons and four sectors at Bahía Ascension, Quintana Roo, Mexico. The abundance varied according to the sector and sampling season: population was higher in the south and during the north wind ("Nortes") season (January to March). The carapace amplitude was directly proportional to claw length (r2 = 0.83, 0.97 and 0.89; p < 0.05 in females, males and total, respectively). The results suggest that specimens with 37.5 and 67.5 mm of carapace amplitude are the most limited regarding refuge availability in the Bay.

  17. Discontinuous ammonia excretion and glutamine storage in littoral Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda): testing tidal and circadian models.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Maya; Wright, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    A key evolutionary development facilitating land colonization in terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) is the intermittent liberation of waste nitrogen as volatile ammonia. Intermittent ammonia release exploits glutamine (Gln) as an intermediary nitrogen store. Here, we explore the relationship between temporal patterns of ammonia release and Gln accumulation in three littoral oniscideans from Southern California. Results are interpreted in terms of water availability, habitat, activity patterns, and ancestry. A two-way experimental design was used to test whether ammonia excretion and Gln accumulation follow a tidal or diel periodicity. Ammonia excretion was studied in the laboratory using chambers with or without available seawater and using an acid trap to collect volatile ammonia. Ligia occidentalis releases ammonia directly into seawater and accumulates Gln during low tide (48.9 ± 6.5 μmol g⁻¹ at low tide, 24.1 ± 3.0 μmol g⁻¹ at high tide), indicating that excretion is tidally constrained. Alloniscus perconvexus and Tylos punctatus can excrete ammonia directly into seawater or utilize volatilization. Both species burrow in sand by day and show a diel excretory pattern, accumulating Gln nocturnally (31.8 ± 2.7 μmol g⁻¹ at dawn and 21.8 ± 2.3 μmol g⁻¹ at dusk for A. perconvexus; 85.7 ± 15.1 μmol g⁻¹ at dawn and 25.4 ± 2.9 μmol g⁻¹ at dusk for T. punctatus) and liberating ammonia diurnally. Glutaminase shows higher activity in terrestrial (0.54-0.86 U g⁻¹) compared to intertidal (0.25-0.31 U g⁻¹) species, consistent with the need to generate high PNH₃ for volatilization. The predominant isoform in Armadillidium vulgare is phosphate dependent and maleate independent; phosphate is a plausible regulator in vivo.

  18. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990's and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance of the inland copepod fauna of Costa Rica requires more detailed surveys.

  19. Linking Insects with Crustacea: Physiology of the Pancrustacea: An Introduction to the Symposium.

    PubMed

    Tamone, Sherry L; Harrison, Jon F

    2015-11-01

    Insects and crustaceans represent critical, dominant animal groups (by biomass and species number) in terrestrial and aquatic systems, respectively. Insects (hexapods) and crustaceans are historically grouped under separate taxonomic classes within the Phylum Arthropoda, and the research communities studying hexapods and crustaceans are quite distinct. More recently, the hexapods have been shown to be evolutionarily derived from basal crustaceans, and the clade Pancrustacea recognizes this relationship. This recent evolutionary perspective, and the fact that the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology has strong communities in both invertebrate biology and insect physiology, provides the motivation for this symposium. Speakers in this symposium were selected because of their expertise in a particular field of insect or crustacean physiology, and paired in such a way as to provide a comparative view of the state of the current research in their respective fields. Presenters discussed what aspects of the physiological system are clearly conserved across insects and crustaceans and how cross-talk between researchers utilizing insects and crustaceans can fertilize understanding of such conserved systems. Speakers were also asked to identify strategies that would enable improved understanding of the evolution of physiological systems of the terrestrial insects from the aquatic crustaceans. The following collection of articles describes multiple recent advances in our understanding of Pancrustacean physiology.

  20. Ingolfiella maldivensis sp. n. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ingolfiellidae) from coral reef sand off Magoodhoo island, Maldives

    PubMed Central

    Vonk, Ronald; Jaume, Damiá

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of marine interstitial wormshrimp, Ingolfiella maldivensis, is described from coral sand on the inner and outer reef off Magoodhoo island, Faafu atoll, Maldives. Six females were found and compared to other species from the Maldives and those bordering the Indian Ocean and beyond. Morphological resemblance ties it to a species from the Caribbean island of Curaçao. Both species are found in shallow sublittoral interstitial spaces. PMID:25408614

  1. Arctocypris fuhrmanni, n. gen., n. sp. (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Eucypridinae) from Spitsbergen (Norway).

    PubMed

    Petkovski, Trajan K; Scharf, Burkhard; Keyser, Dietmar

    2016-01-14

    Material from Spitsbergen (Norway) collected by Spitzenberger (1996) was reinvestigated. A new genus Arctocypris and a new species Arctocypris. fuhrmanni n. gen. n. sp. are described in the present paper. A key to the genera of the subfamily Eucypridinae is provided. At the moment Arctocypris n. gen. comprises four species: Arctocypris arctica (Olofsson, 1918) comb. nov.; A. dulcifons (Diebel & Pietrzeniuk, 1969) comb. nov.; A. foveata (Delorme, 1968) comb. nov. and Arctocypris fuhrmanni n. gen., n. sp.

  2. Debroyerella gen. nov. and Ulladulla gen. nov., two new lysianassoid genera (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Lysianassoidea).

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Kilgallen, N M

    2015-02-19

    Two new genera and a new species of lysianassoid amphipods are described. Debroyerella gen. nov. is described for three Antarctic species previously assigned to the genus Cheirimedon. Ulladulla gen. nov. is described to accommodate the new species U. selje, from Australian waters. Diagnostic descriptions are given for the genera and all species are described in full.

  3. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lansac-Tôha, F A; Velho, L F M; Higuti, J; Takahashi, E M

    2002-02-01

    Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 microns mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  4. Growth and molting in epizoic pedunculate barnacles genus Octolasmis (Crustacea: Thecostraca: Cirripedia: Thoracica).

    PubMed

    Blomsterberg, Mikkel; Glenner, Henrik; Høeg, Jens T

    2004-05-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and histology were used to study growth in species of the pedunculate barnacle genus Octolasmis (O. angulata, O. cor, O. californiana, O. mülleri). These species are epizoic in the gill chamber of portunid crabs and have highly reduced capitular shell plates, with large areas of general cuticle in between. The external integument grows by means of a system of narrow growth zones, one encircling the peduncle and a Y-shaped system on either side of the capitulum. Growth is by a regular series of molts, but shedding of old cuticle and production of new layers is entirely restricted to the growth zones. Just prior to ecdysis, the new cuticle lies in a highly folded fashion beneath the old cuticle that is about to be shed. At ecdysis, the old cuticle breaks along the margins of the growth zones and the resulting scars remain as a system of "ecdysial lines" along either side of the zone. Once exposed after ecdysis, the new cuticle remains as a part of the permanent external integument. The growth zones divide the externa into five cuticular areas, two on the peduncle and three on the capitulum. The calcareous shell plates (carina, paired scuta, and, when present, paired terga) all lie within the capitular regions and the ecdysial lines pass across, not around, these mineralized areas. The number, relative spacing, and topology of the ecdysial lines form a record of the growth history of the specimen. These and other growth patterns demonstrate that size increase is due to the formation of new cuticle by molting in the growth zones, while expansion of the shell plates by mineralization follows only after production of the new cuticle. Thus, although specialized, growth in Octolasmis still complies with the general crustacean model, complicated only by the mineralization of parts of the capitular cuticle into shell plates. The results are compared with the very scarce information on molting in other barnacles. We argue that at least the circular peduncular growth zone is omnipresent in the Cirripedia Thoracica.

  5. Cypris morphology in the barnacles Ibla and Paralepas (Crustacea: Cirripedia Thoracica) implications for cirripede evolution.

    PubMed

    Høeg, Jens T; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny K K; Chan, Karen; Jensen, Peter Gram; Pérez-Losada, Marcos

    2009-02-01

    We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe cypris morphology in species of the barnacles Ibla and Paralepas, both of which are pivotal in understanding cirripede evolution. In Ibla, we also studied late naupliar stages with video and SEM. Special emphasis was put on the lattice organs, the antennules and the thorax and telson. In Paralepas we had settled specimens only and could therefore only investigate the carapace with the lattice organs. Cyprids of Ibla quadrivalvis and Paralepas dannevigi have five sets of lattice organs, grouped as two anterior and three posterior pairs. The organs are of the pore-field type and the terminal pore is situated anteriorly in the first pair, just as in the Rhizocephala and the Thoracica. In Ibla the armament of antennular sensilla resembles that found in the Thoracica but differs from the Rhizocephala. The absence of setules on the A and B setae sited terminally on the fourth antennular segment is a similarity with the Acrothoracica. The attachment disc is angled rather than facing distally and is encircled by a low cuticular velum. The thoracopods have two-segmented endopods and exopods as in the Thoracica, but the number, shape, and position of thoracopodal setae differ somewhat from other species of that superorder. Both Ibla and Paralepas cyprids have a deeply cleaved telson, but no independent abdominal part. In cypris morphology, Ibla and Paralepas show several synapomorphies with the clade comprising Rhizocephala and Thoracica and there are no specific apomorphies with either the Acrothoracica, the Rhizocephala or any particular subgroup within the Thoracica. This is in agreement with recent molecular evidence that Ibla (Ibliformes) is the sister taxon to all other Thoracica and the ibliforms therefore become the outgroup of choice for studying character evolution within the superorder. Paralepas, and other pedunculated barnacles without shell plates, are apparently not primitive but are secondarily evolved and nested within the Thoracica.

  6. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia).

    PubMed

    Chan, Benny K K; Chen, H-N; Dando, P R; Southward, A J; Southward, E C

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters.

  7. Exoskeletal cuticle differentiation during intramarsupial development of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Mrak, Polona; Znidaršič, Nada; Zagar, Kristina; Ceh, Miran; Strus, Jasna

    2014-09-01

    Exoskeletal crustacean cuticle is a calcified apical extracellular matrix of epidermal cells, illustrating the chitin-based organic scaffold for biomineralization. Studies of cuticle formation during molting reveal significant dynamics and complexity of the assembly processes, while cuticle formation during embryogenesis is poorly investigated. This study reveals in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber, the ultrastructural organization of the differentiating precuticular matrices and exoskeletal cuticles during embryonic and larval intramarsupial development. The composition of the epidermal matrices was obtained by WGA lectin labelling and EDXS analysis. At least two precuticular matrices, consisting of loosely arranged material with overlying electron dense lamina, are secreted by the epidermis in the mid-stage embryo. The prehatching embryo is the earliest developmental stage with a cuticular matrix consisting of an epicuticle and a procuticle, displaying WGA binding and forming cuticular scales. In newly hatched marsupial larva manca, a new cuticle is formed and calcium sequestration in the cuticle is evident. Progression of larval development leads to the cuticle thickening, structural differentiation of cuticular layers and prominent cuticle calcification. Morphological characteristics of exoskeleton renewal in marsupial manca are described. Elaborated cuticle in marsupial larvae indicates the importance of the exoskeleton in protection and support of the larval body in the marsupium and during the release of larvae in the external environment.

  8. Axially aligned organic fibers and amorphous calcium phosphate form the claws of a terrestrial isopod (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Vittori, Miloš; Srot, Vesna; Žagar, Kristina; Bussmann, Birgit; van Aken, Peter A; Čeh, Miran; Štrus, Jasna

    2016-08-01

    Skeletal elements that are exposed to heavy mechanical loads may provide important insights into the evolutionary solutions to mechanical challenges. We analyzed the microscopic architecture of dactylus claws in the woodlice Porcellio scaber and correlated these observations with analyses of the claws' mineral composition with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). Extraordinarily, amorphous calcium phosphate is the predominant mineral in the claw endocuticle. Unlike the strongly calcified exocuticle of the dactylus base, the claw exocuticle is devoid of mineral and is highly brominated. The architecture of the dactylus claw cuticle is drastically different from that of other parts of the exoskeleton. In contrast to the quasi-isotropic structure with chitin-protein fibers oriented in multiple directions, characteristic of the arthropod exoskeleton, the chitin-protein fibers and mineral components in the endocuticle of P. scaber claws are exclusively axially oriented. Taken together, these characteristics suggest that the claw cuticle is highly structurally anisotropic and fracture resistant and can be explained as adaptations to predominant axial loading of the thin, elongated claws. The nanoscale architecture of the isopod claw may inspire technological solutions in the design of durable machine elements subjected to heavy loading and wear.

  9. Mechanisms of apoptosis in Crustacea: what conditions induce versus suppress cell death?

    PubMed Central

    Menze, Michael A.; Fortner, Grady; Nag, Suman; Hand, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Arthropoda is the largest of all animal phyla and includes about 90% of extant species. Our knowledge about regulation of apoptosis in this phylum is largely based on findings for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Recent work with crustaceans shows that apoptotic proteins, and presumably mechanisms of cell death regulation, are more diverse in arthropods than appreciated based solely on the excellent work with fruit flies. Crustacean homologs exist for many major proteins in the apoptotic networks of mammals and D. melanogaster, but integration of these proteins into the physiology and pathophysiology of crustaceans is far from complete. Whether apoptosis in crustaceans is mainly transcriptionally regulated as in D. melanogaster (e.g., RHG ‘killer’ proteins), or rather is controlled by pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins as in vertebrates needs to be clarified. Some phenomena like the calcium-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) are apparently lacking in crustaceans and may represent a vertebrate invention. We speculate that differences in regulation of the intrinsic pathway of crustacean apoptosis might represent a prerequisite for some species to survive harsh environmental insults. Pro-apoptotic stimuli described for crustaceans include UV radiation, environmental toxins, and a diatom-produced chemical that promotes apoptosis in offspring of a copepod. Mechanisms that serve to depress apoptosis include the inhibition of caspase activity by high potassium in energetically healthy cells, alterations in nucleotide abundance during energy-limited states like diapause and anoxia, resistance to opening of the calcium-induced MPTP, and viral accommodation during persistent viral infection. Characterization of the players, pathways, and their significance in the core machinery of crustacean apoptosis is revealing new insights for the field of cell death. PMID:20043212

  10. Survey of Biofouling an Australian Navy Ships: Crustacea; Isopoda and Amphipoda; Caprellidea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    rather twice as long as its breadth. The palm has a proximal grasping spine, an accessory spine and a minute distal poison spine, and triangular...from the posterior part of pereonite 2, the basal segment is quite short, the propodus is very large and oblong in form, tapering distally, the palm ...a triangular tooth at the distal angle of palm , with a narrow notch in between. The gills are oval to elliptical. Pereopod 5 is a little

  11. Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Amphipod Species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    PubMed Central

    Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems. PMID:25354099

  12. Crustacea in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice: distribution, diet and life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Carolin E; Swadling, Kerrie M

    2006-01-01

    This review concerns crustaceans that associate with sea ice. Particular emphasis is placed on comparing and contrasting the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice habitats, and the subsequent influence of these environments on the life history strategies of the crustacean fauna. Sea ice is the dominant feature of both polar marine ecosystems, playing a central role in physical processes and providing an essential habitat for organisms ranging in size from viruses to whales. Similarities between the Arctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems include variable cover of sea ice over an annual cycle, a light regimen that can extend from months of total darkness to months of continuous light and a pronounced seasonality in primary production. Although there are many similarities, there are also major differences between the two regions: The Antarctic experiences greater seasonal change in its sea ice extent, much of the ice is over very deep water and more than 80% breaks out each year. In contrast, Arctic sea ice often covers comparatively shallow water, doubles in its extent on an annual cycle and the ice may persist for several decades. Crustaceans, particularly copepods and amphipods, are abundant in the sea ice zone at both poles, either living within the brine channel system of the ice-crystal matrix or inhabiting the ice-water interface. Many species associate with ice for only a part of their life cycle, while others appear entirely dependent upon it for reproduction and development. Although similarities exist between the two faunas, many differences are emerging. Most notable are the much higher abundance and biomass of Antarctic copepods, the dominance of the Antarctic sea ice copepod fauna by calanoids, the high euphausiid biomass in Southern Ocean waters and the lack of any species that appear fully dependent on the ice. In the Arctic, the ice-associated fauna is dominated by amphipods. Calanoid copepods are not tightly associated with the ice, while harpacticoids and cyclopoids are abundant. Euphausiids are nearly absent from the high Arctic. Life history strategies are variable, although reproductive cycles and life spans are generally longer than those for temperate congeners. Species at both poles tend to be opportunistic feeders and periods of diapause or other reductions in metabolic expenditure are not uncommon.

  13. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), with descriptions of two new species

    PubMed Central

    Taiti, Stefano; Wynne, J. Judson

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nine species of terrestrial isopods are reported for the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) based upon museum materials and recent collections from field sampling. Most of these animals are non-native species, but two are new to science: Styloniscus manuvaka sp. n. and Hawaiioscia rapui sp. n. Of these, the former is believed to be a Polynesian endemic as it has been recorded from Rapa Iti, Austral Islands, while the latter is identified as a Rapa Nui island endemic. Both of these new species are considered ‘disturbance relicts’ and appear restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A short key to all the oniscidean species presently recorded from Rapa Nui is provided. We also offered conservation and management recommendations for the two new isopod species. PMID:26261438

  14. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Taiti, Stefano; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-01-01

    Nine species of terrestrial isopods are reported for the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) based upon museum materials and recent collections from field sampling. Most of these animals are non-native species, but two are new to science: Styloniscusmanuvaka sp. n. and Hawaiiosciarapui sp. n. Of these, the former is believed to be a Polynesian endemic as it has been recorded from Rapa Iti, Austral Islands, while the latter is identified as a Rapa Nui island endemic. Both of these new species are considered 'disturbance relicts' and appear restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A short key to all the oniscidean species presently recorded from Rapa Nui is provided. We also offered conservation and management recommendations for the two new isopod species.

  15. Two new species of pontogeneiid amphipods (Crustacea, Senticaudata, Calliopioidea) from Korean waters

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Tae Won; Kim, Jong Guk; Yoon, Seong Myeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new pontogeneiid amphipods, Eusiroides pilopalpus sp. n. and Paramoera dentipleurae sp. n., from Korean waters are described and illustrated. Eusiroides pilopalpus sp. n. can be distinguished from congeners by the following characters: mandibular palp article 3 has brush-like setation, maxilla 2 has an inner plate that is not enlarged, and gnathopods 1 and 2 ischium has a well-developed anterior lobe. Paramoera dentipleurae sp. n. can be discriminated from congeners by the following characters: head anterior cephalic lobe is sinusoid, pereopods 5–7 are homopodous and slender, pereopods 6 and 7 basis are proximally lobed but distally diminished on posterior margins, and epimeron 3 is prominently expanded posterodistally. PMID:27917057

  16. A new species of Eusirus from Jeju Island, Korea (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Eusiridae)

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Tae Won; Kim, Min-Seop; Soh, Ho-Young; Yoon, Seong Myeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new eusirid amphipod, Eusirus bulbodigitus sp. n., from Jeju Island, Korea is described with a detailed description and illustrations. Eusirus bulbodigitus sp. n. shows common features with the five known eusirid amphipods Eusirus abyssi Stephensen, 1944, Eusirus columbianus Bousfield & Hendrycks, 1995, Eusirus hirayamae Bousfield & Hendrycks, 1995, Eusirus laticarpus Chevreux, 1906, and Eusirus parvus Pirlot, 1934, such as the mandibular palp article 3 bearing a group of setae laterally. However, this new species is differentiated by the combination of the following characteristics: the eyes are poorly developed, the propodus on pereopod 4 is slightly shorter, the inner margin of dactylus on pereopod 4 is swollen, the length of pereopods 5–7 is moderate, the urosomite 1 has a dorsal protrusion distally, and the telson is shallowly cleft. This is the first record of the genus Eusirus Krøyer, 1845 from Korean waters. PMID:28138283

  17. Das Schwimmen der Talitridae (Crustacea, Amphipoda): Funktionsmorphologie, Phänomenologie und Energetik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Friedhelm

    1985-09-01

    The Talitridae, well-known for their jumping behaviour, swim with help of the tail-flip. This movement of the abdomen is also known from other amphipods like the Gammaridae which are normally not able to move by jerks outside the water. The suspected homology between the tail-flip when swimming and the jerky movement of the abdomen when jumping gave rise to this investigation, mainly based on high frequency film recordings, on the swimming of Hyale nilssonii, Orchestia cavimana, and Talitrus saltator (family Talitridae) as well as three related species of the families Gammaridae and Corophiidae. Comparative morphometrical and SEM-studies on the habitus of the species and the build of the involved limbs reveal the rather uniform construction of the Gammaridea; functional adaptation to the environment and to the way of living become apparent in minor alterations. The joints of the pleopods and uropods show a clear structural adaptation to the mechanical strain during swimming. The pleopods are moved metachronally in all examined species; angular velocity and rate of beating indicate the efficiency of the swimming movement. In the Talitridae, the metachronal beat of the pleopods is nearly always coupled with the tail-flip while in the Gammaridae and Corophiidae the tail-flip, in addition to the beat of the pleopods, is mostly used for a start from the subsoil or for a change in swimming direction. H. nilssonii, Gammarus locusta, and Corophium volutator, all inhabitants of the tidal zone in the North Sea shallows, turned out to be the “best” swimmers while the (semi-) terrestrially living species, O. cavimana and T. saltator, proved to be rather “poor” swimmers. This clearly indicates the ecological significance of swimming for the different species. Furthermore, the tailflip is found to be of rather subordinate importance. It contributes to a higher velocity if used moderately but is rather obstructive if a large angle is covered while extending and flexing the abdomen. The efficiency of swimming is inversely proportional to the efficiency of jumping in the three talitridean species. Thus, better adaptation to terrestrial life is accompanied by loss of swimming efficiency. Examined under the aspect of locomotional homology, it is concluded that the tail-flip used while swimming is homologous to the jerky movement of the abdomen used for jumping. The comparison of the swimming performance of the examined species with other crustaceans and some fishes illustrates the over-all good results of the Gammaridea.

  18. Comparison of amphipods Corophium insidiosum and C. orientale (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in sediment toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Prato, Ermelinda; Bigongiari, Nicola; Barghigiani, Corrado; Biandolino, Francesca

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity of two Corophidae: Corophium orientale a standardized species and Corophium insidiosum a species more available in the Ionian sea (Southern Italy), in order to evaluate the suitability and applicability of C. insidiosum to sediment toxicity test. The sensitivity of the 2 species was compared through simultaneous bioassays: the 96-h static water-only toxicity test and a 10-day static sediment toxicity test. Sediment samples were collected in the Livorno harbour (Ligurian Sea). Both amphipods showed high sensitivity to reference toxicant and no significant differences were found between the two Corophiidae (t test; p > 0.05). Numerical Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) have been used to relate the chemical concentrations of sediment samples to biological effects. Both amphipod species indicated the same sediment samples as potentially toxic according to chemical data. The results indicate that Corophium insidiosum would be suitable as an alternative test species to the recommended species C. orientale, in the development of sediment toxicity test.

  19. Rhythms of locomotion and oxygen consumption in the estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Harris, G J; Morgan, E

    1984-01-01

    The estuarine amphipod Corophium volutator exhibits an endogenous circatidal rhythm of swimming activity, with maxima occurring just after the expected time of high water, under constant laboratory conditions. Oxygen uptake by Corophium is also subject to modulation across the tidal cycle. The period of highest oxygen uptake occurs during the ebb tide, in phase with the period of maximum swimming activity. A second increase in oxygen uptake during the early flood tide is thought to reflect either in-burrow activity or a previously described rhythm of emergence. This being so, this aspect of the animal's respiratory metabolism may be regulated by an autonomous oscillator independent of that governing the animal's swimming behaviour.

  20. The Miocene Cyprideis species flock (Ostracoda; Crustacea) of western Amazonia (Solimões Formation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2015-04-01

    The Miocene mega-wetland of western Amazonia holds a diverse, largely endemic aquatic invertebrate fauna (e.g., molluscs, ostracods). Among ostracods, the genus Cyprideis experienced a remarkable radiation. Micropalaeontologic investigations of a 400-m-long sediment core (~62 km SW Benjamin Constant, Amazonia, Brazil) permitted a taxonomic revision of about two-thirds of hitherto described Cyprideis species. Ostracod index species enabled a biostratigraphic allocation of the well succession to the Cyprideis minipunctata to Cyprideis cyrtoma biozones (late middle to early late Miocene age). The current study underlines once more Cyprideis' remarkable capability to produce species flocks and western Amazonian Cyprideis comply with the criteria of a species flock: i) endemicity: up to now not a single species is recorded in adjacent areas; ii) monophyly: although hardly verifiable to date and probably Amazonian Cyprideis is not monophyletic s.str., several closely related, quite rapidly evolving species are proved; iii) speciosity: due to the present study, 30 formally described species exist; several further species, left in open nomenclature, are recorded in the literature, which strongly hints to a much higher, still unrecorded species richness; iv) ecological diversity: based on rare sedimentologic cross-references, ecological diversity within a highly structured wetland is possible; the current results demonstrate the sympatric occurrence of up to 12 Cyprideis species, which may indicate adaptations to different microhabitats; v) habitat dominance: regularly Cyprideis holds more than >90 % in western Amazonian ostracod assemblages during the early and middle Miocene. Explanations for this extreme habitat monopolisation are still arguable and touch the highly disputed question about the nature of western Amazonia's environments during the Miocene. It seems, however, evident that a strictly actualistic approach to endemic Neogene Amazonian biota is highly problematic. This study was funded by Austrian Science Fund (FWF project P21748-N21).

  1. Epimeria abyssalis sp. n. from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Epimeriidae).

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Michitaka; Tomikawa, Ko

    2016-01-01

    A new deep-sea epimeriid, Epimeria abyssalis is described from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, in the northwestern Pacific. This species differs from its congeners in having a short rostrum and a telson with deep and narrow Y-shaped excavation. Epimeria abyssalis is the deepest recorded Epimeria species. A key to the north Pacific species of Epimeria is provided.

  2. An annotated check-list of lophogastrids (Crustacea: Lophogastrida) from the seas of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Carlos San

    2016-10-26

    The zoogeographic distribution of lophogastrid species occurring in the diverse seas of the Iberian Peninsula and neighbouring areas is analysed. For each species, data on general distribution, bathymetric ranges, habitat and localities reported on published data are provided. A total of 16 lophogastrids species belonging to 6 genera have been recorded, representing the 30% of all known world extant species and the 67% of genera. Two of them are common to the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. All known Iberian species are present in the Macaronesian region, 43.8% in the North-western Atlantic and 12.5% in the western Mediterranean. Lophogastrid distributions suggest the existence of an evolution and distribution centre of the group located around the Macaronesian Islands.

  3. Assessing the importance of alien macro-Crustacea (Malacostraca) within macroinvertebrate assemblages in Belgian coastal harbours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boets, Pieter; Lock, Koen; Goethals, Peter L. M.

    2012-06-01

    Harbours, which are often characterised by anthropogenic stress in combination with intensive international ship traffic, tend to be very susceptible to aquatic invasions. Since alien macrocrustaceans are known to be very successful across many European waters, a study was made on their distribution and impact in the four Belgian coastal harbours (Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Blankenberge and Zeebrugge). Biological and physical-chemical data were gathered at 43 sampling sites distributed along a salinity gradient in the four harbours. One-fourth of all crustacean species recorded were alien and represented on average 30% of the total macrocrustacean abundance and 65% of the total macrocrustacean biomass. The large share of alien crustaceans in the total macrocrustacean biomass was mainly due to several large alien crab species. Most alien species were found in the oligohaline zone, whereas the number of indigenous species slightly increased with increasing salinity. The low number of indigenous species present at low salinities was probably not only caused by salinity, but also by the lower water quality in this salinity range. Based on the site-specific biocontamination index (SBCI), which was used to assess the ecological water quality, the harbour of Nieuwpoort and Ostend scored best and were classified as good, indicating the limited abundance and the low number of alien macrocrustaceans. Sampling locations situated more inland generally had a higher SBCI and a lower ecological water quality. Zeebrugge and Blankenberge were characterised by a severe biocontamination. For Zeebrugge, this is probably related to the intensive transcontinental commercial ship traffic, whereas for Blankenberge, this could be due to introduction of alien species via recreational crafts or due to its geographical location in the proximity of Zeebrugge. Consistent monitoring of estuarine regions and harbours, which are seen as hotspots for introductions, could help in understanding and predicting the impact of alien species on native biota.

  4. Gaetice depressus (Crustacea, Varunidae): Species profile and its role in organic carbon and nitrogen flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyudi, A'an. J.; Wada, Shigeki; Aoki, Masakazu; Hama, Takeo

    2015-06-01

    Gaetice depressus is one of the most dominant macrozoobenthos species in boulder shores of intertidal coastal ecosystems in Japan. As recorded in previous studies, this species is also considered as having high density and biomass. Consequently, it is thought to be one of the more important species in the organic matter flow of boulder shores, especially through the food web. In this study, some taxonomic problems related to G. depressus were tackled and the autoecology and ecological processes in the intertidal ecosystem of G. depressus, such as organic matter flow, were investigated. Furthermore, in order to clarify the taxonomy description, resolve inconsistencies in the scientific name, and learn about the life history, a literature review was conducted. Seasonal changes in density, morphology pattern and population structure were determined based on the data obtained in Ebisu Island, Japan. Then, the role of G. depressus was determined by estimating the intake and emittance fluxes of organic carbon and nitrogen through ingestion and egestion process in the boulder shores of Ebisu Island. A feeding rate experiment was also conducted in order to estimate the intake flux by using the catch-release-recapture method. Meanwhile, to estimate the emittance flux, a defecation rate experiment was conducted by catching some individuals of G. depressus, and then incubating them in the laboratory. The feeding rate measured by the speed of diet consumption of G. depressus was about 12.6 mg ind-1 h-1. Considering the average density, the intake flux through the feeding process could be estimated as 25.2 mgC m-2 h-1 and 2.6 mgN m-2 h-1. On the other hand, G. depressus egested fecal pellet at the rate of 5.4 mg ind-1 h-1. The average emittance flux through the fecal pellet egesting process is estimated at 5.6 mgC m-2 h-1 and 0.7 mgN m-2 h-1. Therefore, it can be estimated that about 25% of organic matter from diet is egested as fecal pellet, which means that about 75% of the intake flux of organic carbon and nitrogen is used for the total assimilation of G. depressus. Intake flux was also considered as affecting the high dynamism of primary producer consumption. The total population of G. depressus is estimated to consume about 18.4% of primary producer in average throughout the year. Therefore, the turnover time of primary producer by consumption of G. depressus was about five days.

  5. Effect of carbaryl (carbamate insecticide) on acetylcholinesterase activity of two strains of Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Toumi, Hela; Bejaoui, Mustapha; Touaylia, Samir; Burga Perez, Karen F; Ferard, Jean François

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of carbaryl (carbamate insecticide) on the acetylcholinesterase activity in two strains (same clone A) of the crustacean cladoceran Daphnia magna. Four carbaryl concentrations (0.4, 0.9, 1.8 and 3.7 µg L(-1)) were compared against control AChE activity. Our results showed that after 48 h of carbaryl exposure, all treatments induced a significant decrease of AChE activities whatever the two considered strains. However, different responses were registered in terms of lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC: 0.4 µg L(-1) for strain 1 and 0.9 µg L(-1) for strains 2) revealing differences in sensitivity among the two tested strains of D. magna. These results suggest that after carbaryl exposure, the AChE activity responses can be also used as a biomarker of susceptibility. Moreover, our results show that strain1 is less sensitive than strain 2 in terms of IC50-48 h of AChE activity. Comparing the EC50-48 h of standard ecotoxicity test and IC50-48 h of AChE inhibition, there is the same order of sensitivity with both strains.

  6. Effects of lithium on the survival, growth, and reproduction of Daphniopsis tibetana Sars (Crustacea: Cladocera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wen; Huo, Yuanzi; Zhang, Tianmin; Wang, Shan; Shi, Tingting

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of lithium on the survival, growth, and reproduction of D. tibetana in the laboratory. The safe concentration value was 69.3 mg/L. The time to first brood was significant lower for individuals reared in 5 and 10 mg/L (24.4 and 24.0 d, respectively) compared with individuals reared in 20, 40, or 60 mg/L. Females reared in 5 mg/L lithium produced a mean of 16.5 neonates/brood and had the highest number of broods (3.0±1.95). The rate of egg production (a), the intrinsic rate of increase (r m ), net reproduction rate (R 0), and finite rate of increase (λ) were highest for D. tibetana reared at 5 and 10 mg/L lithium, and the duration of development was shorter than for the remaining groups. The results indicated that rearing in 5-10 mg/L lithium can accelerate the growth and reproduction of D. tibetana.

  7. A new species of Nebalia (Crustacea, Leptostraca) from coral reefs at Pulau Payar, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, B.H.R.; Toda, T.; Kikuchi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Leptostraca, Nebalia terazakii sp. n. is described and figured. The species was sampled from the coral reefs of Pulau Payar Marine Park, Langkawi, Malaysia. There are 32 existing species of Nebalia but Nebalia terazakii sp. n. can be distinguished from the other known species of Nebalia by the following combination of characters: the rostrum is 1.89 times as long as wide and the eyes have no dorsal papilla or lobes. Article 4 of the antennular peduncle has one short thick distal spine. The proximal article of the endopod of maxilla 2 is shorter than the distal, a feature peculiar to Nebalia terazakii sp. n., the exopod of maxilla 2 is longer than article 1 of the endopod, the posterior dorsal borders of the pleonites 6 to 7 are provided with distally sharp denticles, anal plate with prominent lateral shoulder and finally, the terminal seta of the caudal rami is 1.17 times the length of the entire rami. PMID:27551211

  8. Seasonal variability of metabolic markers and oxidative balance in freshwater amphipod Hyalella kaingang (Crustacea, Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Braghirolli, Fernando Machado; Oliveira, Maiara Rodriguez; Oliveira, Guendalina Turcato

    2016-08-01

    Amphipods are widely used as bioindicator organisms, in view of their ease of collection and cultivation, sexual dimorphism and abundance, in aquatic environments. In the present study male (n=30) and female (n=30) amphipod Hyalella kaingang were collected during the middle of each season from a nature preserve (Research Center PRÓ-MATA) in São Francisco de Paula, Southern Brazil. Proteins, glycogen, lipids, triglycerides, glycerol, and lipid peroxidation (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase activity) were measured. The results obtained for the markers of energy metabolism, antioxidant enzymes, and lipid peroxidation revealed a clear seasonal variation. The patterns of proteins, glycerol, and glutathione S-transferase activity did not differ between sexes; conversely, differential responses in males and females over the year were observed for all other parameters (glycogen, lipids, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity). These responses appear to be strongly influenced by a prolonged reproductive period (autumn through spring, peaking in autumn); by the degree of exploratory activity, particularly in the summer and autumn; and by abiotic factors, such as temperature and photoperiod. The responses observed in the summer and autumn (decrease in levels of proteins, glycogen and fats, and increase in lipid peroxidation levels and glutathione S-transferase activity), suggest that this season represents a critical time point for these animals. The parameters studied herein may be used as biomarkers to assess the environmental conditions in the aquatic habitat.

  9. Epimeria abyssalis sp. n. from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Epimeriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Michitaka; Tomikawa, Ko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new deep-sea epimeriid, Epimeria abyssalis is described from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, in the northwestern Pacific. This species differs from its congeners in having a short rostrum and a telson with deep and narrow Y-shaped excavation. Epimeria abyssalis is the deepest recorded Epimeria species. A key to the north Pacific species of Epimeria is provided. PMID:28174500

  10. The tryphosine genus Cheirimedon in Australian waters (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Lysianassidae, Tryphosinae).

    PubMed

    Kilgallen, N M; Lowry, J K

    2015-09-11

    The genus Cheirimedon is reviewed and the monotypic genus Tryphosoides placed in its synonymy. We describe fourteen new species of Cheirimedon, all from Australian waters, bringing the total number of species in the genus to 22. Full synonymies and distribution data are provided for all taxa. A key to the world species is provided.

  11. Silver nanoparticles impact the functional role of Gammarus roeseli (Crustacea Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Andreï, Jennifer; Pain-Devin, Sandrine; Felten, Vincent; Devin, Simon; Giambérini, Laure; Mehennaoui, Kahina; Cambier, Sebastien; Gutleb, Arno C; Guérold, François

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (nAg) are widely used in consumer products and the risk associated with their potential release into freshwater ecosystems needs to be addressed using environmentally realistic exposure concentrations. Here, the effects of low concentrations (0.5-5 μg L(-1)) of two different sized nAg (10 and 60 nm) and a silver nitrate positive control were evaluated in Gammarus roeseli following exposure for 72 h. Cellular, individual and functional endpoints were independently studied and the most striking results were reported for functional endpoints. Indeed, without a change in their feeding activity, the gammarids produced significantly fewer fine particles of organic matter when exposed to nAg, even at 0.5 μg L(-1) of 10 nm nAg. These functional endpoints seem to be efficient markers for detecting the early effects of nAg on G. roeseli.

  12. Abundance and diversity of epibenthic amphipods (Crustacea) from contrasting bathyal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Matthew A.; Hogg, Ian D.; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Lörz, Anne-Nina; Nodder, Scott D.

    2012-04-01

    To investigate relationships between epibenthic macrofauna and bathyal habitat characteristics, we examined the abundance, diversity and community composition of amphipod crustaceans relative to environmental variables on two major bathymetric features of New Zealand - the Chatham Rise and Challenger Plateau. An epibenthic (Brenke) sledge was used to sample depths ranging from 200 to 1200 m. Fifteen stations were sampled on the Chatham Rise, which is an extensive submarine ridge, east of New Zealand, characterised by high productivity in surface waters, associated with the Subtropical Front. Five stations were sampled on the Challenger Plateau, west of New Zealand, a region with a similar depth range, but less topographical relief and lower pelagic productivity relative to the Chatham Rise. Over 12,500 amphipods were recovered and identified. We found high abundance (range: 44-2074 individuals 1000 m-2) and taxonomic richness (27 families) in both regions. Amphipod assemblages at all stations were largely dominated by the same families, particularly the Phoxocephalidae. Chatham Rise stations were mostly similar in family composition to one another and to the two closest Challenger Plateau stations. However, the remaining three, more distal, western Challenger Plateau stations were highly differentiated from other stations and from one another, despite being relatively similar habitats. Overall, amphipod community composition correlated most strongly with surface chlorophyll a, suggesting strong benthic-pelagic coupling and emphasising the importance of benthic-pelagic links in bathyal ecosystems.

  13. Melita mirzajanii n. sp. (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Melitidae), a puzzling new member of the Caspian fauna.

    PubMed

    Krapp-Schickel, Traudl; Sket, Boris

    2015-04-21

    Described is Melita mirzajanii n. sp. (Melitidae) from the southwestern corner of the Caspian Sea. It shows no particular similarity to any species known from the Mediterranean Sea. It inhabits, as the only amphipod species, dense growths of Amphibalanus cf. improvisus (Darwin 1854) in a port, at low and highly fluctuating salinities. Its most striking characters are: absence of any pleonal or urosomal dorsal teeth (projections), elongated distal article of the mandibular palp, hind margin of last pereopod bases strongly narrowed distad, and epimera posterodistally rectangular. An identification key for the species group of Melita without dorsal teeth and without article 2 on the exopodite of the third uropod is provided.

  14. Ten new Gammarus species (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Gammaridae) from Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhonge; Li, Junbo; Li, Shuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Ten new species of the genus Gammarus are described from Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, Southwest China, including Gammarus amabilis sp. nov., G. citatus sp. nov., G. echinatus sp. nov., G. egregius sp. nov., G. eliquatus sp. nov., G. hirtellussp. nov., G. margcomosus sp. nov., G. rivalis sp. nov., G. silendus sp. nov. and G. tranquillus sp. nov. Four of them are stygobite and with no eyes. Detailed illustrations and comparisons with related species are presented. A key to all species from Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau are given.

  15. New species Victoriopisa bruneiensis and Apocorophium acutum (Chevreux, 1908) from Brunei (Crustacea: Peracarida: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Belal; Hughes, L E

    2016-06-01

    One new and one invasive species of amphipod are described from the subtidal waters of Brunei. The new species Victoriopisa bruneiensis (Melitidae) and the invasive species Apocorophium acutum (Chevereux, 1908) (Corophiidae) were collected from the Sungai Brunei Estuary. Victoriopisa bruneiensis sp. nov. is one of only four Victoriopisa where the eyes are present. An updated key to twelve world species of Victoriopisa is provided. Apocorophium acutum occurs in high density algal matts on pylons/rocks. This is the sixth species of Apocorophium described for the genus.

  16. Zoogeography of epigean freshwater Amphipoda (Crustacea) in Romania: fragmented distributions and wide altitudinal variability.

    PubMed

    Copilaș-Ciocianu, Denis; Grabowski, Michał; Pârvulescu, Lucian; Petrusek, Adam

    2014-12-08

    Inland epigean freshwater amphipods of Romania are diverse and abundant for this region has a favourable geographical position between the Balkans and the Black Sea. Excluding Ponto-Caspian species originating in brackish waters and freshwater subterranean taxa, there are 11 formally recognized epigean freshwater species recorded from this country. They belong to 3 genera, each representing a different family: Gammarus (Gammaridae, 8 species or species complexes), Niphargus (Niphargidae, 2 epigean species) and Synurella (Crangonyctidae, one species). Their large-scale distribution patterns nevertheless remain obscure due to insufficient data, consequently limiting biogeographical interpretations. We provide extensive new data with high resolution distribution maps, thus improving the knowledge of the ranges of these taxa. Gammarus species display substantial altitudinal variability and patchy, fragmented distribution patterns. They occur abundantly, particularly in springs and streams, from lowlands to sub-mountainous and mountainous regions. In the light of recent molecular research, we hypothesize that the complex geomorphological dynamics of the Carpathian region during the Late Tertiary probably contributed to their allopatric distribution pattern. Contrasting with Gammarus, the genera Niphargus and Synurella exhibit low altitudinal variability, broad ecological valences and overlapping distributions, being widespread throughout the lowlands. The current distribution of N. hrabei and N. valachicus seems to be linked to the extent of the Paratethys during the Early Pliocene or Pleistocene. We further discuss the taxonomic validity of two synonymized and one apparently undescribed taxon, and provide an updated pictorial identification key that includes all taxa and forms discussed in our study. The mosaic distribution of epigean freshwater amphipod species in Romania shows that this region is particularly suitable for phylo- and biogeographical analyses of this group.

  17. Two new subterranean species of Hyalella Smith, 1874 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyalellidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Giovanna Monticelli; Araujo, Paula Beatriz; De Pádua Bueno, Alessandra Angélica; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2014-06-10

    Two new species of Hyalella from Brazil are described. Hyalella veredae sp. n. shows the following characters: eyes reduced or absent in some specimens; antenna 1 and antenna 2 of similar size, and a curved seta on the inner ramus of male uropod 1. Hyalella formosa sp. n. is characterized by the absence of eyes, antenna 1 longer than antenna 2 and a curved seta on the inner ramus of male uropod 1. The species were found on caves located in two private properties, both under the impact of agricultural activities, which demonstrates a potential threat to these subterranean environments.

  18. New tryphosine amphipods from Australian waters (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Lysianassoidea, Lysianassidae, Tryphosinae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Kilgallen, N M

    2014-07-30

    We report seven tryphosine genera (two new) from Australian waters for the first time and describe 13 new species: Cedrosella cito sp. nov.; Lysianella lui sp. nov.; Lysianella moonamoona sp. nov.; Microlysias soela sp. nov.; Paralysianopsis capricornia sp. nov.; Paralysianopsis dandenong sp. nov.; Paralysianopsis pomona sp. nov.; Paralysianopsis ruffoi sp. nov.; Patonga nona gen. nov., sp. nov.; Tasmanosa tasman gen. nov., sp. nov.; Tasmanosa toogooloo sp. nov.; Tryphosites colmani sp. nov.; Tryphosites psittacus sp. nov. Rhinolabia is considered to be a junior synonymy of Paralysianopsis. Paralysianopsis elliotti (Lowry & Stoddart, 1995b) and P. cf. jebbi (Lowry & Stoddart, 1995b), previously known from Papua New Guinea are also reported from eastern Australia. The type species of each genus is also catalogued and illustrated. 

  19. A new species of the genus Rhinoecetes Just, 1983 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Ischyroceridae) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Masafumi; Ohtsuchi, Naoya; Kon, Koetsu

    2016-09-19

    A new species of ischyrocerid amphipods, Rhinoecetes spinicaudus sp. nov., is described from Nabeta Bay, southeast coast of Izu Peninsula, central Japan. This new species can be distinguished from the other congeners by the presence of spinulation on the lateral margins of uropod I rami, row of small robust setae on uropod II ramus, and single robust seta on uropod III ramus. More detailed distinguishing characters from R. albomaculosus are also discussed. This is the first record of the genus Rhinoecetes from Japan. Key to all the species of Rhinoecetes is provided.

  20. Mechanical properties of the cement of the stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis (Cirripedia, Crustacea)

    PubMed Central

    Zheden, Vanessa; Klepal, Waltraud; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Kovalev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The stalked barnacle Dosima fascicularis secretes foam-like cement, the amount of which usually exceeds that produced by other barnacles. When Dosima settles on small objects, this adhesive is additionally used as a float which gives buoyancy to the animal. The dual use of the cement by D. fascicularis requires mechanical properties different from those of other barnacle species. In the float, two regions with different morphological structure and mechanical properties can be distinguished. The outer compact zone with small gas-filled bubbles (cells) is harder than the interior one and forms a protective rind presumably against mechanical damage. The inner region with large, gas-filled cells is soft. This study demonstrates that D. fascicularis cement is soft and visco-elastic. We show that the values of the elastic modulus, hardness and tensile stress are considerably lower than in the rigid cement of other barnacles. PMID:25657833

  1. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990’s and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance of the inland copepod fauna of Costa Rica requires more detailed surveys. PMID:25561828

  2. Genetic variation in the cellular response of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to its bacterial parasite

    PubMed Central

    Auld, Stuart K. J. R.; Scholefield, Jennifer A.; Little, Tom J.

    2010-01-01

    Linking measures of immune function with infection, and ultimately, host and parasite fitness is a major goal in the field of ecological immunology. In this study, we tested for the presence and timing of a cellular immune response in the crustacean Daphnia magna following exposure to its sterilizing endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa. We found that D. magna possesses two cell types circulating in the haemolymph: a spherical one, which we call a granulocyte and an irregular-shaped amoeboid cell first described by Metchnikoff over 125 years ago. Daphnia magna mounts a strong cellular response (of the amoeboid cells) just a few hours after parasite exposure. We further tested for, and found, considerable genetic variation for the magnitude of this cellular response. These data fostered a heuristic model of resistance in this naturally coevolving host–parasite interaction. Specifically, the strongest cellular responses were found in the most susceptible hosts, indicating resistance is not always borne from a response that destroys invading parasites, but rather stems from mechanisms that prevent their initial entry. Thus, D. magna may have a two-stage defence—a genetically determined barrier to parasite establishment and a cellular response once establishment has begun. PMID:20534618

  3. A new genus and species of Leptocheliidae (Crustacea: Peracarida: Tanaidacea) from Isla del Coco (Costa Rica).

    PubMed

    Esquete, Patricia; Sibaja-Cordero, Jeffrey A; Troncoso, Jesús S

    2013-11-27

    Samples from the scarcely-studied sedimentary seabed from the Isla del Coco (Costa Rica) yielded a single species of Tanaidacea, belonging to a new genus of Leptocheliidae, Cocotanais. The new genus shows affinities with Pseudonototanais and Heterotanais in bearing a conspicuous forcipate cheliped in the males, which in Cocotanais has a modified merus and carpal flange. Other distinct characters of the males are a triangular cephalothorax, a three-articled antennular peduncle and swollen bases of pereopods 4-6. Females have a four-articled antennule, a maxilliped endite with three distal flat spines and two inner coupling hooks, and a maxilliped basis with two long setae. The species was found in sheltered bays, both free-living in the sediment and also as a commensal of anemones (Infraorder Boloceroidaria), thus representing the first reported case of such an association. 

  4. Five Sarsiellidae ostracods (Crustacea: Myodocopida) from the South Coast of Korea (East China Sea).

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Ivana; Soh, Ho-Young

    2015-04-17

    The East China Sea is part of the Warm Temperate Northwest Pacific zoogeographic province and, as such, has a high biodiversity and many tropical and subtropical biotic elements. Nevertheless, many invertebrate groups from this area remain poorly studied. Ostracods are one of them, especially those belonging to the subclass Myodocopa. In this paper we provide the first data on a diverse myodocopid family, Sarsiellidae, not only for the East China Sea, but also for Korea. Five species are reported in this paper from three Korean islands (Jeju, Chuja, and Maemul), and they are only a part of the ostracods collected during this study, indicating a high diversity of the group in this region. Three new species, Eurypylus koreanus sp. nov., Eusarsiella hanguk sp. nov., and Sarsiella nereis sp. nov., clearly stand apart from their respective congeners, mostly by prominent shell characters but also by details of the soft part morphology. Their affinity though clearly indicates a close connection of the region with the more southern zoogeographical realms, especially Central Indo Pacific and partly Temperate Australasia. Two species previously known from Japan (north part of the Sea of Japan and southeastern part of the Pacific Coast of Japan), Sarsiella japonica Hiruta, 1977 and S. misakiensis Kajiyama, 1912, are redescribed. Based on 11 newly obtained COI sequences we construct a preliminary phylogenetic tree, which supports previous hypotheses based on the morphological data, that Eusarsiella Cohen & Kornicker, 1975 is a polyphyletic taxon. With the maps of species distribution provided for each of the three genera, we give an overview of their current zoogeography, and clearly indicate areas that have no data, mostly due to the lack of investigation.

  5. Chromatin diminution in Copepoda (Crustacea): pattern, biological role and evolutionary aspects.

    PubMed

    Grishanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research on chromatin diminution (CD) in copepods. The phenomenology, mechanisms and biological role of CD are discussed. A model of CD as an alternative means of regulating cell differentiation is presented. While the vast majority of eukaryotes inactivate genes that are no longer needed in development by heterochromatinization, copepods probably use CD for the same purpose. It is assumed that the copepods have exploited CD as a tool for adaptation to changing environmental conditions and as a mechanism for regulating the rate of evolutionary processes.

  6. Mechanisms of apoptosis in Crustacea: What conditions induce versus suppress cell death?

    PubMed

    Menze, Michael A; Fortner, Grady; Nag, Suman; Hand, Steven C

    2010-03-01

    Arthropoda is the largest of all animal phyla and includes about 90% of extant species. Our knowledge about regulation of apoptosis in this phylum is largely based on findings for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Recent work with crustaceans shows that apoptotic proteins, and presumably mechanisms of cell death regulation, are more diverse in arthropods than appreciated based solely on the excellent work with fruit flies. Crustacean homologs exist for many major proteins in the apoptotic networks of mammals and D. melanogaster, but integration of these proteins into the physiology and pathophysiology of crustaceans is far from complete. Whether apoptosis in crustaceans is mainly transcriptionally regulated as in D. melanogaster (e.g., RHG 'killer' proteins), or rather is controlled by pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins as in vertebrates needs to be clarified. Some phenomena like the calcium-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) are apparently lacking in crustaceans and may represent a vertebrate invention. We speculate that differences in regulation of the intrinsic pathway of crustacean apoptosis might represent a prerequisite for some species to survive harsh environmental insults. Pro-apoptotic stimuli described for crustaceans include UV radiation, environmental toxins, and a diatom-produced chemical that promotes apoptosis in offspring of a copepod. Mechanisms that serve to depress apoptosis include the inhibition of caspase activity by high potassium in energetically healthy cells, alterations in nucleotide abundance during energy-limited states like diapause and anoxia, resistance to opening of the calcium-induced MPTP, and viral accommodation during persistent viral infection. Characterization of the players, pathways, and their significance in the core machinery of crustacean apoptosis is revealing new insights for the field of cell death.

  7. Assimilation of zinc by Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) exposed to zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Bibic, A.; Drobne, D.; Strus, J.

    1997-05-01

    The ability of terrestrial isopods to accumulate high amounts of metals, to survive in industrially polluted areas and respond to environmental contaminants in a dose-dependent manner makes them one of the most favorite experimental organisms for terrestrial ecotoxicology. Understanding metal uptake, assimilation and loss by these animals is important to explain how they cope with polluted environments. Metal uptake depends on the rate of food consumption, on metal availability in the food, on the pH inside the gut and some other factors. Isopods respond to high metal concentrations in the food in different ways and try to avoid the negative effects of metal poisoning. Zinc is one of the metals present in high concentrations in industrially polluted areas. Zinc poisoning may be avoided by the regulation of the consumption rate, by behavioral response, by storing metals in the hepatopancreas as insoluble granules, and by fecal, and possibly urinary, excretion. Zinc in organisms is a constituent of more than 200 metalloenzymes and other metabolic compounds and assures stability of biological molecules and structures. High Zn levels in food cause a reduction of feeding rate, affect growth and reproduction, cause changes in the structure of the digestive glands and influence the duration of the molting cycle. The present study investigated zinc assimilation by Porcellio scaber exposed to leaves contaminated with radioactively labeled zinc at five different concentrations. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Ovary structure and early oogenesis in the remipede, Godzilliognomus frondosus (Crustacea, Remipedia): phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Kubrakiewicz, Janusz; Jaglarz, Mariusz K; Iliffe, Thomas M; Bilinski, Szczepan M; Koenemann, Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Remipedia are enigmatic crustaceans of uncertain phylogenetic position with the general consensus that they are crucial for understanding the crustacean/arthropod evolution. It has been demonstrated previously that the features of the ovary organization and subcellular aspects of oogenesis are useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships in arthropods such as hexapods and onychophorans. The structure of the female gonads in Remipedia remains largely unknown; therefore, we examined the gross morphology and ultrastructural details of the ovary in a remipede, Godzilliognomus frondosus, with special emphasis on characters relevant to phylogenetic reconstructions. The ovaries of G. frondosus are located in the anterior part of the body and are composed of a single anterior proliferative zone (the germarium) and paired ovarian tubes (the vitellarium). The oocytes undergo subsequent stages of development within the lumen of the ovarian tubes, hence the remipede ovaries can be classified as endogenous. During oogenesis, each oocyte is enveloped by a set of characteristic somatic follicular cells, which results in the formation of distinct ovarian follicles. Here, we demonstrate that Remipedia share significant similarities in the ovary organization with Cephalocarida, including the anterior location of the ovary, the anterior-most position of the germarium and the endogenous type of oocyte development. Phylogenetic implications of our findings are discussed.

  9. Dietary analysis of the marine Amphipoda (Crustacea: Peracarida) from the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; Tierno de Figueroa, J. M.; Navarro-Barranco, C.; Ros, M.; Sánchez-Moyano, J. E.; Moreira, J.

    2014-01-01

    The gut contents of 2982 specimens of 33 amphipod families, 71 genera and 149 species were examined, representing a high percentage of amphipod diversity in the Iberian Peninsula. Material was collected mainly from sediments, algae and hydroids along the whole coast of the Iberian Peninsula from 1989 to 2011. Although detritus was the dominant food item in the majority of amphipods, gammarideans also included carnivorous (mainly feeding on crustaceans) and herbivorous species (feeding on macroalgal tissues). Our study revealed that general assignment of a type of diet for a whole family is not always adequate. Some families showed a consistent pattern in most of the studied species (Corophiidae, Pontoporeiidae = detritivorous; Oedicerotidae, Phoxocephalidae, Stenothoidae = carnivorous; Ampithoidae = primarily herbivorous on macroalgae), but others included species with totally different feeding strategies. In general terms, detritivorous families were characterized by a stronger mandibular molar, while in carnivorous taxa this feature was less developed or reduced. The percentage of macroalgae in the digestive contents was associated in most cases with a reduction or loss of the mandibular palp. It seems that high trophic diversity in amphipods is a generalized trait along different ecosystems in all latitudes, and could be related to the ecological success of this group in marine benthic communities.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the acorn barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Crustacea: Maxillopoda): the first representative from Archaeobalanidae.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Shen, Xin; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Benny Kwok Kan

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis (Sessilia: family Archaeobalanidae) is 15,063 bp in length. All the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) initiate with ATD codon (ATG, ATA or ATT). Four PCGs (COX3, ND3, ND4 and ND4L) end with incomplete stop codon (T- -). Four PCGs (ND1, ND4, ND4L and ND5) are encoded on the light strand (underlined below). Refer to the pancrustacean ground pattern, there are not less than seven tRNAs rearranged in the S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome, including tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Glu)/tRNA(Ser)((AGY)), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Pro)/tRNA(Thr), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys). Three tRNAs (tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Cys)) are rearranged between S. amaryllis and Tetraclita japonica (Sessilia: Tetraclitidae), meanwhile one tRNA (tRNA(Cys)) inverted from one strand to another. Compared with Megabalanus volcano (Sessilia: Balanidae), an inversion of one large gene block is identified (including three PCGs and three tRNAs) in S. amaryllis mitochondrial genome: tRNA(Phe)-ND5-tRNA(His)-ND4-ND4L-tRNA(Pro).

  11. Effects of naphthalene on gene transcription in Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Vang, Siv-Hege; Nordtug, Trond; Olsen, Anders J

    2008-01-31

    The planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a key species in the Northern Atlantic food web; an oceanic area with extensive oil production. Naphthalene is one of the major constituents of produced water and water soluble fractions of petrogenic oils. This study investigates the effects on gene transcription of a short term exposure to naphthalene at levels well below LC(50) concentrations. This was done in order to establish a molecular basis of naphthalene toxicity in a species which has previously been subject only to very limited studies at the molecular level. Naphthalene exposure to C. finmarchicus was found to cause glutathione S-transferase (GST) induction, indicating lipid peroxidation as the major mode of naphthalene toxicity. There is no clear evidence that the putative cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP330A1 mRNAs are parts of a detoxification enzyme system. Instead, an observed decrease in CYP330A1 mRNA levels at the highest naphthalene exposure concentration may indicate an effect on ecdysteroidogenesis. Only the lowest naphthalene concentration lead to increased mRNA levels of antioxidants SOD and CAT, indicating no clear evidence for general cellular oxidative stress following exposure. Small and insignificant changes in the HSP-70, HSP-90 and ubiquitin mRNA levels indicate a small degree of protein damage owing to naphthalene exposure. The established culture of C. finmarchicus at the SINTEF/NTNU Sealab, and the use of gene transcription analyses provide excellent tools for improving the understanding of biochemical mechanisms involved in the defense against environmental impacts and the molecular modes of toxicity in this species.

  12. Redescription of Dynoides elegans (Boone, 1923) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Sphaeromatidae) from the north-eastern Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Wetzer, Regina; Mowery, Gracie

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dynoides elegans (Boone, 1923) from southern California is reviewed, redescribed, and figured. The original species description did not include figures, making it difficult to attribute individuals to the species. Dynoides saldanai Carvacho and Haasmann, 1984 and Dynoides crenulatus Carvacho & Haasman, 1984 from the Pacific Coast of Mexico and Dynoides brevicornis Kussakin & Malyutina, 1987, from Furugelm Island, Peter the Great Gulf in the Sea of Japan, appear morphologically more similar to each other than to western Pacific species. A large pleonal process is present in about half of the Dynoides species, but is absent in this north-eastern Pacific clade and the north-western Pacific Dynoides brevicornis and Dynoides brevispina. Dynoides dentisinus Shen, 1929 possess a large pleonal spine. It is known from China, Japan, and Korea and is introduced in San Francisco Bay; it can be easily distinguished from Dynoides elegans by the presence of a pleonal process in the former. A key to the Pacific West Coast Dynoides is provided. PMID:28228672

  13. The toxicological effects of thiamethoxam on Gammarus kischineffensis (Schellenberg 1937) (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Uğurlu, Pelin; Ünlü, Erhan; Satar, Elif İpek

    2015-03-01

    Neonicotinoids are a new group of insecticides, and little is known about their toxicity to nontarget freshwater organisms an potential effects on freshwater ecosystems. The aim of this study is to establish the acute toxicity and histopathological effects of thiamethoxam-based pesticide on the gill tissue of Gammarus kischineffensis. In this study G. kischineffensis samples were exposed to 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100mg/l of commercial grade thiamethoxam for 96 h. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 values were determined as 75.619, 23.505, 8.048 and 3.751 mg/l respectively. In histopathological study the individuals were exposed to 0.004, 0.04 and 0.4 mg/l thiamethoxam concentrations for 14 days. The results showed that the most common changes at all doses of thiamethoxam were vacuolization and hemostatic infiltration in the gill tissue of G. kischineffensis.

  14. Linderiella jebalae sp. nov. (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Anostraca), a new species from the Rif mountains (northern Morocco).

    PubMed

    Boix, Dani; Sala, Jordi; Escoriza, Daniel; Alonso, Miguel

    2016-07-18

    A new species of fairy shrimp, Linderiella jebalae sp. nov., was found in temporary ponds located in the Rif region of northern Morocco. Morphological characters of females, such as the basal long warty outgrowth of the antennae, the highly developed cuticular papillae in the second genital segment, and the presence of a keel-shaped process directed posteriorly in dorsal side of the brood pouch, clearly distinguish this species from the others of the genus. In the case of males, the basiomedial antennal outgrowth and the distal segment of the antenna are diagnostic features for the species. Cyst ornamentation, characterized by thick, blunt and sometimes truncated spines, also separate this species. This is the fourth known Palaearctic Linderiella species, all of them described recently (from 1980s onwards) and located in a restricted area, from south-eastern France to Iberian Peninsula and Morocco.

  15. Description, systematics and ecology of a new tanaidacean (Crustacea, Peracarida) species from mediterranean fish farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquete, P.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.

    2017-01-01

    An undescribed species of tanaidacean belonging to the genus Hexapleomera, tribe Pancolini, Hexapleomera bultidactyla sp. nov. was found in fouling community samples from off-coast fish farms cages in the western Mediterranean Sea. The species can be distinguished from other Hexapleomera species by the presence of a ventral apophysis on the dactylus of the chela in males. Other diagnostic characters (in combination) include a male antennule with five aesthetascs, the female with three, the maxillule palp with four terminal setae and maxilliped basis and coxa each with two setae; the male fixed finger with four ventral setae and proximal apophysis, the female chela fixed finger with a proximal triangular apophysis, an apophysis on the coxa of pereopod 1, a pleopod 3 basis with three outer setae, and an uropod of four segments. Although several substrata were investigated, the species was most abundant where the turf formed by Ceramiaceae algae and the hydroid Aglaophenia sp. was dominant. An updated identification key to all the species of Hexapleomera is provided.

  16. Repetitive DNA sequences as an insight into Aeglidae (Crustacea, Anomura) evolution.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, M E; Corach, D

    1997-08-01

    The evolutionary relationships of five Atlantic Aeglidae species (Aegla neuquensis affinis, A. humahuaca, A. jujuyana, A. platensis, and A. uruguayana) were studied by (i) satellite DNA analysis using a restriction enzyme digestion and hybridization pattern approach and (ii) genome screening by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing. The identical restriction patterns and intense interspecific hybridization patterns obtained in this study strongly suggest a recent cladogenetic event for the Aeglidae. The species-specific amplification products which were detected using RAPD markers allowed species characterization. A total of 49 amplification products were used to construct trees by cluster analysis. The new scheme agrees in part with previous proposals based on biogeography and morphology. We considered that the subdivision northwestern-platensis species was probably due to the rising of the Andes, which started in the Middle Miocene. Divergence due to altitude is suggested by the different altitudinal distribution of three northwestern species along the same river. The possible role of selection by ecological factor/s was observed at the population level in A. jujuyana, which has a wider altitudinal range distribution. RAPD markers revealed a high level of intraspecific diversity and important genetic flow among populations. However, a few markers showed significant differences in frequency or H between the lowermost population and the other populations, located in a different biogeographical region. The differences were not in relation to geographical distance, and we interpreted them as being due to selection. Repetitive sequences constitute an important reservoir of genetic variation, and these results show their usefulness in testing and proposing evolutionary hypothesis in crabs. These sequences seem to have played an important role in aeglid evolution. Ecological factors related to altitude have probably influenced macro- and microevolutionary processes, at least in northwestern species.

  17. Sperm ultrastructure of shrimp from family Penaeidae (Crustacea: Dendrobranchiata) in a phylogenetic context.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Tavani Rocha; Rossi, Natalia; Castilho, Antonio L; Costa, Rogério C; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Zara, Fernando José

    2017-03-27

    We describe the sperm ultrastructure of six penaeid species, including at least one member of each tribe (Penaeini, Parapenaeini and Trachypenaeini). Fragments of the vas deferens of the Penaeidae Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis, Farfantepenaeus paulensis, Litopenaeus schmitti, Parapenaeus americanus, Rimapenaeus constrictus and Xiphopenaeus kroyeri were fixed and processed according to the routine for transmission electron microscopy. The morphological results were contextualized in an evolutionary perspective using molecular markers for the phylogenetic reconstruction of this group. A phylogram was proposed by Bayesian inference based on 1007 bp of 33 sequences of the combined genes (16S rDNA and COI mtDNA) from 27 dendrobranchiate specimens. Our findings show that morphological differences in the sperm ultrastructures of members among the tribes of Penaeidae can be used as a baseline to understand their evolutionary relationships. Individuals from the Penaeini tribe show plesiomorphic characteristics in the sperm ultrastructure compared to the Trachypenaeini tribe from which they were derived, such as shrimp from family Sicyoniidae. The morphological complexity of the sperm of the different penaeid members corroborated with the genetic phylogeny, which showed different clades for each tribe and the close relationship with Sicyoniidae. The sperm features of the selected species studied here reflected their evolutionary history. These features confirm the previous phylogenetic hypothesis and question the monophyly of Penaeidae, which should be verified in the future with a more complete set of representative members of each tribe.

  18. Amphipoda (Crustacea) from Palau, Micronesia: families Melphidippidae, Oedicerotidae, Photidae, Pleustidae, Podoceridae, Stenothoidae, Synopiidae and Talitridae.

    PubMed

    Myers, A A

    2014-06-05

    Eleven species belonging to the families Melphidippidae, Oedicerotidae, Photidae, Pleustidae, Podoceridae, Stenothoidae, Synopiidae and Talitridae are recorded from Palau, Micronesia. Eight species are figured. One species is new to science and is described and figured. One species was previously known only from Australia, one only from Madagascar and one only from Fiji.

  19. New species of Floresorchestia from Micronesia living in unusual habitats (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Myers, A A

    2013-11-22

    The first freshwater talitrid, Floresorchestia pohnpei sp. nov., is described from the island of Pohnpei, Micronesia. Floresorchestia palau sp. nov. is described from supralittoral and shallow-water marine habitats in Palau, Micronesia.

  20. Amphipoda (crustacea) from palau, micronesia: families ampeliscidae, ampithoidae, aoridae, colomastigidae and cyproideidae.

    PubMed

    Myers, Alan A

    2012-01-01

    12 species of amphipod in 5 families, collected from shallow reefs in Palau by S. DeGrave during 2002, are reported here. Of these, five species are new to science and Microdeutopus tridens Schellenberg (1938) is redescribed and transferred to the genus Bemlos Shoemaker (1925). The collection included several additional species in the genera Amphilochus Bate, 1862, Ampithoe Leach (1814), Bemlos, Byblis Boeck (1871), Colomastix Grube (1861) and Notopoma Lowry & Berents (1996), that were either incomplete or juvenile and could therefore not adequately be described. In addition, two new species of Plumithoe Barnard & Karaman (1991) are erected from the literature. Other families collected in Palau will be considered in later contributions.

  1. Amphipoda (crustacea) from Palau, Micronesia: families Dexaminidae, Eusiridae, Hyalidae, Ischyroceridae, Leucothoidae and Lysianassidae.

    PubMed

    Myers, A A

    2013-10-31

    Thirteen species of amphipod in the families Dexaminidae (1), Eusiridae (1), Hyalidae (1), Ischyroceridae (1), Leucothoidae (8) and Lysianassidae (1) are recorded from Palau in Micronesia. Of these, Ventojassa palauensis sp. nov., Leucothoe beobeldabensis sp.nov., L. pseudepidemos sp. nov., L. serratissima sp. nov., L. tumida sp. nov., L. whiteae sp. nov and Paranamixis dentidactylus sp. nov. are new to science and are described and figured.

  2. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Benny K. K.; Chen, H. -N.; Dando, P. R.; Southward, A. J.; Southward, E. C.

    2016-01-01

    The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007) and C. newmani sp. nov.). These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters. PMID:26958842

  3. Diversity of Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida) in the World's Oceans – How Far Have We Come?

    PubMed Central

    Blazewicz-Paszkowycz, Magdalena; Bamber, Roger; Anderson, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Tanaidaceans are small peracarid crustaceans which occur in all marine habitats, over the full range of depths, and rarely into fresh waters. Yet they have no obligate dispersive phase in their life-cycle. Populations are thus inevitably isolated, and allopatric speciation and high regional diversity are inevitable; cosmopolitan distributions are considered to be unlikely or non-existent. Options for passive dispersion are discussed. Tanaidaceans appear to have first evolved in shallow waters, the region of greatest diversification of the Apseudomorpha and some tanaidomorph families, while in deeper waters the apseudomorphs have subsequently evolved two or three distinct phyletic lines. The Neotanaidomorpha has evolved separately and diversified globally in deep waters, and the Tanaidomorpha has undergone the greatest evolution, diversification and adaptation, to the point where some of the deep-water taxa are recolonizing shallow waters. Analysis of their geographic distribution shows some level of regional isolation, but suffers from inclusion of polyphyletic taxa and a general lack of data, particularly for deep waters. It is concluded that the diversity of the tanaidomorphs in deeper waters and in certain ocean regions remains to be discovered; that the smaller taxa are largely understudied; and that numerous cryptic species remain to be distinguished. Thus the number of species currently recognized is likely to be an order of magnitude too low, and globally the Tanaidacea potentially rival the Amphipoda and Isopoda in diversity. PMID:22496741

  4. First molecular evidence for underestimated biodiversity of Rhachotropis (Crustacea, Amphipoda), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Lörz, Anne-Nina; Linse, Katrin; Smith, Peter J; Steinke, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean genus Rhachotropis has a worldwide distribution and amongst the largest bathymetric range known from any amphipod genus. DNA barcoding of new material from around New Zealand and the Ross Sea indicated depth-related biogeographic patterns. New Zealand Rhachotropis do not form a monophyletic clade. Species from bathyal depths on the Chatham Rise, east of New Zealand, show lower sequence divergence to bathyal species from California and the Arctic than to abyssal New Zealand species. Species sampled in the Kermadec Trench, north of New Zealand below 5000 m, seem to be more closely related to Ross Sea abyssal species than to the New Zealand shelf species. The worldwide geographic and bathymetric distribution for all Rhachotropis species is presented here. Depth may have a greater influence on phylogeny than geographic distance.Molecular and morphological investigations of Rhachotropis specimens from the Chatham Rise, New Zealand revealed a species new to science which is described in detail, including scanning electron microscopy. This increases the number of described species of Rhachotropis to 60 worldwide.

  5. Morphological and molecular affinities of two East Asian species of Stenhelia (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Definition of monophyletic supraspecific units in the harpacticoid subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880 has been considered problematic and hindered by the lack of molecular or morphology based phylogenies, as well as by incomplete original descriptions of many species. Presence of a modified seta on the fifth leg endopod has been suggested recently as a synapomorphy of eight species comprising the redefined genus Stenhelia Boeck, 1865, although its presence was not known in S. pubescens Chislenko, 1978. We redescribe this species in detail here, based on our freshly collected topotypes from the Russian Far East. The other species redescribed in this paper was collected from the southern coast of South Korea and identified as the Chinese S. taiae Mu & Huys, 2002, which represents its second record ever and the first one in Korea. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia. Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869. Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies. PMID:24899857

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese fan lobster Ibacus ciliatus (Crustacea, Achelata, Scyllaridae).

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong-Ha; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Joong-Ki; Shin, Sook; Min, Gi-Sik

    2016-05-01

    Slipper lobsters are a unique group of decapod crustaceans; they have cylindrical or flattened bodies and belong to the family Scyllaridae. The genus Ibacus (Leach, 1815) (Achelata, Scyllaridae, Ibacinae) consists of eight recognized species to date, all of which occur in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean and are commercially important seafood species. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese fan lobster Ibacus ciliatus (Von Siebold, 1824) is 15,696 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region of 783 bp. The base composition of I. ciliatus is 35.8% A, 34.7% T, 19.0% C, and 10.5% G, with an overall AT content of 70.5%. The mitogenome of I. ciliatus was found to have gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity identical to that of the American lobster Homarus americanus, showing the pancrustacean ground pattern. Here, we present the complete mitogenome sequence of I. ciliatus; it is the first mitogenome information from the subfamily Ibacinae, and represents the second for the family Scyllaridae.

  7. Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  8. Male dimorphism in the harem-forming gnathiid isopod Elaphognathia discolor (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Nishi, Eijiroh

    2011-08-01

    Previously unreported males of a gnathiid isopod were found in reproductive aggregations of the harem-forming gnathiid Elaphognathia discolor. Although the male gnathiids were small in size and morphologically different from E. discolor males, the male sexual organ, appendix masculina, was similar to that of E. discolor males, and possible conspecific larvae and females of the small male gnathiid were never found. In the laboratory, the small male gnathiids as well as male E. discolor successfully copulated with female E. discolor, and the development of embryos in female brood pouches was observed. Offspring of small male gnathiids develop to adults of E. discolor after molting three times, or small male gnathiids after molting two times. Thus, the small male gnathiid was concluded to be an alternative male form compared to the regular large male form of E. discolor. This male polymorphism was thought to have a genetic basis, since no small male specimens appeared in offspring of regular E. discolor males. Field sampling showed that a regular large male formed a harem composed of one large male and several females and never coexisted with other large males as previously reported. However, small males were often found together with large males. Therefore, small males are thought to be sneakers intruding into harems dominated by large males.

  9. A new species of Elpidium (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from bromeliads in Cusuco National Park, Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Ricardo L.; Jocqué, Merlijn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Passively dispersing aquatic invertebrates such as Ostracoda in restricted aquatic habitats such as bromeliads remain an intriguing observation considering the highly specialised dispersal vectors needed for efficient colonisation. Here we describe a new species of Elpidium, Elpidium merendonense sp. n., collected from bromeliads in the cloud forest from Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Elpidium merendonense sp. n. is a small to medium-sized species that can be easily distinguished from its congeners by its unique outgrowth at the posterior end of the left valve, visible especially in females. The species was common all through the park occurring at a wide range of altitudes and in different species of bromeliads. This finding is the first freshwater ostracod species described from Honduras and is in agreement with the prediction that the genus Elpidium contains a large number of species with small geographic distributions. We update the list of described species of Elpidium and present a key to species. PMID:23840164

  10. Pesticide resistance from historical agricultural chemical exposure in Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea: Anostraca).

    PubMed

    Brausch, John M; Smith, Philip N

    2009-02-01

    Extensive pesticide usage in modern agriculture represents a considerable anthropogenic stressor to freshwater ecosystems throughout the United States. Acute toxicity of three of the most commonly used agricultural pesticides (Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, Karmex DF, and DDT) was determined in two different wild-caught strains of the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus. Fairy shrimp collected from playas surrounded by native grasslands were between 200% and 400% more sensitive than fairy shrimp derived from playas in agricultural watersheds for Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, and Karmex DF, likely due to the development of resistance. Additionally, reduced sensitivity to DDT was observed among fairy shrimp from agriculturally-impacted playas as compared to those from native grassland-dominated playas. These data suggest that fairy shrimp inhabiting playas in agricultural regions have developed some degree of resistance to a variety of agrochemicals in response to historical usage.

  11. On three new species of non-marine ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Savatenalinton, Sukonthip

    2015-01-28

    Three new species of non-marine ostracods, Strandesia martensi n. sp., Strandesia pholpunthini n. sp. and Oncocypris rostrata n. sp., are here described from the Northeastern part of Thailand. Strandesia martensi n. sp. is similar to Strandesia perakensis Victor & Fernando, 1981 and to Strandesia sanoamuangae Savatenalinton & Martens, 2010. It can be distinguished from these two species by the presence of a large dorsal hump on both valves, large anterior overlapping, the general shape of valve, the ornamentation of valve surface and the markedly long proximal seta of caudal ramus. The main distinguishing characters of Strandesia pholpunthini n. sp. are the compression on the right valve at the posterior extremity and the fact that left valve overlaps right valve anteriorly, while right valve overlaps left valve posteriorly. This results in unequal anterior and posterior extremities, which can be seen clearly in the dorsal view. Oncocypris rostrata n. sp. is the first record of this genus in Thailand. It obviously differs from others in the beak-like anterior extremity in dorsal view, the valve structure in interior view, the valve ornamentation comprising of large pustules and large pits and the morphology of male reproductive organ, especially the first segment of the right prehensile-palp bearing a long apical spine and a large protrusion on the distal margin toward the second segment. A note on morphology, chorology and a key to the species of Oncocypris are given.

  12. Barcoding of ancient lake ostracods (crustacea) reveals cryptic speciation with extremely low distances.

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Ostracods are drastically reduced crustaceans, with never more than eight appendages enclosed between two valves, leaving only a limited number of morphological characters for species delineation. Conservative morphology of characters used to define genera, along with high variability of characters used to define species are creating problems in applying a morphospecies concept. A high intraspecific variability in a Lake Biwa (Japan) endemic, Physocypria biwaensis (Okubo, 1990), has been observed previously but was never studied in detail. Two sympatric forms, differing in pigmentation and size, suggest a presence of reproductive isolation. The aim of this study is to employ molecular and morphometric tools to aid in species delineation within P. biwaensis complex and reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was amplified from 30 specimens, and an additional 37 specimens were studied for morphological characters. Resulting phylogenies showed that each morphologically distinct form is associated with a distinct phylogenetic group based on mtDNA. The average pairwise distance is very low (5%), indicating a recent divergence time. I speculate that there is a possibility that one of them originated in the lake, while the other probably colonized it afterwards. This seems to be supported with an apparent niche partitioning at different depths. In spite of the fact that traditionally used sexual characters are highly variable in these two species, the morphometric analysis of shell and soft part related characters clearly delineates them and suggests that such characters may be useful for future detection of seemingly cryptic ostracod species.

  13. A new species of Jesogammarus from the Iki Island, Japan (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Anisogammaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Tomikawa, Ko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of anisogammarid amphipod, Jesogammarus (Jesogammarus) ikiensis sp. n., is described from freshwaters in the Iki Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, based on results of morphological and molecular analyses. The new species is distinguished from all members of the genus by the combination of small number of setae on dorsal margins of pleonites 1–3, short and small number of setae on posterior margins of peduncular articles of antennae, mandibular article 1 without setae, well developed posterior lobes of accessory lobes of coxal gills on gnathopod 2 and pereopods 3–5, and pectinate setae on palmar margin of female gnathopod 2. A key to all the species of Jesogammarus is provided. PMID:26692798

  14. Ultrastructural observation on genesis and morphology of cortical granules in Macrobrachium nipponense (Crustacea, Caridea).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Ting; Jiang, Ye-Qin; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2010-01-01

    Cortical granules are secretory vesicles in oocytes that develop from the Golgi complex. In the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponense, mitochondria participates in the formation of cortical granules. We investigated the structural changes of mitochondria and the distribution cortical granules in different stages of oocyte development. Transmission electron microscopy provided evidence for the involvement of mitochondria and a particular spiral lamellar organization and an electron-lucent area in internal cortical granules. The ooplasm provided material for the cortical granules in early oocyte development. We demonstrated that mitochondria play a role in coalescence and maturation of cortical granules in this species. Additionally, a concept of cortical granules regarded as a functional integration is put forward. The genesis of shrimp cortical granules exhibited a particular pathway of maturation. The outer shape and inner organization considering different taxa suggested general as well as specific features of the development of cortical granules.

  15. TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF A JUVENILE HORMONE MIMIC ON THE ESTUARINE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA (CRUSTACEA: MYSIDACEA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fenoxycarb is a juvenile hormone (JH) mimic used to control insect pests by interfering with reproductive and developmental processes mediated by JH. Crustaceans are ideal organisms to monitor environmental effects of these endocrine disruptors, since they are dominant aquatic ar...

  16. Neuroanatomy of the optic ganglia and central brain of the water flea Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Kress, Timm; Harzsch, Steffen; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2016-03-01

    We reveal the neuroanatomy of the optic ganglia and central brain in the water flea Daphnia magna by use of classical neuroanatomical techniques such as semi-thin sectioning and neuronal backfilling, as well as immunohistochemical markers for synapsins, various neuropeptides and the neurotransmitter histamine. We provide structural details of distinct neuropiles, tracts and commissures, many of which were previously undescribed. We analyse morphological details of most neuron types, which allow for unravelling the connectivities between various substructural parts of the optic ganglia and the central brain and of ascending and descending connections with the ventral nerve cord. We identify 5 allatostatin-A-like, 13 FMRFamide-like and 5 tachykinin-like neuropeptidergic neuron types and 6 histamine-immunoreactive neuron types. In addition, novel aspects of several known pigment-dispersing hormone-immunoreactive neurons are re-examined. We analyse primary and putative secondary olfactory pathways and neuronal elements of the water flea central complex, which displays both insect- and decapod crustacean-like features, such as the protocerebral bridge, central body and lateral accessory lobes. Phylogenetic aspects based upon structural comparisons are discussed as well as functional implications envisaging more specific future analyses of ecotoxicological and endocrine disrupting environmental chemicals.

  17. Lamprops donghaensis sp. n. (Crustacea, Cumacea, Lampropidae), a new species from Korean waters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Hyo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Cumacea belonging to the genus Lamprops Sars was collected from the East Sea of Korea. This new species resembles Lamprops comatus Zimmer, Lamprops carinatus Hart, Lamprops flavus Harada, Lamprops pumilio Zimmer, Lamprops tomalesi Gladfelter, and Lamprops obfuscatus (Gladfelter) in lacking lateral oblique ridges on the carapace and lateral setae on the telson. The new species, however, is distinguished from its congeners by having a dorsal concave groove and a lateral rounded depressed area on pereonite 2. The new species is fully illustrated and compared with related species. A key to the world Lamprops species lacking lateral ridges on the carapace is also provided. PMID:26312026

  18. Ecology and systematics of a new species of Uromunna (Crustacea: Isopoda) from Spanish eelgrass beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquete, Patricia; Wilson, George D. F.; Troncoso, Jesús S.

    2014-06-01

    Uromunna naherba sp. nov. is described from eelgrass beds ( Zostera marina and Z. noltii) of the NW Iberian Peninsula. This is the second species of the genus reported from the NE Atlantic, after U. petiti. The new species was more abundant on rhizomes than on the leaves of the plants. Seasonal samples show that ovigerous females are present throughout the year, but become more abundant in late spring and summer, when adult males decrease in frequency. Ovigerous females appear in only one size class. Owing to the yearly productivity cycle of the eelgrasses, these data suggest that the species is semelparous and completes its lifecycle within 1 year. The taxonomic characters of the genus are discussed.

  19. Evolution of freshwater crab diversity in the Aegean region (Crustacea: Brachyura: Potamidae).

    PubMed

    Jesse, Ruth; Grudinski, Melanie; Klaus, Sebastian; Streit, Bruno; Pfenninger, Markus

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of the palaeogeographic and climatic history of the Aegean region on the diversity of freshwater crabs of the genus Potamon and to test whether this area served as source or reservoir in species diversity. Necessary species delimitation was accomplished by phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial markers COX1 and ND1, partial 16S rRNA gene and the tRNALeu gene. We found 14 genetic lineages of which nine could be assigned to previously recognised species. Temporal estimates of the splitting pattern in the phylogeny of Potamon indicated that a combination of geological and climatic events influenced their diversification. Within Potamon, the lineages separated into a western group and an eastern group. This first split in the genus occurred approximately 8.3-5.5 Mya, thus possibly correlated with the Messinian salinity crisis. A likelihood approach to geographic range evolution suggested for most species, occurring in the Aegean area, an origin in the Middle East. Moreover, there were no insular endemics in the central Aegean archipelago, therefore low sea-levels during the Pleistocene glacial periods possibly enabled dispersal to these islands, but subsequent rise in sea-level did not cause speciation. Nevertheless, the diversification of most lineages occurred during the Pleistocene epoch thus coinciding with Quaternary fluctuations of the climate.

  20. Paramoguai kavieng, a new genus and species of camptandriid crab from Papua New Guinea (Crustacea: Brachyura).

    PubMed

    Ahyong, Shane T

    2014-08-26

    Paramoguai kavieng is recognised as a new genus and species of camptandriid crab, recently discovered in Papua New Guinea. The new genus closely resembles Moguai Tan & Ng, 1999, from the western Pacific, sharing similar carapace and pereopod structure, but is distinguished chiefly by the fusion of the maxilliped 3 ischiomerus, features of the epistome and front, and position of the anterolateral margins of the carapace. The new genus is unique in the Camptandriidae Stimpson, 1858, in having an epistome with a bilobed buccal margin. Moguai pyriforme Naruse, 2005, from Japan, which differs from P. kavieng primarily in carapace ornamentation and gonopod morphology, is transferred to Paramoguai. 

  1. Testis follicles ultrastructure of three species of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Mazzei, V; Longo, G; Brundo, M V

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the research, carried out on three species of terrestrial isopods - Armadillidium granulatum, Halophiloscia hirsuta and Trichoniscus alexandrae - is to bring a first consistent contribution to the knowledge of the ultrastructural organization of the testis follicles. The testis follicles are seat of a remarkable dynamic activity of their cell components (somatic cells and germ cells) that results in a continuous variation, related to the trend of spermatogenesis, of their morphology, organization and of the relationships between the two cell populations. The somatic cells, known in literature as follicular cells, nurse cells or Sertoli cells, are arranged at the periphery of the follicle to form an epithelial layer of variable thickness resting on a thin basal lamina in turn surrounded by a discontinuous network of muscle cells. In A. granulatum and H. hirsuta, two types of Sertoli cells are present: a first type, the nurse cells, envelop the spermatids in cavities within their cytoplasm and through their secretion activity play a fundamental role in the formation of the spermatophores; moreover, they phagocytizes the residual cytoplasm of spermatids. A second type of Sertoli cells shows features that leave clearly identify its supporting role to the spermatophores in formation. In T. alexandrae, instead, only one type of Sertoli cells, the nurse cell, is present, whose features are widely superimposable to those observed in the other two species. Moreover, two septa of Sertoli cells depart from the periphery of the testis follicle to constitute an articulated compartmentalization of the follicle itself, probably targeted to realize at its inside a series of microenvironments functionally diversified in order to meets the needs of the different stages of the spermatogenic cycle.

  2. The glycosylated androgenic hormone of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Strub, Jean-Marc; Félix, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-05-01

    It appears from grafting experiments that the androgenic hormone (AH) of terrestrial isopods has a narrow species-specificity [J. Crust. Biol. 19 (1999) 684], even if AH of different species shared common epitopes [Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 125 (2002) 218]. To date only the glycosylated AH of the woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare has been deciphered by us [Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 839 (1998) 111; Eur. J. Biochem. 262 (1999) 727] and [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 264 (1999) 419] have confirmed the primary structure of this protein. We reported in the present paper the characterization of the AH in another species Porcellio scaber by a combination of microsequencing, mass spectrometry, and molecular cloning. We found only one glycoform which consisted of two peptide chains, A and B, of 31 and 44 amino acids, respectively, with A chain carrying on Asn18 a N-glycosylated moiety, size of which has been determined by MALDI-MS measurements. The expected structure of the glycosylation was proposed. The deduced amino acid sequence of the AH precursor was mainly identical to the one obtained independently by another group [Zool. Sci. 20 (2003) 75]. We also showed that AH gene is exclusively expressed in androgenic glands. Sequence comparison with A. vulgare and P. scaber (population of Japan) AH was discussed.

  3. Toxicity of abamectin to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Kolar, Lucija; Jemec, Anita; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Valant, Janez; Hrzenjak, Rok; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh; Zidar, Primoz

    2010-06-01

    To determine effects of the antiparasitic veterinary drug abamectin on the isopod Porcellio scaber, animals were exposed for 21 days to Lufa 2.2 soil spiked at concentrations of 3-300 mg/kg dry soil. After exposure, abamectin residues in the isopods were analysed using a novel analytical method. Toxicity was evaluated on different levels of biological organisation: biochemical, cellular and the individual organism. Measurements included glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and stability of cell membranes in the digestive gland, animal mass gain or loss, food consumption, behaviour and mortality. LC50 for the effect of abamectin on survival of P. scaber was 71 mg/kg dry soil. The most obvious sublethal effects were reduced food consumption and decreased body mass (NOEC 3 mg/kg dry soil). Additionally, loss of digging activity and reduced GST activity (NOEC 30 mg/kg dry soil) and cell membrane destabilization (NOEC 10 mg/kg dry soil) were recorded. Abamectin only slightly accumulated in the isopods, with bioaccumulation factors always being <0.1. Based on these results and current information on environmental levels of abamectin, it is not likely that isopods will be affected by abamectin, but further studies with exposure through faeces are recommended.

  4. Individual variation in the seasonal reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Crustacea, Oniscidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Nasri, Karima; Mocquard, Jean-Pierre; Juchault, Pierre

    1998-08-01

    Under particular conditions of photoperiod and temperature, Armadillidium vulgare females, originating from a single population, might exhibit individual differences in the onset of reproduction and duration of the breeding period. In a population issued from a strain from middle latitudes, some females underwent only one parturial moult (northern tendency) and others three parturial moults (southern tendency). Females with an atypical northern phenology are the most numerous and tend to be found near the Danish population. In the latter, there is an asymmetrical response to laboratory selection (favourable to females with a longer breeding period). The asymmetrical variation in atypical individuals acts as a safety device against the unpredictability of the environment. The adaptation of this species, originally from the Mediterranean periphery, to a northern environment has led to a reduction in its capacity to breed over long periods of time. Populations from middle latitudes can undergo one or several parturial moults which enables the species to successfully colonize even far-away countries. These intrapopulation differences have an essential role and explain why Armadillidium vulgare is one of the most widely distributed species among Oniscidea.

  5. Cation regulation by the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) during dehydration in air.

    PubMed

    Koh, Huishan; Wright, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Many terrestrial arthropods display tight osmotic and ionic regulation of the hemolymph during dehydration. In this study, we sought to quantify the level of regulation of the major hemolymph cations in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea). Inulin space measurements showed that the hemolymph comprises 52 ± 2.2% of the hydrated water content but contributes 71 ± 9.8% of water losses during desiccation. Hemolymph concentrations of Na+, K+ and Ca²+ were measured in variably dehydrated animals using ion-selective microelectrodes and compared with predicted concentrations assuming no regulation. Na+ and Ca²+ are quite tightly regulated, showing respective concentration increases of 20.8% and 7.1% following a 50% reduction in hemolymph volume, but K+ showed no measurable regulation. The excreted cation fraction during desiccation is negligible. Sites of ion sequestration were examined by injecting ²²Na and ⁴⁵Ca into the hemolymph of hydrated animals and assaying tissue-specific activities following dehydration. Na+ is apparently sequestered non-specifically by an unknown mechanism. Ca²+ accumulates in the dorsal somatic tissues, possibly in the calcium pool of the cuticle. How A. vulgare avoids significant disruptions of E(m) and neuromuscular function in the absence of K+ regulation, and how it sequesters Na+, both pose intriguing challenges for future work.

  6. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Lapanje, A; Drobne, D; Nolde, N; Valant, J; Muscet, B; Leser, V; Rupnik, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10microg Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed.

  7. A review of the world Cyphocarididae with description of three new species (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Lysianassoidea).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E; Lowry, James K

    2015-12-15

    The world Cyphocarididae are reviewed with new distribution records provided for eight taxa including three new species of Cyphocaris, C. ananke, C. nesoi and C. tartaros. Based on collections from Greenland a neotype is established for the type species Cyphocaris anonyx Boeck, 1871. An updated key to the 17 known world species of cyphocarids is provided.

  8. Endevouridae, a review with description of four new species (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Lysianassoidea).

    PubMed

    Lowry, James K; Hughes, Lauren E

    2015-09-14

    The family Endevouridae is reviewed and four new species from the two genera, Endevoura and Ensayara, are described from Australian and Japanese waters. All species are diagnosed and the type species of Endevoura (End. mirabilis Chilton, 1921) and Ensayara (Ens. ramonella J.L. Barnard, 1964), respectively, are redescribed and illustrated. A key to the 19 known world species of Endevouridae is provided.

  9. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (♀) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (♀, ♂) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (♀) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (♀) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided.

  10. An annotated checklist of the Recent non-marine ostracods (Ostracoda: Crustacea) from Italy.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Valentina; Martens, Koen; Meisch, Claude; Rossetti, Giampaolo

    2015-02-17

    We present an updated checklist of non-marine ostracods from Italy. Data were obtained from the published literature up to April 2013 and new collections carried out in 18 out of 20 Italian regions. Altogether, 1665 ostracod samples were collected from 1241 new sites visited between 1981 and 2013. Sites were selected to encompass the most widespread types of freshwater aquatic habitats (i.e., pools, ponds, peat bogs, springs and streams, etc.). This field study led to the identification of 89 ostracod species. Five additional taxa remained at the generic level because only few (juvenile) individuals were available or the material was damaged. Of particular interest is the occurrence of four species new to Italy: Candonocypris novaezelandiae, Eucypris elongata, Ilyocypris getica and I. hartmanni. In addition, three putative new species (Pseudolimnocythere sp., Candona sp.1 and Eucypris sp.1) are left in open nomenclature. After synonymising several species and removing invalid taxa reported in the literature, the updated checklist now includes 152 species and 5 taxa identified at supraspecific level, belonging to 57 genera and 12 families (Candonidae, Cyprididae, Cytherideidae, Darwinulidae, Ilyocyprididae, Notodromadidae, Limnocytheridae, Leptocytheridae, Loxochonchidae, Hemicytheridae, Xestoleberididae and Entocytheridae). For each species, its distribution in Italy and its bibliographic records (including synonyms) for Italy are provided.

  11. Indoapseudes bamberi sp. nov. (Crustacea: Tanaidacea: Pagurapseudidae: Hodometricinae) from Iriomote Island, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan.

    PubMed

    Kakui, Keiichi; Naruse, Tohru

    2015-08-05

    We describe Indoapseudes bamberi sp. nov., based on a specimen from Funaura Bay, Iriomote Island, Japan. This species can be distinguished from its five congeners by having the combination of the antenna with a squama and pereopods 1 and 2 with one dorsal spine on the basis. We also determined part of the nucleotide sequence for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene in I. bamberi, and present a key to Indoapseudes species.

  12. A new species of Metacyclops from a hyporheic habitat in North Vietnam (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Metacyclops is described from hyporheic waters and small rock depression with leaf litter in North Vietnam, the Tam Đao Mountains). Metacyclops amicitiae sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: 12-segmented antennule, distal segment of P4 endopodite bearing a single apical spine, and the surface ornamentation of the intercoxal sclerites in P1–P4 (pilose on the distal margin of P1-P4 and spinulose on the caudal surface of P4). The latter character separates the new Metacyclops from its closest relative, Metacyclops ryukyuensis, known only from the Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki). The genus Metacyclops with the new species described herein is also for the first time recorded from Vietnam. An identification key is provided to the south and east Asian species of the genus. PMID:26445932

  13. Ingolfiellamaldivensis sp. n. (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ingolfiellidae) from coral reef sand off Magoodhoo island, Maldives.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Ronald; Jaume, Damiá

    2014-01-01

    A new species of marine interstitial wormshrimp, Ingolfiellamaldivensis, is described from coral sand on the inner and outer reef off Magoodhoo island, Faafu atoll, Maldives. Six females were found and compared to other species from the Maldives and those bordering the Indian Ocean and beyond. Morphological resemblance ties it to a species from the Caribbean island of Curaçao. Both species are found in shallow sublittoral interstitial spaces.

  14. First record of Rhopalophthalmus longipes Ii, 1964 from Malaysian waters (Crustacea, Mysida)

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hai Siang; Azman, B. A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The marine mysid species Rhopalophthalmus longipes Ii, 1964 is reported from Malaysian waters for the first time. Specimens are described and illustrated in detail based on material collected by epibenthic sledge from the seagrass meadows of Pulau Tinggi, Johor. Specimens exhibit a slight difference from Ii’s type material by possessing a rounded process bearing two small protrusions apically near the middle distal end of the third segment of antennal peduncle. In addition, its telson armed with 7-9 moderately strong setae at the lateral margin. PMID:28138298

  15. The influence of algal densities on the toxicity of chromium for Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard (Cladocera, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Rodgher, S; Espíndola, E L G

    2008-05-01

    Food availability may affect metal toxicity for aquatic organisms. In the present study, the influence of high, medium and low densities of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (10(6), 10(5) and 10(4) cells.mL(-1), respectively) on the chronic toxicity of chromium to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia was investigated. C. dubia was exposed to a range of chromium concentration from 2.71 to 34.04 microg.L(-1) and fed with algae at various densities. In another experiment, the green alga was exposed to chromium concentrations (94 to 774 microg.L(-1)) and supplied as food in different densities to zooplankton. The survival and reproduction of the cladoceran were measured in these toxicity tests. The IC50 for Cr to P. subcapitata and metal accumulated by algal cells were determined. The results of a bifactorial analysis (metal versus algal densities) showed that metal toxicity to zooplankton was dependent on algal densities. Significant toxic effects on the reproduction and survival of C. dubia were observed at 8.73, 18.22 and 34.04 microg.L(-1) Cr when the test organisms were fed with 10(6) cells.mL(-1) of P. subcapitata. Although the chlorophyta retain low chromium content, a decrease in the reproduction and survival of C. dubia occurred when they were fed with high algal density contaminated with 774 microg.L(-1) Cr. It was concluded that high algal density have an appreciable influence on chromium toxicity to daphnids.

  16. Effect of benomile fungicide in the demographics parameters of Ceriodaphnia reticulata Jurine, 1820 (Crustacea: Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Mangas-Ramírez, Ernesto; Sánchez, Mayeli M; García-Martínez, Yuliana G; Rodríguez, Oswaldo A; Espinoza, Surizaray G; Luna-Ramírez, Ruth; Molina, Hugo A

    2007-08-01

    Benomile is one of the most used fungicides in the growing fields. In the rainy season brings benomilo with the planktonic communities. The effect of nominal concentrations of benomile under acute and chronic exposure was tested in the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia reticulata that were used. The value of LC(50) was calculated as 2.0 mg L(- 1)+/- 0.15 mg L(- 1) of benomile. In all concentrations, the demographic variables showed inhibition of reproduction. The unique behaviour of Ceriodaphnia reticulata with this particular toxicant is the diminution in the reproduction without affecting the survivorship.

  17. DNA Barcoding Reveals High Cryptic Diversity in the North Eurasian Moina Species (Crustacea: Cladocera)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Moina Baird (Cladocera: Moinidae) often dominate freshwater crustacean communities in temporary water bodies. Several species of Moina are used as food for fish larvae in aquaculture, as bioindicators in toxicological studies, and as common subjects for physiological studies. The aim of this paper is to estimate biodiversity of Moina in northern Eurasia using the standard DNA barcoding approach based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. We analysed 160 newly obtained and 157 existing COI sequences, and found evidence for 21 phylogroups of Moina, some of which were detected here for the first time. Our study confirmed the opinion that the actual species diversity of cladocerans is several times higher than is presently accepted. Our results also indicated that Moina has the second richest species diversity among the cladoceran genera (with only Daphnia O. F. Mueller having a greater diversity of species). Our study strongly supports division of Moina into two faunistic groups: European-Western Siberian and Eastern Siberian-Far Eastern, with a transitional zone at the Yenisey River basin (Eastern Siberia). Here, we refrain from taxonomic descriptions of new species, as this requires a thorough morphological and taxonomic study for each putative taxon. PMID:27556403

  18. A new species of Hyalella from the Andes in Perú (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyalellidae).

    PubMed

    González, Exequiel R; Watling, Les

    2002-06-01

    Hyalella pauperocavae n. sp. from Huancayo, Perú, is described. Five other epigean freshwater amphipods have been described from Peru (excluding Lake Titicaca), but the lack of type material and poor descriptions do not allow the assignment of the species described here to any of the names known for the area.

  19. Diversity and distribution of freshwater amphipod species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems.

  20. In silico characterization of the peptidome of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea, Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-08-01

    Copepods of the order Siphonostomatoida are a major concern for commercial aquaculture as many farmed fish serve as hosts for these parasitic crustaceans. Caligus rogercresseyi, a member of the Siphonostomatoida, is a significant problem for salmonid aquaculture in the Southern Hemisphere, and as such, a search for methods for controlling infestations of it is ongoing. One possibility for biological control of this and other copepod ectoparasites is endocrine manipulation. However, little is known about the native endocrine signaling systems in these animals. As part of an ongoing effort to characterize crustacean ectoparasite peptidergic systems, the publicly accessible C. rogercresseyi transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) was mined for peptide-encoding transcripts. Using the identified TSA sequences, precursor proteins were deduced and their mature peptides predicted. Thirty-three peptide-encoding transcripts were identified within the Caligus TSA dataset, with the structures of 131 distinct peptides characterized from the deduced pre/preprohormones. The predicted peptides included isoforms of allatostatin A, allatostatin B, bursicon α, bursicon β, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, DXXRLamide, FLRFamide, FXGGXamide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide (ILP), intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F (NPF), orcokinin and tachykinin-related peptide. The predicted ILPs are of particular note as they are the first members of this peptide family identified from a copepod. Similarly, the predicted complement of four distinct NPFs is larger than that known from other crustaceans. Taken collectively, these data greatly expand the known C. rogercresseyi peptidome and provide a foundation for initiating studies of peptidergic control in this species.

  1. Genetic and morphological heterogeneity among populations of Eurytemora affinis (Crustacea: Copepoda: Temoridae) in European waters.

    PubMed

    Sukhikh, Natalia; Souissi, Anissa; Souissi, Sami; Winkler, Gesche; Castric, Vincent; Holl, Anne-Catherine; Alekseev, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the systematics of the Eurytemora affinis complex developed at a fast pace over the last decades. Formerly considered as a complex of cryptic species, it is now believed to include three valid species: E. affinis, Eurytemora carolleeae, and Eurytemora caspica. American and European representatives have been studied in detail with respect to fine-scale geographic distribution, levels of genetic subdivision, evolutionary and demographic histories. Morphological components have been less explored. In this study, an analysis of the phylogeny and morphology of E. affinis was done, with a special focus on European populations. A total of 447 individuals of E. affinis from Europe were analyzed with genetic tools and 170 individuals according to morphological criteria. Common and new morphological and genetic features were analyzed. For this, we used ML and Bayesian methods to analyze the bar coding mt-DNA gene cytochrome c oxidase I subunit. Both genetic and morphological analyses showed high heterogeneities among the E. affinis populations from Europe. As a result, three local populations of E. affinis in Western Europe, including the European part of Russia, were established. Their genetic and morphological heterogeneity corresponded to the subspecies level.

  2. Flowthrough fecundity test with Nitocra spinipes (Harpacticoidea Crustacea) for aquatic toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson, B.E.; Bergstroem, B.

    1987-12-01

    A sublethal flowthrough fecundity test with the euryhaline harpacticoid copepod, Nitocra spinipes, has been developed as a complement to the acute toxicity test (for 48 or 96 hr LC50) with the same species. Bacterial suspension as feed and test water are continuously fed by a peristaltic pump to the system. Newly fertilized females with ovigerous bands are harvested from laboratory cultures and put into the test vessels at the start of the experiment. They are then exposed to a series of concentrations of chemicals or industrial effluents for 13 days. The amount of live offspring (metanauplia and copepodids) are recorded and an EC50 for fecundity is calculated. The report gives a detailed technical description of the test system and presents the results from 11 tests with pure chemicals (Zn, Cd, As, and pentachlorophenate) and six industrial effluents (pulp industry, textile industry, and refinery) in salinities ranging from 3 to 25%.

  3. Identification of the molecular components of a Tigriopus californicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Nesbit, Katherine T; Christie, Andrew E

    2014-12-01

    Copepods of the genus Tigriopus have been proposed as marine models for investigations of environmental perturbation. One rapidly increasing anthropogenic stressor for intertidal organisms is light pollution. Given the sensitivity of circadian rhythms to exogenous light, the genes/proteins of a Tigriopus circadian pacemaker represent a potential system for investigating the influences of artificial light sources on circadian behavior in an intertidal species. Here, the molecular components of a putative Tigriopus californicus circadian clock were identified using publicly accessible transcriptome data; the recently deduced circadian proteins of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus were used as a reference. Transcripts encoding homologs of all commonly recognized ancestral arthropod core clock proteins were identified (i.e. CLOCK, CRYPTOCHROME 2, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS), as were ones encoding proteins likely to modulate the core clock (i.e. CASEIN KINASE II, CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 1, PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A, SHAGGY, SUPERNUMERARY LIMBS and VRILLE) or to act as inputs to it (i.e. CRYPTOCHROME 1). PAR DOMAIN PROTEIN 1 was the only circadian-associated protein not identified in Tigriopus; it appears absent in Calanus too. These data represent just the third full set of molecular components for a crustacean circadian pacemaker (Daphnia pulex and C. finmarchicus previously), and only the second obtained from transcribed sequences (C. finmarchicus previously). Given Tigriopus' proposed status as a model for investigating the influences of anthropogenic stressors in the marine environment, these data provide the first suite of gene/protein targets for understanding how light pollution may influence circadian physiology and behavior in an intertidal organism.

  4. Copepod (Crustacea) emergence from soils from everglades marshes with different hydroperiods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftus, W.F.; Reid, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    During a severe drought period in the winter and spring of 1989, we made three collections of dried marsh soils from freshwater sloughs in Everglades National Park, Florida, at sites characterized by either long or intermediate annual periods of flooding (hydroperiod). After rehydrating the soils in aquaria, we documented the temporal patterns of copepod emergence over two-week periods. The species richness of copepods in the rehydrated soils was lower than in pre-drought samples from the same slough sites. Only six of the 16 species recorded from the Everglades emerged in the aquarium tests. The long hydroperiod site had a slightly different assemblage and higher numbers of most species than the intermediate-hydroperiod sites. More individuals and species emerged from the early dry-season samples compared with samples taken later in the dry season. The harpacticoid, Cletocamptus deitersi, and the cyclopoid, Microcyclops rubellus, were abundant at most sites. The cyclopoids - Ectocyclops phaleratus, Homocyclops ater, and Paracyclops chiltoni - are new records for the Everglades. We infer that 1) only a subset of Everglades copepod species can survive drought by resting in soils; and that 2) survival ability over time differs by species.

  5. Segmental mismatch in crustacean appendages: the naupliar antennal exopod of Artemia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca).

    PubMed

    Maruzzo, Diego; Minelli, Alessandro; Fusco, Giuseppe

    2009-03-01

    Based on traditional techniques and confocal laser scanning microscopy for external morphology, and immunohistochemistry for the muscular system, we describe here the segmental features of the antennal exopod of Artemia nauplii. Two kinds of serial elements are present, i.e. setae (with cuticular folds at their base) and ringlets (serially arranged sclerites separated by joint-like cuticular folds not extending to form complete rings around the appendage). The two series are usually not in register. The cuticular folds of the setae and of the ringlets are also sites of intermediate insertions of the three exopod muscles: as the two tegumentary structures are discordant in periodicity, this is also mirrored in the pattern of muscle insertions on the two sides of the appendage. Similar cases of segmental mismatch are known for the trunk of several arthropods, but segmental mismatch along the appendages has received very little attention. The occurrence of segmental mismatch in the naupliar appendages of both extant and fossil crustaceans is reviewed and it is suggested here to be a primitive feature of the exopods of both second antennae and mandibles. Problems in the interpretation of morphological evidence are discussed, also in relation to development and evolution of segmentation of naupliar appendages.

  6. Prediction of the peptidomes of Tigriopus californicus and Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-05-15

    Transcriptome mining is a powerful method for crustacean peptide discovery, especially when large sequence datasets are available and an appropriate reference is extant. Recently, a 206,041-sequence transcriptome for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was mined for peptide-encoding transcripts, with ones for 17 families/subfamilies identified. Here, the deduced Calanus pre/preprohormones were used as templates for peptide discovery in the copepods Tigriopus californicus and Lepeophtheirus salmonis; large transcriptome shotgun assembly datasets are publicly accessible for both species. Sixty-five Tigriopus and 17 Lepeophtheirus transcripts, encompassing 22 and 13 distinct peptide families/subfamilies, respectively, were identified, with the structures of 161 and 70 unique mature peptides predicted from the deduced precursors. The identified peptides included members of the allatostatin A, allatostatin C, bursicon α, bursicon β, CAPA/periviscerokinin/pyrokinin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, FLRFamide, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, and tachykinin-related peptide families, most of which possess novel structures, though isoforms from other copepods are known. Of particular note was the discovery of novel isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatotropin, corazonin, eclosion hormone and intocin, peptide families previously unidentified in copepods. In addition, Tigriopus precursors for two previously unknown peptide groups were discovered, one encoding GSEFLamides and the other DXXRLamides; precursors for the novel FXGGXamide family were identified from both Tigriopus and Lepeophtheirus. These data not only greatly expand the catalog of known copepod peptides, but also provide strong foundations for future functional studies of peptidergic signaling in members of this ecologically important crustacean subclass.

  7. Prediction of the first neuropeptides from a member of the Remipedia (Arthropoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-05-15

    The Remipedia is a small, recently described crustacean class that inhabits submerged marine/anchialine cave systems. Phylogenetic and morphological investigations support a sister group relationship between these animals and the hexapods. The recent deposition of numerous (>100,000) transcriptome shotgun assembly sequences for Speleonectes cf. tulumensis provides a unique resource to identify proteins of interest from a member of the Remipedia. Here, this dataset was mined for sequences encoding putative neuropeptide pre/preprohormones, with the mature peptides predicted from the deduced precursors using an established workflow. The structures of 40 mature peptides were obtained via this strategy, including members of 11 well-known arthropod peptide families (adipokinetic hormone/corazonin-like peptide [ACP], allatostatin A, allatostatin C, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, ion transport peptide/crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, neuropeptide F, proctolin, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide); these are the only peptides thus far described from any member of the Remipedia. Comparison of the Speleonectes isoforms with those from other crustaceans and hexapods revealed the peptidome of this species to have characteristics of both subphyla (e.g. it possesses the stereotypical decapod crustacean SIFamide and tachykinin-related peptide isoforms, while simultaneously being the only crustacean with an insect AKC). Moreover, BLAST searches in which the deduced Speleonectes precursors were compared to the pancrustacean protein database most frequently returned insect homologs as the closest matches. The peptidomic analyses presented here are consistent with the hypothesized phylogenetic position of the Remipedia within the Pancrustacea, and serve as a foundation from which to launch future investigations of peptidergic signaling in remipedes.

  8. Prediction of Scylla olivacea (Crustacea; Brachyura) peptide hormones using publicly accessible transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    The aquaculture of crabs from the genus Scylla is of increasing economic importance for many Southeast Asian countries. Expansion of Scylla farming has led to increased efforts to understand the physiology and behavior of these crabs, and as such, there are growing molecular resources for them. Here, publicly accessible Scylla olivacea transcriptomic data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts; the proteins deduced from the identified sequences were then used to predict the structures of mature peptide hormones. Forty-nine pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 187 distinct mature peptides. The identified peptides included isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon β, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/molt-inhibiting hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide, HIGSLYRamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide and tachykinin-related peptide, all well-known neuropeptide families. Surprisingly, the tissue used to generate the transcriptome mined here is reported to be testis. Whether or not the testis samples had neural contamination is unknown. However, if the peptides are truly produced by this reproductive organ, it could have far reaching consequences for the study of crustacean endocrinology, particularly in the area of reproductive control. Regardless, this peptidome is the largest thus far predicted for any brachyuran (true crab) species, and will serve as a foundation for future studies of peptidergic control in members of the commercially important genus Scylla.

  9. A new species of Paraproto (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Phtisicidae) collected from the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    A new species of amphipod crustacean (Amphipoda: Phtisicidae), Paraproto mccaini n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from south of Elephant Island, the South Shetland Islands near the Antarctic Peninsula. This species was first reported as Paraproto condylata (Haswell, 1885) [sensu lato], recorded from a temperate region of Australia. P. mccaini n. sp. is distinct from P. condylata [sensu stricto] by an elongated head with pereonite 1, presence of a mid-lateral projection on pereonites 2-4, and lack of a distal round projection on the propodus of gnathopod 2. Paraproto differs from Pseudoprotomima, the most phylogenetically similar genus, in having gills on pereonites 3 and 4.

  10. Three new brackish-water thalassocypridine species (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Paracyprididae) from the Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiruta, Shimpei F; Kakui, Keiichi

    2016-09-21

    We describe three new species of brackish-water ostracods representing two genera in the ostracod tribe Thalassocypridini from mangrove forests in the Ryukyu Islands, subtropical southwestern Japan, and provide their barcoding sequences for the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Mangalocypria ryukyuensis sp. nov. was found on Okinawa Island. We also found a Mangalocypria population on Ishigaki Island that was morphologically identical to M. ryukyuensis on Okinawa, but an individual differed by 4.7% in COI sequence (K2P distance) from an individual from Okinawa. This is the first record for Japan of a species in Mangalocypria. Paracypria longiseta sp. nov., obtained from Okinawa Island, is similar to Pontoparta hartmanni. Paracypria plumosa sp. nov. from Ishigaki Island is similar to Pa. adnata described from Yakushima Island, Japan. The COI genetic distance between individuals of Pa. longiseta and Pa. plumosa was roughly as large as that between either of these species and individuals in the Mangalocypria populations. Our study underscores that genera in Thalassocypridini may not represent natural groups, and that this tribe needs taxonomic revision.

  11. Mysidella hoshinoi, a new species from Izu-Oshima Island, Japan (Crustacea, Mysidae, Mysidellinae)

    PubMed Central

    Shimomura, Michitaka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new mysid, Mysidella hoshinoi sp. n. is described from Izu-Oshima Island, Sagami Sea, central Japan. This species differs from its congeners in having a posterodorsal finger-like papilla on the eyestalk, five peculiar spines terminating in plumed seta on outer margin of carpopropodus of endopod of first thoracopod, and uropodal endopod bearing 27 spines on inner margin. PMID:27853405

  12. Maeridae from the Indo-Pacific: Elasmopus, Leeuwinella gen. nov., Maeropsis, Pseudelasmopus and Quadrimaera (Amphipoda: Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2015-12-22

    Twenty-two species of Maeridae including the new genus, Leeuwinella, and eight new species are described from Indo-Pacific waters. Leeuwinella mistakensis gen. et sp. nov. from southern Western Australia has dorsal carinae and serrate epimeral margins on pleonites 1-3 and mandibular palp article 3 concave; this significant combination of characters justifies erection of a new genus. Elasmopus coxacallus sp. nov., with a castelloserrate posterior margin of pereopod 7 presents a novel character for the genus, which contains over 100 described species. Elasmopus incomptus sp. nov. and E. norfolkensis sp. nov. are also described from Norfolk Island, South Pacific, while new distribution records are provided for E. gracilis Schellenberg, 1938, E. integer Myers, 1989, and E. molokai J.L. Barnard, 1970 from northwestern Australia, and E. souillacensis Appadoo & Myers, 2003, from the Kermadec Islands. New distribution records for Maeropsis griffini (Berents, 1983) from Bedout Island in Western Australia are the first of the species outside the Queensland type locality and new records of M. thetis (Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005) from mainland Australia to Tasmania and across the Tasman Sea extending its range. Pseudelasmopus walkerae sp. nov. is described from Norfolk Island, and is the second species recorded in the genus, previously known only from Mauritius. Lastly, three new Quadrimaera species, Q. gregoryi, Q. brownorum and Q. vallaris, along with eight known Quadrimaera species, are reported from various locations extending their distributions in the Indo-Pacific.

  13. Persianorchestia, a new talitrid genus (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Talitridae) from Gulf of Oman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Momtazi, Farzaneh; Lowry, Jim; Hekmatara, Maryam

    2017-03-02

    A new genus and species, Persianorchestia nirvana gen. et sp. nov., is described from the south coast of Iran along the Gulf of Oman. The new genus is characterized by large eyes, gnathopod 1 posterior margin of carpus and propodus each with lobe covered in palmate setae, smooth posterior margin on dactylus of male gnathopod 2, a slender dactylus on pereopod 5, uropod 1 outer ramus without marginal robust setae and with apical spear-shaped setae on the rami of uropods 1 and 2. Persianorchestia is most similar to Pseudorchestoidea Bousfield, 1982.

  14. Amazing new Amphipoda (Crustacea, Epimeriidae) from New Zealand's deep-sea.

    PubMed

    Lörz, Anne-Nina; Coleman, Charles Oliver

    2014-07-21

    Epimeriidae is an amphipod family with a worldwide distribution. Two new species have been discovered off New Zealand; Epimeria sophie sp. nov. and Epimeria emma sp. nov. Two new species have been discovered off New Zealand; Epimeria sophie sp. nov. and Epimeria emma sp. nov., which are described here in detail. This increases the number of Epimeria species known from New Zealand's deep-sea to seven. The morphological differences of the juveniles with the adult of Epimeria sophie sp. nov. are discussed. Extensive scanning electron microscope images reveal structurally very complex surface arrangements on Epimeria emma sp. nov. A key to the 14 species of Pacific Epimeria is provided.

  15. Is acetylcholinesterase a biomarker of susceptibility in Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera) after deltamethrin exposure?

    PubMed

    Toumi, Héla; Boumaiza, Moncef; Millet, Maurice; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos; Felten, Vincent; Férard, Jean François

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we explored the possibility of using the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a biomarker after deltamethrin (pyrethroid insecticide) exposure with three strains of the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Four calculated time-weighted deltamethrin concentrations (20.1, 40.3, 80.6 and 161.3 ng L(-1)) were compared against control acetylcholinesterase activity. Our results showed that after 48 h of deltamethrin exposure, all treatments induced a significant decrease of AChE activities whatever the three considered strains. However, diverse responses were registered in terms of lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC: 80.6 ng L(-1) for strain 1 and 20.1 ng L(-1) for strains 2 and 3) revealing differences in sensitivity among the three tested strains of D. magna. Our results suggest that after deltamethrin exposure, the AChE activity responses can be also used as a biomarker of susceptibility (i.e., variation of strain specific response). Moreover, our results show that strain 1 is the less sensitive in terms of IC50-48 h of AChE, whereas it became the most sensitive when considering the EC50-48 h estimated in the standard ecotoxicity test.

  16. Decapod Crustacea of the Central Paratethyan Ottnangian Stage (middle Burdigalian): implications for systematics and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Hyžný, Matúš; Harzhauser, Mathias; Danninger, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Decapod crustaceans from the Ottnangian (middle Burdigalian, Lower Miocene) of the Western and Central Paratethys remain poorly known. In this study, we review and re-describe mud shrimps (Jaxea kuemeli), ghost shrimps (Gourretia sp., Calliax michelottii) and brachyuran crabs of the families Leucosiidae, Polybiidae and Portunidae. A dorsal carapace of the genus Calliax is reported for the first time in the fossil record. Re-examination of the type material of Randallia strouhali (Leucosiidae) and Geryon ottnangensis (Geryonidae) resulted in a transfer of these species into Palaeomyra (Leucosiidae) and Liocarcinus (Polybiidae), respectively. Achelous vindobonensis, originally described as a chela of a portunid crab, probably belongs to a member of Polybiidae and is provisionally treated as Liocarcinus sp. Only two species, J. kuemeli and C. michelottii, are also known from the Karpatian, the succeeding Paratethyan stage. In most cases, the decapod assemblages of the Ottnangian consist of rather shallow-water taxa whereas the assemblages of the Karpatian consist of deep-water taxa from the middle and outer shelf. The Central Paratethyan assemblages show similarities in genus composition to the Proto-Mediterranean and recent Indo-Pacific regions. Gourretia sp. represents the earliest occurrence of the respective genus in the fossil record. The Oligocene-Early Miocene appearance of Palaeomyra and Liocarcinus in the circum-Mediterranean implies that sources of present-day diversity hotspots in the Indo-Pacific trace to the Western Tethys (as for other decapod genera), although coeval decapod assemblages in the Indo-Pacific remain poorly known.

  17. Checklist of copepods (Crustacea: Calanoida, Cyclopoida,Harpacticoida) from Wyoming, USA, with new state records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presentation of a comprehensive checklist of the copepod fauna of Wyoming, USA with 41 species of copepods; based on museum specimens, literature reviews, and active surveillance. Of these species 19 were previously unknown from the state. This checklist includes species in the families Centropagida...

  18. Mother's Age and Hatching Phenology Strategy of Heterocypris incongruens (Crustacea: Ostracoda) in Unpredictable Environment.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Valeria; Gandolfi, Andrea; Menozzi, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    We report experimental evidence of egg polyphenism in clonal lineages of Heterocypris incongruens from an ephemeral pond on a Mediterranean Island (Lampedusa, Italy). In controlled laboratory conditions, clonal females produced three different kinds of eggs: (i) resting and desiccation-resistant eggs, (ii) nonresting eggs that hatched gradually within 2 month hydroperiod, and (iii) nonresting delayed development eggs that hatched synchronously. Clonal females showed a diversified bet-hedging strategy to spread risk of reproduction in ponds with unpredictable hydroperiod. They adjusted proportion of different egg phenotypes in response to experimental temperature and photoperiod that are proxies for different hydroperiod unpredictability. The proportion of resting eggs is not affected by maternal age at deposition, but mother's age has a key role in defining the development time and the hatching phenology of nonresting eggs. Genetically identical eggs kept at the same controlled laboratory conditions showed a U-shaped distribution of development time. Development time variance decreased with mother's age at deposition. The resulting wedge-shaped relationship between development time and mother's age at deposition may be interpreted by considering mother's age as a proxy for the probability of drought onset. The older the mother, the shorter the latency to drought and the shorter is the time for nonresting eggs to hatch. Considering only the delayed development of eggs that hatch synchronously, development time is inversely related to the mother's age at deposition: this relationship generates the observed hatching peak.

  19. Experimental evaluation of Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Crustacea: Ostracoda) in the biocontrol of Schistosomiasis mansoni transmission

    PubMed Central

    Yousif, Fouad; Hafez, Sherif; El Bardicy, Samia; Tadros, Menerva; Taleb, Hoda Abu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test Candonocypris novaezelandiae (Baird) (C. novaezelandiae), sub-class Ostracoda, obtained from the Nile, Egypt for its predatory activity on snail, Biomphalaria alexandrina (B. alexandrina), intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) and on the free-living larval stages of this parasite (miracidia and cercariae). Methods The predatory activity of C. novaezelandiae was determined on B. alexandrina snail (several densities of eggs, newly hatched and juveniles). This activity was also determined on S. mansoni miracidia and cercariae using different volumes of water and different numbers of larvae. C. novaezelandiae was also tested for its effect on infection of snails and on the cercarial production. Results C. novaezelandiae was found to feed on the eggs, newly hatched and juvenile snails, but with significant reduction in the consumption in the presence of other diet like the blue green algae (Nostoc muscorum). This ostracod also showed considerable predatory activity on the free-living larval stages of S. mansoni which was affected by certain environmental factors such as volume of water, density of C. novaezelandiae and number of larvae of the parasite. Conclusions The presence of this ostracod in the aquatic habitat led to significant reduction of snail population, infection rate of snails with schistosme miracidia as well as of cercarial production from the infected snails. This may suggest that introducing C. novaezelandiae into the habitat at schistosome risky sites could suppress the transmission of the disease. PMID:23620849

  20. Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) following tributyltin exposure.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim; Poelmans, Sofie; De Wasch, Katia; Vercauteren, Jordy; Devos, Christophe; Moens, Luc; Sandra, Patrick; De Brabander, Hubert F; Janssen, Colin R

    2003-09-01

    Current evidence suggests that the biocide tributyltin (TBT) causes the development of imposex, a state of pseudohermaphrodism in which females exhibit functional secondary male characteristics, by altering the biotransformation or elimination of testosterone. Imposex in gastropods following TBT exposure is the most complete example of the effects of an endocrine disrupter on marine invertebrates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer converts testosterone into multiple polar and nonpolar metabolites resulting from both phase I and phase II biotransformations. In this study, the effects of TBT chloride (TBTCl) on the phase I and II testosterone metabolism of N. integer were evaluated. The TBTCl was highly toxic to N. integer (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50] of 164 ng/L). To assess the effects on testosterone metabolism, mysids were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of TBTCl (control, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/L), and testosterone elimination as polar hydroxylated, nonpolar oxido-reduced, and glucose- and sulfate-conjugated metabolites was examined. The TBTCl differentially affected testosterone metabolism. The effect of TBTCl on phase I metabolism was unclear and has been shown to vary among species, likely depending on the inducibility or presence of certain P450 isozyme families. Reductase activity and metabolic androgenization were induced in the 10-ng/L treatment, whereas higher concentrations resulted in a reduction of sulfate conjugation. The exact mechanisms underlying TBT-induced imposex and alterations in the steroid metabolism need to be further elucidated.

  1. Sexual bipotentiality of developing ovaries in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Malacostraca, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K

    1997-07-01

    The androgenic glands (AG) of crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characters. The process of gonadal differentiation in females was studied morphologically in Armadillidium vulgare given a masculinizing AG implant. Gonadal masculinization was induced by implantation of an AG into females at various stages of postembryonic development. Functional sex reversal always occurred when an AG was implanted into females that were in stages 5 and 6 of development. Partial formation of testes was induced after implantation of an AG into stage 7 and 8 females. When an AG was implanted into a stage 9 female, development of a functional testis was not observed, but the ovaries were partially masculinized. These results show that after the onset of sex differentiation female gonads retain sexual bipotentiality through several stages of postembryonic development. Implantation of one AG into a female is enough to induce gonadal masculinization and sex reversal in this species. The AG implant up to stage 6 (3.4 mm in body length) is an experimental procedure certain to transform a genetic female into a functional male. The process of gonadal development in female A. vulgare is discussed.

  2. Some biological aspects of Mysidopsis juniae (Crustacea:Mysidacea) and its use in chronic toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Badaro-Pedroso, C. Nipper, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the joint effort to develop marine toxicity tests with organisms abundant at the Brazilian coast, some aspects for the laboratory culture of M. juniae and its sensitivity to single chemicals were studied. Organisms fed a mixture of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) nauplii and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana reached sexual maturity 10 days before animals fed brine shrimp nauplii only. Under best conditions, sexual maturity was reached on the 9th--11th day and newborn mysids hatched on the 16th--18th day, Short-term chronic toxicity tests were initiated with 7-day old mysids and exposure time was 11 days, with growth (length and dry weight) as test endpoints. Experiments were undertaken with zinc, copper, and ammonia. Zinc did not affect the organisms at concentrations between 0.018 and 0.1 mg/L, which were one order of magnitude lower than the average 96-h; LC50 value. The NOEC and LOEC values were the same for length and weight in some tests with copper and ammonia (Cu: 0.006 and 0.015 mg/L; NH{sub 3}: 0.32 and 0.87 mg/L, respectively), but revealed length as a more sensitive endpoint than weight in others (length NOEC and LOEC: 0.23 and 0.53 mgNH{sub 3}/L; weight: 0.53 and 0.99 mgNH{sub 3}/L, respectively). The authors speculate that this could be caused by time-dependent variations in the lipid content of the organisms. Length would be a steadier and more reliable endpoint for chronic toxicity tests with M. juniae. The results show that the method has potential applications for the evaluation and monitoring of contaminated marine systems along the Brazilian coast.

  3. The Ostracoda (Crustacea) of the Tina Menor estuary (Cantabria, southern Bay of Biscay): Distribution and ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, Blanca; Pascual, Ana; Rodríguez-Lázaro, Julio; Martín-Rubio, Maite; Rofes, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Recent ostracods from the Tina Menor estuary (northern Spain, southern Bay of Biscay) have been analysed. Twenty-five species have been identified for the first time, 20 with living individuals during the sampling period. The most abundant species are Leptocythere castanea, Leptocythere porcellanea, Loxoconcha elliptica, Cytherois fischeri, and Hemicytherura hoskini, Leptocythere psammophila and Semicytherura aff. angulata. These species are grouped into four assemblages defining different environments: muddy inner estuary with euryhaline species (L. elliptica); middle estuary with silty sand flats and low marsh environments (L. castanea, L. porcellanea and C. fischeri); sandy outer estuary with marine characteristics (H. hoskini, S. aff. angulata, Leptocythere baltica and L. psammophila); and littoral to inner shelf environment (Caudites calceolatus, H. hoskini and Callistocythere murrayi). In the middle estuary, L. castanea also delimits sandy-silty low marshes, and L. porcellanea and C. fischeri the vegetated ecosystems. Multivariate analyses with the samples and species (cluster Q-type and detrended and canonical correspondence analysis) confirm that ostracod distribution in the Tina Menor estuary is controlled by sediment grain size and by the distance to the mouth of the estuary (associated to salinity). The geographical height in relation with mean tide levels (and therefore with emersion periods) also plays an important role in distribution. The results of this study confirm ostracod validity as tide-level markers due to the presence of C. fischeri below the MHWNT (mean high water neap tide), whereas L. castanea and L. porcellanea are present between the MHWNT and MHW (mean high water) levels. Ostracods can also indicate environmental changes due to human-influenced processes. Abundant individuals of L. elliptica in some areas of the middle estuary evidence discharges of lower-salinity water from a nearby fish farm. Ostracods from the marine shelf reach the inner estuary, but continental species are not provided by the rivers. The low river influence may be due to Nansa River flow regulation upstream, which hampers the transport of fluvial sediments, resulting in an increase in sand in the mudflat and low marshes, the latter fact confirmed by the numbers of L. castanea and L. porcellanea, much higher than in other estuaries in the southern Bay of Biscay.

  4. Heavy metal toxicity in Exosphaeroma gigas (Crustacea, Isopoda) from the coastal zone of Beagle Channel.

    PubMed

    Giarratano, Erica; Comoglio, Laura; Amin, Oscar

    2007-11-01

    Acute toxicity of copper, cadmium, and zinc on isopod Exosphaeroma gigas was evaluated at 20 per thousand and 30 per thousand salinity. Six concentrations were assayed to estimate effective concentration of the toxicant that affects 50% of tested animal (EC50), while physiological responses and bioaccumulation were determined at 0.42 and 1.95 mg L(-1) of each metal. The following toxicity orders were obtained: Cd>or=Cu>Zn at 20 per thousand salinity and Cu>Zn>or=Cd at 30 per thousand salinity. Copper treatments showed a reduction in oxygen consumption at 30 per thousand salinity, while an opposite trend was observed at 20 per thousand salinity. Zinc caused dissimilar effects, while in cadmium significant reduction was only registered in 0.42(20 per thousand) mg L(-1). Ammonia excretion was generally higher in treatments than control at 20 per thousand salinity. At 30 per thousand salinity, excretion did not change in relation to control or diminished. In general terms, O:N atomic ratios indicated a preponderant protein metabolism. Bioaccumulation of assayed metals was higher at lowest salinity and increased with increasing toxic concentrations.

  5. New deep-sea Paratanaoidea (Crustacea: Peracarida: Tanaidacea) from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Drumm, David T; Bird, Graham J

    2016-08-23

    One new genus is erected and four new species of paratanaoidean tanaidaceans are described from deep waters in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico: one in each of the genera Collettea, Tanaella, and Pseudomacrinella, and one as a new genus in the family Anarthruridae. Keys to species in the genera Collettea, Tanaella, and the genera of the Anarthruridae are provided.

  6. Eleven nominal species of Burmoniscus are junior synonyms of B. kathmandius (Schmalfuss, 1983) (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Karasawa, Shigenori

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Holotypes, paratypes, and specimens newly collected from the type localities (i.e., topotypes) of Burmoniscus aokii (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus boninensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus daitoensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus hachijoensis Nunomura, 2007, Burmoniscus japonicus (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus kagoshimaensis Nunomura, 2003, Burmoniscus murotoensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus okinawaensis (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus shibatai (Nunomura, 1986), Burmoniscus tanabensis Nunomura, 2003, and Burmoniscus watanabei (Nunomura, 1986) were examined in order to clarify their taxonomic status. Observation of 13 morphological characters that were purposed to show species-level diagnostic variations in the original descriptions suggests that all eleven nominal species are identical, and molecular analysis based on three gene fragments supports this suggestion. Additionally, the morphology of the carpus of pereopod 1 and of the endo- and exopodites of pleopod 1 of these species are consistent with those of Burmoniscus kathmandius (Schmalfuss, 1983). The eleven above-mentioned species of Burmoniscus described from Japan are therefore relegated to junior synonyms of Burmoniscus kathmandius, originally reported from Nepal. PMID:27551227

  7. Out of the blue: the evolution of horizontally polarized signals in Haptosquilla (Crustacea, Stomatopoda, Protosquillidae).

    PubMed

    How, Martin J; Porter, Megan L; Radford, Andrew N; Feller, Kathryn D; Temple, Shelby E; Caldwell, Roy L; Marshall, N Justin; Cronin, Thomas W; Roberts, Nicholas W

    2014-10-01

    The polarization of light provides information that is used by many animals for a number of different visually guided behaviours. Several marine species, such as stomatopod crustaceans and cephalopod molluscs, communicate using visual signals that contain polarized information, content that is often part of a more complex multi-dimensional visual signal. In this work, we investigate the evolution of polarized signals in species of Haptosquilla, a widespread genus of stomatopod, as well as related protosquillids. We present evidence for a pre-existing bias towards horizontally polarized signal content and demonstrate that the properties of the polarization vision system in these animals increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the signal. Combining these results with the increase in efficacy that polarization provides over intensity and hue in a shallow marine environment, we propose a joint framework for the evolution of the polarized form of these complex signals based on both efficacy-driven (proximate) and content-driven (ultimate) selection pressures.

  8. Resting stages of Tortanus forcipatus (Crustacea, Calanoida) in sediments of Victoria Harbor, Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Li, Xiangdong; Zhang, Gan; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2006-05-01

    The distribution and abundance of viable and non-viable (so-called resting eggs) embryos of the calanoid copepod Tortanus forcipatus were determined in the laboratory by the enumeration of nauplii that emerge from sediments collected in Victoria Harbor (Hong Kong). Sediment cores sliced down to a depth of 37 cm showed the highest number of viable resting eggs near the surface layer (0-5 cm). The number of viable eggs sharply decreased with sediment depth, particularly at the inner harbor stations, although diapause eggs remained viable as deep as 25 cm. 210Pb analyses of the sediments indicated that the mean egg age was 4.9 years. The egg mortality of T. forcipatus in the sediments was 0.135 year -1, or 78.22% annual egg survival, calculated by regressing ln (egg density) from sediment age. The range of horizontal distribution of viable resting eggs was 24.25 × 10 3-58.90 × 10 3 m -2, with a mean value of 36.8 × 10 3 m -2 over all stations. The accumulation of viable resting eggs that can persist for an extended period of time provided evidence for the existence of an egg bank of T. forcipatus in the sediments of Victoria Harbor.

  9. Two new genera and three new species of freshwater crabs (Crustacea: Pseudothelphusidae: Potamocarcinini) from Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, José Luis; Álvarez, Fernando

    2013-01-09

    Two new genera, Sylvathelphusa n. gen. and Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen., and three new species, Sylvathelphusa kalebi n. sp., S. cavernicola n. sp. and Tzotzilthelphusa villarosalensis n. sp., of the tribe Potamocarcinini, family Pseudothelphusidae, are described from Chiapas, Mexico. Sylvathelphusa n. gen. is characterized by a male gonopod with the marginal plate between the caudal and mesial surfaces abruptly widening distally and forming a triangular apical projection; and a mesial process as a strong, acute spine forming a 90º angle with respect to the principal axis of the gonopod. Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen. exhibits a male gonopod strongly bent laterally in the distal third, and a mesial surface rounded distally with acute spinules. Sylvathelphusa n. gen. is similar to Potamocarcinus in gonopod morphology, in both straight and with a mesial process developed as strong tooth in a similar shape and position. Tzotzilthelphusa n. gen. is similar to Phrygiopilus in that the gonopods of both genera develop a supra-apical process that is a continuation of the mesial surface. The new taxa come from the Los Altos de Chiapas region and bring the total number of pseudothelphusid genera in Chiapas to 11.

  10. A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Triacanthoneus Anker, 2010 (Crustacea: Alpheidae) from Belize.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Fernando; Iliffe, Thomas M; Villalobos, José Luis

    2014-02-24

    A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Triacanthoneus Anker, 2010, is described based on material collected in a marine cave off Caye Chapel, Belize. Triacanthoneus chapelianus sp. nov. is the fifth species in the genus and can be distinguished from the other four species by the position of the dorsolateral teeth on the carapace, which in the new species have an anterior (= submarginal) position, and by the configuration of the posterior margin of the telson, with a notch in the middle portion and two pairs of spines and one pair of plumose setae. A key to the five species of Triacanthoneus is provided.

  11. Chonopeltis australis (Crustacea) male reproductive system morphology; sperm transfer and review of reproduction in Branchiura.

    PubMed

    Neethling, Lourelle Alicia Martins; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2015-02-01

    The morphology of the male reproductive system as well as sperm transfer in Branchiura has been described for Dolops ranarum and Argulus japonicus. In this study, the reproductive system and accessory structures are described for male Chonopeltis australis using histology, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. For the first time, we describe sperm transfer by means of a spermatophore in this genus. The internal and external morphology and mechanism of sperm transfer is compared with other Branchiura, where it has been described. The morphology of the reproductive system of C. australis is similar to that of D. ranarum while the accessory structures and the spermatophore produced are similar to that of A. japonicus. A revision of the definition of Branchiura with respect to reproduction is provided.

  12. Cyclestheria hislopi (Crustacea: Branchiopoda): a group of morphologically cryptic species with origins in the Cretaceous.

    PubMed

    Schwentner, Martin; Clavier, Simon; Fritsch, Martin; Olesen, Jørgen; Padhye, Sameer; Timms, Brian V; Richter, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Cyclestheria hislopi is thought to be the only extant species of Cyclestherida. It is the sister taxon of all Cladocera and displays morphological characteristics intermediate of Spinicaudata and Cladocera. Using one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear (EF1α and 28S rRNA) markers, we tested the hypothesis that C. hislopi represents a single circumtropic species. South American (French Guiana), Asian (India, Indonesia, Singapore) and several Australian populations were included in our investigation. Phylogenetic and genetic distance analyses revealed remarkable intercontinental genetic differentiation (uncorrected p-distances COI>13%, EF1α>3% and 28S>4%). Each continent was found to have at least one distinct Cyclestheria species, with Australia boasting four distinct main lineages which may be attributed to two to three species. The divergence of these species (constituting crown group Cyclestherida) was, on the basis of phylogenetic analyses of COI and EF1α combined with molecular clock estimates using several fossil branchiopod calibration points or a COI substitution rate of 1.4% per million years, dated to the Cretaceous. This was when the South American lineage split from the Asian-Australian lineage, with the latter diverging further in the Paleogene. Today's circumtropic distribution of Cyclestheria may be best explained by a combination of Gondwana vicariance and later dispersal across Asia and Australia when the tectonic plates of the two continents drew closer in the early Miocene. The lack of morphological differentiation that has taken place in this taxon over such a long evolutionary period contrasts with the high level of differentiation and diversification observed in its sister taxon the Cladocera. Further insights into the evolution of Cyclestheria may help us to understand the evolutionary success of the Cladocera.

  13. Distribution of some calanoida (Crustacea: Copepoda) from the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Brandorff, Gerd-Oltmann

    2012-03-01

    Southern Mexico and Central America have many water bodies of different morphology and water chemistry with an interesting zooplankton fauna, originating from North or South America. A set of 63 samples, taken in 2005 and 2008, from water bodies of the Yucatan Peninsula karst, Belize and Guatemala, were studied for the content of calanoid copepods. Old and recent literature was used to determine animals to species level. Drawings were prepared with a microscope and a camera lucida. A total of 32 samples with totally six species contained calanoid copepods: one estuarine pseudodiaptomid and five freshwater diaptomids. Pseudodiaptomus marshi was found at different salinities. It is confirmed that the commonest diaptomids in the Yucatan Peninsula are Arctodiaptomus dorsalis and Mastigodiaptomus nesus. The former was also recorded from Lake Amatitlan. Mastigodiaptomus nesus is as widespread as A. dorsalis but it is absent from the Lake Peten area in Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae was found in two shallow habitats, these specimens differ from those from the type locality by having a set of peculiar large spine-like processes on the last thoracic and the urosome segments of the females. Leptodiaptomus siciloides was found only in Lake Ayarza with high salinity. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis occurred in the highlands of Guatemala in Lago de Güija and in the Peten area in Laguna Sacpuy. We contributed with our occurrence records to a better knowledge of the geographic distribution of some calanoid copepods. Morphological findings in some species are of value for taxonomic differentiation between species.

  14. Hatching rates of resting eggs of 'Cladocera' (Crustacea; Branchiopoda) at a tropical bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mugrabe, G; Barros, S; Marazzo, A; Valentin, J L

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the development time of embryos and to estimate the hatching rates of resting eggs of cladocerans found in the sediment of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, under experimental conditions. Eggs were sorted by species (Penilia avirostris--Sididae; Pleopis polyphemoides and Pseudevadne tergestina--Podonidae) and incubated at a temperature of 25 degrees C, salinity 35 and photoperiod 12 hours light/ 12 hours dark. Hatching rates were about 38% for Pseudevadne tergestina and 28% for Pleopis polyphemoides. Embryos of resting eggs of Penilia avirostris developed comparatively slowly (hatching after 86 days of incubation), with a hatching rate of only 5%. It was observed that development and hatching of resting eggs of marine cladocerans suggest that pulses of recruitment may exist, thus contributing to the rapid appearance and maintenance of planktonic populations of these crustaceans in Guanabara Bay.

  15. Three new Nannastacidae (Crustacea: Cumacea) species from a Caribbean mesophotic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Iorgu; Chatterjee, Tapas; Schizas, Nikolaos V

    2014-02-19

    Examination of substrata from the mesophotic reefs of Mona Island, Puerto Rico yielded 3 new species of cumaceans, all from the family Nannastacidae: Cumella achimae sp. nov., C. victoriae sp. nov. and Nannastacus craciuni sp. nov. The 3 new species bring the total of new cumacean taxa described from the mesophotic reefs of US Caribbean to 9, highlighting the potential of mesophotic reefs as a biodiversity hotspot. For the first time we report the genus Nannastacus from the Caribbean Sea. 

  16. The ancient Balkan lakes harbor a new endemic species of Diaphanosoma Fischer, 1850 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Korovchinsky, Nikolai M; Petkovski, Trajan K

    2014-04-01

    Diaphanosoma macedonicum sp. nov. is described from material collected from the ancient Lakes Dojran and Prespa, located in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. It can be regarded as a member of the "D. mongolianum" species group. It is characterized by specific, but not readily visible features, such as the absence of a thorn near the posterior valve margins, as well as setules between setae of the ventral valve inflection, and the presence of more chitinized integument. The discovery of this new species previously identified as "Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Liévin)" highlights the necessity of more detailed investigations of the zooplankton of Balkan lakes potentially populated by greater numbers of endemic cladoceran species. A short overview of the ancient lakes in the Central Balkans is provided.

  17. A new species of Moraria (Crustacea: Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Janet W.; Lesko, Lynn T.

    2003-01-01

    Moraria hudsoni n. sp. is described from Trails End Bay in Lake Michigan and Prentiss Bay in Lake Huron, Michigan, USA. The new species differs from its congeners in chaetotaxy, body ornamentation, and other characters. We review published records of members of Moraria from North and Central America; no species is known from South America. Species of this genus have been found in the mountains of southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras, but none of these has been validly described. In North America, eight species have been recorded from Alaska, Canada, and the conterminous USA as far south as North Carolina. We report new geographical records of M. affinis from Virginia, and of both M. cristata and M. virginiana from Maryland and Virginia. We provide a tabular key to aid in identification of the named species of Moraria in North America.

  18. Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Smaltz, 1814) (Crustacea: Branchiura) parasitic on Algerian fishes.

    PubMed

    Ramdane, Zouhir; Trilles, Jean-Paul

    2012-04-01

    Eighteen female specimens of Argulus vittatus (Rafinesque-Smaltz, 1814) were recently collected from the Algerian coast. As until now this species was poorly described, this contribution redescribes this species with more precise drawings on the general morphology and appendages, using this fresh material. For the first time, two new hosts are identified. Host specificity and some ecological data are also reported.

  19. Effect of vertebrate and invertebrate kairomones on the life history of Daphnia magna Straus (Crustacea: Branchiopoda).

    PubMed

    Chakri, Khemissa; Touati, Laïd; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Samraoui, Boudjéma

    2010-01-01

    The history of selection of Daphnia magna populations living in North African temporary ponds may differ from populations inhabiting permanent ponds. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fish Gambusia holbrooki and invertebrate Notonecta glauca kairomones on the life history traits of the freshwater Cladocera Daphnia magna Straus. With fish kairomones, Daphnia reproduced early and had a significantly smaller size at first reproduction (SFR) and a smaller size of neonates compared to control. In contrast, daphnids reared in water treated with Notonecta glauca had no effect on the age at first reproduction but females were also smaller and produced smaller neonates.

  20. Effect of salinity stress on the life history variables of Branchipus schaefferi Fisher, 1834 (Crustacea: Anostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, SSS; Beladjal, Lynda; Nandini, S; Cerón-Martínez, Gerardo; Tavera-Briseño, Karina

    2005-01-01

    Background Freshwater anostracans inhabit ephemeral water bodies in which as the water level decreases due to evaporation the salt concentration increases. Thus, for most anostracans salinity becomes the major stress factor. Results We tested five concentrations of NaCl (0 to 8 g/l) on the life table demography of Branchipus schaefferi fed Chlorella (alga). Age-specific survivorship curves of male and female B. schaefferi showed nearly a similar pattern in that increased salt concentration resulted in decreased survivorship. The age-specific reproduction (mx) of females showed several peaks of cyst production at 0 and 1 g/l salinity while in treatments containing salt at 4 or 8 g/l, there were fewer peaks. Average lifespan, life expectancy at birth, gross and net reproductive rates, generation time and the rate of population increase were all significantly influenced by the salt concentration in the medium. The highest value of net reproductive rate (970 cysts/female) was in treatments containing 0 g/l of salt, while the lowest was 13 cysts/female at 8 g/l. The rate of population increase (r) varied from 0.52 to 0.32 per day depending on the salt concentration in the medium. Conclusion The low survival and offspring production of B. schaefferi at higher salinity levels suggests that this species is unlikely to colonize inland saline water bodies. Therefore, the temporary ponds in which it is found, proper conservative measures must be taken to protect this species. PMID:16176591