Science.gov

Sample records for cruz tenerife spain

  1. Integrated assessment of air pollution using observations and modelling in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Baldasano, José M; Soret, Albert; Guevara, Marc; Martínez, Francesc; Gassó, Santiago

    2014-03-01

    The present study aims to analyse the atmospheric dynamics of the Santa Cruz de Tenerife region (Tenerife, Canary Islands). This area is defined by the presence of anthropogenic emissions (from a refinery, a port and road traffic) and by very specific meteorological and orographic conditions-it is a coastal area with a complex topography in which there is an interaction of regional atmospheric dynamics and a low thermal inversion layer. These factors lead to specific atmospheric pollution episodes, particularly in relation to SO2 and PM10. We applied a methodology to study these dynamics based on two complementary approaches: 1) the analysis of the observations from the air quality network stations and 2) simulation of atmospheric dynamics using the WRF-ARW/HERMESv2/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM8b and WRF-ARW/HYSPLIT modelling systems with a high spatial resolution (1×1 km(2)). The results of our study show that the refinery plume plays an important role in the maximum SO2 observed levels. The area of maximum impact of the refinery is confined to a radius of 3 km around this installation. A cluster analysis performed for the period: 1998-2011 identified six synoptic situations as predominant in the area. The episodes of air pollution by SO2 occur mainly in those with more limited dispersive conditions, such as the northeastern recirculation, the northwestern recirculation and the western advection, which represent 33.70%, 11.23% and 18.63% of the meteorological situations affecting the study area in the year 2011, respectively. In the case of particulate matter, Saharan dust intrusions result in episodes with high levels of PM10 that may exceed the daily limit value in all measurement station; these episodes occur when the synoptic situation is from the east (3.29% of the situations during the year 2011).

  2. Intermediate Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Tenerife, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Alonso, Aarón; Abreu-Yanes, Estefanía; Feliu, Carlos; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, María Dolores; Valladares, Basilio; Foronda, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis, the main clinical manifestation of which is eosinophilic meningitis. Although this parasite has been found recently in its definitive rat host in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), showing a widespread distribution over the north-east part of the island, there are no available data regarding which snail and/or slug species are acting as intermediate hosts on this island. Consequently, the objective of this work was to determine the possible role of three mollusc species, Plutonia lamarckii, Cornu aspersum and Theba pisana, as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in Tenerife. Between 2011 and 2014, 233 molluscs were collected from five biotopes where rats had been found previously to harbor either adult worms or antibodies against A. cantonensis, and the identification was carried out on the basis of morphological features and a LAMP technique. The prevalence of A. cantonensis larvae in the mollusc samples, based on morphological identification, was 19.3%, whereas 59 out of the 98 individuals (60.2%) analyzed by LAMP were positive. Positive results were obtained for the three mollusc species analyzed and two of the positive samples, both obtained from P. lamarckii, were confirmed as positive by 18S rRNA and ITS1 PCR. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA PCR products showed 100% similarity with previously published A. cantonensis sequences. These results may be relevant from a public health point of view, since all the biotopes from which the samples were obtained were in inhabited areas or areas with human activity, but it is also important from the perspective of a possible transmission to other accidental hosts, such as dogs and horses, animals that are present in some of the areas analyzed. PMID:25803658

  3. Neoparamoeba branchiphila infections in moribund sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Dyková, Iva; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Kostka, Martin; Valladares, Basilio; Pecková, Hana

    2011-07-12

    A total of 109 sea urchins from 3 species collected in 2 localities off the coast of Tenerife Island, Spain, were examined for the presence of free-living amoebae in their coelomic fluid. Amoeba trophozoites were isolated exclusively from moribund individuals of long-spined sea urchins Diadema aff. antillarum (Philippi) (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) that manifested lesions related to sea urchin bald disease on their tests (16 out of 56 examined). No amoebae were detected in Arbacia lixula (L.) and Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck). From the former sea urchin species, 8 strains, established from 10 primary isolates, were identified as Neoparamoeba branchiphila Dyková et al., 2005 using morphological and molecular methods. Results of this study (limited to the screening for free-living amoebae) together with data on agents of sea urchin mortalities reported to date justify the hypothesis that free-living amoebae play an opportunistic role in D. aff. antillarum mortality. The enlargement of the dataset of SSU rDNA sequences brought new insight into the phylogeny of Neoparamoeba species.

  4. Three-dimensional magnetotelluric exploration of Tenerife geothermal field (Canary Islands, Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña-Varas, Perla; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Bellmunt, Fabián; Hidalgo, Raúl

    2013-04-01

    Several magnetotelluric (MT) surveys have been carried out to investigate the geothermal system in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain). These data have been acquired since 1987 till 2012 by different agencies and institutions. In 1987 and 1991, two MT surveys were carried out by the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME). These data in paper format (129 MT sites in total) were collected and digitized. In October 2009, 83 stations were acquired for Petratherm Ltd., and 25 stations in March 2012 by the University of Barcelona. In total, 237 MT stations distributed around the island center are available for this study. A simplified conceptual model of the island using known geological and geophysical data has been created to identify the ocean and topography effects on the MT data. The typical conceptual model of a generic high temperature volcanic geothermal system (Cumming, 2009a; Pellerin, 1996) and the 1D models from the MT data have played a key role for the correct construction of this conceptual model. Synthetic forward modeling was performed on a set of models to determine the effect of topography and of the conductive Atlantic Ocean. Finally, a 3D resistivity model of Tenerife Island has been computed with modEM code (Egbert and Kelbert, 2012). Out of the 237 MT sites available, 87 stations were discarded because of computational capability problems. Thus, for this new 3D model, 150 MT sites have been taking into account from the different field surveys. The model is discrtized on 94x65x133-layer grid and the inversions are undertaken using the off-diagonal components (Zxy, Zyx) of the impedance tensor for 16 periods in the frequency range from 1000 to 0.1 Hz. In the inversion processing we assumed a 5% error floor in the impedance components and the final RMS is 3.5. The 3D inversion model shows the typical layered pattern expected from a volcanic complex (andesite, basalt) with a possible geothermal overprint; a resistive fresh volcanic structure near the

  5. Ground deformation model for Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) from TEGETEIDE GNSS stations observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, A.; Carmona, J.; Fernández-Ros, A.; Pérez-Peña, A.; Ortiz, R.; Berrocoso, M.

    2009-04-01

    TEGETEIDE GNSS network is composed of seven benchmarks distributed over Tenerife Island, two of them are permanent stations. The whole network has been observed periodically from 2005 at least twice a year. Processed data using Bernese 5.0 software indicates different vector displacement pattern, as in magnitude as in direction, which expected from the African plate movement, suggesting the activity of other geodynamic process in the Island. The TEGETEIDE ground deformation model suggest the action not only the tectonics, but also the volcanic activity in an island where during 2004 a reawakening of the Teide volcano was detected. In this sense, the use of precise space-geodetic techniques to study the present-day dynamics of Tenerife is essential for a better knowledge and forecasting of the volcanic evolution during periods of crises, in an island of one million inhabitants and 5 million tourists a year.

  6. Physicochemical characteristics and pollen spectrum of monofloral honeys from Tenerife, Spain.

    PubMed

    Bentabol Manzanares, Antonio; Hernández García, Zoa; Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    Physicochemical parameters, sugar composition and botanical origin were determined in four monofloral honeys, chestnut, fennel, tajinaste, and Teide broom honeys, abundantly produced in Tenerife Island. All the parameters were within the established intervals in Europe for each type of honey. Large differences between the four monofloral honeys were observed, being the chestnut honeys with most of differential characteristics. Linear discriminant analysis on the physicochemical parameters and sugar composition allows to distinguishing the four types of honeys analysed.

  7. Methanotrophy under Versatile Conditions in the Water Column of the Ferruginous Meromictic Lake La Cruz (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Kirsten; Jegge, Corinne; Tischer, Jana; Berg, Jasmine; Brand, Andreas; Miracle, María R.; Soria, Xavier; Vicente, Eduardo; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Zopfi, Jakob; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Lakes represent a considerable natural source of methane to the atmosphere compared to their small global surface area. Methanotrophs in sediments and in the water column largely control methane fluxes from these systems, yet the diversity, electron accepting capacity, and nutrient requirements of these microorganisms have only been partially identified. Here, we investigated the role of electron acceptors alternative to oxygen and sulfate in microbial methane oxidation at the oxycline and in anoxic waters of the ferruginous meromictic Lake La Cruz, Spain. Active methane turnover in a zone extending well below the oxycline was evidenced by stable carbon isotope-based rate measurements. We observed a strong methane oxidation potential throughout the anoxic water column, which did not vary substantially from that at the oxic/anoxic interface. Both in the redox-transition and anoxic zones, only aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and sequencing techniques, suggesting a close coupling of cryptic photosynthetic oxygen production and aerobic methane turnover. Additions of nitrate, nitrite and to a lesser degree iron and manganese oxides also stimulated bacterial methane consumption. We could not confirm a direct link between the reduction of these compounds and methane oxidation and we cannot exclude the contribution of unknown anaerobic methanotrophs. Nevertheless, our findings from Lake La Cruz support recent laboratory evidence that aerobic methanotrophs may be able to utilize alternative terminal electron acceptors under oxygen limitation. PMID:27891115

  8. Indications for solar influence on radon signal in the subsurface of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinitz, G.; Martin-Luis, M. C.; Piatibratova, O.

    2015-05-01

    Radon at two locations in Tenerife is investigated. The MM-0 site is located in a bunker near Teide volcano. Daily radon (DR) signals are dominated by a 12-hour (S2) periodicity. Continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis of day-time and night-time series results in a day-night differentiation, which does not occur in the coeval temperature and pressure. This indicates that the radon system is directly affected by rotation of Earth around its axis, and not via the pressure and/or temperature pattern. San Fernando sites are in an underground gallery, located at 2.1 and 3 km from the entrance. Alpha and gamma time series show DR signals having an S1 and a strong S2 periodicity. Sidebands occur around the S1 periodicity. The lower sideband is close to 0.9972696 cycles per day (CPD; = sidereal frequency) and the upper sideband at a symmetric frequency above. They reflect a driver containing two waveforms having periodicities of rotation of Earth around its axis and around the Sun that influences radon in a non-linear fashion, leading to the sidebands around the S1 periodicity. Observation in Tenerife of sidebands and day-night phenomena substantiates the notion that the periodic components in the diurnal and annual frequency band of radon time series are due to the influence of a component in solar radiation.

  9. A multisystemic Acanthamoeba infection in a dog in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Valladares, María; Reyes-Batlle, María; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; Comyn-Afonso, Estefanía; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Maciver, Sutherland K; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-10-15

    A 22-month-old male Spanish water dog was hospitalized after its physical examination revealed fever and movement difficulty. After 24h, the dog was found to have a high fever (39.5 °C) and was treated empirically with doxycycline/ciprofloxacin. At 48 h, after submission the fever rose to 41 °C and the animal presented with a stiff neck and dehydration. Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were sampled and trophozoites with an Acanthamoeba-like morphology were observed in the CSF. PCR specific for Acanthamoeba, Naegleria fowleri and Balamuthia mandrillaris were performed and the CSF sample found positive for Acanthamoeba. Lungs, kidney, liver and spleen samples were collected post mortem. All collected organ samples were positive for Acanthamoeba by PCR, thus confirming a multisystemic infection. Water samples taken at a suspected site of infection yielded an almost identical PCR fragment to those of the clinical samples, indicating that this was probably where the infection originated. This is the first report of a fatal case of Acanthamoeba disseminated infection in a dog in Spain.

  10. Diffuse volcanic degassing and thermal energy release 2015 surveys from the summit cone of Teide volcano, Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melián, Gladys; Asensio-Ramos, María; Padilla, Germán; Alonso, Mar; Halliwell, Simon; Sharp, Emerson; Butters, Damaris; Ingman, Dylan; Alexander, Scott; Cook, Jenny; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    The summit cone of Teide volcano (Spain) is characterized by the presence of a weak fumarolic system, steamy ground, and high rates of diffuse CO2 degassing all around this area. The temperature of the fumaroles (83° C) corresponds to the boiling point of water at discharge conditions. Water is the major component of these fumarolic emissions, followed by CO2, N2, H2, H2S, HCl, Ar, CH4, He and CO, a composition typical of hydrothermal fluids. Previous diffuse CO2 surveys have shown to be an important tool to detect early warnings of possible impending volcanic unrests at Tenerife Island (Melián et al., 2012; Pérez et al., 2013). In July 2015, a soil and fumarole gas survey was undertaken in order to estimate the diffuse volcanic degassing and thermal energy release from the summit cone of Teide volcano. A diffuse CO2 emission survey was performed selecting 170 observation sites according to the accumulation chamber method. Soil CO2 efflux values range from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2d-1) up to 10,672 g m-2d-1, with an average value of 601 g m-2d-1. Spatial distribution maps were constructed following the sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) procedure. Measurement of soil CO2 efflux allowed an estimation of 162 ± 14 t d-1 of deep seated derived CO2. To calculate the steam discharge associated with this volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 output, we used the average H2O/CO2 mass ratio equal to 1.19 (range, 0.44-3.42) as a representative value of the H2O/CO2 mass ratios for Teide fumaroles. The resulting estimate of the steam flow associated with the gas flux is equal to 193 t d-1. The condensation of this steam results in a thermal energy release of 5.0×1011J d-1 for Teide volcano or a total heat flow of 6 MWt. The diffuse gas emissions and thermal energy released from the summit of Teide volcano are comparable to those observed at other volcanoes. Sustained surveillance using these methods will be valuable for monitoring the activity of Teide volcano.

  11. Groundwater intensive exploitation and mining in Gran Canaria and Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain: Hydrogeological, environmental, economic and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Emilio; Cabrera, María Del Carmen; Poncela, Roberto; Puga, Luis-Olavo; Skupien, Elzbieta; Del Villar, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    Intensive exploitation and continuous consumption of groundwater reserves (groundwater mining) have been real facts for decades in arid and semiarid areas. A summary of experience in the hydrogeological, economic, social and ethical consequences of groundwater intensive and mining exploitation in Gran Canaria and Tenerife Islands, in the Canarian Archipelago, is presented. Groundwater abstraction is less than recharge, but a significant outflow of groundwater to the sea cannot be avoided, especially in Tenerife, due to its younger volcanic coastal formations. Consequently, the intensive aquifer groundwater development by means of wells and water galleries (tunnels) has produced a groundwater reserve depletion of about 2km(3). Should current groundwater abstraction cease, the recovery time to close-to-natural conditions is from decades to one century, except in the mid and high elevations of Tenerife, where this recovery is not possible as aquifer formations will remain permanently drained by the numerous long water galleries. The socio-economic circumstances are complex due to a long standing history of water resources exploitation, successive social changes on each island, and well-established groundwater water trading, with complex relationships that affect water governance and the resulting ethical concerns. Gran Canaria and Tenerife are in an advanced groundwater exploitation stage and have a large water demand. They are good examples that allow drawing guidelines to evaluate groundwater development on other small high islands. After presenting the hydrogeological background, the socio-economic results are discussed to derive general knowledge to guide on water governance.

  12. [The creation of the first anesthesiology service in Spain (Hospital de la Santa Cruz y San Pablo, Barcelona 1941)].

    PubMed

    Unzueta, M C; Hervás, C; Villar Landeira, J M

    2002-03-01

    On the sixtieth anniversary of the founding of the first Spanish anesthesia department, we review factors that led to its creation and its early development. Hospital de la Santa Cruz y San Pablo in Barcelona was the place where the service was established for several reasons. The first was the growing need for anesthesia to be administered by specialized physicians able to handle problems developing during and after surgery. The second was the presence of a prestigious surgeon, Dr. Juan Soler Juliá, who perceived the need, alongside the only physician in Spain who was completely dedicated to anesthesiology, Dr. José Miguel Martínez. Finally, the fact that professional anesthesiology allowed a physician to earn a decent income triggered interest in the specialty among physicians.

  13. Cycles of selected elements in the frame of Globalization and Global Change in the environment of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidak, Markus O.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.; Schöler, Heinfried; Trieloff, Mario; Kober, Bernd

    2010-05-01

    The Laurel Forest is an important and sensitive ecosystem with particular element cycling mechanisms. On Tenerife the distribution is straitened to some parts in the north, north-west and northeast. The NE trade wind ensures a permanently humid climate in the north. Major urban and industrial development is centred on Tenerife, and as a touristy hotspot the Island is exposed to heavy air traffic. Furthermore, the short distance to the African coastline and, therefore, to the Sahara, contribute a regular influence of African Dust emissions. In summary, Laurel Forest is exposed to different climatic conditions, variations in lithology and soils, and aerosols caused by local anthropogenic emissions, Saharan dust, and sea spray. The present study aims to understand geogenic and anthropogenic element transports of K, P, N, and organic components between soils and Laurel Forest. In addition, the element contribution from the aerosols such as the Sahara dust has to be quantified to understand the rock - soil - vegetation coupling system. The Sahara dust as one of the important aerosols has been studied by various researchers (Bustos et al., 1998; Rodrıguez, 1999; Torres et al., 2001; Viana et al., 2002). Viana et al.,(2002) quantified the impacts of African dust outbreaks for Tenerife and Gran Canaria, after the interpretation of the PM10 (thoracis particulate matter) from nineteen air quality monitoring stations. Three types of African dust contributions were identified and characterized (winter, summer and autumn-winter dust outbreaks). Collected samples with and without African dust influence proved that: (a) for the intensive winter African dust outbreaks (daily PM10 levels up to 191 mg/m3) at least 76% of the bulk PM10 levels may be attributable to dust load, whereas the anthropogenic input accounts for only 3-14% and (b) SiO2, Al2O3, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, V, Mn and Ba concentrations are excellent tracers of African origin (Viana et al., 2002).

  14. Increased water use efficiency does not prevent growth decline of Pinus canariensis in a semi-arid treeline ecotone in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Patricia; Grams, Thorsten E.E.; Matysssek, Rainer; Jimenez, Maria S.; Gonzalez-Rodríguez, Agueda M.; Oberhuber, Walter; Wieser, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Key message Intrinsic water-use efficiency of Pinus canariensis (Sweet ex Spreng.) growing at a semi-arid treeline has increased during the past 37 years. Tree-ring width by contrast has declined, likely caused by reduced stomatal conductance due to increasing aridity. Context Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) has been related to tree growth enhancement accompanied by increasing intrinsic water-use-efficiency (iWUE). Nevertheless, the extent of rising Ca on long-term changes in iWUE and growth has remained poorly understood to date in Mediterranean treeline ecosystems. Aims This study aimed to examine radial growth and physiological responses of P. canariensis in relation to rising Ca and increasing aridity at treeline in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Methods We evaluated temporal changes in secondary growth (tree-ring width; TRW) and tree ring stable C isotope signature for assessing iWUE from 1975 through 2011. Results Precipitation was the main factor controlling secondary growth. Over the last 36 years P. canariensis showed a decline in TRW at enhanced iWUE, likely caused by reduced stomatal conductance due to increasing aridity. Conclusion Our results indicate that increasing aridity has overridden the potential CO2 fertilization on tree growth of P. canariensis at its upper distribution limit. PMID:27482149

  15. Subsidence and current strain patterns on Tenerife Island (Canary Archipelago, Spain) derived from continuous GNSS time series (2008-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Alzola, A.; Martí, J.; García-Yeguas, A.; Gil, A. J.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we present the current crustal deformation model of Tenerife Island derived from daily CGPS time series processing (2008-2015). Our results include the position time series, a global velocity estimation and the current crustal deformation on the island in terms of strain tensors. We detect a measurable subsidence of 1.5-2 mm/yr. in the proximities of the Cañadas-Teide-Pico Viejo (CTPV) complex. These values are higher in the central part of the complex and could be explained by a lateral spreading of the elastic lithosphere combined with the effect of the drastic descent of the water table in the island experienced during recent decades. The results show that the Anaga massif is stable in both its horizontal and vertical components. The strain tensor analysis shows a 70 nstrain/yr. E-W compression in the central complex, perpendicular to the 2004 sismo-volcanic area, and 50 nstrain/yr. SW-NE extension towards the Northeast ridge. The residual velocity and strain patterns coincide with a decline in volcanic activity since the 2004 unrest.

  16. Nitrogen cycling and N2O production in the water column of the ferruginous meromictic Lake La Cruz (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tischer, Jana; Zopfi, Jakob; Frame, Caitlin H.; Jegge, Corinne; Kirsten, Oswald; Andreas, Brand; Miracle, Maria R.; Vicente, Eduardo; Lehmann, Moritz F.

    2016-04-01

    Ferruginous meromictic lakes are rare systems, considered potential modern analogues for an ancient Archean ferruginous Ocean. They may therefore represent valuable model ecosystems to study biogeochemical processes of early Earth history, in particular, the interaction between the iron (Fe) and other element cycles such as the complex nitrogen (N) cycle. In context of its exceptional water chemistry, we studied the N-cycling in the meromictic, ferruginous Lake La Cruz in the Central Iberian Ranges in Spain, combining i) general water column chemistry and detailed N speciation ii) stable isotope composition and intramolecular 15N distributions (site preference) of dissolved N2O and iii) 15N-isotope label incubation experiments, to identify and quantify biotic and abiotic N2O and N2 production pathways. Nitrification was identified as the main N2O production mechanism in the oxic zone, based on the N2O concentration profile and the isomeric composition of N2O (site preference = 24.7) at the depth of maximum concentration relative to the surface water. A second N2O peak of 23 nmol/L was observed within the chemocline, and relatively low values for the δ15N-N2O (-1.1) and a site preference of 16.1‰ with respect to the oxic water column suggest that here incomplete (nitrifier) denitrification is the dominant N2O production pathway. However, based on the bulk dual N-versus-O isotope signature, other production mechanisms cannot be excluded at this point. Within the anoxic water column, N2O is consumed quantitiatively to N2, consistent with 15N-NO3- incubation experiments, showing denitrification (and anammox) activity below the redox transition zone. The overlap of Fe and N-species (N2O, NO2-) in the water column is small, therefore abiotic N2O production is most likely negligible. The planned analysis of the NO3- and NH4+ isotopic signatures will provide further insight into the origin of N2O. Additionally, molecular biological analyses will provide information on

  17. Application of Spectroscopic Techniques (FT-IR, 13C NMR) to the analysis of humic substances in volcanic soils along an environmental gradient (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Rodriguez, Antonio; María Armas Herrera, Cecilia; González Pérez, José Antonio; González-Vila, Francisco Javier; Arbelo Rodríguez, Carmen Dolores; Mora Hernández, Juan Luis; Polvillo Polo, Oliva

    2010-05-01

    Andosols and andic soils are considered as efficient C-sinks in terms of C sequestration. These soils are usually developed from volcanic materials, and are characterized by a predominance of short-range ordered minerals like allophanes, imogolite and other Fe and Al oxyhydroxides. Such materials occur commonly associated with organic compounds, thus generating highly stable organo-mineral complexes and leading to the accumulation of a high amount of organic carbon. Spectroscopic methods like FT-IR and 13C NMR are suitable for the analysis of the chemical structure of soil humic substances, and allow identifying distinct functional groups and protein, lipids, lignin, carbohydrate-derived fragments. In this work we study the structural features of four soils developed on Pleistocene basaltic lavae in Tenerife (Canary Island, Spain), distributed along an altitudinal climatic gradient. The soil sequence comprises soils with different degree of geochemical evolution and andic character, including a mineral ‘Hypersalic Solonchak' (Tabaibal de Rasca), a slightly vitric ‘Luvic Phaeozem' (Los Frailes), a degraded and shallow ‘Endoleptic, fulvic, silandic Andosol' (Siete Lomas), and a well-developed and deep ‘Fulvic, silandic, Andosol' (Ravelo). Samples of the raw soil and humic and fulvic acids isolated from the surface horizons were analyzed. The results show a low content of organic carbon in the mineral soil, the inherited humin predominating, and a very high content of humic and fulvic acids in Andosols. The FT-IR and 13C NMR spectra of the raw soil samples show a low resolution, related to interferences from mineral complexes signals, particularly in soils with lower organic carbon content. 13C NMR shows a predominance of O-alkyl carbon (derived of carbohydrates) in andic soils, whereas O-alkyl and aromatic fractions are most evident in the mineral soil. The humic acids spectra are characterized by a dominance of alkyl and aromatic fractions with a high degree

  18. A record of long-time rift activity and earthquake-induced ground effects in Pleistocene deposits of southern Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Elmar; Kröchert, Jörg

    2009-09-01

    Faults with a well-defined strike direction that precisely coincides with the southern rift fault system occur in the study area in southern Tenerife. This fault system was generated contemporaneously with a chain of cinder cones ~948 ka. Open fractures in ignimbrites (~668 ka) and fossil beach deposits (~42 ka) of the El Médano area suggest that the rift-associated fault system was seismically active in the aftermath of the initial volcanic activity (~948 ka) and is probably still active. A second fault system striking perpendicular to the rift-related faults probably originates from a Holocene paleoearthquake of moderate intensity. Earthquake-induced ground effects in fossil beach deposits within the study area are consistent with seismically induced ground effects of several recent and well-documented earthquakes, as well as gravitational sliding triggered by an intense earthquake in the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 1990. Both, the rift-associated and the earthquake-induced fault system, initially produced open fractures that were occupied by plants and subsequently stabilized by cementation, forming conspicuous sediment structures in fossil beach deposits of the El Médano site in southern Tenerife.

  19. Diffuse CO2 emission from the NE volcanic rift-zone of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain): a 15 years geochemical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Germán; Alonso, Mar; Shoemaker, Trevor; Loisel, Ariane; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    The North East Rift (NER) volcanic zone of Tenerife Island is one of the three volcanic rift-zones of the island (210 km2). The most recent eruptive activity along the NER volcanic zone took place in the 1704-1705 period with the volcanic eruptions of Siete Fuentes, Fasnia and Arafo volcanoes. The aim of this study was to report the results of a soil CO2 efflux survey undertaken in June 2015, with approximately 580 measuring sites. In-situ measurements of CO2 efflux from the surface environment of NER volcanic zone were performed by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. To quantify the total CO2 emission from NER volcanic zone, soil CO2 efflux contour maps were constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. The total diffuse CO2 emission rate was estimated in 1209 t d-1, with CO2 efflux values ranging from non-detectable (˜0.5 g m-2 d-1) up to 123 g m-2 d-1, with an average value of 5.9 g m-2 d-1. If we compare these results with those obtained in previous surveys developed in a yearly basis, they reveal slightly variations from 2006 to 2015, with to pulses in the CO2 emission observed in 2007 and 2014. The main temporal variation in the total CO2 output does not seem to be masked by external variations. First peak precedes the anomalous seismicity registered in and around Tenerife Island between 2009 and 2011, suggesting stress-strain changes at depth as a possible cause for the observed changes in the total output of diffuse CO2 emission. Second peak could be related with futures changes in the seismicity. This study demonstrates the importance of performing soil CO2 efflux surveys as an effective surveillance volcanic tool.

  20. Oxygen Isotope Variation Within a Quaternary, Caldera-forming, Phonolitic Eruptive Sequence; the Diego Hernández Formation, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickes, H. J.; Larson, P. B.; Wolff, J. A.; Olin, P.

    2003-12-01

    Much of the work done on oxygen isotopes in volcanic rocks has been based on analyses of whole rock or multiple crystal aliquots, inherently discounting the importance of heterogeneity. Recently, due to advances in technology and the recognition of small-scale chemical disequilibria in magmatic systems, it has proven valuable to measure variations among individual grains to examine the evolution of these systems. Here, we present the results of both single and multi-crystal feldspar oxygen isotope analyses (1σ < 0.1 ‰ ) from phonolitic eruptive units of the Diego Hernández Formation (DHF) as part of an on-going study of the evolution of the Las Cañadas caldera complex on Tenerife. δ 18O (VSMOW) values of feldspar range from 4.7 to 6.7 ‰ (slightly lower than previously reported) and show a positive correlation with average crystal size (mg) in units that display a range of oxygen isotope values. For example, one unit shows a linear variation of feldspar δ 18O values that range from 4.7 to 6.4 ‰ , and these ratios are positively correlated with average phenocryst size over a range of 0.7 to 3.6 mg. Overall, intra-unit feldspar δ 18O values vary by as much as ˜2 ‰ and are lower than those predicted by fractionation of a basanitic parental magma. Additionally, δ 18O values show no coherent relationship with incompatible trace element abundances, an indication that the oxygen isotopic ratios are being controlled by neither fractionation nor recharge of the system by basaltic injections. However, the largest variation in oxygen isotope ratios is found in the most differentiated units, consistent with earlier suggestions that the most highly evolved phonolites may contain a component of hydrothermally-altered wall rock. We propose that oxygen isotope variation in Tenerife phonolites is being controlled by variable amounts of assimilation of hydrothermally-altered syenite country rock (δ 18O 0.1 - 5.8 ‰ ) and that timescales between assimilation and

  1. Non-Controlled Emission of Inorganic Toxic gas Components (CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0) to the atmosphere from Arico's landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeita, A.; Perez, C.; Hernandez, C.; Fariña, L.; Lima, R.; Salazar, J.; Hernandez, P.; Perez, N.

    2001-12-01

    Landfill gas is mainly constituted by CO2 and CH4. However, other inorganic toxic gas components such as CO, NH3, H2S and Hg0, are also present. Reduced gas species are produced and released during the anaerobic decomposition of urban waste, while Hg0 is originally present in the waste and it is released as a volatile. Significant amounts of non-controlled emission of these components could be released to the atmosphere in the form of diffuse degassing, The goal of this study is to evaluate the "non-controlled" emissions of these inorganic toxic gas components from Arico's landfill, Tenerife. Arico's landfill (0.35 Km2) holds about 1,200 t/d of urban solid waste with an average organic matter content of 48%. Diffuse CO2 emission has been measured at the surface of Arico's landfill by means of a NDIR according with the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases were also collected at 40 cm depth using a metallic probe and analyzed within 24 hours for CO2 and CO composition by means of a VARIAN micro-GC QUAD. H2S and Hg0 were analyzed by means of a Polytron-II electrochemical sensor and a JEROME 431-X mercury analyzer, respectively. NH3 was fixed in a boric acid solution and determined by means of a selective electrode. CO concentration ranged from non-detectable to 2,531 ppmv, with a median of 24.3 ppmv. The highest observed Hg0 concentration in the surface landfill gas is 0.004 ppbv, while H2S concentration reached levels up to 12 ppmv. NH3 contents were lower than 1 ppmv. CO, Hg0, H2S and NH3 fluxes have been estimated by multiplying CO2 efflux times (Tox.I.C.)i/CO2 where (Tox.I.C.)i is the concentration of CO, Hg0, H2S and NH3. The highest efflux values for CO, Hg0, H2S and NH3 were 6.8 gm-2d-1, 0.04 µ gm-2d-1, 1.7 mgm-2d-1 and 0.23 gm-2d-1, respectively.

  2. Seroprevalence of canine heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) on Tenerife Island: an epidemiological update.

    PubMed

    Montoya, J A; Morales, M; Juste, M C; Bañares, A; Simon, F; Genchi, C

    2006-12-01

    Blood samples from 823 dogs were tested for circulating Dirofilaria immitis antigen during a 1-year period (May 2002 to May 2003) on Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. Seroprevalence of heartworm infection was 21%. Heartworm infection was similar in males and females and was more common in dogs aged >6 years. Distribution of infection in varying climatic zones was not statistically different.

  3. Santa Cruz River Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes qualitative research insights gained during development of a nonmarket valuation survey for changes to the Santa Cruz River in Southern Arizona. Qualitative research provides an important avenue for understanding how the public interprets valuation s...

  4. Spain.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  5. The Impact of Solution-Focused Training on Professionals' Beliefs, Practices and Burnout of Child Protection Workers in Tenerife Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medina, Antonio; Beyebach, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of a large-scale research project on the child protection services in Tenerife, Spain. In Study 1, the professional beliefs and practices of 152 child protection workers, as measured by a Professional Beliefs and Practices Questionnaire, were correlated with their scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory.…

  6. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees (Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs (Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  7. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees ( Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs ( Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  8. The Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, D.; Busch, M.

    2014-07-01

    Since 2010, the near-Earth object (NEO) segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness programme has been using a 1-m telescope on Tenerife regularly for asteroid observations. The emphasis of the observations are follow-up of objects on the NEO Confirmation Page [1] of the Minor Planet Center and of objects on the priority list of the Spaceguard Central Node [2], now hosted by ESA. Part of the time is used to demonstrate and test strategies to search for NEOs. The telescope is a 1-m Zeiss Ritchey-Cretien telescope (IAU observatory code J04), called the Optical Ground Station (OGS). It is used with a field flattener/reducer at f/4.4. With a 4k×4k CCD camera it reaches a field of view with a diagonal of about 1 degree. The search programme is called TOTAS (Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey). It is based on a software developed by one of us (MB) for the Starkenburg Observatory Heppenheim and later adapted to be able to control the OGS. Until March 2014, the survey has discovered more than 1500 asteroids and 5 NEOs in about 300 hours of total observing time. This paper will describe the survey strategy and the setup of the data processing pipeline used within the programme.

  9. Assessment of Prenatal Exposure to Arsenic in Tenerife Island

    PubMed Central

    Vall, Oriol; Gómez-Culebras, Mario; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Joya, Xavier; Velez, Dinoraz; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Eva; Puig, Carme

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Increasing awareness of the potential chronic health effects of arsenic (As) at low exposure levels has motivated efforts to better understand impaired child development during pregnancy by biomarkers of exposure. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prenatal exposure to As by analysis of an alternative matrix (meconium), to examine its effects on neonatal outcomes and investigate the association with maternal lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy. Methods A transversal descriptive study was conducted in Tenerife (Spain). A total of 96 mother-child pairs participated in the study. A questionnaire on sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy was administered the day after the delivery. Analysis of total As in meconium was performed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. Results Total As was detected in 37 (38.5%) meconium samples. The univariate logistic regression model indicates that prenatal exposure to As was associated with a low intake of eggs per week (OR 0.56; CI (95%): 0.34–0.94) during pregnancy. Conversely, frequent intake of vegetables was associated with prenatal As exposure (OR: 1.19; CI (95%): 1.01–1.41) and frequent intake of processed meat (as bacon, Frankfurt’s sausage, and hamburger) shows a trend to As prenatal exposure (OR: 8.54; CI (95%): 0.80–90.89). The adjusted multivariate logistic regression model indicates that only frequent intake of vegetables maintains the association (OR: 1.31; CI (95%): 1.02–1.68). Conclusion The studied population presented a low As exposure and was not associated with neonatal effects. Maternal consumption of vegetables during pregnancy was associated with detectable meconium As levels; however the concentration detected in meconium was too low to be considered a major public health concern in this geographical area. PMID:23209747

  10. Mercury content in tinned molluscs (mussel, cockle, variegated scallop, and razor shell) normally consumed in Spain, 2005.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Angel José; Lozano, Gonzalo; González, Tomás; Ignacio Reguera, Juan; Hardisson, Arturo

    2006-09-01

    Concentrations of mercury were determined for tinned molluscs (Mollusca, Bivalvia), i.e., mussels (Mytilus spp.), cockles (Cerastoderma edule), variegated scallops (Chlamys varia), and razor shells (Ensis spp.), consumed in Spain. A total of 220 samples were analyzed: 120 mussels, 40 cockles, 24 variegated scallops, and 36 razor shells. Samples were obtained weekly from markets in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands) over a period of 12 months. All observed concentrations of mercury were below the maximum permitted for human consumption (0.5 mg/kg) as defined by European Community Decision 93/ 351/CE. Mercury concentrations were 27.28 +/- 12.43 microg/kg for mussels, 66.59 +/- 23.53 microg/kg for cockles, 33.68 +/- 15.76 microg/kg for variegated scallops, and 21.26 +/- 12.24 microg/kg for razor shells. To evaluate the importance of mercury as a food contaminant, the percentage ingested daily, the weight of mercury in the diet, and the calculated percentage of this metal in the diet contributed by reference species were estimated.

  11. The 1909 Chinyero eruption on Tenerife (Canary Islands): insights from historical accounts, and tephrostratigraphic and geochemical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Roberto, A.; Bertagnini, A.; Del Carlo, P.; Meletlidis, S.; Pompilio, M.

    2016-12-01

    The last eruption on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) started on 18 November 1909 from the El Chinyero vent on the northwestern Santiago rift. This fissural eruption was well documented by scientists and eyewitnesses, but there is a lack of data on the high-energy phase that produced the most significant emissions of ash and lapilli at the onset of the eruption. Here, we review historical documents (e.g. newspapers, dispatches, telegrams); eyewitness accounts and scientific reports were reviewed from a volcanological perspective and integrated with data from the analysis of deposit features, allowing an accurate reconstruction of the eruption and its dynamics. The 1909 eruption of Chinyero was fed by a compositionally discrete magma batch that ascended rapidly within the crust, producing rather violent pulsating Strombolian explosive activity in the early phases of the eruption. This activity produced a ca. 80 m high scoria cone and heavy fallout of lapilli and ash over the entire northern sector of the island of Tenerife. The energy of explosive activity waned after 3 days, giving way to the weak Strombolian explosive activity that contributed to a lesser extent to the buildup of the pyroclastic pile. Eruptions such as those from the Chinyero vent in 1909 are representative of rift activity on Tenerife and constitute a volcanic hazard for present-day inhabitants.

  12. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

  13. Geographic variability of fatal road traffic injuries in Spain during the period 2002–2004: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Perea-Milla, Emilio; Jimenez-Puente, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to describe the inter-province variability of Road Traffic Injury (RTI) mortality on Spanish roads, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, and to assess the possible role played by the following explicative variables: sociodemographic, structural, climatic and risk conducts. Methods An ecological study design was employed. The mean annual rate of RTI deaths was calculated for the period 2002–2004, adjusted for vehicle-kilometres travelled, in the 50 provinces of Spain. The RTI death rate was related with the independent variables described above, using simple and multiple linear regression analysis with backward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as p < 0.05. Results In the period 2002–2004 there were 12,756 RTI deaths in Spain (an average of 4,242 per year, SD = 356.6). The mean number of deaths due to RTI per 100 million vehicle-kilometres (mvk) travelled was 1.76 (SD = 0.51), with a minimum value of 0.66 (in Santa Cruz de Tenerife) and a maximum of 3.31 (in the province of Lugo). All other variables being equal, a higher proportion of kilometres available on high capacity roads, and a higher cultural and education level were associated with lower death rates due to RTI, while the opposite was true for the rate of alcohol consumers and the road traffic volume of heavy vehicles. The variables included in the model accounted for 55.4% of the variability in RTI mortality. Conclusion Adjusting RTI mortality rates for the number of vehicle-kilometres travelled enables us to identify the high variability of this cause of death, and its relation with risk factors other than those inherent to human behaviour, such as the type of roads and the type of vehicles using them. PMID:17897449

  14. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the Santa Cruz Harbor East Breakwater to Santa Cruz Harbor West...

  15. USEPA Santa Cruz River Public Survey Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Office of Research and Development, Western Ecology Division is investigating how urban households value different possibilities for the Santa Cruz River in southern Arizona. A random sample of households in the Phoenix and Tucson areas are being asked to provide their ...

  16. Characterization of optical turbulence at the solar observatory at the Mount Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprung, Detlev; Sucher, Erik

    2013-10-01

    Optical turbulence represented by the structure function parameter of the refractive index Cn2 is regarded as one of the chief causes of image degradation of ground-based astronomical telescopes operating in visible or infrared wavebands. Especially, it affects the attainable spatial resolution. Therefore since the middle of September 2012 the optical turbulence has been monitored between two German solar telescopes at the Observatory in Tenerife /Canary Islands /Spain. It comprises the solar telescope GREGOR and the vacuum tower telescope VTT mounted on two 30 m high towers. Between the two towers at the level of the telescopes, Cn2 was measured using a Laser-Scintillometer SLS40 (Scintec, Rottenburg, Germany). The horizontal distance of the measurement path was 75 m. The first results of the measurements starting from the 15th September 2012 up to the end of December 2012 are presented and analyzed using simultaneous measured meteorological data of wind, temperature and humidity. Daily and seasonal variations are shown and discussed.

  17. Volatile budget of Tenerife phonolites inferred from combined haüyne-apatite mineral records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Lauren B.; Bachmann, Olivier; Huber, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Intermediate to silicic volcanic eruptions often emit more S than predicted by petrological models -- this is called the "excess S problem." While most common minerals in these magmas are poor in volatile elements, the occurrence of large phenocrysts of S-rich haüyne (up to ~13 wt% SO3) in phonolites holds much promise for better constraining volcanic volatile budgets in differentiated alkaline magmatic systems. We have examined textural zonation patterns in haüyne separates from Tenerife (Spain), using mineral oil to enhance grain transparency. Included phases were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray maps, and Raman spectroscopy. Slow growth of haüyne, inferred from zones with few inclusions, likely represents cooling-induced crystallization from S-rich melt during storage in the upper crust. By contrast, rapid growth of phenocrystic haüyne, generating "wispy" zones containing Fe-rich haüyne laths and zones rich in melt inclusions, fluid inclusions, and Fe-sulfide inclusions, may be associated with magma recharge and/or upward percolation of a low-density fluid phase (i.e., "gas sparging"). Both processes could bring new pulses of S from deep within the magmatic system. Zones containing thousands of fluid inclusions provide direct physical evidence that the melt was fluid-saturated during periods of rapid haüyne growth. Transfer of S-rich fluid should occur in all volatile-rich magmatic systems, including dacitic-rhyolitic arc systems with large S excesses, but is difficult to document in such magmas devoid of a large S-rich mineral phase like haüyne. Apatite, a mineral present in all volcanic rocks, may also contain information about S. We have observed intricate chemical zonation in backscattered electron images of apatite microphenocrysts from the same Tenerife samples. Variations in volatile and trace element concentrations between successive zones (measured via wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and laser ablation-inductively coupled

  18. Columbus's Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Jose Manuel Nieto

    1991-01-01

    Describes fifteenth-century Spain's tendencies that proved central to the Columbian enterprise: experience as a conquering and colonizing kingdom, interest in Atlantic expansion, and missionary inclination. Argues that Columbus's arrival in Spain came at the perfect time in Spanish history. Stresses Spain's long history of religious war, conquest,…

  19. Public Values Related to the Santa Cruz River

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Santa Cruz Basin is a focus geography for EPA Southwestern ecosystem services research, and the focal resource is water. The goal of one component of the Santa Cruz effort is to characterize the ways in which basin residents value the river, and environmental resources relate...

  20. Reconnaissance Report for Navigation Improvements (Reduction of Shoaling) at Santa Cruz Harbor Santa Cruz County, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    HARBOR, IT WAS STATED IN THAT RECONNAISSANCE REPORT SIX YEARS AGO THAT, "THE WORK REMAINING TO BE - 4 - I ACCOMPLISHED CONSISTS OF CONSTRUCTING THE SAND...Department of Earth Sciences Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Water Resources Center, UC Davis 2102 Wickson Hall University of California Davis, CA 95616 I Water ...a slope array located southwest of the harbor in just over 20 feet of water , up to 60,000 yards per year of sand is potentially transported in a

  1. Variation resources at UC Santa Cruz.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daryl J; Trumbower, Heather; Kern, Andrew D; Rhead, Brooke L; Kuhn, Robert M; Haussler, David; Kent, W James

    2007-01-01

    The variation resources within the University of California Santa Cruz Genome Browser include polymorphism data drawn from public collections and analyses of these data, along with their display in the context of other genomic annotations. Primary data from dbSNP is included for many organisms, with added information including genomic alleles and orthologous alleles for closely related organisms. Display filtering and coloring is available by variant type, functional class or other annotations. Annotation of potential errors is highlighted and a genomic alignment of the variant's flanking sequence is displayed. HapMap allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD) are available for each HapMap population, along with non-human primate alleles. The browsing and analysis tools, downloadable data files and links to documentation and other information can be found at http://genome.ucsc.edu/.

  2. STELLA: 10 years of robotic observations on Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Michael; Granzer, Thomas; Strassmeier, Klaus G.

    2016-07-01

    STELLA is a robotic observatory on Tenerife housing two 1.2m robotic telescopes. One telescope is fibre-feeding a high-resolution (R=55,000) échelle spectrograph (SES), while the other telescope is equipped with a visible wide- field (FOV=22' x 22') imaging instrument (WiFSIP). Robotic observations started mid 2006, and the primary scientific driver is monitoring of stellar-activity related phenomena. The STELLA Control System (SCS) software package was originally tailored to the STELLA roll-off style building and high-resolution spectroscopy, but was extended over the years to support the wide-field imager, an off-axis guider for the imager, separate acquisition telescopes, classical domes, and targets-of-opportunity. The SCS allows for unattended, off-line operation of the observatory, targets can be uploaded at any time and are selected based on merit-functions in real-time (dispatch scheduling). We report on the current status of the observatory and the current capabilities of the SCS.

  3. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...—Santa Cruz County”; (7) “Franklin Point Quadrangle, California”; (8) “Half Moon Bay Quadrangle... 400-foot contour line intersect (Half Moon Bay Quadrangle), the boundary line follows Highway...

  4. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...—Santa Cruz County”; (7) “Franklin Point Quadrangle, California”; (8) “Half Moon Bay Quadrangle... 400-foot contour line intersect (Half Moon Bay Quadrangle), the boundary line follows Highway...

  5. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...—Santa Cruz County”; (7) “Franklin Point Quadrangle, California”; (8) “Half Moon Bay Quadrangle... 400-foot contour line intersect (Half Moon Bay Quadrangle), the boundary line follows Highway...

  6. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...—Santa Cruz County”; (7) “Franklin Point Quadrangle, California”; (8) “Half Moon Bay Quadrangle... 400-foot contour line intersect (Half Moon Bay Quadrangle), the boundary line follows Highway...

  7. Streamflow in the upper Santa Cruz River basin, Santa Cruz and Pima Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1970-01-01

    Streamflow records obtained in the upper Santa Cruz River basin of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico, have been analyzed to aid in the appraisal of the surface-water resources of the area. Records are available for 15 sites, and the length of record ranges from 60 years for the gaging station on the Santa .Cruz River at Tucson to 6 years for Pantano Wash near Vail. The analysis provides information on flow duration, low-flow frequency magnitude, flood-volume frequency and magnitude, and storage requirements to maintain selected draft rates. Flood-peak information collected from the gaging stations has been projected on a regional basis from which estimates of flood magnitude and frequency may be made for any site in the basin. Most streams in the 3,503-square-mile basin are ephemeral. Ground water sustains low flows only at Santa Cruz River near Nogales, Sonoita Creek near Patagonia, and Pantano Wash near Vail. Elsewhere, flow occurs only in direct response to precipitation. The median number of days per year in which there is no flow ranges from 4 at Sonoita Creek near Patagonia to 335 at Rillito Creek near Tomson. The streamflow is extremely variable from year to year, and annual flows have a coefficient of variation close to or exceeding unity at most stations. Although the amount of flow in the basin is small most of the time, the area is subject to floods. Most floods result from high-intensity precipitation caused by thunderstorms during the period ,July to September. Occasionally, when snowfall at the lower altitudes is followed by rain, winter floods produce large volumes of flow.

  8. Energy released at Teide Volcano,Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, D. L.; Perez, N. M.; Marrero, R.

    2003-12-01

    Teide volcano (3715 m high) is located at the northern scarp of the Las Ca¤adas caldera, a large depression at the center of Tenerife Island. Las Ca¤adas has been produced by multiple episodes of caldera collapse and giant landslides. The basanite-phonolite magmatic system associated with Teide volcano is emitting gases that reach the summit producing weak fumaroles. The chemical composition of these fumaroles and the flux of diffuse soil CO2 degassing at the summit cone (0.5 km2) has been used to determine the energy released as passive degassing in this volcano. Previous investigations show that Teide's summit is emitting 400 tons m2 day-1 of CO2 to the atmosphere. The composition of CH4, CO2, CO, and H2O indicate a chemical equilibrium temperature of 234° C and 75% condensation of water vapor within the volcanic edifice (Chiodini and Marini, 1998). The composition of the gases before condensation was restored and assumed to represent the composition at the equilibrium zone. The energy stored by the gases at the equilibration zone is assumed to be released as the gases move towards the discharge zone. The following processes are considered: change in pressure and temperature for water from the equilibration zone to the zone of condensation, latent heat released during the water condensation process, cooling of the condensed water from the condensation temperature to ambient temperature, and change of pressure and temperature for CO2 from the equilibrium to the discharge zone. Thermodynamic calculations of the energy released in each one of these processes indicate that 144 MW are released at Teide. Energy flux is 288 MW m-2. Most of this energy is released during the condensation process. This energy output compares with other hydrothermal systems of the world. These results show that during periods of passive degassing, fumarolic activity is limited by the geometry and elevation of the volcanic structure and the internal thermodynamic conditions.

  9. Earthquake site response in Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carver, D.; Hartzell, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Aftershocks of the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake are used to estimate site response in a 12-km2 area centered on downtown Santa Cruz. A total of 258 S-wave records from 36 aftershocks recorded at 33 sites are used in a linear inversion for site-response spectra. The inversion scheme takes advantage of the redundancy of the large data set for which several aftershocks are recorded at each site. The scheme decomposes the observed spectra into source, path, and site terms. The path term is specified before the inversion. The undetermined degree of freedom in the decomposition into source and site spectra is removed by specifying the site-response factor to be approximately 1.0 at two sites on crystalline bedrock. The S-wave site responses correlate well with the surficial geology and observed damage pattern of the mainshock. The site-response spectra of the floodplain sites, which include the heavily damaged downtown area, exhibit significant peaks. The largest peaks are between 1 and 4 Hz. Five floodplain sites have amplification factors of 10 or greater. Most of the floodplain site-response spectra also have a smaller secondary peak between 6 and 8 Hz. Residential areas built on marine terraces above the flood-plain experienced much less severe damage. Site-response spectra for these areas also have their largest peaks between 1 and 4 Hz, but the amplification is generally below 6. Several of these sites also have a secondary peak between 6 and 8 Hz. The response peaks seen at nearly all sites between 1 and 4 Hz are probably caused by the natural resonance of the sedimentary rock column. The higher amplifications at floodplain sites may be caused by surface waves generated at the basin margins. The secondary peak between 6 and 8 Hz at many sites may be a harmonic of the 1- to 4-Hz peaks. We used waveforms from a seven-station approximately linear array located on the floodplain to calculate the apparent velocity and azimuth of propagation of coherent

  10. 75 FR 44806 - Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge, Santa Cruz County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Ellicott Slough National Wildlife Refuge, Santa Cruz County, CA AGENCY: Fish... Refuge, located in Santa Cruz County, California, consists of three noncontiguous units within and... Santa Cruz long-toed salamander by supporting 2 of the 20 known breeding populations of the...

  11. Are closed landfills free of CH_{4} emissions? A case study of Arico's landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, José; Cook, Jenny; Phillips, Victoria; Asensio-Ramos, María; Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Landfills are authentic chemical and biological reactors that introduce in the environment a wide amount of gas pollutants (CO2, CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) and leachates. Even after years of being closed, a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through the surface in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission. The study of the spatial-temporal distribution of diffuse emissions provides information of how a landfill degassing takes place. The main objective of this study was to estimate the diffuse uncontrolled emission of CH4 into the atmosphere from the closed Arico's landfill (0.3 km2) in Tenerife Island, Spain. To do so, a non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of nearly 450 sampling sites was carried out during August 2015. Surface gas sampling and surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases, CO2 and CH4, were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. The CH4 efflux was computed combining CO2 efflux and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. The total diffuse CH4 emission was estimated in 2.2 t d-1, with CH4 efflux values ranging from 0-922 mg m-2 d-1. This type of studies provides knowledge of how a landfill degasses and serves to public and private entities to establish effective systems for extraction of biogas. This aims not only to achieve higher levels of controlled gas release from landfills resulting in a higher level of energy production but also will contribute to minimize air pollution caused by them.

  12. Seafloor off Lighthouse Point Park, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Lighthouse Point Park, Santa Cruz, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet).

  13. Seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet).

  14. Seafloor off Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet)

  15. Wide-angle seismic constraints on the internal structure of Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, J. P.; Dañobeitia, J. J.; Watts, A. B.

    2000-12-01

    We have used wide-angle seismic data to constrain the internal structure of Tenerife, Canary Islands. The experiment was designed as a seismic fan profile to detect azimuthal variations in the seismic structure of the volcanic edifice and its flanks. Seismic energy was generated using a 75-l airgun-array on board the RRS Charles Darwin fired every 40 s along a quasi-circular profile around the island of Tenerife, centered on Teide volcano. We present the results obtained from the data recorded by five portable land stations distributed on the island. The travel-times indicate that the averaged P-wave velocity within the volcanic edifice is greater than 6 km/s. The observed travel-times were reduced to residual travel-times by removing the effects of variations in the bathymetry along the profile, variations in the shot-receiver distance, and from local heterogeneities. Negative residual travel-times up to 0.8 s in amplitude indicate that the southwestern part of Tenerife is characterized by a high P-wave velocity zone, coincident with a gravity maximum that was previously modeled as a high-density body forming the core of an old, large mafic volcano. We estimate velocities greater than 7.3 km/s within the anomalous body, suggesting that it represents an intrusive plutonic complex. This high-velocity, high-density body may have played an important role in the evolution of Tenerife, buttressing Las Cañadas edifice and preventing the occurrence of landslides in the southern and western areas of Tenerife. The bathymetric high between Tenerife and La Gomera is associated with travel-time delays up to 0.4 s, suggesting that it may be composed of large deposits of lava flows and volcaniclastic materials, probably erupted from the shield massifs of Teno, Roque del Conde, and La Gomera. The post-shield volcanic zones of Santiago and Dorsal rifts also seem to be characterized by moderate high P-wave velocities.

  16. Assessing the potential for pesticide leaching for the pine forest areas of Tenerife.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Diaz, R; Loague, K

    2001-09-01

    Currently, no guidelines cover use of pesticides in the forested areas of the Canary island of Tenerife. An index-based model (Li) was used to rank the leaching potential of 50 pesticides that are, or could be, used for management purposes in the pine forest areas of Tenerife. Once the pesticides with the greatest leaching potential were identified, regional-scale groundwater vulnerability assessments, with consideration for data uncertainties, were generated using soil, climatic, and chemical information in a geographic information system framework for all pine forest areas of the island. Process-based simulations with the pesticide root zone model for the areas and pesticides of highest vulnerability were conducted to quantitatively characterize the leaching potentials. Carbofuran, hexazinone, picloram, tebuthiuron, and triclopyr were each identified as being potential leachers.

  17. Object-based detection of LUCC with special regard to agricultural abandonment on Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günthert, Sebastian; Siegmund, Alexander; Thunig, Holger; Michel, Ulrich

    2011-11-01

    The island Tenerife has always been used for intensive agriculture, whereby the natural landscape was continuously altered. Especially mountainous areas with suitable climate conditions have been drastically transformed for agricultural use by building of large terraces to get flat surfaces. In recent decades political and economic developments lead to a transformation process (especially inducted by an expansive tourism), which caused concentration- and intensificationtendencies of agricultural land use as well as agricultural set-aside and rural exodus. In order to get information about the land use and land cover (LULC) patterns and especially the agricultural dynamics on Tenerife, a multi-scale, knowledge-based classification procedure for recent RapidEye data was developed. Furthermore, a second detection technique was generated, which allows an exact identification of the total ever utilised agricultural area on Tenerife, also containing older agricultural fallow land or agricultural set-aside with a higher level of natural succession (under the assumption that long-term fallow areas can be detected mainly together with old agricultural terraces and its specific linear texture). These areas can hardly be acquired in the used satellite imagery. The method consists of an automatic texture-oriented detection and area-wide extraction of linear agricultural structures (plough furrows and field boundaries of arable land, utilised and non-utilised agricultural terraces) in current orthophotos of Tenerife. Through the detection of recent agricultural land use in the satellite imagery and total ever utilised agricultural area in the orthophotos, it is possible to define the total non-active agricultural land as well as hot spots of agricultural decrease.

  18. Geochemistry of Isla Santa Cruz, Galapagos Archipelago, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, E. L.; Schwartz, D. M.; Van Kirk, R.; Harpp, K.

    2012-12-01

    The geochemistry of Galapagos volcanoes extends to more depleted signatures than most hotspots, and do not appear to follow a classical tholeiitic to alkalic evolutionary sequence (i.e., Hawaiian Islands). Thus far, no such predictable sequence has been identified for Galapagos volcanoes. Isla Santa Cruz is one of the oldest volcanoes in the archipelago. Bow (1979) identified 3 volcanic stages: the Platform Series, the Shield Series, and the Shield-Modifying stage. The Platform Series defines a liquid line of descent that differs from the one shared by the Shield and Shield-Modifying units, which are genetically related to each other. Within the Shield and Shield-Modifying lavas, K2O/TiO2 ratios reveal three distinct compositional sub-groups: 1) a MORB-like, low-K suite (<0.10); 2) a tholeiitic suite (0.10-0.25); and 3) an alkaline suite (>0.25). These 3 sub-groups are geographically distributed across the island; the low-K suite is only in the north, whereas the alkaline suite constitutes the center highlands and the tholeiitic suite is on the eastern and northern flanks. Variations in La/Sm and Sm/Yb indicate that the magmas supplying the Shield and Shield-Modifying units were generated over a wide range of melting conditions: the alkaline suite melts were generated at the greatest depths and from the smallest melt fraction of the three suites, whereas the low-K suite originates from shallower, greater extents of melting; the tholeiitic lavas were generated at depths intermediate between the other 2 sub-groups. None of the lavas from Santa Cruz resemble material erupted at Fernandina volcano, the presumed center of the plume; radiogenic isotope ratios from previous research indicate that all Santa Cruz lavas are significantly more depleted than western Galapagos lavas. The ~1.2 Ma Platform Series is the most enriched of the Santa Cruz units. The Shield and Shield-Modifying lavas are all shifted towards more depleted signatures, approaching those of MORB, in terms

  19. Reappraisal of the extinction of Canariomys bravoi, the giant rat from Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, Juan Carlos; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Galván, Bertila; Navarro, Juan Francisco

    2014-06-01

    All the Quaternary endemic rodents of the Canary Islands are currently extinct. The Lava Mouse Malpaisomys insularis inhabited the easternmost islands, whereas the giant rats Canariomys bravoi and Canariomys tamarani lived in the central islands of Tenerife and Gran Canaria, respectively. Bones of C. bravoi have appeared in archaeological sites together with shellfish and butchery remains. Traditionally, they have been considered as an evidence of the sporadic consumption of C. bravoi by the aboriginal people, in some instances as recently as the time of the first European contact (14th century AD). Accordingly, the extinction of C. bravoi has been linked to the European colonization of Tenerife. The plausibility of this extinction date has been explored through new radiocarbon dates obtained on selected C. bravoi bones and through a reappraisal of the published dates. Our analysis allowed us to establish an earlier last documented occurrence age for C. bravoi, prior to the third century cal BC, much earlier than previously assumed. The analysis of formerly published 14C dates of archaeological remains from Tenerife shows that samples with confidence intervals (95.54%) that are older or overlap with the last documented record of C. bravoi were performed on materials with large sources of error (such as wood, charcoal or bulk ash-sediments). Conversely, the new radiocarbon dates and analyses presented herein are in agreement with the occurrence of an earlier rapid extinction linked to the first human presence on the island.

  20. Mycobacterium fortuitum Cruz from the tropical fish Hyphessobrycon innesi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Brancato, F.P.

    1959-01-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum, a rapid-growing, acid-fast bacillus, isolated from a cold abscess of human origin was described by Cruz (1938). Gordon and Smith (1955), in a taxonomic study embracing a group of acid-fast bacteria capable of relatively rapid growth on ordinary media, classified a number of cultures in their collection as M. fortuitum Cruz. In this group were strains isolated from human beings, cattle, soil, and cold-blooded animals including marine fishes. The present study was undertaken to determine the identity of a rapid-growing, acid-fast bacillus isolated at the New York Aquarium from lesions present in a population of freshwater tropical fishes commonly known as the Neon Tetra (Hyphessobrycon innesi). The symptomatology and pathology of this disease have been described by Nigrelli (1953).

  1. Soil chemistry and mineralogy of the Santa Cruz coastal terraces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinney, Colin; Aniku, Jacob; Burke, Raymond; Harden, Jennifer; Singer, Michael; Munster, Jennie

    2002-01-01

    Marine terraces in the central coast of California provide an opportunity to study a soil chronosequence in which similar materials (beach deposits) have been weathered under similar slope, climatic, and vegetation conditions during the Quaternary. The terraces between Santa Cruz and Año Nuevo, California, have been studied for decades and are thought to be one of the best example of marine terraces in California {Lawson (1893), Wilson (1907); Branner and others (1909), Rode (1930) Page and Holmes (1945), Alexander (1953), Bradley (1956, 1957, 1958, and 1965), Bradley and Addicott (1968), Clark (1966 and 1970), Jahns and Hamilton (1971), Lajoie and others (1972), Bradley and Griggs (1976). Hanks and others (1986), Aniku (1986), Fine and others (1988), Anderson (1990 and 1994), and Rosenbloom and Anderson (1994).} Here we report morphological, chemical, physical, and mineralogical data for the soils that were formed in deposits on the Santa Cruz marine terraces in order to examine soil characteristics as a function of increasing terrace age.

  2. Late Quaternary slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Lueddecke, S.B.; Keller, E.A.; Simmons, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The style, timing, and pattern of slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault were investigated by trenching the fault and by analysis of offset late Quaternary landforms. A trench excavated across the fault at Christi Beach, on the western coast of the island, exposed deformation of latest Pleistocene to Holocene sediments and pre-Quaternary rocks, recording repeated large-magnitude rupture events. The most recent earthquake at this site occurred ca. 5 ka. Coastal terraces preserved on western Santa Cruz Island have been dated using the uranium-series technique and by extrapolation using terrace elevations and the eustatic record. Offset of terraces and other landforms indicates that the Santa Cruz Island fault is predominantly left lateral, having a horizontal slip rate of not more than 1.1 mm/yr and probably about 0.8 mm/yr. The fault also has a smaller reverse component, slipping at a rate of between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/yr. Combined with measurements of slip per event, this information suggests a long-term average recurrence interval of at least 2.7 k.y. and probably 4-5 k.y., and average earthquake magnitudes of Mw 7.2-7.5. Sense of slip, recurrence interval, and earthquake magnitudes calculated here for the Santa Cruz Island fault are very similar to recent results for other faults along the southern margin of the western Transverse Range, including the Malibu Coast fault, the Santa Monica fault, the Hollywood fault, and the Raymond fault, supporting the contention that these faults constitute a continuous and linked fault system, which is characterized by large but relatively infrequent earthquakes.

  3. Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

    1999-05-08

    Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space.

  4. Fractal Analysis of Enclaves as a New Tool for Estimating Rheological Properties of Magmas During Mixing: The Case of Montaña Reventada (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Helena; Perugini, Diego; Martí, Joan

    2015-07-01

    The volcanic unit of Montaña Reventada on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) is an example of magma mingling and mixing in which the eruptive process was triggered by an intrusion of basanite into a phonolite magma chamber. The eruption started with emplacement of a basanitic scoria deposit followed by emplacement of a phonolitic lava flow characterized by the presence of mafic enclaves. These enclaves represent approximately 1 % of the outcrop and are basanitic, phono-tephritic and tephri-phonolitic in composition. The morphology of each enclave is different, varying from rounded to complex finger-like structures usually with cuspate terminations. In this study we quantified textural heterogeneity related to the enclaves generated by the mixing process and thus provided a new perspective on the 1100 Ad Montaña Reventada eruption. The textural study was performed by use of fractal geometry methods and the results show that the logarithm of the viscosity ratio between the phonolitic magma and the enclaves ranges between 0.39 and 0.81, with a mode at 0.49. This enables us to infer the water content is 2-2.5 wt% for the phonolitic magma and 1.5-2 wt% for the basanitic magma and the enclaves.

  5. Historical review of clinical vaccine studies at Oswaldo Cruz Institute and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - technological development issues

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Reinaldo de Menezes; Possas, Cristina de Albuquerque; Homma, Akira

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, from the perspective of technological development and production, the results of an investigation examining 61 clinical studies with vaccines conducted in Brazil between 1938-2013, with the participation of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC) and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz). These studies have been identified and reviewed according to criteria, such as the kind of vaccine (viral, bacterial, parasitic), their rationale, design and methodological strategies. The results indicate that IOC and Fiocruz have accumulated along this time significant knowledge and experience for the performance of studies in all clinical phases and are prepared for the development of new vaccines products and processes. We recommend national policy strategies to overcome existing regulatory and financing constraints. PMID:25742271

  6. The late Quaternary Diego Hernandez Formation, Tenerife: Volcanology of a complex cycle of voluminous explosive phonolitic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, C. J.; Wolff, J. A.; Olin, P. H.; Nichols, H. J.; Pittari, A.; Cas, R. A. F.; Reiners, P. W.; Spell, T. L.; Martí, J.

    2007-02-01

    The Diego Hernandez Formation (DHF; 600-ca. 180 ka) represents the products of the most recent complete cycle of phonolitic explosive volcanism on Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). We provide a revised and detailed stratigraphy, new 40Ar/ 39Ar and (U-Th)/He age determinations for major eruptive units, a summary of new chemical data and an overview of the key characteristics of the cycle, including volume estimates, dispersal patterns, eruption styles, phreatomagmatic influences and caldera collapse episodes. The complex stratigraphy of the DHF is divided into 20 named members, each representing a major eruption, as well as numerous unnamed members of limited present-day exposure. The major eruptions are represented by the Fortaleza (370 ka), Roque (347 ka, 3 km 3), Aldea (319 ka, 3 km 3), Fasnia (309 ka, 13 km 3), Poris (268 ka, 3.5 km 3), Arafo (4 km 3), Caleta (223 ka, 3.5 km 3) and Abrigo (between 196 and 171 ka, 20 km 3) Members. The Aldea, Fasnia and Poris Members consist of highly complex successions of plinian fall, surge and flow deposits and several of the eruptions produced widespread and internally complex ignimbrite sheets. Phreatomagmatism occurred most frequently in the opening phase of the eruptions but also recurred repeatedly throughout many of the sequences. Inferred sources of water include a shallow caldera lake and groundwater, and intermittent phreatomagmatic activity was an important influence on eruption style. Another important factor was conduit and vent instability, which frequently loaded the eruption column with dense lithic debris and occasionally triggered column collapse and ignimbrite formation. Most of the major DHF eruptions were triggered by injection of mafic magma into existing phonolitic magma bodies. Two phonolitic magma types were available for eruption during the lifetime of the DHF, but each was dominant at different times. The results presented here support a caldera collapse rather than a landslide model for the origin

  7. Surface geochemical survey for geothermal exploration in the south-east zone of Tenerife Island, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Requejo, M.; Marrero, R.; Padron, E.; Melian, G.; Guerrero, V.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N.; Hidalgo, R.

    2009-12-01

    Water and gas sampling of natural discharges are the most common type of geochemical surveys for geothermal exploration. However, these natural discharges are generally scarces at geothermal exploration areas where the extent of the field is not known. Therefore, soil-volatile (Hg, As, Sb, NH3 and B) and soil-gas surveys (222Rn, CO2, He, H2, CH4, O2, Ar) are becoming a useful geochemical tool to identify permeable areas and potential upflow or boiling zones. These surveys can also help to delineate the margins of a geothermal system, and therefore often complement geophysical surveys particularly where the interpretation of geophysical data shows some difficulties. During July and August, 2008, a surface geochemical survey was undertaken in a ~120 km2 area at the south-east slope of Tenerife Island, Spain. In order to obtain a representative distribution of the whole study area, during the field work a total of 577 sampling points were performed. In-situ measurement of radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) activities together with Hg0 and H2S gas concentration and CO2 and H2S soil effluxes were performed at each sampling point. At the same time, gas samples were taken from the soil atmosphere at 40 cm depth for subsequent chemical analysis by means of micro-gas chromatography and quadrupole mass spectrometry (He, H2, Ne, N2, CO2, CH4, Ar and CO2). At least two geochemical anomalous zones have been identified in the present work: (A) one close to Siete Fuentes-Fasnia historical vents (1704-1705 AD) and (B) located on the southwestern limit of the study area. Relatively high concentrations of H2 and ΔHe as well as high H2/Ar and He/CO2 ratios were observed at both zones, indicating a clear evidence of the existence of an upflow zone with an important contribution of endogenous gases. The existence of a volcanic-hydrothermal system coupled with a vertical permeability structures in both zones could explain these geochemical anomalies observed in the surface environment

  8. What is controlling spectral reflectance of lava flows? First results of a field spectrometric survey of volcanic surfaces on Tenerife Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Kervyn, Matthieu; Solana, Carmen; Canters, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Space-based remote sensing techniques have demonstrated their great value in volcanic studies thanks to their synoptic spatial coverage and the repeated acquisitions. On satellite images, volcanic surfaces display a wide range of colors, and therefore contrasted reflectance spectra. Understanding the factors controlling the spectral reflectance of volcanic materials at different wavelength is essential to mapping volcanic areas. Detailed investigation into spectra of volcanic materials are, however, restricted due to the trade-off between spatial and spectral resolution of space-based sensors, such as Hyperion imagery that allows resolving 220 spectral bands ranging from 400 to 2500 nm with a spatial resolution of 30 meters. In order to better understand reflectance of volcanic materials, especially lava, a field campaign was launched in Tenerife Island, Spain in November 2013 with an ASD FieldSpec 3 to document the reflectance spectra of historical mafic lava flow surfaces. 20 specific lava and lapilli surfaces, with contrasted age, surface roughness, weathering condition and vegetation coverage were characterized, using a systematic recording method documenting the spectra's variability within a 15×15 m2 area. Results show that all the volcanic materials have great differences in spectral reflectance. Among them, lava's reflectance is low but still slightly higher than that of lapilli. Comparison of rough and smooth lava surfaces on the same lava flow suggests that roughness tends to increase the reflectance of lava surfaces. Also, vegetation and lichen alter lava's reflectance in some spectral regions, especially through a rise in the near infrared part of the spectrum. It is therefore suggested that reflectance spectra of lava evolve over time due to weathering processes, such as chemical alteration and growth of lichen and moss. In addition, it is possible to compare field measurements with spectra derived from Hyperion imagery, resulting in a strong match

  9. Space Radar Image of Santa Cruz Island, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image shows the rugged topography of Santa Cruz Island, part of the Channel Islands National Park in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Santa Barbara and Ventura, Calif. Santa Cruz, the largest island of the national park, is host to hundreds of species of plants, animals and birds, at least eight of which are known nowhere else in the world. The island is bisected by the Santa Cruz Island fault, which appears as a prominent line running from the upper left to the lower right in this image. The fault is part of the Transverse Range fault system, which extends eastward from this area across Los Angeles to near Palm Springs, Calif. Color variations in this image are related to the different types of vegetation and soils at the surface. For example, grass-covered coastal lowlands appear gold, while chaparral and other scrub areas appear pink and blue. The image is 35 kilometers by 32 kilometers (22 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 33.8 degrees north latitude, 119.6 degrees west longitude. North is toward upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  10. Tucson's Santa Cruz River and the Arroyo Legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, Julio Luis

    1990-01-01

    Between 1865 and 1915, arroyos developed in the southwestern United States across diverse hydrological, ecological and cultural settings. That they developed simultaneously has encouraged the search for a common cause --some phenomenon that was equally widespread and synchronous. There are few southwestern streams for which we have even a qualitative understanding of timelines and processes involved in initiation and extension of historic arroyos. Tucson's Santa Cruz River, often cited in the arroyo literature, offers a unique opportunity to chronicle the arroyo legacy and evaluate its causes. The present study reconstructs both the physical and cultural circumstances of channel entrenchment along the Santa Cruz River. Primary data include newspaper accounts, notes and plants of General Land Office surveys, eyewitness accounts, legal depositions, and repeat photography. On the Santa Cruz River, arroyo initiation and extension happened during relatively wet decades associated with frequent warm episodes in the tropical Pacific (El Nino conditions). Intensified El Nino activity during the period 1864-1891 may be symptomatic of long-term climatic change, perhaps indicative of global warming and destabilization of Pacific climate at the end of the Little Ice Age. During this period all but one of the years registering more than three days with rain exceeding 2.54 cm (1 in) in Tucson were El Nino events. The one exception was the summer of 1890, when the central equatorial Pacific was relatively cold but when prevailing low-surface pressures and low -level winds nevertheless steered tropical moisture from the west coast of Mexico into southern Arizona. In the twentieth century, catastrophic channel widening was caused by floods during El Nino events in 1905, 1915, 1977 and 1983. The Santa Cruz River arroyo formed when climatic conditions heightened the probabilities for occurrence of large floods in southern Arizona. Inadequate engineering of ditches that resulted in

  11. Prevalence of Diabetes on Santa Cruz Island in Galapagos Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tahseen

    2015-01-01

    This was an observational study offering a screening program for diabetes in a health clinic in Puerto Ayora town on Santa Cruz Island to determine the prevalence of this disorder and identify those at risk. A 1-month screening program was undertaken. Of 141 patients screened, 85% of men and 83% of women were overweight or obese; 16 (11%) had suspected undiagnosed diabetes and 22 (16%) were at high risk of developing diabetes. This is the first reported study of glucose intolerance prevalence in Galapagos. Urgent education and prevention programs are required to address this public health problem. PMID:26086607

  12. New Cosmological Structures on Medium Angular Scales Detected with the Tenerife Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, C. M.; Hancock, S.; Davies, R. D.; Rebolo, R.; Watson, R. A.; Hoyland, R. J.; Lasenby, A. N.; Jones, A. W.

    1997-05-01

    We present observations at 10 and 15 GHz taken with the Tenerife experiments in a band of the sky at declination +35°. These experiments are sensitive to multipoles in the range l = 10-30. The sensitivities per beam are 56 and 20 μK for the 10 and 15 GHz data, respectively. After subtraction of the prediction of known radio sources, the analysis of the data at 15 GHz at high Galactic latitude shows the presence of a signal with amplitude ΔTrms ~ 32 μK. In the case of a Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum for the primordial fluctuations, a likelihood analysis shows that this signal corresponds to a quadrupole amplitude Qrms-PS = 20.1+7.1-5.4 μK, in agreement with our previous results at declination +40° and with the results of the COBE DMR. There is clear evidence for the presence of individual features in the right ascension range 190°-250° with a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~110 μK. A preliminary comparison between our results and COBE DMR predictions for the Tenerife experiments clearly indicates the presence of individual features common to both. The constancy in amplitude over such a large range in frequency (10-90 GHz) is strongly indicative of an intrinsic cosmological origin for these structures.

  13. Bimodal magmatism during the Diego Hernández Formation, Tenerife, Canary Islands: genesis and eruption-triggering of phonolitic magmas during ongoing mafic volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olin, P. H.; Wolff, J. A.; Edgar, C. J.; Cas, R.; Martí, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Diego Hernández Formation (DHF) represents the explosive eruption of nearly 70 cubic km of phonolite over approximately 200 k.y. from the Las Cañadas caldera on Tenerife. Four chemostratigraphic units are distinguished on the basis of trace element contents: DHF bs (represented by the 370 ka Fortaleza and 347 ka Roque Members), DHF I (319 ka Aldea, 309 ka Fasnia, and 268 ka Poris Members), DHF II (Arafo and 223 ka Caleta Members), and DHF III (Cruz Sequence and the 196 ka Abrigo Member); all named units involve plinian and/or ignimbrite components that devastated a significant fraction of the island [1]. These chemostratigraphic units demarcate two dominant compositional trends distinct in incompatible element contents, and in Nb/Ta and REE ratios. DHF bs and DHF III plot along a high-Nb trend, and DHF I and DHF II plot along a low-Nb trend, a feature consistent with divergent fractionation histories involving titanite. Mafic magma was an important component of the DHF magmatic system and flanking mafic volcanism was ongoing during DHF time. Major phonolitic eruptions are conformably bounded by basanitic lavas and scoria deposits. Mafic magmatic components are identifiable in many of the phonolitic pyroclastic deposits as mafic, mingled and banded pumices, or as quenched mafic enclaves. Mafic components in the Abrigo, Caleta, and Poris Members are nearly geochemically identical to the underlying scoria or lava, suggesting that flanking mafic volcanism may in some cases be associated with subcaldera intrusive events that remobilize phonolitic magma to trigger major explosive eruptions. We envisage that the DHF represents a time when the intrusion of mantle-derived mafic magma in the lower crust supplied heat sufficient for the generation of intermediate tephriphonolite and phonotephrite magmas via melting of gabbroic/basaltic crust. Some of these intermediate magmas evolved to phonolite by crystal fractionation, a scenario consistent with DHF III

  14. Non-Controlled Biogenic Emission of CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0 from Lazareto's Landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolasco, D.; Lima, R.; Salazar, J.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.

    2002-12-01

    Landfills are important sources of contaminant gases to the surrounding environment and a significant amount of them could be released to the atmosphere through the surface environment in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission of landfill gases. CH4 and CO2 are major components in landfill gases and other gas species are only present in minor amounts. Trace compounds include both inorganic and a large number of volatile organic components. The goal of this study is to evaluate the non-controlled biogenic emission of inorganic toxic gases from Lazareto's landfill. Which is located in the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, with a population of about 150,000, and is used as a Palm tree park. Lazareto's landfill has an extension of 0.22 Km2 and it is not operative since 1980. A non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of 281 sampling sites was carried out from February tod March, 2002. Surface CO2 efflux measurements were performed by means of a portable NDIR sensor according with the accumulation chamber method. Surface CO2 efflux ranged from negligible values up to 30,600 gm-2d-1. At each sampling site, surface landfill gas samples were collected at 40 cm depth using a metallic soil probe. These gas samples were analyzed within 24 hours for major and inorganic toxic gas species by means of microGC and specific electrochemical sensors. The highest concentrations of CO, H2S, NH3 and Hg0 were 3, 20, 2,227, 0.010 ppmV, respectively. Non-controlled biogenic emission rate of CO, H2S, NH3, and Hg0 were estimated by multiplying the observed surface CO2 efflux times (Inorganic Toxic Gas)i/CO2 weight ratio at each sampling site, respectively. The highest surface inorganic toxic gas efllux rates were 699 gm-2d-1 for NH3, 81, 431 and 4 mgm-2d-1 for CO, H2S and Hg0, respectively. Taking into consideration the spatial distribution of the inorganic toxic gas efflux values as well as the extension of the landfill, the non-controlled biogenic emission of CO, H2S, NH3

  15. Hazard assessment at Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Joan; Sobradelo, Rosa; Felpeto, Alicia

    2010-05-01

    Mid to long-term hazard assessment is conducted at Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex as a first step to evaluate volcanic risk in Tenerife, a densely populated island that is one of the biggest tourist destinations in Europe. Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes started to grow up in the interior of the Las Cañadas caldera, in the central part of Tenerife, about 190 ka ago, after the formation of the youngest sector of the caldera. Since then they have produced more than 150 km3 of rocks which represent a complete basanite to phonolite series. Eruptive activity at Teide-Pico Viejo complex has been traditionally considered as mostly effusive, but new field data has revealed that explosive activity of phonolitic and basaltic magmas, including plinian and subplinian eruptions and the generation of a wide range of PDCs, has also been significant, particularly during the last 30 ka. Most of the Teide products have been emplaced towards the north, inside the Icod and La Orotava valleys, or at the interior of the caldera, while towards the south the caldera wall has stopped the emplacement of such products from going further. The last eruption from the Teide-Pico Viejo central vents, the Lavas Negras eruption, took place about 1000 years ago, but younger eruptive episodes have occurred along the flanks of these stratovolcanoes. Despite the occurrence of numerous eruptions during the last 30 ka and the existence of unequivocal signs of activity in historical times (fumaroles, seismicity) and, even, a clear unrest episode that started in 2004 and is still ongoing, Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes have not been considered as a major threat by some scientists and also by the local authorities who have dedicated minimum attention to them in the recently approved regional emergency plan. If this view prevails it is obvious that risk mitigation in Tenerife will not succeed. In order to contribute to change that view on the danger potential of Teide-Pico Viejo, and to insist on the

  16. [Don Rodolfo Armas Cruz: physician, professor and teacher].

    PubMed

    1996-05-01

    The present issue of Revista Médica de Chile contains tributes to the late Profesor Rodolfo Armas Cruz prepared by the Editors and, by invitation by two of his closest disciples and collaborators. With the decease of Professor Dr Rodolfo Armas Cruz on November 26, 1995, disappeared a representative of a medical generation, whose unique work transformed national medical tasks, lending prestige to Chilean medicine. His peers recognized in him as a distinguished master and his work was so vast that is difficult to underscore a particular aspect. Over and above his books and scientific reports, remains the testimony of hundreds of his disciples distributed along Chile that, marked by his teachings trying to follow his path. The honors, awards and titles never separated him from an austere way of life, dedicated to work besides the ill, his students and his beloved Medical Service at the San Juan de Dios Hospital. His transcendental name and work, incorporated to the history of Chilean medicine, will be an example for actual and future medical generations.

  17. 77 FR 49862 - Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Union Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company (SCMB), a noncarrier...). The Line, known as the Santa Cruz Branch, extends from milepost 0.433 at the east boundary of...

  18. 77 FR 49863 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Railways-Continuance in Control Exemption-Santa Cruz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Control Exemption--Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC, and Permian....2(d)(2) to continue in control of Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company (SCMB) upon SCMB's... Pacific Railroad Company (UP). The Line, known as the Santa Cruz Branch, extends from milepost 0.433...

  19. 77 FR 49862 - Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company-Assignment of Lease Exemption-Union Pacific Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Surface Transportation Board Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company--Assignment of Lease Exemption--Union Pacific Railroad Company and Sierra Northern Railway Santa Cruz and Monterey Bay Railway Company...) owned by Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP). The Line, known as the Santa Cruz Branch, extends...

  20. 76 FR 6154 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Lands in Santa Cruz County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Lands in Santa Cruz County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty... public land consisting of approximately 12.55 acres in Santa Cruz County, California, for not less than..., 2, and 9. The area described contains 12.55 acres, more or less, in Santa Cruz County. The...

  1. Detection and assessment of land use dynamics on Tenerife (Canary Islands): the agricultural development between 1986 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günthert, Sebastian; Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Since Spanish colonial times, the Canary Islands and especially Tenerife have always been used for intensive agriculture. Today almost 1/4 of the total area of Tenerife are agriculturally affected, whereas especially mountainous areas with suitable climate conditions are drastically transformed for agricultural use by building of large terraces. In recent years, political and economical developments lead to a further transformation process, especially inducted by an expansive tourism, which caused concentration- and intensification-tendencies of agricultural land use in lower altitudes as well as agricultural set-aside and rural exodus in the hinterland. The overall aim of the research at hand is to address the agricultural land use dynamics of the past decades, to statistically assess the causal reasons for those changes and to model the future agricultural land use dynamics on Tenerife. Therefore, an object-based classification procedure for recent RapidEye data (2010), Spot 4 (1998) as well as SPOT 1 (1986-88) imagery was developed, followed by a post classification comparison (PCC). Older agricultural fallow land or agricultural set-aside with a higher level of natural succession can hardly be acquired in the used medium satellite imagery. Hence, a second detection technique was generated, which allows an exact identification of the total agriculturally affected area on Tenerife, also containing older agricultural fallow land or agricultural set-aside. The method consists of an automatic texture-oriented detection and area-wide extraction of linear agricultural structures (plough furrows and field boundaries of arable land, utilised and non-utilised agricultural terraces) in current orthophotos of Tenerife. Once the change detection analysis is realised, it is necessary to identify the different driving forces which are responsible for the agricultural land use dynamics. The statistical connections between agricultural land use changes and these driving forces

  2. Loma Prieta earthquake, October 17, 1989, Santa Cruz County, California

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, S.

    1990-01-01

    On Tuesday, October 17, 1989 at 5:04 p.m. Pacific Daylight Time, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred on the San Andreas fault 10 miles northeast of Santa Cruz. This earthquake was the largest earthquake to occur in the San Francisco Bay area since 1906, and the largest anywhere in California since 1952. The earthquake was responsible for 67 deaths and about 7 billion dollars worth of damage, making it the biggest dollar loss natural disaster in United States history. This article describes the seismological features of the earthquake, and briefly outlines a number of other geologic observations made during study of the earthquake, its aftershocks, and its effects. Much of the information in this article was provided by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  3. A deep scar in the flank of Tenerife (Canary Islands): Geophysical contribution to tsunami hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppo, Nicolas P.; Schnegg, Pierre-André; Falco, Pierik; Costa, Roberto

    2009-05-01

    Among the high-intensity on-Earth tsunami generating events, seismicity, submarine landslides, and volcano lateral collapses are the most important [Ward, S.H., 2001. Landslide tsunami. J. Geophy. Res. 106, 11201-11215; Holcomb, R.T., Searle, R.C., 1991. Large landslides from oceanic volcanoes. Mar. Geotech. 10, 19-32; Tinti, S., Bortolucci, E., Romagnoli, C., 2000. Computer simulations of tsunamis due to the sector collapse ar Stromboli, Italy. J. Volcano. Geotherm. Res. 96, 103-128; Ward, S.N., Day, S., 2003. Ritter Island Volcano — lateral collapse and the tsunami of 1888. Geophys. J. Int. 154, 891-902; MacGuire, W.J., 2003. Volcano instability and lateral collapse. Revista 1, 33-45]. Offshore bathymetry studies highlighted huge accumulations of large mass-waste flows (up to thousands cubic kilometres) inherited from past lateral collapses or submarine landslides [ Le Friant, A., Boudon, G., Deplus, C., Villemant, B., 2003. Large-scale flank collapse events during the activity of Montagne Pelée, Martinique, Lesser Antilles. J. Geophys. Res. 108, ECV13; Moore, J.G. et al., 1989. Prodigious submarine Landslides on the Hawaiian ridge. J. Geophys. Res. 94, 17465-17484] which spread over more than 100 km off the northern Tenerife (Canary Islands) coastline [Watts, A.B., Masson, D.G., 1995. A giant landslide on the north flank of Tenerife, Canary Islands. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 24487-24498]. Although mechanics and dynamics triggering such catastrophic events follow from combined complex processes and interactions [Hürlimann, M., Garcia-Piera, J.-O., Ledesma, A., 2000. Causes and mobility of large volcanic landslides: application to Tenerife, Canary Islands. J. Volcano. Geotherm. Res. 103, 121-134; Masson, D.G. et al., 2002. Slope failures on the flanks of the western Canary Islands. Earth-Sci. Rev. 57, 1-35; Reid, M.E., Sisson, T.W., Brien, D.L., 2001. Volcano collapse promoted by hydrothermal alteration and edifice shape, Mount Rainier, Washington. Geology 29, 779

  4. Tracking Pyroxenes Through a Magma System Using Trace Elements: an Example From Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olin, P.; Wolff, J.; Knaack, C.

    2003-12-01

    Although much attention is currently focused on applications of radiogenic isotope microanalysis to petrogenetic problems, many volcanic suites do not exhibit a large enough range in, for example, Sr isotope ratios for the technique to be useful. Advances in LA-ICPMS instrumentation allow rapid and routine trace element microanalyisis of minerals and glasses at a spatial resolution approaching that of the electron microprobe, providing a microanalytical complement to isotope studies in igneous petrogenesis. We apply this approach to clinopyroxenes from the basanitic through phonolitic mixed-magma rocks of the bimodal Diego Hernandez Formation (DHF), Tenerife, Canary Islands. Two distinct phonolite types, distinguished on the basis of REE and HFSE abundances, have alternated in volumetric significance during the ~180 ky eruptive history of the DHF. Also, there is abundant petrographic evidence for repeated mingling of phonolitic and basanitic magmas prior to explosive eruptions, while whole-rock compositions of several associated mafic lavas are consistent with more complete hybridization of basanitic and phonolitic liquids. Clinopyroxenes from the suite fall into three groups: 1) titanaugites with unremarkable REE patterns; 2) salites with elevated REE contents and negative Eu anomalies; 3) salites with negative Eu anomalies and strong MREE depletion. Type 1 titanaugites crystallized from basanitic liquids, Type 2 salites from tephriphonolitic and phonolitic liquids, and Type 3 from highly-evolved phonolitic melts saturated with titanite. All three types are found, as discrete grains and as zones within complex grains, in the products of the largest explosive eruptions in the DHF, clearly demonstrating repeated crystal transfer between basanite, phonolite, and highly evolved phonolite, prior to the mingling events that triggered the individual eruptions. The ability to fingerprint crystals derived from different phonolite types is an important step in unravelling

  5. Relationship between the fractal dimension of the enclaves and the volumes of magmas in Montaña Reventada (Tenerife)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Helena; Perugini, Diego; Martí, Joan

    2014-05-01

    The volcanic unit of Montaña Reventada is an example of magma mixing in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The eruptive process has been detonated by a basanite intruding into a phonolite magma chamber. This eruption started with a basanite followed by a phonolite. Montaña Reventada phonolite is characterized by the presence of mafic enclaves. These enclaves represent about the 2% of the outcrop and have been classified like basanites, phono-tephrite and tephri-phonolite. The enclaves have different morphologies, from rounded to complex fingers-like structures, and usually exhibit cuspate terminations. This study aims to provide a new perspective on the 1100 AD Montaña Reventada eruption quantifying the textural heterogeneities related to the enclaves generated by the mixing process. The textural study was carried out using a fractal geometry approach, and its results were used to calculate some parameters related to magma chamber dynamics. Photographs of 67 samples were taken normal to the surface of the enclaves with the aim of delineating the contact between the enclaves and the host rocks. The resulted pictures were processed with the NIH (National Institutes of Health) image analysis software to generate binary images in which enclaves and host rock were replaced by black and white pixels, respectively. The fractal dimension (Dbox) has been computed by using the box-counting method in order to quantify the complexity of the enclaves morphology. Viscosity ratio (μR) between the phonolite and the enclaves has been calculated as follows: log(μR) = 0.013e3.34Dbox PIC The viscosity of the enclaves has been calculated according to the μRvalue with the higher frequency and to the calculated viscosity of the phonolite between 900° and 1200° . We hypothesized that this value corresponds to the amount of mafic magma present in the system, while the other values represent different degrees of mingling and chemical diffusion. Viscosity of the basanite can be

  6. Priority River Metrics for Urban Residents of the Santa Cruz River Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indicator selection is a persistent question in river and stream assessment and management. We employ qualitative research techniques to identify features of rivers and streams important to urban residents recruited from the general public in the Santa Cruz watershed. Interviews ...

  7. Source process for the 2013 Santa Cruz Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun Hee; Park, Sun-Cheon; Lee, Jun-Whan

    2015-04-01

    Many places in the world have experienced damage from tsunami. Most tsunamis are induced by large earthquakes that occur under the sea along the trench. Therefore understanding the characteristics of large earthquakes is important to evaluate tsunami hazard as well as earthquake damage. In order to understand the characteristics of large tsunamigenic earthquakes, in this study we analyzed the source process of the 2013 Santa Cruz earthquake (M8.0) on Feb. 6, 2013. According to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 56 earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 5.5 occurred in Jan. 27 - March 8, 2013. Among them, eleven events happened for a week before the mainshock and the maximum magnitude was 6.4. A large aftershock with magnitude of 7.1 occurred immediately after the mainshock, about 10 minutes later. Including this event, the 2013 Santa Cruz event seems to be followed by two large aftershocks of M~7. The length of spatial distribution of aftershocks in 30 days was about 200 km. And this value of the length was used for rough estimation of the fault length during the waveform inversion process. We carried out teleseismic body-wave inversion to obtain the slip distribution of the 2013 earthquake. Teleseismic P waveform data from 19 stations in the epicentral distance between 30° and 90° were used and band-pass filter at 0.005 - 1.0 Hz was applied. And focal depth was assumed to be 28.7 km, according the USGS catalog. And the initial value of source time window was assumed as 120 seconds by the duration of high-frequency energy radiation. According to our inversion results, the fault plane seems the northwesterly striking (strike = 291) and shallowly dipping (dip = 24) fault plane. Large slip area was seen near the hypocenter. Rupture velocity was obtained to be 2.0 km/s. And moment magnitude of 7.9 and maximum dislocation of 1.4 m had the smallest variance between the observed and synthetic waveforms. These values were smaller than the result of previous study. To

  8. [Tap water as a dietary source of exposure to fluoride in Tenerife; risk assessment].

    PubMed

    González Sacramento, Nazaret; Rubio Armendáriz, Carmen; Gutiérrez Fernández, Ángel José; Luis González, Gara; Hardisson de la Torre, Arturo; Revert Girones, Consuelo

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: el agua de consumo humano es la principal fuente de exposición al fluoruro para la población. De acuerdo con el Real Decreto 140/2003, el contenido en fluoruro en el agua de consumo humano no debe superar el valor paramétrico de 1,5 mg/L. Históricamente, ciertas aguas de consumo en Tenerife han superado este valor debido a sus características geológicas/volcánicas. El flúor juega un papel importante en la prevención de la caries dental. Sin embargo, la exposición crónica a concentraciones superiores a 1,5 mg/L en el agua de bebida puede provocar trastornos como la fluorosis dental. Objetivos: determinar la cantidad de fluoruro en el agua de consumo humano de 11 municipios del norte de la isla de Tenerife que en el momento del estudio superaba el valor paramétrico de fluoruro y estimar y evaluar toxicológicamente las ingestas diarias a partir del consumo de agua considerando las IDR (Ingestas Diarias Recomendadas) establecidas en España para distintos grupos poblacionales. Método: 44 muestras de aguas de abastecimiento público recogidas en los 11 municipios objeto del estudio fueron analizadas usando la determinación potenciométrica de fluoruro mediante el uso de un electrodo de ión selectivo. Resultados: 9 de los 11 municipios las aguas de abasto presentaron concentraciones de fluoruro medias que superaron el valor paramétrico fijado por la legislación española. Considerando un consumo medio diario de agua de 2 L, la ingesta diaria recomendada (IDR) para mujeres (3 mg/día) es superada en 9 de los 11 municipios y la IDR para hombres (4 mg/día) es superada en 5 de los 11 municipios. Considerando un consumo medio diario de agua de 1,5 L, la IDR establecida para los niños de 2 a 3 años (0,7 mg/día) es superada ampliamente en todos los municipios. Conclusiones: los resultados obtenidos evidencian el problema de salud pública existente en la isla de Tenerife y justifican las restricciones de consumo establecidas por la Direcci

  9. Women of Apelo Cruz. Organizing for change: the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bolido, L

    1995-01-01

    In the Philippines, the Apelo Women's Health Association (AWHA) was organized in 1991 to help economically depressed women take control of their lives, their health, and their fertility. One woman being helped by AWHA is 17-year-old Vilma, who was married and separated at 13, became a bar girl at 14, miscarried at 15, bore a son at 16, and had an abortion. Because of AWHA, Vilma is now using oral contraceptives and insisting that her customers use condoms. AWHA was set up by GABRIELA (the General Assembly Binding Women for Reforms, Integrity, Equality, Leadership, and Action) to replace the free, occasional medical care formerly available in the slum area of Apelo Cruz, in Pasay City. The free medical care fostered dependency instead of self-reliance among the women. AWHA, therefore, is a health cooperative which requires members to pay a minimal amount for services. AWHA also runs monthly educational activities to inform women of their rights, duties, and responsibilities. It provides a forum for the women in the neighborhood to speak their minds freely. The women are also grateful for the ability to control their fertility through the use of contraception.

  10. Constraints on the geometry of the shallow magmatic system of Tenerife Island (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragó, Silvia; Geyer, Adelina; Marti, Joan

    2014-05-01

    The geological evolution of Tenerife (Canary Island) involves the construction of a basaltic shield (<12Ma to Present) and the Central Complex (> 3.5 Ma to Present). Towards the end of the main shield-building episode (Old Basaltic Series), volcanic activity migrated to the central part of the island. This lead to the formation of shallow magma chambers and the construction of the Central Volcanic Complex through a series of cycles always characterized by a similar events sequence: 1) continuous ascent of mantle-derived basaltic magmas; 2) formation of discrete shallow phonolitic magma chambers and related eruptions; 3) a final caldera-forming event destroying the constructed volcanic edifice and the associated magmatic reservoir; 4) eruption of basaltic magmas in the central part of the island; and 5) formation of a new shallow magma chamber. As the latter may emplace at a new location, the locus of phonolitic volcanic activity migrated to other sectors of the central part of Tenerife. During the last 1.56 Ma years, this long-term (>200 ka) cycle of phonolitic explosive activity has repeated thrice culminating in the Ucanca, Guajara and Diego Hernandez overlapping vertical collapses; altogether referred to as Las Cañadas Caldera. The present Teide-Pico Viejo complex is interpreted to be the beginning of the fourth cycle. The objective of this work is to determine the geometrical constraints (including volume, depth, location and shape) of the shallow magmatic reservoirs active during each eruptive cycle. For this, we use new fieldwork data collected along Las Cañadas caldera wall where an important amount of phonolitic dykes have been identified. These include cone-sheets, radial and concentric dykes. The cross cutting relationship between the different dyke families indicate several intrusion episodes from diverse magma sources during the construction of the Central Complex. New 3D Finite Element Model results obtained provide a first-order characterization of

  11. Monitoring Domoic Acid production by Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking off the Santa Cruz Municipal Warf, Santa Cruz, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, M.; Ziccarelli, L.; Kudela, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Certain species of the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia are producers of the neurotoxin, domoic acid (DA). DA is known to cause amnesic shellfish poisoning also known as domoic acid poisoning, which can lead to permanent brain damage in humans and marine mammals. DA accumulates at higher trophic levels, generally due to consumption of toxic cells or through trophic transfer, and can potentially cause death of both humans and marine wildlife. The Santa Cruz Municipal Warf experiences periodic rises in DA concentrations, which can reach toxic levels in shellfish, fish, and other marine organisms. While these increases in toxicity often occur during Pseudo-nitzschia blooms, several periods of elevated DA have occurred when diatom abundance is restricted and/or dominated by non-toxic species, and there is increasing evidence that DA dissolved in seawater may be prevalent. One theory suggests that senescent or dead Pseudo-nitzschia cells sink to the benthos while retaining their toxin and are buried in sediment following the death of a bloom. Therefore, DA may accumulate in the benthos, where it is eventually released during storms or wave and tide conditions that disturb the sediment. We sampled DA in situ using Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) bags SPATT uses a synthetic resin to capture dissolved DA, allowing for the determination of integrated DA concentrations at known time intervals. The alternative method is mussel biotoxin monitoring, but it is less accurate due to uncertainties in the time of DA accumulation within the mussel, and the lack of uptake of dissolved DA by the mussel. We deployed and collected SPATT off the Santa Cruz Municipal Wharf at multiple depths beginning in February 2013. We expect to see increasing DA following the death of a harmful algal bloom. Under pre-bloom conditions, little to no DA has been detected in mussels or surface SPATT, but DA from SPATT is frequently observed at depth, suggesting that the sediment is exposed to

  12. High temperature experiments on a 4 tons UF6 container TENERIFE program

    SciTech Connect

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.

    1991-12-31

    The paper presents an experimental program (called TENERIFE) whose aim is to investigate the behaviour of a cylinder containing UF{sub 6} when exposed to a high temperature fire for model validation. Taking into account the experiments performed in the past, the modelization needs further information in order to be able to predict the behaviour of a real size cylinder when engulfed in a 800{degrees}C fire, as specified in the regulation. The main unknowns are related to (1) the UF{sub 6} behaviour beyond the critical point, (2) the relationship between temperature field and internal pressure and (3) the equivalent conductivity of the solid UF{sub 6}. In order to investigate these phenomena in a representative way it is foreseen to perform experiments with a cylinder of real diameter, but reduced length, containing 4 tons of UF{sub 6}. This cylinder will be placed in an electrically heated furnace. A confinement vessel prevents any dispersion of UF{sub 6}. The heat flux delivered by the furnace will be calibrated by specific tests. The cylinder will be changed for each test.

  13. Inbreeding Depression under Drought Stress in the Rare Endemic Echium wildpretii (Boraginaceae) on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sedlacek, Janosch; Schmid, Bernhard; Matthies, Diethart; Albrecht, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    How climate-change induced environmental stress may alter the effects of inbreeding in patchy populations of rare species is poorly understood. We investigated the fitness of progeny from experimental self- and cross-pollinations in eight populations of different size of Echium wildpretii, a rare endemic plant of the arid subalpine zone of the Canarian island of Tenerife. As control treatments we used open pollination and autonomous selfing. The seed set of open-pollinated flowers was 55% higher than that of autonomously selfed flowers, showing the importance of animal pollination for reproductive success. The seed set, seed mass and germination rate of seedlings of hand-selfed flowers was similar to that of hand-crossed flowers, indicating weak inbreeding depression (seed set –4.4%, seed mass –4.1%, germination –7.3%). Similarly, under normal watering there were no significant effects of inbreeding on seedling survival (–3.0%). However, under low watering of seedlings inbreeding depression was high (survival –50.2%). Seed set of open- and hand-outcrossed-pollinated flowers was higher in large than in small populations, possibly due to more frequent biparental inbreeding in the latter. However, later measures of progeny fitness were not significantly influenced by population size. We predict that increasing drought duration and frequency due to climate change and reductions of population sizes may increase inbreeding depression in this charismatic plant species and thus threaten its future survival in the longer term. PMID:23115645

  14. HTTP-based remote operational options for the Vacuum Tower Telescope, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staiger, J.

    2012-09-01

    We are currently developing network based tools for the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT), Tenerife which will allow to operate the telescope together with the newly developed 2D-spectrometer HELLRIDE under remote control conditions. The computational configuration can be viewed as a distributed system linking hardware components of various functionality from different locations. We have developed a communication protocol which is basically an extension of the HTTP standard. It will serve as a carrier for command- and data-transfers. The server-client software is based on Berkley-Unix sockets in a C++ programming environment. A customized CMS will allow to create browser accessible information on-the-fly. Java-based applet pages have been tested as optional user access GUI's. An access tool has been implemented to download near-realtime, web-based target information from NASA/SDO. Latency tests have been carried out at the VTT and the Swedish STT at La Palma for concept verification. Short response times indicate that under favorable network conditions remote interactive telescope handling may be possible. The scientific focus of possible future remote operations will be set on the helioseismology of the solar atmosphere, the monitoring of flares and the footpoint analysis of coronal loops and chromospheric events.

  15. Channel change on the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, 1936-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The Santa Cruz River, an ephemeral river that drains 8,581 square miles in southeastern Arizona, has a long history of channel instability. Since the late 19th century, lateral channel erosion has caused extensive property damage, particularly in Pima County. During the flood of 1983, about $100 million damage was caused in the Tucson area alone; most damage resulted from bank erosion on the Santa Cruz River and its tributaries. The nature, magni- tude, location, and frequency of channel change on the Santa Cruz River were highly variable in time and space from 1936 through 1986 along a 70-mile reach in Pima County, Arizona. Four mechanisms of lateral channel change--channel migration, avulsion and meander cutoff, channel widening, and arroyo widening--were identified on the Santa Cruz River. The dominant mechanism in a reach depends on channel morphology and flood magnitude. The dominant vertical change has been degradation. The timing and magnitude of channel change at a particular location are controlled primarily by hydroclimatic factors such as magnitude, duration, intensity, and frequency of precipitation and floods. The location of channel change and its magnitude in response to a given discharge are controlled largely by topographic, geologic, hydraulic, and artificial factors. Although much of the present morphology of the Santa Cruz River is the result of recent large floods, a direct link between hydroclimatic con- ditions and channel change is not always evident because resistance of the channel to erosion varies with time. (USGS)

  16. Radial variation in sap flow in five laurel forest tree species in Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M. Soledad; Nadezhdina, Nadezhda; Cermák, Jan; Morales, Domingo

    2000-11-01

    Variations in radial patterns of xylem water content and sap flow rate were measured in five laurel forest tree species (Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco, Persea indica (L.) Spreng., Myrica faya Ait., Erica arborea L. and Ilex perado Ait. ssp. platyphylla (Webb & Berth.) Tutin) growing in an experimental plot at Agua García, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Measurements were performed around midday during warm and sunny days by the heat field deformation method. In all species, water content was almost constant (around 35% by volume) over the whole xylem cross-sectional area. There were no differences in wood color over the whole cross-sectional area of the stem in most species with the exception of E. arborea, whose wood became darker in the inner layers. Radial patterns of sap flow were highly variable and did not show clear relationships with tree diameter or species. Sap flow occurred over the whole xylem cross-sectional area in some species, whereas it was limited to the outer xylem layers in others. Sap flow rate was either similar along the xylem radius or exhibited a peak in the outer part of the xylem area. Low sap flow rates with little variation in radial pattern were typical for shaded suppressed trees, whereas dominant trees exhibited high sap flow rates with a peak in the radial pattern. Stem damage resulted in a significant decrease in sap flow rate in the outer xylem layers. The outer xylem is more important for whole tree water supply than the inner xylem because of its larger size. We conclude that measurement of radial flow pattern provides a reliable method of integrating sap flow from individual measuring points to the whole tree.

  17. Environmental correlates of life history pattern in ground-beetles on Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de los Santos Gómez, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    The spatial and temporal structure of Carabus ( Nesaeocarabus) interruptus Dejean, 1831 populations and the independent effects of climate along altitudinal gradients in the island of Tenerife, especially whether environmental preferences constrains the species breeding patterns at local and regional scales were evaluated. Ground-beetles were sampled with twenty-one pitfall traps in each of the forty-one plots during one year study. Some sampled specimens were dissected and dried to determine sex, weight and ovarian maturation. The populations were restricted to the middle climatic zone (600-1700 m). There was a long adult activity period from October to June and the changes in the weekly capture success were strongly correlated with the rainfall and temperature. Overall the males during winter were more active than the females. The emergence of new adults occurred only in spring and the body dry weight peaked in April-May. From start of autumn the weight was recovered to the initial values of the cycle, increased and peaked in January. The females prolonged its oviposition period from mid-autumn to the starting of spring. The species showed a winter breeding pattern and the seasonal variations in multiple life history traits could correspond with the changing conditions of the microclimatic variables. An evolutionary ecological model could help explain the life history pattern variability among the Carabus species in South-western Europe. The species could tackle the geographic dispersion of their populations for the single purpose of seeking a suitable hydrothermal environment (high rainfall and mild temperatures) if the food was insured.

  18. Comparison between observation and simulation of sodium LGS return flux with a 20W CW laser on Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzlöhner, R.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Bello, D.; Budker, D.; Centrone, M.; Guidolin, I.; Hackenberg, W.; Lewis, S.; Lombardi, G.; Montilla, I.; Pedichini, F.; Pedreros Bustos, F.; Pfrommer, T.; Reyes Garcia Talavera, M.; Rochester, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the comparison between observations and simulations of a completed 12-month field observation campaign at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, using ESO's transportable 20 watt CW Wendelstein laser guide star system. This mission has provided sodium photon return flux measurements of unprecedented detail regarding variation of laser power, polarization and sodium D2b repumping. The Raman fiber laser and projector technology are very similar to that employed in the 4LGSF/AOF laser facility, recently installed and commissioned at the VLT in Paranal. The simulations are based on the open source LGSBloch density matrix simulation package and we find good overall agreement with experimental data.

  19. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: concept and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L; Cagigas, Jaime; Ortiz, David; Casas, Francisco J; Pérez, Ana R; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Artal, Eduardo; Hoyland, Roger; Mediavilla, Ángel

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching.

  20. Bone trace element pattern in an 18th century population sample of Tenerife (Canary Islands): comparison with a prehistoric one.

    PubMed

    Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vazquez, J; Barros-Lopez, N; Galindo-Martin, L

    1998-10-01

    We have determined bone strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), and zinc (Zn) content in 24 samples belonging to adult individuals who died toward the end of the 18th century and were interred in a church's floor on the island of Tenerife, comparing the results with those obtained in 14 prehistoric samples of the same island and also with those of 7 modern controls. No differences were observed between the two ancient groups, which showed higher bone strontium and barium than the modern sample, and a slightly lower Ba/Sr ratio, thus pointing to consumption of marine sources.

  1. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: Concept and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Enrique Cano, Juan L.; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; Fuente, Luisa de la; Artal, Eduardo; Mediavilla, Ángel

    2015-02-15

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching.

  2. Primary medical care in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, J T

    1990-01-01

    The extremely complex and rapidly but unevenly developing system of primary care in Spain is described. The health centre movement in Spain merits close attention, and could be a useful model for our own service. PMID:2117951

  3. 75 FR 52969 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Prisoners Harbor Wetland Restoration, Santa Cruz Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Prisoners Harbor Wetland Restoration, Santa... coastal wetland on Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park. The requisite no-action ``wait period... restoration of palustrine wetlands and deepwater habitat at Prisoners Harbor, as well as remove a...

  4. The De-Genderization of Knowledge Production: The Case of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Norma

    1994-01-01

    All societies have official knowledge. Life of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 17th-century nun and literary genius, illustrates who discovers knowledge is more important than what knowledge is promulgated. Real issue was not what Sor Juana wrote but whether nun or woman should engage in producing and publishing knowledge. Her efforts have inspired…

  5. A Historical Perspective on the University of California, Santa Cruz 1965-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Lynda M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to trace the organizational history of the University of California Santa Cruz from its inception in 1965 to its 40th anniversary in 2005. The study investigated the original vision of small residential colleges as modeled after the Oxford University plan. The study chronicled the critical turning points of…

  6. Special Education Management System Project Document. 2. Santa Cruz BCP Observation Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Cruz County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

    Presented in booklet and chart form is the Behavioral Characteristics Progression (BCP), part of the Santa Cruz Special Education Management Project, consisting of 2400 observable traits grouped into 50 behavioral strands. The BCP is seen to be a nonstandardized criterion referenced tool which replaces conventional age and disability labels with…

  7. Holistically Evaluating the Impact of Water and Land Use Management in the Santa Cruz Watershed

    EPA Science Inventory

    Governments, tribal leaders and citizens within the Santa Cruz watershed (United States, Mexico, the Tohono O'odham and the Pascua Yaqui Tribes) face environmental and economic issues of ensuring people have access to clean water and sanitation while vital ecosystems are protect...

  8. Spain to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  9. Low Prevalence of Sleep Disorders in Demyelinating Disease in a Northern Tenerife Population

    PubMed Central

    González-Platas, Montserrat; González-Platas, Javier; Bermúdez-Hernández, Moises; Pérez-Martín, Maria Yaiza; Croissier-Elías, Cristina; Pérez-Lorensu, Pedro Javier

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disorders are seen in patients with demyelinating disease (DD) more often than in the general population. Combination of physical and psychological factors such as pain, spasms, nocturia, depression, anxiety, or medication effects could contribute to sleep disruption. Frequently, these disturbances have a major impact on health and quality of life of patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sleep disorders in patients seen in the DD consultation. Methods: 240 patients; mean age 43 years, 187 women; 163 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS): 144 relapsing-remitting, 19 progressive forms, 36 clinically isolated syndrome, 26 radiological isolated syndrome, and 15 patients with others DD. All participants completed questionnaires: Pittsburgh, Epworth, and Stanford scales, indirect symptoms of RLS and Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Fatigue Severity Scale, and Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54. Results: Moderate/severe insomnia 12.5%, OSA 5.8%, RLS 9.6% (confirmed 3 cases), narcolepsy 0, fatigue (> 4) 24.6%. Physical QoL 66.6 ± 19.6, Mental QoL 66.1 ± 21.9. Patients with an established diagnosis showed higher scores on insomnia compared to the group of CIS and RIS (F = 3.85; p = 0.023), no differences were in the other parameters. Fatigue showed high correlation with insomnia (r = 0.443; p < 0.001), RLS (r = 0.513; p < 0.001), and sleepiness (r = 0.211; p = 0.001). None of the variables included in the regression model were shown to be predictors of Physical and Mental QoL. Conclusions: A high percentage of our sample sleeps well. Emphasize the low prevalence of sleep disorders (insomnia, fatigue, RLS, etc). We detected an overestimation in the RLS questionnaire and the low QoL recorded. Citation: González-Platas M, González-Platas J, Bermúdez-Hernández M, Pérez-Martín MY, Croissier-Elías C, Pérez-Lorensu PJ. Low prevalence of sleep disorders in demyelinating disease in a northern tenerife population. J Clin Sleep

  10. Coupled paleomagnetic/dating investigation of the Upper Jaramillo reversal from lava sequences (Tenerife, Canary islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine; Guillou, Herve; Carracedo, Juan-Carlos; Perez-Torrado, Francisco; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Wandres, Camille; Nomade, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    A sequence of lava flows has been emplaced during the transition between the Jaramillo subchron and the Matuyama chron in Tenerife (Canary island). This sequence is located along the flank of the collapse of Güimar, in the south central part of the island. It includes 26 flows from the full normal polarity to the full reverse polarity. On the basis of K/Ar dating, the section is bracketed between 1012 ± 18 ka and 975 ± 17 ka. Additional coupled K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating have been obtained through the sequence and place the reversal itself between 992 ± 12 ka and 979 ± 10 ka consistently with previous dating of the upper Jaramillo reversal. They indicate a particularly high extrusion rate at this site (Guillou et al., session IG9/GMPV7/PS9.6). Full paleomagnetic analyses have been conducted on these lava flows including rock magnetic analyses (thermomagnetic curves, hysteresis curves, FORC diagrams, k-T curves), zero-field stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetizations. Thellier and Thellier paleointensity (PI) determinations were also performed and based on the selection criteria defined by Kissel and Laj (2004), only 30% of the samples yielded reliable results. The first 9 flows at the bottom of the sequence are characterized by a normal polarity. Only two of them yield PI consistent with the present day field intensity in the Canary islands. The two following flows are deviated from the magnetic pole, beyond the secular variation but their VGP is still in the northern hemisphere, over northeastern Pacific. The associated intensity drops significantly to about 11 µT that is less than 30% of the present dipole value. The following flows have all a negative inclination and their PI remain low (around 8-12 µT). The virtual geomagnetic poles are first over East Antarctica before describing a northward loop almost up to New Zealand. The VGPs then go back close to the southern pole, and mark a second loop to southeastern Pacific associated with little

  11. Variation in sunspot properties between 1999 and 2011 as observed with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, R.; Beck, C.; Schmidt, W.

    2012-05-01

    Aims: We study the variation in the magnetic field strength and the umbral intensity of sunspots during the declining phase of the solar cycle No. 23 and in the beginning of cycle No. 24. Methods: We analyze a sample of 183 sunspots observed from 1999 until 2011 with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT). The magnetic field strength is derived from the Zeeman splitting of the Stokes-V signal in one near-infrared spectral line, either Fe i 1564.8 nm, Fe i 1089.6 nm, or Si i 1082.7 nm. This avoids the effects of the unpolarized stray light from the field-free quiet Sun surroundings that can affect the splitting seen in Stokes-I in the umbra. The minimum umbral continuum intensity and umbral area are also measured. Results: We find that there is a systematic trend for sunspots in the late stage of the solar cycle No. 23 to be weaker, i.e., to have a smaller maximum magnetic field strength than those at the start of the cycle. The decrease in the field strength with time of about 94 Gyr-1 is well beyond the statistical fluctuations that would be expected because of the larger number of sunspots close to cycle maximum (14 Gyr-1). In the same time interval, the continuum intensity of the umbra increases with a rate of 1.3 (±0.4)% of Ic yr-1, while the umbral area does not show any trend above the statistical variance. Sunspots in the new cycle No. 24 show higher field strengths and lower continuum intensities than those at the end of cycle No. 23, interrupting the trend. Conclusions: Sunspots have an intrinsically weaker field strength and brighter umbrae at the late stages of solar cycles compared to their initial stages, without any significant change in their area. The abrupt increase in field strength in sunspots of the new cycle suggests that the cyclic variations are dominating over any long-term trend that continues across cycles. We find a slight decrease in field strength and an increase in intensity as a long

  12. The role of nitrification in silicate hydrolysis in soils near Santa Cruz, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyker-Snowman, E.; White, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Schulz, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    In some ecosystems, nitrification (microbial conversion of ammonium to nitrate) may supplant carbonic acid as a source of acidity and drive silicate weathering. Recent studies have explored the impact that ammonium fertilizer addition to soils has on weathering of various mineral types (Pacheco et al. 2013) and demonstrated directly that ammonium addition to soils can increase carbonate weathering (Gandois et al. 2011). Some evidence points to a role for nitrification in silicate weathering at a series of coastal grassland terraces near Santa Cruz, CA. Weathering rates in these soils have been estimated using the byproducts of silicate hydrolysis (Cl--adjusted Na+ and other cations). If carbonic acid from dissolved CO2 is the source of acidity in silicate hydrolysis, bicarbonate should balance the cations produced during weathering. However, in the Santa Cruz soils nitrate is the dominant anion balancing cation concentrations. High concentrations of CO2 (>1%) at depths greater than 1m may provide additional support for nitrification-based silicate hydrolysis at Santa Cruz. We evaluate the role of nitrification in silicate weathering for soils from the Santa Cruz Marine Terrace Chronosequence using a column ammonium-addition experiment and a basic weathering model. The column experiment uses ammonium inputs in excess of natural inputs and measures weathering products in eluted fluids over time. The model incorporates more realistic estimates of ammonium input and explores whether the observed concentrations of cations, nitrate and CO2 seen at Santa Cruz can be explained by nitrification-driven acidity or if other inputs need to be considered. Gandois, L, Perrin, A-S, and Probst, A. 2011. Impact of nitrogenous fertiliser-induced proton release on cultivated soils with contrasting carbonate contents: A column experiment. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75 pp. 1185-1198. Pacheco, F, Landim, P, and Szocs, T. 2013. Anthropogenic impacts on mineral weathering: A

  13. The dynamics of fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Conaway, Christopher H.; Presto, M. Katherine; Logan, Joshua B.; Cronin, Katherine; van Ormondt, Maarten; Lescinski, Jamie; Harden, E. Lynne; Lacy, Jessica R.; Tonnon, Pieter K.

    2011-01-01

    In the fall and early winter of 2009, a demonstration project was done at Santa Cruz Harbor, California, to determine if 450 m3/day of predominantly (71 percent) mud-sized sediment could be dredged from the inner portion of the harbor and discharged to the coastal ocean without significant impacts to the beach and inner shelf. During the project, more than 7600 m3 of sediment (~5400 m3 of fine-grain material) was dredged during 17 days and discharged approximately 60 m offshore of the harbor at a depth of 2 m on the inner shelf. The U.S. Geological Survey's Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center was funded by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Santa Cruz Port District to do an integrated mapping and process study to investigate the fate of the mud-sized sediment dredged from the inner portion of Santa Cruz Harbor and to determine if any of the fine-grain material settled out on the shoreline and/or inner shelf during the fall and early winter of 2009. This was done by collecting highresolution oceanographic and sediment geochemical measurements along the shoreline and on the continental shelf of northern Monterey Bay to monitor the fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor and discharged onto the inner shelf. These in place measurements, in conjunction with beach, water column, and seabed surveys, were used as boundary and calibration information for a three-dimensional numerical circulation and sediment dynamics model to better understand the fate of the fine-grain sediment dredged from Santa Cruz Harbor and the potential consequences of disposing this type of material on the beach and on the northern Monterey Bay continental shelf.

  14. Career Development in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talavera, Elvira Repetto; Moreno, Luisa Rodriguez; Romeo, Javier; Malik, Beatriz

    In Spain, the term "career development" refers to vocational or career guidance services. The 1983 Law on University Reform conferred on universities the freedom of teaching, endowing them with legal status and administrative powers. Thus, there are no regulations regarding guidance at this educational level. Guidance departments in…

  15. [Foreign immigration in Spain].

    PubMed

    Serra Yoldi, I

    1997-01-01

    This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.

  16. Vocational Training in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovard, Candido; And Others

    Vocational training in Spain suffers from a fundamental initial disadvantage, namely the subsidiary position that it occupies in the general structure of the country's educational system. The situation has been aggravated by the sector's relative neglect by the government, which has been forced to concentrate its efforts on secondary and…

  17. Test Reviewing in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  18. How to define nativeness in vagile organisms: lessons from the cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Pisa, S; Vanderpoorten, A; Patiño, J; Werner, O; González-Mancebo, J M; Ros, R M

    2015-09-01

    The distinction between native and introduced biotas presents unique challenges that culminate in organisms with high long-distance dispersal capacities in a rapidly changing world. Bryophytes, in particular, exhibit large distribution ranges, and some species can truly be qualified as cosmopolitan. Cosmopolitan species, however, typically occur in disturbed environments, raising the question of their nativeness throughout their range. Here, we employ genetic data to address the question of the origin of the cosmopolitan, weedy moss Bryum argenteum on the island of Tenerife. The genetic diversity of B. argenteum on Tenerife was comparable to that found in continental areas due to recurrent colonisation events, erasing any signature of a bottleneck that would be expected in the case of a recent colonisation event. The molecular dating analyses indicated that the first colonisation of the island took place more than 100,000 years ago, i.e. well before the first human settlements. Furthermore, the significant signal for isolation-by-distance found in B. argenteum within Tenerife points to the substantial role of genetic drift in establishing the observed patterns of genetic variation. Together, the results support the hypothesis that B. argenteum is native on Tenerife; although the existence of haplotypes shared between Tenerife and continental areas suggests that more recent, potentially man-mediated introduction also took place. While defining nativeness in organisms that are not deliberately introduced, and wherein the fossil record is extremely scarce, is an exceedingly challenging task, our results suggest that population genetic analyses can represent a useful tool to help distinguish native from alien populations.

  19. [Fertility decline in Spain].

    PubMed

    Arango, J

    1987-01-01

    The historical processes of secular fertility decline in Spain and Portugal are not well understood. Very few microdemographic studies of small geographic regions or particular social strata have been done. A contribution by David Reher to the First Spanish-Portuguese-Italian Historical Demography Conference on the fertility decline in the interior province of Cuenca, Spain, uses the own-children method to analyze changes in marital fertility in the 19th and 20th centuries. Reher discovered a slight fertility decline of perhaps 15% which occurred between the end of the 18th century and 1860-75. The fertility decline did not resume until after the Spanish Civil War, and then it was a very gradual and continuous process. When instead of the total female population, women aged 35-39 were studied, unequivocal signs of fertility control appeared. Conscious fertility control thus appears to have begun among older women limiting rather than spacing births. Reher's analysis by social groups demonstrates that fertility declined first and more rapidly in the nonagricultural and urban populations and among the higher income groups. The fertility decline in Cuenca was certainly not identical to that in most of Spain, but may have been fairly typical of a large part of the interior. Another contribution to the Historical Demography Conference, by Anna Cabre and Isabel Pujadas, analyzes fertility trends and cyclical fluctuations in 20th century Cataluna, arguing that they must be placed in historical perspective if recent changes are to be understood and plausible projections made. Their work demonstrates the value of selecting a relatively homogeneous geographic unit for analysis. The contribution of Margarita Delgado to the conference analyzed interregional fertility differences in contemporary Spain. The high legitimate fertility of the south of Spain is accentuated by high nuptiality rates. In central Spain, the combination of high legitimate fertility rates and low

  20. The gravimetric picture of magmatic and hydrothermal sources driving hybrid unrest on Tenerife in 2004/5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prutkin, Ilya; Vajda, Peter; Gottsmann, Jo

    2014-08-01

    We present results from the inversion of gravity changes observed at the central volcanic complex (CVC) of Tenerife, Canary Islands, between May 2004 and July 2005. Marking a period of elevated activity and a reawakening of the volcanic system, the data depict spatial and temporal variations in the sub-surface processes that defined this period of unrest at the Pico Viejo (PV)-Pico Teide (PT) complex, after the last volcanic eruption on Tenerife in 1909. An initial non-linear inversion, based on 3D line segments approximation, yielded three line segments at depths between 1 km a.s.l. and 2 km b.s.l. Our interpretation of the initial inversion results is that the line segments represent apparent composite sources, a superposition of deep and shallow seated sources. We therefore decomposed the gravity changes into shallow and deep parts (fields) using a procedure based on triple harmonic continuation. The shallow and deep fields could then be inverted separately, using the same inversion methodology. The deep field constrains two connected line segments at the depth of about 6 km b.s.l., in the center of the NW seismogenic zone of VT event swarm of the seismic unrest, that we interpret as magma input. The inversion of the shallow field images three weak line segments that are all situated at very shallow, near-surface depths. We interpret the weak segments as hydrothermal sources potentially excited by the deeper magma injection. Our results indicate no significant input into the shallow phonolitic plumbing system of the PV-PT complex, but rather a deeper-seated rejuvenation of the mafic feeder reservoir. The emerging picture from our analysis is that the 2004/5 unrest on Tenerife was of a hybrid nature due to the combination of a deep magma injection (failed eruption?) coupled with fluid migration to shallow depths. The identified causative link between deep and shallow unrest sources indicates the presence of permeable pathways for shallow fluid migration at the

  1. Event-stratigraphy of a caldera-forming ignimbrite eruption on Tenerife: the 273 ka Poris Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Richard J.; Branney, Michael J.

    The 273 ka Poris Formation in the Bandas del Sur Group records a complex, compositionally zoned explosive eruption at Las Cañadas caldera on Tenerife, Canary Islands. The eruption produced widespread pyroclastic density currents that devastated much of the SE of Tenerife, and deposited one of the most extensive ignimbrite sheets on the island. The sheet reaches 40-m thick, and includes Plinian pumice fall layers, massive and diffuse-stratified pumiceous ignimbrite, widespread lithic breccias, and co-ignimbrite ashfall deposits. Several facies are fines-rich, and contain ash pellets and accretionary lapilli. Eight brief eruptive phases are represented within its lithostratigraphy. Phase 1 comprised a fluctuating Plinian eruption, in which column height increased and then stabilized with time and dispersed tephra over much of the southeastern part of the island. Phase 2 emplaced three geographically restricted ignimbrite flow-units and associated extensive thin co-ignimbrite ashfall layers, which contain abundant accretionary lapilli from moist co-ignimbrite ash plumes. A brief Plinian phase (Phase 3), again dispersing pumice lapilli over southeastern Tenerife, marked the onset of a large sustained pyroclastic density current (Phase 4), which then waxed (Phase 5), covering increasingly larger areas of the island, as vents widened and/or migrated along opening caldera faults. The climax of the Poris eruption (Phase 6) was marked by widespread emplacement of coarse lithic breccias, thought to record caldera subsidence. This is inferred to have disturbed the magma chamber, causing mingling and eruption of tephriphonolite magma, and it changed the proximal topography diverting the pyroclastic density current(s) down the Güimar valley (Phase 7). Phase 8 involved post-eruption erosion and sedimentary reworking, accompanied by minor down-slope sliding of ignimbrite. This was followed by slope stabilization and pedogenesis. The fines-rich lithofacies with abundant ash

  2. Source and significance of pumices in tsunami deposits: examples from Tenerife (Canary Islands), Santorini (Greece) and Krakatau (Indonesia) volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, R.; Nauret, F.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are quite often associated with tsunamis, and particularly caldera-forming eruptions near the coasts (e.g. Santorini, Krakatau, Aniakchak, Kikai). The main tsunamigenic processes are the entrance of massive pyroclastic flows in water, and flank instability, even if other processes might be involved (e.g. explosions). Fresh tephras are often preserved in sedimentary deposits left inland by tsunamis associated with volcanic eruptions. We review the different sources and incorporation mechanisms of pumices in tsunami deposits, and their significance in terms of volcanic processes, hydrodynamic processes (tsunami inundation) and their possible interactions. Three examples are adressed: the Krakatau 1883 eruption, the Minoan Thera eruption, and the El Abrigo eruption / Teno tsunami in Tenerife.

  3. [A critical appraisal of an institutional journal: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz].

    PubMed

    de Lemos, A A

    1993-01-01

    The journal Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, founded and maintained over the course of many years for the exclusive publication of research results from one single institution, has undergone changes over the last decade which have resulted in an open journal. Conditions leading to the journal's founding and the excellent role it has played in the dissemination of knowledge produced by the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz are examined. The fact that it has differed from journals published by scientific societies does not diminish its importance. The present option to give this journal an international slant, with possibilities for competing on the foreign market, and which would be facilitated by the preference given to papers written in English, raises some questions about the role of Brazilian specialized journals within the framework of our scientific development.

  4. Population size of island loggerhead shrikes on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Teel, Susan; Hall, Linnea S.; Dye, Linda C.; Laughrin, Lyndal L.

    2012-01-01

    Island loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi) are an endemic, genetically distinct subspecies of loggerhead shrike on California's Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Santa Catalina Islands (USA). This subspecies is listed as a Species of Special Concern by the California Department of Fish and Game and has been petitioned for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. The combination of suspected low numbers and the possibility of federal listing, prompted us to undertake a study to rigorously estimate the number of remaining individuals on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands. During the 2009 and 2010 breeding seasons, we surveyed sample units on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands using a double-observer method with independent observers to estimate joint detection probabilities (p), where we selected units under a stratified random sampling design. We estimated shrike abundance to be 169 in 2009 (p = 0.476) and 240 in 2010 (p = 0.825) for Santa Rosa Island, and 35 in 2009 (p = 0.816) and 42 in 2010 (p = 0.710) for Santa Cruz Island. These numbers, especially for Santa Rosa Island, are higher than previously reported but nevertheless are still low. Rapid vegetation change on both islands due to recent removal of nonnative herbivores may threaten the habitat and status of this subspecies and, therefore, we suggest that intensive demographic and habitat use research be initiated immediately to obtain additional information vital for the management of this subspecies. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Channel change on the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, 1936-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.

    1995-01-01

    The Santa Cruz River in southeastern Arizona has a long history of channel instability. Since the late 19th century, lateral channel erosion has caused extensive property damage, particularly in Pima County. The dominant mechanism of channel change in a reach depends on channel morphology and flood magnitude. The timing and magnitude of channel change are controlled primarily by hydroclimatic factors. The location of change is controlled largely by topographic, geologic, hydraulic, and artificial factors.

  6. Effects of climate change and population growth on the transboundary Santa Cruz aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Christopher A.; Megdal, Sharon; Oroz, Lucas Antonio; Callegary, James; Vandervoet, Prescott

    2012-01-01

    The USA and Mexico have initiated comprehensive assessment of 4 of the 18 aquifers underlying their 3000 km border. Binational management of groundwater is not currently proposed. University and agency researchers plus USA and Mexican federal, state, and local agency staff have collaboratively identified key challenges facing the Santa Cruz River Valley Aquifer located between the states of Arizona and Sonora. The aquifer is subject to recharge variability, which is compounded by climate change, and is experiencing growing urban demand for groundwater. In this paper, we briefly review past, current, and projected pressures on Santa Cruz groundwater. We undertake first-order approximation of the relative magnitude of climate change and human demand drivers on the Santa Cruz water balance. Global circulation model output for emissions scenarios A1B, B1, and A2 present mixed trends, with annual precipitation projected to vary by ±20% over the 21st century. Results of our analysis indicate that urban water use will experience greater percentage change than climate-induced recharge (which remains the largest single component of the water balance). In the Mexican portion of the Santa Cruz, up to half of future total water demand will need to be met from non-aquifer sources. In the absence of water importation and with agricultural water use and rights increasingly appropriated for urban demand, wastewater is increasingly seen as a resource to meet urban demand. We consider decision making on both sides of the border and conclude by identifying short- and longer-term opportunities for further binational collaboration on transboundary aquifer assessment.

  7. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  8. Field-trip guide to the geology of the Lexington Reservoir and Loma Prieta areas in the Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This guide contains a road log and five stop descriptions for a field trip in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains. The trip officially begins at the boat dock parking area on Alma Bridge Road near the dam of Lexington Reservoir. Stop 1 involves a walk up the Limekiln Trail to examine a large landslide in serpentinite that frequently takes out the trail. Stop 2 is at Miller Point picnic area along the shore of the reservoir where exposures of massive, fractured graywacke sandstone are capped with terrace gravel deposits. Stop 3 is along Highland Way in the Santa Cruz Mountains where large landslides have occasionally force the closure of the road. Stop 4A-C are several closely spaced outcrop areas along Loma Prieta Avenue and Summit-Mt. Madonna Road in the Loma Prieta summit area. A walk to scenic vista points provide opportunity to discuss the evolution of regional landscape along the crest of the Sierra Azul. In addition, a variety of rock types are exposed in the Stop 4 area along a series of road cuts, including Cretaceous age conglomerate, turbidites (consisting of interbedded sandstone and shale), and fossiliferous mudstone. Stop 5 involves returning to the boat dock parking area to examine geology and the placement of the Lexington Dam in the Los Gatos Creek canyon.

  9. Evidence for latest Pleistocene to Holocene movement on the Santa Cruz Island fault, California

    SciTech Connect

    Pinter, N.; Sorlien, C. )

    1991-09-01

    Timing of the latest movement on the Santa Cruz Island fault, a dramatic physiographic feature of the southern boundary of the California Transverse Ranges, is demonstrated to be latest Pleistocene to Holocene in age. Faulting of dated terrace gravels confirms that the most recent rupture on the fault is no older than 11.78 {plus minus}0.1 ka. This represents an order of magnitude increase over the recency suggested by previous work and requires proportional increases in estimates of the minimum slip rate and seismic hazard posed by the fault. Uplifted latest Pleistocene to Holocene fill terraces are consistent with models of high rates of uplift and high sediment supply. Numerical solution of the interaction of sea-level rise with uplift at the west end of Santa Cruz Island predicts that the youngest strata in the faulted terrace sequence are about 6.1 ka. Reevaluation of high-resolution seismic sections just west of the island supports the latest Pleistocene to Holocene timing of the most recent rupture on the fault. The Santa Cruz Island fault apparently represents an active seismogenic element of southern California, the recent and high rate of activity of which have not been previously recognized.

  10. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116

  11. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: outbreak investigation and antibody prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Blair, Patrick J; Carroll, Darin S; Mills, James N; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G; Glabman, Raisa A; Bausch, Daniel G

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans.

  12. Estimating the population size of island loggerhead shrikes on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Teel, Susan; Hall, Linnea S.; Dye, Linda C.; Laughrin, Lyndal L.

    2012-01-01

    Island loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi) are an endemic, genetically distinct subspecies of loggerhead shrike on California’s Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands. This subspecies is listed as a Species of Special Concern by the California Department of Fish and Game and has been petitioned for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. Because of suspected low numbers and the possibility of federal listing, there was an urgent need to rigorously estimate the number of remaining individuals on the Islands. In 2009 and 2010, biologists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service surveyed sample units on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands using a double-observer method with independent observers, where units were selected under a stratified random sampling design. Shrike abundance was estimated to be 169 in 2009 and 240 in 2010 for Santa Rosa Island, and 35 in 2009 and 42 in 2010 for Santa Cruz Island. These numbers, especially for Santa Rosa Island, are higher than previously reported but nevertheless are still low. Rapid vegetation change on both islands due to recent removal of non-native herbivores may threaten the habitat and status of this subspecies. In view of this circumstance and the still-low numbers of shrikes, additional intensive demographic and habitat-use studies are critical for obtaining information vital for the perpetuation of this subspecies.

  13. Interpretation of analytical data on n-alkanes and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in Arbacia lixula from the coasts of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) by multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Peña-Méndez, E M; Astorga-España, M S; García-Montelongo, F J

    1999-12-01

    The hydrocarbons contents (n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were determined in the sea urchin Arbacia lixula. Multivariate data analysis as principal component analysis, factor analysis and, cluster analysis were applied to elucidate sources of pollution. PCA and FA were performed to establish the relationships between variables (hydrocarbons), samples (sea urchin) and sources of pollution.

  14. U-Pb geochronology of the Santa Cruz Formation (early Miocene) at the Río Bote and Río Santa Cruz (southernmost Patagonia, Argentina): Implications for the correlation of fossil vertebrate localities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuitiño, José I.; Fernicola, Juan Carlos; Kohn, Matthew J.; Trayler, Robin; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Bargo, M. Susana; Kay, Richard F.; Vizcaíno, Sergio F.

    2016-10-01

    The early Miocene Santa Cruz Formation (SCF) in southern Patagonia hosts the Santacrucian South American Land Mammal Age (SALMA), whose age is known mainly from exposures along the Atlantic coast. Zircon U-Pb ages were obtained from intercalated tuffs from four inland sections of the SCF: 17.36 ± 0.63 Ma for the westernmost Río Bote locality, and 17.04 ± 0.55 Ma-16.32 ± 0.62 Ma for central Río Santa Cruz localities. All ages agree with the bounding age of underlying marine units and with equivalent strata in coastal exposures. New ages and available sedimentation rates imply time spans for each section of ∼18.2 to 17.36 Ma for Río Bote and 17.45-15.63 Ma for central Río Santa Cruz (Burdigalian). These estimates support the view that deposition of the SCF began at western localities ∼1 Ma earlier than at eastern localities, and that the central Río Santa Cruz localities expose the youngest SCF in southern Santa Cruz Province. Associated vertebrate faunas are consistent with our geochronologic synthesis, showing older (Notohippidian) taxa in western localities and younger (Santacrucian) taxa in central localities. The Notohippidian fauna (19.0-18.0 Ma) of the western localities is synchronous with Pinturan faunas (19.0-18.0 Ma), but older than Santacrucian faunas of the Río Santa Cruz (17.2-15.6 Ma) and coastal localities (18.0-16.2 Ma). The Santacrucian faunas of the central Río Santa Cruz localities temporally overlap Colloncuran (15.7 Ma), Friasian (16.5 Ma), and eastern Santacrucian faunas.

  15. [Suicide in Spain today].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  16. [Resident foreigners in Spain].

    PubMed

    Solana, A M; Pascual De Sans, A

    1994-01-01

    The authors review trends in the size of the resident foreign population in Spain over time since the 1940s. A continuing growth over time, with temporal fluctuations, is noted, with a rapid rise in immigration in the 1980s, leading to new legislation designed to control immigration in 1985-1986 and 1991. The authors note that Europeans, particularly from countries of the European Union, make up a large percentage of the foreign population, but that the number of immigrants from developing countries has increased significantly in the last 10 years.

  17. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  18. On New Spain and Mexican medicinal botany in cardiology.

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo Alessandro; Izaguirre-Ávila, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Towards the middle of the XVI century, the empirical physician Martín de la Cruz, in New Spain, compiled a catalogue of the local medicinal herbs and plants, which was translated into Latin by Juan Badiano, professor at the Franciscan college of Tlatelolco. On his side, Dr. Francisco Hernández, the royal physician (protomédico) from 1571 until 1577, performed a systematic study of the flora and fauna in this period. His notes and designs were not published at that time, but two epitomes of Hernández' works appeared, respectively, in 1615 in Mexico and in 1651 in Rome. During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived to these lands. They were led, respectively, by the Spanish naturalist Martín Sessé and the Italian seaman, Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. These expeditions collected and carried rich scientific material to Spain. At the end of that century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his botanic work. In the last years of the colonial period, the fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland on the geographic distribution of the American plants were published. In the modern age, the first research about the Mexican medicinal botany was performed in the laboratory of the Instituto Médico Nacional [National Medical Institute] under the leadership of Dr. Fernando Altamirano, who started pharmacological studies in this country. Later, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico City, on Dr. Ignacio Chávez' initiative. The Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition persists alive and vigorous at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología and other scientific institutions of the country.

  19. Physical data of soil profiles formed on late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munster, Jennie; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2002-01-01

    The marine terraces in and around Santa Cruz, California, represent a set of well-preserved terraces formed as a product of geology, sea level, and climate. A marine terrace begins as a wave cut platform. Eustatic sea level changes, seacliff erosion, and tectonic uplift work together to generate marine terraces. "When a wave-cut platform is raised (due to tectonic activity) above sea level and cliffed by wave action it becomes a marine terrace" (Bradley, 1957, p. 424). During glacial periods, eustatic sea level is estimated to have dropped by 150 meters (Fairbanks, 1989). Cliff retreat measured from aerial photographs between 1930 and 1980 vary from 0.0 to 0.2 m yr–1 (Best and Griggs, 1991). Estimates of uplift rates along the Santa Cruz coastline vary from 0.10 to 0.48 m kyr–1 (Bradley and Griggs, 1976; Weber and others, 1999). Uplift mechanisms include coseismic uplift associated both with a reverse component of slip on the steeply SW dipping Loma Prieta fault in the restraining bend of the San Andreas Fault and a small component of reverse slip on the steeply SE dipping San Gregorio fault (Anderson and Menking 1994). Previous work studying physical properties on these terraces include Pinney and others (in press) and Aniku (1986) and Bowman and Estrada (1980). Sedimentary deposits of the marine terraces are a mixture of terrestrial and marine sediments but generally consist of a sheet of marine deposits overlying the old platform and a wedge of nonmarine deposits banked against the old sea cliff (Bradley, 1957). Bedrock underlying the terraces in the Santa Cruz area is generally either Santa Margarita Sandstone or Santa Cruz Mudstone. The Santa Margarita Sandstone represents an upper Miocene, transgressive, tidally dominated marine-shelf deposit with crossbedded sets of sand and gravel and horizontally stratified and bioturbated invertebrate-fossils beds (Phillips, 1990). The siliceous Santa Cruz Mudstone, of late Miocene age, conformably overlies the Santa

  20. Crystal Zoning Constrains on the Processes and Time Scales Involved in Monogenetic Mafic Volcanism (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, H.; Costa Rodriguez, F.; Marti, J.

    2014-12-01

    Most of the historical eruptive activity in Tenerife has been relatively mafic and mildly-explosive monogenetic eruptions, and thus it seems that this activity is the most likely in the near future. Here we investigate the processes and time scales that lead to such eruptions with the aim to better interpret and plan for any possible unrest in the island. We focus on three historical eruptions: Siete Fuentes (December 31 1704-January 1705), Fasnia (January 5-January 13 1705) and Arafo (February 2-February 26 1705) issued from a 10 km long basaltic fissure eruption oriented N45E and covering an area of 10.4 km2. The erupted volume increases by 5-fold from the first to the last eruption. All magmas are tephritic, although the bulk-rock becomes more mafic with time due to accumulation of olivine with Cr-spinel inclusions, and clinopyroxene rather than to the appearance of a truly more primitive melt. Olivine core compositions of the three eruptions range between Fo79 and Fo87. Frequency histograms show three main populations: at Fo79-80, Fo80-82 and Fo84-87 displaying normal and reverse zoning. Thermodynamic calculations show that only cores with Fo80-82 are in equilibrium with the whole rock. Clinopyroxene phenocrysts can have large pools of matrix glass and show rims of different composition. Only the rims, with Mg#84-86, are in equilibrium with the whole-rock. Considering olivine cores and clinopyroxene rims in equilibrium we obtained a temperature range of 1150-1165°C, and MELTS calculations suggest pressures of 1 to 5 kbar. The variety of olivine core populations reflects mixing and mingling between three different magmas, and their proportions have changed with time from Siete Fuentes to Arafo. Most crystals have complex zoning profiles that record two events: (1) one of magma mixing/mingling at depth, (2) another of magma transport and ascent to the surface. Magma mixing at depth ranges from about 3 months to two years and is similar for the three eruptions

  1. A combined paleomagnetic/dating investigation of the upper Jaramillo transition from a volcanic section at Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissel, C.; Guillou, H.; Laj, C.; Carracedo, J. C.; Perez-Torrado, F.; Wandres, C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Nomade, S.

    2014-11-01

    A coupled paleomagnetic/dating investigation has been conducted on a sequence of 25 successive lava flows, emplaced during the upper transition of the Jaramillo subchron in Tenerife, Canary Islands. This sequence is located along the western wall of the Güímar collapse scar, in the south central part of the island. Nine flows distributed throughout this sequence were dated using unspiked K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar methods. They bracket the section between 1009±22 ka and 971±21 ka (2σ). A first group of 8 flows at the bottom of the sequence is characterized by normal polarity with paleointensity values of the order of present-day field intensity in the Canary Islands. The virtual geomagnetic poles (VGP) of these 8 flows describe a short loop at high latitudes. Seven overlying flows are transitional in directions and dated between 991±14 ka and 1002±11 ka consistently with published ages of the upper Jaramillo reversal. This second group of flows is characterized by low paleointensity values (around 8-12 μT) that are less than 30% of the present dipole value in Tenerife. The VGPs of the first two transitional flows lie over northeastern Pacific whereas the five following transitional flows have all negative inclinations and their VGPs lie initially over East Antarctica, then describe a northward loop almost reaching New Zealand. The final group of ten flows yield intensities varying between 20 and 35 μT and VGPs close to the southern pole with two of them describing a small amplitude second loop to southeastern Pacific. Assuming a constant extrusion rate as a very first approximation, the distribution of the obtained ages suggests a duration of 7.6±5.6 ka for the transitional interval. The obtained transitional positions of VGPs are consistent with the path reported for the same reversal from North Atlantic sediments but are different from the only other volcanic record from Tahiti. The intensity low characterizing the transitional interval remains the best tie

  2. Simulation of ground-water flow and potential land subsidence, upper Santa Cruz Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Benedict, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical ground-water flow model of the upper Santa Cruz basin in Pinal, Pima, and Santa Cruz Counties was developed to evaluate predevelopment conditions in 1940, ground-water withdrawals for 1940-86, and potential water-level declines and land subsidence for 1987-2024. Simulations of steady-state ground-water conditions indicate 12,900 acre-feet of ground-water inflow, 15,260 acre-feet of outflow, 53,000 acre-feet of pre- development pumpage, 29,840 acre-feet of mountain- front recharge, and 34,020 acre-feet of streamflow infiltration in 1940. Simulations of transient ground-water conditions indicate a total of 6.6 million acre-feet of net pumpage and 3.4 million acre-feet of water removed from aquifer storage for 1941-86. A difference of 1.2 million acre-feet between estimated and net pumpage is attributed to increased recharge from irrigation return flow, mine return flow, and infiltration of sewage effluent. Estimated natural recharge represents 40 percent of pumpage for 1966-86 and averaged 63,860 acre-feet per year for 1940-57 and 76,250 acre-feet per year for 1958-86. The increase in recharge after 1958 was coincident with above- average winter streamflow in the Santa Cruz River for 1959-86. Increased recharge after 1958 and decreased pumpage after 1975 contributed to decreased water-level declines or to recoveries after 1977 in wells near the Santa Cruz River and its tributaries. The results of projection simu- lations indicate that a maximum potential subsi- dence for 1987-2024 ranges from 1.2 feet for an inelastic specific storage of .0001 ft to 12 feet for an inelastic specific storage of .0015 ft. The simulations were made on the basis of pumpage and recharge rates from 1986 and by using a preconso- lidation-stress threshold of 100 feet. A permanent reduction in acquitard storage can range from 1 to 12 percent of the potential loss of 3.9 million acre-feet in aquifer-system storage for 1987-2024.

  3. Hematology and serum chemistry of the island spotted skunk on Santa Cruz Island.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Kevin R; Garcelon, D K; Scott, Cheryl A; Wilcox, Jeffery T; Timm, Steven F; Van Vuren, Dirk H

    2003-04-01

    We determined serum biochemistry and hematologic values for island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) on Santa Cruz Island (California, USA). Samples were collected from island spotted skunks chemically restrained with ketamine hydrochloride and acepromazine in August 1999 (dry season) and from skunks manually restrained in August 2000 (dry season) and January 2001 (wet season). One parameter, glucose, significantly differed with season, with higher levels during the wet season. Serum chemistry and hematologic profiles suggest that method of restraint (manual or chemical), as well as other methodologic details, may influence blood characteristics in the island spotted skunk.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and phylogeography of Pimelia darkling beetles on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Juan, C; Ibrahim, K M; Oromi, P; Hewitt, G M

    1996-12-01

    Four morphological taxa of the beetle genus Pimelia (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are known to exist on the Atlantic island of Tenerife. We have obtained DNA sequences for 61 individuals from these taxa across the island for a 200 bp long fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene. In addition, a restriction site polymorphism in the nuclear rRNA ITS-1 sequence was identified and screened in a sample of these individuals using the enzyme Kpn2I. The results were analysed using approaches which allow inferences to be made about the population genetic structure and the mitochondrial genealogy of these closely related beetles. The mtDNA haplotype distribution and the estimates of sequence divergence revealed the presence of two ancient mtDNA lineages which coincide with the disjunct volcanic evolution of the island. The ITS-1 polymorphism was found to be diagnostic of these two lineages. However, the morphological and mitochondrial phylogenies were found to be discordant. We argue that this is possibly the result of rapid morphological change, produced by selection in different habitats, which has been recently superimposed on an older mitochondrial DNA divergence.

  5. The use of biotite trace element compositions for fingerprinting magma batches at Las Cañadas volcano, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwinski, J. T.; Ellis, B. S.; Dávila-Harris, P.; Wolff, J. A.; Olin, P. H.; Bachmann, O.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate identification of individual volcanic events in the field is crucial for constraining eruption volumes and calculating recurrence intervals between eruptive episodes. Due to complexities of pyroclastic transport and deposition and intra-unit textural variability, such identification can be challenging. We present a novel method for fingerprinting ignimbrites via trace element chemistry (V, Co, Nb) in biotite by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Using samples from the alkaline magmatic series of Tenerife, we are able to demonstrate (1) clustering of previously characterized units into distinct, homogeneous groups based on V, Co, and Nb concentrations in biotite, despite the presence of extreme variation and zonation in other trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb) that indicate complex petrogenetic processes, and (2) biotite compositions are similar throughout a deposit and relatively independent of stratigraphic height or juvenile clast texture (crystal-rich vs crystal-poor). Our results show that trace elements in biotite can be used to fingerprint eruptions and correlate geographically separated volcanic deposits, including those preserved in offshore turbidite records.

  6. Object-oriented image analysis and change detection of land-use on Tenerife related to socio-economic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    The island Tenerife is characterized by an increasing tourism, which causes an enormous change of the socio-economic situation and a rural exodus. This development leads - beside for example sociocultural issues - to fallow land, decreasing settlements, land wasting etc., as well as to an economic and ecological problem. This causes to a growing interest in geoecological aspects and to an increasing demand for an adequate monitoring database. In order to study the change of land use and land cover, the technology of remote sensing (LANDSAT 3 MSS and 7 ETM+, orthophotos) and geographical information systems were used to analyze the spatial pattern and its spatial temporal changes of land use from end of the 70s to the present in different scales. Because of the heterogeneous landscape and the unsatisfactory experience with pixel-based classification of the same area, object-oriented image analysis techniques have been applied to classify the remote sensed data. A post-classification application was implemented to detect spatial and categorical land use and land cover changes, which have been clipped with the socio-economic data within GIS to derive the driving forces of the changes and their variability in time and space.

  7. Epiphytic bryophytes growing on Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco in three laurel forest areas in Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Mancebo, Juana M.; Romaguera, Francisco; Losada-Lima, Ana; Suárez, Andrés

    2004-05-01

    We examined bryophyte species growing on Laurus azorica, in three localities of the laurel forest in Tenerife (Canary Islands), in order to determine differences in species composition, richness and cover, that depend on variations in mist frequency and density. Among the 35 bryophyte species found (26 liverworts and nine mosses), 16 occurred in all three locations while nine species occurred in only one location. Detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the epiphyte-phorophyte relationship varied in terms of cover, richness and bryophyte composition, depending on the humidity conditions (related to mist frequency and plot height) and tree age. In spite of differences in the dominant species found at each locality, the community types have many species in common and may be seen as a natural unit of the communities involved. Variation in the dominant species at each locality is mainly related to a trade off between humidity conditions and tree diameter, and the speed of the successional processes. Plot aspect was the only variable among those considered with no significant influence, which might be related to the closed canopy conditions. Variation in cover, richness and bryophyte composition related to plot height and tree diameter increased in the drier location. Cover was positively related to species richness in all analyses. This is related to low diversity during initial colonization and the fact that the highest biomass species, related to later successional stages, also occur on younger trees, especially in the more humid areas.

  8. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Dieter, Bryan E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Endris, Charles A.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-03-24

    IntroductionIn 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow subsurface geology.The Offshore of Santa Cruz map area is located in central California, on the Pacific Coast about 98 km south of San Francisco. The city of Santa Cruz (population, about 63,000), the largest incorporated city in the map area and the county seat of Santa Cruz County, lies on uplifted marine terraces between the shoreline and the northwest-trending Santa Cruz Mountains, part of California’s Coast Ranges. All of California’s State Waters in the map area is part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.The map area is cut by an offshore section of the San Gregorio Fault Zone, and it lies about 20 kilometers southwest of the San Andreas Fault Zone. Regional folding and uplift along the coast has been attributed to a westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone and to right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault Zone. Most of the coastal zone is characterized by low, rocky cliffs and sparse, small pocket beaches backed by low, terraced hills. Point Santa Cruz, which forms the north edge of Monterey Bay, provides protection for the beaches in the easternmost part of the map area by sheltering them from the predominantly northwesterly waves.The shelf in the map area is underlain by variable amounts (0 to 25 m) of

  9. Evaluation of ground-water monitoring network, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenbaker, G.G.; Farrar, Christopher D.

    1981-01-01

    The Santa Cruz County Flood Control and Water Conservation District seeks to improve the existing network of observation wells to monitor water levels and ground-water quality in the Pajaro Valley subarea and the Aptos-Soquel, San Lorenzo, and Santa Cruz Coastal subbasins in California. The proposed network , consisting of 92 wells, is designed to monitor changes in storage and quality of ground water resulting from climatic changes and management-induced stresses. In the proposed network , water levels in all wells would be measured semiannually, in April and September, and monthly in a few key wells. The water-level measurements would provide data that could be used to determine changes in ground-water storage. In addition to the currently monitored characteristics--temperature, specific conductance, pH, and chloride ion concentration--inclusion of annual sampling and analysis for major ions and nutrients is proposed. The network would also include sampling and analysis for trace elements once every 4 years. More frequent analyses are proposed in areas where water-quality problems are known to exist or where potential water-quality problems are recognized. Analyses for major ions, nutrients, and trace elements are included in the proposed network to provide baseline data for monitoring long-term changes in water quality and to detect any unexpected changes in quality. (USGS)

  10. Biologic origin of iron nodules in a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.; Schulz, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; White, A.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution, chemistry, and morphology of Fe nodules were studied in a marine terrace soil chronosequence northwest of Santa Cruz, California. The Fe nodules are found at depths <1 m on all terraces. The nodules consisted of soil mineral grains cemented by Fe oxides. The nodules varied in size from 0.5 to 25 mm in diameter. Nodules did not occur in the underlying regolith. The Fe-oxide mineralogy of the nodules was typically goethite; however, a subset of nodules consisted of maghemite. There was a slight transformation to hematite with time. The abundance of soil Fe nodules increased with terrace age on the five terraces studied (aged 65,000-226,000 yr). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed Fe-oxide-containing fungal hyphae throughout the nodules, including organic structures incorporating fine-grained Fe oxides. The fine-grained nature of the Fe oxides was substantiated by M??ssbauer spectroscopy. Our microscopic observations led to the hypothesis that the nodules in the Santa Cruz terrace soils are precipitated by fungi, perhaps as a strategy to sequester primary mineral grains for nutrient extraction. The fungal structures are fixed by the seasonal wetting and dry cycles and rounded through bioturbation. The organic structures are compacted by the degradation of fungal C with time. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. Configuration of Miocene Basins Along the Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge, California Continental Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoller, A. R.; Legg, M.; Malone, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Miocene basins associated with the oblique rifting of the Inner Continental Borderland offshore Southern California are preserved along the flanks of the transpressional Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge. Using 184 lines of two-dimensional seismic data including high resolution records from Oregon State University and deep penetration data from Western Geco archived in USGS/NAMSS, we were able to map the configuration of the Miocene basin along the flanks of the northern core complex on the Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge. There are distinct early and middle Miocene basins along the flanks of the ridge, which we are using to try to define the initial configuration of the Inner Borderland Rift. Along the hinge, between the uplifted ridge and the sub-horizontal basement in the Santa Monica Basin, lies the thickest part of the sequence. Pliocene to Recent sediments lap on to the tilted and uplifted Miocene basin sequences and constrain timing of uplift when transpression commenced. Segmentation and other distinctive character of the basin along the ridge flank may be correlated with similar features in the Miocene basin on the conjugate margin of the rift. Our working model for oblique rifting in the Borderland resembles of the Gulf of California, where right-stepping echelon transform faults link left-stepping extensional basins. The objective of our project is to reconstruct the configuration of the middle Miocene rift and to further our quest to understand the rifting process and tectonic evolution of the Pacific-North American plate boundary.

  12. Genetic Status and Timing of a Weevil Introduction to Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Successful invasive species can overcome or circumvent the potential genetic loss caused by an introduction bottleneck through a rapid population expansion and admixture from multiple introductions. We explore the genetic makeup and the timing of a species introduction to Santa Cruz Island in the Galápagos archipelago. We investigate the presence of processes that can maintain genetic diversity in populations of the broad-nosed weevil Galapaganus howdenae howdenae. Analyses of combined genotypes for 8 microsatellite loci showed evidence of past population size reductions through moment and likelihood-based estimators. No evidence of admixture through multiple introductions was found, but substantial current population sizes (N0 298, 95% credible limits 50–2300), genetic diversity comparable with long-established endemics (Mean number of alleles = 3.875), and lack of genetic structure across the introduced range (F ST = 0.01359) could suggest that foundations are in place for populations to rapidly recover any loss of genetic variability. The time estimates for the introduction into Santa Cruz support an accidental transfer during the colonization period (1832–1959) predating the spurt in human population growth. Our evaluation of the genetic status of G. h. howdenae suggests potential for population growth in addition to our field observations of a concurrent expansion in range and feeding preferences towards protected areas and endemic host plants. PMID:24399746

  13. The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

    2013-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were

  14. [Allergenic pollens in Spain].

    PubMed

    Subiza Garrido-Lestache, J

    2004-01-01

    Allergenic pollens that cause rhinoconjuctivitis and/or asthma are those from trees or plants that pollinate through the air (anemophilic pollination) and not through insects (entomophilic pollination). Although pollen grains would seem to be too large to easily reach the intrapulmonary airways, the relationship between pollen counts and the presence of asthmatic symptoms is only too evident. This is probably because the allergens inducing seasonal asthma are not only found within pollen grains but also outside the grains in particles of less than 10 mm that are freely found in the atmosphere. The most important pollens producing pollinosis in Spain are those from cypress trees from January-March, birch trees in April (macizo galaico), Platanus hispanica (March-April), grasses and olive trees from April-June, Parietaria from April-July and Chenopodium and/or Salsola from July-September. By geographical areas, the main cause of pollinosis are grasses in the center and north of the peninsula, olive trees in the south (Jaén, Sevilla, Granada, Córdoba) and Parietaria in the Mediterranean coast (Barcelona, Murcia, Valencia).

  15. 78 FR 35951 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the City of Santa Cruz Graham Hill Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant, Santa Cruz County, California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... existing Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant, construction of new facilities, which have the potential for... system, the applicant operates the Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant. The Graham Hill Water...

  16. High-resolution topographic, bathymetric, and oceanographic data for the Pleasure Point Area, Santa Cruz County, California: 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Collins, Brian D.; Finlayson, David P.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hatcher, Gerry A.; Kayen, Robert E.; Ruggiero, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The County of Santa Cruz Department of Public Works and the County of Santa Cruz Redevelopment Agency requested the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team (WCMG) to provide baseline geologic and oceanographic information on the coast and inner shelf at Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California. The rationale for this proposed work is a need to better understand the environmental consequences of a proposed bluff stabilization project on the beach, the nearshore and the surf at Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California. To meet these information needs, the USGS-WCMG Team collected baseline scientific information on the morphology and waves at Pleasure Point. This study provided high-resolution topography of the coastal bluffs and bathymetry of the inner shelf off East Cliff Drive between 32nd Avenue and 41st Avenue. The spatial and temporal variation in waves and their breaking patterns at the study site were documented. Although this project did not actively investigate the impacts of the proposed bluff stabilization project, these data provide the baseline information required for future studies directed toward predicting the impacts of stabilization on the sea cliffs, beach and nearshore sediment profiles, natural rock reef structures, and offshore habitats and resources. They also provide a basis for calculating potential changes to wave transformations into the shore at Pleasure Point.

  17. List of the type-specimens of Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in the Triatomines Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Juliana Mourão Dos Santos; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Cordeiro, Isabelle Da Rocha Silva; De Almeida, Magaly Dolsan; Jurberg, José

    2015-03-19

    The Triatomines Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CTIOC) holds 90 holotypes, seven syntypes, and 619 paratypes of the family Reduviidae, distributed in 44 genera and nine subfamilies: Chryxinae, Emesinae, Hammacerinae, Harpactorinae, Peiratinae, Reduviinae, Stenopodainae, Triatominae, and Vesciinae. A detailed list containing nomenclatural, taxonomic, and locality information about all these types is herein presented for the first time.

  18. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in Santa Cruz County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Schuster, Robert L.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $14.5 million in damages were assessed in Santa Cruz County.

  19. The Border Environmental Health Initiative: Investigation of the Transboundary Santa Cruz Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, L. M.; Callegary, J. B.; van Riper, C.; Gray, F.; Paretti, N.; Villarreal, M.

    2009-12-01

    In the borderland region of the desert southwest, human health and the ecosystems upon which humans rely largely depend on the quality, quantity, and distribution of water resources. In the Santa Cruz River Watershed (SCW), located in the Arizona and Sonora, Mexico border region, surface water is scarce and unreliable, and, during much of the year, is composed of effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant. This makes groundwater the preferred and, consequently, primary source for industrial, agricultural, and domestic use. USGS scientists are using an integrative approach, incorporating the expertise of the Geography, Water, Biology, and Geology disciplines to identify risks to water resources in the SCW, and the potential for impacts to riparian ecosystems and ultimately, human health. This includes tracking organic and inorganic contaminants and their effects from sources to sinks in sediment, water, plants, and animals. Existing ground- and surface-water models will be used and modified to assess contaminant and sediment transport. Water quality, sediment, aquatic macro invertebrates, aquatic plants (macrophytes), algae, riparian grasses, fish, and birds will be sampled at five locations along the Santa Cruz River. Field sampling data will be obtained at sites that coincide with historical sampling programs. Site locations include (i.) the Santa Cruz River headwaters (which should be unaffected by downstream contaminant sources), (ii.) a tributary routed through an abandoned mining district, (iii.) a binational tributary that flows though highly urbanized areas, (iv.) effluent from the local wastewater treatment plant, and (v.) the downstream confluence of the first four sources. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model will be used in combination with field data to identify key sources of contaminants, contributing areas, and transport modes to track their movement to surface waters. These data will be used together to test relationships between

  20. Assessment of benthic changes during 20 years of monitoring the Mexican Salina Cruz Bay.

    PubMed

    González-Macías, C; Schifter, I; Lluch-Cota, D B; Méndez-Rodríguez, L; Hernández-Vázquez, S

    2009-02-01

    In this work a non-parametric multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of metals and organic compounds in the macro infaunal component of the mollusks benthic community using surface sediment data from several monitoring programs collected over 20 years in Salina Cruz Bay, Mexico. The data for benthic mollusks community characteristics (richness, abundance and diversity) were linked to multivariate environmental patterns, using the Alternating Conditional Expectations method to correlate the biological measurements of the mollusk community with the physicochemical properties of water and sediments. Mollusks community variation is related to environmental characteristics as well as lead content. Surface deposit feeders are increasing their relative density, while subsurface deposit feeders are decreasing with respect to time, these last are expected to be more related with sediment and more affected then by its quality. However gastropods with predatory carnivore as well as chemosymbiotic deposit feeder bivalves have maintained their relative densities along time.

  1. Blaming Machismo: How the Social Imaginary is Failing Men with HIV in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Heckert, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from an ethnography of HIV care in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in this article I explore how the social imaginary surrounding gender relations shapes men's experiences of seeking care for and living with HIV. Popular understandings of gender relations, which draw heavily on the machismo concept, intersect with a global health master narrative that frames women as victims in the AIDS epidemic in a way that generates a strong sentiment of blaming machismo within local HIV/AIDS-related services. Statements such as, "it's because of machismo" are used to explain away epidemiological trends. Participant observation in the context of HIV care, coupled with illness narrative interviews, illuminate how blaming machismo shapes men's experiences of care and the ways that they feel excluded from various forms of support. Thus, the illness experiences of men with HIV problematize the machismo concept and how it is drawn upon in the context of care.

  2. Bacterial community profiles before, during, and after Pseudo-nitzschia bloom events in Santa Cruz, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehic, S.; Sison-Mangus, M. P.; Jiang, S.; Kudela, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Pseudo-nitzschia blooms are known to occur in coastal environments, sometimes leading to the production of the neurotoxin domoic acid. Various environmental factors (nutrients, temperature, pH, UV radiation etc.) have been implicated in the promotion and demise of these blooms but it is currently unknown if bacteria also plays a role in this ecological phenomenon. Studies suggest that bacteria have a profound effect on Pseudo-nitzschia physiology and toxin production, which influences its dominance in coastal environment. Here, we investigate the microbial assemblages before, during and after toxic and nontoxic Pseudo-nitzschia blooms to determine the patterns of bacterial succession in these events. Bacterial community profiles were determined weekly at the Santa Cruz Wharf using next generation sequencing and analyzed together with domoic acid levels, nutrients, temperature and phytoplankton structure. Bacterial structures and environmental trends will be correlated with the bloom events and will be subsequently discussed.

  3. Free-living marine nematodes from San Julián Bay (Santa Cruz, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Pastor de Ward, Catalina; Lo Russo, Virginia; Villares, Gabriela; Milano, Viviana; Miyashiro, Lidia; Mazzanti, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The free-living marine nematodes of San Julián Bay dataset is based on sediment samples collected in January 2009 during the project PICT AGENCIA-FONCYT 2/33345-2005. A total of 36 samples have been taken at three locations in the San Julián Bay, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina on the coastal littoral at three tidal levels. This presents a unique and important collection for the nematode benthic biodiversity assessment as this area remains one of the least known regions in Patagonia. In total 10,030 specimens of free-living marine nematodes belonging to 2 classes, 9 orders, 35 families, 78 genera and 125 species were collected. The San Julián city site presented a very high species richness. PMID:25878534

  4. Lamniform Shark Teeth from the Late Cretaceous of Southernmost South America (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Schroeter, Elena R.; Egerton, Victoria M.; Ibiricu, Lucio M.; Lacovara, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report multiple lamniform shark teeth recovered from fluvial sediments in the (Campanian-Maastrichtian) Cerro Fortaleza Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. This small tooth assemblage is compared to various lamniform sharks possessing similar dental morphologies, including Archaeolamna, Cretalamna, Dwardius, Dallasiella, and Cretodus. Although the teeth share numerous morphological features with the genus Archaeolamna, including a developed neck that maintains a relatively consistent width along the base of the crown, the small sample size and incomplete nature of these specimens precludes definitive taxonomic assignment. Regardless, the discovery of selachian teeth unique from those previously described for the region broadens the known diversity of Late Cretaceous South American sharks. Additionally, the discovery of the teeth in fluvial sandstone may indicate a euryhaline paleobiology in the lamniform taxon or taxa represented by this tooth assemblage. PMID:25141301

  5. Reconnaissance of alluvial fans as potential sources of gravel aggregate, Santa Cruz River valley, Southeast Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Melick, Roger

    2002-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to provide information on the aggregate potential of alluvial fan sediments in the Santa Cruz River valley. Pebble lithology, roundness, and particle size were determined in the field, and structures and textures of alluvial fan sediments were photographed and described. Additional measurements of particle size on digital photographs were made on a computer screen. Digital elevation models were acquired and compiled for viewing the areal extent of selected fans. Alluvial fan gravel in the Santa Cruz River valley reflects the lithology of its source. Gravel derived from granitic and gneissic terrane of the Tortolita, Santa Catalina, and Rincon Mountains weathers to grus and is generally inferior for use as aggregate. Gravel derived from the Tucson, Sierrita, and Tumacacori Mountains is composed mostly of angular particles of volcanic rock, much of it felsic in composition. This angular volcanic gravel should be suitable for use in asphalt but may require treatment for alkali-silica reaction prior to use in concrete. Gravel derived from the Santa Rita Mountains is of mixed plutonic (mostly granitic rocks), volcanic (mostly felsic rocks), and sedimentary (sandstone and carbonate rock) composition. The sedimentary component tends to make gravel derived from the Santa Rita Mountains slightly more rounded than other fan gravel. The coarsest (pebble, cobble, and boulder) gravel is found near the heads (proximal part) of alluvial fans. At the foot (distal part) of alluvial fans, most gravel is pebble-sized and interbedded with sand and silt. Some of the coarsest gravel was observed near the head of the Madera Canyon, Montosa Canyon, and Esperanza Wash fans. The large Cienega Creek fan, located immediately south and southeast of Tucson, consists entirely of distal-fan pebble gravel, sand, and silt.

  6. Evaluation of toxicity of polluted marine sediments from Bahia Salina Cruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Lozano, Maria Cristina; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lia C; Maeda-Martinez, Alejandro M; Murugan, Gopal; Vazquez-Botello, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    Bahia Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, Mexico is a major center of oil and refined product distribution on the Mexican Pacific coast. From the start of oil industry operations in 1979, negative effects from discharges of treated effluents in the bay have been a constant concern for local communities. We analyzed 28 surface sediment samples obtained in June, 2002 to evaluate the level of toxicity in the littoral zone, port-harbor, and La Ventosa estuary in Bahia Salina Cruz. The extractable organic matter concentration was high (1,213 to 7,505 micro g g(-1)) in 5 of 7 stations from the port and harbor, whereas it was low in 12 of 16 stations in the littoral zone (36 to 98 micro g g(-1)). The total aromatic hydrocarbon concentration was highest (57 to 142 micro g g(-1)) in the port and harbor compared to the La Ventosa estuary and the littoral zone. Among the heavy metals analyzed, cadmium exceeded the effects range-low values associated with adverse biological effects. The geo-accumulation index of sediments was moderate to strong contamination at 5 stations in the nonlittoral and 6 stations in the littoral zone. The enrichment of lead, zinc, and cadmium at 5 stations from the littoral, port, and harbor suggest that these metals are of anthropogenic origin. Bioassay tests of elutriates of sediments on nauplii of Artemia franciscana and Artemia sp. showed that the port and harbor were more toxic than the La Ventosa estuary and the coastal zone. The Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) did not show a similar response with the solid phase of the sediments. The results of this study indicate that the high levels of organic content and metals in the sediments of port-harbor and the La Ventosa estuary are mainly caused by anthropogenic activities.

  7. Geochemistry of oil from Santa Cruz basin, Bolivia: case study of migration-fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Illich, H.A.; Haney, F.R.; Mendoza, M.

    1981-11-01

    Geochemical studies provide important data relevant to the origin of the oils in the Santa Cruz basin, Bolivia. Production from this basin occurs from rocks of Devonian, Carboniferous, Cretaceous, and Tertiary ages. The productive structures are usually undisturbed by major faulting. The Devonian sediments are composed of sandstones and dark marine shales. The post-Devonian rocks are generally oxidized and probably nonmarine. The Tertiary and Cretaceous reservoirs usually contain the highest API/sup 0/ gravity oils. Comparison of geochemical data (N/sub 5/-N/sub 10/ molecular weight range) shows that the oils are very similar; however, systematic compositional trends occur as a function of API/sup 0/ gravity. These trends are interpreted from gross structural group data. Isoparaffins and cycloparaffins increase in relative abundance, while normal paraffins and aromatics decrease with increasing API/sup 0/ gravity. A model is proposed that rationalizes these compositional trends by a mechanism of accommodation in water. The model requires enrichment of hydrocarbons of intermediate solubility, partial exclusion of hydrocarbons of low solubility, and retention in solution of the more soluble hydrocarbons. Processes such as thermal fractionation and biodegradation fail to account satisfactorily for the observed compositional trends. The compositional interrelationships of the oils coupled with the geologic framework suggest that these oils have a common source, most probably the Devonian. Differences between the oils are attributed to fractionation occurring during migration. Exploration risk for areas such as the Santa Cruz basin can be substantially reduced by use of the knowledge derived from petroleum geochemistry.

  8. Climatic variability and flood frequency of the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Betancourt, Julio L.

    1992-01-01

    Past estimates of the 100-year flood for the Santa Cruz River at Tucson, Arizona, range from 572 to 2,780 cubic meters per second. An apparent increase in flood magnitude during the past two decades raises concern that the annual flood series is nonstationary in time. The apparent increase is accompanied by more annual floods occurring in fall and winter and fewer in summer. This greater mixture of storm types that produce annual flood peaks is caused by a higher frequency of meridional flow in the upper-air circulation and increased variance of ocean-atmosphere conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Estimation of flood frequency on the Santa Cruz River is complicated because climate affects the magnitude and frequency of storms that cause floods. Mean discharge does not change significantly, but the variance and skew coefficient of the distribution of annual floods change with time. The 100-year flood during El Niffo-Southern Oscillation conditions is 1,300 cubic meters per second, more than double the value for other years. The increase is mostly caused by an increase in recurvature of dissipating tropical cyclones into the Southwestern United States during El Niffo-Southern Oscillation conditions. Flood frequency based on hydroclimatology was determined by combining populations of floods caused by monsoonal storms, frontal systems, and dissipating tropical cyclones. For 1930-59, annual flood frequency is dominated by monsoonal floods, and the estimated 100-year flood is 323 cubic meters per second. For 1960-86, annual flood frequency at recurrence intervals of greater than 10 years is dominated by floods caused by dissipating tropical cyclones, and the estimated 100-year flood is 1,660 cubic meters per second. For design purposes, 1,660 cubic meters per second might be an appropriate value for the 100-year flood at Tucson, assuming that climatic conditions during 1960-86 are representative of conditions expected in the immediate future.

  9. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    PubMed

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed.

  10. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Seabright Beach, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented sea cliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the sea cliffs where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence. This is the third map in a series of maps prepared to document the processes of short-term sea cliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot. This map presents sea cliff failure and retreat data from the Seabright Beach section, California, which is located on the east side of Santa Cruz along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of sea cliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the sea cliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El Ni?os; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. During this study we developed a method for investigating short-term processes of sea cliff evolution using rectified photographic stereo models. This method allows us to document the linear extent of cliff failures, the spatial and temporal relationship between failures, and

  11. A direct approach to estimating the number of potential fatalities from an eruption: Application to the Central Volcanic Complex of Tenerife Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, J. M.; García, A.; Llinares, A.; Rodriguez-Losada, J. A.; Ortiz, R.

    2012-03-01

    One of the critical issues in managing volcanic crises is making the decision to evacuate a densely-populated region. In order to take a decision of such importance it is essential to estimate the cost in lives for each of the expected eruptive scenarios. One of the tools that assist in estimating the number of potential fatalities for such decision-making is the calculation of the FN-curves. In this case the FN-curve is a graphical representation that relates the frequency of the different hazards to be expected for a particular volcano or volcanic area, and the number of potential fatalities expected for each event if the zone of impact is not evacuated. In this study we propose a method for assessing the impact that a possible eruption from the Tenerife Central Volcanic Complex (CVC) would have on the population at risk. Factors taken into account include the spatial probability of the eruptive scenarios (susceptibility) and the temporal probability of the magnitudes of the eruptive scenarios. For each point or cell of the susceptibility map with greater probability, a series of probability-scaled hazard maps is constructed for the whole range of magnitudes expected. The number of potential fatalities is obtained from the intersection of the hazard maps with the spatial map of population distribution. The results show that the Emergency Plan for Tenerife must provide for the evacuation of more than 100,000 persons.

  12. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    PubMed

    2011-03-01

    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally.

  13. Spatial distribution of intrinsic and scattering seismic attenuation in active volcanic islands - I: model and the case of Tenerife Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudencio, Janire; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; García-Yeguas, Araceli; Ibáñez, Jesús M.

    2013-12-01

    The complex volcanic system of Tenerife Island is known to have a highly heterogeneous character, as recently confirmed by velocity tomography. We present new information derived from intrinsic quality factor inverse maps (Qi-1), scattering quality factor inverse maps (Qs-1) and total quality factor inverse maps (Qt-1) obtained for the same region. The data set used in this work is the result of the analysis of an active seismic experiment carried out, using offshore shots (air guns) recorded at over 85 onshore seismic stations. The estimates of the attenuation parameters are based on the assumption that the seismogram energy envelopes are determined by seismic energy diffusion processes occurring inside the island. Diffusion model parameters, proportional to Qi-1 and to Qs-1, are estimated from the inversion of the energy envelopes for any source-receiver couple. They are then weighted with a new graphical approach based on a Gaussian space probability function, which allowed us to create `2-D probabilistic maps' representing the space distribution of the attenuation parameters. The 2-D images obtained reveal the existence of a zone in the centre of the island characterized by the lowest attenuation effects. This effect is interpreted as highly rigid and cooled rocks. This low-attenuation region is bordered by zones of high attenuation, associated with the recent historical volcanic activity. We calculate the transport mean free path obtaining a value of around 4 km for the frequency range 6-12 Hz. This result is two orders of magnitude smaller than values calculated for the crust of the Earth. An absorption length between 10 and 14 km is associated with the average intrinsic attenuation parameter. These values, while small in the context of tectonic regions, are greater than those obtained in volcanic regions such as Vesuvius or Merapi. Such differences may be explained by the magnitude of the region of study, over three times larger than the aforementioned study

  14. In Spain, Inbreeding Threatens Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocca, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    With 25 years of teaching experience at Spain's top-ranked veterinary school, 58 articles in prestigious international journals, and numerous patents to her name, Victoria Lopez Rodas would be a strong candidate for any academic job in her field. So when she took a national qualifying examination for a full professorship in animal science last…

  15. English Language Teaching Profile: Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role of English in Spain is discussed, with attention directed to (1) English within the educational system, (2) inspection of teachers and teaching methods, (3) commercial English, (4) adult education, (5) radio and television instruction in English, (6) English teachers, (7) English outside the educational system, and (8) British and…

  16. Large-scale mapping of landslides in the epicentral area Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989, Santa Cruz County

    SciTech Connect

    Spittler, T.E.; Sydnor, R.H.; Manson, M.W.; Levine, P.; McKittrick, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 triggered landslides throughout the Santa Cruz Mountains in central California. The California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) responded to a request for assistance from the County of Santa Cruz, Office of Emergency Services to evaluate the geologic hazard from major reactivated large landslides. DMG prepared a set of geologic maps showing the landslide features that resulted from the October 17 earthquake. The principal purpose of large-scale mapping of these landslides is: (1) to provide county officials with regional landslide information that can be used for timely recovery of damaged areas; (2) to identify disturbed ground which is potentially vulnerable to landslide movement during winter rains; (3) to provide county planning officials with timely geologic information that will be used for effective land-use decisions; (4) to document regional landslide features that may not otherwise be available for individual site reconstruction permits and for future development.

  17. Geologic map of the Rio Rico and Nogales 7.5’ quadrangles, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Menges, Christopher M.; Gray, Floyd; Berry, Margaret E.; Bultman, Mark W.; Cosca, Michael A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2016-04-15

    The objectives of our mapping were to define the geologic framework for the Nogales area and the upper Santa Cruz basin to support ongoing multidisciplinary projects. This new work will improve understanding of the Nogales Formation to more fully assess its groundwater resource potential. We significantly revised the Miocene Nogales Formation based on geologic mapping combined with new geochronologic, geophysical, and petrographic studies. 

  18. Challenges and Perspectives for Tertiary Level Hospitals in Bolivia: The case of Santa Cruz de La Sierra Department.

    PubMed

    Medici, André

    2015-01-01

    Current legislation transferred public tertiary hospitals in Bolivia from the Municipalities to the Regional Level. However, the Regional Governments are experiencing technical and financial constraints to reform infrastructure, modernize equipment and introduce reforms to allow better governance, management and sustainability of these hospitals. This articles summarizes the recent experience of the Government of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Bolivia where five tertiary hospitals and blood bank (most of them in precarious working conditions) has been transferred in 2012 from the Municipal Government of Santa Cruz (the capital) to the Regional Government of Santa Cruz. To face the challenges, the Regional Government of Santa Cruz implement several improvements, such as contract new clinical and administrative personal, increases hospital budgetary autonomy, outsource hospitals' auxiliary services, take measures to eliminate waiting lists and make several new investments to modernize and equip the hospitals. The World Bank was contracted to evaluated the future financial sustainability of these investments and to advice the Government to propose changes to increase the hospitals' management performance. The article describes the remaining challenges in these hospitals and the proposals from the World Bank Study. In the area of quality of care, the main challenge is to improve client satisfaction and continuous outcomes monitoring and evaluation according quality standards. In the area of financing, the challenge is how to assure the sustainability of these hospitals with the current level of health financing and the insufficient financial transfers from the National Government. In the area of Governance, reforms to streamline and simplify internal processes need to be introduced in order to establish mechanisms to increase transparency and accountability, allowing the hospital to have a good administration and adequate participation of the main actors in the guidance of

  19. Scientific collections, tropical medicine and the development of entomology in Brazil: the contribution of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz.

    PubMed

    Sá, M Romero

    2008-12-01

    The entomological collection of the Institute Oswaldo Cruz is one of the most representative of neotropical insects, comprising a diverse variety of specimens of distinct taxonomic groups, including those not linked to research in tropical medicine. The present work retraces the history of the collection and reports on its main actors and their professional relationships, emphasizing the peculiarity of such an important collection still being housed in a medical research institution.

  20. Macrohabitat of Sonora Chub (Gila ditaenia) in Sycamore Creek, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Jeanette; Maughan, O. Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Physical characteristics and persistence of macrohabitat used by different life stages of Sonora chub (Gila ditaenia) were determined by repeatedly measuring distinct reaches in Sycamore Creek, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, in 1990 and 1991. At the beginning of summer drought, habitats occupied by adult Sonora chub were deeper and larger than areas with only immature fish and unoccupied areas. The medians of maximum depth were 47.0 cm (1990) and 39.7 cm (1991) for habitats with adults, 21.3 cm (1990) and 22.9 cm (1991) for habitats with only immature fish, and 14.6 cm (1990) and 19.7 cm (1991) for unoccupied areas. At the end of summer drought, adults occupied habitats that were deeper and larger, and the percent decrease in area and depth was less than areas containing only immature fish or no fish. The medians of percent decrease in maximum depth were 13% (1990) and 21% (1991) for habitats with adults, 48% (1990) and 41% (1991) for habitats with only immature fish, and 42% (1990) and 33% (1991) for unoccupied areas. By the end of summer drought, habitats with only immature fish were not physically different from unoccupied areas. Loss of total surface area was highest in reaches that contained only immature fish or no fish (range = 36% to 94%). Most Sonora chub lost from evaporating surface waters were immature fish. Ephemeral and unoccupied areas had higher percentages of floating cover and coarser substrates than persistent, occupied areas.

  1. The Border Environmental Health Initiative-investigating the transboundary Santa Cruz watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Callegary, James; van Riper, Charles; Gray, Floyd

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) launched the Border Environmental Health Initiative (BEHI), a major project encompassing the entire U.S.-Mexico border region. In 2009, a study of the Santa Cruz River Watershed (SCW), located in the border region of Arizona and Sonora, Mexico, was initiated as part of the BEHI. In this borderland region of the desert Southwest, human health and the ecosystems on which humans rely depend critically on limited water resources. Surface water is scarce during much of the year, and groundwater is the primary source for industrial, agricultural, and domestic use. In order to identify risks to water resources in the SCW, and the potential consequences to riparian ecosystems and ultimately human health, the USGS is using an interdisciplinary and integrative approach that incorporates the expertise of geographers, hydrologists, biologists, and geologists to track organic and inorganic contaminants and their effects from sources to sinks in sediment, water, plants, and animals. Existing groundwater and surface-water models are being used and modified to assess contaminant and sediment transport.

  2. Geochemistry of soils from the San Rafael Valley, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Folger, Helen W.; Gray, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether surficial geochemical methods can be used to identify subsurface mineraldeposits covered by alluvium derived from surrounding areas. The geochemical investigation focused on an anomalous geo-physical magnetic high located in the San Rafael Valley in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. The magnetic high, inferred to be asso-ciated with a buried granite intrusion, occurs beneath Quaternary alluvial and terrace deposits. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 10 to 30 centimeters below land surface along transects that traverse the inferred granite. The samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and by the partial-leach Mobile Metal Ion™ method. Principal component and factor analyses showed a strong correlation between the soils and source rocks hosting base-metal replacement deposits in the Harshaw and Patagonia Mining Districts. Factor analysis also indicated areas of high metal concentrations associated with the Meadow Valley Flat. Although no definitive geochemical signature was identified for the inferred granite, concentrations otungsten and iron in the surrounding area were slightly elevated.

  3. Channel-changing processes on the Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, 1936-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Lateral channel change on the mainly ephemeral Santa Cruz River, Pima County, Arizona, causes damage and has spawned costly efforts to control bank erosion. Aerial photographs, historical data, and field observations are used to document the history of channel change since 1936. Variability in the nature and degree of channel change over time and space is shown. Three major channel change processes are: (1) migration by bank erosion during meander migration or initiation; (2) avulsion by overbank flooding and flood plain incision; (3) widening by erosion of low, cohesionless banks during floods and arroyo widening by undercutting and mass wasting of deeply incised vertical walls. The first process generally is a product of low to moderate flows or waning high flows; the others result mainly from higher flows, though sensitive arroyo walls may erode during relatively low flows. Channel morphology, bank resistance, and hydrology are factors determining the dominant channel-changing process on a particular reach of the river. Present river morphology reflects high flows since the 1960's.

  4. The Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Central South America: Los Monos - Machareti(!) Petroleum System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Los Monos - Machareti(!) total petroleum system is in the Santa Cruz - Tarija Province of Bolivia, Argentina and Paraguay. Province history is that of a Paleozoic, intracratonic, siliciclastic rift basin that evolved into a Miocene (Andean) foreland fold and thrust belt. Existing fields are typified by alternating reservoir and seal rocks in post-Ordovician sandstones and shales on anticlines. Thick Devonian and Silurian shale source rocks, depositionally and erosionally confined to this province, at a minimum have generated 4.1 BBOE known ultimate recoverable reserves (as of 1995, 77% gas, 15% condensate, 8% oil) into dominantly Carboniferous reservoirs with average 20% porosity and 156 md permeability. Major detachment surfaces within the source rocks contributed to the thin-skinned and laterally continuous nature of the deformation. Tertiary foreland burial adequate for significant source maturation coincided with the formation of compressional traps. Further hydrocarbon discovery in the fold and thrust belt is expected. In the foreland basin, higher thermal gradients and variable burial history - combined with the presence of unconformity and onlap wedges - create potential there for stratigraphic traps and pre-Andean, block-fault and forced-fold traps.

  5. Environmental engineering education in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roda, I; Castells, F; Flotats, X; Lema, J; Tejero, I

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing demand for engineers and technologists who show multidisciplinary expertise to deal with environmental issues. As a result of this demand, most countries are adapting their old university programs on environmental engineering education. In Spain an official environmental engineering degree does not yet exist, but the Council of Universities is working to present a proposal, based on Bologna agreement concepts. The paper summarizes not only the future perspectives of environmental engineering education in Spain, but also the evolution of the approach during the last decades, which includes the role of the private initiative, the environmental sciences degree, and the intensification in different traditional engineering degrees. Finally, the paper briefly details and compares the syllabus developed in the only four Spanish universities where environmental engineering is offered as a non-official post-graduate course lasting two years.

  6. Evaluation of the levels of alcohol sulfates and ethoxysulfates in marine sediments near wastewater discharge points along the coast of Tenerife Island.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, C; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gómez, A; Camino-Sánchez, F J; Blanc, R; Navalón, A; Pérez-Trujillo, J P; Vílchez, J L

    2014-02-15

    Alcohol sulfates (AS) and alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES) are all High Production Volume and 'down-the-drain' chemicals used globally in detergent and personal care products, resulting in low levels ultimately released to the environment via wastewater treatment plant effluents. They have a strong affinity for sorption to sediments. Almost 50% of Tenerife Island surface area is environmentally protected. Therefore, determination of concentration levels of AS/AES in marine sediments near wastewater discharge points along the coast of the Island is of interest. These data were obtained after pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Short chains of AES and especially of AS dominated the homologue distribution for AES. The Principal Components Analysis was used. The results showed that the sources of AS and AES were the same and that both compounds exhibit similar behavior. Three different patterns in the distribution for homologues and ethoxymers were found.

  7. [Foreigners in Spain in 1991].

    PubMed

    Lora-tamayo D'ocon, G

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the characteristics of the foreign population living in Spain in 1991 is presented using data from two sources, the 1991 census and the system for regularization of the status of foreign workers, which was brought up to date the same year. The characteristics analyzed include country of origin, current province of residence, and occupation. The differences between the data obtained from the two sources are discussed. (ANNOTATION)

  8. Education in the Spain of Autonomous Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jose Luis Garcia

    1983-01-01

    Describes change in education in Spain since the break with socialism in terms of new structural bases, democratic center's decentralization policy, and socialist government's educational program. (AH)

  9. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Seacliff State Beach, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented seacliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast (Moore and others, 1999) do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the seacliffs, where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence (Griggs and Scholar, 1998; Griggs, 1994; Plant and Griggs, 1990; Griggs and Johnson, 1979 and 1983; Kuhn and Shepard, 1979). This is the second map in a series of maps documenting the processes of short-term seacliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot (Moore and others, 1999; Griggs and Savoy, 1985). This map presents seacliff failure and retreat data from Seacliff State Beach, California, which is located seven kilometers east of Santa Cruz (fig. 1) along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of seacliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the seacliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El Ni?os; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. Four sets of vertical aerial photographs (Oct. 18, 1989; Jan. 27, 1998; Feb. 9, 1998

  10. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Depot Hill, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The coastal cliffs along much of the central California coast are actively retreating. Large storms and periodic earthquakes are responsible for most of the documented seacliff slope failures. Long-term average erosion rates calculated for this section of coast (Moore and others, 1999) do not provide the spatial or temporal data resolution necessary to identify the processes responsible for retreat of the seacliffs, where episodic retreat threatens homes and community infrastructure. Research suggests that more erosion occurs along the California coast over a short time scale, during periods of severe storms or seismic activity, than occurs during decades of normal weather or seismic quiescence (Griggs and Scholar, 1998; Griggs, 1994; Plant and Griggs, 1990; Griggs and Johnson, 1979 and 1983; Kuhn and Shepard, 1979). This is the first map in a series of maps documenting the processes of short-term seacliff retreat through the identification of slope failure styles, spatial variability of failures, and temporal variation in retreat amounts in an area that has been identified as an erosion hotspot (Moore and others, 1999; Griggs and Savoy, 1985). This map presents seacliff failure and retreat data from Depot Hill, California, which is located five kilometers east of Santa Cruz (fig.1) near the town of Capitola, along the northern Monterey Bay coast. The data presented in this map series provide high-resolution spatial and temporal information on the location, amount, and processes of seacliff retreat in Santa Cruz, California. These data show the response of the seacliffs to both large magnitude earthquakes and severe climatic events such as El NiOos; this information may prove useful in predicting the future response of the cliffs to events of similar magnitude. The map data can also be incorporated into Global Information System (GIS) for use by researchers and community planners. Four sets of vertical aerial photographs (Oct. 18, 1989; Jan. 27, 1998

  11. Sedimentary paleoenvironments of fossil platyrrhine localities, Miocene Pinturas Formation, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Pinturas Formation is a pyroclastic and epiclastic aeolian deposit of Miocene age lying discordantly upon Jurassic rocks in the elevated Andean precordillera of northwest Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. The history of development of the Pinturas Formation was significantly affected by the gradual, though sporadic, draping of this aeolian sediment across a profound, slowly filling paleotopography. The Pinturas depositional cycle consisted of: (1) minor aeolian deposition followed by soil formation, and (2) major aeolian deposition followed by intervals of regional erosion. Fluvial action seems to have been almost wholly confined to intraformational erosion, and two significant intraformational erosional unconformities divide the Pinturas Formation into three sequences. The lower sequence is dominated by pyroclastic mudrocks upon which were formed very mature, probably mollic, paleosols; the middle sequence is composed largely of epiclastic sand occurring as barchanoid paleodunes; and the upper sequence consists of massive, poorly bedded pyroclastic mudrocks. Many Pinturas lacunae were reconstructed on the basis of locally preserved strata, and a novel method of holostrome reconstruction using relative paleosol maturities places Pinturas sedimentation in a more accurate temporal light. It also indicates: (1) that the Pinturas sediment accumulation rate increased with time; (2) that regional erosive intervals are correlated directly with major influxes of pyroclastic material; and (3) that the introduction of the Pinturas platyrrhine primates occurred in the sequence:Carlocebus carmenensis, C. intermedius andSoriacebus ameghinorum. Soriacebus adrianae. Pinturas paleosols appear to have formed under moist conditions, and both mature and immature varieties yield a host of ichnofossils. These include the burrows and nests of bees, scarabeid beetles, termites, and at least two different kinds of colonial rodents, in addition to rhizoliths and the calcified boles and

  12. Nine endangered taxa, one recovering ecosystem: Identifying common ground for recovery on Santa Cruz Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Wilken, Dieter H.

    2011-01-01

    It is not uncommon to have several rare and listed taxa occupying habitats in one landscape or management area where conservation amounts to defense against the possibility of further loss. It is uncommon and extremely exciting, however, to have several listed taxa occupying one island that is managed cooperatively for conservation and recovery. On Santa Cruz Island, the largest of the northern California island group in the Santa Barbara Channel, we have a golden opportunity to marry ecological knowledge and institutional "good will" in a field test of holistic rare plant conservation. Here, the last feral livestock have been removed, active weed control is underway, and management is focused on understanding and demonstrating system response to conservation management. Yet funding limitations still exist and we need to plan the most fiscally conservative and marketable approach to rare plant restoration. We still experience the tension between desirable quick results and the ecological pace of system recovery. Therefore, our research has focused on identifying fundamental constraints on species recovery at individual, demographic, habitat, and ecosystem levels, and then developing suites of actions that might be taken across taxa and landscapes. At the same time, we seek a performance middle ground that balances an institutional need for quick demonstration of hands-on positive results with a contrasting approach that allows ecosystem recovery to facilitate species recovery in the long term. We find that constraints vary across breeding systems, life-histories, and island locations. We take a hybrid approach in which we identify several actions that we can take now to enhance population size or habitat occupancy for some taxa by active restoration, while allowing others to recover at the pace of ecosystem change. We make our recommendations on the basis of data we have collected over the last decade, so that management is firmly grounded in ecological observation.

  13. Source of the 6 February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands Tsunami.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, F.; Molinari, I.; Lorito, S.; Piatanesi, A.

    2014-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 a Mw8.0 interplate earthquake occurred in the Santa Cruz Islands region. The epicenter is located near a complex section of the Australia-Pacific plate boundary, where a short segment of dominantly strike-slip plate motion links the Solomon Trench to the New Hebrides Trench. In this region, the Australia plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate with a convergence rate of ~9cm/yr. This earthquake generated a tsunami that struck the city of Lata and several villages located on the Nendo island with tsunami height exceeding 11m (Fritz et al.,2014). The tsunami has been distinctly recorded by 5 DART buoys in the Pacific Ocean and by some tide-gauges at Solomon Islands, Fiji Islands, and New Caledonia. In this work we retrieve the source of the tsunami by inverting the signals recorded by both DART buoys and tide-gauges, and using an earthquake fault model that accounts for the variability of the subduction plate geometry. We compare and discuss our tsunamigenic slip model with previous coseismic slip models obtained by teleseismic data (Hayes et al.,2013) and telesismic data constrained by tsunami records (Lay et al.,2013). Our preferred tsunami source (maximum slip value of ~10m) is located southeast from the hypocenter and the slip direction is in agreement with the convergence direction that becomes progressively more oblique in the NW segment. We find a tsunami source roughly consistent to a possible source of low frequency radiation (http://www.iris.edu/spud/backprojection) and/or to the region of aseismic slip argued by Hayes et al. (2013). However, we do not find significantly tsunamigenic slip in the region of seismic high frequency radiation around the hypocenter.

  14. Evolution of Dengue Disease and Entomological Monitoring in Santa Cruz, Bolivia 2002 – 2008

    PubMed Central

    Brémond, Philippe; Roca, Yelin; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Walter, Annie; Barja-Simon, Zaira; Fernández, Roberto Torres; Vargas, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background In the context of a rapid increase of dengue cases in the Americas, a monitoring system based on systematic serological control (IgM) of patients consulting for suspected dengue was developed in Bolivia at the end of the 1990s. In the most affected city of Santa Cruz, this system was complemented by an entomological surveillance program based on periodical search for immature stages of Aedes aegypti in dwelling water-holding containers. Here, we analyze these data and describe dengue patterns over 6 years (2002–2008), highlighting the spatial distribution of patients and vectors. Methodology /Principal Findings Data mining concerned six annual epidemic cycles (2002–2008), with continuous serological and clinical results and entomological data from 16 surveys, examined at the scales of 36 urban areas and four concentric areas covering the entire city. Annual incidence varied from 0.28‰ to 0.95‰; overall incidence was higher in women and adults, and dengue dynamics followed successive periods of high (January–June) and low (July–December) transmission. Lower numbers of cases from the city center to the periphery were observed, poorly related to the more homogeneous and permanent distribution of A. aegypti. "Plant pots" were a major vector source in the city center, and "Tires" and "Odds and ends" beyond the second ring of the city. Conclusions/Significance Over the years, the increasing trend of dengue cases has been highlighted as well as its widespread distribution over the entire city, but an underestimation of the number of cases is strongly suspected. Contrary to popular belief, the city center appears more affected than the periphery, and dengue is not particularly related to waste. Interestingly, the clinical diagnosis of dengue by physicians improved over the years, whatever the gender, age and residential area of suspected cases. PMID:25706631

  15. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism.

    PubMed

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O'Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O'Malley. Overall, small

  16. The Purisima Formation at Capitola Beach, Santa Cruz County, CA: A Deeper Examination of Pliocene Fossils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, L. D.; Brooks, K.; Chen, R.; Chen, T.; James, T.; Gonzales, J.; Schumaker, D.; Williams, D.

    2005-12-01

    Fossil samples from the Pliocene Purisima Formation at Capitola Beach in Santa Cruz County, CA were collected in July-August 2005. The Purisima Formation composes the bulk of the cliffs exposed at Capitola Beach and a rich assemblage of well-preserved fossils occur in gray to brown sandstone and siltstone. Erosion of the cliff face averages 0.3 meter/year and fresh cliff falls in the winter and spring months of 2005 provided an excellent opportunity to resample the Capitola Beach section of the Purisima Formation previously documented by Perry (1988). Organisms were identified from information in Perry (1988) and were compared with collections at the California Academy of Sciences. The most abundant fossils found are from the phylum Mollusca, classes Bivalvia and Gastropoda. Abundant bivalve taxa are: Anadara trilineata, Clinocardium meekianum, Macoma sp., Protothaca staleyi, and Tresus pajaroanus. Also common are the gastropods, Calyptraea fastigata, Crepdiula princeps, Mitrella gausapata, Nassarius grammatus, Nassarius californianus, Natica clausa, and Olivella pedroana. Less common invertebrate fossils are from the phylum Echinodermata ( Dendraster sp., the extinct fossil sand dollar) and from the phylum Arthropoda ( Crustacea), crab fragments ( Cancer) and barnacles ( Balanus). Because numerous fossils are concentrated as fragments in shell beds, Norris (1986) and Perry (1988) believe many were redeposited as storm beds during strong current events that promoted rapid burial. In contrast, whale and other vertebrate bones are common in certain horizons and their presence may be related to the conditions that promoted phosphate mineralization, such as episodes of low sedimentation rates and prolonged exposure on the seafloor (Föllmi and Garrison, 1991). The bone beds, together with the rich infaunal and epifaunal invertebrate assemblages, represent a community of invertebrate organisms that thrived in a shallow marine sea during the Pliocene epoch, approximately

  17. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) on both plot types. Vegetation cover of both native and other (nonfennel) exotic species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  18. Misperceiving Bullshit as Profound Is Associated with Favorable Views of Cruz, Rubio, Trump and Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Pfattheicher, Stefan; Schindler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the associations between holding favorable views of potential Democratic or Republican candidates for the US presidency 2016 and seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. In this contribution, bullshit is used as a technical term which is defined as communicative expression that lacks content, logic, or truth from the perspective of natural science. We used the Bullshit Receptivity scale (BSR) to measure seeing profoundness in bullshit statements. The BSR scale contains statements that have a correct syntactic structure and seem to be sound and meaningful on first reading but are actually vacuous. Participants (N = 196; obtained via Amazon Mechanical Turk) rated the profoundness of bullshit statements (using the BSR) and provided favorability ratings of three Democratic (Hillary Clinton, Martin O’Malley, and Bernie Sanders) and three Republican candidates for US president (Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, and Donald Trump). Participants also completed a measure of political liberalism/conservatism. Results revealed that favorable views of all three Republican candidates were positively related to judging bullshit statements as profound. The smallest correlation was found for Donald Trump. Although we observe a positive association between bullshit and support for the three Democrat candidates, this relationship is both substantively small and statistically insignificant. The general measure of political liberalism/conservatism was also related to judging bullshit statements as profound in that individuals who were more politically conservative had a higher tendency to see profoundness in bullshit statements. Of note, these results were not due to a general tendency among conservatives to see profoundness in everything: Favorable views of Republican candidates and conservatism were not significantly related to profoundness ratings of mundane statements. In contrast, this was the case for Hillary Clinton and Martin O’Malley. Overall

  19. Bedrock morphology and structure, upper Santa Cruz Basin, south-central Arizona, with transient electromagnetic survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, Mark W.; Page, William R.

    2016-10-31

    The upper Santa Cruz Basin is an important groundwater basin containing the regional aquifer for the city of Nogales, Arizona. This report provides data and interpretations of data aimed at better understanding the bedrock morphology and structure of the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area which encompasses the Rio Rico and Nogales 1:24,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey quadrangles. Data used in this report include the Arizona Aeromagnetic and Gravity Maps and Data referred to here as the 1996 Patagonia Aeromagnetic survey, Bouguer gravity anomaly data, and conductivity-depth transforms (CDTs) from the 1998 Santa Cruz transient electromagnetic survey (whose data are included in appendixes 1 and 2 of this report).Analyses based on magnetic gradients worked well to identify the range-front faults along the Mt. Benedict horst block, the location of possibly fault-controlled canyons to the west of Mt. Benedict, the edges of buried lava flows, and numerous other concealed faults and contacts. Applying the 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey data using the horizontal gradient method produced results that were most closely correlated with the observed geology.The 1996 Patagonia aeromagnetic survey was used to estimate depth to bedrock in the upper Santa Cruz Basin study area. Three different depth estimation methods were applied to the data: Euler deconvolution, horizontal gradient magnitude, and analytic signal. The final depth to bedrock map was produced by choosing the maximum depth from each of the three methods at a given location and combining all maximum depths. In locations of rocks with a known reversed natural remanent magnetic field, gravity based depth estimates from Gettings and Houser (1997) were used.The depth to bedrock map was supported by modeling aeromagnetic anomaly data along six profiles. These cross sectional models demonstrated that by using the depth to bedrock map generated in this study, known and concealed faults, measured and estimated magnetic

  20. Teaching for democracy in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, Isabel Cárdenas; Sanchez, Concepción Martin

    1995-05-01

    As part of the process of re-establishing democracy, Spain is reforming its educational system to promote democratic values. This article describes an experiment in education for democracy that was carried out among 86 pupils, between 12 and 14 years old, in the Spanish region of Murcia. A teaching programme was developed, in which students were encouraged to study how power is exercised in the home, the school, the community, the nation and the world. Results have been generally positive in arousing pupils' interest in democracy and helping them to understand democratic processes.

  1. [Marseille fever imported from Spain].

    PubMed

    Freibergerová, Michaela; Parízková, Radana; Husa, Petr; Burget, Ivo; Chalupa, Pavel

    2004-08-01

    The authors are presenting a case of young female with Marseille fever contracted in Spain. The clinical manifestation of the illness was characterized by fevers, exanthema, headache and a typical skin rash ("the black spot") and prompted the authors to strongly consider the diagnosis of Marseille fever and to initiate appropriate antibiotic therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed later by serology. The article introduces new taxonomy of Rickettsial species and presents an overview and epidemiological aspects of specific diseases caused by them. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of Marseille fever are discussed in greater detail.

  2. Influence of the Nogales International Wastewater Treatment Plant on surface water in the Santa Cruz River and local aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrie, H. M.; Brusseau, M. L.; Huth, H.

    2015-12-01

    As water resources become limited in Arizona due to drought and excessive use of ground water, treated wastewater effluent is becoming essential in creating natural ecosystems and recharging the decreasing groundwater supplies. Therefore, future water supplies are heavily dependent of the flow (quantity) and quality of the treated effluent. The Nogales International Wastewater Treatment Plant (NIWTP) releases treated wastewater from both Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico into the Santa Cruz River. This released effluent not only has the potential to impact surface water, but also groundwater supplies in Southern Arizona. In the recent past, the NIWTP has had reoccurring issues with elevated levels of cadmium, in addition to other, more infrequent, releases of high amounts of other metals. The industrial demographic of the region, as well as limited water quality regulations in Mexico makes the NIWTP and its treated effluent an important area of study. In addition, outdated infrastructure can potentially lead to damaging environmental impacts, as well as human health concerns. The Santa Cruz River has been monitored and studied in the past, but in recent years, there has been a halt in research regarding the state of the river. Data from existing water quality databases and recent sampling reports are used to address research questions regarding the state of the Santa Cruz River. These questions include: 1) How will change in flow eventually impact surface water and future groundwater supplies 2) What factors influence this flow (such as extreme flooding and drought) 3) What is the impact of effluent on surface water quality 4) Can changes in surface water quality impact groundwater quality 5) How do soil characteristics and surface flow impact the transport of released contaminants Although outreach to stakeholders across the border and updated infrastructure has improved the quality of water in the river, there are many areas to improve upon as the

  3. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  4. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  5. The Politics of Language: Spain's Minority Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar-Molinero, Clare

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the linguistic and legal framework in Spain and its attempts to define nationhood and a collective identity that encompasses its three major linguistic minority groups. The four major language groups of Spain are discussed with regard to official language policy and legislation. Article 3 of the 1978 Spanish constitution was…

  6. Data report for seismic refraction surveys conducted from 1980 to 1982 in the Livermore Valley and the Santa Cruz Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Angela J.; Brocher, Thomas M.; Mooney, Walter D.; Boken, Annette

    1999-01-01

    We provide documentation for two seismic refraction profiles acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey in the San Francisco Bay area between 1980 and 1982 in Livermore Valley and the Santa Cruz Mountains. We also include the waveforms and travel times from five aftershocks of the April 1980 Livermore earthquake that were recorded on temporary seismic stations and that have not been published. Although seismic refraction profiles from the 1980 Livermore study have been published, none of the other data for this experiment, including shot times and locations, receiver locations, data quality, and travel times, have been reported. Similarly, such data from the 1981 to 1982 seismic refraction survey in the Santa Cruz Mountains included here have not been published. The first-arrival travel times from these profiles are reported in the hope that they can be used for three-dimensional velocity models in the San Francisco Bay area, particularly for the Livermore Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains.

  7. Determination of source process and the tsunami simulation of the 2013 Santa Cruz earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. C.; Lee, J. W.; Park, E.; Kim, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order to understand the characteristics of large tsunamigenic earthquakes, we analyzed the earthquake source process of the 2013 Santa Cruz earthquake and simulated the following tsunami. We first estimated the fault length of about 200 km using 3-day aftershock distribution and the source duration of about 110 seconds using the duration of high-frequency energy radiation (Hara, 2007). Moment magnitude was estimated to be 8.0 using the formula of Hara (2007). From the results of 200 km of fault length and 110 seconds of source duration, we used the initial value of rupture velocity as 1.8 km/s for teleseismic waveform inversions. Teleseismic body wave inversion was carried out using the inversion package by Kikuchi and Kanamori (1991). Teleseismic P waveform data from 14 stations were used and band-pass filter of 0.005 ~ 1 Hz was applied. Our best-fit solution indicated that the earthquake occurred on the northwesterly striking (strike = 305) and shallowly dipping (dip = 13) fault plane. Focal depth was determined to be 23 km indicating shallow event. Moment magnitude of 7.8 was obtained showing somewhat smaller than the result obtained above and that of previous study (Lay et al., 2013). Large slip area was seen around the hypocenter. Using the slip distribution obtained by teleseismic waveform inversion, we calculated the surface deformations using formulas of Okada (1985) assuming as the initial change of sea water by tsunami. Then tsunami simulation was carred out using Conell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) code and 1 min-grid topographic data for water depth from the General Bathymetric Chart of the Ocenas (GEBCO). According to the tsunami simulation, most of tsunami waves propagated to the directions of southwest and northeast which are perpendicular to the fault strike. DART buoy data were used to verify our simulation. In the presentation, we will discuss more details on the results of source process and tsunami simulation and compare them

  8. Biotechnical performance of vegetal species in slope conservation in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prates Bisso, Fernando; Durlo, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of biotechnical performance of different vegetal species growth in the slope soil conservation and reforest (revegetate). The study was performed with oxic soil talus, in Cruz Alta - RS, Brazil (28°23'28.14" S and 53°22'25.61" W) and began in January 2010. The sow treatments employed were: 1) cuttings of Ateleia glazioveana; 2) cuttings of Pyrostegia venusta; 3) seedlings of Baccharis trimera; 4) Seedlings of Cynodom plectostachyus; 5) blank, no sow. The evaluated parameters were: plant survival ratio (%); vegetal covered percentage; natural revegetation (plants/m2); the slope soil level reduction (cm); and water and soil runoff. C. plectostachyus and B. trimera afforded considerable higher survival (92% and 78.5%, respectively) and vegetation cover of the slope (99.6% and 82.9%) than other species. The natural revegetation showed an increase according to the ground above the slope (146.9 plants/m2) compared with the slope ramp (22.1 plants/m2). Moreover, C. plectostachyus, A. glazioveana, P. venusta, B. trimera and C. plectostachyus treatments showed 34.9, 28.6, 23.0 and 21.0 plants/m2, respectively, when compared with the blank (2.5 plants/m2) in the slope ramp region. Furthermore, the sow line regions gave 91.2 plants/m2) whereas the regions among lines afforded 8.6 plants/m2. Additionally, C. plectostachyus showed soil average drawdown profile decrease of 12.8 mm after 360 days after planting, and A. glazioveana reached 16.9 mm after 540 days according to the blank (34.0 mm). Considering the period of 60 to 360 days, it was observed significant differences in the soil loss estimative and reduction percentage compared to blank were: Blank 127.9 ton/ha/year; A. glazioveana, 117.9 ton/ha/year (-8%); P. venusta, 116.3 ton/ha/year (-9%); B. trimera, 106.7 ton/ha/year (-17%); and C. plectostachyus, 73.2 ton/ha/year (-43%). Thus, C. plectostachyus showed the best survival and vegetal coverage producing significant reduction of

  9. Hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer of Santa Cruz Island using seismic refraction, Galapagos - Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loaiza, S.; Fortin, J.; Adelinet, M.; Guéguen, Y.; Violette, S.

    2012-04-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the most inhabited of the Galapagos archipelago, Ecuador. It faces important water resource problems which might lead to a major impact on their unique and pristine ecosystem, Endangered World Heritage list (2007). The scarcity of geological and hydrological data combined with the difficulty of access for field measurements lead to a poor understanding of the island hydrogeology. The Island is formed by series of thick fractured basaltic lava flows dissected by faults. The low-lying, extensive "basal" aquifer is the unique groundwater body identified on the island. This basal aquifer is subjected to sea-water intrusion, which has been mapped from electrical resistivity imaging with an airborne electromagnetic SkyTEM survey (D'Ozouville et al. 2008). In order to better understand the hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer, we acquired, in summer 2011, geophysical data based on seismic refraction. The experiment was conducted on three study sites located at different altitudes above the see level (Beagle site altitude +7m , Mirador +20m, and Villacis +393m). The P-wave refraction data were obtained using 24 geophones (1 component) and an acquisition system Daklink III. A hammer was used as an energy source. This source was the most environmentally friendly source that could be obtained and used in the Galapagos Island. Geophone spacing for the spreads was 1.2 or 5 m depending on the site. From our geophysical data, we could identify the different geological layers that constitute this basal aquifer and to estimate the thickness of these layers. We could as well clearly see the water level in the aquifer. More interesting, we found a P-wave velocity of ~1600 m/s in the dry fractured basalt lava flow, and a P-wave velocity of ~2700 m/s in the water saturated fractured basalt lava flow. The same velocity values were obtained in the different sites. This tends to show that the elastic properties of the aquifer are homogeneous and isotropic (at

  10. Animal-based remedies as complementary medicines in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Rômulo RN; Lima, Helenice N; Tavares, Marília C; Souto, Wedson MS; Barboza, Raynner RD; Vasconcellos, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of animal products in healing is an ancient and widespread cross-cultural practice. In northeastern Brazil, especially in the semi-arid region, animals and plants are widely used in traditional medicine and play significant roles in healing practices. Zootherapies form an integral part of these cultures, and information about animals is passed from generation to generation through oral folklore. Nevertheless, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce in northeastern Brazil, especially when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. This paper examines the use and commercialization of animals for medicinal purposes in Brazil's semi-arid caatinga region. Methods Data was obtained through field surveys conducted in the public markets in the city of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco State, Brazil. We interviewed 16 merchants (9 men and 7 women) who provided information regarding folk remedies based on animal products. Results A total of 37 animal species (29 families), distributed among 7 taxonomic categories were found to be used to treat 51 different ailments. The most frequently cited treatments focused on the respiratory system, and were mainly related to problems with asthma. Zootherapeutic products are prescribed as single drugs or are mixed with other ingredients. Mixtures may include several to many more valuable medicinal animals added to other larger doses of more common medicinal animals and plants. The uses of certain medicinal animals are associated with popular local beliefs known as 'simpatias'. We identified 2 medicinal species (Struthio camelus and Nasutitermes macrocephalus) not previously documented for Brazil. The use of animals as remedies in the area surveyed is associated with socio economic and cultural factors. Some of the medicinal animal species encountered in this study are included in lists of endangered species. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that a large variety of animals are used in traditional

  11. Potential for Large Transpressional Earthquakes along the Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge, California Continental Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, M.; Kohler, M. D.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Castillo, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Transpressional fault systems comprise networks of high-angle strike-slip and more gently-dipping oblique-slip faults. Large oblique-slip earthquakes may involve complex ruptures of multiple faults with both strike-slip and dip-slip. Geophysical data including high-resolution multibeam bathymetry maps, multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) profiles, and relocated seismicity catalogs enable detailed mapping of the 3-D structure of seismogenic fault systems offshore in the California Continental Borderland. Seafloor morphology along the San Clemente fault system displays numerous features associated with active strike-slip faulting including scarps, linear ridges and valleys, and offset channels. Detailed maps of the seafloor faulting have been produced along more than 400 km of the fault zone. Interpretation of fault geometry has been extended to shallow crustal depths using 2-D MCS profiles and to seismogenic depths using catalogs of relocated southern California seismicity. We examine the 3-D fault character along the transpressional Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge (SCCR) section of the fault system to investigate the potential for large earthquakes involving multi-fault ruptures. The 1981 Santa Barbara Island (M6.0) earthquake was a right-slip event on a vertical fault zone along the northeast flank of the SCCR. Aftershock hypocenters define at least three sub-parallel high-angle fault surfaces that lie beneath a hillside valley. Mainshock rupture for this moderate earthquake appears to have been bilateral, initiating at a small discontinuity in the fault geometry (~5-km pressure ridge) near Kidney Bank. The rupture terminated to the southeast at a significant releasing step-over or bend and to the northeast within a small (~10-km) restraining bend. An aftershock cluster occurred beyond the southeast asperity along the East San Clemente fault. Active transpression is manifest by reverse-slip earthquakes located in the region adjacent to the principal displacement zone

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in...

  13. Clinical biochemistry education in Spain.

    PubMed

    Queraltó, J M

    1994-12-31

    Clinical biochemistry in Spain was first established in 1978 as an independent specialty. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with haematology, microbiology, immunology and general laboratory (Clinical analysis, análisis clinicos). Graduates in Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Biological Sciences can enter post-graduate training in Clinical Chemistry after a nation-wide examination. Training in an accredited Clinical Chemistry department is 4 years. A national committee for medical and pharmacist specialties advises the government on the number of trainees, program and educational units accreditation criteria. Technical staff includes nurses and specifically trained technologists. Accreditation of laboratories is developed at different regional levels. The Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SECQ), the national representative in the IFCC, has 1600 members, currently publishes a scientific journal (Química Clinica) and a newsletter. It organizes a continuous education program, a quality control program and an annual Congress.

  14. Altitude Differentiated Aerosol Extinction Over Tenerife (North Atlantic Coast) During ACE-2 by Means of Ground and Airborne Photometry and Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Formenti, P.; Elias, T.; Welton, J.; Diaz, J. P.; Exposito, F.; Schmid, B.; Powell, D.; Holben, B. N.; Smirnov, A.; Andreae, M. O.; Devaux, C.; Voss, K.; Lelieveld, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Durkee, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Retrievals of spectral aerosol optical depths (tau(sub a)) by means of sun photometers have been undertaken in Tenerife (28 deg 16' N, 16 deg 36' W) during ACE-2 (June-July 1997). Five ground-based sites were located at four different altitudes in the marine boundary layer and in the free troposphere, from 0 to 3570 m asl. The goal of the investigation was to provide estimates of the vertical aerosol extinction over the island, both under clean and turbid conditions. Inversion of spectral tau(sub a) allowed to retrieve size distributions, from which the single scattering albedo omega(sub 0) and the asymmetry factor g could be estimated as a function of altitude. These parameters were combined to calculate aerosol forcing in the column. Emphasis is put on episodes of increased turbidity, which were observed at different locations simultaneously, and attributed to outbreaks of mineral dust from North Africa. Differentiation of tau(sub a) as a function of altitude provided the vertical profile of the extinction coefficient sigma(sub e). For dust outbreaks, aerosol extinction is concentrated in two distinct layers above and below the strong subsidence inversion around 1200 m asl. Vertical profiles of tau(sub a) and sigma(sub e) are shown for July 8. In some occasions, vertical profiles are compared to LIDAR observations, performed both at sea level and in the low free troposphere, and to airborne measurements of aerosol optical depths.

  15. Sole Marks at the base of the late Pleistocene Abrigo Ignimbrite, Tenerife: implications for transport and depositional processes at the base of pyroclastic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittari, Adrian; Cas, R. A. F.

    Sole marks, which are common in turbidites, have been observed as casts at the base of the Abrigo Ignimbrite on Tenerife, Canary Islands. They have been engraved by pebble to cobble-sized lithic tools in a soft, cohesive fine-grained substrate. The casts range from long, parallel groove marks, often with the tool embedded at their termination, to short, elongate impact marks and are useful as a flow-direction marker. They were formed from a highly energetic pyroclastic flow pulse and were almost immediately infilled with ash after rapid waning of flow. Large lithic tools, which formed groove marks, were held in place under high gas and grain dynamic pressures and moved forward by their own momentum and the drag force exerted by a highly concentrated granular flow. Impact marks were formed by smaller lithic tools, which had more freedom of movement within the agitated, chaotic flow. Scour structures on the lee side of stationary lithic tools may have formed by local turbulence in their wake.

  16. The Solomon Islands Tsunami of 6 February 2013 in the Santa Cruz Islands: Field Survey and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Papantoniou, Antonios; Biukoto, Litea; Albert, Gilly; Wei, Yong

    2014-05-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were

  17. The New Science Policy in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Julio R.

    1987-01-01

    Spain has begun a serious effort to increase its scientific and technological research efforts and to develop a large body of qualified researchers to participate in areas of science important to the European Economic Community. (MSE)

  18. Recent migrations from Morocco to Spain.

    PubMed

    Bodega, I; Cebrian, J A; Franchini, T; Lora-tamayo, G; Martin-lou, A

    1995-01-01

    "This study addressed the problem of the Moroccan immigration into Spain within the context of South-North movements, focusing on analyzing provisional data from the last immigrant regularization in the country completed during the end months of 1991."

  19. Metasomatic processes within the fertile lithospheric Mantle beneath Don Camilo, Santa Cruz, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntaflos, Th.; Mundl, A.; Bjerg, E. A.; Tschegg, C.; Kosler, J.

    2009-04-01

    formed from residual melts. In contrast, clinopyroxene from mantle dunites enriched LREE (10 x PM) and LILE suggesting that the metasomatic agent was fluid-rich silicate melt. Calculated equilibrium P-T conditions cover a wide range from 800 to 1100 °C. Considering the crustal thickness in the area being around 35 km, a pressure between 12 and 17 kbar could be assumed as reasonable, indicating that these xenoliths were extracted from shallow depths of 40 to 60 km. Model calculations have shown that the lithospheric Mantle beneath Don Camilo, in Santa Cruz province is fertile and that spinel peridotites experienced low degrees of partial melting (2-8% batch melting in the spinel peridotite field). The metasomatic agent was a fluid-rich silicate melt of alkalibasaltic composition, presumably similar to this, which affected the Cerro Clark xenoliths north of Don Camilo locality. Don Camilo mantle xenoliths, like Tres Lagos, Cerro Redondo and Gobernador Gregores, does not show evidence for interaction of the lithospheric Mantle in southern Patagonia with subduction related components.

  20. Hydrogeologic investigations of the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales Area, Upper Santa Cruz Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Bultman, Mark W.; Menges, Christopher M.

    2016-07-28

    and mixed-layer clay. X-ray diffraction analyses verified clinoptilolite as the only zeolite in Nogales Formation samples; they also verified the presence of smectite and illite clay and some kaolinite. Samples which contain greater amounts of clinoptilolite and lesser amounts of smectite have high porosity and SHC in narrow ranges. However, samples with abundant smectite and lesser amounts of clinoptilolite span the entire ranges of porosity and SHC for the formation.All members of the Nogales Formation are fractured and faulted as a result of Tertiary Basin and Range extensional deformation, which was broadly contemporaneous with deposition of the formation. These structures may have significant influence on groundwater flow in the upper Santa Cruz basin because, although many of the sediments in the formation have characteristics indicating they may be productive aquifers based only on porous-media flow, fracturing in these sediments may further enhance permeability and groundwater flow in these basin-fill aquifers by orders of magnitude.

  1. Digital Compilation of "Preliminary Map of Landslide Deposits in Santa Cruz County, California, By Cooper-Clark and Associates, 1975": A Digital Map Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Report by Roberts, Sebastian; Barron, Andrew D.; Preface by Brabb, Earl E.; Pike, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    A 1:62,500-scale black-and-white map identifying some 2,000 landslides of various types in Santa Cruz County, California, has been converted to a digital-map database that can be acquired from the U.S. Geological Survey over the Internet or on magnetic tape.

  2. [List of the type species of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera, Nematocera) deposited in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Felippe-Bauer, M; Oliveira Sd, S

    2001-11-01

    A list of all type specimens of the Family Ceratopogonidae, present in the Entomological Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil is presented. This list includes the genera Bahiahelea, Culicoides, Dasyhelea, Downeshelea, Forcipomyia, Leptoconops, Mallochohelea, Monohelea, Neobezzia, Palpomyia and Sphaerohelea.

  3. Field Surveys of Rare Plants on Santa Cruz Island, California, 2003-2006: Historical Records and Current Distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Chess, Katherine A.; Niessen, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the northern Channel Islands located off the coast of California. It is owned and managed as a conservation reserve by The Nature Conservancy and the Channel Islands National Park. The island is home to nine plant taxa listed in 1997 as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act, because of declines related to nearly 150 years of ranching on the island. Feral livestock were removed from the island as a major conservation step, which was part of a program completed in early 2007 with the eradication of pigs and turkeys. For the first time in more than a century, the rare plants of Santa Cruz Island have a chance to recover in the wild. This study provides survey information and living plant materials needed for recovery management of the listed taxa. We developed a database containing information about historical collections of the nine taxa and used it to plan a survey strategy. Our objectives were to relocate as many of the previously known populations as possible, with emphasis on documenting sites not visited in several decades, sites that were poorly documented in the historical record, and sites spanning the range of environmental conditions inhabited by the taxa. From 2003 through 2006, we searched for and found 39 populations of the taxa, indicating that nearly 80 percent of the populations known earlier in the 1900s still existed. Most populations are small and isolated, occupying native-dominated habitat patches in a highly fragmented and invaded landscape; they are still at risk of declining through population losses. Most are not expanding beyond the edges of their habitat patches. However, most taxa appeared to have good seed production and a range of size classes in populations, indicating a good capacity for plant recruitment and population growth in these restricted sites. For these taxa, seed collection and outplanting might be a good strategy to increase numbers of populations for species

  4. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, K.; Steefel, C. I.; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-02-25

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized (White et al., 2008, GCA) and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisser and [2006] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [1994], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at the depth and time where the reaction fronts of the primary minerals overlap. The modeling indicates that the argillic horizon at Santa Cruz can be explained almost entirely by weathering of primary minerals and in situ clay precipitation accompanied by undersaturation of kaolinite at the top of the profile. The rate constant for kaolinite precipitation was also determined based on model simulations of mineral abundances and dissolved Al, SiO{sub 2}(aq) and pH in pore waters. Changes in the rate of kaolinite precipitation or the flow rate do not affect the gradient of the primary mineral weathering profiles, but instead control the rate of propagation of the primary mineral weathering fronts and thus total

  5. Multi-gauge Calibration for modeling the Semi-Arid Santa Cruz Watershed in Arizona-Mexico Border Area Using SWAT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niraula, Rewati; Norman, Laura A.; Meixner, Thomas; Callegary, James B.

    2012-01-01

    In most watershed-modeling studies, flow is calibrated at one monitoring site, usually at the watershed outlet. Like many arid and semi-arid watersheds, the main reach of the Santa Cruz watershed, located on the Arizona-Mexico border, is discontinuous for most of the year except during large flood events, and therefore the flow characteristics at the outlet do not represent the entire watershed. Calibration is required at multiple locations along the Santa Cruz River to improve model reliability. The objective of this study was to best portray surface water flow in this semiarid watershed and evaluate the effect of multi-gage calibration on flow predictions. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was calibrated at seven monitoring stations, which improved model performance and increased the reliability of flow, in the Santa Cruz watershed. The most sensitive parameters to affect flow were found to be curve number (CN2), soil evaporation and compensation coefficient (ESCO), threshold water depth in shallow aquifer for return flow to occur (GWQMN), base flow alpha factor (Alpha_Bf), and effective hydraulic conductivity of the soil layer (Ch_K2). In comparison, when the model was established with a single calibration at the watershed outlet, flow predictions at other monitoring gages were inaccurate. This study emphasizes the importance of multi-gage calibration to develop a reliable watershed model in arid and semiarid environments. The developed model, with further calibration of water quality parameters will be an integral part of the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), an online decision support tool, to assess the impacts of climate change and urban growth in the Santa Cruz watershed.

  6. Processing and interpretation of aeromagnetic data for the Santa Cruz Basin - Patagonia Mountains area, south-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted with Sial Geosciences Inc. for a detailed aeromagnetic survey of the Santa Cruz basin and Patagonia Mountains area of south-central Arizona. The contractor's Operational Report is included as an Appendix in this report. This section describes the data processing performed by the USGS on the digital aeromagnetic data received from the contractor. This processing was required in order to remove flight line noise, estimate the depths to the magnetic sources, and estimate the locations of the magnetic contacts. Three methods were used for estimating source depths and contact locations: the horizontal gradient method, the analytic signal method, and the local wavenumber method. The depth estimates resulting from each method are compared, and the contact locations are combined into an interpretative map showing the dip direction for some contacts.

  7. Nearshore disposal of fine-grained sediment in a high-energy environment: Santa Cruz Harbor case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cronin, Katherine; van Ormondt, Maarten; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, Katherine; Tonnon, Pieter K.; Rosati, Julie D.; Wang, Ping; Roberts, Tiffany M.

    2011-01-01

    Current regulations in California prohibit the disposal of more than 20% fine-grained sediment in the coastal zone; this threshold is currently being investigated to determine if this environmental regulation can be improved upon. A field monitoring and numerical modeling experiment took place late 2 009 to determine the fate of fine-grained dredge disposal material from Santa Cruz Harbor, California, U.S.A. A multi-nested, hydrodynamic-sediment transport modeling approach was used to simulate the direction and dispersal of the dredge plume. Result s show that the direction and dispersal of the plume was influenced by the wave  climate, a large proportion of which moved in a easterly direction during wave events. Therefore it is vitally important to accurately simulate the tides, waves, currents, temperature and salinity when modeling the dispersal of the fine-grained dredge plume. 

  8. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the lower Santa Cruz area, Pinal, Pima, and Maricopa Counties, Arizona, 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konieczki, A.D.; English, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    The lower Santa Cruz area includes about 5,400 square miles in south-central Arizona and is the second largest agricultural area in the State. The area depends mainly on ground water for irrigation, and in 1976 about 966,000 acre-feet of ground water was pumped from the area. As a result of the large-scale long-term withdrawal of ground water, water levels have declined , and the direction of ground-water flow has changed. Since 1923 , declines of nearly 500 feet have occurred near Stanfield. Information shown on the maps (scale 1:125,000) includes depth to water, altitude of the water level, specific conductance, fluoride concentration, change in water level (1923-77), and land use. Hydrographs of the water level in selected wells and a table of historical pumpage also are included. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. The role of reaction affinity and secondary minerals in regulating chemical weathering rates at the Santa Cruz Soil Chronosequence, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maher, K.; Steefel, Carl; White, A.F.; Stonestrom, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to explore the reasons for the apparent discrepancy between laboratory and field weathering rates and to determine the extent to which weathering rates are controlled by the approach to thermodynamic equilibrium, secondary mineral precipitation, and flow rates, a multicomponent reactive transport model (CrunchFlow) was used to interpret soil profile development and mineral precipitation and dissolution rates at the 226 ka Marine Terrace Chronosequence near Santa Cruz, CA. Aqueous compositions, fluid chemistry, transport, and mineral abundances are well characterized [White A. F., Schulz M. S., Vivit D. V., Blum A., Stonestrom D. A. and Anderson S. P. (2008) Chemical weathering of a Marine Terrace Chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California. I: interpreting the long-term controls on chemical weathering based on spatial and temporal element and mineral distributions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 72 (1), 36-68] and were used to constrain the reaction rates for the weathering and precipitating minerals in the reactive transport modeling. When primary mineral weathering rates are calculated with either of two experimentally determined rate constants, the nonlinear, parallel rate law formulation of Hellmann and Tisserand [Hellmann R. and Tisserand D. (2006) Dissolution kinetics as a function of the Gibbs free energy of reaction: An experimental study based on albite feldspar. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 70 (2), 364-383] or the aluminum inhibition model proposed by Oelkers et al. [Oelkers E. H., Schott J. and Devidal J. L. (1994) The effect of aluminum, pH, and chemical affinity on the rates of aluminosilicate dissolution reactions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (9), 2011-2024], modeling results are consistent with field-scale observations when independently constrained clay precipitation rates are accounted for. Experimental and field rates, therefore, can be reconciled at the Santa Cruz site. Additionally, observed maximum clay abundances in the argillic horizons occur at

  10. Push moraines in the upper valley of Santa Cruz river, southwest Argentina. Structural analysis and relationship with Late Pleistocene paleoclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyanes, Gabriel; Massabie, Armando

    2015-01-01

    The upper cliff of the Santa Cruz River was used to assess the proglacial environments of the Argentino Glacier outlet of Late Pleistocene age. These cliffs show glaciolacustrine, fluvioglacial and till deposits, where only the first one are deformed. Glacial landforms in the area and these structures suggest that the ice mass advanced, topographically controlled, towards the east from the Patagonian Ice Sheet pushing up the proglacial sediments. The spatial arrangement of thrusts and overturned folds, the drumlins-flutes moraine directions and the end moraines shape, allow inferring the dynamic and the Argentino glacier profile. Detailed analyses of the glaciotectonic structures indicate that these have two origins: load in the north with stress transfer to the southeast, and push from the west. Through the analysis of deformed sediments, their thickness and their sedimentary and structural features, three zones of deformations were recognized. Each of these zones was associated to glacial advances because of changes of the regional climate conditions.

  11. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae) from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island

    PubMed Central

    Chiari, Ylenia; Garrick, Ryan C.; Russello, Michael A.; Benavides, Edgar; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J.; Glaberman, Scott; Tapia, Washington; Gibbs, James P.; Cayot, Linda J.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises. PMID:26488886

  12. Field-trip guide to the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This field trip is an introduction to the geology of the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in southern Santa Clara County. Seven stops include four short hikes to access rock exposures and views of the foothills east of Loma Prieta Peak between Gilroy and San José. Field-trip destinations highlight the dominant rock types of the "Franciscan assemblage" including outcrops of serpentinite, basalt, limestone, ribbon chert, graywacke sandstone, and shale. General discussions include how the rocks formed, and how tectonism and stream erosion have changed the landscape through time. All field trip stops are on public land; most are near reservoir dams of the Santa Clara Valley Water District. In addition, stops include examination of an Ohlone Indian heritage site and the New Almaden Mining Museum.

  13. Description of a New Galapagos Giant Tortoise Species (Chelonoidis; Testudines: Testudinidae) from Cerro Fatal on Santa Cruz Island.

    PubMed

    Poulakakis, Nikos; Edwards, Danielle L; Chiari, Ylenia; Garrick, Ryan C; Russello, Michael A; Benavides, Edgar; Watkins-Colwell, Gregory J; Glaberman, Scott; Tapia, Washington; Gibbs, James P; Cayot, Linda J; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2015-01-01

    The taxonomy of giant Galapagos tortoises (Chelonoidis spp.) is currently based primarily on morphological characters and island of origin. Over the last decade, compelling genetic evidence has accumulated for multiple independent evolutionary lineages, spurring the need for taxonomic revision. On the island of Santa Cruz there is currently a single named species, C. porteri. Recent genetic and morphological studies have shown that, within this taxon, there are two evolutionarily and spatially distinct lineages on the western and eastern sectors of the island, known as the Reserva and Cerro Fatal populations, respectively. Analyses of DNA from natural populations and museum specimens, including the type specimen for C. porteri, confirm the genetic distinctiveness of these two lineages and support elevation of the Cerro Fatal tortoises to the rank of species. In this paper, we identify DNA characters that define this new species, and infer evolutionary relationships relative to other species of Galapagos tortoises.

  14. Dog overpopulation and burden of exposure to canine distemper virus and other pathogens on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Nicole M; Mendez, Gabriella S; Grijalva, C Jaime; Walden, Heather S; Cruz, Marilyn; Aragon, Eduardo; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Dog overpopulation and diseases are hazards to native island species and humans on the Galapagos. Vaccination and importation of dogs are prohibited on the Galapagos. Risk management of these hazards requires the use of science-based risk assessment and risk communication. The objectives of the study reported here were (i) to estimate the human:dog ratio and (ii) the prevalence of and identify exposure factors associated with positive antibody titers to canine distemper virus (CDV) and other pathogens, as well as infection with intestinal parasites in owned dogs on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos in September 2014. The observed human:dog ratio was 6.148:1 which extrapolates to 2503 dogs (two times more than a recent dog count conducted by Galapagos Biosecurity Agency in March 2014). The proportion of spayed female dogs (50%) was higher, compared to neutered male dogs (30%) (p=0.04). Prevalence of dogs with positive antibody titers to CDV was 36% (95% CI=26, 46%), to canine parvovirus was 89% (95% CI=82, 95%), and to canine adenovirus was 40% (95% CI=30, 51%). The frequency of seropositive dogs to CDV was lower in urban dogs (26%), compared to rural dogs (53%) (p<0.05). A positive interaction effect between rural residence and spay/neuter status on seropositivity to CDV was observed, which we discuss in this report. Because vaccination is prohibited, the dog population on Santa Cruz is susceptible to an outbreak of CDV (particularly among urban dogs) with potential spill over to marine mammals. Dog's age (1-2 or 3-14 years old, compared to younger dogs), and residence (rural, urban) were associated with positive antibody titers to parvovirus, adenovirus, Ehrlichia spp., or Anaplasma spp., as well as infection with Ancylostoma spp., an intestinal parasite in dogs that can be transmitted to humans, particularly children. These results provide the most comprehensive assessment of dog overpopulation and exposure to CDV and other pathogens on the Galapagos to date.

  15. Doctorate nursing degree in Spain

    PubMed Central

    López-Montesinos, Mª José; Maciá-Soler, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Analytical and descriptive study of the process of change being experienced in the Spanish university system over the last decade (2005-2014). OBJECTIVE: To describe the structural changes occurring in Nursing Education in Spain, reaching access to doctoral studies from the European Convergence Process and the subsequent legislative development. METHODOLOGY: Bibliographical review of royal decrees and reference literature on the subject of study and descriptive analysis of the situation. RESULTS: Carries various changes suffered in the curricula of nursing education in the last decade, the legislation of the European Higher Education sets the guidelines for current studies of Masters and Doctorates. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the Master and Doctorate stages after a basic degree, which is now possible with the new legislation. A formal beginning made of scientific nursing in order to generate their own lines of research led by Doctors of nursing who can integrate in research groups under the same condition as other researcher, yet now, from the nursing discipline itself. PMID:26312628

  16. Evolution of the Cañadas edifice and its implications for the origin of the Cañadas Caldera (Tenerife, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancochea, E.; Huertas, M. J.; Cantagrel, J. M.; Coello, J.; Fúster, J. M.; Arnaud, N.; Ibarrola, E.

    1999-02-01

    The volcano-stratigraphic and geochronologic data presented in this work show that the Tenerife central zone has been occupied during the last 3 Ma by shield or central composite volcanoes which reached more than 3000 m in height. The last volcanic system, the presently active Teide-Pico Viejo Complex began to form approximately 150 ka ago. The first Cañadas Edifice (CE) volcanic activity took place between about 3.5 Ma and 2.7 Ma. The CE-I is formed mainly by basalts, trachybasalts and trachytes. The remains of this phase outcrop in the Cañadas Wall (CW) sectors of La Angostura (3.5-3.0 Ma and 3.0-2.7 Ma), Boca de Tauce (3.0 Ma), and in the bottom of some external radial ravines (3.5 Ma). The position of its main emission center was located in the central part of the CC. The volcano could have reached 3000 m in height. This edifice underwent a partial destruction by failure and flank collapse, forming debris-avalanches during the 2.6-2.3 Ma period. The debris-avalanche deposits can be seen in the most distal zones in the N flank of the CE-I (Tigaiga Breccia). A new volcanic phase, whose deposits overlie the remains of CE-I and the former debris-avalanche deposits, constituted a new volcanic edifice, the CE-II. The dyke directions analysis and the morphological reconstruction suggest that the CE-II center was situated somewhat westward of the CE-I, reaching some 3200 m in height. The CE-II formations are well exposed on the CW, especially at the El Cedro (2.3-2.00 Ma) sector. They are also frequent in the S flank of the edifice (2.25-1.89 Ma) in Tejina (2.5-1.87 Ma) as well as in the Tigaiga massif to the N (2.23 Ma). During the last periods of activity of CE-II, important explosive eruptions took place forming ignimbrites, pyroclastic flows, and fall deposits of trachytic composition. Their ages vary between 1.5 and 1.6 Ma (Adeje ignimbrites, to the W). In the CW, the Upper Ucanca phonolitic Unit (1.4 Ma) could be the last main episode of the CE-II. Afterwards

  17. Uses of plasma in Spain.

    PubMed

    Algora, M; Barbolla, L

    2007-12-01

    In Spain, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) currently recovered either by whole blood centrifugation or by apheresis is mainly considered as a source of plasma derivates rather than a product to be transfused. Upon this consideration, the amount of plasma transfused in the last two decades has remained stable, while the production of FFP has grown steadily during all these years. Thus, much more plasma has been derived to industry for manufacturing. Although, since 1993 a consensus conference established the clinical situation where plasma has demonstrated its efficacy, the true situation is that many indications seem not to be supported on a scientific evidence basis. Only a few studies have been performed in the last years to assess the appropriateness of these indications. We present the initial result of an ongoing survey addressed by the Madrid Blood Transfusion Centre. Based on the criteria of total amount of RBC transfused per year, large hospitals (more than 10,000 units of RBC) transfused an average of 23.87% of FFP, while medium hospitals (5000-10,000 units of RBC) used 19.5% and small ones (less than 5000) about 12.5%. It is important to point out that inside each group there were some important differences in ratio values for similar hospitals. This could indicate that much more is necessary to cope with indications. Although national figures of uses of FFP, whether in ratio or absolute terms, show a moderate consumption in comparison with published figures of other European countries, there can be no doubt that plasma overuses still seem to be present.

  18. Genetic characterization and molecular identification of the bloodmeal sources of the potential bluetongue vector Culicoides obsoletus in the Canary Islands, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges are vectors for a diversity of pathogens including bluetongue virus (BTV) that generate important economic losses. BTV has expanded its range in recent decades, probably due to the expansion of its main vector and the presence of other autochthonous competent vectors. Although the Canary Islands are still free of bluetongue disease (BTD), Spain and Europe have had to face up to a spread of bluetongue with disastrous consequences. Therefore, it is essential to identify the distribution of biting midges and understand their feeding patterns in areas susceptible to BTD. To that end, we captured biting midges on two farms in the Canary Islands (i) to identify the midge species in question and characterize their COI barcoding region and (ii) to ascertain the source of their bloodmeals using molecular tools. Methods Biting midges were captured using CDC traps baited with a 4-W blacklight (UV) bulb on Gran Canaria and on Tenerife. Biting midges were quantified and identified according to their wing patterns. A 688 bp segment of the mitochondrial COI gene of 20 biting midges (11 from Gran Canaria and 9 from Tenerife) were PCR amplified using the primers LCO1490 and HCO2198. Moreover, after selected all available females showing any rest of blood in their abdomen, a nested-PCR approach was used to amplify a fragment of the COI gene from vertebrate DNA contained in bloodmeals. The origin of bloodmeals was identified by comparison with the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST). Results The morphological identification of 491 female biting midges revealed the presence of a single morphospecies belonging to the Obsoletus group. When sequencing the barcoding region of the 20 females used to check genetic variability, we identified two haplotypes differing in a single base. Comparison analysis using the nucleotide-nucleotide basic alignment search tool (BLAST) showed that both haplotypes belong to

  19. Mathematics education and learning disabilities in Spain.

    PubMed

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Castellar, Rosa García

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this article, we describe the basic objectives of the math curriculum in Spain as well as the basic contents, teacher resources, and obstacles perceived in mathematics instruction. Second, we briefly describe the concept of learning disabilities (LD) as they are currently defined in Spain. As stated in the recent educational reform, a student with LD is any student with special educational needs. The emphasis is placed on the educational resources that these students need in order to achieve the curricular objectives that correspond to their age group or grade. Third, we comment specifically on the educational services model and the evaluation and instructional procedures for students with math learning disabilities. Finally, we describe some lines of research that have appeared in the last few years in Spain that have led to the development of new evaluation and intervention procedures for students with LD in computation and problem solving.

  20. [Incidence study of listeriosis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Valero, Fernando Parrilla; Rafart, Josep Vaqué

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive retrospective study of cases of listeriosis occurring in Spain from 2001 to 2007 to determine the burden and trend of this disease in our setting. Several sources of information were used. Epidemiological information was collected from 1.242 cases of listeriosis, representing a mean incidence rate of 0,56 cases per 100.000 inhabitants per year, which was extrapolated as an overall estimate for Spain. The annual incidence showed a statistically significant increasing trend (p <0,001) over the study period. This figure was higher than that reported in Spain (0,16) by the Microbiological Information System, which is voluntary, showing that underreporting exists. The inclusion of listeriosis in the Mandatory Notification System would allow determination of the distribution and characteristics of this infection in humans, as well as promotion of effective prevention and control.

  1. The costs of schizophrenia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2006-09-01

    This study estimated the economic impact of schizophrenia-related direct costs (medical and nonmedical costs) in Spain. Direct medical costs (hospitalizations, outpatient consultations, drug costs) and direct nonmedical costs (costs of informal care) were estimated based on prevalence costs for 2002. The total costs of schizophrenia were estimated at euro 1,970.8 million; direct medical costs accounted for 53% and informal care costs 47%. Despite having implemented a conservative approach, the health care costs associated with schizophrenia account for 2.7% of total public health care expenditure in Spain. The sum of medical and nonmedical costs give us a better definition of the magnitude of the problem in Spain as well as contributing to helping make the debate on this issue more transparent.

  2. Leaving home in Spain: a regional analysis.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, C

    1998-12-01

    "This paper compares regional patterns of leaving home in Spain during the 1970s and 1980s based on analysis of the 1991 Spanish Sociodemographic Survey. The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate that while nationally Spain is representative of a southern European pattern of leaving home, (i.e. relatively late and closely associated with partnership formation), there is considerable regional variation in timing, incidence and initial destinations on leaving home. These differences are explored using hazard rates of leaving home by destination and birth cohort for 11 Spanish regions."

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  4. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  5. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-64 - Avocados from continental Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Avocados from continental Spain. 319.56-64 Section 319... Avocados from continental Spain. Fresh avocados (Persea americana P. Mill.) may be imported into the United... accordance with § 319.56-6. (2) The avocados must be grown at places of production in continental Spain...

  7. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  8. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling... from China and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  9. 75 FR 61772 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be likely to lead to... antidumping duty order on chlorinated isocyanurates from Spain would not be likely to lead to continuation...

  10. Comparative study of two tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Solomon Islands: 2015 Mw 7.0 normal-fault and 2013 Santa Cruz Mw 8.0 megathrust earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Ishibe, Takeo; Gusman, Aditya Riadi

    2016-05-01

    The July 2015 Mw 7.0 Solomon Islands tsunamigenic earthquake occurred ~40 km north of the February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz earthquake. The proximity of the two epicenters provided unique opportunities for a comparative study of their source mechanisms and tsunami generation. The 2013 earthquake was an interplate event having a thrust focal mechanism at a depth of 30 km while the 2015 event was a normal-fault earthquake occurring at a shallow depth of 10 km in the overriding Pacific Plate. A combined use of tsunami and teleseismic data from the 2015 event revealed the north dipping fault plane and a rupture velocity of 3.6 km/s. Stress transfer analysis revealed that the 2015 earthquake occurred in a region with increased Coulomb stress following the 2013 earthquake. Spectral deconvolution, assuming the 2015 tsunami as empirical Green's function, indicated the source periods of the 2013 Santa Cruz tsunami as 10 and 22 min.

  11. Soils of the coastal area of Santa Fé and Santa Cruz islands (Galápagos). Their micromorphology, mineralogy and genesis compared.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoops, Georges; Dumon, Mathijs; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Santa Fé is a small island situated about 15 km SW of Santa Cruz and has a similar petrographic composition. The centre of Santa Cruz reaches up to 950 m a.s.l., Santa Fé is nowhere higher that 255 m. Even in the dry season the high mountain region of Santa Cruz profits therefore of an almost continuous drizzly rain (garrúa) resulting from the cooling of the rising moist air. The dry coastal zones are covered by sparse Opuntia vegetation. In the coastal soils a double to open spaced porphyric c/f related distribution pattern prevails. The micromass is greyish to yellowish brown on Santa Fé, reddish on Santa Cruz. The b-fabric is weakly granostriated, rarely calcitic crystallitic. The coarse material is restricted to fresh grains of plagioclase > iddingsite > augite > rare olivine, and some fresh basalt fragments. Remnants of illuvial clay coatings are more common on Santa Cruz. Only on Santa Fé hard, yellowish nodules (up to 700 µm) with a strongly mosaic speckled b-fabric and first order grey interference colours occur; their nature and genesis is a point of discussion. X-ray diffraction revealed the clay fraction of these soils to be comparable: poorly crystalline 2:1 phyllosilicates with broad irregular 001 reflections swelling to 1.8 nm after glycolation and collapsing to 1.0 nm after K-saturation and heating. Poorly crystalline kaolinite reflections are more prominent on Santa Cruz, whereas mica-like components (1.00 nm reflections) are restricted to Santa Fé. The presence of unweathered coarse material in an abundant micromass of alteration clay indicates a disequilibrium, and points to a transport of the fine material, in solid phase (colluvium) and/or as solution rather than an in situ weathering. Comparing the total chemical composition (corrected for LOI) of the coastal soils of Santa Cruz and Santa Fé with the average rock composition of both islands, one notes in the soils an increase in Al, Fe, Ti and K, and a loss of Mg, Ca and Na. On Santa F

  12. Deteriorating effects of lichen and microbial colonization of carbonate building rocks in the Romanesque churches of Segovia, Spain.

    PubMed

    de Los Ríos, Asunción; Cámara, Beatriz; García Del Cura, M A Angeles; Rico, Víctor J; Galván, Virginia; Ascaso, Carmen

    2009-01-15

    In this study, the deterioration effects of lichens and other lithobionts in a temperate mesothermal climate were explored. We examined samples of dolostone and limestone rocks with visible signs of biodeterioration taken from the exterior wall surfaces of four Romanesque churches in Segovia (Spain): San Lorenzo, San Martín, San Millán and La Vera Cruz. Biofilms developing on the lithic substrate were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The most common lichen species found in the samples were recorded. Fungal cultures were then obtained from these carbonate rocks and characterized by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS). Through scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered electron mode, fungi (lichenized and non-lichenized) were observed as the most frequent microorganisms occurring at sites showing signs of biodeterioration. The colonization process was especially conditioned by the porosity characteristics of the stone used in these buildings. While in dolostones, microorganisms mainly occupied spaces comprising the rock's intercrystalline porosity, in bioclastic dolomitized limestones, fungal colonization seemed to be more associated with moldic porosity. Microbial biofilms make close contact with the substrate, and thus probably cause significant deterioration of the underlying materials. We describe the different processes of stone alteration induced by fungal colonization and discuss the implications of these processes for the design of treatments to prevent biodeterioration.

  13. Interhospital spread of NDM-7-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae belonging to ST437 in Spain.

    PubMed

    Seara, Nieves; Oteo, Jesús; Carrillo, Raquel; Pérez-Blanco, Verónica; Mingorance, Jesús; Gómez-Gil, Rosa; Herruzo, Rafael; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Astray, Jenaro; García-Rodríguez, Julio; Ruiz-Velasco, Luis Moisés; Campos, José; de Burgos, Carmen; Ruiz-Carrascoso, Guillermo

    2015-08-01

    This study describes an interhospital spread of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) producing NDM-7 carbapenemase that started in December 2013 in Madrid, Spain. NDM-7-producing CRKP were isolated from urine, rectal swabs or blood samples from seven patients admitted to three different hospitals (Hospital Universitario La Paz, Hospital de Cantoblanco and Hospital Central de la Cruz Roja). The isolates were resistant to all antimicrobials tested except colistin and fosfomycin. One blood isolate was susceptible to minocycline and tigecycline but was resistant to fosfomycin. All isolates were closely related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and DiversiLab(®) analysis and belonged to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type 437. In addition, blaNDM-7, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15 and aac(3)-IIa were identified. Family contacts of the index case were negative for NDM-producing bacteria. The outbreak occurred in two separate waves and the cases associated with Hospital de Cantoblanco had been admitted to the same room. Environmental samples from the trap of a sink and a shower in this room were positive for NDM-7-producing CRKP. To our knowledge, this is the first reported worldwide outbreak of NDM-7-producing CRKP. No relationship with the Indian continent, the Balkans or the Middle East could be established. Frequent transfer of aged or chronically ill patients between the facilities involved may have favoured the spread of NDM-7-producing CRKP. The spread of the second wave in Hospital de Cantoblanco probably occurred as a result of transmission from an environmental reservoir.

  14. Measuring the impacts of natural amenities and the US-Mexico Border, on housing values in the Santa Cruz Watershed, using spatially-weighted hedonic modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amaya, Gladys; Norman, Laura M.; Frisvold, George

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will provide a synopsis of the quality of life and hedonics literature review used to develop this research agenda. Variables relevant for local environmental management, having significant effects on property values, will be discussed. The final results obtained from this study can be used determine the benefits of preserving or developing land binationally and will be uploaded to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM), an online Ecosystem Services tool, being created to promote sustainable development in the Borderlands.

  15. Type material of Platyhelminthes (Monogenoidea) housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Daniela A; Mainenti, Adriana; Sanches, Magda; Knoff, Marcelo; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    A catalogue of type material of monogenoids deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), between 1979 and 2016, is presented, given that the last list of types was produced in 1979. The monogenoid collection comprises type lots for 203 species, distributed across 14 families and 68 genera. Specific names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality, specimens with the collection numbers and references. The classification and the nomenclature of the species have been updated.

  16. Causes of mortality of wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador from 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Gottdenker, Nicole L; Walsh, Timothy; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Gustavo; Betancourt, Franklin; Cruz, Marilyn; Soos, Catherine; Miller, R Eric; Parker, Patricia G

    2008-10-01

    Necropsy findings were reviewed from wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Archipelago between 2004 and 2006. One hundred and ninety cases from 27 different species were submitted, and 178 of these cases were evaluated grossly or histologically. Trauma and trauma-related deaths (n=141) dominated necropsy submissions. Infectious causes of avian mortality included myiasis due to Philornis sp. (n=6), avian pox (n=1), and schistosomosis (n=1).

  17. Development of a high-resolution binational vegetation map of the Santa Cruz River riparian corridor and surrounding watershed, southern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Villarreal, Miguel L.; Norman, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the development of a binational vegetation map developed for the Santa Cruz Watershed, which straddles the southern border of Arizona and the northern border of Sonora, Mexico. The map was created as an environmental input to the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM) that is being created by the U.S. Geological Survey for the watershed. The SCWEPM is a map-based multicriteria evaluation tool that allows stakeholders to explore tradeoffs between valued ecosystem services at multiple scales within a participatory decision-making process. Maps related to vegetation type and are needed for use in modeling wildlife habitat and other ecosystem services. Although detailed vegetation maps existed for the U.S. side of the border, there was a lack of consistent data for the Santa Cruz Watershed in Mexico. We produced a binational vegetation classification of the Santa Cruz River riparian habitat and watershed vegetation based on NatureServe Terrestrial Ecological Systems (TES) units using Classification And Regression Tree (CART) modeling. Environmental layers used as predictor data were derived from a seasonal set of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (spring, summer, and fall) and from a 30-meter digital-elevation-model (DEM) grid. Because both sources of environmental data are seamless across the international border, they are particularly suited to this binational modeling effort. Training data were compiled from existing field data for the riparian corridor and data collected by the NM-GAP (New Mexico Gap Analysis Project) team for the original Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) modeling effort. Additional training data were collected from core areas of the SWReGAP classification itself, allowing the extrapolation of the SWReGAP mapping into the Mexican portion of the watershed without collecting additional training data.

  18. Panmixia supports divergence with gene flow in Darwin's small ground finch, Geospiza fuliginosa, on Santa Cruz, Galápagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Galligan, Toby H; Donnellan, Stephen C; Sulloway, Frank J; Fitch, Alison J; Bertozzi, Terry; Kleindorfer, Sonia

    2012-05-01

    The divergence-with-gene-flow model of speciation has a strong theoretical basis with a growing number of plausible examples in nature, but remains hotly debated. Darwin's finches of the Galápagos Archipelago have played an important role in our understanding of speciation processes. Recent studies suggest that this group may also provide insights into speciation via divergence with gene flow. On the island of Santa Cruz, recent studies found evidence for adaptive divergence in Darwin's small ground finch, Geospiza fuliginosa, between ecologically contrasting arid and humid zones. Despite the short geographical distance between these zones, strong disruptive selection during low rainfall periods is expected to generate and maintain adaptive divergence. Conversely, during high rainfall periods, when disruptive selection is predicted to be weakened, population divergence in adaptive traits is expected to break down. Because periods of low and high rainfall irregularly alternate, the geographical pattern of adaptive divergence can be assumed to break down and, importantly, regenerate in situ. Here, we use microsatellite allele frequency data to assess the genetic population structure of G. fuliginosa on Santa Cruz. We sample 21 sites and four ecological zones across the island. We reject hypotheses of population substructure linked to ecological and geographical differences among sites in favour of a single panmictic population. Panmixia implies high levels of gene flow within Santa Cruz, which favours selection over genetic drift as a valid process generating phenotypic divergence in G. fuliginosa on Santa Cruz. We discuss how our findings may support classic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, matching habitat choice or any combination of these three processes.

  19. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin (Arizona and Sonora) using Well Logs, Geologic Mapping, Gravity, Magnetics, and Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegary, J. B.; Page, W. R.; Megdal, S.; Gray, F.; Scott, C. A.; Berry, M.; Rangel, M.; Oroz Ramos, L.; Menges, C. M.; Jones, A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Congress passed the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act which provides a framework for study of aquifers shared by the United States and Mexico. The aquifer of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin was chosen as one of four priority aquifers for several reasons, including water scarcity, a population greater than 300,000, groundwater as the sole source of water for human use, and a riparian corridor that is of regional significance for migratory birds and other animals. Several new mines are also being proposed for this area which may affect water quality and availability. To date, a number of studies have been carried out by a binational team composed of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mexican National Water Commission, and the Universities of Arizona and Sonora. Construction of a cross-border hydrogeologic framework model of the basin between Amado, Arizona and its southern boundary in Sonora is currently a high priority. The relatively narrow Santa Cruz valley is a structural basin that did not experience the same degree of late Cenozoic lateral extension and consequent deepening as found in other basin-and-range alluvial basins, such as the Tucson basin, where basin depth exceeds 3000 meters. This implies that storage may be much less than that found in other basin-and-range aquifers. To investigate the geometry of the basin and facies changes within the alluvium, a database of over one thousand well logs has been developed, geologic mapping and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys have been carried out, and information from previous electromagnetic, magnetic, and gravity studies is being incorporated into the hydrogeologic framework. Initial geophysical surveys and analyses have focused on the portion of the basin west of Nogales, Arizona, because it supplies approximately 50% of that city's water. Previous gravity and magnetic modeling indicate that this area is a narrow, fault-controlled half graben. Preliminary modeling of airborne

  20. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  1. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  2. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Recent reforms affecting every aspect of Spain's educational system are reviewed in this report. The first part presents the observations of three educators from other European countries ("The Examiners' Report"). Part 2 is a "Record of the Review Meeting" held in Paris in December of 1985 10 months after the examiners' visit…

  3. Foundations of Laic Moral Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Juan Manuel Fernandez

    2008-01-01

    This article studies the foundations of laic moral education in Spain. Some aspects of laic moral education can also be found in other nations, including the emergence of the laic man or the need for an educating State; other aspects of laic moral education, however, are peculiar to the Spanish case, such as the influence of Krausoinstitutionism…

  4. Spain: Restructuring, Reform and Research Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Julio

    1984-01-01

    Scientific and technological research in Spain has been hindered more by lack of organization than by lack of funds. The 1983 Universty Reform Act to restructure the curriculum and improve research quality represents a major step in bringing Spanish research up to the levels of other modern university systems and to promote economic development.…

  5. Melioidosis in Traveler from Africa to Spain

    PubMed Central

    Quereda, Carmen; Gil, Horacio; Anda, Pedro; Núñez-Murga, María; Cantón, Rafael; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide epidemiology of melioidosis is changing. We describe a case of acute melioidosis in Spain in a patient who had traveled to Africa. A novel sequence type of Burkholderia pseudomallei was identified in this patient. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of melioidosis in travelers returning from melioidosis-nonendemic regions. PMID:24047798

  6. Educational Reform and Renewal in Contemporary Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, William W.

    This study is one of a series of Office of Education publications on educational developments in other countries. It describes and analyzes in social, economic, and historical context the educational changes mandated in Spain by the Education Reform Law of 1970, one of contemporary Europe's most far-reaching plans for educational reform and…

  7. The 1918 "Spanish flu" in Spain.

    PubMed

    Trilla, Antoni; Trilla, Guillem; Daer, Carolyn

    2008-09-01

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic was the most devastating epidemic in modern history. Here, we review epidemiological and historical data about the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic in Spain. On 22 May 1918, the epidemic was a headline in Madrid's ABC newspaper. The infectious disease most likely reached Spain from France, perhaps as the result of the heavy railroad traffic of Spanish and Portuguese migrant workers to and from France. The total numbers of persons who died of influenza in Spain were officially estimated to be 147,114 in 1918, 21,235 in 1919, and 17,825 in 1920. However, it is likely that >260,000 Spaniards died of influenza; 75% of these persons died during the second period of the epidemic, and 45% died during October 1918 alone. The Spanish population growth index was negative for 1918 (net loss, 83,121 persons). Although a great deal of evidence indicates that the 1918 A(H1N1) influenza virus unlikely originated in and spread from Spain, the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic will always be known as the Spanish flu.

  8. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  9. Spain's Linguistic Normalization Laws: The Catalan Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Earl L.

    1996-01-01

    The 1983 Catalonian Linguistic Normalization Law made Spanish and Catalan co-official languages in that region. The law's constitutionality was challenged and after more than a decade of litigation was upheld by Spain's Supreme Court, producing a polemic in Catalonia and, tangentially, an impact in the Basque region and Galicia. (21 references)…

  10. Triggered aseismic slip adjacent to the 6 February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands megathrust earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Herman, Matthew W.

    2014-02-01

    Aseismic or slow slip events have been observed in many subduction zones, but whether they affect the occurrence of earthquakes or result from stress changes caused by nearby events is unclear. In an area lacking direct geodetic observations, inferences can be made from seismological studies of co-seismic slip, associated stress changes and the spatiotemporal nature of aftershocks. These observations indicate that the February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands earthquake may have triggered slow or aseismic slip on an adjacent section of the subduction thrust over the following hours to days. This aseismic event was equivalent to Mw 7.6, significantly larger than any earthquakes in the aftershock sequence. The aseismic slip was situated within the seismogenic portion of the subduction interface, and must have occurred to the south of the main seismic slip and most aftershocks in order to promote right-lateral faulting in the upper plate, the dominant deformation style of the aftershock sequence. This plate boundary segment can support either stable sliding (aseismic) or stick-slip (seismic) deformation in response to different driving conditions. The complete lack of aftershocks on the thrust interface implies this pair of megathrust slip episodes (seismic and aseismic) released a substantial portion of the stored strain on the northernmost section of the Vanuatu subduction zone.

  11. A new genus and species of Planopinae (Xenarthra: Tardigrada) from the Miocene of Santa Cruz Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Alfredo A; Brandoni, Diego; Dal Molin, Carlos N

    2013-01-01

    Prepoplanops boleadorensis, a new genus and species of Planopinae (Xenarthra, Tardigrada), is described herein. The new taxon is based on a nearly complete specimen recovered from the Cerro Boleadoras Formation (Miocene, Rio Zeballos Group), in northwestern Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. The shape and length of the predentary region of the skull and the length of the diastema of Prepoplanops boleadorensis differ from those present in the species of Planops. The posterolateral opening of the mandibular canal and the position of the posterior margin of the mandibular symphysis differ from those of species of Prepotherium. In addition, Prepoplanops boleadorensis differs from Planops martini in the size of the humeral tuberosities, the development of the deltoid crest, the position of the distal margin of the humeral trochlea, the shape and position of the olecranon, the development of the femoral epicondyles, and the shape of the medial margins of the patellar trochlea and medial condyle. On the other hand, it differs from Prepotherium potens in the shape of the medial margin of the medial condyle. The recognition of Prepoplanops boleadorensis increases the diversity of Planopinae for the Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina.

  12. A multitemporal (1979-2009) land-use/land-cover dataset of the binational Santa Cruz Watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    Trends derived from multitemporal land-cover data can be used to make informed land management decisions and to help managers model future change scenarios. We developed a multitemporal land-use/land-cover dataset for the binational Santa Cruz watershed of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico by creating a series of land-cover maps at decadal intervals (1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009) using Landsat Multispectral Scanner and Thematic Mapper data and a classification and regression tree classifier. The classification model exploited phenological changes of different land-cover spectral signatures through the use of biseasonal imagery collected during the (dry) early summer and (wet) late summer following rains from the North American monsoon. Landsat images were corrected to remove atmospheric influences, and the data were converted from raw digital numbers to surface reflectance values. The 14-class land-cover classification scheme is based on the 2001 National Land Cover Database with a focus on "Developed" land-use classes and riverine "Forest" and "Wetlands" cover classes required for specific watershed models. The classification procedure included the creation of several image-derived and topographic variables, including digital elevation model derivatives, image variance, and multitemporal Kauth-Thomas transformations. The accuracy of the land-cover maps was assessed using a random-stratified sampling design, reference aerial photography, and digital imagery. This showed high accuracy results, with kappa values (the statistical measure of agreement between map and reference data) ranging from 0.80 to 0.85.

  13. late Pleistocene and Holocene pollen record from Laguna de las Trancas, northern coastal Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adam, David P.; Byrne, Roger; Luther, Edgar

    1981-01-01

    A 2.1-m core from Laguna de las Trancas, a marsh atop a landslide in northern Santa Cruz County, California, has yielded a pollen record for the period between about 30,000 B. P. and roughly 5000 B. P. Three pollen zones are recognized. The earliest is characterized by high frequencies of pine pollen and is correlated with a mid-Wisconsinan interstade of the mid-continent. The middle zone contains high frequencies of both pine and fir (Abies, probably A. grandis) pollen and is correlated with the last full glacial interval (upper Wisconsinan). The upper zone is dominated by redwood (Sequoia) pollen and represents latest Pleistocene to middle Holocene. The past few thousand years are not represented in the core. The pollen evidence indicates that during the full glacial period the mean annual temperature at the site was about 2°C to 3°C lower than it is today. We attribute this small difference to the stabilizing effect of marine upwelling on the temperature regime in the immediate vicinity of the coast. Precipitation may have been about 20 percent higher as a result of longer winter wet seasons.

  14. Triggered aseismic slip adjacent to the 6 February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands megathrust earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.; Herman, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Aseismic or slow slip events have been observed in many subduction zones, but whether they affect the occurrence of earthquakes or result from stress changes caused by nearby events is unclear. In an area lacking direct geodetic observations, inferences can be made from seismological studies of co-seismic slip, associated stress changes and the spatiotemporal nature of aftershocks. These observations indicate that the February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands earthquake may have triggered slow or aseismic slip on an adjacent section of the subduction thrust over the following hours to days. This aseismic event was equivalent to Mw 7.6, significantly larger than any earthquakes in the aftershock sequence. The aseismic slip was situated within the seismogenic portion of the subduction interface, and must have occurred to the south of the main seismic slip and most aftershocks in order to promote right-lateral faulting in the upper plate, the dominant deformation style of the aftershock sequence. This plate boundary segment can support either stable sliding (aseismic) or stick-slip (seismic) deformation in response to different driving conditions. The complete lack of aftershocks on the thrust interface implies this pair of megathrust slip episodes (seismic and aseismic) released a substantial portion of the stored strain on the northernmost section of the Vanuatu subduction zone.

  15. The distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in song sparrows along Arizona's upper Santa Cruz River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are persistent environmental contaminants, and transport of metals into the environment poses a threat to ecosystems, as plants and wildlife are susceptible to long-term exposure, bioaccumulation, and potential toxicity. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in southwestern song sparrows (Melospiza melodia fallax), a resident riparian bird species that occurs along the US/Mexico border in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to a 2009 international wastewater facility upgrade, and (3) assess the condition of song sparrows among sites with differing potential levels of exposure. We examined five study sites along with a reference site that reflect different potential sources of contamination. Body mass residuals and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Birds at our study sites typically had higher metal concentrations than birds at the reference site. Copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium in song sparrows did exceed background levels, although most metals were below background concentrations determined from previous studies. Song sparrows generally showed lower heavy metal concentrations compared to studies conducted prior to the 2009 wastewater facility upgrade. We found no cascading effects as a result of metal exposure.

  16. Slip history of the La Cruz fault: Development of a late Miocene transform in response to increased rift obliquity in the northern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Scott E. K.; Oskin, Michael E.; Iriondo, Alexander; Kunk, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    The Gulf of California rift has accommodated oblique divergence of the Pacific and North America plates in northwestern México since Miocene time. Due to its infancy, its rifted margins preserve a rare onshore record of early continental break-up processes and an opportunity to investigate the role of rift obliquity in strain localization. We map rift-related structures and syn-tectonic basins on southern Isla Tiburón, a proximal onshore exposure of the rifted North America margin. We integrate analysis and geochronology of syn-tectonic sedimentary basins and mapping of crosscutting relationships to characterize the style and timing of fault activity. On southern Isla Tiburón, an early phase of extension initiated between 19-17 Ma and 12.2 Ma. Subsequently, these normal faults and related basins were cut by the La Cruz strike-slip fault and buried by deposits of the La Cruz basin, an elongate, fault-controlled trough coextensive with the La Cruz fault. Crosscutting relationships show that the NW-striking La Cruz fault accrued 5 ± 2 km of dextral slip 8-4 Ma. The La Cruz fault and parallel Tiburón transform were kinematically linked to detachment faulting that accommodated latest Miocene to Pliocene oblique opening of the offshore Upper Tiburón pull-apart basin. The onset of strike-slip faulting on Isla Tiburón was synchronous with the 8-6 Ma onset of transform faulting and basin formation along > 1000 km of the reconstructed Pacific-North America plate boundary. This transition coincides with the commencement of a clockwise azimuthal shift in Pacific-North America relative plate motion that increased the obliquity of the Gulf of California rift and formed the Gulf of California shear zone. The record from the proto-Gulf of California illustrates how highly oblique rift geometries, where transform faults are kinematically linked to pull-apart basins, enhance the ability of continental lithosphere to rupture and, ultimately, hasten the formation of new oceanic

  17. [Intake of trans fats; situation in Spain].

    PubMed

    Riobó, Pilar; Breton, Irene

    2014-04-01

    Current nutritional recommendations include decreasing the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), since there exists sufficient scientific evidence of its influence to cardiovascular disease. During the last decades, in many European countries the TFA intake has considerably decreased through the established legislation and changes in the technological processes developed by the food industry. In Spain, just 2.1 g/day, a 0.7% of the daily energy intake comes from TFA, a lower value than the recommended maximum (<1%), according to data from TRANSFAIR study. The TFA content of processed products such as margarines, factory-baked goods and etc, has declined over recent years and is less than 1% in more than 90% of all these products in Spain. However, it is necessary to develop and implement regulations, governing the TFA content in the products sold in our country, in which there should be the requirement to include this information in the label too.

  18. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area.

  19. [Foreign immigration in Spain (1985-1994)].

    PubMed

    Gozalvez Perez, V

    1996-01-01

    "During the decade 1985-94, Spain [has had]...some growing and unexpected flows of foreign immigrations. The tradition of emigration of Spanish people, some grave difficulties of [the] employment market in the country, irregular entrance of workers from developing countries, the fear of a very rapid growth of these immigrants, the instability and marginality of their work, and the agreement of Spain in the European Union have led the government to develop an active migratory policy, first against the illegal flows and, more recently, in direction of the integration of immigrants in Spanish society.... The article analyzes main features from some different groups of foreign workers, and in particular Africans: spatial repartition, demographic profile, migratory strategies and trajectories, uneasy insertion in the national employment market, and draws lastly the main features of the Spanish migratory policy." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  20. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  1. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    PubMed

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  2. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    PubMed

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  3. Area Handbook Series: Spain: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    approach to the country’s economic ills. Renovative structural policies-such as the closing of large, unprof- itable state enterprises-helped to...maintain employment. Of particular note in INI’s renovation was its partial privatiza- tion. In the mid-1980s, INI sold a 51 percent interest in SEAT to...13,000 kilometers, half of which were electrified. A major thirteen-year renovation program was announced in 1986. Spain made little use of inland

  4. Sociological Profile of Astronomers in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias de Ussel, Julio; Trinidad, Antonio; Ruiz, Diego; Battaner, Eduardo; Delgado, Antonio J.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, José M.; Salvador-Solé, Eduard; Torrelles, José M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of Astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish Astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of Astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines Astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of Astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  5. Sociological profile of astronomers in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ussel, J. I.; Trinidad, A.; Ruíz, D.; Battaner, E.; Delgado, A. J.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Salvador-Solé, E.; Torrelles, J. M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  6. Analysis of methods to determine storage capacity of, and sedimentation in, Loch Lomond Reservoir, Santa Cruz County, California, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Kelly R.; Freeman, Lawrence A.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Santa Cruz, conducted bathymetric and topographic surveys to determine the water storage capacity of, and the loss of capacity owing to sedimentation in, Loch Lomond Reservoir in Santa Cruz County, California. The topographic survey was done as a supplement to the bathymetric survey to obtain information about temporal changes in the upper reach of the reservoir where the water is shallow or the reservoir may be dry, as well as to obtain information about shoreline changes throughout the reservoir. Results of a combined bathymetric and topographic survey using a new, state-of-the-art method with advanced instrument technology indicate that the maximum storage capacity of the reservoir at the spillway altitude of 577.5 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929) was 8,646 ±85 acre-feet in March 2009, with a confidence level of 99 percent. This new method is a combination of bathymetric scanning using multibeam-sidescan sonar, and topographic surveying using laser scanning (LiDAR), which produced a 1.64-foot-resolution grid with altitudes to 0.3-foot resolution and an estimate of total water storage capacity at a 99-percent confidence level. Because the volume of sedimentation in a reservoir is considered equal to the decrease in water-storage capacity, sedimentation in Loch Lomond Reservoir was determined by estimating the change in storage capacity by comparing the reservoir bed surface defined in the March 2009 survey with a revision of the reservoir bed surface determined in a previous investigation in November 1998. This revised reservoir-bed surface was defined by combining altitude data from the 1998 survey with new data collected during the current (2009) investigation to fill gaps in the 1998 data. Limitations that determine the accuracy of estimates of changes in the volume of sedimentation from that estimated in each of the four previous investigations (1960, 1971, 1982, and 1998

  7. Preliminary report on geology and ground water of the Pajaro Valley area, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.

    1972-01-01

    The Pajaro Valley area, California, covering about 120 square miles, extends from the southern part of Santa Cruz County to several miles south of the county line into Monterey County. It borders the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Santa Cruz Mountains on the east. The city of Watsonville is the largest center of population. Deposits that range in age from Pliocene to Holocene make up the ground-water reservoir. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Purisima Formation, Aromas Red Sands of Allen (1946), terrace deposits, alluvium, and dune sand. These deposits underlie an area of about 80 square miles and have a maximum thickness of about 4,000 feet. The alluvium yields most of the water pumped from wells in the area. Pre-Pliocene rocks underlie and form the boundaries of the ground-water reservoir. These rocks contain ground water in fractures and in sandstone beds. However, they are not an important source of ground water. There is close continuity between the geology of the Pajaro Valley area and that of the Soquel-Aptos area, which is contiguous on the north. Ground water in the Pajaro Valley area is derived from three sources: (1) Precipitation within the Pajaro Valley area that reaches the ground-water body by direct infiltration or by seepage from streams, (2) seepage from the Pajaro River as it crosses the Pajaro Valley carrying runoff which originates upstream from the valley, and (3) precipitation in the Soquel-Aptos area that infiltrates and then moves southeastward at depth into the Pajaro Valley area. Ground water in most wells in the Pajaro Valley area occurs under confined (artesian) conditions; the only exception is ground water in the upper, near-surface part of the alluvium and that in the dune sand. It moves south from the north part of the area and southwest away from the San Andreas fault toward and out under Monterey Bay. In the south part of the area, ground-water movement is almost due west. The San Andreas fault probably is the only

  8. Watching the Moon from Tenerife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, John; Machell, James; Norris, Kath

    2005-01-01

    "Where does the Sun go at night?" or "Why don't the Australians fall off?" are typical of the innocent questions that children ask. A new "Earth and Beyond" primary science learning programme from the University of Bradford is piloting some exciting ways to engage children with these questions and providing…

  9. Use of remotely sensed imagery to map Sudden Oak Death (Phytophthora ramorum) in the Santa Cruz Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Trinka

    This project sought a method to map Sudden Oak Death distribution in the Santa Cruz Mountains of California, a coastal mountain range and one of the locations where this disease was first observed. The project researched a method to identify forest affected by SOD using 30 m multi-spectral Landsat satellite imagery to classify tree mortality at the canopy-level throughout the study area, and applied that method to a time series of data to show pattern of spread. A successful methodology would be of interest to scientists trying to identify areas which escaped disease contagion, environmentalists attempting to quantify damage, and land managers evaluating the health of their forests. The more we can learn about the disease, the more chance we have to prevent further spread and damage to existing wild lands. The primary data source for this research was springtime Landsat Climate Data Record surface reflectance data. Non-forest areas were masked out using data produced by the National Land Cover Database and supplemental land cover classification from the Landsat 2011 Climate Data Record image. Areas with other known causes of tree death, as identified by Fire and Resource Assessment Program fire perimeter polygons, and US Department of Agriculture Forest Health Monitoring Program Aerial Detection Survey polygons, were also masked out. Within the remaining forested study area, manually-created points were classified based on the land cover contained by the corresponding Landsat 2011 pixel. These were used to extract value ranges from the Landsat bands and calculated vegetation indices. The range and index which best differentiated healthy from dead trees, SWIR/NIR, was applied to each Landsat scene in the time series to map tree mortality. Results Validation Points, classified using Google Earth high-resolution aerial imagery, were created to evaluate the accuracy of the mapping methodology for the 2011 data.

  10. Investigating tree mortality at multiple spatial and temporal scales in the Bishop pine forest on Santa Cruz Island, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baguskas, S. A.; Bookhagen, B.; Peterson, S. H.; Asner, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    The rate of tree mortality has increased across the western United States in recent decades, and many studies attribute the cause to water stress induced by regional warming. To date, the geographical scope of study regions affected by widespread tree mortality in the American West has largely been limited to continental, montane climates. Much less is known about mortality events in other climatic regions, such as coastal forests. The relatively unvarying nature of the coastal, maritime climate has traditionally been assumed to buffer these forests from large climate variations; however, we have observed rapid tree mortality in this region which suggests coastal forests may be as susceptible to drought-induced mortality as inland forest locations. Santa Cruz Island (SCI), one of the California Channel Islands, harbors numerous relict and endemic plant species, including Bishop pine (Pinus muricata). Following extreme drought in southern California in two of the last three years (2007-2009), widespread mortality of Bishop pines has become evident. Bishop pine populations are restricted to the fog belt of coastal California and northern Baja California; therefore, a major reduction of existing populations on SCI would greatly reduce the distribution of the species as a whole. The focus of my research is to investigate the mechanisms underlying spatial and temporal patterns of Bishop pine mortality on SCI. I used remote sensing techniques to characterize spatiotemporal patterns of tree mortality and I have performed ground-data collection to validate remote-sensing results. Remote sensing in combination with field verification is a valuable tool to understand the spatiotemporal pattern of tree mortality and is a necessary step to help elucidate potential environmental and biological controls on tree mortality.

  11. Rabies-vaccination coverage and profiles of the owned-dog population in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Pereira, J A C; Frías, L A; López, R; Mutinelli, L E; Pons, E R

    2008-05-01

    The Bolivian government issued a regulation for rabies control in November 2005, owing to increasing the prevalence of dog and human rabies cases in recent years. An assessment of rabies-vaccination coverage and other factors that might influence the success of the on-going vaccination campaign was needed. The objective of this study was to investigate dog rabies vaccination coverage and risk factors associated with dogs being unvaccinated against rabies, and profiles of the owned-dog population in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, where dog rabies was endemic. Mainly due to logistical reasons, the WHO's expanded programme on immunization cluster-survey method was used. The 390 households were included in the study. Information about dog population and management characteristics was obtained for 542 dogs from 301 households. On average, households had 1.4 dogs and 1.8 dogs per dog-owning household (median = 1). The human-to-dog ratio was 4.6 : 1. During the last 1 year prior to the study, of the 539 dogs aged >or=1 month, 463 (85%; 95% CI 79-91; design effect 3.6) were classified as vaccinated. Amongst the study dogs, dogs aged 1-11 months were the higher risk of dogs not being vaccinated (OR = 8.2; 95% CI 4.3-15.6; P < 0.01). Almost two-thirds of the study dogs were allowed to roam freely throughout the day or in part. Community education efforts should address the importance of dog ownership and movement restriction, and the need to vaccinate young dogs.

  12. Earthquake Recurrence and Deformation in the Last Four Events on the Santa Cruz Mountains Section of the San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streig, A. R.; Dawson, T. E.; Weldon, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoseismic investigations at the Hazel Dell site on the Santa Cruz Mountains section (SAS) of the San Andreas fault has yielded evidence of four earthquakes. We present evidence of the 1906 surface rupture (E1), and 3 earlier events, including new evidence for two 1800's earthquakes. Evidence for the penultimate event, E2, is expressed as upward fault terminations within a massive sand infilling a topographic low. This sand infilled a depression formed by the pre-penultimate earthquake, E3. We identified axe-cut wood stratigraphically below the pre-penultimate earthquake horizon, which suggests that surface rupturing earthquakes E2 and E3 occurred after deposition of the cut wood stratigraphic unit. Lumber harvesting began in the area around 1832, and new radiocarbon dates sampled from redwood growth rings demonstrate that earthquakes E2 and E3 are historical. E4 occurred between A.D. 1651 and 1497. These new event data for the SAS suggest more frequent surface rupturing earthquakes within historical time than previously recognized. The data require at least two modes of behavior in strain release on the SAS through time. One mode of strain release, is through large multi-segment earthquakes; the 1906 event was a large multi-segment earthquake that dominates the moment budget of the fault. During the period prior to 1906, analysis of the historic record suggests that the SAS was characterized by a second mode of moderate seismicity, with six M≥ 6 earthquakes between 1838 and 1890 (Bakun, 1999), all located along the southern half of the segment near the Hazel Dell study area. The two 1800's earthquakes identified in this study support this second mode of moderate seismicity on the SAS.

  13. Density and reproduction of the Queen Conch EUSTROMBUS gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae) at Cabo Cruz, Desembarco del Granma National Park, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Cala, Yuself R; de Jesús-Navarrete, Alberto; Ocaña, Frank A; Oliva-Rivera, José

    2013-06-01

    The queen conch Eustrombus gigas is an important fisheries resource in the Caribbean region. In Cuba Island the studies about this resource are very scarce and particularly in the Southeastern regions of the country. With the aim to get important fishery information about this gastropod, adult Queen Conch density and frequency of reproductive activity were evaluated in Cabo Cruz, Cuba, during 2009-2010. Data from three seasons were obtained (rainy, dry and cold fronts periods) from three different areas: Farito, Guafe and Laguna. The highest density was observed in cold fronts season (468.5 ind./ha) and the lowest occurred during the dry season (268.5 ind./ha). The highest density was reported at Laguna (520.4 ind./ha) and the lowest at Farito (290.9ind./ha). In total, 158 reproductive events were observed. The highest frequency was reported in rainy season (36%), followed by dry (9%) and cold fronts (5%) seasons. Reproductive behavior (mating and egg laying) was related to temperature and photoperiod. Reproductive activity was observed during the whole year, which suggests the existence of an important Queen Conch reserve in the Southeastern region of Cuba and an apparently self-sufficient population for recruitment. From our results we may conclude that, the population's sustainable exploitation is viable if the following management measures are observed: functional zoning within the area, rotation of fishing areas and a closed season. We recommend that the Laguna site should be protected as a reproduction zone and banned for fishing activities.

  14. Using dye tracing to establish groundwater flow paths in a limestone marble aquifer, University of California, Santa Cruz, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, J.; Bertschinger, V. ); Aley, T. )

    1993-04-01

    Areas underlain by karst aquifers are characterized by soluble rock with sinkholes, caves, and a complex underground drainage network. Groundwater issues such as flow direction, well pumping impacts, spring recharge areas, and potential contamination transport routes are greatly complicated by the unique structure of karst aquifers. Standard aquifer analysis techniques cannot be applied unless the structure of the karst aquifer is understood. Water soluble fluorescent dyes are a powerful tool for mapping the irregular subsurface connections and flow paths in karst aquifers. Mapping the subsurface connections allows reasonable estimates of the hydrologic behavior of the aquifer. Two different fluorescent dyes were injected at two points in a limestone karst aquifer system beneath the University of California, Santa Cruz campus. Flow paths in the marble were thought to be closely tied to easily recognized geomorphic alignments of sinkholes associated with fault and fracture zones. The dye tests revealed unexpected and highly complex interconnections. These complex flow paths only partially corresponded to previous surface mapping and aerial photo analysis of fracture systems. Several interfingering but hydrologically unconnected flow paths evidently exist within the cavernous aquifer. For example, dye did not appear at some discharge springs close to the dye injection points, but did appear at more distant springs. This study shows how a dye tracing study in a small, well-defined limestone body can shed light on a variety of environmental and hydrological issues, including potential well pumping impact areas, wellhead protection and recharge areas, parking lot runoff injection to aquifers, and drainage routes from hazardous materials storage areas.

  15. First observations of tropospheric δD data observed by ground- and space-based remote sensing and surface in-situ measurement techniques at MUSICA's principle reference station (Izaña Observatory, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Yenny; Schneider, Matthias; Christner, Emanuel; Rodríguez, Omaira E.; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Dyroff, Christoph; Wiegele, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of the project MUSICA (Multiplatform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) is the generation of a quasi global tropospheric water vapor isototopologue dataset of a good and well-documented quality. Therefore, new ground- and space-based remote sensing observations (NDACC-FTIR and IASI/METOP) are combined with in-situ measurements. This work presents the first comparison between in-situ and remote sensing observations made at the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The in-situ measurements are made by a Picarro L2120-i water vapor isotopologue analyzer. At Izaña the in-situ data are affected by local small-scale mixing processes: during daylight, the thermally buoyant upslope flow prompts the mixing between the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and the low Free Troposphere (FT). However, the remote sensors detect δD values averaged over altitudes that are more representative for the free troposphere. This difference has to be considered for the comparison. In general, a good agreement between the MUSICA remote sensing and the in situ H2O-versus-δD plots is found, which demonstrates that the MUSICA δD remote sensing products add scientifically valuable information to the H2O data.

  16. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the essential oils from the aerial parts of Pimpinella anagodendron Bolle and Pimpinella rupicola Svent., two endemic species to the Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Negueruela, A; Pérez-Alonso, M J; de Paz, P L Pérez; Palá-Paúl, J; Sanz, J

    2005-11-18

    The essential oils from the aerial parts of Pimpinella anagodendron Bolle and Pimpinella rupicola Svent., two endemic species growing in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, were studied by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components of the flowering tops (flowers+unripe fruits) of P. rupicola (PRFT) were found to be beta-bisabolene (34.8%), limonene (10.9%) and alpha-zingiberene (10.5%), whereas in the flowering tops of P. anagodendron (PAFT), the main constituents were alpha-zingiberene (32.9%), beta-bisabolene (17.9%), beta-pinene (15.8%) and ar-curcumene (11.5%). The major compounds found in the stems+leaves of P. rupicola (PRSL) were beta-bisabolene (31.6%), alpha-zingiberene (11.4%) and limonene (10.8%), whereas those of P. anagodendron (PASL) were alpha-zingiberene (32.3%), beta-bisabolene (14.0%) and ar-curcumene (12.6%). In all the oils were found the characteristic constituents of genus Pimpinella, the pseudoisoeugenol esters. In accordance with the morphological, chorological and chemical differences between both species, we suggest that P. rupicola Svent. is a good taxon and not a synonym of P. anagodendron.

  17. Earthquake travel time tomography of the southern Santa Cruz Mountains: Control of fault rupture by lithological heterogeneity of the San Andreas fault zone

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W.; Michelini, A.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1993-10-10

    The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred along the stretch of the San Andreas fault zone within the southern Santa Cruz Mountains that last failed as a major earthquake in 1906. The southeastern end of the 1989 rupture marks the transition from stable, aseismic slip on the central creeping section of the San Andreas fault to unstable failure on the locked 1906 segment. The authors investigate this transition and the rupture characteristics of the 1989 earthquake using a 3-D P wave velocity model of the southern Santa Cruz Mountains section of the fault zone. The model images a large anomalous high-velocity body at midcrustal depths within the rupture zone of the 1989 earthquake that the available evidence suggests might have gabbroic or other mafic composition. On the basis of the relationship of the lithological features interpreted from the velocity model to the seismicity and surface creep the authors propose a model in which the high-velocity body is primarily responsible for the transition from stable to unstable fault slip at Pajaro Gap. The active plane of the San Andreas fault cuts throughout the body. The fault system attempts to circumvent this barrier by transferring slip to secondary faults, including splay faults that have propagated along the frictionally favorable contact between the high-velocity rock mass and Franciscan country rocks. However, the near arrest of the stable sliding causes stress to concentrate within the body, and the high-strength, unstable contact within it evolves from a barrier to the asperity that failed in the 1989 earthquake. The general features of the 1989 rupture predicted by this asperity model agree with several rupture histories computed for the earthquake. The model implies that as proposed by other workers, the Loma Prieta earthquake did not involve a repeat of the 1906 slip, which has an important bearing on earthquake recurrence estimates for the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the fault. 114 refs., 11 figs.

  18. [Moroccan migration to Spain. Data, opinions, and predictions].

    PubMed

    Cazorla, J

    1995-01-01

    "In this article, the author analyzes the migration flows between Spain and [Morocco] within the most general context of relations between European Union (EU) and the Maghrebian countries. Since the beginning of the eighties the migration flows toward and from Spain changed [dramatically], so... Spanish society has shifted toward an inmigration country. [The author analyzes] where such inmigrants come from and their motivations to choose Spain [as a] destination. The results of a survey financed partly by the EU...[for] institutions related directly with the migration problem from [Morocco] to Spain are the base of the information included in this article." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  19. 78 FR 72633 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Spain: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Spain: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... chlorinated isocyanurates (chlorinated isos) from Spain.\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is June 1, 2011... notice. \\1\\ See Chlorinated Isocyanurates from Spain: Preliminary Results of the Antidumping...

  20. Structure and Velocities of the Northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and the Western Santa Clara Valley, California, from the SCSI-LR Seismic Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Santa Clara Valley is located in the southern San Francisco Bay area of California and generally includes the area south of the San Francisco Bay between the Santa Cruz Mountains on the southwest and the Diablo Ranges on the northeast. The area has a population of approximately 1.7 million including the city of San Jose, numerous smaller cities, and much of the high-technology manufacturing and research area commonly referred to as the Silicon Valley. Major active strands of the San Andreas Fault system bound the Santa Clara Valley, including the San Andreas fault to the southwest and the Hayward and Calaveras faults to the northeast; related faults likely underlie the alluvium of the valley. This report focuses on subsurface structures of the western Santa Clara Valley and the northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and their potential effects on earthquake hazards and ground-water resource management in the area. Earthquake hazards and ground-water resources in the Santa Clara Valley are important considerations to California and the Nation because of the valley's preeminence as a major technical and industrial center, proximity to major earthquakes faults, and large population. To assess the earthquake hazards of the Santa Clara Valley better, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to evaluate potential earthquake sources and potential effects of strong ground shaking within the valley. As part of that program, and to better assess water resources of the valley, the USGS and the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) began conducting collaborative studies to characterize the faults, stratigraphy, and structures beneath the alluvial cover of the Santa Clara Valley in the year 2000. Such geologic features are important to both agencies because they directly influence the availability and management of groundwater resources in the valley, and they affect the severity and distribution of strong shaking from local or regional

  1. Type material of Platyhelminthes (Monogenoidea) housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Daniela A.; Mainenti, Adriana; Sanches, Magda; Knoff, Marcelo; Gomes, Delir Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A catalogue of type material of monogenoids deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), between 1979 and 2016, is presented, given that the last list of types was produced in 1979. The monogenoid collection comprises type lots for 203 species, distributed across 14 families and 68 genera. Specific names are listed systematically, followed by type host, infection site, type locality, specimens with the collection numbers and references. The classification and the nomenclature of the species have been updated. PMID:27667946

  2. Essential and toxic metals in taros (Colocasia esculenta) cultivated in the Canary Islands (Spain): evaluation of content and estimate of daily intake.

    PubMed

    Luis-González, Gara; Rubio, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Ángel; González-Weller, Dailos; Revert, Consuelo; Hardisson, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Taros are a staple in the diet of many people around the world, and they are an excellent source of minerals. Monitoring the levels of metals in food provides basic information that is useful from the perspectives of safety, regulation, and nutrition. Forty-two samples of taros were randomly obtained from supermarkets, vegetable markets, and farmer's plots on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The edible portion (pulp) was the only part considered for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to determine the contents of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Mean concentrations (mg/kg) were 565.6 Na, 2947 K, 231.4 Ca, 364.5 Mg, 1.224 Cu, 3.818 Fe, 1.408 Mn, 2.242 Zn, 0.044 Cr, 0.021 Ni, 0.003 Cd, and 0.006 Pb. The mean concentrations of Cd and Pb were well below the accepted European Commission limits (0.1 mg/kg weight for both metals, respectively). Daily consumption of taro (10.41 g taro/person/day) contributes to the dietary intake of essential metals and trace elements, mainly Mg (1.265% in adult women and 1.084% in adult men) and Cu (1.182% for adult men and women). The average daily intakes of Cd (0.031 μg/day) and Pb (0.062 μg/day) from taro were below the legislated respective tolerable weekly intakes (TWIs). Thus, the samples analyzed were considered safe to eat based on their metal concentrations and legislated allowable intakes.

  3. Social Inclusion and Multicultural Perspectives in Spain: Three Case Studies in Northern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zufiaurre, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Immigration is the challenge that faces European countries in the immediate future. Spain, a former exporter of migrants, has recently become a host country, which must be taken into account if we wish to promote a multicultural, integrative school system. The aim in this article is to reach some conclusions about the integration of immigrants,…

  4. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  5. A personal view of nutrition in Spain.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Salvador

    2014-04-01

    This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain.

  6. Quality of death certificates in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, F G; Bolumar, F; Peris, R

    1989-01-01

    Certificates of 1,454 deaths occurring over 11 months were retrieved from the Civil Register in Valencia, Spain. Relevant medical information was systematically gathered from hospital records, questionnaires, and Coroner reports. We compared the underlying cause of death (UCD) from the original death certificate, and a reference cause of death (RCD) determined by a panel of experts based on all available information. Overall, 80.2 percent of the certificates were concordant for disease category, but there was a great disparity among some specific disease categories. PMID:2782500

  7. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter.

  8. Evaporation and reference evapotranspiration trends in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Wild, Martin; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Calbó, Josep; Revuelto, Jesús; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Moran-Tejeda, Enrique; Martín-Hernández, Natalia; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-04-01

    Interest is growing in the trends of atmospheric evaporation demand, increasing the need for long-term time series. In this study, we first describe the development of a dataset on evaporation in Spain based on long-term series of Piché and pan measurement records. Piché measurements have been reported for >50 stations since the 1960s. Measurements of pan evaporation, which is a much more widely studied variable in the literature, are also available, but only since 1984 for 21 stations. Particular emphasis was placed on the homogenization of this dataset (for more details, we refer to Sanchez-Lorenzo et al., 2014, Clim Res, 61: 269-280). Both the mean annual Piché and pan series over Spain showed evaporative increases during the common study period (1985-2011). Furthermore, using the annual Piché records since the 1960s, an evaporation decline was detected from the 1960s to the mid-1980s, which resulted in a non-significant trend over the entire 1961-2011 period. Our results indicate agreement between the decadal variability of reference evapotranspiration (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2014, Glob Planet Chang, 121: 26-40) and surface solar radiation (Sanchez-Lorenzo et al., 2013, Glob Planet Chang, 100: 343-352) and the evaporation from Piché and pan measurements since the mid-1980s, especially during summer. Nevertheless, this agreement needs attention, as Piché evaporimeters are inside meteorological screens and not directly exposed to radiation. Thus, as Piché readings are mainly affected by the aerodynamic term in Penman's evaporation equation and pan records are affected by both the heat balance and aerodynamic terms, the results suggest that both terms must be highly and positively correlated in Spain. In order to check this hypothesis, the radiative and aerodynamic components were estimated using the Penman's equation. The results show that the relationship with the radiative components is weaker than that with the aerodynamic component for both pan and

  9. [Imported dengue: an emerging arbovirosis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Ramos Geldres, T T; García López-Hortelano, M; Baquero-Artigao, F; Montero Vega, D; López Quintana, B; Mellado Peña, M J

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is caused by one of 4 serotypes of dengue virus. Only imported cases have been reported in Spain. The main clinical findings are fever and exanthema, although there may be severe forms, particularly in secondary infections. Five children with a primary, non severe dengue infection are presented. The diagnosis was based on clinical suspicion and epidemiological history, and confirmed by immunochromatography and ELISA tests. The outcome was favourable in all cases. It is important to consider this diagnosis in international travellers that present with fever within the 14 days of returning from an endemic area, in order to get an early diagnosis, adequate treatment and a good prognosis.

  10. Major tanker spill off Spain under control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-14

    This paper reports that a 23 sq mile oil slick along Spain's northwest coast, spreading form the wreckage of the Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, was for the most part under control as of Dec. 10, Spanish authorities reported. Various press reports put the total spill volume at 490,000 bbl, about double that leaked by the Exxon Valdez supertanker off Alaska in 1989. If initial reports of the spill volume are borne out, the Aegean Sea spill would rank at least as one of the 10 biggest tanker spills.

  11. Oestrid myiasis in European mouflon from Spain.

    PubMed

    Moreno, V; Pérez, J M; Moreno, P A; Granados, J E; Ruiz-Martinez, I; Soriguer, R C; de Simon, M A

    1999-01-01

    From February 1992 to March 1997, 245 European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) from Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Natural Park (southern Spain) were surveyed for oestrid larvae in order to estimate prevalence and mean intensity of parasitism by Oestrus ovis. Over 46 percent of the animals surveyed were infected, with a mean intensity of 9.6 larvae/host parasitized. No significant differences in prevalence rates between host sexes were observed, but older mouflons were infected with more larvae than younger ones.

  12. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  13. Effects of environmental amenities and locational disamenities on home values in the Santa Cruz watershed: a hedonic analysis using census data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arora, Gaurav; Frisvold, George; Norman, Laura

    2014-01-01

    For this study, we used the hedonic pricing method to measure the effects of natural amenities on home prices in the U.S-side of the Santa Cruz Watershed. We employed multivariate spatial regression techniques to estimate how difference factors affect median home values in 613 census block groups of the 2000 Census, accounting for spatial autocorrelation, spatial lags, and/or spatial heterogeneity in the data. Diagnostic tests suggest that failure to account for the hedonic model can be classified as (1) physical features of the housing stock, (2) neighborhood characteristics, and (3) environmental attributes. Census data was combined with GIS data for vegetation and land cover, land administration, measures of species richness and open space, and proximity to amenities and disamenities. Census block groups close to the US-Mexico border of airports/air bases were negative. Results suggest that policies to maintain biodiversity and open space provide economic benefits to homeowners, reflected in higher home values. Future research will quantify the marginal effects of regression explanatory variables on home values to assess their economic and policy significant. These marginal effects will be used as input indicators to discern potential economic impacts of various scenarios in the Santa Cruz Watershed Ecosystem Portfolio Model (SCWEPM). Future research will also expand this effort into the Mexican-portion of the watershed.

  14. Geochemical characterization of tarballs on beaches along the California coast. Part I - Shallow seepage impacting the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and San Miguel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Lorenson, T.D.; Dougherty, J.

    2004-01-01

    Tarballs are common along the southern California coastline. This study investigates tarballs from beaches along this coastline, with a focus on Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miquel Islands in the Santa Barbara Channel. The tarballs were fingerprinted using biomarker and stable carbon isotope parameters, and then grouped according to genetic similarities. The data show that the tarballs are of natural and not anthropogenic origin and that all originate from source rock within the Miocene Monterey Formation via shallow seeps offshore. Sterane biomarker parameters were found to vary widely in the sample set. Biodegradation, especially of the regular steranes, is the primary process impacting the biomarker distributions in a large group of samples. The most common tarball occurrences appear to come from offshore seepage near the west end of Santa Cruz Island. Another major group most likely was transported north from near Santa Monica Bay. Several individual occurrences of some of these tarball groups also were found on beaches as far north as Pt. Reyes and as far south as San Diego, indicating significant long-distance dispersal by ocean currents. This study begins a library of tarball fingerprints to be used as a database to help distinguish between natural and anthropogenic tar occurrences all along the California coast, and to compare shallow seepage with future samples of deeper production oils from the same area.

  15. Changing levels of heavy metal accumulation in birds at Tumacacori National Historic Park along the Upper Santa Cruz River Watershed in southern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Charles; Lester, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    National Parks and other protected areas can be influenced by contamination from outside their boundaries. This is particularly true of smaller parks and those in riparian ecosystems, a habitat that in arid environments provides critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds. Animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) at Tumacacori National Historic Park (TUMA) along the upper Santa Cruz River watershed in southern Arizona. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows at Tumacacori National Historic Park, (2) quantify hematocrit values, body conditions (that is, residual body mass), and immune conditions of Song Sparrows in the park (3) compare our findings with prior studies at the park to assess the extent of heavy metal accumulation in birds at downstream sites after the 2009 wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (4) quantify concentrations and distributional patterns of heavy metals in blood and feathers of Song Sparrows among six study sites throughout the upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study design would allow us to more accurately assess song sparrow condition and blood parameters among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure, and how each location could have contributed to heavy metal levels of birds in the park.

  16. Espana: Building Bridges of Understanding with the People of Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Spain by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Spain is given, which covers the following: geography, weather, history, ethnic roots, regional…

  17. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots... allow the importation into the United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will... of fresh apricots from continental Spain into the United States subject to a systems approach...

  18. Educational Conditions in Spain. Bulletin, 1919, No. 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Walter A.

    1919-01-01

    Though Spain maintained her neutrality throughout the World War, her educational, economic, and political conditions--in all countries inextricably bound up with each other--were affected nearly as much as those of the nations participating in it. The educational conditions of Spain are discussed in this bulletin. The following contents are…

  19. Intergenerational Educational and Occupational Mobility in Spain: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pablos Escobar, Laura; Gil Izquierdo, María

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the changes in intergenerational mobility seen in Spain during the last century. It examines educational and occupational mobility, paying particular attention to the existence of a differentiated gender effect. The magnitude of the historical changes that have taken place in Spain during the twentieth century and the scarcity…

  20. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  1. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From... allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary... vegetables regulations to allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the...

  2. Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

    2013-01-01

    Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

  3. Why Did the United States Fight Spain in 1898?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, John

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that the United States fought the Spanish-American War because of longstanding foreign affairs interests as well as immediate domestic political events. Considers such contributing factors as the Cuban War of Independence from Spain, United States property claims against Spain, and the extensive and biased coverage in the press. (MJP)

  4. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  5. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  6. [Present status of psychosurgery in Spain].

    PubMed

    Barcia, J A; Bertolín-Guillén, J M; Barcia-González, J; Campos, J; Hernández, M E

    2007-08-01

    In order to know the present activity of psychosurgery in Spain, and the opinion of neurosurgeons relative to it, a survey was designed and applied to all active neurosurgeons in our country. We obtained data from at least one neurosurgeon from the 74 neurosurgical centers in Spain (response rate= 100%). Only 6 neurosurgeons performed psychosurgical interventions. In total, 121 psychosurgeries were performed between 1999 and 2003, 75.7% of them in private centers. The most frequent indication is obsessive-compulsive disorder and the most frequent technique is anterior capsulotomy, although techniques and indications differ among the practising neurosurgeons. Those not performing them cite lack of patient referral (54.4%) or unexperience (36.8%) as the causes. A suspected lack of efficacy or the possible adverse effects are seldom expressed. The possibility of using deep brain stimulation for psychiatric indications, as well as the experience of some neurosurgeons and the favorable opinion of the rest, might increase the number of operations in our country.

  7. Biology curriculum in twentieth-century Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberá, Óscar; Zanón, Beatriz; Pérez-Pl, José Francisco

    1999-01-01

    One hundred years of history of Spanish biology curricula are reviewed in this article. The aim of this analysis is focused on the relationship between socially controversial biological issues and the decisionmaking procedures in the construction of the national curricula published under the different regimes that have governed Spain over the last 100 years. The study covers the secondary level of schooling (age 10 up to university), and is based mainly on the data afforded by the official publications of the nine national curricula in twentieth-century Spain, and some of the main textbooks used for this schooling level. Special attention is given to the teaching of evolution, the most sensitive issue in biology education, and some parallelisms are traced and compared with similar phenomena occurring in other countries. The new trends in biology education from the last reform of the Spanish education system are briefly discussed. This study provides a perspective of the pressures affecting socially controversial issues included in education. These pressures have been identified mainly as political, social, and religious beliefs held by powerful and influential social groups, the same kinds of forces that have existed in other countries worldwide. Studies such as this one, about the real forces that have shaped curriculum development in the past, are vital for understanding the present circumstances in biology education and, therefore, unavoidable in order to enhance future standards in biology education.

  8. Geohydrologic Framework of Recharge and Seawater Intrusion in the Pajaro Valley, Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.

    2003-01-01

    Pajaro Valley is a coastal watershed of 160 square miles located along Monterey Bay north of Elkhorn Slough and south of the city of Santa Cruz. The valley has been predominantly developed for agriculture since the late 1800s. In 1984 the Pajaro Valley Water Management Agency (PVWMA) was formed and was delegated with the responsibility of the management of the water resources within the Pajaro Valley by the State of California. About 84 percent of the water is used for agriculture and 16 percent is used for industrial and municipal water supply; almost all of the demand is supplied by ground water. Ground-water pumpage varies with seasonal and climatic periods. The alluvial aquifers are composed of Quaternary- and Tertiary-aged sediments that are layered marine and terrestrial coarse-grained deposits separated by extensive fine-grained deposits that potentially restrict vertical movement of ground water and seawater intrusion in the coastal subareas. The coarse-grained deposits, which persist over large areas, control pumpage and related seawater intrusion. The Aromas Sand crops out throughout the north and central parts of the PVWMA area and offshore on the continental shelf and in Monterey submarine canyon. Because many of the wells in the coastal and inland subregions are screened at depths of 200 to 400 feet below land surface, a direct avenue is provided for seawater intrusion through the coarse-grained deposits of the shallower alluvium and Aromas Sand. Geophysical logs from monitoring wells indicate discrete zones of saline water that are related to pumpage and seawater intrusion in the aquifers of the shallower alluvium and upper Aromas Sand in the upper-aquifer system and to deeper saline waters in the lower Aromas Sand within the lower-aquifer system. The precipitation data indicate that there were at least nine dry and nine wet periods that range from 2 to 19 years during the period of record, 1880?1997. The ground-water pumpage, runoff, streamflow and

  9. High Resolution Mapping of an Alleged Chemical Weapons Dump Site in the Santa Cruz Basin, offshore California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Nautical charts record seven locations off the coast of California labeled as 'Chemical Munitions Dumping Area, Disused' that together cover some 12,000 km2 of sea floor. However only one such chemical munitions site is officially documented and no record exists of any chemical munitions disposed of at other locations, thus creating confusion. We have executed a one day AUV mapping survey of a corner of one such site in the Santa Cruz Basin, south of Port Hueneme, to examine and investigate the debris field. The region is covered with soft sediment and the overlying water is very low in oxygen at ~10 μmol/kg. The processed 110 kHz sidescan data revealed some 754 targets in 25.6 km2 for an average of 29 targets per km2. This was followed by two ROV dives to investigate the targets identified. We found but one false positives among the over 40 targets visited, and found items ranging from two distinct lines of unmarked or labeled and now empty barrels, two target drones, and much miscellaneous debris including 4-packs of cat food cans and a large ships mast over 30m in length. There was zero evidence of chemical weapons materiel as expected given the lack of official records. Almost all of the targets were covered in dense and colorful assemblages of invertebrates: sponges, anemones, and crabs. Where barrels were sufficiently open for full visual inspection, the interior sea floor appeared to have become fully anoxic and was covered in white and yellow bacterial mat. The area chosen for our survey (centered at 33.76 deg N 119.56 deg W) was across the north western boundary of the marked site, and represents only ~ 10% percent of the designated area. Our expectation, that human nature would drive the disposal activities to the nearest corner of the chosen area rather than the center of the field appears to have been confirmed. Objects were found both within and outside of the boundary of the dump site. We have not surveyed the full marked area but there appears to be

  10. Time-domain electromagnetic signatures of polymetallic vein deposits in Cottonwood Canyon area, Santa Cruz County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, Mark W.

    2002-01-01

    This report tests the usefulness of airborne time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) data on three mineral-resource-related issues: (1) to test whether known mineral deposits at or near the surface display any signal in the TEM data; 2) determine whether TEM data can be used to locate bedrock concealed by basin fill; and (3) if the exposed mineral deposits display a signal in the TEM data, to determine if whether deposits are recognizable at depth in outcropping bedrock or in bedrock concealed beneath basin fill. Because Earth's total-intensity magnetic field data are also acquired with the TEM data, these data are included in the analysis. The Cottonwood Canyon area in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, contains several polymetallic vein deposits, including those of the Tyndall, Salero, and Wrightson mining districts, all of which have had significant mineral production. Polymetallic vein deposits, which generally consist of veins of disseminated metallic minerals, commonly exhibit a response to electrical geophysical methods. Also, on the basis of other studies, the conditions that produced the polymetallic vein mineralization in the region are believed to extend offshore into the bedrock concealed by basin fill. The polymetallic vein deposits of the Cottonwood Canyon area all display a geophysical signature in the TEM data. These deposits occur in bedrock that has, in general, a very low resistivity. The polymetallic vein deposits are associated with high-conductivity regions that extend from deep in the bedrock to the surface. These high-conductivity regions can be quite narrow (100 m) or quite wide (1 km); most are relatively narrow. Every known mineral deposit or prospect is associated with a high-conductivity feature. High-conductivity regions can also occur without an association with known mineral deposits. Airborne TEM data appear to be able to locate the basin fill/bedrock contact beneath basin fill. The basin fill (both dry and saturated) is generally more

  11. Developing an Ecosystem Services online Decision Support Tool to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Growth in the Santa Cruz Watershed; Where We Live, Work, and Play

    EPA Science Inventory

    Processes through which ecosystems provide goods or benefit people can be referred to as "ecosystems services”, which may be quantified to clarify decision-making, with techniques including cost-benefit analysis. We are developing an online decision support tool, the Santa Cruz W...

  12. [Books published in Spain on smoking].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, E; Sánchez-Carbonell, J

    1996-12-01

    Tobacco dependence, considered for a long time as a habit and, more recently, as an addiction, has many bad effects in health. The objective of this study was to analyse books published in this field in Spain. Books indexed in the ISBN Spanish database in CD-ROM (updated to 1993) dealing with addiction to tobacco, that included one of the following words: tabac*, tabak*, tabaq*, fuma*, fumad*, nicotine*, alquitran*, antitabac*, antitabaq*, cigarro*, cigarri*, exfumad*, pipa*, puro*, picadura* or filtro, were included in the study. Authors, ISBN classification, year of publication, language (of publication and original) and publishers were descriptively analysed. One hundred and four books were analysed. The highest number was published during the period 1990-1993 (42%); being 1993 (n = 15) and 1991 (n = 14) the most productive years. A big increase was observed from 1985. A great number (76% of books, n = 79) was written by personal authors and the 14% (n = 14) by public organizations. Most of the books (n = 88; 85%); were published in Spanish, followed by Catalan (n = 13; 13%); 21 books (20%) were translations: most of them from English (n = 12; 60%) or from French (n = 3; 14%). Forty six per cent of books was published by trade publishers and 31% by public organizations. According to the ISBN classification, these books were grouped in 20 different topics; but, most of them (70%) were included in three of these topics: hygiene (n = 42, 40%), pharmacology-toxicology-drugs (n = 18, 17%) and pathology-diseases and medical/therapeutical clinical practice (n = 14; 13%). The number of books published in Spain dealing with tobacco dependence has increased very much from 1985; it suggests that interest in this area in SPain has also increased. Most of the books are published in Spanish, and the most frequently translated language is English. These books are basically published by trade publishers and public organizations. These results have to be considered taking into

  13. State of emergency medicine in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Spain has universal public health care coverage. Emergency care provisions are offered to patients in different modalities and levels according to the characteristics of the medical complaint: at primary care centers (PCC), in an extrahospital setting by emergency medical services (EMS) and at hospital emergency departments (ED). We have more than 3,000 PCCs, which are run by family doctors (general practitioners) and pediatricians. On average, there is 1 PCC for every 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, and every family doctor is in charge of 1,500 to 2,000 citizens, although less populated zones tend to have lower ratios. Doctors spend part of their duty time in providing emergency care to their own patients. While not fully devoted to emergency medicine (EM) practice, they do manage minor emergencies. However, Spanish EMSs contribute hugely to guarantee population coverage in all situations. These EMS are run by EM technicians (EMT), nurses and doctors, who usually work exclusively in the emergency arena. EDs dealt with more than 25 million consultations in 2008, which implies, on average, that one out of two Spaniards visited an ED during this time. They are usually equipped with a wide range of diagnostic tools, most including ultrasonography and computerized tomography scans. The academic and training background of doctors working in the ED varies: nearly half lack any structured specialty residence training, but many have done specific master or postgraduate studies within the EM field. The demand for emergency care has grown at an annual rate of over 4% during the last decade. This percentage, which was greater than the 2% population increase during the same period, has outpaced the growth in ED capacity. Therefore, Spanish EDs become overcrowded when the system exerts minimal stress. Despite the high EM caseload and the potential severity of the conditions, training in EM is still unregulated in Spain. However, in April 2009 the Spanish Minister of Health

  14. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the coastal Monte Léon and Santa Cruz formations (Early Miocene) at Rincón del Buque, Southern Patagonia: A revisited locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raigemborn, M. Sol; Matheos, Sergio D.; Krapovickas, Verónica; Vizcaíno, Sergio F.; Bargo, M. Susana; Kay, Richard F.; Fernicola, Juan C.; Zapata, Luciano

    2015-07-01

    Sedimentological, ichnological and paleontological analyses of the Early Miocene uppermost Monte León Formation and the lower part of the Santa Cruz Formation were carried out in Rincón del Buque (RDB), a fossiliferous locality north of Río Coyle in Santa Cruz Province, Patagonia, Argentina. This locality is of special importance because it contains the basal contact between the Monte Léon (MLF) and the Santa Cruz (SCF) formations and because it preserves a rich fossil assemblage of marine invertebrates and marine trace fossils, and terrestrial vertebrates and plants, which has not been extensively studied. A ˜90 m-thick section of the MLF and the SCF that crops out at RDB was selected for this study. Eleven facies associations (FA) are described, which are, from base to top: subtidal-intertidal deposits with Crassotrea orbignyi and bioturbation of the Skolithos-Cruziana ichnofacies (FA1); tidal creek deposits with terrestrial fossil mammals and Ophiomorpha isp. burrows (FA2); tidal flat deposits with Glossifungites ichnofacies (FA3); deposits of tidal channels (FA4) and tidal sand flats (FA5) both with and impoverish Skolithos ichnofacies associated; marsh deposits (FA6); tidal point bar deposits recording a depauperate mixture of both the Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies (FA7); fluvial channel deposits (FA8); fluvial point bar deposits (FA9); floodplain deposits (FA10); and pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits of the floodplain where terrestrial fossil mammal remains occur (FA11). The transition of the MLF-SCF at RDB reflects a changing depositional environment from the outer part of an estuary (FA1) through the central (FA2-6) to inner part of a tide-dominated estuary (FA7). Finally a fluvial system occurs with single channels of relatively low energy and low sinuosity enclosed by a broad, low-energy floodplain dominated by partially edaphized ash-fall, sheet-flood, and overbank deposits (FA8-11). Pyroclastic and volcaniclastic materials throughout the

  15. Paleoseismic investigations in the Santa Cruz mountains, California: Implications for recurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes on the San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, D.P.; Pantosti, D.; Okumura, K.; Powers, T.J.; Hamilton, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Trenching, microgeomorphic mapping, and tree ring analysis provide information on timing of paleoearthquakes and behavior of the San Andreas fault in the Santa Cruz mountains. At the Grizzly Flat site alluvial units dated at 1640-1659 A.D., 1679-1894 A.D., 1668-1893 A.D., and the present ground surface are displaced by a single event. This was the 1906 surface rupture. Combined trench dates and tree ring analysis suggest that the penultimate event occurred in the mid-1600s, possibly in an interval as narrow as 1632-1659 A.D. There is no direct evidence in the trenches for the 1838 or 1865 earthquakes, which have been proposed as occurring on this part of the fault zone. In a minimum time of about 340 years only one large surface faulting event (1906) occurred at Grizzly Flat, in contrast to previous recurrence estimates of 95-110 years for the Santa Cruz mountains segment. Comparison with dates of the penultimate San Andreas earthquake at sites north of San Francisco suggests that the San Andreas fault between Point Arena and the Santa Cruz mountains may have failed either as a sequence of closely timed earthquakes on adjacent segments or as a single long rupture similar in length to the 1906 rupture around the mid-1600s. The 1906 coseismic geodetic slip and the late Holocene geologic slip rate on the San Francisco peninsula and southward are about 50-70% and 70% of their values north of San Francisco, respectively. The slip gradient along the 1906 rupture section of the San Andreas reflects partitioning of plate boundary slip onto the San Gregorio, Sargent, and other faults south of the Golden Gate. If a mid-1600s event ruptured the same section of the fault that failed in 1906, it supports the concept that long strike-slip faults can contain master rupture segments that repeat in both length and slip distribution. Recognition of a persistent slip rate gradient along the northern San Andreas fault and the concept of a master segment remove the requirement that

  16. The Interplay Between Deformation and Volcanism on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos: A Multidisciplinary Study Using Structural, Geophysical, and Geochronological Analyses of Faults and Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, D. M.; Harpp, K. S.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Santa Cruz Island is one of the oldest volcanoes in the Galápagos Archipelago; little is known about its history or its evolutionary relationship to the younger western shield volcanoes. Of particular note, the island's northern and southern flanks are deformed by a series of major normal faults of unknown origin. Using an array of multidisciplinary tools, including field mapping, GPS, gravity, Ar-Ar and geochronology, and 3He exposure dating, we construct a structural and volcanic history of Santa Cruz. The Ar-Ar ages reveal that since ~1.5 Ma, the island has experienced two phases of volcanism, separated by ~0.4 My. The first occurred from 1620 ± 15 to 1160 ± 35 ka (1σ); the second lasted from 699 ± 45 to 74 ± 19 ka. Volcanism during the second phase was focused along an E-W trending summit vent system, from which all <200 ka lavas were deposited on the southern flank. Structural observations suggest that the island has experienced two major faulting episodes. North flank faults formed after 1160 ± 35 ka, whereas the southern faults were initiated between 416 ± 18 and 27 ± 16 ka. Gravity results indicate two E-W trending, intrusive complexes; one is centered north of the island's summit and the other is beneath the southern flank. When integrated, our data are consistent with a model wherein the northern faults are associated with regional uplift occurring after 1.1 Ma and before 0.78 Ma (paleomag.; Bow, 1979). This deformation event may be related to the formation of the summit vent system and the initiation of the second phase of volcanism. The second volcanism phase is coincident with the formation of the southern faults. Southward spreading along the island's southern flank accommodated extension initiated by intrusions, which ceased with volcanism at ~20 ka. The extended volcanic activity characteristic of Santa Cruz and of other older Galapagos Islands may be the result of rejuvenated volcanism linked to regional uplift event(s); it may also

  17. [Epidemiology of eating behavior disorders in Spain].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lazaro, P M

    2003-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in research of epidemiology of eating behavior disorders in Spain. This report summarizes recent studies. This review suggests that the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors in Spanish clinical and non-clinical populations is not markedly different from that already reported for other developed countries. The wide range of variation in published prevalence rates for eating disorders in adults and adolescents can be understood in the face of the many methodological problems inherent to this type of research. Anorexia nervosa and related eating disorders are most commonly investigated in adolescent girls and young women and a number of researchers have investigated prevalence rates in this group. No good epidemiological research has been carried out with child populations and male populations.

  18. The problems of asbestosis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Segarra, F

    1979-04-01

    About 50 cases of asbestosis have been descirbed in Spain from 1948 through 1974. Since 1975 the Instituto Territorial de Barcelona, Servicio Social de Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo, has initiated a survey of all the industries with an asbestosis risk in the Barcelona area. Nearly 300 cases of asbestosis have been detected to date. Given the poor hygienic conditions of most of the industries, with an asbestosis risk, and the considerably large number of exposed people, it can easily be predicted that a rapid increase of the incidence of the disease in the years to come will occur. Most of the observed cases in Barcelona were from two fibrocement industries. Of a total of 1003 workers examined, 247 (about 25%) had asbestosis.

  19. Municipal pleural cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Abente, G; Hernandez-Barrera, V; Pollan, M; Aragones, N; Perez-Gomez, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pleural cancer is a recognised indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality. Aims: To investigate the distribution of municipal mortality due to this tumour, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York, and Molliè. Methods: It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability that RR >1. Results: There was a higher risk of death due to pleural cancer in well defined towns and areas, many of which correspond to municipalities where asbestos using industries once existed for many years, the prime example being the municipal pattern registered for Barcelona Province. The quality of mortality data, the suitability of the model used, and the usefulness of municipal atlases for environmental surveillance are discussed. PMID:15723885

  20. Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreak in Murcia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Carmen; Fenoll, Daniel; García, José; González-Diego, Paulino; Jiménez-Buñuales, Teresa; Rodriguez, Miguel; Lopez, Rosa; Pacheco, Francisco; Ruiz, Joaquín; Segovia, Manuel; Baladrón, Beatriz; Pelaz, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    An explosive outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease occurred in Murcia, Spain, in July 2001. More than 800 suspected cases were reported; 449 of these cases were confirmed, which made this the world’s largest outbreak of the disease reported to date. Dates of onset for confirmed cases ranged from June 26 to July 19 , with a case-fatality rate of 1%. The epidemic curve and geographic pattern from the 600 completed epidemiologic questionnaires indicated an outdoor point-source exposure in the northern part of the city. A case-control study matching 85 patients living outside the city of Murcia with two controls each was undertaken to identify the outbreak source; the epidemiologic investigation implicated the cooling towers at a city hospital. An environmental isolate from these towers with an identical molecular pattern as the clinical isolates was subsequently identified and supported that epidemiologic conclusion. PMID:12967487

  1. Phenolic profile of Asturian (Spain) natural cider.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Madrera, Roberto; Picinelli Lobo, Anna; Suárez Valles, Belén

    2006-01-11

    The polyphenolic composition of natural ciders from the Asturian community (Spain), during 2 consecutive years, was analyzed by RP-HPLC and the photodiode-array detection system, without previous extraction (direct injection). A total of 16 phenolic compounds (catechol, tyrosol, protocatechuic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hydrocoumaric acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidins B2 and B5, phloretin-2'-xyloglucoside, phloridzin, hyperin, avicularin, and quercitrin) were identified and quantified. A fourth quercetin derivative, one dihydrochalcone-related compound, two unknown procyanidins, three hydroxycinnamic derivatives, and two unknown compounds were also found. Among the low-molecular-mass polyphenols analyzed, hydrocaffeic acid was the most abundant compound, representing more than 80% of the total polyphenolic acids. Procyanidins were the most important family among the flavonoid compounds. Discriminant analysis was allowed to correctly classify more than 93% of the ciders, according to the harvest year; the most discriminant variables were an unknown procyanidin and quercitrin.

  2. [Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Spain].

    PubMed

    Brea, Angel; Laclaustra, Martín; Martorell, Esperanza; Pedragosa, Angels

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a very common cause of morbidity and hospitalization. They are the second leading cause of mortality in the general population, and the first in women. They also constitute a very high social spending, which is estimated to increase in coming years, due to the aging of our population. Data from the Hospital Morbidity Survey of the National Statistics Institute recorded, in 2011, 116,017 strokes and 14,933 transient ischemic attacks, corresponding, respectively, to an incidence of 252 and 32 events per 100,000 people. In 2002, the cost of hospitalization for each stroke was estimated at €3,047. The amount of total cost health care throughout the life of a stroke patient is calculated at €43,129. Internationally, the direct costs of stroke constitute 3% of national health spending, this being similar amount in different countries around us. Hypertension was the cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) more prevalent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Peripheral arterial disease and hypertension were more frequently associated with atherothrombotic events, atrial fibrillation with cardioembolic strokes, and obesity and high blood pressure to lacunar infarcts. In Spain, as showing several studies, we are far from optimal control of CVRF, especially in secondary prevention of stroke. According to the ICTUSCARE study, achieving recommended values was 17.6% in the case of hypertension, 29.8% in LDL-cholesterol, 74.9% of smoking, and 50.2% in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we analyze in detail the epidemiology, prevention and costs originated by CVD.

  3. Production of sulfur gases and carbon dioxide by synthetic weathering of crushed drill cores from the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit near Casa Grande, Pinal County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, M.E.; Ryder, J.L.; Sutley, S.J.; Botinelly, T.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of ground drill cores from the southern part of the Santa Cruz porphyry copper deposit, Casa Grande, Arizona, were oxidized in simulated weathering experiments. The samples were also separated into various mineral fractions and analyzed for contents of metals and sulfide minerals. The principal sulfide mineral present was pyrite. Gases produced in the weathering experiments were measured by gas chromatography. Carbon dioxide, oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and carbon disulfide were found in the gases; no hydrogen sulfide, organic sulfides, or mercaptans were detected. Oxygen concentration was very important for production of the volatiles measured; in general, oxygen concentration was more important to gas production than were metallic element content, sulfide mineral content, or mineral fraction (oxide or sulfide) of the sample. The various volatile species also appeared to be interactive; some of the volatiles measured may have been formed through gas reactions. ?? 1990.

  4. Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting the structure of the benthic macroinvertebrate community in an effluent-dominated reach of the Santa Cruz River, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyle, T.P.; Fraleigh, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    This study provides an assessment of the ecological conditions of a 46-km effluent-dominated stream section of the Santa Cruz River in the vicinity of the International Waste Water Treatment Plant, Nogales, AZ. We associated changes in the structure of the macroinvertebrate community to natural and anthropogenic chemical and physical variables using multivariate analysis. The analysis shows that biological criteria for effluent-dominated streams can be established using macroinvertebrate community attributes only with an understanding of the contribution of three classes of variables on the community structure: (1) low flow hydrological discharge as affected by groundwater withdrawals, treatment plant discharge, and subsurface geomorphology; (2) chemical composition of the treatment plant discharge and natural dilution; and (3) naturally produced floods resulting from seasonality of precipitation. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Report of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Modeling Workshop, Pacific Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, CA, March 22-23, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2006-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) Modeling Workshop was held to discuss the general topic of coastal modeling, defined broadly to include circulation, waves, sediment transport, water quality, ecology, sediment diagenesis, morphology change, and coastal evolution, on scales ranging from seconds and a few centimeters (individual ripples) to centuries (coastal evolution) and thousands of kilometers (tsunami propagation). The workshop was convened at the suggestion of CMG Program Management to improve communication among modelers and model users, assess modeling-related activities being conducted at the three centers (Florida Integrated Science Center, FISC; Pacific Marine Science Center; PMSC; and Woods Hole Science Center; WHSC), and develop goals, strategies, and plans for future modeling activities. The workshop represents a step toward developing a five-year strategic plan, and was timed to provide input for the FY06 prospectus. The workshop was held at the USGS Pacific Marine Science Center in Santa Cruz on March 22-23, 2005.

  6. Swath Bathymetry Surveys of the Monterey Bay Area from Point Ano Nuevo to Moss Landing, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes swath bathymetry and backscatter data acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey on the continental shelf within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary between Point A?o Nuevo and Moss Landing, in San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Monterey Counties, Calif. The survey was done for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), in field activities S-7-09-MB and S-10-09-MB, by the Western Coastal and Marine Geology (WCMG) Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The data were aquired in two seperate surveys: (1) between August 13, 2009 and September 3, 2009, personnel from WCMG completed field activity S-7-09-MB, from Point A?o Nuevo south to Table Rock, as well as a block west of Soquel Canyon; (2) between October 12 and December 16, 2009, WCMG conducted field activity S-10-09-MB, surveying between Table Rock and Moss Landing.

  7. Active shortening along the northern edge of the western Transverse Ranges recorded by deformed fluvial terraces along Santa Cruz Creek in the eastern Santa Ynez Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, E.

    2011-12-01

    Vertical-axis rotation of the western Transverse Ranges in southern California was accompanied by folding and reverse faulting at the northern edge of the rotated domain during late Miocene to Pliocene time. Deformed Pleistocene strata in the Santa Ynez Valley suggest that this rotational folding and faulting is still occurring. Fluvial terraces are present along several major drainages that cross the faults and folds and provide an opportunity to evaluate the timing and magnitude of Late Quaternary deformation at the northern edge of the rotated western Transverse Ranges. Three flights of well-preserved fluvial strath terraces are exposed along a 9.3 km stretch of the Santa Cruz Creek drainage in the eastern Santa Ynez Valley. Fluvial deposits that make up the terrace treads have been lifted 18.5 m (T-1) to 110m (T-3) above the active channel and are unpaired across the drainage. The terrace surfaces are underlain by a thin 0.6m-6m veneer of fluvial deposits resting on an erosional surface cut into the underlying Pleistocene Paso Robles Formation. GPS profiles (accurate to .1m) of the terrace surfaces and the Santa Cruz Creek stream profile show evidence of Late Quaternary deformation. The T1 surface (lowest terrace surface) is offset vertically 3.5m across the Los Alamos/Baseline fault, the T2 surface is offset 7m vertically across this feature, and the T2 and T3 terraces terminate abruptly at the Little Pine Fault indicating Quaternary displacement across these structures. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating is being used to date the terraces in order to calculate rates of uplift and deformation.

  8. Raptor ecotoxicology in Spain: a review on persistent environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Antonio J; Calvo, José F; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; Martínez, José E

    2008-09-01

    Initial studies on the pressure from environmental contaminants on raptor populations in Spain date back to the 1980s, and they have been carried out from a range of viewpoints using a range of sentinel raptor species. However, there is no national monitoring scheme, and therefore the research carried out has been sporadic both spatially and temporally. The exposure to metals has not varied over time, except in the case of lead, whose concentration in eggs and tissues has diminished. In general, the concentrations of metals detected in raptor samples from Spain are generally low and not sufficient to produce toxic effects. Excepting DDT and DDE, most organochlorine-based pesticides in raptors from Spain have diminished over the last 2 decades. The concentrations of DDE found in the eggs of various species could in part explain problems in the reproductive success of raptors in Spain.

  9. Outbound Near-Earth Asteroid, as Seen from Spain

    NASA Video Gallery

    This set of images from the La Sagra Sky Survey, operated by theAstronomical Observatory of Mallorca in Spain, shows the passage ofasteroid 2012 DA14 shortly after its closest – and safe -- app...

  10. [Beginnings of bariatric and metabolic surgery in Spain].

    PubMed

    Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions.

  11. The Other Women: Students of Literature in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puigvert, Lidia

    2000-01-01

    Provides an account of engaging women in Spain who come from uneducated backgrounds in literacy circles through which Freirean radicalization approaches are being effectively pursued. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  12. [Italy and Spain in the face of immigration].

    PubMed

    Alotta, S

    1997-01-01

    "Spain and Italy share a common heritage as far as emigration is concerned. Their country men went abroad looking for jobs for a long period of their history. At present this is the fate of the extra community immigrants. Scholars maintain that Spain and Italy face this new situation with a fear greater than necessary. An attempt is made to explain immigration in a more rational way. At the same time...the debate about racism and antiracism [is examined]." (EXCERPT)

  13. Lemon juice as a solvent for heroin in Spain.

    PubMed

    Page, J B; Fraile, J S

    1999-06-01

    Preliminary observations and responses to interviews in Valencia, Spain reveal that injecting drug users (IDUs) dissolve heroin before injection with two or three drops of lemon juice. Solution in lemon juice makes heating of heroin in water unnecessary. This pattern apparently developed spontaneously in Spain, but is almost unknown elsewhere in the world. Its implications for IDUs' health remain speculative, but use of lemon juice to dissolve heroin for injection deserves further scientific study.

  14. The regulation of biobanks in Spain.

    PubMed

    Nys, Herman; Fobelets, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    On 3 July 2007 the Spanish parliament approved the Biomedical Research Act. This article discusses the provisions of the Biomedical Research Act that are directly relevant for the regulatory framework of biobanks in Spain. This means that we are not only interested in the procedural and administrative dispositions governing biobanks. Our main preoccupation relates to the substantial provisions governing the collection, the research use and the conservation of biological samples. Our contribution starts in the second part with a brief description of the definition of "biobank" in the Spanish Act. Subsequently, in the third part, we deal extensively with the legal conditions for the collection, use and conservation of biological samples and accompanying data for biomedical research purposes. In the fourth part we examine the specific legal framework of research biobanks in Spain, with a special focus on the source's right to know or not to know, his right to privacy and his right to non-discrimination. A discussion of the main characteristics of the Act and some conclusions finalise this article. In stead of summarising these conclusions in our own words, we prefer to cite the legislator who stated in the preamble to the Act the following: "The regulation on the obtaining, conservation, use and assignment of biological samples is likewise object of a detailed regulation. As is logical, the legal framework turns once again on the consent of the source of the samples and on the previous information that must be provided to this respect. In so far as the disjunctive on the possibility to grant a completely generic or a specific consent on the use or latter uses of the sample, the Law has chosen an intermediate and flexible regulation, in that the initial consent may provide coverage, if in the information previously provided to the subject source there has been a provision about later researches related with the initial, including the researches that may be undertaken

  15. [Criminologic problems of political change in Spain].

    PubMed

    Gómez, A S

    1981-01-01

    In this article the Author considers the modern-day and historical situation as regards the administration of justice in Spain, pausing to make a particularly careful analysis of those crimes whose rate of increase, over the past few years, has been the greatest. He runs back over the various stages of Spain's recent history: from the period preceding Franco's regime, during which a multiplicity of criminological theories were developed by Spanish authors, leading to the creation of a school of jurisprudence, in which theory and practice tended toward seeking a balance between freedom and security; through the period of the dictatorship, in which there was a tightening-up of the preceding trend, with a definite predisposition towards security, whether within the State or external to it (to be noted--the Author observes--is that this security in reality is not a guarantee of the lives and liberties of the citizens, but rather only a safeguarding of the State from attacks on its supremacy and power); to the successive period of the democracy, which came about without cruel and revolutionary upsets, but nonetheless has felt for many years the effects of the preceding political climate; criminality is increasing considerably, but the administration of justice is not able to soundly and accurately evaluate it, it having functioned at only 45% efficiency--or so says the Author--up until 1978: the imbalances in the society that can be seen in its passage through the various political regimes are, therefore, present too in the field of criminality; this, in fact, is apparently decreasing (since crimes against the external and internal security of the State are decreasing, as the number of convictions are decreasing); but in reality this criminality is undergoing a strong evolutionary movement, due more than anything else to the fact that the tendency is to give priority to liberty, and no longer to security, as is true in fact of every democratic regime. Even in 1978, when

  16. Dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Falcó, G; Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Casas, C; Teixidó, A

    2004-04-25

    To assess the dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the population of Catalonia, Spain, a total-diet study was carried out. Concentrations of HCB were determined in food samples randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia between June and August 2000. A total of 11 food groups were included in the study. HCB levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. HCB intake was estimated for five population groups: children (aged 4 to 9 years), adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), male and female adults (aged 20 to 65 years), and seniors (aged >65 years). In general, HCB residues in foods were rather low excepting dairy products with a mean concentration of 0.869 ng/g wet weight. Total dietary intakes of HCB (microgram per kilogram body weight/day) were the following: children (0.0064), adolescents (0.0031), female adults (0.0025), male adults (0.0024) and seniors (0.0019). All these values are considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), which is 0.17 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for non-cancer effects and 0.16 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for neoplastic effects in humans.

  17. Fish viral infections in northwest of Spain.

    PubMed

    Ledo, A; Lupiani, B; Dopazo, C P; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L

    1990-06-01

    During a three years survey, a total of 149 samples from 20 farms of rainbow trout, salmon and turbot were examined for the presence of virus with the purpose to study the viral infections affecting cultured fish and their incidence in the fishfarms of Northwestern Spain. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was the only viral agent isolated from salmonid fish. Fry and fingerlings of trout showed the highest infection rate (24%). This virus was not detected in broodstock or embryonated eggs, although it was isolated from ovaric and seminal fluids and from juvenile carriers. From 24 samples of salmon analyzed, IPNV was only detected in one sample of juveniles. Examination of turbot led the isolation of a new virus belonging to the reoviridae family, which affected to the ongrowing population. All of the IPNV tested belonged to serotype Sp regardless of the origin of the trout stocks. During the monitorization of imported embryonated eggs, no virus was detected from any of the samples. However, in some case, IPNV was isolated when testing the fry obtained in our laboratory from those samples of imported eggs. Our findings indicate that: i) the analysis of fingerlings increase the probability to detect viral infections allowing us an optimal control of importations, and ii) most of the viral infections of fish take place in the own fish farms. The detection of mixed viral and bacterial infections emphasize the importance of carrying out an integral microbiological analysis to determine the causal agent(s) of fish mortalities.

  18. [Charles II of Spain, the bewitched].

    PubMed

    Cerda L, Jaime

    2008-02-01

    The death of King Charles II, the Bewitched, ended two centuries of sovereignity of the Habsburg dynasty in Spain. Since his birth in 1661, he presented a peculiar set of physical, psychiatric and behavioral signs, such as respiratory and diarrheal diseases, recurrent seizures and deep developmental delay. It was not until his adulthood when his infertility became evident, being incapable of conceiving a heir, even though he married twice. Such a constellation of ominous signs motivated a curious investigation, which concluded that the king was hexed at the age of 14 years in order to take away his throne, his health and his capacity to procreate. Based on contemporary medical knowledge, it is possible that Charles IIhad a rare autosomal recessive inherited genopathy asa consequence of the frequent inbreeding among his ancestors. On the other hand, its is also possible that Charles II presented Klinefelter Syndrome, the most frequent sex chromosome disorder in humans and the most common cause of hypogonadism and infertility in males. The hypothesis that Charles II was bewitched reflects a deep belief in supernatural phenomena among the Castilian society at the beginning of the 18th century, an idea transmitted across generations, currently present in many societies worldwide.

  19. [Health and the media in Spain].

    PubMed

    Revuelta, Gemma

    2006-03-01

    The so-called media agenda has a great influence on the issues considered to be important by society. In this article, based on the Informe Quiral (Quiral Survey), the author analyses the coverage of health issues in Spanish press. In Spain, media concentration causes a clear tendency to information homogeneity and thus, health issues are rarely dealt with in an independent way or in its own specific space or by specialized professionals. The main chronic issues the Spanish press has followed during the years included in the survey have been: cancer, sexuality and reproduction, aids, drugs (including tobacco), mental disorders and nutrition-related issues. Politicians or individuals with political and technical posts are the sources which carry the burden of informing about health issues (49%). On the other hand, the more specialized sector is the source of information in only 26% of the cases. In order to improve health information, the author suggests establishing communication platforms and closer collaboration between the specialized sector and the media, fostering mutual knowledge of all professional groups taking part in the process and ridding health information of all political influences.

  20. [Ageing: research in Spain and Europe].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Vicente; Rodríguez Mañas, Leocadio; Sancho Castiello, Mayte; Díaz Martín, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, stakeholders and policy makers agree about the importance of the population ageing in modern societies, so a broad analysis of current research strategies is in progress, such as FUTURAGE, a network for drawing a map for future research on ageing. This document presents the Spanish contribution to this map following FUTURAGE guidelines, drawn from the debates held in the 'Ageing. Research in Spain and Europe' Workshop. The first part consists of general ideas seeking to define future challenges on research using a multidisciplinary approach, in which the theoretical and methodological debate, the comparative and multilevel perspective, the transfer of knowledge and involvement of the older people would be essential to consider. Some of the main issues according to FUTURAGE structure are, the bio-gerontology of ageing, healthy and active ageing, and the socioeconomic and environmental resources of ageing. The interaction between these contents is pivotal to understand the research on ageing. Finally, the document provides some methodological and instrumental ideas to reinforce the need for cross-sectional research initiatives, integrating different data and combining methods in order to develop assessment and intervention strategies. Other aspects look into the mechanisms to coordinate research within a European context. The map on ageing research has been published after the consultation process in Europe (http://futurage.group.shef.ac.uk/road-map.html) and is now ready to be considered for integration into future European and Spanish research programs.

  1. Integration in Spain: national and regional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alberte Castiñeiras, J R

    1999-03-01

    At the present moment Spanish psychopedagogical researchers are evaluating the effectiveness and consequences of integration on both a national and a regional level. As a result of two important pieces of legislation, physically and mentally handicapped people are gradually becoming more integrated in education, social life, and the work place. Consequently, both ordinary pupils and those with permanent or temporary special education needs can achieve the same objectives within the same system. Individual strategies are designed to cope with each pupil's specific needs, and each case is followed closely by a multidisciplinary team. The basic concept behind integration in Spain is a global relationship with the educational environment, which includes school, home, vocational training and ultimately work. It is not so much a case of identifying what a pupil is, but rather deciding what education can do for that particular pupil. There are, however, certain difficulties which require adaptation of the curriculum: access to educational opportunities and experiences may be affected by deficient visual, auditory or motor skills; there may be an absence of specific learning skills in certain areas of the curriculum; pupils with serious mental handicaps may lack basic cognitive skills. Spanish educational reform considers the classroom teacher as the central axis in the quality of education. For this reason, new programmes and diplomas in infant and primary teacher education include training for adaptation and integration.

  2. Epidemiology of osteoporotic hip fractures in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Angel Antonio; Ferrandez, Luis; Gil, Enrique; Moreno, Alonso

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a multicentre study, divided into a retrospective and a prospective portion. The retrospective study evaluated osteoporotic hip fractures that occurred during 2002. The prospective study evaluated osteoporotic hip fractures that occurred during May 2003. The study was conducted in 77 hospitals in Spain and comprised patients 60 years of age and over. In the retrospective study we registered 13,195 hip fractures. Of the patients, 74% were women and 26% were men. The mean age was 80.7±8.4 years. The average incidence was 6.94±0.44 hip fractures per 1,000 inhabitants/year (95% CI, 6.07–7.82). In the prospective study, we registered 1,399 hip fractures. This represents a monthly incidence of 0.60±0.04 hip fractures per 1,000 inhabitants/year (95% CI, 0.51–0.69). Of the subjects, 74% were women and 26% were men. The mean age was 81.4±8.1 years. Using these data, we calculated the average annual prevalence in 2003 to be 7.20 fractures per 1,000 inhabitants. Thirty-three percent had previously suffered a hip fracture. Prior to the fracture, only 18% had received medical treatment for osteoporosis. After discharge from the hospital, only 26% were receiving pharmacological treatment for osteoporosis. PMID:16328387

  3. Spain: A Study of the Educational System of Spain and Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Spain in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toven, J. Richard

    The educational system of Spain is described, and guidelines concerning students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. After describing primary and secondary education, attention is directed to vocational education, industrial or technical secondary schools, professional trade schools, university education, military education, and…

  4. Near-Surface Structure and Velocities of the Northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and the Western Santa Clara Valley, California, From Seismic Imaging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Gandhok, G.; Goldman, M.R.; Steedman, Clare

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Santa Clara Valley (SCV) is located in the southern San Francisco Bay area of California and is bounded by the Santa Cruz Mountains to the southwest, the Diablo Ranges to the northeast, and the San Francisco Bay to the north (Fig. 1). The SCV, which includes the City of San Jose, numerous smaller cities, and much of the high-technology manufacturing and research area commonly referred to as the Silicon Valley, has a population in excess of 1.7 million people (2000 U. S. Census;http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06/06085.html The SCV is situated between major active faults of the San Andreas Fault system, including the San Andreas Fault to the southwest and the Hayward and Calaveras faults to the northeast, and other faults inferred to lie beneath the alluvium of the SCV (CWDR, 1967; Bortugno et al., 1991). The importance of the SCV as a major industrial center, its large population, and its proximity to major earthquake faults are important considerations with respect to earthquake hazards and water-resource management. The fault-bounded alluvial aquifer system beneath the valley is the source of about one-third of the water supply for the metropolitan area (Hanson et al., 2004). To better address the earthquake hazards of the SCV, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to evaluate potential seismic sources, the effects of strong ground shaking, and stratigraphy associated with the regional aquifer system. As part of that program and to better understand water resources of the valley, the USGS and the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) began joint studies to characterize the faults, stratigraphy, and structures beneath the SCV in the year 2000. Such features are important to both agencies because they directly influence the availability and management of groundwater resources in the valley, and they affect the severity and distribution of strong shaking from local and regional earthquakes sources that may affect

  5. Insights from analyzing and modelling cascading multi-lake outburst flood events in the Santa Cruz Valley (Cordillera Blanca, Perú)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, Adam; Mergili, Martin; Juřicová, Anna; Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Since the end of Little Ice Age, the Cordillera Blanca of Perú has experienced tens of lake outburst floods (LOFs), resulting in the loss of thousands of lives and significant material damages. Most commonly involving glacial lakes, such events are often directly or indirectly related to glacier retreat. Here we analyze an event on 8th February 2012 involving four lakes and affecting two valleys (Santa Cruz and Artizón) in the northern part of the Cordillera Blanca. Using the combination of field data, satellite images, digital elevation model (DEM) and GIS-based modelling approaches, the main objectives are: (i) to better understand complex multi-lake outburst flood and related foregoing and induced geomorphological processes; and (ii) to evaluate and discuss the suitability, potentials and limitations of the r.avaflow model for modelling such complex process chains. Analyzing field geomorphological evidence and remotely-sensed images, we reconstruct the event as follows: a landslide from the recently deglaciated left lateral moraine of Lake Artizón Alto (4 639 m a.s.l.), characterized by steep slopes and a height of more than 200 m produced a displacement wave which overtopped the bedrock dam of the lake. The resulting flood wave breached the dam of the downstream moraine-/landslide-dammed Lake Artizón Bajo (4 477 m a.s.l.), decreasing the lake level by 10 m and releasing 3 x 105 m3 of water. Significant amounts of material were eroded from the steeper parts of the Artizón Valley (mean slope >15°) and deposited further downstream in the flatter part of the Santa Cruz Valley (mean slope <2°; confluence of the two valleys at 3 985 m a.s.l.). The flood affected two debris cone-dammed lakes (Jatuncocha and Ichiccocha) in the Santa Cruz Valley. Some minor damages to the dam of Lake Jatuncocha were documented. Geomprohological evidence of the event was observed more than 20 km downstream from Lake Artizón Alto. The described multi-LOF event was employed as a

  6. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  7. Comparison and validation of gridded precipitation datasets for Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Turco, Marco; Míguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two gridded precipitation datasets are compared and validated in Spain: the recently developed SAFRAN dataset and the Spain02 dataset. These are validated using rain gauges and they are also compared to the low resolution ERA-Interim reanalysis. The SAFRAN precipitation dataset has been recently produced, using the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, which is extensively used in France (Durand et al. 1993, 1999; Quintana-Seguí et al. 2008; Vidal et al., 2010) and which has recently been applied to Spain (Quintana-Seguí et al., 2015). SAFRAN uses an optimal interpolation (OI) algorithm and uses all available rain gauges from the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET). The product has a spatial resolution of 5 km and it spans from September 1979 to August 2014. This dataset has been produced mainly to be used in large scale hydrological applications. Spain02 (Herrera et al. 2012, 2015) is another high quality precipitation dataset for Spain based on a dense network of quality-controlled stations and it has different versions at different resolutions. In this study we used the version with a resolution of 0.11°. The product spans from 1971 to 2010. Spain02 is well tested and widely used, mainly, but not exclusively, for RCM model validation and statistical downscliang. ERA-Interim is a well known global reanalysis with a spatial resolution of ˜79 km. It has been included in the comparison because it is a widely used product for continental and global scale studies and also in smaller scale studies in data poor countries. Thus, its comparison with higher resolution products of a data rich country, such as Spain, allows us to quantify the errors made when using such datasets for national scale studies, in line with some of the objectives of the EU-FP7 eartH2Observe project. The comparison shows that SAFRAN and Spain02 perform similarly, even though their underlying principles are different. Both products are largely

  8. [Gender, paid work, domestic chores and health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Cortès, Imma

    2004-01-01

    The present study reviews gender-related differences and inequalities in paid work and domestic chores in Spain. The impact of both types of work on health are analyzed and the main policies of the European Union (EU) and Spain to achieve gender equality at work are described. In Spain, fewer women are in paid work than in other EU countries. The labor market displays horizontal segregation (men and women work in different sectors), as well as vertical segregation (men hold more senior positions), leading to gender-related differences in employment conditions and exposure to occupational hazards. The precariousness of work is significantly higher in women (19% unemployment in women versus 9% in men) and women are more likely than men to have temporary contracts. Men are more frequently exposed to physical risks and suffer a greater number of occupational accidents; women, especially manual workers, are more frequently exposed to psychosocial risks. Most domestic chores continue to be performed by women, even by working women, which negatively affects their health. The EU has made an increase in female employment a priority, which means that from 2000-2010 Spain should create 3 million jobs for women and implement work/family policies. Achieving gender equality at work requires employment policies that would guarantee equal opportunities for both sexes, as well as shared responsibility for domestic chores between men and women. In Spain, moreover, there is an urgent need to significantly increase public childcare facilities and resources for the care of other dependent individuals.

  9. The State of the Art of Group Psychotherapy in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Taboada, Cristina; Amutio, Alberto; Elgorriaga, Edurne; Arnoso, Ainara

    2015-10-01

    (1) What is the history and the theoretical orientation of group therapy in Spain? (2) How is training organized? (3) What role does group psychotherapy play in the health system in Spain? (4) What is the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice in Spain? (5) What topics can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Spain? (6) How are group-related issues important within the social background of Spain? and (7) What does group work hold for the future? Although not even a century has passed since the birth of this discipline, there have already been many events associated with the management of power and knowledge, the development of a sense of community, and the evolution of the political and social life of our country. Group therapy training is still evolving and is properly supported and accredited by prestigious institutions. In the 2013 Symposium of the Spanish Society of Group Psychotherapy and Group Techniques (SEPTG), the need for joint group theories and techniques within the profession's activities was clearly highlighted. Further, the enthusiasm of group psychotherapists to open themselves to specific social perspectives (health, education, community prevention, organizations) is a way of encouraging society to untangle conscious and unconscious knots that are created in social interaction.

  10. The impact of a prominent rain shadow on flooding in California's Santa Cruz Mountains: A CALJET case study and sensitivity to the ENSO cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ralph, F.M.; Neiman, P.J.; Kingsmill, D.E.; Persson, P.O.G.; White, A.B.; Strem, E.T.; Andrews, E.D.; Antweiler, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    Data from the California Land-Falling Jets Experiment (CALJET) are used to explore the causes of variations in flood severity in adjacent coastal watersheds within the Santa Cruz Mountains on 2-3 February 1998. While Pescadero Creek (rural) experienced its flood of record, the adjacent San Lorenzo Creek (heavily populated), attained only its fourth-highest flow. This difference resulted from conditions present while the warm sector of the storm, with its associated low-level jet, high moisture content, and weak static stability, was overhead. Rainfall in the warm sector was dominated by orographic forcing. While the wind speed strongly modulated rain rates on windward slopes, the wind direction positioned the edge of a rain shadow cast by the Santa Lucia Mountains partially over the San Lorenzo basin, thus protecting the city of Santa Cruz from a more severe flood. Roughly 26% ?? 9% of the streamflow at flood peak on Pescadero Creek resulted from the warm-sector rainfall. Without this rainfall, the peak flow on Pescadero Creek would likely not have attained record status. These results are complemented by a climatological analysis based on ???50-yr-duration streamflow records for these and two other nearby windward watersheds situated ???20 to 40 km farther to the east, and a comparison of this climatological analysis with composites of NCEP-NCAR reanalysis fields. The westernmost watersheds were found to have their greatest floods during El Nin??o winters, while the easternmost watersheds peaked during non-El Nin??o episodes. These results are consistent with the case study, that showed that the composite 925-mb, meridionally oriented wind direction during El Nin??os favors a rain shadow over the eastern watersheds. During non-El Nin??o periods, the composite, zonally oriented wind direction indicates that the sheltering effect of the rain shadow on the eastern watersheds is reduced, while weaker winds, less water vapor, and stronger stratification reduce the peak

  11. The white book of radiation oncology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, Ismael; Romero, Jesús; Palacios, Amalia; Mañas, Ana; Samper, Pilar; Bayo, Eloísa; Guedea, Ferran

    2011-06-01

    The White Book of Radiation Oncology provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the speciality of radiation oncology in Spain and is intended to be used as a reference for physicians, health care administrators and hospital managers. The present paper summarises the most relevant aspects of the book's 13 chapters in order to bring the message to a wider audience. Among the topics discussed are the epidemiology of cancer in Spain, the role of the radiation oncologist in cancer care, human and material resource needs, new technologies, training of specialists, clinical and cost management, clinical practice, quality control, radiological protection, ethics, relevant legislation, research & development, the history of radiation oncology in Spain and the origins of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR).

  12. [Plan for the Elimination of Measles and Rubella in Spain].

    PubMed

    Limia Sánchez, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    The current Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella is made of the Plan for the elimination of measles in Spain, set up in 2001, and the Surveillance protocol of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the phase of elimination, established in 2007. The monitoring of the elimination of both diseases conducted from the European Region of World Health Organization (WHO) has been reinforced since 2010. An annual report with information on the situation of measles and rubella in The Member Estates is being requested since 2013. The Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality nominated a National Committee for Verification of Measles and Rubella Elimination in 2013, for the review and delivery of the requested information. The strategies and activities currently recommended from the WHO European Region, the verification process in Spain, and the steps to follow for the updating of the Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella in Spain are mentioned in this article.

  13. The socioeconomic costs of mental illness in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2009-10-01

    Mental illness affects a large number of people in the world, seriously impairing their quality of life and resulting in high socioeconomic costs for health care systems and society. Our aim is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of mental illness in Spain for the year 2002, including health care resources, informal care and loss of labour productivity. A prevalence-based approach was used to estimate direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and loss of labour productivity. The total costs of mental illness have been estimated at 7,019 million euros. Direct medical costs represented 39.6% of the total costs and 7.3% of total public healthcare expenditure in Spain. Informal care costs represented 17.7% of the total costs. Loss of labour productivity accounted for 42.7% of total costs. In conclusion, the costs of mental illness in Spain make a considerable economic impact from a societal perspective.

  14. Multiple sclerosis in Gijon health district, Asturias, northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Uria, D F; Abad, P; Calatayud, M T; Virgala, P; Diaz, A; Chamizo, C; Dean, G

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and incidence of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in a population of 33,775 in two primary health care centres in the sanitary district of Gijon, Asturias, northern Spain. Many information sources were used but the unique advantage of Gijon was that the city has a centralized computerized register of all diagnoses made for all consultations in the clinics and hospitals in the area. The HLA distribution in the population was already known and the Poser classification of MS was used. The crude MS prevalence was 65/100,000, a similar prevalence to that found in southern and eastern Spain, Sicily and Greek-speaking Cyprus. The mean incidence was 3.7/100,000 per year. The study demonstrated the advantage of a centralized and computerized medical recording system and demonstrates that northern Spain is a moderately high or medium MS risk zone.

  15. Regulation and the circulation of knowledge: penicillin patents in Spain.

    PubMed

    Romero de Pablos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tells the early history of penicillin patenting in Spain. Patents turn out to be useful instruments for analysing the management of knowledge and its circulation in different professional and geographical domains. They protected knowledge while contributing to standardisation. Patents also ensured quality and guaranteed reliability in manufacturing, delivering and prescribing new drugs. They gained special prominence by allowing the creation of a network in which political, economic and business, industrial power, public health and international cooperation fields came together. The main source of information used for this purpose has been the earliest patent applications for penicillin in Spain between 1948 and 1950, which are kept in the Historical Archives of the Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas. The study of these patents for penicillin shows their role as agents in introducing this drug in Spain.

  16. Bluetongue in Spain: from the first outbreak to 2012.

    PubMed

    de Diego, A C Pérez; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2014-12-01

    Outbreaks of bluetongue disease have occurred in Spain six times and have been caused by the following serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), in chronological order: BTV10, BTV2, BTV4, BTV1 and BTV8. Serotypes BTV1, BTV2 and BTV4 may have entered the country in Culicoides transported by wind; BTV8 via infected animal movements; and BTV10 across the Portuguese border. The evolution of each serotype has been different: BTV1, BTV4 and BTV10 spread throughout mainland Spain; BTV2 did not spread from the Balearic Islands to the Iberian Peninsula; and BTV8 has proven very poor at spreading throughout mainland Spain. The significant economic impact of the disease has led authorities to adopt control and eradication measures, which have evolved as new diagnostic tools and vaccines have become available. This review describes BTV infection in Spain, and it focuses on the clinical disease produced by each serotype, the Culicoides species which were present at what time, the origin of the virus and the control measures adopted. In the field, it has proven necessary to vaccinate livestock against each new BTV serotype as it arrived. Therefore, future eradication strategies should focus on developing polyvalent vaccines and vaccines that allow the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals. As of 1 January 2013, the Iberian Peninsula is considered a restricted area for BTV1, and a small zone in southern Spain is a restricted area for BTV4, which includes the little BTV8 restricted area. Serotypes BTV1 and BTV4 were detected in sentinel animals in January and November and in March 2012, respectively. The last BTV8 positive animal was detected in November 2010, which implies that in the coming months, Spain may be declared free of BTV8.

  17. [Latin Americans in Spain (1981-1994). Estimation of a recent migratory phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Palazon Ferrando, S

    1996-04-01

    The author analyzes characteristics of Latin American migration to Spain during the period 1981-1994. Aspects considered include causes of the increase of Latin American migration to Spain; policies limiting migration to Spain; spatial distribution and sex of immigrants; labor force activity; and country of origin.

  18. [An economic interpretation of some contemporary migrations. The case of Spain].

    PubMed

    Bodega Fernandez, M I; Cebrian De Miguel, J A

    1995-01-01

    Current international migration flows affecting Spain are analyzed from an economic perspective. The main economic causes of international migration in general are first outlined. Trends in Spain over the past 20 years are then analyzed, with particular reference to the problems of regularizing immigrant laborers. The extent of remittances from Spain to Morocco is assessed. The study concludes by summarizing Spanish immigration policies. (ANNOTATION)

  19. 48 CFR 252.229-7013 - Tax exemptions (Spain)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7013 Tax exemptions (Spain)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Spain)—Representation (APR 2012)...

  20. 48 CFR 252.229-7013 - Tax exemptions (Spain)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7013 Tax exemptions (Spain)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Spain)—Representation (APR 2012)...

  1. What's Going On? An Overview of Adult Education Policies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucio-Villegas, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I attempt to present the state of adult education in Spain. Adult education in Spain is not unlike that of other countries in Europe in that it focuses on the policies and practices of lifelong learning rather than on the perspectives of people and communities. However, Spain has two specific characteristics that are distinctive…

  2. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  4. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  5. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  6. 48 CFR 252.229-7013 - Tax exemptions (Spain)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7013 Tax exemptions (Spain)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Spain)—Representation (APR 2012)...

  7. Paleoparasitological finding of eggs of nematodes in rodent coprolites dated at the early Holocene from the archaeological site Cerro Casa de Piedra 7, Santa Cruz, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sardella, N H; Fugassa, M H

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the parasite remains present in rodent coprolites collected from the archaeological site Cerro Casa de Piedra 7 (CCP7), located in the Perito Moreno National Park (47°57'S, 72°05'W), Santa Cruz Province, Argentina. Eight coprolites obtained from the layer 17, dated at 10,620 ± 40 to 9,390 ± 40 yr B.P., were examined for parasites. Feces were processed whole, rehydrated, homogenized, subjected to spontaneous sedimentation, and examined via light microscopy. Eggs of parasites were measured and photographed. Seven of 8 coprolites possessed 199 eggs of 2, probably new, species of nematodes, including 43 eggs of Heteroxynema sp. Hall, 1916 (Cavioxyura sp. Quentin, 1975) (Oxyurida, Heteroxynematidae), and 156 eggs of Trichuris sp. Roederer, 1761 (Trichinellida, Trichuridae). Heteroxynema sp. is cited for the first time from ancient material worldwide. The finding of Trichuris spp. in both rodents and other host samples from the area under study is indicative of the stability of the biological and environmental conditions for this nematode genus to establish in the Patagonian Early Holocene. The rodent host was assigned to an unknown species of Caviomorpha (Hystricognathi) that lived during the Pleistocenic transition in Patagonia.

  8. Distribution and extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), upper Santa Cruz River watershed, southern Arizona, 2011-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lester, Michael B.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems in arid environments provide critical habitat for breeding, migratory, and wintering birds, yet are often at risk of contamination by heavy metals. Birds and other animals living in contaminated areas are susceptible to adverse health effects as a result of long-term exposure and bioaccumulation of heavy metals. We investigated the distribution and cascading extent of heavy metal accumulation in Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia) in Arizona’s upper Santa Cruz River watershed. This study had three goals: (1) quantify the degree of heavy metal accumulation in sparrows and determine the distributional patterns among study sites, (2) compare concentrations of metals found in this study to those found in studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade, and (3) assess sparrow condition among sites with differing potential sources of contamination exposure. We examined six study sites that reflected different potential sources of contamination. Hematocrit values, body mass residuals, and leukocyte counts were used to assess sparrow condition. Cadmium, copper, mercury, nickel, and selenium exceeded background concentrations at some sites, but generally were lower than or similar to concentrations found in earlier studies performed prior to the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade. Concentrations were higher in recaptured birds in 2012 than in 2011 for 7 metals in feathers and 14 metals in blood, suggesting possible bioaccumulation. We found no cascading effects as a result of heavy metal exposure, but did find that heavy metal concentrations were reduced following the 2009 international wastewater treatment plant upgrade.

  9. Surveillance for West Nile Virus and Vaccination of Free-Ranging Island Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma insularis) on Santa Cruz Island, California

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Caldwell, Luke; Wheeler, Sarah S.; Barker, Christopher M.; Cummings, Robert; Reisen, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) on mainland California poses an ongoing threat to the island scrub-jay (ISSJ, Aphelocoma insularis), a species that occurs only on Santa Cruz Island, California, and whose total population numbers <5000. Our report describes the surveillance and management efforts conducted since 2006 that are designed to understand and mitigate for the consequences of WNV introduction into the ISSJ population. We suspect that WNV would most likely be introduced to the island via the movement of infected birds from the mainland. However, antibody testing of >750 migrating and resident birds on the island from 2006 to 2009 indicated that WNV had not become established by the end of 2009. Several species of competent mosquito vectors were collected at very low abundance on the island, including the important mainland vectors Culex tarsalis and Culex quinquefasciatus. However, the island was generally cooler than areas of mainland California that experienced intense WNV transmission, and these lower temperatures may have reduced the likelihood of WNV becoming established because they do not support efficient virus replication in mosquitoes. A vaccination program was initiated in 2008 to create a rescue population of ISSJ that would be more likely to survive a catastrophic outbreak. To further that goal, we recommend managers vaccinate >100 ISSJ each year as part of ongoing research and monitoring efforts. PMID:21438695

  10. Natural history of Sanfilippo syndrome in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo syndrome, is caused by a deficiency in one of the four enzymes involved in the lysosomal degradation of heparan sulphate. Four MPS III types have been recognized, characterized by a large phenotypic heterogeneity. This is the first Spanish study describing the natural history of Sanfilippo patients (MPSIIIA, MPSIIIB and MPSIIIC), representing an essential step for understanding patient prognosis and for the establishment and application of future therapies. Methods This retrospective study aimed to establish the natural history of MPS III in Spain based on an extensive chronological data survey involving physicians and parents of 55 Spanish MPSIII patients. In addition to clinical description we report biochemical and molecular analysis already performed in the majority of cases. Results The most frequent subtype was MPS IIIA (62%). Symptoms before diagnosis were speech delay in 85%, followed by coarse facial features in 78%, and hyperactivity in 65% of cases at a mean age of 3 years old. The median age at clinical and biochemical diagnosis for each MPS III subtype were as follows: IIIA 4.4 years (1.2 – 16 years), IIIB 3.1 years (1–29 years), and IIIC 6.3 years (3.4-22 years). 45% of patients developed epilepsy at a median age of 8.7 (2.5 – 37) years old. Age of death for MPS IIIA patients was 15 years (11.5 – 26 years). Molecular analysis of our cohort reveals, as alluded to above, a great allelic heterogeneity in the three subtypes without clear genotype-phenotype correlations in most cases. Conclusion MPS IIIA is the most frequent subtype in Spanish Sanfilippo patients. Diagnosing physicians should consider Sanfilippo syndrome in children with non-specific speech delay, behavioural abnormalities, and/or mild dysmorphic features. We stress the importance of establishing early diagnosis procedures as soon as possible so as to be able to determine future short-term enzymatic or gene

  11. Studies of pasture production in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.; Paredes Galán, J.; Prieto Macías, P. M.; Blanco, V. Maya

    2009-04-01

    The region of Extremadura covers more than four million hectares in the South West of Spain, with dehesas occupying almost 1.5 million hectares of its surface. This agro-silvo-pastoral land use system constitutes the most recommendable model for extensive exploitation in Mediterranean areas in which the semiarid climate and the poor, shallow soils are constraints on any other type of agricultural use. It is characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. The pastures are the basis for animal breeding in the dehesas being these ecosystems of great economic, social as well as environmental value in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. These facts justify the investigation on pasture improvement and the study on spatial and temporal variations of pasture production in the whole region. Pasture production is quite variable, highly determined by soil and climate conditions. Rainfall variability produces large seasonal and annual variations, with the highest production in spring, low production in autumn and very scarce in winter. During summer, while pastures are wilting, hard seeds stay latent in the soil and gradually germinate in consecutive months. But variability of pasture production in such a heterogeneous ecosystem does not only depend on edaphic and climate conditions, but also on other factors, such as grazing management, improvement measures, fertilization, exploitation infrastructures, stocking rates, etc. The present study, carried out in the framework of the "Montado/Dehesa" INTERREG project, aimed to sample pasture production in Extremadura, in order to provide a large amount of real data for determining the influence of the different factors involved, which will constitute the basis for the developement of a production model. The latter will be integrated into a tool helping to decide on the best practice of dehesa management. Pastures were

  12. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  13. Acculturation Stress and Bullying among Immigrant Youths in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.; Nieri, Tanya A.; Villar, Paula; Luengo, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Few bullying studies focus on immigrant youths or acculturation stress as a risk factor for bullying and being bullied. Employing a sample of 1,157 foreign-born secondary students in Spain, we found that acculturation stress was widely experienced, although the average level of stress was moderate. Five percent of the sample reported being…

  14. Deaths from pesticide poisoning in Spain from 1991 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Repetto, R; Soria, M L; Gimenez, M P; Menendez, M; Repetto, M

    1998-06-01

    Data on 184 deaths from pesticide poisonings that occurred in Spain from 1991 to 1996 have been collated via a survey from the National Institute of Toxicology, Sevilla. Organophosphates and carbamates accounted for the majority of the cases. Other substances involved were organochlorines such as endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat.

  15. Great Writers of Spain I (Nineteenth Century): 7506.26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The main goal of this course of study is for the student to understand, recognize, and interpret the many changes which occurred in the poetry and prose of Spain at the advent of Romanticism. The student also studies the movements that followed Romanticism: Realism, Regionalism, and Naturalism. Performance objectives, suggested materials, learning…

  16. The social crisis of the Eurozone: the case of Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the consequences of the austerity policies promoted by the European Central Bank, the European Commission, and the International Monetary Fund and applied to the peripheral countries of the Eurozone, including Spain. In addition to deteriorating the economic conditions of these countries, these policies are hurting the social well-being of their populations.

  17. Education and Social Change in Spain: From Crisis to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortés-González, Pablo; Rivas-Flores, J.Ignacio; Leite-Méndez, Analía E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses a particular socio-educational experience in a marginalised neighbourhood in Malaga, Spain. This initiative came about as an institutional proposal to combat neoliberal austerity policies and is known as the "Casa de la Buena Vida". It aims to generate new educational practices based on solidarity, dignity and…

  18. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  19. Vocational Education and Training in Spain. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Carlos Otero; Machado, Andres Munoz; Sanchez, Aitor Marcos

    This monograph on the vocational education and training (VET) system in Spain is one of a series on VET systems in the European Union Member States. Chapter 1 provides this background information: political and administrative structures, population, Spanish economy, and employment. Chapter 2 describes the current education system. Chapter 3 covers…

  20. The Evolution of the University Teaching Staff in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Julio R.

    1985-01-01

    The history of university faculty in Spain and the changes brought about by the University Reform Act of 1983 are discussed, including the faculty status as civil servants, faculty hiring, provisions for research opportunities, age distribution, women faculty, and faculty development opportunities. (MSE)

  1. A survey of Rocketry and astronautics in Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluquer, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The entire field of rocketry and astronautics in Spain was studied. Congreve war rockets in military actions were emphasized in the African war, the Cuban campaign and the Spanish Civil War. Rockets in space travel were also summarized along with space science fiction.

  2. Integrating Art Education Models: Contemporary Controversies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belver, Manuel; Ulln, Ana; Acaso, Mara

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a basic controversy for art education in Spain is analysed, and its antecedents in thought and social and artistic practices are reviewed. The controversy refers to the question whether school art education should be oriented towards the fine arts or towards the manual arts. Consequently, which should be the cultural model of…

  3. First Report of Babesia microti-Caused Babesiosis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Arsuaga, Marta; Gonzalez, Luis M; Lobo, Cheryl A; de la Calle, Fernando; Bautista, Jose M; Azcárate, Isabel G; Puente, Sabino; Montero, Estrella

    2016-10-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis now found in several areas of the world. Using PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay, we have diagnosed the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia microti in Spain. Diagnosis was delayed because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms that occurred in an immunocompetent patient.

  4. Municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Vidal, Enrique; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier; Cabanes, Anna; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background Spain was the country that registered the greatest increases in ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. This study describes the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain using spatial models for small-area analysis. Methods Smoothed relative risks of ovarian cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag, York and Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risks, and distribution of the posterior probability of relative risks being greater than 1 were depicted on municipal maps. Results During the study period (1989–1998), 13,869 ovarian cancer deaths were registered in 2,718 Spanish towns, accounting for 4% of all cancer-related deaths among women. The highest relative risks were mainly concentrated in three areas, i.e., the interior of Barcelona and Gerona (north-east Spain), the north of Lugo and Asturias (north-west Spain) and along the Seville-Huelva boundary (in the south-west). Eivissa (Balearic Islands) and El Hierro (Canary Islands) also registered increased risks. Conclusion Well established ovarian cancer risk factors might not contribute significantly to the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality. Environmental and occupational exposures possibly linked to this pattern and prevalent in specific regions, are discussed in this paper. Small-area geographical studies are effective instruments for detecting risk areas that may otherwise remain concealed on a more reduced scale. PMID:18789142

  5. Spain: government orders distribution of clean needles in prisons.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    In a previous issue of the Review we published an article about the positive results of the evaluation of the first needle exchange programs in Spanish prisons. Recently it was reported that Spain's Ministry of the Interior has ordered that sterile needles be distributed in prisons.

  6. The Development of Learning to Learn in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Amparo; Martin, Elena

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we describe how the concept of "learning to learn" has developed in Spain, and give you an overview of relevant Spanish projects. First, we sketch out how this approach has developed in Spanish educational laws. We then give examples of research projects, assessment instruments and instructional programmes pertinent to…

  7. Potentially Zoonotic Bartonella in Bats from France and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Matthew J.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Servat, Alexandre; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    We detected Bartonella in 11 of 109 insectivorous bats from France and 1 of 26 bats from Spain. These genetic variants are closely related to bat-associated Bartonella described in Finland and the United Kingdom and to B. mayotimonensis, the agent of a human endocarditis case in the United States. PMID:28221109

  8. NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN WILD CARNIVORES FROM SPAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination test (NAT) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (I...

  9. From Dictatorship to Democracy: History of Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viñao, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In a book published in 1995 providing an overview on the state of the art in European educational historiography in Europe, Marie-Madeleine Compère referring to post-Franco Spain, emphasised the "dynamism" and "the capacity to mobilise" that had arisen among Spanish researchers by "any collective initiative." Moving…

  10. Wage Gaps Between the Public and Private Sectors in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Estimates separate earnings equations by employment sector and gender in Spain and identifies returns to human capital, based on 1990-91 household survey data. Public wages are higher, and civil servants more highly educated. However, the public sector pays lower returns to education and experience. Earnings advantage is largest for least skilled…

  11. Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

  12. Mycobacterium caprae Infection in Livestock and Wildlife, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Sabrina; Bezos, Javier; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Álvarez, Julio; Castellanos, Elena; Moya, Nuria; Lozano, Francisco; Javed, M. Tariq; Sáez-Llorente, José L.; Liébana, Ernesto; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas; Tuberculosis, Monitoring of Animal

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium caprae is a pathogen that can infect animals and humans. To better understand the epidemiology of M. caprae, we spoligotyped 791 animal isolates. Results suggest infection is widespread in Spain, affecting 6 domestic and wild animal species. The epidemiology is driven by infections in caprids, although the organism has emerged in cattle. PMID:21392452

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), three of six European wildc...

  14. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus–associated Meningitis, Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Marí, José-María; Sánchez-Seco, María-Paz; Gegúndez, María-Isabel; Palacios, Gustavo; Savji, Nazir; Lipkin, W. Ian; Fedele, Giovanni; de Ory-Manchón, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was detected in 2 patients with acute meningitis in southern Spain within a 3-year period. Although the prevalence of LCMV infection was low (2 [1.3%] of 159 meningitis patients), it represents 2.9% of all pathogens detected. LCMV is a noteworthy agent of neurologic illness in immunocompetent persons. PMID:22515986

  15. International Briefing 34: Training and Development in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Mike; Ponce Sanz, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This article locates training and development in Spain within the country's socio-economic context. It maps the major changes which have been introduced into the training and development system since the briefing by Escardíbul and Llinas-Audet published in this journal in 2010. It relates those changes to the ongoing economic crisis which began in…

  16. The Creative Class and the Creative Economy in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Báez, Juan Miguel; Bergua, José Angel; Pac, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an application in Spain of Florida's model (2002/2010, 2005) about creativity, economy and growth. Creativity is an indicator that measures and combines technology, talent, and tolerance. Each of these is composed of three subindices. The most important conclusion from the data reported here is that creativity in particular,…

  17. Family Risk Factors for Adolescent Drug Misuse in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose Ramon; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze the influence and the differential weight of certain family factors in Spanish adolescent substance abuse. A representative sample of 1,680 students of both sexes from all over Spain took part in the study. The results show that the variables associated with drug consumption are: male,…

  18. Faith in School: Immigrant Families' Attitudes towards Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terren, Eduardo; Carrasco, Concha

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on a preliminary exploration of the in-depth interviews and focus groups that are part of a more extensive research project on the education of children of immigrants in Spain. In the process of migration, families undergo profound transformations that are often complicated by extended periods of separation--not only from…

  19. University Reform in Spain: New Structures for Autonomy and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, James B.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983, Spain's Socialist government enacted the Law for University Reform (LRU), which decentralized university administration and strengthened institutional autonomy as a means of encouraging reform and greater accountability to social needs. Discusses the legacy of the Franco regime, LRU provisions for university organization and governance,…

  20. Evaluation of Hybrid and Distance Education Learning Environments in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Walker, Scott L.; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Fernandez-Pascual, Maria Dolores; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation and validation of the "Distance Education Learning Environments Survey" (DELES) for use in investigating the qualities found in distance and hybrid education psycho-social learning environments in Spain. As Europe moves toward post-secondary student mobility, equanimity in access to higher education,…

  1. The Culture of Discourse on Educational Reform in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Cathryn

    2004-01-01

    Where the education of subaltern multicultural student collectives is concerned, the case of contemporary developments in the discourse of reform in Spain is particularly poignant. A critical engagement with that discourse and its greater sociocultural context reveals some of the subtle ways in which cultural alterity comes to be represented. And…

  2. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  6. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  7. Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Clones, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre, Luz; Ardanuy, Carmen; Fenoll, Asunción; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Liñares, Josefina

    2004-01-01

    Among 2,882 Streptococcus pneumoniae sent to the Spanish Reference Laboratory during 2002, 75 (2.6%) were ciprofloxacin-resistant. Resistance was associated with older patients (3.9% in adults and 7.2% in patients >65 years of age), with isolation from noninvasive sites (4.3% vs. 1.0%), and with penicillin and macrolide resistance. Among 14 low-level resistant (MIC 4–8 µg/mL) strains, 1 had a fluoroquinolone efflux phenotype, and 13 showed single ParC changes. The 61 high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC >16 µg/mL) strains showed either two or three changes at ParC, ParE, and GyrA. Resistance was acquired either by point mutation (70 strains) or by recombination with viridans streptococci (4 strains) at the topoisomerase II genes. Although 36 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were observed, 5 international multiresistant clones (Spain23F-1, Spain6B-2, Spain9V-3, Spain14-5 and Sweden15A-25) accounted for 35 (46.7%) of the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. Continuous surveillance is needed to prevent the dissemination of these clones. PMID:15504260

  8. Small fluxgate magnetometers: development and future trends in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  9. First Report of Babesia microti-Caused Babesiosis in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Arsuaga, Marta; Gonzalez, Luis M.; Lobo, Cheryl A.; de la Calle, Fernando; Bautista, Jose M.; Azcárate, Isabel G.; Puente, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis now found in several areas of the world. Using PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay, we have diagnosed the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia microti in Spain. Diagnosis was delayed because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms that occurred in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:27560451

  10. Bagaza Virus in Partridges and Pheasants, Spain, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Agüero, Montserrat; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Buitrago, Dolores; Sánchez, Azucena; Elizalde, Maia; San Miguel, Elena; Villalba, Ruben; Llorente, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, an unusually high number of wild birds (partridges and pheasants) died in Cádiz in southwestern Spain. Reverse transcription PCR and virus isolation detected flavivirus infections. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis identified Bagaza virus, a flavivirus with a known distribution that includes sub-Saharan Africa and India, as the causative agent. PMID:21801633

  11. Universal Developmental Screening: Preliminary Studies in Galicia, Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento Campos, Jose A.; Squires, Jane; Ponte, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    "A_Tempo" is a research project that is currently under development in Galicia, an autonomous community of Spain. Its main aim is to propose an effective universal screening procedure for early identification of developmental disorders in children from zero to three years of age who attend Galician pre-primary schools.…

  12. Complementary Pu Resuspension Study at Palomares, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J

    2002-10-01

    Soil in an area near Palomares, Spain, was contaminated with plutonium as a result of a mid-air collision of U.S. military aircraft in January 1966. The assessment for potential inhalation dose can be found in Iranzo et al., (1987). Long-term monitoring has been used to evaluate remedial actions (Iranzo et al., 1988) and there are many supporting studies of the Pu contamination at Palomares that have been carried out by the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) in Madrid. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resuspension of Pu from the soil in terms of Pu-concentrations in air and resuspension rates in a complementary investigation to those of CIEMAT but in an intensive short-term field effort. This study complements the resuspension studies of CIEMAT at Palomares with additional information, and with confirmation of their previous studies. Observed mass loadings (M) were an average of 70 mg/m{sup 3} with peaks in the daytime of 130 mg/m{sup 3} and low values at night below 30 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The Pu-activity of aerosols (A) downwind of plot 2-1 was 0.12 Bq/g and the enhancement factor (E{sub f}) had a value of 0.3, which is low but similar to a typical value of 0.7 for other undisturbed sites. This E{sub f} value may increase further away from ground zero. The particle size distribution of the Pu in air measured by cascade impactors was approximately lognormal with a median aerodynamic diameter of 3.7 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 3.5 in the respirable range. This peak midway between 1 ? m and 10 {micro}m in the respirable range is commonly observed. Daily fluctuations in the Pu concentration in air (C) detected by the UHV were lognormally distributed with a geometric standard deviation of 4.9 indicating that the 98th percentile would be 24 times as high as the median. Downwind of plot 2-1 the mean Pu concentration in air, C, was 8.5 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}. The resuspension factor (Sf) was 2.4 x 10

  13. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  14. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  15. On a Lecture Trip to Spain: The Scientific Relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presas i Puig, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926) and the German academic policy that fostered it. The study of the international relations of German science during the 1920s has been carried out using as a basis the archives of scientific institutions. Personal…

  16. Toxicological, Enzymatic, and Molecular Assessment of the Insecticide Susceptibility Profile of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, Triatominae) Populations From Rural Communities of Santa Cruz, Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Santo-Orihuela, Pablo L.; Vassena, Claudia V.; Carvajal, Guillermo; Clark, Eva; Menacho, Silvio; Bozo, Ricardo; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Marcet, Paula L.

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of insecticide resistance profiles has been reported across Bolivian domestic and sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), including some with levels proven to be a threat for vector control. In this work, the insecticide profile of domestic T. infestans was studied with standardized toxicological bioassays, in an area that has not undergone consistent vector control. F1 first-instarnymphs hatched in laboratory from bugs captured in three communities from the Santa Cruz Department were evaluated with different insecticides. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases was measured in individual insects to evaluate the possible mechanism of metabolic resistance to pyrethroids. In addition, the DNA sequence of sodium channel gene (kdr) was screened for two point mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance previously reported in T. infestans. All populations showed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin and α-cypermethrin, albeit the RR50 values varied significantly among them. Increased P450 monooxygenases and permethrate esterases suggest the contribution, as detoxifying mechanisms, to the observed resistance to deltamethrin in all studied populations. No individuals presented either mutation associated to resistance in the kdr gene. The level of susceptibility to α-cypermethrin, the insecticide used by the local vector control program, falls within an acceptable range to continue its use in these populations. However, the observed RR50 values evidence the possibility of selection for resistance to pyrethroids, especially to deltamethrin. Consequently, the use of pyrethroid insecticides should be closely monitored in these communities, which should be kept under entomological surveillance and sustained interventions. PMID:28011736

  17. Timing of large earthquakes during the past 500 years along the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the San Andreas fault at Mill Canyon, near Watsonville, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fumal, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    A paleoseismic investigation across the Santa Cruz Mountains section of the San Andreas fault at Mill Canyon indicates that four surface‐rupturing earthquakes have occurred there during the past ~500  years. At this site, right‐lateral fault slip has moved a low shutter ridge across the mouth of the canyon, ponding latest Holocene sediments. These alluvial deposits are deformed along a narrow zone of faulting. There is excellent evidence for a 1906 (M 7.8) and three earlier earthquakes consisting of well‐developed fissures, scarps, and colluvial wedges. Deformation resulting from the earlier earthquakes is comparable to that from 1906, suggesting they also were large‐magnitude events. The earthquake prior to 1906 occurred either about A.D. 1750 (1711–1770) or A.D. 1855 (1789–1904), depending on assumptions incorporated into two alternative OxCal models. If the later age range is correct, then the earthquake may have been a historical early‐to‐mid‐nineteenth‐century earthquake, possibly the A.D. 1838 earthquake. Both models are viable, and there is no way to select one over the other with the available data. Two earlier earthquakes occurred about A.D. 1690 (1660–1720) and A.D. 1522 (1454–1605). Using OxCal, recalculation of the age of the reported penultimate earthquake reported from the Grizzly Flat site, located about 10 km northwest of Mill Canyon, indicates it occurred about A.D. 1105–1545, earlier than any of the past three earthquakes, and possibly correlates to the fourth earthquake at Mill Canyon.

  18. Assessing the influence of topography and canopy structure on Douglas fir throughfall with LiDAR and empirical data in the Santa Cruz mountains, USA.

    PubMed

    Griffith, K T; Ponette-González, A G; Curran, L M; Weathers, K C

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric inputs to forest ecosystems vary considerably over small spatial scales due to subtle changes in relief and vegetation structure. Relationships between throughfall fluxes (ions that pass through the canopy in water), topographic and canopy characteristics derived from sub-meter resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR), and field measurements were compared to test the potential utility of LiDAR in empirical models of atmospheric deposition. From October 2012 to May 2013, we measured bulk (primarily wet) deposition and sulfate-S, chloride (Cl(-)), and nitrate-N fluxes beneath eight clusters of Douglas fir trees differing in size and canopy exposure in the Santa Cruz Mountains, California. For all trees sampled, LiDAR data were used to derive canopy surface height, tree height, slope, and canopy curvature, while tree height, diameter (DBH), and leaf area index were measured in the field. Wet season throughfall fluxes to Douglas fir clusters ranged from 1.4 to 3.8 kg S ha(-1), 17-54 kg Cl(-) ha(-1), and 0.2-4 kg N ha(-1). Throughfall S and Cl(-) fluxes were highest under clusters with large trees at topographically exposed sites; net fluxes were 2-18-fold greater underneath exposed/large clusters than all other clusters. LiDAR indices of canopy curvature and height were positively correlated with net sulfate-S fluxes, indicating that small-scale canopy surface features captured by LiDAR influence fog and dry deposition. Although tree diameter was more strongly correlated with net sulfate-S throughfall flux, our data suggest that LiDAR data can be related to empirical measurements of throughfall fluxes to generate robust high-resolution models of atmospheric deposition.

  19. Steroid levels and reproductive cycle of the Galápagos tortoise, Geochelone nigra, living under seminatural conditions on Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos).

    PubMed

    Schramm, B G; Casares, M; Lance, V A

    1999-04-01

    The Galápagos Islands are home to 11 subspecies of large terrestrial tortoises (Geochelone nigra). All Galápagos tortoises are considered endangered and approximately 12,000 animals still exist. Until now, the reproductive cycle of the Galápagos tortoise has been studied only in captive animals, and no data from free-ranging tortoises have been available. During a one-year period, blood samples were collected from male and female G. nigra living under seminatural conditions on Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos. Plasma steroid hormones were measured by radioimmunoassays (RIAs). In males, plasma testosterone and corticosterone increased a few months before the onset of the mating season. Peak levels were observed while most copulations occurred and environmental temperatures were highest. Both testosterone and corticosterone showed low levels during the cold and dry nesting season and high levels during the hot and rainy mating season. In females, testosterone and corticosterone also rose during the hot and rainy mating season. Both hormones peaked during the second half of the mating season and decreased during the cooler dry season. Female estradiol levels increased at the onset of the mating season, reaching the highest level at the peak of the mating season, which coincided with the highest annual temperatures measured. Estradiol slowly decreased within the next months and rapidly dropped at the onset of the nesting season when temperatures decreased. Progesterone levels were high close to the time of ovulation and showed clearly elevated levels at the beginning of the nesting season after some females had laid their first clutch. Progesterone decreased during the nesting season, when ambient temperatures began to decrease, and reached minimal levels in the postbreeding period shortly before the onset of the next mating season. There were significant annual variations in plasma testosterone in both males and females. Plasma corticosterone was generally higher in

  20. Regional Analysis of Stormwater Runoff for the Placement of Managed Aquifer Recharge Sites in Santa Cruz and Northern Monterey Counties, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. S.; Beganskas, S.; Fisher, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    We apply a USGS surface hydrology model, Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), to analyze stormwater runoff in Santa Cruz and Northern Monterey Counties, CA with the goal of supplying managed aquifer recharge (MAR) sites. Under the combined threats of multiyear drought and excess drawdown, this region's aquifers face numerous sustainability challenges, including seawater intrusion, chronic overdraft, increased contamination, and subsidence. This study addresses the supply side of this resource issue by increasing our knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of runoff that could provide water for MAR. Ensuring the effectiveness of MAR using stormwater requires a thorough understanding of runoff distribution and site-specific surface and subsurface aquifer conditions. In this study we use a geographic information system (GIS) and a 3-m digital elevation model (DEM) to divide the region's four primary watersheds into Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs), or topographic sub-basins, that serve as discretized input cells for PRMS. We then assign vegetation, soil, land use, slope, aspect, and other characteristics to these HRUs, from a variety of data sources, and analyze runoff spatially using PRMS under varying precipitation conditions. We are exploring methods of linking spatially continuous and high-temporal-resolution precipitation datasets to generate input precipitation catalogs, facilitating analyses of a variety of regimes. To gain an understanding of how surface hydrology has responded to land development, we will also modify our input data to represent pre-development conditions. Coupled with a concurrent MAR suitability analysis, our model results will help screen for locations of future MAR projects and will improve our understanding of how changes in land use and climate impact hydrologic runoff and aquifer recharge.

  1. Re-emergence of leishmaniasis in Spain: community outbreak in Madrid, Spain, 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Arce, A; Estirado, A; Ordobas, M; Sevilla, S; García, N; Moratilla, L; de la Fuente, S; Martínez, A M; Pérez, A M; Aránguez, E; Iriso, A; Sevillano, O; Bernal, J; Vilas, F

    2013-07-25

    Since July 2009, there has been a community outbreak of leishmaniasis in the south-west area of the Madrid autonomous community, Spain, affecting residents from four towns that are geographically close together and share extensive park areas. As of December 2012, 446 cases were reported (6 in 2009, 97 in 2010, 196 in 2011 and 147 in 2012), a mean incidence rate of 22.2 per 100,000 inhabitants during July 2009 and December 2012. The mean age was 44 years (range: 2 months to 95 years); 61.0% were male. A total of 68 (15.2%) had immunosuppressive conditions; 160 (35.9%) had visceral leishmaniasis and 286 (64.1%) cutaneous. A total of 421 (94.4%) cases were confirmed. Leishmania infantum was identified as the agent. Monitoring revealed high densities of the vector Phlebotomus perniciosus. The surveillance system for canine leishmaniasis did not detect any increase in prevalence during the period. Environmental control measures have been taken, such as improvements in sanitation and disinsection in the risk areas and control of the overpopulation of Leporidae, as xenodiagnosis studies have shown that hares play a role as active reservoirs. This is the largest reported community outbreak of leishmaniasis in Europe. The discovery of the new reservoir stands out in the multifactorial aetiology of the outbreak. Epidemiological research and environmental intervention measures are continuing.

  2. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST). Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4), 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20) and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21) were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several European countries, but

  3. Validation of the geographic position of EPER-Spain industries

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; Vidal, Enrique; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background The European Pollutant Emission Register in Spain (EPER-Spain) is a public inventory of pollutant industries created by decision of the European Union. The location of these industries is geocoded and the first published data correspond to 2001. Publication of these data will allow for quantification of the effect of proximity to one or more such plant on cancer and all-cause mortality observed in nearby towns. However, as errors have been detected in the geocoding of many of the pollutant foci shown in the EPER, it was decided that a validation study should be conducted into the accuracy of these co-ordinates. EPER-Spain geographic co-ordinates were drawn from the European Environment Agency (EEA) server and the Spanish Ministry of the Environment (MOE). The Farm Plot Geographic Information System (Sistema de Información Geográfica de Parcelas Agrícolas) (SIGPAC) enables orthophotos (digitalized aerial images) of any territorial point across Spain to be obtained. Through a search of co-ordinates in the SIGPAC, all the industrial foci (except farms) were located. The quality criteria used to ascertain possible errors in industrial location were high, medium and low quality, where industries were situated at a distance of less than 500 metres, more than 500 metres but less than 1 kilometre, and more than 1 kilometre from their real locations, respectively. Results Insofar as initial registry quality was concerned, 84% of industrial complexes were inaccurately positioned (low quality) according to EEA data versus 60% for Spanish MOE data. The distribution of the distances between the original and corrected co-ordinates for each of the industries on the registry revealed that the median error was 2.55 kilometres for Spain overall (according to EEA data). The Autonomous Regions that displayed most errors in industrial geocoding were Murcia, Canary Islands, Andalusia and Madrid. Correct co-ordinates were successfully allocated to 100% of EPER-Spain

  4. Precipitation concentration changes in Spain 1946-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luis, M.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Brunetti, M.; Longares, L. A.

    2011-05-01

    An analysis was made of the Precipitation Concentration Index using the new MOPREDAS database of monthly precipitation in Spain (Monthly Precipitation Data base of Spain). The database was compiled after exhaustive quality control of the complete digitalized Spanish Meterological Agency (AEMet) archives and contains a total set of 2670 complete and homogeneous monthly precipitation series from 1946 to 2005. Thus, MOPREDAS currently holds the densest information available for the 1946-2005 period for Spain and ensures a high resolution of results. The Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI) is a powerful indicator of the temporal distribution of precipitation, traditionally applied at annual scales; as the value increases, the more concentrated the precipitation. Furthermore PCI is a part of the well-known Fournier index, with a long tradition on natural system analyses, as for example soil erosion. In this paper, the mean values of annual, seasonal and wet and dry periods of PCI in the conterminous Spain and for two normal periods (1946-1975 and 1976-2005) were studied. Precipitation in Spain follows a general NW-SE spatial pattern during the wet (months) period due to the Atlantic storm track, while during the dry (months) period, it follows a predominantly N-S spatial pattern. As a result, the annual values of PCI combine the two patterns and show a SW-NE PCI gradient. The analyses of the two sub-periods show significant changes in the precipitation occurred in conterminous Spain from 1946 to 2005, and precipitation concentration increased across most of the IP. At an annual scale, PCI increases mostly due to an increase in precipitation concentration during the wet season. At a seasonal scale significant changes were detected between 1945-1975 and 1976-2005, particularly in autumn (increase of PCI values), while changes in winter, spring and summer were mostly localized and not generalized (both increase and decrease). Changes in PCI seem to be complex and

  5. The spider genus Cyrioctea Simon on Chañaral Island (Pingüino de Humboldt National Reserve, Atacama, Chile): description of a new species, and the male of Cyrioctea cruz Platnick (Araneae, Zodariidae).

    PubMed

    Grismado, Cristian J; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2016-05-02

    A faunistic survey on Chañaral Island, Atacama, near the northern Pacific coast of Chile, allowed the discovery and description of a new species of the spider genus Cyrioctea: C. islachanaral sp. nov., based on females collected by pitfall traps. Strikingly, this new species shares morphological characters with some Southern African representatives of this genus rather than with the species of continental South America. The male of the species C. cruz Platnick, previously known from continental Chile (northern Coquimbo), is described for the first time based on specimens collected in the same locality.

  6. [Controversies surrounding pain and inhalation anesthesia in nineteenth century Spain].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Torres, B; Márquez-Espinós, C; de Las Mulas-Béjar, M

    2001-05-01

    The introduction of inhaled anesthetics to Spain in 1847 brought appearances by enthusiastic promotors, prudent and reserved admirers and stubborn adversaries - sparking controversy over the use of the new gases. In some cases debate involved the discussion of various concepts of pain, as is shown by heated exchanges among Eusebio Castelo Serra, Manuel Santos Guerra and Zacarías Benito González in the pages of the journal Boletín de Medicina, Cirugía y Farmacia, in three articles appearing between 1850 and 1851 on the concept of pain: Sobre el dolor de las enfermedades y principalmente en las operaciones quirúrgicas, Modificación de dos instrumentos and Estudios sobre el dolor. Investigation into the authors' biographies and an analysis of the content of the articles has permitted us to reconstruct some aspects of the concept of pain in Spain in the middle of the nineteenth century.

  7. Explaining social discrimination: racism in Brazil and xenophobia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Camino, Leoncio; Álvaro, José Luis; Torres, Ana Raquel R; Garrido, Alicia; Morais, Thiago; Barbosa, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the arguments used by university students in order to explain social differences between social minorities and majorities. In Brazil, the issues investigated refer to White and Black people. In Spain, the reference is to native Spaniards and Moroccan immigrants. The participants were 144 Brazilians and 93 Spaniards, who answered a questionnaire composed of socio-demographic variables and one open question about the causes of social inequalities between Black and White people in Brazil and between autochthonous Spaniards and Moroccan Immigrants. A model is proposed to integrate the four discursive classes found using ALCESTE software. In Brazil, the strongest argument is based on the historical roots of the exploitation of Black people. In Spain, cultural differences are the main explanation for social inequalities.

  8. Nuclear fission technology in Spain: History and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Aliende Urtasun, Ana; Luquin, Asunción; Garrido, Julián J

    2017-04-01

    This research examines the evolution of nuclear technology in Spain from the early years of the Franco dictatorship to the global financial crisis and technology's influence on Spanish culture. To this end, we take a sociological perspective, with science culture and social perceptions of risk in knowledge societies serving as the two elements of focus in this work. In this sense, this article analyses the transformation of social relationships in light of technological changes. We propose technology as a strategic place to observe the institutional and organisational dynamics of technologic-scientific risks, the expert role and Spain's science culture. In addition, more specifically, within the language of co-production, we 'follow the actor' and favour new forms of citizen participation that promote ethics to discuss technological issues.

  9. An empirical approach to estimate soil erosion risk in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martín-Fernández, Luis; Martínez-Núñez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most important factors in land degradation and influences desertification worldwide. In 2001, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment launched the 'National Inventory of Soil Erosion (INES) 2002-2012' to study the process of soil erosion in Spain. The aim of the current article is to assess the usefulness of this National Inventory as an instrument of control, measurement and monitoring of soil erosion in Spain. The methodology and main features of this National Inventory are described in detail. The results achieved as of the end of May 2010 are presented, together with an explanation of the utility of the Inventory as a tool for planning forest hydrologic restoration, soil protection, erosion control, and protection against desertification. Finally, the authors make a comparative analysis of similar initiatives for assessing soil erosion in other countries at the national and European levels.

  10. Bacteremia by Streptobacillus moniliformis: first case described in Spain.

    PubMed

    Torres, L; López, A I; Escobar, S; Marne, C; Marco, M L; Pérez, M; Verhaegen, J

    2003-04-01

    Described here is the case of an 87-year-old man who developed fever, chills and discomfort caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis. This pathogen is one of the causes of rat-bite fever, an uncommon bacterial illness transmitted through a bite or scratch from a rodent or the ingestion of food or water contaminated with rat faeces. Cases of rat-bite fever are rarely reported in Spain. The patient reported no history of rat bite or rodent contact, and the only known risk factor was contact with a dog and a cat that were kept as pets. Streptobacillus moniliformis was isolated in two sets of blood cultures. This case represents what is believed to be the first report of bacteremia due to Streptobacillus moniliformis in Spain.

  11. [Why are pediatric empyemas on the increase in Spain?].

    PubMed

    Martinón-Torres, F; Bernaola Iturbe, E; Giménez Sánchez, F; Baca Cots, M; de Juan Martín, F; Díez Domingo, J; Garcés Sánchez, M; Gómez Campderá, J A; Picazo, J J; Pineda Solas, V

    2008-02-01

    There is a widespread perception among Spanish pediatricians that the incidence of empyema has significantly increased in the last few years, even though the objective information available is limited, and there is no specific active epidemiological surveillance system for this condition. In the present article, we review the situation of empyema in Spain, and discuss the main hypotheses put forward in the international literature to explain this increase, as well as the limitations of the sources available. Despite the scarcity of information, we draw the following conclusions: 1) the incidence of pediatric empyema is increasing in Spain, both generally and when caused by pneumococcus in particular; 2) the reason for this increase remains unknown, and to date no firm link has been established between this phenomenon and the heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine; and 3) this situation justifies the establishment of prospective systems for the surveillance and control of empyema and, once again, highlights the importance of developing active surveillance systems for pneumococcal disease.

  12. Molecular Investigation of Tularemia Outbreaks, Spain, 1997–2008

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Johansson, Anders; Fernández-Natal, María Isabel; Martínez-Nistal, Carmen; Orduña, Antonio; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F.; Hernández, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia outbreaks occurred in northwestern Spain in 1997–1998 and 2007–2008 and affected >1,000 persons. We assessed isolates involved in these outbreaks by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with 2 restriction enzymes and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 16 genomic loci of Francisella tularensis, the cause of this disease. Isolates were divided into 3 pulsotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 8 allelic profiles by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis. Isolates obtained from the second tularemia outbreak had the same genotypes as isolates obtained from the first outbreak. Both outbreaks were caused by genotypes of genetic subclade B.Br:FTNF002–00, which is widely distributed in countries in central and western Europe. Thus, reemergence of tularemia in Spain was not caused by the reintroduction of exotic strains, but probably by persistence of local reservoirs of infection. PMID:24750848

  13. Sources of information on food consumption in Spain and Europe.

    PubMed

    del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Ruiz Moreno, Emma; Valero Gaspar, Teresa; Rodríguez Alonso, Paula; Ávila Torres, José Manuel

    2015-02-26

    Estimation of food consumption and nutrient intake is a topic of growing interest. Currently, both in Europe and in Spain, there are numerous sources of information on food consumption, that we provide information on different levels: national, household and individual, all of them are useful, but including some limitations, mainly arising from the lack of accurate data on food purchased but not consumed. The data obtained allow, among other things, meet dietary habits, explore the food quality, study the energy and nutrient intake and / or assessing exposure to food risks. Among the existing sources in Spain can highlight two surveys especially useful: the Household Budget Survey of the National Statistics Institute (INE) and Food Consumption Panel Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (MAGRAMA). Both provide for many years food consumption but, lately, only in households. Both European and Spanish would be necessary to improve the usefulness of the data, standardize the type of survey used and could be comparable between them.

  14. [Current epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of endemic mycoses in Spain].

    PubMed

    Buitrago, María J; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis are emerging infections in Spain associated with immigration and travelling. In last three decades a total of 128 cases of histoplasmosis have been reported in Spain, 59 in travellers, 63 in immigrants, three associated to drug abuse, two in laboratory workers, and one in a solid organ transplant receptor. In 1969 the first Spanish case of paracoccidioidomycosis was published and a total of 21 cases have been reported so far. Those patients suffered from the chronic form of the disease with period of latency as long as 50 years. Other endemic mycoses such as blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, lobomycosis, pythiosis and sporotrichosis have not increased in frequency. Microbiological cultures of endemic fungi must be handled in facilities which comply with international biosafety regulations and must also be taken into account for cultures from patients with suspected endemic mycosis.

  15. [Scientific training and professional practice in Vicente Cervantes Mendo's Spain.].

    PubMed

    Villegas, José Pastor

    2010-01-01

    Vicente Cervantes Mendo (Ledrada, Salamanca, 1758 - México, 1829) was a famous Spanish Mexican scientists; he is today heritage of Spain and Mexico. As a continuation of two recent articles on his life at Spain, the present study deals with his scientific formation at madrid, as pharmacist and as botanist, as well as on his professional activity. Two documents of Casimiro Gómez Ortega, principal professor of the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, dated in 1786 and related with the "Real Expedición Botánica a Nueva España (1787-1803)," have served to establish conclusions which clarify the subjects studied and correct mistakes.

  16. HTLV infection in HCV-antibody positive patients in Spain.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Ana; Aguilera, Antonio; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel A; Hernandez, Araceli; Benito, Rafael; Roc, Lourdes; Ramos, José Manuel; Ortíz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Poveda, Eva; Rodríguez, Carmen; Del Romero, Jorge; Calderon, Enrique; García, Juan; Requena, Silvia; Soriano, Vincent; de Mendoza, Carmen

    2017-03-07

    Since hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) share transmission routes, dual infection could be frequent. In Spain, HTLV underdiagnosis is highlighted by the high proportion of patients presenting either with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) or adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) at first diagnosis. We examined whether the renewed efforts for expanding HCV testing may provide a sentinel population that might selectively be targeted to unveil asymptomatic HTLV carriers. The presence of anti-HTLV antibodies was examined in 3,838 consecutive individuals with reactive HCV serology attended during the last three years at 13 hospitals distributed across the Spanish geography. Overall 71% were male and the median age was 41-years old. Foreigners represented 9% of the study population. A total of 50 individuals (1.3%) were seroreactive for HTLV, being 30 confirmed as HTLV-2 and two as HTLV-1 (0.12%). The remaining 18 had indeterminate Western blot patterns. Most individuals with HTLV-2 and HTLV indeterminate serology were HIV-positive, former injection drug users and native Spaniards. In contrast, the two HTLV-1 infections were found in men coming from Brazil and the Dominican Republic, respectively. In summary, the overall prevalence of HTLV infection in individuals living in Spain seropositive for HCV is 1.3%, more than 10-fold greater than in general outclinics in Spain. However, immigrants from HTLV-1 endemic regions and former injection drug users with HTLV-2 infection are by far the major contributory groups in HCV patients. Therefore, testing for HTLV in newly diagnosed HCV individuals would not contribute much to improve late HTLV diagnosis in Spain.

  17. Confirmed case of Zika virus congenital infection, Spain, March 2016.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sonia; Tato, Ruben; Cabrera, Jorge Julio; Lopez, Alberto; Robles, Olga; Paz, Eugenio; Coira, Amparo; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Vazquez, Ana; Carballo, Raquel; Quintas, Carlos; Pousa, Anxela

    2016-06-16

    We describe Zika virus (ZIKV) vertical transmission in an imported case in Spain, in a 17-week pregnant woman. ZIKV IgG, IgM and RNA were detected in serum in week 17. At 19 weeks, ultrasound scan revealed fetal malformations and ZIKV was detected in the amniotic fluid. Pregnancy was terminated at week 21; autopsy of the fetus revealed bilateral hydrocephalus, brain microcalcifications and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. ZIKV was detected in the umbilical cord and brain tissue.

  18. [The journal of A.V. Humboldt in Spain].

    PubMed

    Leitner, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish diary can surprisingly not be found in his bounded diaries from his American travels, but in a separate folder of his legacy in Berlin, where Humboldt collected material which he wanted to use for his publication about Spain. So it remained undiscovered until recently. Humboldt's notes contain geognostic descriptions as well as his observations about climate, vegetation, electricity of the atmosphere, etc. The comparison with Humboldt's publication of 1825 facilitates to gain insight into his scientific methods.

  19. Penzigomyces catalonicus, a new species of hyphomycetes from Spain.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Sierra, Angel; Gené, Josepa; Calduch, Misericordia; Guarro, Josep

    2004-01-01

    Penzigomyces catalonicus sp. nov., collected on dead branches of an unknown tree species in Spain, is described and illustrated. This fungus is characterized by short, dark brown, percurrent conidiophores, usually doliiform conidiogenous cells and ellipsoidal or slightly obclavate, (2-)3-4(-6) euseptate, thin-walled conidia. The new taxon is compared with species from other morphologically similar genera, and a key to the known species of Penzigomyces is provided.

  20. Transferrin gene frequencies in Cádiz (southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Gamero, J J; Romero, J L; Vizcaya, M A; Arufe, I

    1990-12-01

    The genetic polymorphism of transferrin (Tf) was studied in a sample of 385 healthy unrelated subjects of both sexes resident in the province of Cádiz (southern Spain). Isoelectric focusing was carried out in polyacrylamide gels, followed by staining with Coomassie Blue R250. The gene frequencies obtained were as follows: Tf C1, 0.7922; Tf C2, 0.1883; Tf C3, 0.0195.

  1. Ecological compensation and Environmental Impact Assessment in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Villarroya, Ana; Puig, Jordi

    2010-11-15

    To achieve meaningful sustainable development, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should avoid the net losses in the environment resource base. But EIA practice does not always avoid the losses caused by the implementation of the projects under EIA regulation. Some environmental impacts are, simply, admitted, even without enforcing any form of compensation. When applied, compensation is sometimes just a monetary payment to offset the environmental loss. This paper looks for evidence on the role that compensation is given at present in EIA practice in Spain, and for some of its conceptual and regulatory roots. Specifically, it explores how compensation is addressed in 1302 records of decision (RODs) on those projects subject to the Spanish EIA regulation published during the years 2006 and 2007, to know how far Spain is from preserving the environmental resource base managed through this particular aspect of EIA practice. As a result, it is concluded that the practice of ecological compensation in EIA in Spain is much lower than it could be expected in a theoretical sustainability context committed to avoid net losses in the environment resource base, mainly due to an EIA practice focused on on-site mitigation that allows these net losses.

  2. Municipal mortality due to thyroid cancer in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Ramis, Rebeca; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is a tumor with a low but growing incidence in Spain. This study sought to depict its spatial municipal mortality pattern, using the classic model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Methods It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardized mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the posterior probability that RR > 1. Results From 1989 to 1998 a total of 2,538 thyroid cancer deaths were registered in 1,041 municipalities. The highest relative risks were mostly situated in the Canary Islands, the province of Lugo, the east of La Coruña (Corunna) and western areas of Asturias and Orense. Conclusion The observed mortality pattern coincides with areas in Spain where goiter has been declared endemic. The higher frequency in these same areas of undifferentiated, more aggressive carcinomas could be reflected in the mortality figures. Other unknown genetic or environmental factors could also play a role in the etiology of this tumor. PMID:17173668

  3. Anophelism in a Former Malaria Area of Northeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Marí, Rubén; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: A field study on diversity and distribution of anophelines currently present in a past endemic malaria area of Spain was carried out in order to identify possible risk areas of local disease transmission. Methods: Multiple larval sites were sampled from June to October of 2011 in the Region of Somontano de Barbastro (Northeastern Spain). The sampling effort was fixed at 10 minutes which included the active search for larvae in each biotope visited. Results: A total of 237 larval specimens belonging to four Anopheles species (Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, An. maculipennis and An. petragnani) were collected and identified. Conclusions: Malaria receptivity in the study area is high, especially in the area of Cinca river valley, due to the abundance of breeding sites of An. atroparvus very close to human settlements. Although current socio-economic conditions in Spain reduce possibilities of re-emergence of malaria transmission, it is evident that certain entomological and epidemiological vigilance must be maintained and even increased in the context of current processes of climate change and globalization. PMID:24409440

  4. Psychological adaptation of Moroccan and Ecuadorean immigrant adolescents in Spain.

    PubMed

    Briones, Elena; Verkuyten, Maykel; Cosano, Juan; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In adapting to the host society, immigrant adolescents may have problems negotiating the challenges of acculturation. The factors that promote and those that hamper psychological adaptation may not play the same role in all ethnic groups. Our study focuses on psychological adaptation of two main immigrant groups in Spain that differ in cultural distance to the host society and level of societal acceptance: adolescents of Moroccan and Ecuadorean origin. Our findings show, first, that mainstream cultural orientation is positively related to psychological adaptation, whereas perceived ethnic discrimination is negatively associated with adaptation. Second, the relationship between ethnic cultural orientation and psychological adaptation and between length of residence in Spain and adaptation is stronger for the Moroccan youth than for their Ecuadorean peers. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. This manuscript was prepared and written while the first author was affiliated to the University of Cordoba in Spain and financially supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation within the framework of a National Program of Human Recourses' Mobility (I+D+I 2008-2011). Data collection was financially supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology (I+D BSO2003-09222).

  5. Charging systems and PAYT experiences for waste management in Spain.

    PubMed

    Puig-Ventosa, I

    2008-12-01

    Municipal waste charges in Spain are very widespread, although their application varies significantly among different municipalities. Most commonly, waste charges are implemented as a flat rate, but some of them depend on indicators such as household water consumption, the land area of the property or the value of the real estate. Only one residential pay-as-you-throw scheme has been applied so far. It was a pay-per-bag scheme implemented in Torrelles de Llobregat, Barcelona. A number of other systems focussing only on commercial waste have been implemented in Spain. Several factors suggest that new pay-as-you-throw schemes will be adopted in the near future. In 2000 no municipalities had door-to-door collection schemes; since then over 70 municipalities have implemented them. In addition to this, some regions encourage the separate collection of commercial waste, by means of doorstep schemes. In all of these areas, variable charging systems could be easily adopted. Additionally, regarding waste charges, the National Waste Plan (2000-2006) advocated for the implementation of "pilot experiences for the quantitative application of the polluter-pays-principle". The tendency towards these variable charging systems in Europe will also favour their introduction in Spain.

  6. Chemical weathering of a marine terrace chronosequence, Santa Cruz, California I: Interpreting rates and controls based on soil concentration-depth profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.V.; Blum, A.E.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Anderson, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal changes in element and mineral concentrations in regolith profiles in a chronosequence developed on marine terraces along coastal California are interpreted in terms of chemical weathering rates and processes. In regoliths up to 15 m deep and 226 kyrs old, quartz-normalized mass transfer coefficients indicate non-stoichiometric preferential release of Sr > Ca > Na from plagioclase along with lesser amounts of K, Rb and Ba derived from K-feldspar. Smectite weathering results in the loss of Mg and concurrent incorporation of Al and Fe into secondary kaolinite and Fe-oxides in shallow argillic horizons. Elemental losses from weathering of the Santa Cruz terraces fall within the range of those for other marine terraces along the Pacific Coast of North America. Residual amounts of plagioclase and K-feldspar decrease with terrace depth and increasing age. The gradient of the weathering profile bs is defined by the ratio of the weathering rate, R to the velocity at which the profile penetrates into the protolith. A spreadsheet calculator further refines profile geometries, demonstrating that the non-linear regions at low residual feldspar concentrations at shallow depth are dominated by exponential changes in mineral surface-to-volume ratios and at high residual feldspar concentrations, at greater depth, by the approach to thermodynamic saturation. These parameters are of secondary importance to the fluid flux qh, which in thermodynamically saturated pore water, controls the weathering velocity and mineral losses from the profiles. Long-term fluid fluxes required to reproduce the feldspar weathering profiles are in agreement with contemporary values based on solute Cl balances (qh = 0.025-0.17 m yr-1). During saturation-controlled and solute-limited weathering, the greater loss of plagioclase relative to K-feldspar is dependent on the large difference in their respective solubilities instead of the small difference between their respective

  7. The impact of biotic/abiotic interfaces in mineral nutrient cycling: A study of soils of the Santa Cruz chronosequence, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.V.; Bullen, T.D.; Fitzpatrick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Biotic/abiotic interactions between soil mineral nutrients and annual grassland vegetation are characterized for five soils in a marine terrace chronosequence near Santa Cruz, California. A Mediterranean climate, with wet winters and dry summers, controls the annual cycle of plant growth and litter decomposition, resulting in net above-ground productivities of 280-600gm -2yr -1. The biotic/abiotic (A/B) interface separates seasonally reversible nutrient gradients, reflecting biological cycling in the shallower soils, from downward chemical weathering gradients in the deeper soils. The A/B interface is pedologically defined by argillic clay horizons centered at soil depths of about one meter which intensify with soil age. Below these horizons, elevated solute Na/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios reflect plagioclase and smectite weathering along pore water flow paths. Above the A/B interface, lower cation ratios denote temporal variability due to seasonal plant nutrient uptake and litter leaching. Potassium and Ca exhibit no seasonal variability beneath the A/B interface, indicating closed nutrient cycling within the root zone, whereas Mg variability below the A/B interface denotes downward leakage resulting from higher inputs of marine aerosols and lower plant nutrient requirements.The fraction of a mineral nutrient annually cycled through the plants, compared to that lost from pore water discharge, is defined their respective fluxes F j,plants=q j,plants/(q j,plants+q j,discharge) with average values for K and Ca (F K,plants=0.99; F Ca,plants=0.93) much higher than for Mg and Na (F Mg,plants 0.64; F Na,plants=0.28). The discrimination against Rb and Sr by plants is described by fractionation factors (K Sr/Ca=0.86; K Rb/K=0.83) which are used in Rayleigh fractionation-mixing calculations to fit seasonal patterns in solute K and Ca cycling. K Rb/K and K24Mg/22Mg values (derived from isotope data in the literature) fall within fractionation envelopes bounded by inputs from

  8. Using High Resolution Satellite Precipitation fields to Assess the Impacts of Climate Change on the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E.; Rivera-Fernandez, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2013-05-01

    Hydrologic modeling using high spatiotemporal resolution satellite precipitation products in the southwestern United States and northwest Mexico is important given the sparse nature of available rain gauges. In addition, the bimodal distribution of annual precipitation also presents a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on hydrological comparisons using rainfall forcing from a satellite-based product, downscaled GCM precipitation estimates and available ground observations. The simulations are being conducted in the Santa Cruz and San Pedro river basins along the Arizona-Sonora border at high spatiotemporal resolutions (~100 m and ~1 hour). We use a distributed hydrologic model, known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), to generate simulated hydrological fields under historical (1991-2000) and climate change (2031-2040) scenarios obtained from an application of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Using the distributed model, we transform the meteorological scenarios at 10-km, hourly resolution into predictions of the annual water budget, seasonal land surface fluxes and individual hydrographs of flood and recharge events. We compare the model outputs and rainfall fields of the WRF products against the forcing from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and available ground observations from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and Arizona Meteorological Network (AZMET). For this contribution, we selected two full years in the historical period and in the future scenario that represent wet and dry conditions for each decade. Given the size of the two basins, we rely on a high performance computing platform and a parallel domain discretization with higher resolutions maintained at experimental catchments in each river basin. Model simulations utilize best-available data across the Arizona-Sonora border on

  9. High Performance Computing-based Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change on the Santa Cruz and San Pedro River Basin at Very High Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Rivera-Fernandez, E. R.; Dominguez, F.; Meixner, T.

    2012-12-01

    Assessing the impact of climate change on large river basins in the southwestern United States is important given the natural water scarcity in the region. The bimodal distribution of annual precipitation also presents a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on the hydrological consequences of climate change in the Santa Cruz and San Pedro river basins along the Arizona-Sonora border at high spatiotemporal resolutions (~100 m and ~1 hour). These river systems support rich ecological communities along riparian corridors that provide habitat to migratory birds and support recreational and economic activities. Determining the climate impacts on riparian communities involves assessing how river flows and groundwater recharge will change with altered temperature and precipitation regimes. In this study, we use a distributed hydrologic model, known as the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS), to generate simulated hydrological fields under historical (1991-2000) and climate change (2031-2040) scenarios obtained from an application of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. Using the distributed model, we transform the meteorological scenarios from WRF at 10-km, hourly resolution into predictions of the annual water budget, seasonal land surface fluxes and individual hydrographs of flood and recharge events. For this contribution, we selected two full years in the historical period and in the future scenario that represent wet and dry conditions for each decade. Given the size of the two basins, we rely on a high performance computing platform and a parallel domain discretization using sub-basin partitioning with higher resolutions maintained at experimental catchments in each river basin. Model simulations utilize best-available data across the Arizona-Sonora border on topography, land cover and soils obtained from analysis of remotely

  10. Molecular analysis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Rickettsia in Hyalomma marginatum ticks removed from patients (Spain) and birds (Spain and Morocco), 2009-2015.

    PubMed

    Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mazuelas, David; Roncero, Lidia; Arizaga, Juan; Crespo, Ariñe; Gutiérrez, Óscar; Márquez, Francisco J; Cuadrado, Juan F; Eiros, José M; Oteo, José A

    2016-07-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected in Spain in 2010. The presence of CCHFV in Hyalomma marginatum ticks from migratory birds passing through Morocco during the spring migration strengthened the hypothesis of the arrival of infected ticks transported by birds to the Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, Hyalomma species are vectors of bacterial infections such as spotted fever rickettsioses. CCHFV and Rickettsia were screened in Hyalomma ticks from Spain attached to patients (n=12) and birds (n=149). In addition, Rickettsia was investigated in 52 Hyalomma ticks from Morocco (previously reported as CCHFV-infected). No sample collected in Spain showed an infection with CCHFV. Two ticks removed from patients (16.7%), as well as 47 (31.5%) and 4 (7.7%) from birds, collected in Spain and Morocco respectively, were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii. Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae was also found in 2 ticks from birds collected in Spain (1.3%). The risk of CCHFV-infected ticks attached to migratory birds to reach the North of Spain is low. This study corroborates the presence of R. aeschlimannii in Spain and Morocco, and supports that H. marginatum can be a potential vector of R. sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae in the Iberian Peninsula.

  11. Economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening in Spain.

    PubMed

    Imaz-Iglesia, Iñaki; Miguel, Lucía García-San; Ayala-Morillas, L Eduardo; García-Pérez, Lidia; González-Enríquez, Jesús; Blasco-Hernández, Teresa; Martín-Águeda, María Belén; Sarría-Santamera, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Although Spain is the European country with the highest Chagas disease burden, the country does not have a national control program of the disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of several strategies for Chagas disease screening among Latin American residents living in Spain. The following screening strategies were evaluated: (1) non-screening; (2) screening of the Latin American pregnant women and their newborns; (3) screening also the relatives of the positive pregnant women; (4) screening also the relatives of the negative pregnant women. A cost-utility analysis was carried out to compare the four strategies from two perspectives, the societal and the Spanish National Health System (SNHS). A decision tree representing the clinical evolution of Chagas disease throughout patient's life was built. The strategies were compared through the incremental cost-utility ratio, using euros as cost measurement and quality-adjusted life years as utility measurement. A sensitivity analysis was performed to test the model parameters and their influence on the results. We found the "Non-screening" as the most expensive and less effective of the evaluated strategies, from both the societal and the SNHS perspectives. Among the screening evaluated strategies the most efficient was, from both perspectives, to extent the antenatal screening of the Latin American pregnant women and their newborns up to the relatives of the positive women. Several parameters influenced significantly on the sensitivity analyses, particularly the chronic treatment efficacy or the prevalence of Chagas disease. In conclusion, for the general Latin American immigrants living in Spain the most efficient would be to screen the Latin American mothers, their newborns and the close relatives of the mothers with a positive serology. However for higher prevalence immigrant population the most efficient intervention would be to extend the program to the close relatives of the negative

  12. Phthalate occurrence in rivers and tap water from central Spain.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; González-Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence and concentrations of the main phthalates in water from the Jarama and Manzanares rivers in the region of Madrid (RM, Central Spain), the most densely populated region of Spain, and to determine the possible oestrogenic activity based on found phthalate concentration. The presence of phthalates in major supply drinking water areas of the RM was also analysed, thus allowing a preliminary assessment of the health risks resulting from the concentrations obtained. The results of this study show the presence of the three (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)) of five phthalates studied (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)). The DBP was found in both river and tap water samplers, whereas DMP and DEP were found in only drinking water samples. The DBP was found to make the highest average contribution to pollution in both river and tap water. The DEHP was not found in both the river and tap water because it is one of the most regulated phthalates. The highest phthalate contamination was found in the Manzanares river and in those areas that receive treated water from the Tagus river. The phthalates found in river and tap water in the RM do not represent a potential oestrogenic risk for the aquatic environment or humans. A preliminary risk assessment suggested that the risk of exposure to phthalates from tap water in this study is acceptable, although continuous monitoring of the presence of these substances in both drinking and river water should be undertaken to detect possible increases in their concentrations. This is the first study to analyse the presence of phthalates in both rivers and drinking water of the centre of Spain.

  13. Costs, outcomes and challenges for diabetes care in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is becoming of increasing concern in Spain due to rising incidence and prevalence, although little information is known with regards to costs and outcomes. The information on cost of diabetes in Spain is fragmented and outdated. Our objective is to update diabetes costs, and to identify outcomes and quality of care of diabetes in Spain. Methods We performed systematic searches from secondary sources, including scientific literature and government data and reports. Results Diabetes Type II prevalence is estimated at 7.8%, and an additional 6% of the population is estimated to be undiagnosed. Four Spanish diabetes cost studies were analyzed to create a projection of direct costs in the NHS and productivity losses, estimating €5.1 billion for direct costs along with €1.5 billion for diabetes-related complications (2009) and labour productivity losses represented €2.8 billion. Glycemic control (glycolysated hemoglobin) is considered acceptable in 59% of adult Type II cases, in addition to 85% with HDL cholesterol ≥40mg/dl and 65% with blood pressure <140/90 mmHg, pointing to good intermediate outcomes. However, annual figures indicate that over half of the Type II diabetics are obese (BMI >30), 15% have diabetic retinopathy, 16% with microalbuminuria, and 15% with cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The direct health care costs (8% of the total National Health System expenditure) and the loss of labour productivity are high. The importance of a multi-sectoral approach in prevention and improvements in management of diabetes are discussed, along with policy considerations to help modify the disease course. PMID:23635075

  14. Burden of disease due to cancer in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard; Gil, Ángel; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Background Burden of disease is a joint measure of mortality and morbidity which makes it easier to compare health problems in which these two components enjoy different degrees of relative importance. The objective of this study is ascertaining the burden of disease due to cancer in Spain via the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods DALYs are the sum of years of life lost due to premature mortality and years lost due to disability. World Health Organization methodology and the following sources of data were used: the Mortality Register and Princeton Model Life Table for Years of life lost due to premature mortality and population, incidence estimates (Spanish tumour registries and fitting of generalized linear mixed models), duration (from data of survival in Spain from the EUROCARE-3 study and fitting of Weibull distribution function) and disability (weights published in the literature) for Years lost due to disability. Results There were 828,997 DALYs due to cancer (20.5 DALYs/1,000 population), 61% in men. Of the total, 51% corresponded to lung, colorectal, breast, stomach and prostate cancers. Mortality (84% of DALYs) predominated over disability. Subjects aged under 20 years accounted for 1.6% and those aged over 70 years accounted for 30.1% of DALYs. Conclusion Lung, colorectal and breast cancers are responsible for the highest number of DALYs in Spain. Even if the burden of disease due to cancer is predominantly caused by mortality, some cancers have a significant weight of disability. Information on 2000 burden of disease due to cancer can be useful to assess how it has evolved over time and the impact of medical advances on it in terms of mortality and disability. PMID:19183440

  15. Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Parés-Badell, Oleguer; Barbaglia, Gabriela; Jerinic, Petra; Gustavsson, Anders; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain disorders represent a high burden in Europe and worldwide. The objective of this study was to provide specific estimates of the economic costs of brain disorders in Spain, based on published epidemiological and economic evidence. Methods A cost-of-illness study with a societal perspective of 19 brain disorders was carried out. Cost data published between 2004 and 2012 was obtained from a systematic literature review. Direct healthcare, direct non-medical and indirect costs were considered, prioritizing bottom-up information. All costs were converted to Euro and to year 2010. The missing values were imputed with European estimates. Sensitivity analyses based on qualitative assessment of the literature and on a Monte Carlo simulation were performed. Results The review identified 33 articles with information on costs for 11 disorders (8 neurological, 3 mental). The average per–patient cost ranged from 36,946 € for multiple sclerosis to 402 € for headache. The societal cost of the 19 brain disorders in Spain in 2010 was estimated in 84 € billion. Societal costs ranged from 15 € billion for dementia to 65 € million for eating disorders. Mental disorders societal cost were 46 € billions (55% of the total), while neurological disorder added up to 38 € billion. Healthcare costs represented 37% of the societal costs of brain disorders, whereas direct non-medical constituted 29% and indirect costs 33%. Conclusion Brain disorders have a substantial economic impact in Spain (equivalent to almost 8% of the country's GDP). Economic data on several important brain disorders, specially mental disorders, is still sparse. PMID:25133395

  16. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual

  17. The population genetics of maize dwarf mosaic virus in Spain.

    PubMed

    Achon, M A; Larrañaga, A; Alonso-Dueñas, N

    2012-12-01

    The population genetics of maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) in Spain was assessed by analysis of the P1-HC region. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 363 isolates revealed that the MDMV population consisted of 69 haplotypes. Sequence analysis of 112 isolates confirmed a high degree of nucleotide sequence diversity (0.143), which was higher for P1 than for the HC. Twelve sequences showed a single different recombination event. Selection pressure analysis revealed that the P1-HC region was under strong negative selection. The MDMV population was spatially structured but not structured temporally or by host. Phylogenetic analysis split the sequences into five major groups.

  18. South-North migration. The case of Spain.

    PubMed

    Bodega Fernandez, I; Cebrian De Miguel, J A; Franchini Alonso, T; Lora-tamayo D'ocon, G; Martin Lou, A

    1995-01-01

    "International migrations caused by socio-economic and demographic reasons, especially from underdeveloped countries to the rich and prosperous areas of the globe are discussed with the focus on Western Europe and particularly on Maghrebi immigration to Spain. Emigration of the people from a backward region even increases the deterioration of [the] local economy, provoking stagnation and inflation. Therefore emigration only can not be seen as an economic take-off for sustained economic development over the frontier areas between developed and depressed territories. Related social questions as well as economic, religious and political may add factors affecting the structural balance of the societies concerned."

  19. [Toward healthy offspring: early prenatal testing in Spain].

    PubMed

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with prenatal diagnosis practices in Spain. For pursuing this aim it reviews both literature on the origins of these practices in foreign countries as well as some of the early publications by Spanish practitioners. Those publications appeared to be connected to previous genetic testing in children such as the case of Down syndrome. Socio-political norms and values of Franco's regime together with clinicians' interests on introducing new testing techniques resulted in the stabilization of these practices associated to a reconceptualisation of pregnancy. Although prenatal diagnosis techniques made the body of pregnant women invisible, women's bodies remained at the core of the technicalisation of contemporary reproductive options.

  20. Pulmonary vascular lesions in the toxic oil syndrome in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Segoviano, P; Esteban, A; Martínez-Cabruja, R

    1983-01-01

    A histological study was made of pulmonary arteries at the necropsies of nine patients who died after the ingestion of denatured rapeseed oil during the epidemic which occurred in Spain in May 1981. Lesions found in the elastic pulmonary arteries were characterised by pronounced intimal proliferation of an oedematous nature, accumulation of large vacuolated cells within the media, and loss of vascular smooth muscle. In muscular pulmonary arteries there was pronounced medial hypertrophy and intimal proliferation, which was so severe in one case that it completely occluded the arterial lumen. Foamy cells were found in the intima. Muscularisation was seen in the walls of pulmonary arterioles. Images PMID:6648850

  1. Ideal men: masculinity and decline in seventeenth-century Spain.

    PubMed

    Lehfeldt, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how the experience and critique of their country's decline led Spaniards to craft a distinct discourse of masculinity in the seventeenth century. As they self-consciously examined Spain's crisis and offered political and economic solutions, these same writers also offered a scathing critique of standards of masculinity. Using the figure of the ideal nobleman as a case study, the article examines how moralists, arbitristas, and hagiographers constructed a dynamic code of manhood linked to questions of productivity, male chastity, and military performance. Further, it argues that this discourse was ultimately nostalgic and failed to adapt itself to the circumstances of the seventeenth century.

  2. Orally ingestion of krokodil in Spain: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Baquero Escribano, Abel; Beltrán Negre, María Teresa; Calvo Orenga, Gema; Carratalá Monfort, Sonia; Arnau Peiró, Francisco; Meca Zapatero, Sara; Haro Cortés, Gonzalo

    2016-06-14

    The krokodil use disorder is an addictive pathology with quite severe organic effects, especially at the skin level, that causes severe and degenerative necrosis of blood and muscle tissue. Though this disorder has a low prevalence in Spain, compared to the large number of consumers in other countries such as Ukraine or Russia, its consumption is slowly but gradually expanding in countries of the European Union and America. The simplicity of the process of obtaining the substance from desomorphine, together with its high availability and low cost, contribute toward consumers' self-sufficiency. This article presents the case of a user of krokodil and reviews the clinical symptoms of oral ingestion.

  3. [The beginnings of public health studies in Renaissance Spain].

    PubMed

    López Piñero, José María

    2006-01-01

    A very brief synthesis is provided of the findings of the historical research the author first began more than forty years ago as to the initial beginnings of the studies on public health in Renaissance Spain. The role played by royal power from the standpoint of the beginnings of the modern State, the influence of Hippocratic environmentalism, keeping up cleanliness-related privileges at the personal level, the first beginnings of hygiene on a widespread basis in related to the plague epidemics and the contributions to medical care conditioned by the change in poverty-related values are discussed in turn.

  4. [Toward a New Immunization Schedule in Spain, 2016 (Part 2)].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Alonso, José Antonio; Taboada-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Limia-Sánchez, Aurora

    2016-03-08

    Immunization schedules are intrinsically dynamic in order to embed the immunologic and epidemiologic changes in any specific geographic Region. According to this, the current study addresses a proposal to modify the Childhood Immunization Schedule in Spain. In order to move from a three plus one schema to a two plus one, we undertake a review of the available literature to explore the immunological and clinical rationale behind this change, including an overview of the potential impact on this schedule of premature infants. Additionally, some recommendations are made regarding those Spanish regions which start hepatitis B vaccination at the newborn period.

  5. [Shigella sonnei outbreak in a school in Northern Spain].

    PubMed

    Artieda, Juncal; Manterola, Jose Maria; Tolosa, Elena; Moreno, Belen; Alustiza, Jesus; Astigarraga, Uxue; Botello, Rene; Arostegui, Nerea; Basterrechea, Mikel

    2015-03-01

    In October 2012, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by Shigella sonnei was detected in a nursery and primary school in the north of Spain affecting 112 people: 63.7% were pupils and teachers and 35.7% their co-habitants. The source was a sick child who had travelled to an endemic country, and the key trigger factor was inadequate hygiene in one of the toilets of the school. The enforcement of strict hygiene measures was essential for controlling the outbreak.

  6. [Aging at home with telecare in Spain. A dicourse analysis].

    PubMed

    Aceros, Juan C; Cavalcante, Maria Tereza Leal; Domènech, Miquel

    2016-08-01

    Caring for the elderly is turning to forms of community care and home care. Telecare is one of those emergent modalities of caring. This article will explore the meanings that older people give to the experience of staying at home in later life by using telecare. Discourse analysis is used to examine a set of focus groups and interviews with telecare users from different cities of Catalonia (Spain). The outcomes include three interpretative repertoires that we called: "Aging at home", "normal aging" and "unsafe aging". For each repertoire we examine how the permanence of older people in their homes is accounted, and which role telecare plays in such experience.

  7. [Multi-resistant strains of Salmonella typhi in Spain].

    PubMed

    Usera, M A; Aladueña, A; Jaime, M L; Raya, C; Fuster, C; Planes, A; Bartolomé, R M

    1992-11-01

    Most Salmonella typhi isolated in Spain are susceptible to antibiotics commonly used in its treatment as chloramphenicol, ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Three multiresistant strains have been isolated from different patients the last two years. Two phage type M1, biotype xylose tetrationate + strains were isolated from blood of two patients in Bembibre (León). One phage type E1a biotype xylose + tetrationate reductase + strain was isolated from blood and faeces of one patient in Barcelona. All strains harboured a 79 Mdal plasmid responsible for multiresistance, chloramphenicol acetyl transferase production and conjugative.

  8. Validation of an Instructional Observation Instrument for Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Garcia, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The design and validation of a classroom observation instrument to provide formative feedback for teachers of EFL in Spain is the overarching purpose of this study. This study proposes that a valid and reliable classroom observation instrument, based on effective practice in teaching EFL, can be developed and used in Spain to enable teachers to…

  9. Global Citizenship and National (Re)formations: Analysis of Citizenship Education Reform in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many European education systems have embarked on a process of education policy and curriculum reform related to citizenship education. This article explores citizenship education reform in the context of Spain. It considers how and to what extent Spain's 2006 citizenship education addressed issues of national and global…

  10. Moroccan Immigrant Children in a Time of Surveillance: Navigating Sameness and Difference in Contemporary Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Sanchez, Inmaculada Maria

    2009-01-01

    Moroccan Immigrant Children in a Time of Surveillance: Navigating Sameness and Rooted in twenty months of ethnographic fieldwork in Southwestern Spain, this dissertation analyzes the socio-cultural and linguistic lifeworlds of 8-11 year-old Moroccan immigrant children as they navigate family, school institutions, and peer groups in Spain. To…

  11. School Choice in Spain and the United States: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umpstead, Regina; Jankens, Benjamin; Ortega Gil, Pablo; Weiss, Linda; Umpstead, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This article explores issues of school choice in Spain and the United States by examining the roles and functions of "centros concertados," publicly funded private schools in Spain, and public charter schools in the United States, to provide key insights into the similarities and differences between them. After making a national…

  12. Pedagogical Innovation and Music Education in Spain: Introducing the Dalcroze Method in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comas Rubí, Francesca; Motilla-Salas, Xavier; Sureda-Garcia, Bernat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse how the Dalcroze method was introduced to Spain and became known there, more specifically in the Catalonia of the "Noucentisme" movement, and why it made the greatest impact and was more widely disseminated in this particular region of Spain. Following a summary of Dalcroze's contributions to music…

  13. An Induction Programme for Bologna First-Year Bachelor's Degree Students in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del-Arco Bravo, Isabel; Camats, Ramon; Flores, Oscar; Alaminos, Francisco; Blazquez, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The current study describes the planning process and aims of the university reforms in Spain and suggests an innovative proposal, namely the design and evaluation of a week-long induction programme for first-year bachelor's degree students at the University of Lleida (Spain), organised within the European higher education framework.…

  14. 77 FR 45653 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination Determination On... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel bar from Brazil... (July 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain: Investigation Nos....

  15. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in roe deer from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is an important game animal in Spain. Sera from 278 roe deer sera from eight areas in mainland Spain were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Titers of 1:25 or higher were found in 109 (39.2%) of 278 deer. No significant difference...

  16. The Situation of Open Access Institutional Repositories in Spain: 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melero, Remedios; Abadal, Ernest; Abad, Francisca; Rodriguez-Gairin, Josep Manel

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The DRIVER I project drew up a detailed report of European repositories based on data gathered in a survey in which Spain's participation was very low. This created a highly distorted image of the implementation of repositories in Spain. This study aims to analyse the current state of Spanish open-access institutional repositories…

  17. A Comparative Study of Breakfast Habits of Romanian and Spanish Adolescents Enrolled in Southern Spain Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano-Ayala, Encarnación; Cala, Verónica C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC) and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations.…

  18. The EFQM Self-Assessment Processes in HEIs in Spain and in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tari, Juan Jose; Madeleine, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) self-assessment model in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Spain and in Jordan. Case study methodology on eight services provided by a public university in Spain and seven services provided by one public university and one private university in…

  19. The Use (and Misuse) of PISA in Guiding Policy Reform: The Case of Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Álvaro; Jerrim, John

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Spain introduced a series of educational reforms explicitly inspired by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 results. These reforms were mainly implemented in secondary education--based upon the assumption that this is where Spain's educational problems lie. This paper questions this assumption by attempting to…

  20. From Student Associations to CEUNE: The Development of Student Representation in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parejo, José Luis; Lorente, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The forms of students' political participation in the administration of higher education in Spain have evolved throughout history. Spain has developed from a period characterised by the corporatist model of Sindicato Espanõl Universitario--as a single syndicate of students controlled by the Franco Regime--towards the emergence of a student…