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Sample records for cryo magnetic separation

  1. Magnetic separation of algae

    DOEpatents

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  2. Medical protein separation system using high gradient magnetic separation by superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, Y.; Agatsuma, K.; Kajikawa, K.; Ueda, H.; Furuse, M.; Fuchino, S.; Iitsuka, T.; Nakamura, S.

    2014-01-01

    A high gradient magnetic separation system for medical protein using affinity magnetic nano-beads has been developed. Medical protein such as monoclonal antibody or immunoglobulin is an important substance as a medicine for cancer etc. However; the separation system of these medical protein has very low separation rate and the cost of product is extremely high. The developed system shows very high separation efficiency and can achieve low cost by large production rate compared to the system now using in this field. The system consists of a 3T superconducting magnet cooled by a cryo-cooler, a filter made of fine magnetic metal wires of about 30μm diameter and a demagnetization circuit and a liquid circulation pump for solvent containing medical protein. Affinity magnetic nano-beads is covered with the medical protein after agitation of solvent containing the protein and nano-beads, then the solvent flows through the system and the beads are trapped in the filters by high gradient magnetic field. The beads are released and flow out of the system by the AC demagnetization of the filters using LC resonance circuits after discharge of the magnet. The test results shows 97.8% of the magnetic nano-beads in pure water were captured and 94.1% of total beads were collected.

  3. Magnetic Separation Dynamics of Colloidal Magnetic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, M.; Huijin Zhang,; You Qiang,

    2013-01-01

    Surface functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are appealing candidates for analytical separation of heavy metal ions from waste water and separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. This work studies the separation dynamics and investigates the appropriate magnetic-field gradients. A dynamic study of colloidal MNPs was performed for steady-state flow. Measurements were conducted to record the separation time of particles as a function of magnetic field gradient. The drag and magnetic forces play a significant role on the separation time. A drop in saturation magnetization and variation of particle size occurs after surface functionalization of the MNPs; these are the primary factors that affect the separation time and velocity of the MNPs. The experimental results are correlated to a theoretical one-dimensional model.

  4. Continuous magnetic separator and process

    DOEpatents

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2008-04-22

    A continuous magnetic separator and process for separating a slurry comprising magnetic particles into a clarified stream and a thickened stream. The separator has a container with a slurry inlet, an overflow outlet for the discharge of the clarified slurry stream, and an underflow outlet for the discharge of a thickened slurry stream. Magnetic particles in the slurry are attracted to, and slide down, magnetic rods within the container. The slurry is thus separated into magnetic concentrate and clarified slurry. Flow control means can be used to control the ratio of the rate of magnetic concentrate to the rate of clarified slurry. Feed control means can be used to control the rate of slurry feed to the slurry inlet.

  5. Separation of magnetic field lines

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2012-11-15

    The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

  6. Method of magnetic separation and apparatus therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oder, Robin R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for magnetically separating and collecting particulate matter fractions of a raw sample according to relative magnetic susceptibilities of each fraction so collected is disclosed. The separation apparatus includes a splitter which is used in conjunction with a magnetic separator for achieving the desired fractionation.

  7. Magnetic Separator Enhances Treatment Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Since the earliest missions in space, NASA specialists have performed experiments in low gravity. Protein crystal growth, cell and tissue cultures, and separation technologies such as electrophoresis and magnetophoresis have been studied on Apollo 14, Apollo 16, STS-107, and many other missions. Electrophoresis and magnetophoresis, respectively, are processes that separate substances based on the electrical charge and magnetic field of a molecule or particle. Electrophoresis has been studied on over a dozen space shuttle flights, leading to developments in electrokinetics, which analyzes the effects of electric fields on mass transport (atoms, molecules, and particles) in fluids. Further studies in microgravity will continue to improve these techniques, which researchers use to extract cells for various medical treatments and research.

  8. High capacity magnetic separator for volatile dust

    SciTech Connect

    Mendrela, E.A.; Mendrela, E.M.; Osadnik, Z.; Staszak, J.

    1983-05-01

    The high percentage of ferromagnetic particles/..gamma.. - Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3// in chimney dust of coal power stations and a significant industrial demand for these materials suggests the possibility of extracting them on a large scale. Currently applied magnetic separators are too small for the requirements. A magnetic separator is presented which assures high capacity of dust flow and good quality of a separated ferromagnetic concentrate. The structure of this new magnetic separator and test results are described.

  9. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, I.; Toyoda, K.; Beneragama, N.; Umetsu, K.

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  10. Magnet design for superconducting open gradient magnetic separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahoranta, Maria; Lehtonen, Jorma; Mikkonen, Risto

    2003-04-01

    The use of superconductivity opens new applications for magnetic separation because very high magnetic fields become available. In this paper the magnet design for a laboratory scale superconducting open gradient magnetic separator is presented. The separator will be used to optimize the separation parameters for different kinds of applications, such as the foundry sand purification. Therefore, the goal of the magnet design is to obtain a constant magnetic force density distribution inside the working volume. The high magnitude of magnetic force density is required because the materials to be separated have low magnetic susceptibilities. The maximum achievable force density is determined by the critical current in superconducting magnets. The advantages and drawbacks of solenoid, racetrack and saddle coil geometries are compared. Ways for improving the performance of the system is discussed. Finally, the influence of the stray field on the slurry flow outside the working volume is studied.

  11. HTS High Gradient Magnetic Separation system

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, M.A.; Coulter, J.Y.; Hults, W.L.

    1996-09-01

    We report on the assembly, characterization and operation of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnetic separator. The magnet is made of 624 m of Silver/BSCCO superconducting wire and has overall dimensions of 18 cm OD, 15.5 cm height and 5 cm ID. The HTS current leads are designed to operate with the warm end at 75 K and the cold end cooled by a two stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. The upper stage of the cryocooler cools the thermal shield and two heat pipe thermal intercepts. The lower stage of the cryocooler cools the HTS magnet and the bottom end of the HTS current leads. The HTS magnet was initially characterized in liquid cryogens. We report on the current- voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HTS magnet at temperatures ranging from 15 to 40 K. At 40 K the magnet can generate a central field of 2.0 T at a current of 120 A.

  12. Whole mouse cryo-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse -> organ -> tissue structure -> cell -> sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research.

  13. Plasma separation from magnetic field lines in a magnetic nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, D. A.; Goodwin, D. G.; Sercel, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses conditions for separation of a plasma from the magnetic field of a magnetic nozzle. The analysis assumes a collisionless, quasineutral plasma, and therefore the results represent a lower bound on the amount of detachment possible for a given set of plasma conditions. We show that collisionless separation can occur because finite electron mass inhibits the flow of azimuthal currents in the nozzle. Separation conditions are governed by a parameter G which depends on plasma and nozzle conditions. Several methods of improving plasma detachment are presented, including moving the plasma generation zone downstream from the region of strongest magnetic field and using dual magnets to focus the plasma beam. Plasma detachment can be enhanced by manipulation of the nozzle configuration.

  14. Multistage Magnetic Separator of Cells and Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Ken; Ainsworth, Mark; Daily, Bruce; Dunn, Scott; Metz, Bill; Vellinger, John; Taylor, Brock; Meador, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The multistage electromagnetic separator for purifying cells and magnetic particles (MAGSEP) is a laboratory apparatus for separating and/or purifying particles (especially biological cells) on the basis of their magnetic susceptibility and magnetophoretic mobility. Whereas a typical prior apparatus based on similar principles offers only a single stage of separation, the MAGSEP, as its full name indicates, offers multiple stages of separation; this makes it possible to refine a sample population of particles to a higher level of purity or to categorize multiple portions of the sample on the basis of magnetic susceptibility and/or magnetophoretic mobility. The MAGSEP includes a processing unit and an electronic unit coupled to a personal computer. The processing unit includes upper and lower plates, a plate-rotation system, an electromagnet, an electromagnet-translation system, and a capture-magnet assembly. The plates are bolted together through a roller bearing that allows the plates to rotate with respect to each other. An interface between the plates acts as a seal for separating fluids. A lower cuvette can be aligned with as many as 15 upper cuvette stations for fraction collection during processing. A two-phase stepping motor drives the rotation system, causing the upper plate to rotate for the collection of each fraction of the sample material. The electromagnet generates a magnetic field across the lower cuvette, while the translation system translates the electromagnet upward along the lower cuvette. The current supplied to the electromagnet, and thus the magnetic flux density at the pole face of the electromagnet, can be set at a programmed value between 0 and 1,400 gauss (0.14 T). The rate of translation can be programmed between 5 and 2,000 m/s so as to align all sample particles in the same position in the cuvette. The capture magnet can be a permanent magnet. It is mounted on an arm connected to a stepping motor. The stepping motor rotates the arm to

  15. Magnetic separation techniques in diagnostic microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    Olsvik, O; Popovic, T; Skjerve, E; Cudjoe, K S; Hornes, E; Ugelstad, J; Uhlén, M

    1994-01-01

    The principles of magnetic separation aided by antibodies or other specific binding molecules have been used for isolation of specific viable whole organisms, antigens, or nucleic acids. Whereas growth on selective media may be helpful in isolation of a certain bacterial species, immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technology can isolate strains possessing specific and characteristic surface antigens. Further separation, cultivation, and identification of the isolate can be performed by traditional biochemical, immunologic, or molecular methods. PCR can be used for amplification and identification of genes of diagnostic importance for a target organism. The combination of IMS and PCR reduces the assay time to several hours while increasing both specificity and sensitivity. Use of streptavidin-coated magnetic beads for separation of amplified DNA fragments, containing both biotin and a signal molecule, has allowed for the conversion of the traditional PCR into an easy-to-read microtiter plate format. The bead-bound PCR amplicons can also easily be sequenced in an automated DNA sequencer. The latter technique makes it possible to obtain sequence data of 300 to 600 bases from 20 to 30 strains, starting with clinical samples, within 12 to 24 h. Sequence data can be used for both diagnostic and epidemiologic purposes. IMS has been demonstrated to be a useful method in diagnostic microbiology. Most recent publications describe IMS as a method for enhancing the specificity and sensitivity of other detection systems, such as PCR, and providing considerable savings in time compared with traditional diagnostic systems. The relevance to clinical diagnosis has, however, not yet been fully established for all of these new test principles. In the case of PCR, for example, the presence of specific DNA in a food sample does not demonstrate the presence of a live organism capable of inducing a disease. However, all tests offering increased sensitivity and specificity of detection

  16. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of organic dyes in wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, M.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study is to separate dyes in wastewater with high efficiency and speed using High Gradient Magnetic Separation with superconducting magnet. Two main technologies are necessary for magnetic separation; one is magnetic seeding technology to provide ferromagnetism to the substance, and the other is magnetic separation technology using superconducting magnet and magnetic filters. In order to separate organic dyes, it is necessary to clarify the mechanism of magnetic seeding, and to design a suitable magnetic seeding method depending on the kind of object dye. Six kinds of dyes which are widely used in industry were adopted to investigate the possibility of the magnetic seeding and interaction mechanism between dye and ferromagnetic particles. As a result, it was shown that electrostatic interaction is one of the main interactions between organic dye and ferromagnetic particles.

  17. Electro-magnetic stress-induced degradation of insulation vacuum of a large cryo-magnetic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattachryya, Pranab; Gupta, Anjan Dutta; Dhar, S.; Pal, Gautam; Mukherjee, Paramita

    2016-07-01

    In superconducting magnets, the cold mass is placed in a vacuum vessel to reduce heat load to the liquid helium system. Helium leaks into the vacuum vessel can degrade the insulation vacuum, which can, in turn, cause an increase in the heat load to the liquid helium system. These leaks are called cold leaks, as they show up when the coil is cooled with liquid helium. K500 superconducting cyclotron magnet at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata has such cold leaks in the helium vessel that developed during cool down. The leak rate increases with the increase of current in the superconducting coils. This paper describes a series of experiments carried out on the superconducting cyclotron magnet to find the level of degradation of insulation vacuum and measure the increase in heat load with magnet current. The leak rate was also measured and the leak size was estimated analytically. Detail magneto-structural analysis was done using Finite Element Method (FEM) to identify highly stressed zones in the helium vessel and found out that highly stressed zones coincide with the weld zones. The magneto-structural stress was applied on an estimated size of single crack and found that crack tip stress could reach beyond elastic limit of the material. We can predict that the full design current may be unachievable in this situation. Mitigation of increased heat load was also done using an additional vacuum pump for the insulation vacuum space.

  18. Separation of magnetic susceptibility components from magnetization curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosareva, L.; Nourgaliev, D.; Kuzina, D.; Spassov, S.; Fattakhov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Modern lake sediments are a unique source of information for climate changes, regionally and globally, because all environmental variations are recorded by these sediments with high resolution. The magnetic properties of Chernyshov Bay (Aral Sea) sediments we investigated from core number 4 (N45o57'04.2''; E59o17'14.3'') are taken at far water depth of 9.5 m. The length of the core is 4.16 m. Samples for measurements were taken to plastic sample boxes with internal dimensions 2x2x2 cm. Remanent magnetization curves were measured by coercivity spectrometer for the separate determination of the different contributions to the total bulk magnetic susceptibility. There was measured also magnetic susceptibility using MS2 susceptibility meter. Those operations were done for data comparison between 2 susceptibilities obtained from different equipment. Our goal is to decipher the magnetic susceptibility signal in lake sediments by decomposing the bulk susceptibility signal of a lake sediment sequence into ferromagnetic (χf), dia-/paramagnetic (χp) and superparamagnetic (χsp) components using data from remanent and indused magnetization curves Each of these component has a different origin: paramagnetic minerals are usually attributed to terrigenous sediment input, ferromagnetics are of biogenic origin, and superparamagnetic minerals may be of either biogenic or terrigenous origin. Comparison between susceptibility measurements of MS2-Bartington susceptometer and of the coercivity spectrometer has shown good correlation. The susceptibility values measured in two different equipment are fairly close and indicate thus the reliability the proposed method. In research also has shown water level changes in Aral Sea based on magnetic susceptibility. The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University also by RFBR research projects No. 14-05-31376 - а, 14-05-00785- а.

  19. Prediction of Separation Performance of Dry High Intensity Magnetic Separator for Processing of Para-Magnetic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Veerendra; Suresh, Nikkam

    2015-10-01

    High intensity dry magnetic separators are gaining popularity for the separation of para-magnetic minerals due to the cost economic factor. Induced roll magnetic separator is found to be an effective dry separator for the separation of fine particles. Separation efficiency of this separator depends on mineral characteristics and the design features of equipment along with the optimization of process variables. Present investigation focuses on the prediction and validation of separation performance of minerals while treating in induced roll magnetic separator. Prediction of the separation is expressed in terms of separation angle at which a particle leaves the rotor surface by using a modified particle flow model derived by Cakir. The validation of the model is carried by capturing the particle trajectory using an image analyzer. It is found that Cakir's mathematical model produces reliable results and a new model is proposed to increase the reliability of separation angle prediction by including the particle shape factor.

  20. Magnetic separation technique for environmental water purification by strong magnetic field generator loading HTS bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2010-11-01

    The magnetic separation technique in combination with high temperature superconducting bulk magnets has been investigated to purify the ground water which has been used in the coolant system for the incinerator furnace to cool the burning gas. The experiment has been operated by means of the newly-built alternating channel type magnetic separating device. The separation ratios of ferromagnetic flocks including fine magnetite powder have been estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with small iron balls filled in the water channels. As the magnetic force acting on the magnetic particle is given by the product of a magnetization of the material and a gradient of magnetic field, and as the ferromagnetic stainless steel balls yield the steep gradient of magnetic field around them in a strong magnetic field, the system has exhibited a quite excellent performance with respect to the separation ratios. The separation ratios of the flocks which contain the magnetite powder with the values more than 50 ppm have remained over 80% for under the flow rates less than 5 L/min.

  1. MSWI boiler fly ashes: magnetic separation for material recovery.

    PubMed

    De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc; Hubaux, Paul; Lucion, Christian

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, ferrous materials are usually recovered from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash by magnetic separation. To our knowledge, such a physical technique has not been applied so far to other MSWI residues. This study focuses thus on the applicability of magnetic separation on boiler fly ashes (BFA). Different types of magnet are used to extract the magnetic particles. We investigate the magnetic particle composition, as well as their leaching behaviour (EN 12457-1 leaching test). The magnetic particles present higher Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni concentration than the non-magnetic (NM) fraction. Magnetic separation does not improve the leachability of the NM fraction. To approximate industrial conditions, magnetic separation is also applied to BFA mixed with water by using a pilot. BFA magnetic separation is economically evaluated. This study globally shows that it is possible to extract some magnetic particles from MSWI boiler fly ashes. However, the magnetic particles only represent from 23 to 120 g/kg of the BFA and, though they are enriched in Fe, are composed of similar elements to the raw ashes. The industrial application of magnetic separation would only be profitable if large amounts of ashes were treated (more than 15 kt/y), and the process should be ideally completed by other recovery methods or advanced treatments.

  2. Fundamental study of phosphor separation by controlling magnetic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Kohei; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-11-01

    The phosphor wastes consist of phosphors with different emission colors, green (LAP), red (YOX), blue (BAM) and white (HP). It is required to recover and reuse the rare earth phosphors with high market value. In this study, we tried to separate the phosphor using the magnetic separation by HTS bulk magnet utilizing the differences of magnetic susceptibility by the type of phosphors. We succeeded in the successive separation of HP with low market value from YOX and BAM including the rare earth using the magnetic Archimedes method. In this method, vertical and radial components of the magnetic force were used.

  3. A feasibility study of magnetic separation of magnetic nanoparticle for forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y C; Han, S; Hong, S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently reported that a UK company has developed a naturally non-toxic magnetoferritin to act as a draw solute for drawing water in forward osmosis process. The gist of this technology is the utilization of the magnetic nanoparticle and high-gradient magnetic separation for draw solute separation and reuse. However, any demonstration on this technology has not been reported yet. In this study, a feasibility test of magnetic separation using magnetic nanoparticle was therefore performed to investigate the possibility of magnetic separation in water treatment such as desalination. Basically, a magnetic separation system consisted of a column packed with a bed of magnetically susceptible wools placed between the poles of electromagnet and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle was used as a model nanoparticle. The effect of nanoparticle size to applied magnetic field in separation column was experimentally investigated and the magnetic field distribution in a magnet gap and the magnetic field gradient around stainless steel wool wire were analyzed through numerical simulation. The amount of magnetic nanoparticle captured in the separator column increased as the magnetic field strength and particle size increased. As a result, if magnetic separation is intended to be used for draw solute separation and reuse, both novel nanoparticle and large-scale high performance magnetic separator must be developed.

  4. A feasibility study of magnetic separation of magnetic nanoparticle for forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y C; Han, S; Hong, S

    2011-01-01

    It was recently reported that a UK company has developed a naturally non-toxic magnetoferritin to act as a draw solute for drawing water in forward osmosis process. The gist of this technology is the utilization of the magnetic nanoparticle and high-gradient magnetic separation for draw solute separation and reuse. However, any demonstration on this technology has not been reported yet. In this study, a feasibility test of magnetic separation using magnetic nanoparticle was therefore performed to investigate the possibility of magnetic separation in water treatment such as desalination. Basically, a magnetic separation system consisted of a column packed with a bed of magnetically susceptible wools placed between the poles of electromagnet and Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle was used as a model nanoparticle. The effect of nanoparticle size to applied magnetic field in separation column was experimentally investigated and the magnetic field distribution in a magnet gap and the magnetic field gradient around stainless steel wool wire were analyzed through numerical simulation. The amount of magnetic nanoparticle captured in the separator column increased as the magnetic field strength and particle size increased. As a result, if magnetic separation is intended to be used for draw solute separation and reuse, both novel nanoparticle and large-scale high performance magnetic separator must be developed. PMID:22097022

  5. Development of high gradient magnetic separation system under dry condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Y.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2010-11-01

    The interfusion of impurities such as metallic wear debris has been a problem in the manufacturing process of foods, medicines, and industrial products. Gravity separation system and membrane separation system has been used widely for powder separation, however magnetic separation system is much efficient to separate magnetic particles. Magnetic separation system under wet process is used conventionally, however, it has some demerit such as necessity of drying treatment after separation and difficulty of running the system in the cold region and so on. Thus, magnetic separation under dry process is prospective as alternative method. In this paper, we developed high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under dry process. In dry HGMS system, powder coagulation caused by particle interaction is considerable. Powder coagulation causes a blockage of magnetic filters and results in decrease of separation performance of dry HGMS system. In order to investigate the effect of powder coagulation on separation performance, we conducted experiments with two kinds of powdered materials whose cohesive properties are different.

  6. Integrated acoustic and magnetic separation in microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Jonathan D.; Thévoz, Patrick; Bruus, Henrik; Soh, H. Tom

    2009-12-01

    With a growing number of cell-based biotechnological applications, there is a need for particle separation systems capable of multiparameter separations at high purity and throughput, beyond what is presently offered by traditional methods including fluorescence activated cell sorting and column-based magnetic separation. Toward this aim, we report on the integration of microfluidic acoustic and magnetic separation in a monolithic device for multiparameter particle separation. Using our device, we demonstrate high-purity separation of a multicomponent particle mixture at a throughput of up to 108 particles/hr.

  7. Magnetic separation of micro-spheres from viscous biological fluids.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Kaminski, M. D.; Xianqiao, L.; Caviness, P.; Torno, M.; Rosengart, A. J.; Dhar, P.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    2007-02-21

    A magnetically based detoxification system is being developed as a therapeutic tool for selective and rapid removal of biohazards, i.e. chemicals and radioactive substances, from human blood. One of the key components of this system is a portable magnetic separator capable of separating polymer-based magnetic nano/micro-spheres from arterial blood flow in an ex vivo unit. The magnetic separator consists of an array of alternating and parallel capillary tubing and magnetizable wires, which is exposed to an applied magnetic field created by two parallel permanent magnets such that the magnetic field is perpendicular to both the wires and the fluid flow. In this paper, the performance of this separator was evaluated via preliminary in vitro flow experiments using a separator unit consisting of single capillary glass tubing and two metal wires. Pure water, ethylene glycol-water solution (v:v = 39:61 and v:v = 49:51) and human whole blood were used as the fluids. The results showed that when the viscosity increased from 1.0 cp to 3.0 cp, the capture efficiency (CE) decreased from 90% to 56%. However, it is still feasible to obtain >90% CE in blood flow if the separator design is optimized to create higher magnetic gradients and magnetic fields in the separation area.

  8. Magnetic separator having a multilayer matrix, method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kelland, David R.

    1980-01-01

    A magnetic separator having multiple staggered layers of porous magnetic material positioned to intercept a fluid stream carrying magnetic particles and so placed that a bypass of each layer is effected as the pores of the layer become filled with material extracted from the fluid stream.

  9. Magnetic-based microfluidic platform for biomolecular separation.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Qasem; Samper, Victor; Poenar, Daniel; Yu, Chen

    2006-06-01

    A novel microfluidic platform for manipulation of micro/nano magnetic particles was designed, fabricated and tested for applications dealing with biomolecular separation. Recently, magnetic immunomagnetic cell separation has attracted a noticeable attention due to the high selectivity of such separation methods. Strong magnetic field gradients can be developed along the entire wire, and the miniaturized size of these current-carrying conductors strongly enhances the magnetic field gradient and therefore produces large, tunable and localized magnetic forces that can be applied on magnetic particles and confine them in very small spots. Further increases in the values of the generated magnetic field gradients can be achieved by employing miniaturized ferromagnetic structures (pillars) which can be magnetized by an external magnetic field or by micro-coils on the same chip. In this study, we demonstrate magnetic beads trapping, concentration, transportation and sensing in a liquid sample under continuous flow by employing high magnetic field gradients generated by novel multi-functional magnetic micro-devices. Each individual magnetic micro-device consists of the following components: 1. Cu micro-coils array embedded in the silicon substrate with high aspect ratio conductors for efficient magnetic field generation 2. Magnetic pillar(s) made of the magnetic alloy NiCoP for magnetic field focusing and magnetic field gradient enhancement. Each pillar is magnetized by its corresponding coil 3. Integrated sensing coil for magnetic beads detection 4. Microfluidic chamber containing all the previous components. Magnetic fields of about 0.1 T and field gradients of around 300 T/cm have been achieved, which allowed to develop a magnetic force of 3 x 10(-9) N on a magnetic particle with radius of 1 mum. This force is large enough to trap/move this particle as the required force to affect such particles in a liquid sample is on the order of approximately pN. Trapping rates of up

  10. Density separation of solids in ferrofluids with magnetic grids

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, H.; Quets, J.M.

    1980-04-01

    Nonmagnetic solids in a superparamagnetic ferrofluid are subjected to body forces proportional to the intensity of magnetization of the fluid and the gradient of the magnetic field. An apparent density of the fluid can be defined from the force equations, and since the apparent density can be much larger than the true density, it is possible to levitate or float dense objects. Mixtures of solids with a density greater than the apparent density sink while lower density solids float. In practice it is difficult to create a uniform gradient over a large volume and single gap magnetic separators require very large magnets or have a limited throughput. To overcome that problem, multiple gap magnetic grids have been designed. Such grids consist of planar arrays of parallel bars of alternating polarity, driven by permanent magnets. When immersed in ferrofluid, magnetic grids create nonuniform field gradients and apparent densities in the fluid. However, both analysis and experimental measurements show that the grid acts as a barrier to particles below a critical density, while permitting more dense particles to fall through the grid. Thus, a magnetic grid filter can be used as a high throughput binary separator of solids according to their densities. Such filters can be cascaded for more complex separations. Several magnetic grid filters have been designed, built, and tested. Magnetic measurements qualitatively agree with the theoretical predictions. Experiments with synthetic mixtures have demonstrated that good binary separations can be made.

  11. Microstripes for transport and separation of magnetic particles

    PubMed Central

    Donolato, Marco; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple technique for creating an on-chip magnetic particle conveyor based on exchange-biased permalloy microstripes. The particle transportation relies on an array of stripes with a spacing smaller than their width in conjunction with a periodic sequence of four different externally applied magnetic fields. We demonstrate the controlled transportation of a large population of particles over several millimeters of distance as well as the spatial separation of two populations of magnetic particles with different magnetophoretic mobilities. The technique can be used for the controlled selective manipulation and separation of magnetically labelled species. PMID:22655020

  12. Microstripes for transport and separation of magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Donolato, Marco; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2012-06-01

    We present a simple technique for creating an on-chip magnetic particle conveyor based on exchange-biased permalloy microstripes. The particle transportation relies on an array of stripes with a spacing smaller than their width in conjunction with a periodic sequence of four different externally applied magnetic fields. We demonstrate the controlled transportation of a large population of particles over several millimeters of distance as well as the spatial separation of two populations of magnetic particles with different magnetophoretic mobilities. The technique can be used for the controlled selective manipulation and separation of magnetically labelled species.

  13. Self-assembled magnetic filter for highly efficient immunomagnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Issadore, David; Shao, Huilin; Chung, Jaehoon; Newton, Andita; Pittet, Mikael; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a compact and inexpensive microfluidic chip, the self-assembled magnetic filter, to efficiently remove magnetically tagged cells from suspension. The self-assembled magnetic filter consists of a microfluidic channel built directly above a self-assembled NdFeB magnet. Micrometre-sized grains of NdFeB assemble to form alternating magnetic dipoles, creating a magnetic field with a very strong magnitude B (from the material) and field gradient ▽B (from the configuration) in the microfluidic channel. The magnetic force imparted on magnetic beads is measured to be comparable to state-of-the-art microfabricated magnets, allowing for efficient separations to be performed in a compact, simple device. The efficiency of the magnetic filter is characterized by sorting non-magnetic (polystyrene) beads from magnetic beads (iron oxide). The filter enriches the population of non-magnetic beads to magnetic beads by a factor of >10(5) with a recovery rate of 90% at 1 mL h(-1). The utility of the magnetic filter is demonstrated with a microfluidic device that sorts tumor cells from leukocytes using negative immunomagnetic selection, and concentrates the tumor cells on an integrated membrane filter for optical detection. PMID:20949198

  14. Magnetic separation of FCC equilibrium catalyst by HGMS. [Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC); high gradient magnetic separator (HGMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Takase, S.; Ushio, M.; Oishi, Y.; Morita, T.; Shiori, T.

    1982-09-01

    The results of a study on the magnetic separation of a fluid catalytic cracking catalysts by a high gradient magnetic separator are presented. Seven nickel-impregnated catalysts (Ni content ranged from 0.0 to 4.45 wt.%) were mixed in equal amounts as a model sample. The velocity effect of carrier gas is detailed with the magnetic yield and magnetic susceptibility plotted against magnetic field at a constant carrier gas velocity. The distribution of magnetic susceptibility of separated components was also studied. The results of the study suggested that highly metal-contaminated catalysts can be selectively separated by HGMS according to metal content. Actual equilibrium catalysts used with heavy feedstocks are also expected to separate into mags and nonmags, and in such real cases, nonmags have larger surface areas and higher catalytic activity as well as selectivity. As such, it was concluded that a magnetic separation of highly metal-contaminated catalysts by HGMS followed by the make-up of fresh catalyst gives rise to a considerable reduction of catalyst consumption in residual oil FCC processing. (JMT)

  15. Apparatus and method for continuous separation of magnetic particles from non-magnetic fluids

    DOEpatents

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2010-02-09

    A magnetic separator vessel (1) for separating magnetic particles from non-magnetic fluid includes a separation chamber having an interior and exterior wall, a top and bottom portion; a magnet (3) having first and second poles (2) positioned adjacent to the exterior wall, wherein the first pole is substantially diametrically opposed to the second pole; a inlet port (5) is directed into the top portion of the separation chamber, wherein the inlet port (5) is positioned adjacent to one of the first and second poles (2), wherein the inlet port (5) is adapted to transfer a mixture into the separation chamber; an underflow port (6) in communication with the bottom portion, wherein the underflow port (6) is adapted to receive the magnetic particles; and an overflow port (9) in communication with the separation chamber, wherein the overflow port (9) is adapted to receive the non-magnetic fluid.

  16. Magnetic Surfactants and Polymers with Gadolinium Counterions for Protein Separations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul; Bromberg, Lev; Rial-Hermida, M Isabel; Wasbrough, Matthew; Hatton, T Alan; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2016-01-26

    New magnetic surfactants, (cationic hexadecyltrimethlyammonium bromotrichlorogadolinate (CTAG), decyltrimethylammonium bromotrichlorogadolinate (DTAG), and a magnetic polymer (poly(3-acrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium tetrachlorogadolinate (APTAG)) have been synthesized by the simple mixing of the corresponding surfactants and polymer with gadolinium metal ions. A magnetic anionic surfactant, gadolinium tri(1,4-bis(2-ethylhexoxy)-1,4-dioxobutane-2-sulfonate) (Gd(AOT)3), was synthesized via metathesis. Both routes enable facile preparation of magnetically responsive magnetic polymers and surfactants without the need to rely on nanocomposites or organic frameworks with polyradicals. Electrical conductivity, surface tensiometry, SQUID magnetometry, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) demonstrate surface activity and self-aggregation behavior of the magnetic surfactants similar to their magnetically inert parent analogues but with added magnetic properties. The binding of the magnetic surfactants to proteins enables efficient separations under low-strength (0.33 T) magnetic fields in a new, nanoparticle-free approach to magnetophoretic protein separations and extractions. Importantly, the toxicity of the magnetic surfactants and polymers is, in some cases, lower than that of their halide analogues.

  17. [Consideration on high gradient magnetic separation of red cells].

    PubMed

    Iacob, Gh; Ciochină, Al D; Herea, D D; Dimitriu, Cristina; Chiruţă, Roxana; Vieru, Cristina; Stratone, Ana

    2004-01-01

    The red cells exhibit a proper magnetism due to hemoglobin. In a prototype of high gradient magnetic separator equipped with an ordered ferromagnetic matrix, a set of experiments with blood to determine the influence of the process parameters on the efficiency of the erythrocytes capture was realized. Dependent on the values of the magnetic induction (1.76-2.01 T), average blood flow velocity through the matrix (0.55-1.1 mm/s), and stationary time in the matrix, different values of concentration for the red cells in the matrix were obtained. For tests realized with integral blood, the concentration was approximately 20%, while for tests with diluted blood the concentration fluctuated from 14.51% to 29.90%. A blood recirculation through the matrix led to a concentration of 37.86%. The magnetic separation method permits an acceptable red cells concentration, without apparent destructive effects on the cells.

  18. Process to remove actinides from soil using magnetic separation

    DOEpatents

    Avens, Larry R.; Hill, Dallas D.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Stewart, Walter F.; Tolt, Thomas L.; Worl, Laura A.

    1996-01-01

    A process of separating actinide-containing components from an admixture including forming a slurry including actinide-containing components within an admixture, said slurry including a dispersion-promoting surfactant, adjusting the pH of the slurry to within a desired range, and, passing said slurry through a pretreated matrix material, said matrix material adapted to generate high magnetic field gradients upon the application of a strong magnetic field exceeding about 0.1 Tesla whereupon a portion of said actinide-containing components are separated from said slurry and remain adhered upon said matrix material is provided.

  19. Novel platform for minimizing cell loss on separation process: Droplet-based magnetically activated cell separator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngho; Hong, Su; Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Kangsun; Yun, Seok; Kang, Yuri; Paek, Kyeong-Kap; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Byungkyu

    2007-07-01

    To reduce the problem of cell loss due to adhesion, one of the basic phenomena in microchannel, we proposed the droplet-based magnetically activated cell separator (DMACS). Based on the platform of the DMACS-which consists of permanent magnets, a coverslip with a circle-shaped boundary, and an injection tube-we could collect magnetically (CD45)-labeled (positive) cells with high purity and minimize cell loss due to adhesion. To compare separation efficiency between the MACS and the DMACS, the total number of cells before and after separation with both the separators was counted by flow cytometry. We could find that the number (3241/59 940) of cells lost in the DMACS is much less than that (22 360/59 940) in the MACS while the efficiency of cell separation in the DMACS (96.07%) is almost the same as that in the MACS (96.72%). Practically, with fluorescent images, it was visually confirmed that the statistical data are reliable. From the viability test by using Hoechst 33 342, it was also demonstrated that there was no cell damage on a gas-liquid interface. Conclusively, DMACS will be a powerful tool to separate rare cells and applicable as a separator, key component of lab-on-a-chip.

  20. Magnetofluidic concentration and separation of non-magnetic particles using two magnet arrays.

    PubMed

    Hejazian, Majid; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-07-01

    The present paper reports the use of diluted ferrofluid and two arrays of permanent magnets for the size-selective concentration of non-magnetic particles. The micro magnetofluidic device consists of a straight channels sandwiched between two arrays of permanent magnets. The permanent magnets create multiple capture zones with minimum magnetic field strength along the channel. The complex interaction between magnetic forces and hydrodynamic force allows the device to operate in different regimes suitable for concentration of non-magnetic particles with small difference in size. Our experimental results show that non-magnetic particles with diameters of 3.1 μm and 4.8 μm can be discriminated and separated with this method. The results from this study could be used as a guide for the design of size-sensitive separation devices for particle and cell based on negative magnetophoresis. PMID:27478527

  1. Magnetofluidic concentration and separation of non-magnetic particles using two magnet arrays.

    PubMed

    Hejazian, Majid; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-07-01

    The present paper reports the use of diluted ferrofluid and two arrays of permanent magnets for the size-selective concentration of non-magnetic particles. The micro magnetofluidic device consists of a straight channels sandwiched between two arrays of permanent magnets. The permanent magnets create multiple capture zones with minimum magnetic field strength along the channel. The complex interaction between magnetic forces and hydrodynamic force allows the device to operate in different regimes suitable for concentration of non-magnetic particles with small difference in size. Our experimental results show that non-magnetic particles with diameters of 3.1 μm and 4.8 μm can be discriminated and separated with this method. The results from this study could be used as a guide for the design of size-sensitive separation devices for particle and cell based on negative magnetophoresis.

  2. Towards atomic resolution structural determination by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Z. Hong

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction (collectively referred to as “cryoEM”) have made it possible to determine the three-dimensional (3D) structures of several macromolecular complexes at near-atomic resolution (~3.8 – 4.5 Å). These achievements were accomplished by overcoming challenges in sample handling, instrumentation, image processing, and model building. At near-atomic resolution, many detailed structural features can be resolved, such as the turns and deep grooves of helices, strand separation in β sheets, and densities for loops and bulky amino acid side chains. Such structural data of the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV), the Epsilon 15 bacteriophage and the GroEL complex have provided valuable constraints for atomic model building using integrative tools, thus significantly enhancing the value of the cryoEM structures. The CPV structure revealed a drastic conformational change from a helix to a β hairpin associated with RNA packaging and replication, coupling of RNA processing and release, and the long sought-after polyhedrin-binding domain. These latest advances in single-particle cryoEM provide exciting opportunities for the 3D structural determination of viruses and macromolecular complexes that are either too large or too heterogeneous to be investigated by conventional X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. PMID:18403197

  3. Rapid and continuous magnetic separation in droplet microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Brouzes, Eric; Kruse, Travis; Kimmerling, Robert; Strey, Helmut H.

    2015-01-01

    We present a droplet microfluidic method to extract molecules of interest from a droplet in a rapid and continuous fashion. We accomplish this by first marginalizing functionalized super-paramagnetic beads within the droplet using a magnetic field, and then splitting the droplet into one droplet containing the majority of magnetic beads and one droplet containing the minority fraction. We quantitatively analysed the factors which affect the efficiency of marginalization and droplet splitting to optimize the enrichment of magnetic beads. We first characterized the interplay between the droplet velocity and the strength of the magnetic field and its effect on marginalization. We found that marginalization is optimal at the midline of the magnet and that marginalization is a good predictor of bead enrichment through splitting at low to moderate droplet velocities. Finally, we focused our efforts on manipulating the splitting profile to improve the enrichment provided by asymmetric splitting. We designed asymmetric splitting forks that employ capillary effects to preferentially extract the bead-rich regions of the droplets. Our strategy represents a framework to optimize magnetic bead enrichment methods tailored to the requirements of specific droplet-based applications. We anticipate that our separation technology is well suited for applications in single-cell genomics and proteomics. In particular, our method could be used to separate mRNA bound to poly-dT functionalized magnetic microparticles from single cell lysates to prepare single-cell cDNA libraries. PMID:25501881

  4. Matched filtering method for separating magnetic anomaly using fractal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Cheng, Qiuming; Zhang, Henglei

    2016-05-01

    Fractal/scaling distribution of magnetization in the crust has found with growing body of evidences from spectral analysis of borehole susceptibility logs and magnetic field data, and fractal properties of magnetic sources have already been considered in processing magnetic data such as the Spector and Grant method for depth determination. In this study, the fractal-based matched filtering method is presented for separating magnetic anomalies caused by fractal sources. We argue the benefits of considering fractal natures of source distribution for data processing in magnetic exploration: the first is that the depth determination can be improved by using multiscaling model to interpret the magnetic data power spectrum; the second is that the matched filtering can be reconstructed by employing the difference in scaling exponent together with the corrected depth and amplitude estimates. In the application of synthetic data obtained from fractal modeling and real aeromagnetic data from the Qikou district of China, the proposed fractal-based matched filtering method obtains more reliable depth estimations as well as improved separation between local anomalies (caused by volcanic rocks) and regional field (crystalline basement) in comparison with the conventional matched filtering method.

  5. Amine-functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles for DNA separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Wei; Wei, Wei; Li, Junjian; Qi, Xiaoliang; Zuo, Gancheng; Chen, Qi; Pan, Xihao; Dong, Wei

    2016-11-01

    We report a modified approach for the functionalized magnetic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MMSN) using polymer microspheres incorporated with magnetic nanoparticles in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the core-shell magnetic silica nanoparticles (MSN). These particles were functionalized with amino groups via the addition of aminosilane directly to the particle sol. We then evaluate their DNA separation abilities and find the capacity of DNA binding significantly increased (210.22 μg/mg) compared with normal magnetic silica spheres (138.44 μg/mg) by using an ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer (UV). The morphologies, magnetic properties, particle size, pore size, core-shell structure and Zeta potential are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). This work demonstrates that our MMSN own an excellent potential application in bioseparation and drug delivery.

  6. Quantitative Magnetic Separation of Particles and Cells Using Gradient Magnetic Ratcheting.

    PubMed

    Murray, Coleman; Pao, Edward; Tseng, Peter; Aftab, Shayan; Kulkarni, Rajan; Rettig, Matthew; Di Carlo, Dino

    2016-04-13

    Extraction of rare target cells from biosamples is enabling for life science research. Traditional rare cell separation techniques, such as magnetic activated cell sorting, are robust but perform coarse, qualitative separations based on surface antigen expression. A quantitative magnetic separation technology is reported using high-force magnetic ratcheting over arrays of magnetically soft micropillars with gradient spacing, and the system is used to separate and concentrate magnetic beads based on iron oxide content (IOC) and cells based on surface expression. The system consists of a microchip of permalloy micropillar arrays with increasing lateral pitch and a mechatronic device to generate a cycling magnetic field. Particles with higher IOC separate and equilibrate along the miropillar array at larger pitches. A semi-analytical model is developed that predicts behavior for particles and cells. Using the system, LNCaP cells are separated based on the bound quantity of 1 μm anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) particles as a metric for expression. The ratcheting cytometry system is able to resolve a ±13 bound particle differential, successfully distinguishing LNCaP from PC3 populations based on EpCAM expression, correlating with flow cytometry analysis. As a proof-of-concept, EpCAM-labeled cells from patient blood are isolated with 74% purity, demonstrating potential toward a quantitative magnetic separation instrument. PMID:26890496

  7. Quantitative Magnetic Separation of Particles and Cells Using Gradient Magnetic Ratcheting.

    PubMed

    Murray, Coleman; Pao, Edward; Tseng, Peter; Aftab, Shayan; Kulkarni, Rajan; Rettig, Matthew; Di Carlo, Dino

    2016-04-13

    Extraction of rare target cells from biosamples is enabling for life science research. Traditional rare cell separation techniques, such as magnetic activated cell sorting, are robust but perform coarse, qualitative separations based on surface antigen expression. A quantitative magnetic separation technology is reported using high-force magnetic ratcheting over arrays of magnetically soft micropillars with gradient spacing, and the system is used to separate and concentrate magnetic beads based on iron oxide content (IOC) and cells based on surface expression. The system consists of a microchip of permalloy micropillar arrays with increasing lateral pitch and a mechatronic device to generate a cycling magnetic field. Particles with higher IOC separate and equilibrate along the miropillar array at larger pitches. A semi-analytical model is developed that predicts behavior for particles and cells. Using the system, LNCaP cells are separated based on the bound quantity of 1 μm anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) particles as a metric for expression. The ratcheting cytometry system is able to resolve a ±13 bound particle differential, successfully distinguishing LNCaP from PC3 populations based on EpCAM expression, correlating with flow cytometry analysis. As a proof-of-concept, EpCAM-labeled cells from patient blood are isolated with 74% purity, demonstrating potential toward a quantitative magnetic separation instrument.

  8. Magnetic separation of iron-based nanosorbents from watery solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Irina; Bakhteeva, Iuliia; Zhakov, Sergey; Baerner, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Iron and iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) both naked and with chemically modified surface are promising agents for different environmental applications, in particular for water purification and for analytical control of water and soil pollution. The MNP can be used as sorbents with selective abilities due to designed surface functionalization. While a lot of research has been devoted to the impurity sorption processes, the second part, that is the efficient removal of the MNP sorbents from the watery solution, has not been sufficiently studied so far. For that particles with magnetic cores are especially attractive due to the possibility of their subsequent magnetic separation from water without using coagulants, i.e. without a secondary water pollution, just by applying external magnetic fields B. In order to remove magnetic sorbent nanoparticles ( 10-100 nm) effectively from the water solution gradient magnetic fields are required. Depending on the MNP size, the magnetic moment, the chemical properties of the solution, the water purification conditions , either the low gradient magnetic separation (LGMS) with dB/dz < 100 T/m or the high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) with dB/dz > 100 T/m is used. The gradient magnetic field is provided by permanent magnets or electromagnets of different configuration. In this work the sedimentation dynamics of naked Fe3O4 and Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles (10-30 nm) in water was studied in a vertical gradient magnetic field (B1 ≤ 0.3T, dB/dz ≤ 0.13 T/cm). By this LGMS , the sedimentation time of the naked Fe3O4 NP is reduced down from several days to several minutes. The sedimentation time for Fe3O4@SiO2 decreases from several weeks to several hours and to several minutes when salts Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaH2PO4 are added to the solution. The results are interpreted in terms of MNP aggregate formation caused by electrostatic, steric and magnetic inter-particle interactions in the watery solution. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The work was

  9. Magnetic precipitate separation for Ni plating waste liquid using HTS bulk magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, T.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukazawa, H.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Terasawa, T.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic separation experiment for recycling the nickel-bearing precipitates in the waste liquid from the electroless plating processes has been practically conducted under the high gradient magnetic separation technique with use of the face-to-face HTS bulk magnet system. A couple of facing magnetic poles containing Sm123 bulk superconductors were activated through the pulsed field magnetization process to 1.86 T at 38 K and 2.00 T at 37 K, respectively. The weakly magnetized metallic precipitates of Ni crystals and Ni-P compounds deposited from the waste solution after heating it and pH controlling. The high gradient magnetic separation technique was employed with the separation channels filled with the stainless steel balls with dimension of 1 and 3 mm in diameter, which periodically moved between and out of the facing magnetic poles. The Ni-bearing precipitates were effectively attracted to the magnetized ferromagnetic balls. We have succeeded in obtaining the separation ratios over 90% under the flow rates less than 1.35 L/min.

  10. Magnetic separation as a plutonium residue enrichment process

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; McFarlan, J.T.; Gallegos, U.F.

    1989-01-01

    We have subjected several plutonium contaminated residues to Open Gradient Magnetic Separation (OGMS) on an experimental scale. Separation of graphite, bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, slag, and crucible, resulted in a plutonium rich fraction and a plutonium lean fraction. The lean fraction varied between about 20% to 85% of the feed bulk. The plutonium content of the lean fraction can be reduced from about 2% in the feed to the 0.1% to 0.5% range dependent on the portion of the feed rejected to this lean fraction. These values are low enough in plutonium to meet economic discard limits and be considered for direct discard. Magnetic separation of direct oxide reduction and electrorefining pyrochemical salts gave less favorable results. While a fraction very rich in plutonium could be obtained, the plutonium content of the lean fraction was to high for direct discard. This may still have chemical processing applications. OGMS experiments at low magnetic field strength on incinerator ash did give two fractions but the plutonium content of each fraction was essentially identical. Thus, no chemical processing advantage was identified for magnetic separation of this residue. The detailed results of these experiments and the implications for OGMS use in recycle plutonium processing are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Magnetic Separations with Magnetite: Theory, Operation, and Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    G. B. Cotten

    2000-08-01

    This dissertation documents the theory development and experimental plan followed to describe how a magnetite-based column under the influence of an external magnetic field functions as a magnetic separator. Theoretical simulations predict that weekly paramagnetic particles in the sub-micron range can be magnetically separated while diamagnetic particles as large as 2 microns in diameter may pass. Magnetite-based columns were evaluated as magnetically-controllable enhanced filtration devices. There was no evidence of enhanced filtration for diamagnetic particles by the magnetite-based bed. Magnetite-based magnetic separators have proven to be effective in specific laboratory experiments, indicating a potential feasibility for scale-up operations. Column media-filter type filtration effects indicate a magnetite-based column would not be suitable for treatment of a waste stream with a high diamagnetic solids content or high volume throughput requirements. Specific applications requiring removal of sub-micron para- or ferromagnetic particles under batch or Stokes flow conditions would be most applicable.

  12. Magnetic separation, thermo- and magnetochemical properties of coal liquid residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, E.; Kelland, D. R.

    1981-02-01

    Iron sulfides in the form of ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite have been removed from solvent refined coal by the use of high gradient magnetic separation. The results of such separations have been correlated with those of studies of the thermochemical and magnetochemical properties of the undissolved solids present in the product of coal liquefaction. Complete inorganic desulfurization was achieved at the same temperatures at which the solids exhibit a maximum magnetization, at about 230 °C. The preferred form for the highest magnetization is a monoclinic structure with a composition of Fe0.875S. Where the sulfides do not occur in this form, it has been possible to convert them to the high magnetization state by exposure to a hydrogen sulfide atmosphere at an elevated temperature. To approximate the temperature cycle experienced by the liquid coal coming from the reactor toward the filter, samples were heated above the Curie point to destroy the magnetization and then cooled to about 260 °C for H2S treatment. Measurements on the solids subsequently extracted showed a striking increase in the magnetization compared to the untreated material.

  13. Experimental investigation of magnetically actuated separation using tangential microfluidic channels and magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Munir, Ahsan; Zhu, Zanzan; Wang, Jianlong; Zhou, Hong Susan

    2014-06-01

    A novel continuous switching/separation scheme of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a sub-microlitre fluid volume surrounded by neodymium permanent magnet is studied in this work using tangential microfluidic channels. Polydimethylsiloxane tangential microchannels are fabricated using a novel micromoulding technique that can be done without a clean room and at much lower cost and time. Negligible switching of MNPs is seen in the absence of magnetic field, whereas 90% of switching is observed in the presence of magnetic field. The flow rate of MNPs solution had dramatic impact on separation performance. An optimum value of the flow rate is found that resulted in providing effective MNP separation at much faster rate. Separation performance is also investigated for a mixture containing non-magnetic polystyrene particles and MNPs. It is found that MNPs preferentially moved from lower microchannel to upper microchannel resulting in efficient separation. The proof-of-concept experiments performed in this work demonstrates that microfluidic bioseparation can be efficiently achieved using functionalised MNPs, together with tangential microchannels, appropriate magnetic field strength and optimum flow rates. This work verifies that a simple low-cost magnetic switching scheme can be potentially of great utility for the separation and detection of biomolecules in microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems. PMID:25014081

  14. Experimental investigation of magnetically actuated separation using tangential microfluidic channels and magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Munir, Ahsan; Zhu, Zanzan; Wang, Jianlong; Zhou, Hong Susan

    2014-06-01

    A novel continuous switching/separation scheme of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in a sub-microlitre fluid volume surrounded by neodymium permanent magnet is studied in this work using tangential microfluidic channels. Polydimethylsiloxane tangential microchannels are fabricated using a novel micromoulding technique that can be done without a clean room and at much lower cost and time. Negligible switching of MNPs is seen in the absence of magnetic field, whereas 90% of switching is observed in the presence of magnetic field. The flow rate of MNPs solution had dramatic impact on separation performance. An optimum value of the flow rate is found that resulted in providing effective MNP separation at much faster rate. Separation performance is also investigated for a mixture containing non-magnetic polystyrene particles and MNPs. It is found that MNPs preferentially moved from lower microchannel to upper microchannel resulting in efficient separation. The proof-of-concept experiments performed in this work demonstrates that microfluidic bioseparation can be efficiently achieved using functionalised MNPs, together with tangential microchannels, appropriate magnetic field strength and optimum flow rates. This work verifies that a simple low-cost magnetic switching scheme can be potentially of great utility for the separation and detection of biomolecules in microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems.

  15. Tank waste remediation system milestone report magnetic separation of tank waste: Surrogate system separations report

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; Worl, L.A.; Schake, A.R.; Padilla, D.D.; de Aguero, K.J.; Prenger, F.C.; Stewart, W.F.; Hill, D.D.

    1994-01-14

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been stored in large underground storage tanks (UST) at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site since 1944. More than 253,000 m{sup 3} of waste have been accumulated in 177 tanks. The waste consists of many different chemicals and are in the form of liquids, slurries, salt cakes and sludges. A magnetic separation effort at Los Alamos National Laboratory is funded through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to explore the use of high-gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) for tank waste segregation. The concept is to concentrate into a low volume waste stream, all or most of the magnetic components, which include actinide compounds, most of the fission products and precious metals. As a first step in this process investigations were made on surrogate systems. This milestone report discusses the HGMS results on these systems.

  16. The rate of separation of magnetic lines of force in a random magnetic field.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The mixing of magnetic lines of force, as represented by their rate of separation, as a function of distance along the magnetic field, is considered with emphasis on neighboring lines of force. This effect is particularly important in understanding the transport of charged particles perpendicular to the average magnetic field. The calculation is carried out in the approximation that the separation changes by an amount small compared with the correlation scale normal to the field, in a distance along the field of a few correlation scales. It is found that the rate of separation is very sensitive to the precise form of the power spectrum. Application to the interplanetary and interstellar magnetic fields is discussed, and it is shown that in some cases field lines, much closer together than the correlation scale, separate at a rate which is effectively as rapid as if they were many correlation lengths apart.

  17. Magnetic nano-sorbents for fast separation of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Huijin; Kaur, Maninder; Qiang, You

    2013-07-01

    In order to find a cost effective and environmentally benign technology to treat the liquid radioactive waste into a safe and stable form for resource recycling or ultimate disposal, this study investigates the separation of radioactive elements from aqueous systems using magnetic nano-sorbents. Our current study focuses on novel magnetic nano-sorbents by attaching DTPA molecules onto the surface of double coated magnetic nanoparticles (dMNPs), and performed preliminary sorption tests using heavy metal ions as surrogates for radionuclides. The results showed that the sorption of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) onto the dMNP-DTPA conjugates was fast, the equilibrium was reached in 30 min. The calculated sorption capacities were 8.06 mg/g for Cd and 12.09 mg/g for Pb. After sorption, the complex of heavy elements captured by nano-sorbents can be easily manipulated and separated from solution in less than 1 min by applying a small external magnetic field. In addition, the sorption results demonstrate that dMNP-DTPA conjugates have a very strong chelating power in highly diluted Cd and Pb solutions (1-10 μg/L). Therefore, as a simple, fast, and compact process, this separation method has a great potential in the treatment of high level waste with low concentration of transuranic elements compared to tradition nuclear waste treatment. (authors)

  18. Upgrading mixed polyolefin waste with magnetic density separation.

    PubMed

    Bakker, E J; Rem, P C; Fraunholcz, N

    2009-05-01

    Polyolefin fractions are often end fractions resulting from the recycling of end-of-life consumer products. Polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) are present in such fractions as a mixture. For instance, the ratio of PP and PE in car scrap is 70:30 on average. However, the grade of the PP and PE should typically be better than 97% to be reused again as a high quality product. Density separation of the different polyolefins can be a solution. A promising separation technique is the inverse magnetic density separator (IMDS). This paper discusses the potential of shredder residue, one of the possible polyolefin's waste stream sources for the IMDS, in detail. Experiments with the separation of polyolefins with an IMDS prototype show both high grade and high recovery. The paper concludes with the economic opportunities of the IMDS in the recycling of polyolefins. PMID:19128952

  19. Magnetic reconnection in 3D magnetosphere models: magnetic separators and open flux production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glocer, A.; Dorelli, J.; Toth, G.; Komar, C. M.; Cassak, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are multiple competing definitions of magnetic reconnection in 3D (e.g., Hesse and Schindler [1988], Lau and Finn [1990], and Boozer [2002]). In this work we focus on separator reconnection. A magnetic separator can be understood as the 3D analogue of a 2D x line with a guide field, and is defined by the line corresponding to the intersection of the separatrix surfaces associated with the magnetic nulls. A separator in the magnetosphere represents the intersection of four distinct magnetic topologies: solar wind, closed, open connected to the northern hemisphere, and open connected to the southern hemisphere. The integral of the parallel electric field along the separator defines the rate of open flux production, and is one measure of the reconnection rate. We present three methods for locating magnetic separators and apply them to 3D resistive MHD simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere using the BATS-R-US code. The techniques for finding separators and determining the reconnection rate are insensitive to IMF clock angle and can in principle be applied to any magnetospheric model. The present work examines cases of high and low resistivity, for two clock angles. We also examine the separator during Flux Transfer Events (FTEs) and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.

  20. Magnetic Separation for Nuclear Material Detection and Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Worl, L.A.; Devlin, D.; Hill, D.; Padilla, D.; Prenger, F.C.

    1998-08-01

    A high performance superconducting magnet is being developed for particle retrieval from field collected samples. Results show that maximum separation effectiveness is obtained when the matrix fiber diameter approaches the diameter of the particles to be captured. Experimentally, the authors obtained a single particle capture limit with 0.8{micro}m PuO{sub 2} particles with dodecane as a carrier fluid. The development of new matrix materials is being pursued through the controlled corrosion of stainless steel wool, or the deposition of nickel dendrites on the existing stainless steel matrix material. They have also derived a model from a continuity equation that uses empirically determined capture cross section values. This enables the prediction of high gradient magnetic separator performance for a variety of materials and applications. The model can be used to optimize the capture cross section and thus increase the capture efficiency.

  1. Beneficiation of Turkish lignites by thermal treatment and magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Onal, G.; Renda, D.; Mustafaev, I.; Dogan, Z.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the improvement of Turkish lignites by semi-coking and REMS magnetic separation, in two stages, is discussed. The oxidation and decomposition of pyrite through the thermal treatment result in the formation of iron oxide and pyrrhotite on the surface. In addition to pyrite, part of the organic sulfur is also removed. After thermal treatment of lignites at temperatures ranging from 370 to 650 C, the application of REMS magnetic separator produces a product higher in calorific value and lower in sulfur content. The product can be utilized after briquetting. The volatile gases can also be used after sulfur removal. This process appears to be feasible as a clean coal manufacture from the point of energy efficiency. A short economic analysis is also presented.

  2. Cryo-negative staining.

    PubMed

    Adrian, M; Dubochet, J; Fuller, S D; Harris, J R

    1998-01-01

    A procedure is presented for the preparation of thin layers of vitrified biological suspensions in the presence of ammonium molybdate, which we term cryo-negative staining. The direct blotting of sample plus stain solution on holey carbon supports produces thin aqueous films across the holes, which are routinely thinner than the aqueous film produced by conventional negative staining on a continuous carbon layer. Because of this, a higher than usual concentration of negative stain (ca. 16% rather than 2%) is required for cryo-negative staining in order to produce an optimal image contrast. The maintenance of the hydrated state, the absence of adsorption to a carbon film and associated sample flattening, together with reduced stain granularity, generates high contrast cryo-images of superior quality to conventional air-dry negative staining. Image features characteristic of unstained vitrified cryo-electron microscopic specimens are present, but with reverse contrast. Examples of cryo-negative staining of several particulate biological samples are shown, including bacteriophage T2, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), bovine liver catalase crystals, tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), turnip yellow mosaic virus (TYMV), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) types 1 and 2, the 20S proteasome from moss and the E. coli chaperone GroEL. Densitometric quantitation of the mass-density of cryo-negatively stained bacteriophage T2 specimens before and after freeze-drying within the TEM indicates a water content of 30% in the vitreous specimen. Determination of the image resolution from cryo-negatively stained TMV rods and catalase crystals shows the presence of optical diffraction data to ca. 10 A and 11.5 A, respectively. For cryo-negatively stained vitrified catalase crystals, electron diffraction shows that atomic resolution is preserved (to better than 20 diffraction orders and less than 3 A). The electron diffraction resolution is reduced to ca. 10 A when catalase crystal specimens are

  3. One-step detection of pathogens and viruses: combining magnetic relaxation switching and magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiping; Xianyu, Yunlei; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Cha, Ruitao; Sun, Jiashu; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-03-24

    We report a sensing methodology that combines magnetic separation (MS) and magnetic relaxation switching (MS-MRS) for one-step detection of bacteria and viruses with high sensitivity and reproducibility. We first employ a magnetic field of 0.01 T to separate the magnetic beads of large size (250 nm in diameter) from those of small size (30 nm in diameter) and use the transverse relaxation time (T2) of the water molecules around the 30 nm magnetic beads (MB30) as the signal readout of the immunoassay. An MS-MRS sensor integrates target enrichment, extraction, and detection into one step, and the entire immunoassay can be completed within 30 min. Compared with a traditional MRS sensor, an MS-MRS sensor shows enhanced sensitivity, better reproducibility, and convenient operation, thus providing a promising platform for point-of-care testing.

  4. Current-induced magnetization dynamics in two magnetic insulators separated by a normal metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarsvâg, Hans; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Brataas, Arne

    2014-08-01

    We study the dynamics of spin valves consisting of two layers of magnetic insulators separated by a normal metal in the macrospin model. A current through the spacer generates a spin Hall current that can actuate the magnetization via the spin-transfer torque. We derive expressions for the effective Gilbert damping and the critical currents for the onset of magnetization dynamics including the effects of spin pumping that can be tested by ferromagnetic resonance experiments. The current generates an amplitude asymmetry between the in-phase and out-of-phase modes. We discuss superlattices of stacked films of metals and magnetic insulators.

  5. Kinetic approach for the purification of nucleotides with magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Tural, Servet; Tural, Bilsen; Ece, Mehmet Şakir; Yetkin, Evren; Özkan, Necati

    2014-11-01

    The isolation of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is of great importance since it is widely used in different scientific and technologic fields such as biofuel cells, sensor technology, and hydrogen production. In order to isolate β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, first 3-aminophenyboronic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were prepared to serve as a magnetic solid support and subsequently they were used for reversible adsorption/desorption of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in a batch fashion. The loading capacity of the 3-aminophenyboronic acid functionalized nanoparticles for β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide adsorption was 13.0 μmol/g. Adsorption kinetic and isotherm studies showed that the adsorption process followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the experimental data can be represented using Langmuir isotherm model. The 3-aminophenyboronic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were proposed as an alternative support for the β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide purification. The results elucidated the significance of magnetic separation as a fast, relatively simple, and low-cost technique. Furthermore, the magnetic supports can be reused at least five times for purification processes. PMID:25199632

  6. The Yale Gas-Filled Split Pole Magnetic Separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cata-Danil, G.; Beausang, C. W.; Casten, R. F.; Chen, A.; Chubrich, N.; Cooper, J. R.; Krücken, R.; Liu, B.; Novak, J. R.; Visser, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    1998-10-01

    Design and construction of a gas-filled recoil separator is underway at the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory at Yale University. By filling the magnetic field region of the existing Enge Split-Pole magnet with N2 or He2 gases in the 1 to 15 mbar pressure range a gradual focussing of discrete charge states has been measured. The incident ions were ^16O and ^35,37Cl with 49 MeV and 95 MeV energies, respectively. The process is understood as a result of coalescing of trajectories of different charge states around a trajectory defined by the mean charge state (q¯) of the ion in gas. Because q¯ depends on the atomic number Z and is roughly proportional with the ion velocity, the average magnetic rigidity (B¯ρ=Av/q¯) is almost independent of the velocity distribution of the incident ions. The ion trajectories will be therefore be mainly determined by the mass number A and the atomic number Z of the ion. Monte Carlo simulations with the code RAYTRACE closely reproduce the experimental behavior. We plan to use the Yale Mass Separator (YaMS) for nuclear structure studies in conjunction with high efficency gamma detectors (clover detectors) for enhancing weak reaction channels and fission background reduction. Work supported by the US-DOE under contract numbers DE-FG02-91ER-40609 and DE-FG02-88ER-40417.

  7. Photocatalytically active titanium dioxide nanopowders: Synthesis, photoactivity and magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkanen, J.-P.; Heinonen, S.; Huttunen Saarivirta, E.; Honkanen, M.; Levänen, E.

    2013-12-01

    Two approaches were used to obtain nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst powders. Firstly, low-temperature synthesis method and secondly liquid flame spraying. The structural properties of the produced powders were determined with X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption tests. The photocatalytic properties of the powders were studied with methylene blue (MB) discoloration tests. After discolorations tests, TiO2 was coagulated with magnetite particles using FeCl3·6 H2O at a fixed pH value. Magnetic separation of coagulated TiO2 and magnetite was carried out by a permanent magnet. The obtained results showed that the particle size of the powders synthesized at low-temperature was very small and the specific surface area high. The phase content of the powder was also shown to depend greatly on the acidity of the synthesis solution. Powder synthesized by liquid flame spraying was mixture of anatase and rutile phases with essentially larger particle size and lower specific surface area than those of low-temperature synthesized powders. The MB discoloration test showed that photocatalytic activity depends on the phase structure as well as the specific surface area of the synthesized TiO2 powder. The magnetic separation of TiO2-magnetite coagulate from solution proved to be efficient around pH:8.

  8. Assessment of Alphamagnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Upper Experiment Structural Configuration Shielding Effectiveness Associated with Change from Cryo-Cooled Magnet to Permanent Magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In the spring of 2010, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS-02) underwent a series of system level electromagnetic interference control measurements, followed by thermal vacuum testing. Shortly after completion of the thermal vacuum testing, the project decided to remove the cryogenically cooled superconducting magnet, and replace it with the original permanent magnet design employed in the earlier AMS- 01 assembly. Doing so necessitated several structural changes, as well as removal or modification of numerous electronic and thermal control devices and systems. At this stage, the project was rapidly approaching key milestone dates for hardware completion and delivery for launch, and had little time for additional testing or assessment of any impact to the electromagnetic signature of the AMS-02. Therefore, an analytical assessment of the radiated emissions behavioural changes associated with the system changes was requested.

  9. Apparatus for magnetic separation of paramagnetic and diamagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Doctor, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for segregating paramagnetic from diamagnetic particles in particulate material and, in particular, to the open gradient magnetic separation of ash producing components and pyritic sulfur from coal. The apparatus includes a vertical cylinder and a rotatable vertical screw positioned within the cylinder, the screw having a helical blade angled downwardly and outwardly from the axis. Rotation of the vertical screw causes denser particles, which in the case of coal include pyritic sulfur and ash, which are paramagnetic, to migrate to the outside of the screw, and less dense particles, such as the low sulfur organic portion of the coal, which are diamagnetic, to migrate towards the center of the screw. A vibration mechanism attached to the screw causes the screw to vibrate during rotation, agitating and thereby accommodating further segregation of the particles. An open gradient magnetic field is applied circumferentially along the entire length of the screw by a superconducting quadropole magnet. The open gradient magnetic field further segregates the paramagnetic particles from the diamagnetic particles. The paramagnetic particles may then be directed from the cylinder into a first storage bin, and the diamagnetic particles, which are suitable for relatively clean combustion, may be directed into a second storage bin.

  10. Apparatus for magnetic separation of paramagnetic and diamagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Doctor, R.D.

    1988-10-18

    The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for segregating paramagnetic from diamagnetic particles in particulate material and, in particular, to the open gradient magnetic separation of ash producing components and pyritic sulfur from coal. The apparatus includes a vertical cylinder and a rotatable vertical screw positioned within the cylinder, the screw having a helical blade angled downwardly and outwardly from the axis. Rotation of the vertical screw causes denser particles, which in the case of coal include pyritic sulfur and ash, which are paramagnetic, to migrate to the outside of the screw, and less dense particles, such as the low sulfur organic portion of the coal, which are diamagnetic, to migrate towards the center of the screw. A vibration mechanism attached to the screw causes the screw to vibrate during rotation, agitating and thereby accommodating further segregation of the particles. An open gradient magnetic field is applied circumferentially along the entire length of the screw by a superconducting quadrupole magnet. The open gradient magnetic field further segregates the paramagnetic particles from the diamagnetic particles. The paramagnetic particles may then be directed from the cylinder into a first storage bin, and the diamagnetic particles, which are suitable for relatively clean combustion, may be directed into a second storage bin. 5 figs.

  11. Apparatus for magnetic separation of paramagnetic and diamagnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Doctor, R.D.

    1986-07-24

    The present invention relates to methods and apparatus for segregating paramagnetic from diamagnetic particles in particulate material and, in particular, to the open gradient magnetic separation of ash producing components and pyritic sulfur from coal. The apparatus includes a vertical cylinder and a rotatable vertical screw positioned within the cylinder, the screw having a helical blade angled downwardly and outwardly from the axis. Rotation of the vertical screw causes denser particles, which in the case of coal include pyritic sulfur and ash, which are paramagnetic, to migrate to the outside of the screw, and less dense particles, such as the low sulfur organic portion of the coal, which are diamagnetic, to migrate towards the center of the screw. A vibration mechanism attached to the screw causes the screw to vibrate during rotation, agitating and thereby accommodating further segregation of the particles. An open gradient magnetic field is applied circumferentially along the entire length of the screw by a superconducting quadrupole magnet. The open gradient magnetic field further segregates the paramagnetic-particles from the diamagnetic particles. The paramagnetic particles may then be directed from the cylinder into a first storage bin, and the diamagnetic particles, which are suitable for relatively clean combustion, may be directed into a second storage bin. 5 figs.

  12. Exploiting Size-Dependent Drag and Magnetic Forces for Size-Specific Separation of Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Hunter B.; Anani, Tareq; Choi, Young Suk; Beyers, Ronald J.; David, Allan E.

    2015-01-01

    Realizing the full potential of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in nanomedicine requires the optimization of their physical and chemical properties. Elucidation of the effects of these properties on clinical diagnostic or therapeutic properties, however, requires the synthesis or purification of homogenous samples, which has proved to be difficult. While initial simulations indicated that size-selective separation could be achieved by flowing magnetic nanoparticles through a magnetic field, subsequent in vitro experiments were unable to reproduce the predicted results. Magnetic field-flow fractionation, however, was found to be an effective method for the separation of polydisperse suspensions of iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters greater than 20 nm. While similar methods have been used to separate magnetic nanoparticles before, no previous work has been done with magnetic nanoparticles between 20 and 200 nm. Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis were used to confirm the size of the MNPs. Further development of this work could lead to MNPs with the narrow size distributions necessary for their in vitro and in vivo optimization. PMID:26307980

  13. Magnetic microgels, a promising candidate for enhanced magnetic adsorbent particles in bioseparation: synthesis, physicochemical characterization, and separation performance.

    PubMed

    Turcu, Rodica; Socoliuc, Vlad; Craciunescu, Izabell; Petran, Anca; Paulus, Anja; Franzreb, Matthias; Vasile, Eugeniu; Vekas, Ladislau

    2015-02-01

    For specific applications in the field of high gradient magnetic separation of biomaterials, magnetic nanoparticle clusters of controlled size and high magnetic moment in an external magnetic field are of particular interest. We report the synthesis and characterization of magnetic microgels designed for magnetic separation purposes, as well as the separation efficiency of the obtained microgel particles. High magnetization magnetic microgels with superparamagnetic behaviour were obtained in a two-step synthesis procedure by a miniemulsion technique using highly stable ferrofluid on a volatile nonpolar carrier. Spherical clusters of closely packed hydrophobic oleic acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles were coated with cross linked polymer shells of polyacrylic acid, poly-N-isopropylacrylamide, and poly-3-acrylamidopropyl trimethylammonium chloride. The morphology, size distribution, chemical surface composition, and magnetic properties of the magnetic microgels were determined using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Magnetically induced phase condensation in aqueous suspensions of magnetic microgels was investigated by optical microscopy and static light scattering. The condensed phase consists of elongated oblong structures oriented in the direction of the external magnetic field and may grow up to several microns in thickness and tens or even hundreds of microns in length. The dependence of phase condensation magnetic supersaturation on the magnetic field intensity was determined. The experiments using high gradient magnetic separation show high values of separation efficiency (99.9-99.97%) for the magnetic microgels. PMID:25519891

  14. Microfluidic separation of magnetic nanoparticles on an ordered array of magnetized micropillars.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, G; Kuzhir, P; Izmaylov, Y; Alves Marins, J; Ezzaier, H; Robert, L; Doutre, F; Noblin, X; Lomenech, C; Bossis, G; Meunier, A; Sandoz, G; Zubarev, A

    2016-06-01

    Microfluidic separation of magnetic particles is based on their capture by magnetized microcollectors while the suspending fluid flows past the microcollectors inside a microchannel. Separation of nanoparticles is often challenging because of strong Brownian motion. Low capture efficiency of nanoparticles limits their applications in bioanalysis. However, at some conditions, magnetic nanoparticles may undergo field-induced aggregation that amplifies the magnetic attractive force proportionally to the aggregate volume and considerably increases nanoparticle capture efficiency. In this paper, we have demonstrated the role of such aggregation on an efficient capture of magnetic nanoparticles (about 80 nm in diameter) in a microfluidic channel equipped with a nickel micropillar array. This array was magnetized by an external uniform magnetic field, of intensity as low as 6-10 kA/m, and experiments were carried out at flow rates ranging between 0.3 and 30 μL/min. Nanoparticle capture is shown to be mostly governed by the Mason number Ma, while the dipolar coupling parameter α does not exhibit a clear effect in the studied range, 1.4 < α < 4.5. The capture efficiency Λ shows a strongly decreasing Mason number behavior, Λ∝Ma^{-1.78} within the range 32 ≤ Ma ≤ 3250. We have proposed a simple theoretical model which considers destructible nanoparticle chains and gives the scaling behavior, Λ∝Ma^{-1.7}, close to the experimental findings. PMID:27415317

  15. Microfluidic separation of magnetic nanoparticles on an ordered array of magnetized micropillars.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, G; Kuzhir, P; Izmaylov, Y; Alves Marins, J; Ezzaier, H; Robert, L; Doutre, F; Noblin, X; Lomenech, C; Bossis, G; Meunier, A; Sandoz, G; Zubarev, A

    2016-06-01

    Microfluidic separation of magnetic particles is based on their capture by magnetized microcollectors while the suspending fluid flows past the microcollectors inside a microchannel. Separation of nanoparticles is often challenging because of strong Brownian motion. Low capture efficiency of nanoparticles limits their applications in bioanalysis. However, at some conditions, magnetic nanoparticles may undergo field-induced aggregation that amplifies the magnetic attractive force proportionally to the aggregate volume and considerably increases nanoparticle capture efficiency. In this paper, we have demonstrated the role of such aggregation on an efficient capture of magnetic nanoparticles (about 80 nm in diameter) in a microfluidic channel equipped with a nickel micropillar array. This array was magnetized by an external uniform magnetic field, of intensity as low as 6-10 kA/m, and experiments were carried out at flow rates ranging between 0.3 and 30 μL/min. Nanoparticle capture is shown to be mostly governed by the Mason number Ma, while the dipolar coupling parameter α does not exhibit a clear effect in the studied range, 1.4 < α < 4.5. The capture efficiency Λ shows a strongly decreasing Mason number behavior, Λ∝Ma^{-1.78} within the range 32 ≤ Ma ≤ 3250. We have proposed a simple theoretical model which considers destructible nanoparticle chains and gives the scaling behavior, Λ∝Ma^{-1.7}, close to the experimental findings.

  16. The magnetic monopole and the separation between fast and slow magnetic degrees of freedom.

    PubMed

    Wegrowe, J-E; Olive, E

    2016-03-16

    The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation that describes the dynamics of a macroscopic magnetic moment finds its limit of validity at very short times. The reason for this limit is well understood in terms of separation of the characteristic time scales between slow degrees of freedom (the magnetization) and fast degrees of freedom. The fast degrees of freedom are introduced as the variation of the angular momentum responsible for the inertia. In order to study the effect of the fast degrees of freedom on the precession, we calculate the geometric phase of the magnetization (i.e. the Hannay angle) and the corresponding magnetic monopole. In the case of the pure precession (the slow manifold), a simple expression of the magnetic monopole is given as a function of the slowness parameter, i.e. as a function of the ratio of the slow over the fast characteristic times.

  17. The magnetic monopole and the separation between fast and slow magnetic degrees of freedom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegrowe, J.-E.; Olive, E.

    2016-03-01

    The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation that describes the dynamics of a macroscopic magnetic moment finds its limit of validity at very short times. The reason for this limit is well understood in terms of separation of the characteristic time scales between slow degrees of freedom (the magnetization) and fast degrees of freedom. The fast degrees of freedom are introduced as the variation of the angular momentum responsible for the inertia. In order to study the effect of the fast degrees of freedom on the precession, we calculate the geometric phase of the magnetization (i.e. the Hannay angle) and the corresponding magnetic monopole. In the case of the pure precession (the slow manifold), a simple expression of the magnetic monopole is given as a function of the slowness parameter, i.e. as a function of the ratio of the slow over the fast characteristic times.

  18. Primary beneficiation of tantalite using magnetic separation and acid leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nete, M.; Koko, F.; Theron, T.; Purcell, W.; Nel, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Primary beneficiation was successfully performed prior to dissolution of manganotantalite (sample A) and ferrotantalite (sample C) samples obtained from two different mines in the Naquissupa area, Mozambique. Magnetic separation removed the majority of iron and titanium, whereas H2SO4 leaching removed a large portion of thorium and uranium in these samples. Analytical results indicated that 64.14wt% and 72.04wt% of the total Fe and Ti, respectively, and ˜2wt% each of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 were removed from sample C (ferrotantalite) using the magnetic separation method, whereas only 9.64wt% and 8.66wt% of total Fe2O3 and TiO2, respectively, and ˜2wt% each of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 were removed from sample A (manganotantalite). A temperature of 50°C and a leaching time of 3 h in the presence of concentrated H2SO4 were observed to be the most appropriate leaching conditions for removal of radioactive elements from the tantalite ores. The results obtained for sample A under these conditions indicated that 64.14wt% U3O8 and 60.77wt% ThO2 were leached into the acidic solution, along with 4.45wt% and 0.99wt% of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5, respectively.

  19. Study on magnetic separation for decontamination of cesium contaminated soil by using superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Susumu; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko

    2014-09-01

    The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant caused the diffusion of radioactive cesium over the wide area. We examined the possibility of applying magnetic separation method using the superconducting magnet, which can process a large amount of the soil in high speed, to the soil decontamination and volume reduction of the radioactive cesium contaminated soil. Clay minerals are classified as 2:1 and 1:1 types by the difference of their layer structures, and these types of minerals are respectively paramagnetic and diamagnetic including some exception. It is known that most of the radioactive cesium is strongly adsorbed on the clay, especially on 2:1 type clay minerals. It is expected that the method which can separate only 2:1 type clay minerals selectively from the mixture clay minerals can enormously contribute to the volume reduction of the contaminated soil. In this study, the components in the clay before and after separation were evaluated to estimate the magnetic separation efficiency by using X-ray diffraction. From the results, the decontamination efficiency and the volume reduction ratio were estimated in order to examine the appropriate separation conditions for the practical decontamination of the soil.

  20. Towards an integrative structural biology approach: combining Cryo-TEM, X-ray crystallography, and NMR.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Jeffrey; Hnath, Eric; Storms, Marc; Wohlfarth, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and particularly single particle analysis is rapidly becoming the premier method for determining the three-dimensional structure of protein complexes, and viruses. In the last several years there have been dramatic technological improvements in Cryo-TEM, such as advancements in automation and use of improved detectors, as well as improved image processing techniques. While Cryo-TEM was once thought of as a low resolution structural technique, the method is currently capable of generating nearly atomic resolution structures on a routine basis. Moreover, the combination of Cryo-TEM and other methods such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics modeling are allowing researchers to address scientific questions previously thought intractable. Future technological developments are widely believed to further enhance the method and it is not inconceivable that Cryo-TEM could become as routine as X-ray crystallography for protein structure determination.

  1. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-10-01

    Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

  2. Persistent topology for cryo-EM data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is

  3. Persistent topology for cryo-EM data analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is

  4. Digital microfluidic magnetic separation for particle-based immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alphonsus H C; Choi, Kihwan; Luoma, Robert P; Robinson, John M; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2012-10-16

    We introduce a new format for particle-based immunoassays relying on digital microfluidics (DMF) and magnetic forces to separate and resuspend antibody-coated paramagnetic particles. In DMF, fluids are electrostatically controlled as discrete droplets (picoliters to microliters) on an array of insulated electrodes. By applying appropriate sequences of potentials to these electrodes, multiple droplets can be manipulated simultaneously and various droplet operations can be achieved using the same device design. This flexibility makes DMF well-suited for applications that require complex, multistep protocols such as immunoassays. Here, we report the first particle-based immunoassay on DMF without the aid of oil carrier fluid to enable droplet movement (i.e., droplets are surrounded by air instead of oil). This new format allowed the realization of a novel on-chip particle separation and resuspension method capable of removing greater than 90% of unbound reagents in one step. Using this technique, we developed methods for noncompetitive and competitive immunoassays, using thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and 17β-estradiol (E2) as model analytes, respectively. We show that, compared to conventional methods, the new DMF approach reported here reduced reagent volumes and analysis time by 100-fold and 10-fold, respectively, while retaining a level of analytical performance required for clinical screening. Thus, we propose that the new technique has great potential for eventual use in a fast, low-waste, and inexpensive instrument for the quantitative analysis of proteins and small molecules in low sample volumes. PMID:23013543

  5. Method and apparatus for separating materials magnetically. [Patent application; iron pyrite from coal

    DOEpatents

    Hise, E.C. Jr.; Holman, A.S.; Friedlaender, F.J.

    1980-11-06

    Magnetic and nonmagnetic materials are separated by passing stream thereof past coaxial current-carrying coils which produce a magnetic field wherein intensity varies sharply with distance radially of the axis of the coils.

  6. Large Scale Magnetic Separation of Solanum tuberosum Tuber Lectin from Potato Starch Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Ivo; Horska, Katerina; Martinez, Lluis M.; Safarikova, Mirka

    2010-12-01

    A simple procedure for large scale isolation of Solanum tuberosum tuber lectin from potato starch industry waste water has been developed. The procedure employed magnetic chitosan microparticles as an affinity adsorbent. Magnetic separation was performed in a flow-through magnetic separation system. The adsorbed lectin was eluted with glycine/HCl buffer, pH 2.2. The specific activity of separated lectin increased approximately 27 times during the isolation process.

  7. Lab on a chip for continuous-flow magnetic cell separation.

    PubMed

    Hejazian, Majid; Li, Weihua; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2015-02-21

    Separation of cells is a key application area of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. Among the various methods, magnetic separation of cells utilizing microfluidic devices offers the merits of biocompatibility, efficiency, and simplicity. This review discusses the fundamental physics involved in using magnetic force to separate particles, and identifies the optimisation parameters and corresponding methods for increasing the magnetic force. The paper then elaborates the design considerations of LOC devices for continuous-flow magnetic cell separation. Examples from the recently published literature illustrate these state-of-the-art techniques.

  8. Successive component-separated magnetic transition in TbCoGa5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Naoyuki; Muneoka, Takatoshi; Watanuki, Ryuta; Suzuki, Kazuya; Akatsu, Mitsuhiro; Sakakibara, Toshiro

    2009-03-01

    We grew single crystals of TbCoGa5 and measured the magnetic susceptibility, magnetization curves, specific heat and ultrasonic properties. The results of the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements suggest that TbCoGa5 shows successive component-separated magnetic transition and the degeneracy of quadrupolar degrees of freedom is not fully lifted in intermediate phase. The softening of the elastic constant C44 indicates that the degeneracy of electric-quadrupolar (orbital) degrees of freedom exists in spite of the formation of magnetic order. We have considered that the degeneracy of quadrupolar degrees of freedom is important for the occurrence of successive component-separated magnetic transition.

  9. Conjugates of Actinide Chelator-Magnetic Nanoparticles for Used Fuel Separation Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, You; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Rao, Linfeng

    2011-10-30

    The actinide separation method using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalized with actinide specific chelators utilizes the separation capability of ligand and the ease of magnetic separation. This separation method eliminated the need of large quantity organic solutions used in the liquid-liquid extraction process. The MNPs could also be recycled for repeated separation, thus this separation method greatly reduces the generation of secondary waste compared to traditional liquid extraction technology. The high diffusivity of MNPs and the large surface area also facilitate high efficiency of actinide sorption by the ligands. This method could help in solving the nuclear waste remediation problem.

  10. Coupled particle-fluid transport and magnetic separation in microfluidic systems with passive magnetic functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khashan, Saud A.; Furlani, Edward P.

    2013-03-01

    A study is presented of coupled particle-fluid transport and field-directed particle capture in microfluidic systems with passive magnetic functionality. These systems consist of a microfluidic flow cell on a substrate that contains embedded magnetic elements. Two systems are considered that utilize soft- and hard-magnetic elements, respectively. In the former, an external field is applied to magnetize the elements, and in the latter, they are permanently magnetized. The field produced by the magnetized elements permeates into the flow cell giving rise to an attractive force on magnetic particles that flow through it. The systems are studied using a novel numerical/closed-form modelling approach that combines numerical transport analysis with closed-form field analysis. Particle-fluid transport is computed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), while the magnetic force that governs particle capture is obtained in closed form. The CFD analysis takes into account dominant particle forces and two-way momentum transfer between the particles and the fluid. The two-way particle-fluid coupling capability is an important feature of the model that distinguishes it from more commonly used and simplified one-way coupling analysis. The model is used to quantify the impact of two-way particle-fluid coupling on both the capture efficiency and the flow pattern in the systems considered. Many effects such as particle-induced flow-enhanced capture efficiency and flow circulation are studied that cannot be predicted using one-way coupling analysis. In addition, dilute particle dispersions are shown to exhibit significant localized particle-fluid coupling near the capture regions, which contradicts the commonly held view that two-way coupling can be ignored when analysing high-gradient magnetic separation involving such particle systems. Overall, the model demonstrates that two-way coupling needs to be taken into account for rigorous predictions of capture efficiency, especially

  11. D0 Cryo System ODH and Cryo Alarm System Response

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; Dixon, K.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-05

    The D0 Cryo System is monitored by a computerized process control system and an ODH safety system. During steady state operations the cryo system will be unmanned and system experts will depend on communication systems for notification of system problems. The FIRUS system meets the minimum communication requirement and is supplemented with an autodialer which attempts to contact cryo operators by pager or phone. The RD/Safety Department requires the ODH monitor system to be connected to the labwide FIRUS system. which enables the Communications Center to receive alarms and notify the proper experts of the condition. The ODH system will have two alarm points. One for an ODH alarm and one for a system trouble alarm. The autodialer system has replaced a former cryo operations summation alarm point in the FIRUS system. This has freed space on the FIRUS system and has allowed the cryo experts more flexibility in setting up their own communication link. The FIRUS and the autodialer systems receive alarms and access lists of experts to call for notification of problems. Attempts to contact these experts will continue until the alarm or alarms is acknowledged.

  12. CryoTran user's manual, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowgill, Glenn R.; Chato, David J.; Saad, Ehab

    1989-01-01

    The development of cryogenic fluid management systems for space operation is a major portion of the efforts of the Cryogenic Fluids Technology Office (CFTO) at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Analytical models are a necessary part of experimental programs which are used to verify the results of experiments and are also used as a predictor for parametric studies. The CryoTran computer program is a bridge to obtain analytical results. The object of CryoTran is to coordinate these separate analyses into an integrated framework with a user-friendly interface and a common cryogenic property database. CryoTran is an integrated software system designed to help solve a diverse set of problems involving cryogenic fluid storage and transfer in both ground and low-g environments.

  13. An integrated microfluidic platform for magnetic microbeads separation and confinement.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Qasem; Samper, Victor; Poenar, Daniel P; Yu, Chen

    2006-03-15

    An innovative microfluidic platform for magnetic beads manipulation is introduced, consisting of novel microfabricated 3D magnetic devices positioned in a microfluidic chamber. Each magnetic device comprises of an embedded actuation micro-coil in various design versions, a ferromagnetic pillar, a magnetic backside plate and a sensing micro-coil. The various designs of the micro-coils enable efficient magnetic beads trapping and concentration in different patterns. The finite element analysis (FEA) results show a significant increase of the developed force on suspended magnetic beads when the magnetic pillar and backside plate were integrated into the device structure. These simulation results were confirmed experimentally by measuring the magnetic beads trapping ratios for the different designs and structures of the devices under continuous flow conditions. The trapping ratios and profiles were studied using beads counting, measuring the change of inductance with the sensing micro-coil and by image processing. The devices have efficiently demonstrated a controlled and localized magnetic beads trapping and concentration at small spatial locations for the first time. The new results shown in this study demonstrate the feasibility of efficiently using these original devices as key elements in complex bio-analysis systems.

  14. National Cryo-Electron Microscopy Facility

    Cancer.gov

    Information about the National Cryo-EM Facility at NCI, created to provide researchers access to the latest cryo-EM technology for high resolution imaging. Includes timeline for installation and how to access the facility.

  15. Magnetic separation of materials. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, and testing of equipment which uses magnetism as a means of separating and purifying ores and minerals. This technology is used extensively in cleaning fossil fuels, separating fly ash constituents, mineral separations, beneficiation of ores, and other ore processing systems. The articles presented describe various operating systems, separating techniques and variables, and high-gradient magnetic separation which can be used with certain metal oxides and other paramagnetic materials. (Contains a minimum of 214 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Magnetic properties and loss separation in iron-silicone-MnZn ferrite soft magnetic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zou, Chao; Yang, Jun; Dong, Juan

    2013-12-16

    This paper investigates the magnetic and structural properties of iron-based soft magnetic composites coated with silicone-MnZn ferrite hybrid. The organic silicone resin was added to improve the flexibility of the insulated iron powder and causes better adhesion between particles to increase the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of silicone-MnZn ferrite. Silicone-MnZn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability when compared with the non-magnetic silicone resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 34.18% when compared with the silicone resin coated samples at 20 kHz. In this work, a formula for calculating the total loss component by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of total losses are calculated. The results show that the eddy current loss coefficient is close to each other for the silicone-MnZn ferrite, silicone resin and MnZn ferrite coated samples (0.0078

  17. G-mode magnetic force microscopy: Separating magnetic and electrostatic interactions using big data analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Liam; Belianinov, Alex; Proksch, Roger; Zuo, Tingting; Zhang, Yong; Liaw, Peter K.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we develop a full information capture approach for Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM), referred to as generalized mode (G-Mode) MFM. G-Mode MFM acquires and stores the full data stream from the photodetector, captured at sampling rates approaching the intrinsic photodiode limit. The data can be subsequently compressed, denoised, and analyzed, without information loss. Here, G-Mode MFM is implemented and compared to the traditional heterodyne-based MFM on model systems, including domain structures in ferromagnetic Yttrium Iron Garnet and the electronically and magnetically inhomogeneous high entropy alloy, CoFeMnNiSn. We investigate the use of information theory to mine the G-Mode MFM data and demonstrate its usefulness for extracting information which may be hidden in traditional MFM modes, including signatures of nonlinearities and mode-coupling phenomena. Finally, we demonstrate detection and separation of magnetic and electrostatic tip-sample interactions from a single G-Mode image, by analyzing the entire frequency response of the cantilever. G-Mode MFM is immediately implementable on any atomic force microscopy platform and as such is expected to be a useful technique for probing spatiotemporal cantilever dynamics and mapping material properties, as well as their mutual interactions.

  18. G-mode magnetic force microscopy: Separating magnetic and electrostatic interactions using big data analytics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Collins, Liam; Belianinov, Alex; Proksch, Roger; Zuo, Tingting; Zhang, Yong; Liaw, Peter K.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen

    2016-05-09

    We develop a full information capture approach for Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM), referred to as generalized mode (G-Mode) MFM. G-Mode MFM acquires and stores the full data stream from the photodetector at sampling rates approaching the intrinsic photodiode limit. The data can be subsequently compressed, denoised, and analyzed, without information loss. Also, 3 G-Mode MFM is implemented and compared to traditional heterodyne based MFM on model systems including domain structures in ferromagnetic Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) and electronically and magnetically inhomogeneous high entropy alloy, CoFeMnNiSn. We investigate the use of information theory to mine the G-Mode MFM data and demonstratemore » its usefulness for extracting information which may be hidden in traditional MFM modes, including signatures of nonlinearities and mode coupling phenomena. Finally we demonstrate detection and separation of magnetic and electrostatic tip-sample interactions from a single G-Mode image, by analyzing the entire frequency response of the cantilever. G-Mode MFM is immediately implementable on any AFM platform and as such is expected to be a useful technique for probing spatiotemporal cantilever dynamics and mapping material properties as well as their mutual interactions.« less

  19. Characterization of the physical parameters in a process of magnetic separation and pressure-driven flow of a magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha, F. R.; Sobral, Y. D.

    2004-11-01

    The equations governing the motion of a magnetic fluid are presented. These equations are non-linear and give rise to non-Newtonian effects attributable to the magnetization of the fluid. The equations are made dimensionless and the physical parameters of the coupled hydrodynamic-magnetic problem identified. The study is first applied to describe the motion of a magnetic droplet freely suspended in a viscous fluid undergoing a permanent magnetic field. A first-order theory is developed for the regime of small drop deformation in which viscous forces dominate inertial hydrodynamic force. At this regime, it is shown that the drift velocity of a magnetic drop scales with the square of the applied magnetic field and the deformation of the drop scales linearly with the applied field. Experiments are carried out and the range of validity of the small deformation analysis determined. The pressure-driven flow of a magnetic fluid is solved by a regular asymptotic expansion for two cases: a Poiseuille flow of a single magnetic fluid and a core pipe flow with a magnetic fluid adjacent to the tube wall. The theory is used to predict the volume rate of a viscous magnetic fluid separated from a non-magnetic viscous fluid by the action of a magnetic field. The apparent viscosity of a magnetic fluid as a function of magnetic parameters is also examined from our theory. A possible application of the present theoretical studies is on the remediation technology addressed to oil spills in natural environments.

  20. Feasibility of turbidity removal by high-gradient superconducting magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hua; Li, Yiran; Xu, Fengyu; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have focused on pollutant removal by magnetic seeding and high-gradient superconducting magnetic separation (HGSMS). However, few works reported the application of HGSMS for treating non-magnetic pollutants by an industrial large-scale system. The feasibility of turbidity removal by a 600 mm bore superconducting magnetic separation system was evaluated in this study. The processing parameters were evaluated by using a 102 mm bore superconducting magnetic separation system that was equipped with the same magnetic separation chamber that was used in the 600 mm bore system. The double-canister system was used to process water pollutants. Analytical grade magnetite was used as a magnetic seed and the turbidity of the simulated raw water was approximately 110 NTU, and the effects of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and magnetic seeds on turbidity removal were evaluated. The use of more PAC and magnetic seeds had few advantages for the HGSMS at doses greater than 8 and 50 mg/l, respectively. A magnetic intensity of 5.0 T was beneficial for HGSMS, and increasing the flow rate through the steel wool matrix decreased the turbidity removal efficiency. In the breakthrough experiments, 90% of the turbidity was removed when 100 column volumes were not reached. The processing capacity of the 600 mm bore industry-scale superconducting magnetic separator for turbidity treatment was approximately 78.0 m(3)/h or 65.5 × 10(4) m(3)/a. The processing cost per ton of water for the 600 mm bore system was 0.1 $/t. Thus, the HGSMS separator could be used in the following special circumstances: (1) when adequate space is not available for traditional water treatment equipment, especially the sedimentation tank, and (2) when decentralized sewage treatment HGSMS systems are easier to transport and install.

  1. Quantifying of magnetically separated particles using Hall-effect sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehasni, R.; Latreche, M. E.; Feliachi, M.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper, we present a modeling of a captured ferromagnetic particles quantifying method based on the detection and evaluation of the magnetic field variation caused by the particle static buildup. The detecting element is a Hall-effect sensor (probe) associated to the particle capture element which is an electromagnet with iron core. From a known value of the magnetic field measured at the particle static buildup locality, we predict the particle global concentration in the treated material sample (powder or liquid). This prediction is achieved by solving the inverse problem for the captured particles magnetic field variation. Such a resolution is based on an iterative resolution of the forward problem until obtaining the global particle concentration related to the measured value of the field variation. Because an exact value can not be obtained we retain the value that minimizes an error function. To minimize such a function we have used the Tabu searching method.

  2. Magnetically separable nanoferrite-anchored glutathione: Aqueous homocoupling of arylboronic acids under microwave irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A highly active, stable and magnetically separable glutathione based organocatalyst provided good to excellent yields to symmetric biaryls in the homocoupling of arylboronic acids under microwave irradiation. Symmetrical biaryl motifs are present in a wide range of natural p...

  3. Magnetically Separable Fe3O4@DOPA-Pd: A Heterogeneous Catalyst for Aqueous Heck Reaction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetically separable Fe3O4@DOPA-Pd catalyst has been synthesized via anchoring of palladium over dopamine-coated magnetite via non-covalent interaction and the catalyst is utilized for expeditious Heck coupling in aqueous media.

  4. Removal of algal blooms from freshwater by the coagulation-magnetic separation method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Wang, Peng; Wei, Guanran; Dong, Wenbo; Hui, Franck

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the feasibility of changing waste into useful materials for water treatment and proposed a coagulation-magnetic separation technique. This technique was rapid and highly effective for clearing up harmful algal blooms in freshwater and mitigating lake eutrophication. A magnetic coagulant was synthesized by compounding acid-modified fly ash with magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). Its removal effects on algal cells and dissolved organics in water were studied. After mixing, coagulation, and magnetic separation, the flocs obtained from the magnet surface were examined by SEM. Treated samples were withdrawn for the content determination of chlorophyll-a, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. More than 99 % of algal cells were removed within 5 min after the addition of magnetic coagulant at optimal loadings (200 mg L(-1)). The removal efficiencies of COD, total nitrogen, and phosphorus were 93, 91, and 94 %, respectively. The mechanism of algal removal explored preliminarily showed that the magnetic coagulant played multiple roles in mesoporous adsorption, netting and bridging, as well as high magnetic responsiveness to a magnetic field. The magnetic-coagulation separation method can rapidly and effectively remove algae from water bodies and greatly mitigate eutrophication of freshwater using a new magnetic coagulant. The method has good performance, is low cost, can turn waste into something valuable, and provides reference and directions for future pilot and production scale-ups.

  5. Special solutions for magnetic separation problems using force and energy conditions for ferro-particles capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandulyak, Anna; Sandulyak, Alexander; Belgacem, Fethi B. M.; Kiselev, Dmitriy

    2016-03-01

    While trying to solve the equation for the ferro-particle movement in the zone of magnetic separation, it is necessary to provisionally perform a comparative evaluation of forces influencing the ferro-particle in order to define the dominating ones, and specify the task at hand. Here, we consider various solutions of the problem and definitions of magnetic separation parameters based on the traditionally used forces and/or energy conditions of ferro-particle capture.

  6. [Preparation of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles and its application in separation and spectral detection].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuai; Yao, Jian-lin; Guo, Qing-hua; Gu, Ren-ao

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles as well as core-shell magnetic nanocomposites are of great interest for researchers due to their potential applications in lots of areas. In the present review, the authors summarized several universal synthetic methods of nanocomposites and their specific properties. In the following, the authors focused on the applications of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles in separation and spectral detection, along with the introduction of some work in the authors' lab. At last, the questions remaining in magnetic nanoparticles and the application perspectives of magnetic nanocomposites were discussed.

  7. Affinity separation in magnetically stabilized fluidized beds: synthesis and performance of packing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lochmueller, C.H.; Wigman, L.S.

    1987-11-01

    A magnetically stabilized fluidized-bed separator designed to test the use of pellicular, ferromagnetic affinity chromatography packing materials has been developed. A wire wound solenoid was used to produce the magnetic field. The ferromagnetic packing material is comprised of a magnetite-containing, polyurethane gel coated onto polystyrene beads. The gel contains free carboxyl groups. These were carbodiimide-coupled to soy trypsin inhibitor and the material used for trypsin purification. Narrow-band affinity chromatography was carried out in packed-bed, fluidized-bed, and magnetically stabilized, fluidized-bed separators. Pressure drop, capacity, dilution, and peak asymmetry were evaluated for each type of separator. The three types provide comparable efficiency but the fluidized separators exhibit a much lower pressure drop. As might be expected, fluidized-bed separators perform well for affinity chromatography (large k') but poorly for size exclusion chromatography.

  8. Elastic oscillations of bubbles separated from an air cavity in a magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polunin, V. M.; Shabanova, I. A.; Karpova, G. V.; Kobelev, N. S.; Ryabtsev, K. S.; Platonov, V. B.; Aref'ev, I. M.

    2015-07-01

    The elastic oscillations of air bubbles separated from an air cavity compressed by the ponderomotive forces of a magnetic field in a magnetic fluid are accompanied by the appearance of an alternating magnetic field component. The frequency of the alternating component corresponds to the frequency of radial bubble oscillations, and this fact is used to determine the bubble size. A great body of experimental data has been obtained from six magnetic fluid samples with different viscosities. Based on these data, histograms illustrating the bubble radius distribution are plotted. The appearance of the alternating magnetic field component caused by bubble oscillations in a magnetized magnetic fluid can be used to develop a fundamentally new method for supplying small metered gas shots to a reactor, as well as to study the boiling process in a magnetic fluid.

  9. Magnetic materials as sorbents for metal/metalloid preconcentration and/or separation. A review.

    PubMed

    Giakisikli, Georgia; Anthemidis, Aristidis N

    2013-07-30

    The use of magnetic materials in solid phase extraction has received considerable attention in recent years taking into account many advantages arising from the inherent characteristics of magnetic particles. Magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) methodology overcomes problems such as column packing and phase separation, which can be easily performed by applying an external magnetic field. The use of magnetic particles in automatic systems is growing over the last few years making the on-line operation of MSPE a promising technique in the frame of green chemistry. This article aims to provide all recent progress in the research of novel magnetic materials as sorbents for metal preconcentration and determination coupled with different detection systems as well as their implementation in sequential injection and microfluidic systems. In addition, a description of preparation, characterization as well as applications of various types of magnetic materials, either with organic or inorganic coating of the magnetic core, is presented. Concluding remarks and future trends are also commented.

  10. A smart fully integrated micromachined separator with soft magnetic micro-pillar arrays for cell isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Tao; Su, Qianhua; Yang, Zhaochu; Zhang, Yulong; Egeland, Eirik B.; Gu, Dan D.; Calabrese, Paolo; Kapiris, Matteo J.; Karlsen, Frank; Minh, Nhut T.; Wang, K.; Jakobsen, Henrik

    2010-11-01

    A smart fully integrated micromachined separator with soft magnetic micro-pillar arrays has been developed and demonstrated, which can merely employ one independent lab-on-chip to realize cell isolation. The simulation, design, microfabrication and test for the new electromagnetic micro separator were executed. The simulation results of the electromagnetic field in the separator show that special soft magnetic micro-pillar arrays can amplify and redistribute the electromagnetic field generated by the micro-coils. The separator can be equipped with a strong magnetic field to isolate the target cells with a considerably low input current. The micro separator was fabricated by micro-processing technology. An electroplating bath was hired to deposit NiCo/NiFe to fabricate the micro-pillar arrays. An experimental system was set up to verify the function of the micro separator by isolating the lymphocytes, in which the human whole blood mixed with Dynabeads® FlowComp Flexi and monoclonal antibody MHCD2704 was used as the sample. The results show that the electromagnetic micro separator with an extremely low input current can recognize and capture the target lymphocytes with a high efficiency, the separation ratio reaching more than 90% at a lower flow rate. For the electromagnetic micro separator, there is no external magnetizing field required, and there is no extra cooling system because there is less Joule heat generated due to the lower current. The magnetic separator is totally reusable, and it can be used to separate cells or proteins with common antigens.

  11. ELECTRON TRANSPORT IN CORONAL LOOPS: THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXPONENTIAL SEPARATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bitane, R.; Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P.

    2010-08-20

    Observations by the TRACE spacecraft have shown that coronal emission in the extreme ultraviolet is characterized by filamentary structures within coronal loops, with transverse sizes close to the instrumental resolution. Starting from the observed filament widths and using the concepts of braided magnetic fields, an estimate of the turbulence level in the coronal loops can be obtained. Magnetic turbulence in the presence of a background magnetic field can be strongly anisotropic, and such anisotropy influences the separation of magnetic field lines, as well as the magnetic field line diffusion coefficient. Careful computations of the magnetic field line diffusion coefficient D{sub m} and of the rate of exponential separation of magnetic field lines h, also allowing for the possibility of anisotropic magnetic turbulence, enable computation of the effective perpendicular diffusion coefficient for electrons. When compared with observations this yields magnetic turbulence levels on the order of {delta}B/B {sub 0} = 0.05-0.7, which are larger than previous estimates. These values of the magnetic fluctuation level support the idea that magnetic turbulence can contribute to coronal heating by means of MHD turbulence dissipation. It is also found that field line transport is not governed by the quasilinear regime, but by a nonlinear regime which includes an intermediate and the percolation regimes.

  12. Fully integrated micro-separator with soft-magnetic micro-pillar arrays for filtrating lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Su, Qianhua; Yang, Zhaochu; Karlsen, Frank; Jakobsen, Henrik; Egeland, Eirik Bentzen; Hjelseth, Snorre

    2010-01-01

    A fully integrated micro-separator with soft-magnetic micro-pillar arrays has been developed, which merely employs one independent Lab-On-Chip to realize the lymphocytes isolation from the human whole blood. The simulation, fabrication and experiment are executed to realize this novel microseparator. The simulation results show that, the soft-magnetic micro-pillars array can amplify and redistribute the electromagnetic field generated by the microcoils. The tests certify desirable separation efficiency can be realized using this new separator at low current. No extra cooling system is required for such a micro-separator. This micro-separator can also be used to separate other target cells or particles with the same principle. PMID:21096497

  13. On-chip magnetic separation of superparamagnetic beads for integrated molecular analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florescu, Octavian; Wang, Kevan; Au, Patrick; Tang, Jimmy; Harris, Eva; Beatty, P. Robert; Boser, Bernhard E.

    2010-03-01

    We have demonstrated a postprocessed complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit (IC) capable of on-chip magnetic separation, i.e., removing via magnetic forces the nonspecifically bound magnetic beads from the detection area on the surface of the chip. Initially, 4.5 μm wide superparamagnetic beads sedimenting out of solution due to gravity were attracted to the detection area by a magnetic concentration force generated by flowing current through a conductor embedded in the IC. After sedimentation, the magnetic beads that did not bind strongly to the functionalized surface of the IC through a specific biochemical complex were removed by a magnetic separation force generated by flowing current through another conductor placed laterally to the detection area. As the spherical bead pivoted on the surface of the chip, the lateral magnetic force was further amplified by mechanical leveraging, and 50 mA of current flowing through the separation conductor placed 18 μm away from the bead resulted in 7.5 pN of tensile force on the biomolecular tether immobilizing the bead. This force proved high enough to break nonspecific interactions while leaving specific antibody-antigen bonds intact. A sandwich capture immunoassay on purified human immunoglobulin G showed strong correlation with a control enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a detection limit of 10 ng/ml or 70 pM. The beads bound to the detection area after on-chip magnetic separation were detected optically. To implement a fully integrated molecular diagnostics platform, the on-chip magnetic separation functionality presented in this work can be readily combine with state-of-the art CMOS-based magnetic bead detection technology.

  14. Magnetic separation of algae genetically modified for increased intracellular iron uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Amy; Moore, Lee R.; Lane, Christopher D.; Kumar, Anil; Stroff, Clayton; White, Nicolas; Xue, Wei; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Zborowski, Maciej

    2015-04-01

    Algae were investigated in the past as a potential source of biofuel and other useful chemical derivatives. Magnetic separation of algae by iron oxide nanoparticle binding to cells has been proposed by others for dewatering of cellular mass prior to lipid extraction. We have investigated feasibility of magnetic separation based on the presence of natural iron stores in the cell, such as the ferritin in Auxenochlorella protothecoides (A. protothecoides) strains. The A. protothecoides cell constructs were tested for inserted genes and for increased intracellular iron concentration by inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption (ICP-AA). They were grown in Sueoka's modified high salt media with added vitamin B1 and increasing concentration of soluble iron compound (FeCl3 EDTA, from 1× to 8× compared to baseline). The cell magnetic separation conditions were tested using a thin rectangular flow channel pressed against interpolar gaps of a permanent magnet forming a separation system of a well-defined fluid flow and magnetic fringing field geometry (up to 2.2 T and 1000 T/m) dubbed "magnetic deposition microscopy", or MDM. The presence of magnetic cells in suspension was detected by formation of characteristic deposition bands at the edges of the magnet interpolar gaps, amenable to optical scanning and microscopic examination. The results demonstrated increasing cellular Fe uptake with increasing Fe concentration in the culture media in wild type strain and in selected genetically-modified constructs, leading to magnetic separation without magnetic particle binding. The throughput in this study is not sufficient for an economical scale harvest.

  15. Immobilization of invertase on chitosan coated γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles to facilitate magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Waifalkar, P P; Parit, S B; Chougale, A D; Sahoo, Subasa C; Patil, P S; Patil, P B

    2016-11-15

    Industrially important invertase enzyme was immobilized on chitosan coated sol gel derived γ-Fe2O3 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to enable it for repetitive use by magnetic separation. MNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and magnetic measurements. FTIR studies confirmed successful immobilization of invertase on MNPs. The ability to convert sucrose into invert syrup was enhanced in immobilized invertase compared to that of free enzyme. Further it was found that invertase immobilized on MNPs (IIMNPs) were more stable at varying pH and temperature conditions. Magnetic separation technique was successfully employed for reuse of the IIMNPs for 20 times without significant loss of activity. PMID:27501039

  16. Active CryoCubeSat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The Active CryoCubeSat project will demonstrate an advanced thermal control system for a 6-Unit (6U) CubeSat platform. A miniature, active thermal control system, in which a fluid is circulated in a closed loop from thermal loads to radiators, will be developed. A miniature cryogenic cooler will be integrated with this system to form a two-stage thermal control system. Key components will be miniaturized by using advanced additive manufacturing techniques resulting in a thermal testbed for proving out these technologies. Previous CubeSat missions have not tackled the problem of active thermal control systems nor have any past or current CubeSat missions included cryogenic instrumentation. This Active CryoCubeSat development effort will provide completely new capacities for CubeSats and constitutes a major advancement over the state-of-the-art in CubeSat thermal control.

  17. Versatile fabrication of magnetic carbon fiber aerogel applied for bidirectional oil-water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zhu, Xiaotao; Ge, Bo; Men, Xuehu; Li, Peilong; Zhang, Zhaozhu

    2015-09-01

    Fabricating functional materials that can solve environmental problems resulting from oil or organic solvent pollution is highly desired. However, expensive materials or complicated procedures and unidirectional oil-water separation hamper their applications. Herein, a magnetic superhydrophobic carbon fiber aerogel with high absorption capacity was developed by one-step pyrolysis of Fe(NO3)3-coated cotton in an argon atmosphere. The obtained aerogel can selectively collect oils from oil-polluted region by a magnet bar owing to its magnetic properties and achieves fast oil-water separation for its superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. Furthermore, the aerogel performs recyclable oil absorption capacity even after ten cycles of oil-water separation and bears organic solvent immersion. Importantly, the obtained aerogel turns to superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic after thermal treatment, allowing it as a promising and efficient material for bidirectional oil-water separation and organic contaminants removal.

  18. High Temperature Superconducting Reciprocating Magnetic Separator Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Maguire

    2008-06-05

    In 2001, under DOE's Superconductivity Partnership Initiative (SPI), E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Dupont) was awarded a cost-share contract to build a fully functional full-scale model high temperature superconducting reciprocating magnet unit specifically designed for the koalin clay industry. After competitive bidding, American Superconductor (AMSC) was selected to provide the coil for the magnet. Dupont performed the statement of work until September 2004, when it stopped work, with the concurrence of DOE, due to lack of federal funds. DOE had paid all invoices to that point, and Dupont had provided all cost share. At this same time, Dupont determined that this program did not fit with its corporate strategies and notified DOE that it was not interesting in resuming the program when funding became available. AMSC expressed interest in assuming performance of the Agreement to Dupont and DOE, and in March 2005, this project was transferred to AMSC by DOE amendment to the original contract and Novation Agreement between AMSC and Dupont. Design drawings and some hardware components and subassemblies were transferred to AMSC. However, no funding was obligated by DOE and AMSC never performed work on the project. This report contains a summary of the work performed by Dupont up to the September 04 timeframe.

  19. Removal of freshwater microalgae by a magnetic separation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergini, Sofia S.; Aravantinou, Andriana F.; Manariotis, Ioannis D.

    2013-04-01

    Some species of microalgae, with high growth rate and high lipid content, appear to be attractive alternatives as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The high-energy input for harvesting biomass and removing the water from the algae makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production cost expensive. The major techniques currently employed in microalgae harvesting and recovery include centrifugation, coagulation-flocculation, bio-flocculation, filtration and screening, gravity sedimentation, and flotation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the harvesting of microalgae cells by coagulation using magnetic activated carbon, magnetite (FeO4) nanoparticles, and common chemical coagulants. Scenedesmus rubescens was selected and cultivated in 10 L flasks under continuous artificial light. Samples were taken at different operation intervals. Jar tests were conducted to investigate the effect of adsorption of microalgae on the magnetic material. The removal efficiency of microalgae was affected by the coagulants dose, stirring time and speed, and the initial microalgae concentration. The recovery of microalgae was greater in cultures with high initial microalgae concentration compared to cultures with low microalgae concentrations.

  20. Cryo-Temp Data Logger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Caron, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Biological experiments on the ISS are frequently frozen at ultra-low temperatures on orbit prior to return to Earth for analysis. Recording temperatures during the freezing process, and subsequent handling to the point of post-flight processing, can provide important information of sample integrity to the scientist. The MadgeTech Cryo-Temp Data Logger has been modified for space flight applications by the Payload Development Team at Kennedy Space Center. This ultra-low temperature data logger is rated for temperatures from -86 C to +35 C with 0.1 C resolution and +/-1 C accuracy, but has been successfully tested at Kennedy Space Centers Cryogenic Lab down to -100 C. The logger provides date and time stamped temperature recordings and can be set with logging intervals from 5 seconds up to 30 minutes using the MadgeTech Data Logger Software. Data can be recorded, depending on logging interval, for greater than 90 days. The Cryo-Temp Data logger will first be flown on Space X-12 in the BRIC-Petri Dish Fixation Unit (PDFU) canister hardware, recording temperature data for a Space Life and Physical Sciences (SLPS) flight experiment. The modified Cryo-Temp Data Logger is small in size (Figure 1) and is the ideal temperature monitoring solution for any application involving independent temperature data logging.

  1. Hollow mesoporous carbon spheres with magnetic cores and their performance as separable bilirubin adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Limin; Cui, Xiangzhi; Li, Yongsheng; He, Qianjun; Zhang, Lingxia; Bu, Wenbo; Shi, Jianlin

    2009-09-01

    Hollow mesoporous carbon spheres with magnetic cores are directly replicated from hollow mesoporous aluminosilicate spheres with hematite cores by a simple incipient-wetness impregnation technique. The amount of magnetic cores and the saturation magnetization value can be easily tuned by changing the concentration of iron nitrate solution used in the synthesis procedure. As-prepared hollow mesoporous carbon spheres with magnetic cores are used as separable bilirubin adsorbents and show very good adsorptive properties. The characteristics of as-prepared composites are examined by XRD, N(2) sorption, TEM, vibrating-sample magnetometry, and UV/Vis spectroscopy. PMID:19582733

  2. Separator reconnection at Earth's dayside magnetopause under generic northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorelli, John C.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Raeder, Joachim

    2007-02-01

    We investigate the global properties of magnetic reconnection at the dayside terrestrial magnetopause under generic northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. In particular, we consider a zero dipole tilt case where the y and z components of the IMF (in GSM coordinates) are equal in magnitude, using three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations to address the following questions: (1) What is the geometry of the dayside X line? (2) How is current density distributed over the magnetopause surface? Using a technique described by Geene (1992) to track the magnetic nulls in the system, we identify the dayside X line as a magnetic separator line, a segment of a magnetic field line which extends across the dayside magnetopause, terminating in the cusps. We demonstrate that the separator line is the intersection of two separatrix surfaces which define volumes containing topologically distinct field lines. Parallel current density, proportional to the parallel electric field in our resistive MHD simulations, is distributed in a broad, thin sheet which extends across the separator line and terminates in the cusps. Thus separator reconnection at the dayside magnetopause displays features of both antiparallel (near the cusp nulls) and component (near the subsolar separator line) reconnection. We discuss some implications of our results for spacecraft observations of reconnection signatures.

  3. Ferronickel enrichment by fine particle reduction and magnetic separation from nickel laterite ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Run-zao; Yao, Li; Ji, Zhi-jun; Zhang, Yan-ting; Li, Shi-qi

    2014-10-01

    Ferronickel enrichment and extraction from nickel laterite ore were studied through reduction and magnetic separation. Reduction experiments were performed using hydrogen and carbon monoxide as reductants at different temperatures (700-1000°C). Magnetic separation of the reduced products was conducted using a SLon-100 cycle pulsating magnetic separator (1.2 T). Composition analysis indicates that the nickel laterite ore contains a total iron content of 22.50wt% and a total nickel content of 1.91wt%. Its mineral composition mainly consists of serpentine, hortonolite, and goethite. During the reduction process, the grade of nickel and iron in the products increases with increasing reduction temperature. Although a higher temperature is more favorable for reduction, the temperature exceeding 1000°C results in sintering of the products, preventing magnetic separation. After magnetic separation, the maximum total nickel and iron concentrations are 5.43wt% and 56.86wt%, and the corresponding recovery rates are 84.38% and 53.76%, respectively.

  4. High gradient magnetic separation versus expanded bed adsorption: a first principle comparison.

    PubMed

    Hubbuch, J J; Matthiesen, D B; Hobley, T J; Thomas, O R

    2001-01-01

    A robust new adsorptive separation technique specifically designed for direct product capture from crude bioprocess feedstreams is introduced and compared with the current bench mark technique, expanded bed adsorption. The method employs product adsorption onto sub-micron sized non-porous superparamagnetic supports followed by rapid separation of the 'loaded' adsorbents from the feedstock using high gradient magnetic separation technology. For the recovery of Savinase from a cell-free Bacillus clausii fermentation liquor using bacitracin-linked adsorbents, the integrated magnetic separation system exhibited substantially enhanced productivity over expanded bed adsorption when operated at processing velocities greater than 48 m h(-1). Use of the bacitracin-linked magnetic supports for a single cycle of batch adsorption and subsequent capture by high gradient magnetic separation at a processing rate of 12 m h(-1) resulted in a 2.2-fold higher productivity relative to expanded bed adsorption, while an increase in adsorbent collection rate to 72 m h(-1) raised the productivity to 10.7 times that of expanded bed adsorption. When the number of batch adsorption cycles was then increased to three, significant drops in both magnetic adsorbent consumption (3.6 fold) and filter volume required (1.3 fold) could be achieved at the expense of a reduction in productivity from 10.7 to 4.4 times that of expanded bed adsorption. PMID:11787803

  5. Spectral functions in a magnetic field as a probe of spin-charge separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello, Silvio; Si, Qimiao

    2001-03-01

    We show that the single-particle spectral functions in a magnetic field can be used to probe spin-charge separation[1]. For concreteness our discussion will be focused on the Luttinger liquid, but our idea is applicable to spin-charge separated metals in general. We will show two types of manifestations of spin-charge separation. For the energy dispersion away from the Fermi momentum, the magnetic field splits both the spinon peak and holon peak; here the spin-charge separation nature is reflected in the different magnitude of the two splittings. For the energy dispersion at the Fermi momentum, the magnetic field splits the zero-field peak into FOUR peaks. The effect of a magnetic field on the momentum dispersion, on the other hand, is very different. Either at or away from the Fermi energy, the magnetic field splits the zero-field peak into only two peaks; the magnitude of the splittings of the spinon and holon peaks is always the same. The contrast between the energy dispersion and momentum dispersion reflects the generic physics that the magnetic field causes as main effect the splitting of the spinon Fermi momentum. Finally, we will discuss the feasibility of studying this effect using angle-resolved photoemission and momentum-resolved tunneling[2]. [1] S. Rabello and Q. Si, cond-mat/0008065. [2]S. A. Grigera, S. Rabello et al, in preparation; A. Altland et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1203 (1999).

  6. Research on red mud treatment by a circulating superconducting magnetic separator.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiran; Chen, Haoshu; Wang, Jun; Xu, Fengyu; Zhang, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    Red mud (RM) accumulated over the years and caused a serious environmental problem. Iron-rich fraction separation is a cost-effective way to reduce the amount of disposal RM. A circulating high-gradient superconducting magnetic separator was produced in this work. Steel wool was filled in the circulating boxes. The boxes were connected by two chains, which moved in and out the magnetic field by a drive motor. The efficiency of iron-rich RM separation by the superconducting magnetic separator was investigated. An amount of 25% (w/w) iron-rich RM fractions with a grade of 65% were separated from the 56% iron content raw RM. The parameters of the steel wool matrix were important in controlling the iron-rich RM magnetic separation. Finer steel wool increased the iron recovery ratio, but decreased the grade of the iron-rich RM concentrates. Microscopic photographs of the RM particles showed that opaque mineral particles were enriched in the collected RM. The particle size distributions of raw, concentrate and residue RM were measured. The increased particle size of concentrate RM implied that large particles were entrapped in the steel wool matrix.

  7. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Landsberger, S.

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration.

  8. Setting up High Gradient Magnetic Separation for combating eutrophication of inland waters.

    PubMed

    Merino-Martos, A; de Vicente, J; Cruz-Pizarro, L; de Vicente, I

    2011-02-28

    To find new approaches to devise technologies for handling with eutrophication of inland waters is a global challenge. Separation of the P from water under conditions of continuous flow is proposed as an alternative and effective method. This work is based on using highly magnetic particles as the seeding adsorbent material and their later removal from solution by High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS). Contrast to other methods based on batch conditions, large volumes of water can be easily handled by HGMS because of decreasing retention times. This study identifies the best working conditions for removing P from solution by investigating the effects of a set of four different experimental variables: sonication time, flow rate (as it determines the retention time of particles in the magnetic field), magnetic field strength and the iron (Fe) particles/P concentration ratio. Additionally, the change of P removal efficiency with time (build up effect) and the possibility of reusing magnetic particles were also studied. Our results evidenced that while flow rate does not significantly affect P removal efficiency in the range 0.08-0.36 mL s(-1), sonication time, magnetic field strength and the Fe particles/P concentration ratio are the main factors controlling magnetic separation process.

  9. Separating the ferromagnetic and glassy behavior within the metal-organic magnet Ni (TCNQ) 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlie, Adam; Terry, Ian; Szablewski, Marek; Giblin, Sean R.

    2015-11-01

    An in-depth study of the metal-organic magnet Ni (TCNQ) 2 was conducted where the deuterated form was synthesised both to attempt to alter the magnetic properties of the material and to be advantageous in techniques such as neutron scattering and muon spectroscopy. Deuteration saw a 3 K increase in TC with magnetization and heat capacity measurements demonstrating a spin wave contribution at low temperatures confirming the 3D nature of the ferromagnetic state shown by Ni (TCNQ-D4)2 . AC susceptibility results suggest there is a glassy component associated with the magnetically ordered state, though muon spectroscopy measurements did not support the presence of a spin glass state. Instead muon spectroscopy at zero magnetic field indicated the presence of two magnetic transitions, one at 20 K and another below 6 K; the latter is likely due to the system entering a quasistatic regime, similar to what one might expect of a superspin or cluster glass. Neutron diffraction measurements further supported this by revealing very weak magnetic Bragg peaks suggesting that the magnetism may have a short coherence length and be confined to small grains or clusters. The separation of the ferromagnetic and glassy magnetic components of the material's properties suggest that this system may show promise as a metal-organic magnet which is easily modified to change its magnetic properties, providing larger grain sizes can be synthesized.

  10. Magnetophoresis 'meets' viscoelasticity: deterministic separation of magnetic particles in a modular microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, Francesco; Madadi, Hojjat; Villone, Massimiliano M; D'Avino, Gaetano; Cusano, Angela M; Vecchione, Raffaele; Ventre, Maurizio; Maffettone, Pier Luca; Netti, Paolo A

    2015-04-21

    The deflection of magnetic beads in a microfluidic channel through magnetophoresis can be improved if the particles are somehow focused along the same streamline in the device. We design and fabricate a microfluidic device made of two modules, each one performing a unit operation. A suspension of magnetic beads in a viscoelastic medium is fed to the first module, which is a straight rectangular-shaped channel. Here, the magnetic particles are focused by exploiting fluid viscoelasticity. Such a channel is one inlet of the second module, which is a H-shaped channel, where a buffer stream is injected in the second inlet. A permanent magnet is used to displace the magnetic beads from the original to the buffer stream. Experiments with a Newtonian suspending fluid, where no focusing occurs, are carried out for comparison. When viscoelastic focusing and magnetophoresis are combined, magnetic particles can be deterministically separated from the original streamflow to the buffer, thus leading to a high deflection efficiency (up to ~96%) in a wide range of flow rates. The effect of the focusing length on the deflection of particles is also investigated. Finally, the proposed modular device is tested to separate magnetic and non-magnetic beads. PMID:25732596

  11. Closed-loop magnetic separation of nanoparticles on a packed bed of spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnet, Cécilia; Akouala, Mesferdon; Kuzhir, Pavel; Bossis, Georges; Zubarev, Andrey; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we consider magnetic separation of iron oxide nanoparticles when a nanoparticle suspension (diluted ferrofluid) passes through a closed-loop filter composed of a packed bed of micro-beads magnetized by an externally applied magnetic field. We show that the capture of nanoparticles of a size as small as 60 nm is easily achieved at low-to-moderate magnetic fields (16-32 kA/m) thanks to relatively strong magnetic interactions between them. The key parameter governing the capture process is the Mason number—the ratio of hydrodynamic-to-magnetic forces exerted to nanoparticles. The filter efficiency, Λ, defined through the ratio of the inlet-to-outlet concentration shows a power-law dependency on Mason number, Λ∝M a-0.83 , in the range of 102magnetic nanoparticles, followed by magnetic separation of the nanoparticles.

  12. Simulating Chiral Magnetic and Separation Effects with Spin-Orbit Coupled Atomic Gases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects-quantum-anomaly-induced electric current and chiral current along an external magnetic field in parity-odd quark-gluon plasma-have received intense studies in the community of heavy-ion collision physics. We show that analogous effects occur in rotating trapped Fermi gases with Weyl-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling where the rotation plays the role of an external magnetic field. These effects can induce a mass quadrupole in the atomic cloud along the rotation axis which may be tested in future experiments. Our results suggest that the spin-orbit coupled atomic gases are potential simulators of the chiral magnetic and separation effects. PMID:26868084

  13. Simulating Chiral Magnetic and Separation Effects with Spin-Orbit Coupled Atomic Gases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects—quantum-anomaly-induced electric current and chiral current along an external magnetic field in parity-odd quark-gluon plasma—have received intense studies in the community of heavy-ion collision physics. We show that analogous effects occur in rotating trapped Fermi gases with Weyl-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling where the rotation plays the role of an external magnetic field. These effects can induce a mass quadrupole in the atomic cloud along the rotation axis which may be tested in future experiments. Our results suggest that the spin-orbit coupled atomic gases are potential simulators of the chiral magnetic and separation effects. PMID:26868084

  14. Simulating Chiral Magnetic and Separation Effects with Spin-Orbit Coupled Atomic Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-02-01

    The chiral magnetic and chiral separation effects—quantum-anomaly-induced electric current and chiral current along an external magnetic field in parity-odd quark-gluon plasma—have received intense studies in the community of heavy-ion collision physics. We show that analogous effects occur in rotating trapped Fermi gases with Weyl-Zeeman spin-orbit coupling where the rotation plays the role of an external magnetic field. These effects can induce a mass quadrupole in the atomic cloud along the rotation axis which may be tested in future experiments. Our results suggest that the spin-orbit coupled atomic gases are potential simulators of the chiral magnetic and separation effects.

  15. Thinking out of the box for magnetic mineral separation using low temperature magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagroix, F.; Guyodo, Y. J. B.; Till, J. L.; Taylor, S. N.

    2014-12-01

    One timeless challenge in rock magnetic studies, inclusive of paleomagnetism and environmental magnetism, is decomposing a sample's bulk magnetic behaviour into its individual magnetic mineral components. We present a method permitting to decompose the magnetic behavior of a bulk sample experimentally and at low temperature avoiding any ambiguities in data interpretation due to heating induced alteration. A single instrument is used to measure the temperature dependence of the remanent magnetization and to apply different steps of AF demagnetizations and thermal demagnetization. The experimental method is validated on synthetic mixtures of magnetite, hematite, goethite as well as on natural loess samples where the contributions of magnetite, goethite, hematite and maghemite are successfully isolated. The experimental protocol can be adapted to target other iron bearing minerals relevant to the rock or sediment under study. One limitation rests on the fact that the method is based on remanent magnetization. Consequently, a quantitative decomposition of absolute concentration of individual components remains unachievable without assumptions. Nonetheless, semi-quantitative magnetic mineral concentrations were determined on synthetic and natural loess/paleosol samples in order to validate and test the method as a semi-quantitative tool in environmental magnetism studies.

  16. Conceptual design of integrated microfluidic system for magnetic cell separation, electroporation, and transfection.

    PubMed

    Durdík, Š; Krafčík, A; Babincová, M; Babinec, P

    2013-09-01

    For the purposes of a successful ex vivo gene therapy we have proposed and analyzed a new concept of an integrated microfluidic system for combined magnetic cell separation, electroporation, and magnetofection. For the analysis of magnetic and electric field distribution (given by Maxwell equations) as well as dynamics of magnetically labeled cell and transfection complex, we have used finite element method directly interfaced to the Matlab routine solving Newton dynamical equations of motion. Microfluidic chamber has been modeled as a channel with height and length 1 mm and 1 cm, respectively. Bottom electrode consisted of 100 parallel ferromagnetic straps and the upper electrode was plate of diamagnetic copper. From the dynamics of magnetic particle motion we have found that the characteristic time-scales for the motion of cells (mean capture time ∼ 4 s) and gene complexes (mean capture time ∼ 3 min), when permanent magnets are used, are in the range suitable for efficient cell separation and gene delivery. The largest electric field intensity (∼10 kV/m) was observed at the edges of the microelectrodes, in the close proximity of magnetically separated cells, which is optimal for subsequent cell electroporation.

  17. CryoSat-2 and the CryoSat Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, R.; Cullen, R.

    2009-04-01

    CryoSat was chosen as the first of ESA's Earth Explorer Opportunity missions in late 1999, following a competitive selection process. Its goal is the measurement of secular change in the cryosphere, particularly in the elevation of the ice caps and the thickness of sea ice. The required accuracy corresponds to about half of the variation expected due to natural variability, over reasonable scales for the surfaces concerned. The selected technique is radar altimetry, although the instrument has been modified to provide the enhanced capabilities needed to significantly extend the spatial coverage of previous altimetry missions, particularly ERS and EnviSat. Thus the radar includes a synthetic aperture mode which enables the along- track resolution to be improved to about 250 m. This will enable detection of leads in sea-ice which are narrower than those detected hitherto, so that operation deeper into pack-ice can be achieved with a consequent reduction in errors due to omission. Altimetry over the steep edges of ice caps is hampered by the irregular topography which, since the radar ranging is performed to the closest reflector rather than the point directly below, introduces uncertainty into the exactitude of repeat measurements. CryoSat's radar includes a second antenna and receiver chain so that interferometry may be used to determine the arrival angle of the echo and so improve localisation of the reflection. The satellite payload, which includes a DORIS receiver for precise orbit determination and a set of star trackers to measure the orientation of the interferometer, is quite complex and demanding. The satellite was launched on 8 October 2005, just less than 6 years after the start of the programme. Unfortunately the launch vehicle, a Rockot launcher derived from the Russian SS-19 ICBM, suffered an anomaly at the end of its second-stage flight, with the result that the satellite was lost, the debris falling close to the North pole. Determination to rebuild

  18. Design of large aperture superferric quadrupole magnets for an in-flight fragment separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, Aziz; Kim, Dogyun; Kim, Jangyoul; Kim, Mijung; Kim, Myeongjin; Yun, Chongcheoul; Kim, Jongwon

    2014-01-01

    Superferric quadrupole magnets to be used for in-flight fragment separator have been designed. A quadrupole magnet triplet for beam focusing is placed in a cryostat together with superconducting correction coils. To maximize acceptance of rare isotope beams produced by projectile fragmentation, it is essential to use large-aperture quadrupole magnets. The pole tip radius is 17 cm in the current design, and we tried to enlarge the aperture with 3D analysis on magnetic fields. In the front end of the separator, where a target and beam dump are located, we plan to use two sets of quadrupole triplets made of high-Tc superconductor (HTS) operating at 20-50 K considering high radiation heat load. The HTS magnet will use warm iron poles. Both low-Tc and high-Tc superconductors are acquired for test winding, and two kinds of dewar and cryostat are under construction to perform the coil and magnet tests. The magnetic design of superferric quadrupole is mainly discussed.

  19. Design of large aperture superferric quadrupole magnets for an in-flight fragment separator

    SciTech Connect

    Zaghloul, Aziz; Kim, Dogyun; Kim, Jangyoul; Kim, Mijung; Kim, Myeongjin; Yun, Chongcheoul; Kim, Jongwon

    2014-01-29

    Superferric quadrupole magnets to be used for in-flight fragment separator have been designed. A quadrupole magnet triplet for beam focusing is placed in a cryostat together with superconducting correction coils. To maximize acceptance of rare isotope beams produced by projectile fragmentation, it is essential to use large-aperture quadrupole magnets. The pole tip radius is 17 cm in the current design, and we tried to enlarge the aperture with 3D analysis on magnetic fields. In the front end of the separator, where a target and beam dump are located, we plan to use two sets of quadrupole triplets made of high-Tc superconductor (HTS) operating at 20-50 K considering high radiation heat load. The HTS magnet will use warm iron poles. Both low-Tc and high-Tc superconductors are acquired for test winding, and two kinds of dewar and cryostat are under construction to perform the coil and magnet tests. The magnetic design of superferric quadrupole is mainly discussed.

  20. New High Performance Magnet Structures for Bead Based MolecularSeparation

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, David

    2005-06-01

    New High Performance Magnet Structures for Bead Based Molecular Separation David Humphries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, D.O.E. Joint Genome Institute Abstract High performance Hybrid magnetic separation technology is under continuing development at the D.O.E. Joint Genome Institute and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for general laboratory and high throughput automated applications. This technology has broad applicability for molecular separation in genomics, proteomics and other areas. It s applicability ranges from large and small scale microtiter plate and flow separation processes to single molecule DNA manipulation. It is currently an enabling purification technology for very high throughput production sequencing at the D.O.E. Joint Genome Institute. This technology incorporates hybrid magnetic structures that combine linear permanent magnet material and ferromagnetic material to produce significantly higher fields and gradients than those of currently available commercial devices. These structures incorporate ferromagnetic poles that can be easily shaped to produce complex field distributions for specialized applications. The higher maximum fields and strong gradients of the hybrid structures result in greater holding forces on magnetized targets that are being processed as well as faster extraction. Current development versions of these magnet plates have exhibited fields in excess of 1.0 tesla and gradients approaching 1000.0 tesla/meter. Second generation Hybrid magnet plates have now been developed for both 384 and 96-well applications. This technology is currently being made available to industry through the Tech Transfer Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy's Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program and the by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48, Lawrence

  1. A novel human detoxification system based on nanoscale bioengineering and magnetic separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haitao; Kaminski, Michael D; Liu, Xianqiao; Mertz, Carol J; Xie, Yumei; Torno, Michael D; Rosengart, Axel J

    2007-01-01

    We describe the conceptual approach, theoretical background and preliminary experimental data of a proposed platform technology for specific and rapid decorporation of blood-borne toxins from humans. The technology is designed for future emergent in-field or in-hospital detoxification of large numbers of biohazard-exposed victims; for example, after radiological attacks. The proposed systems is based on nanoscale technology employing biocompatible, superparamagnetic nanospheres, which are functionalized with target-specific antitoxin receptors, and freely circulate within the human blood stream after simple intravenous injection. Sequestration of the blood-borne toxins onto the nanosphere receptors generates circulating nanosphere-toxin complexes within a short time interval; mathematical modeling indicates prevailing of unbound nanosphere receptors over target toxin concentrations at most therapeutic injection dosages. After a toxin-specific time interval nanosphere-toxin complexes are generated within the blood stream and, after simple arterial or venous access, the blood is subsequently circulated via a small catheter through a portable high gradient magnetic separator device. In this device, the magnetic toxin complexes are retained by a high gradient magnetic field and the detoxified blood is then returned back to the blood circulation (extracorporeal circulation). Our preliminary in vitro experiments demonstrate >95% first pass capture efficiency of magnetic spheres within a prototype high gradient magnetic separation device. Further, based on the synthesis of novel hydrophobic magnetite nanophases with high magnetization ( approximately 55 emu/g), the first biodegradable magnetic nanospheres at a size range of approximately 280 nm and functionalized with PEG-maleimide surface groups for specific antibody attachment are described here. In future applications, we envision this technology to be suitable for emergent, in-field usage for acutely biohazard exposed

  2. Studies in cryo-immunology

    PubMed Central

    Yantorno, C.; Soanes, W. A.; Gonder, M. J.; Shulman, S.

    1967-01-01

    Experimental cryosurgery has been found to result in the formation of circulating antibodies, directed against antigenic material of the tissue frozen. These antibodies were detected by passive haemagglutination and immunodiffusion. The tissue that was subjected to destructive freezing by means of this surgical procedure was the coagulating gland and seminal vesicle of rabbit. A probe carrying liquid nitrogen and a thermocouple assembly for measuring temperature changes was utilized. Control rabbits were manipulated in the same way but with no freezing. A large number of rabbits subjected to tissue freezing exhibited the development of a rapid antibody response, achieving a maximum titre in 7–10 days, followed by a decline. This antibody response has been compared to that seen following isoimmunization by injection. As an additional comparison, several rabbits were autoimmunized by injection of homogenate from their own accessory tissue; these rabbits also produced antibodies. It was found that the time sequence in the antibody production was quite similar for auto- and isoimmunization, but was quite distinctive for cryo-stimulation. By several means of evaluation, it was shown that the antibody response to the freezing of tissue was an autoantibody. It was not, however, an antibody against serum γ-globulin. The consequences of the freezing of tissue are thus seen to simulate the effects of incorporating adjuvant. This method of producing autoantibodies and investigating the nature of the response has been termed cryo-immunology. ImagesFIG. 4 PMID:4960713

  3. Preparation and characterization of chemically functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a DNA separator.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kiho; Choi, Jinsub; Nam, Joong Hee; Lee, Sang Cheon; Kim, Kyung Ja; Lee, Sang-Won; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2009-01-15

    The work describes a simple and convenient process for highly efficient and direct DNA separation with functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles and silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were prepared uniformly, and the silica coating thickness could be easily controlled in a range from 10 to 50 nm by changing the concentration of silica precursor (TEOS) including controlled magnetic strength and particle size. A change in the surface modification on the nanoparticles was introduced by aminosilanization to enhance the selective DNA separation resulting from electrostatic interaction. The efficiency of the DNA separation was explored via the function of the amino-group numbers, particle size, the amount of the nanoparticles used, and the concentration of NaCl salt. The DNA adsorption yields were high in terms of the amount of triamino-functionalized nanoparticles used, and the average particle size was 25 nm. The adsorption efficiency of aminofunctionalized nanoparticles was the 4-5 times (80-100%) higher compared to silica-coated nanoparticles only (10-20%). DNA desorption efficiency showed an optimum level of over 0.7 M of the NaCl concentration. To elucidate the agglomeration of nanoparticles after electrostatic DNA binding, the Guinier plots were calculated from small-angle X-ray diffractions in a comparison of the results of energy diffraction TEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Additionally, the direct separation of human genomic DNA was achieved from human saliva and whole blood with high efficiency.

  4. High intensity magnetic separation for the clean-up of a site polluted by lead metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Sierra, C; Martínez, J; Menéndez-Aguado, J M; Afif, E; Gallego, J R

    2013-03-15

    The industrial history in the district of Linares (Spain) has had a severe impact on soil quality. Here we examined soil contaminated by lead and other heavy metals in "La Cruz" site, a brownfield affected by metallurgical residues. Initially, the presence of contaminants mainly associated with the presence of lead slag fragments mixed with the soil was evaluated. The subsequent analysis showed a quasi-uniform distribution of the pollution irrespective of the grain-size fractions. This study was accompanied by a characterization of the lead slag behavior under the presence of a magnetic field. Two main magnetic components were detected: first a ferromagnetic and/or ferrimagnetic contribution, second a paramagnetic and/or antiferromagnetic one. It was also established that the slag was composed mainly of lead spherules and iron oxides embedded in a silicate matrix. Under these conditions, the capacity of magnetic separation to remove pollutants was examined. Therefore, two high intensity magnetic separators (dry and wet devices, respectively) were used. Dry separation proved to be successful at decontaminating soil in the first stages of a soil washing plant. In contrast, wet separation was found effective as a post-process for the finer fractions.

  5. Separation and enrichment of enantiopure from racemic compounds using magnetic levitation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaochuan; Wong, Shin Yee; Bwambok, David K; Atkinson, Manza B J; Zhang, Xi; Whitesides, George M; Myerson, Allan S

    2014-07-18

    Crystallization of a solution with high enantiomeric excess can generate a mixture of crystals of the desired enantiomer and the racemic compound. Using a mixture of S-/RS-ibuprofen crystals as a model, we demonstrated that magnetic levitation (MagLev) is a useful technique for analysis, separation and enantioenrichment of chiral/racemic products. PMID:24875274

  6. Two-dimensional plasma expansion in a magnetic nozzle: Separation due to electron inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Ahedo, Eduardo; Merino, Mario

    2012-08-15

    A previous axisymmetric model of the supersonic expansion of a collisionless, hot plasma in a divergent magnetic nozzle is extended here in order to include electron-inertia effects. Up to dominant order on all components of the electron velocity, electron momentum equations still reduce to three conservation laws. Electron inertia leads to outward electron separation from the magnetic streamtubes. The progressive plasma filling of the adjacent vacuum region is consistent with electron-inertia being part of finite electron Larmor radius effects, which increase downstream and eventually demagnetize the plasma. Current ambipolarity is not fulfilled and ion separation can be either outwards or inwards of magnetic streamtubes, depending on their magnetization. Electron separation penalizes slightly the plume efficiency and is larger for plasma beams injected with large pressure gradients. An alternative nonzero electron-inertia model [E. Hooper, J. Propul. Power 9, 757 (1993)] based on cold plasmas and current ambipolarity, which predicts inwards electron separation, is discussed critically. A possible competition of the gyroviscous force with electron-inertia effects is commented briefly.

  7. Cryo-planing of frozen-hydrated samples using cryo triple ion gun milling (CryoTIGM™).

    PubMed

    Chang, Irene Y T; Joester, Derk

    2015-12-01

    Cryo-SEM is a high throughput technique for imaging biological ultrastructure in its most pristine state, i.e. without chemical fixation, embedding, or drying. Freeze fracture is routinely used to prepare internal surfaces for cryo-SEM imaging. However, the propagation of the fracture plane is highly dependent on sample properties, and the resulting surface frequently shows substantial topography, which can complicate image analysis and interpretation. We have developed a broad ion beam milling technique, called cryogenic triple ion gun milling (CryoTIGM™ ['krī-ə-,tīm]), for cryo-planing frozen-hydrated biological specimens. Comparing sample preparation by CryoTIGM™ and freeze fracture in three model systems, Baker's yeast, mouse liver tissue, and whole sea urchin embryos, we find that CryoTIGM™ yields very large (∼700,000 μm(2)) and smooth sections that present ultrastructural details at similar or better quality than freeze-fractured samples. A particular strength of CryoTIGM™ is the ability to section samples with hard-soft contrast such as brittle calcite (CaCO3) spicules in the sea urchin embryo.

  8. Cryo-planing of frozen-hydrated samples using cryo triple ion gun milling (CryoTIGM™).

    PubMed

    Chang, Irene Y T; Joester, Derk

    2015-12-01

    Cryo-SEM is a high throughput technique for imaging biological ultrastructure in its most pristine state, i.e. without chemical fixation, embedding, or drying. Freeze fracture is routinely used to prepare internal surfaces for cryo-SEM imaging. However, the propagation of the fracture plane is highly dependent on sample properties, and the resulting surface frequently shows substantial topography, which can complicate image analysis and interpretation. We have developed a broad ion beam milling technique, called cryogenic triple ion gun milling (CryoTIGM™ ['krī-ə-,tīm]), for cryo-planing frozen-hydrated biological specimens. Comparing sample preparation by CryoTIGM™ and freeze fracture in three model systems, Baker's yeast, mouse liver tissue, and whole sea urchin embryos, we find that CryoTIGM™ yields very large (∼700,000 μm(2)) and smooth sections that present ultrastructural details at similar or better quality than freeze-fractured samples. A particular strength of CryoTIGM™ is the ability to section samples with hard-soft contrast such as brittle calcite (CaCO3) spicules in the sea urchin embryo. PMID:26549007

  9. Double-Layer Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Silica Particles for Efficient Bio-Separation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Homan; Cho, Hong-Jun; Park, Sung-Jun; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Sehoon; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) based nanomaterials have been exploited in various biotechnology fields including biomolecule separation. However, slow accumulation of Fe3O4 NPs by magnets may limit broad applications of Fe3O4 NP-based nanomaterials. In this study, we report fabrication of Fe3O4 NPs double-layered silica nanoparticles (DL MNPs) with a silica core and highly packed Fe3O4 NPs layers. The DL MNPs had a superparamagnetic property and efficient accumulation kinetics under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic field-exposed DL MNPs show quantitative accumulation, whereas Fe3O4 NPs single-layered silica nanoparticles (SL MNPs) and silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs produced a saturated plateau under full recovery of the NPs. DL MNPs are promising nanomaterials with great potential to separate and analyze biomolecules. PMID:26599084

  10. Double-Layer Magnetic Nanoparticle-Embedded Silica Particles for Efficient Bio-Separation.

    PubMed

    Kyeong, San; Jeong, Cheolhwan; Kang, Homan; Cho, Hong-Jun; Park, Sung-Jun; Yang, Jin-Kyoung; Kim, Sehoon; Kim, Hyung-Mo; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) based nanomaterials have been exploited in various biotechnology fields including biomolecule separation. However, slow accumulation of Fe3O4 NPs by magnets may limit broad applications of Fe3O4 NP-based nanomaterials. In this study, we report fabrication of Fe3O4 NPs double-layered silica nanoparticles (DL MNPs) with a silica core and highly packed Fe3O4 NPs layers. The DL MNPs had a superparamagnetic property and efficient accumulation kinetics under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the magnetic field-exposed DL MNPs show quantitative accumulation, whereas Fe3O4 NPs single-layered silica nanoparticles (SL MNPs) and silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs produced a saturated plateau under full recovery of the NPs. DL MNPs are promising nanomaterials with great potential to separate and analyze biomolecules. PMID:26599084

  11. Magnetic separation of Dy(III) ions from homogeneous aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pulko, B. Yang, X.; Lei, Z.; Odenbach, S.; Eckert, K.

    2014-12-08

    The possibility to enrich paramagnetic dysprosium(III) ions in a magnetic field gradient is proved by means of interferometry, which may open the route for a magnetic separation of rare earth ions from aqueous solutions. The separation dynamics are studied for three different concentrations of DyCl{sub 3} and compared with those found recently in a sulphate solution of the 3d ion Mn(II). In view of the similar-sized hydration spheres for Dy(III) and Mn(II), the slower separation dynamics in DyCl{sub 3} is attributed to both a higher densification coefficient and the strong impact of Brownian motion due to the absence of ion-pair clusters.

  12. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Ruegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; et al

    2015-09-08

    We report that the recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreasesmore » upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5≲ p ≲ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc3.2 as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.« less

  13. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs.

    PubMed

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A; Sefat, Athena S; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5 < or ~  p < or ~ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc(3.2) as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs. PMID:26346548

  14. Immunomagnetic separation of Salmonella with tailored magnetic micro and nanocarriers. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Delfina; Liébana, Susana; Campoy, Susana; Alegret, Salvador; Isabel Pividori, María

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses a comparative study of immunomagnetic separation of Salmonella using micro and nano-sized magnetic carriers. In this approach, nano (300 nm) and micro (2.8 μm) sized magnetic particles were modified with anti-Salmonella antibody to pre-concentrate the bacteria from the samples throughout an immunological reaction. The performance of the immunomagnetic separation on the different magnetic carriers was evaluated using classical culturing, confocal and scanning electron microscopy to study the binding pattern, as well as a magneto-actuated immunosensor with electrochemical read-out for the rapid detection of the bacteria in spiked milk samples. In this approach, a second polyclonal antibody labeled with peroxidase as electrochemical reporter was used. The magneto-actuated electrochemical immunosensor was able to clearly distinguish between food pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, showing a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 538 CFU mL(-1) and 291 CFU mL(-1) for magnetic micro and nanocarriers, respectively, in whole milk, although magnetic nanoparticles showed a noticeable higher matrix effect and higher agglomeration effect. These LODs were achieved in a total assay time of 1h without any previous culturing pre-enrichment step. If the samples were pre-enriched for 8 h, the magneto immunosensor based on the magnetic nanoparticles was able to detect as low as 1 CFU in 25 mL of milk (0.04 CFU mL(-1)). PMID:26078149

  15. Immunomagnetic separation of Salmonella with tailored magnetic micro and nanocarriers. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Delfina; Liébana, Susana; Campoy, Susana; Alegret, Salvador; Isabel Pividori, María

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses a comparative study of immunomagnetic separation of Salmonella using micro and nano-sized magnetic carriers. In this approach, nano (300 nm) and micro (2.8 μm) sized magnetic particles were modified with anti-Salmonella antibody to pre-concentrate the bacteria from the samples throughout an immunological reaction. The performance of the immunomagnetic separation on the different magnetic carriers was evaluated using classical culturing, confocal and scanning electron microscopy to study the binding pattern, as well as a magneto-actuated immunosensor with electrochemical read-out for the rapid detection of the bacteria in spiked milk samples. In this approach, a second polyclonal antibody labeled with peroxidase as electrochemical reporter was used. The magneto-actuated electrochemical immunosensor was able to clearly distinguish between food pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, showing a limit of detection (LOD) as low as 538 CFU mL(-1) and 291 CFU mL(-1) for magnetic micro and nanocarriers, respectively, in whole milk, although magnetic nanoparticles showed a noticeable higher matrix effect and higher agglomeration effect. These LODs were achieved in a total assay time of 1h without any previous culturing pre-enrichment step. If the samples were pre-enriched for 8 h, the magneto immunosensor based on the magnetic nanoparticles was able to detect as low as 1 CFU in 25 mL of milk (0.04 CFU mL(-1)).

  16. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    SciTech Connect

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Ruegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-09-08

    We report that the recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5≲ p ≲ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc3.2 as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.

  17. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    PubMed Central

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p  3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p  7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc  1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5  p  7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs. PMID:26346548

  18. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs.

    PubMed

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A; Sefat, Athena S; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-09-08

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p ≃ 3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p ≃ 7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc ≃ 1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5 < or ~  p < or ~ 7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with Tc(3.2) as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.

  19. Pressure-induced electronic phase separation of magnetism and superconductivity in CrAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanov, Rustem; Guguchia, Zurab; Eremin, Ilya; Luetkens, Hubertus; Amato, Alex; Biswas, Pabitra K.; Rüegg, Christian; Susner, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Zhigadlo, Nikolai D.; Morenzoni, Elvezio

    2015-09-01

    The recent discovery of pressure (p) induced superconductivity in the binary helimagnet CrAs has raised questions on how superconductivity emerges from the magnetic state and on the mechanism of the superconducting pairing. In the present work the suppression of magnetism and the occurrence of superconductivity in CrAs were studied by means of muon spin rotation. The magnetism remains bulk up to p  3.5 kbar while its volume fraction gradually decreases with increasing pressure until it vanishes at p  7 kbar. At 3.5 kbar superconductivity abruptly appears with its maximum Tc  1.2 K which decreases upon increasing the pressure. In the intermediate pressure region (3.5  p  7 kbar) the superconducting and the magnetic volume fractions are spatially phase separated and compete for phase volume. Our results indicate that the less conductive magnetic phase provides additional carriers (doping) to the superconducting parts of the CrAs sample thus leading to an increase of the transition temperature (Tc) and of the superfluid density (ρs). A scaling of ρs with as well as the phase separation between magnetism and superconductivity point to a conventional mechanism of the Cooper-pairing in CrAs.

  20. Magnetic materials as sorbents for metal/metalloid preconcentration and/or separation. A review.

    PubMed

    Giakisikli, Georgia; Anthemidis, Aristidis N

    2013-07-30

    The use of magnetic materials in solid phase extraction has received considerable attention in recent years taking into account many advantages arising from the inherent characteristics of magnetic particles. Magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) methodology overcomes problems such as column packing and phase separation, which can be easily performed by applying an external magnetic field. The use of magnetic particles in automatic systems is growing over the last few years making the on-line operation of MSPE a promising technique in the frame of green chemistry. This article aims to provide all recent progress in the research of novel magnetic materials as sorbents for metal preconcentration and determination coupled with different detection systems as well as their implementation in sequential injection and microfluidic systems. In addition, a description of preparation, characterization as well as applications of various types of magnetic materials, either with organic or inorganic coating of the magnetic core, is presented. Concluding remarks and future trends are also commented. PMID:23856225

  1. Measurement of the adhesion force between particles for high gradient magnetic separation of pneumatic conveyed powder products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkawa, K.; Nakai, Y.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2011-11-01

    In the industrial plants such as foods, medicines or industrial materials, there are big amount of issues on contamination by metallic wear debris originated from pipes of manufacturing lines. In this study, we developed a high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under the dry process by using superconducting magnet to remove the ferromagnetic particles. One of the major problems of dry HGMS systems is, however, the blockage of magnetic filter caused by particle coagulation or deposition. In order to actualize the magnetic separation without blockage, we introduced pneumatic conveyance system as a new method to feed the powder. It is important to increase the drag force acting on the sufficiently dispersed particles, which require strong magnetic fields. To generate the strong magnetic fields, HGMS technique was examined which consists of a magnetic filter and a superconducting solenoid magnet. As a result of the magnetic separation experiment, it was shown that the separation efficiency changes due to the difference of the cohesive property of the particles. On the basis of the result, the adhesion force which acts between the ferromagnetic particles and the medium particles used for the magnetic separation was measured by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and cohesion of particles was studied from the aspect of interparticle interaction. We assessed a suitable flow velocity for magnetic separation according to the cohesive property of each particle based on the result.

  2. Magnetic deep eutectic solvents molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective recognition and separation of protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanjin; Wang, Yuzhi; Dai, Qingzhou; Zhou, Yigang

    2016-09-14

    A novel and facile magnetic deep eutectic solvents (DES) molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective recognition and separation of Bovine hemoglobin (BHb) was prepared. The new-type DES was adopted as the functional monomer which would bring molecular imprinted technology to a new direction. The amounts of DES were optimized. The obtained magnetic DES-MIPs were characterized with fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), elemental analysis and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results suggested that the imprinted polymers were successfully formed and possessed a charming magnetism. The maximum adsorption capability (Qmax) and dissociation constant (KL) were analyzed by Langmuir isotherms (R(2) = 0.9983) and the value were estimated to be 175.44 mg/g and 0.035 mg/mL for the imprinted particles. And the imprinted particles showed a high imprinting factor of 4.77. In addition, the magnetic DES-MIPs presented outstanding recognition specificity and selectivity so that it can be utilized to separate template protein from the mixture of proteins and real samples. Last but not least, the combination of deep eutectic solvents and molecular imprinted technology in this paper provides a new perspective for the recognition and separation of proteins. PMID:27566352

  3. Cryo-electron tomography of bacterial viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo C.; Wright, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-05

    Bacteriophage particles contain both simple and complex macromolecular assemblages and machines that enable them to regulate the infection process under diverse environmental conditions with a broad range of bacterial hosts. Recent developments in cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) make it possible to observe the interactions of bacteriophages with their host cells under native-state conditions at unprecedented resolution and in three-dimensions. This review describes the application of cryo-ET to studies of bacteriophage attachment, genome ejection, assembly and egress. Current topics of investigation and future directions in the field are also discussed.

  4. Measurement of the magnetic interaction between two bound electrons of two separate ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Navon, Nir; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-06-01

    Electrons have an intrinsic, indivisible, magnetic dipole aligned with their internal angular momentum (spin). The magnetic interaction between two electronic spins can therefore impose a change in their orientation. Similar dipolar magnetic interactions exist between other spin systems and have been studied experimentally. Examples include the interaction between an electron and its nucleus and the interaction between several multi-electron spin complexes. The challenge in observing such interactions for two electrons is twofold. First, at the atomic scale, where the coupling is relatively large, it is often dominated by the much larger Coulomb exchange counterpart. Second, on scales that are substantially larger than the atomic, the magnetic coupling is very weak and can be well below the ambient magnetic noise. Here we report the measurement of the magnetic interaction between the two ground-state spin-1/2 valence electrons of two 88Sr+ ions, co-trapped in an electric Paul trap. We varied the ion separation, d, between 2.18 and 2.76 micrometres and measured the electrons' weak, millihertz-scale, magnetic interaction as a function of distance, in the presence of magnetic noise that was six orders of magnitude larger than the magnetic fields the electrons apply on each other. The cooperative spin dynamics was kept coherent for 15 seconds, during which spin entanglement was generated, as verified by a negative measured value of -0.16 for the swap entanglement witness. The sensitivity necessary for this measurement was provided by restricting the spin evolution to a decoherence-free subspace that is immune to collective magnetic field noise. Our measurements show a d-3.0(4) distance dependence for the coupling, consistent with the inverse-cube law.

  5. Dual magnetic-/temperature-responsive nanoparticles for microfluidic separations and assays.

    PubMed

    Lai, James J; Hoffman, John M; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Hoffman, Allan S; Estournès, Claude; Wattiaux, Alain; Stayton, Patrick S

    2007-06-19

    A stimuli-responsive magnetic nanoparticle system for diagnostic target capture and concentration has been developed for microfluidic lab card settings. Telechelic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) polymer chains were synthesized with dodecyl tails at one end and a reactive carboxylate at the opposite end by the reversible addition fragmentation transfer technique. These PNIPAAm chains self-associate into nanoscale micelles that were used as dimensional confinements to synthesize the magnetic nanoparticles. The resulting superparamagnetic nanoparticles exhibit a gamma-Fe2O3 core ( approximately 5 nm) with a layer of carboxylate-terminated PNIPAAm chains as a corona on the surface. The carboxylate group was used to functionalize the magnetic nanoparticles with biotin and subsequently with streptavidin. The functionalized magnetic nanoparticles can be reversibly aggregated in solution as the temperature is cycled through the PNIPAAm lower critical solution temperature (LCST). While the magnetophoretic mobility of the individual nanoparticles below the LCST is negligible, the aggregates formed above the LCST are large enough to respond to an applied magnetic field. The magnetic nanoparticles can associate with biotinylated targets as individual particles, and then subsequent application of a combined temperature increase and magnetic field can be used to magnetically separate the aggregated particles onto the poly(ethylene glycol)-modified polydimethylsiloxane channel walls of a microfluidic device. When the magnetic field is turned off and the temperature is reversed, the captured aggregates redisperse into the channel flow stream for further downstream processing. The dual magnetic- and temperature-responsive nanoparticles can thus be used as soluble reagents to capture diagnostic targets at a controlled time point and channel position. They can then be isolated and released after the nanoparticles have captured target molecules, overcoming the problem of low

  6. Separation Nanotechnology of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Bonded Magnetic Nanoparticles for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; Johnson, Andrew; Tian, Guoxin; Jiang, Weilin; Rao, Linfeng; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Qiang, You

    2013-01-01

    A nanomagnetic separation method based on Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is studied for application in spent nuclear fuel separation. The high affinity of DTPA towards actinides aids in separation from the highly acidic medium of nuclear waste. The solubility and magnetization of particles at low pH is protected by encapsulating them in silica layer. Surface functionalization of silica coated particles with polyamines enhances the loading capacity of the chelators on MNPs. The particles were characterized before and after surface modification using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), helium ion microscopy (HIM), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, and X-ray diffractometry. The coated and uncoated samples were studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to understand the change in magnetic properties due to the influence of the surface functionalization. The hydrodynamic size and surface charge of the particles are investigated using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The uptake behavior of Am(III), Pu(IV), U(VI), and Np(V) from 0.1M NaNO3 solution was investigated. The sorption result shows the strong affinity of DTPA towards Am(III) and Pu(IV) by extracting 97% and 80% of actinides, respectively. The high removal efficiency and fast uptake of actinides make the chelator conjugated MNPs an effective method for spent nuclear fuel separation.

  7. Separation of image-distortion sources and magnetic-field measurement in scanning electron microscope (SEM).

    PubMed

    Płuska, Mariusz; Czerwinski, Andrzej; Ratajczak, Jacek; Katcki, Jerzy; Oskwarek, Lukasz; Rak, Remigiusz

    2009-01-01

    The electron-microscope image distortion generated by electromagnetic interference (EMI) is an important problem for accurate imaging in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Available commercial solutions to this problem utilize sophisticated hardware for EMI detection and compensation. Their efficiency depends on the complexity of distortions influence on SEM system. Selection of a proper method for reduction of the distortions is crucial. The current investigations allowed for a separation of the distortions impact on several components of SEM system. A sum of signals from distortion sources causes wavy deformations of specimen shapes in SEM images. The separation of various reasons of the distortion is based on measurements of the periodic deformations of the images for different electron beam energies and working distances between the microscope final aperture and the specimen. Using the SEM images, a direct influence of alternating magnetic field on the electron beam was distinguished. Distortions of electric signals in the scanning block of SEM were also separated. The presented method separates the direct magnetic field influence on the electron beam below the SEM final aperture (in the chamber) from its influence above this aperture (in the electron column). It also allows for the measurement of magnetic field present inside the SEM chamber. The current investigations gave practical guidelines for selecting the most efficient solution for reduction of the distortions.

  8. Haloing in bimodal magnetic colloids: the role of field-induced phase separation.

    PubMed

    Magnet, C; Kuzhir, P; Bossis, G; Meunier, A; Suloeva, L; Zubarev, A

    2012-07-01

    If a suspension of magnetic micrometer-sized and nanosized particles is subjected to a homogeneous magnetic field, the nanoparticles are attracted to the microparticles and form thick anisotropic halos (clouds) around them. Such clouds can hinder the approach of microparticles and result in effective repulsion between them [M. T. López-López, A. Yu. Zubarev, and G. Bossis, Soft Matter 6, 4346 (2010)]. In this paper, we present detailed experimental and theoretical studies of nanoparticle concentration profiles and of the equilibrium shapes of nanoparticle clouds around a single magnetized microsphere, taking into account interactions between nanoparticles. We show that at a strong enough magnetic field, the ensemble of nanoparticles experiences a gas-liquid phase transition such that a dense liquid phase is condensed around the magnetic poles of a microsphere while a dilute gas phase occupies the rest of the suspension volume. Nanoparticle accumulation around a microsphere is governed by two dimensionless parameters--the initial nanoparticle concentration (φ(0)) and the magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio (α)--and the three accumulation regimes are mapped onto a α-φ(0) phase diagram. Our local thermodynamic equilibrium approach gives a semiquantitative agreement with the experiments on the equilibrium shapes of nanoparticle clouds. The results of this work could be useful for the development of the bimodal magnetorheological fluids and of the magnetic separation technologies used in bioanalysis and water purification systems.

  9. Haloing in bimodal magnetic colloids: The role of field-induced phase separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnet, C.; Kuzhir, P.; Bossis, G.; Meunier, A.; Suloeva, L.; Zubarev, A.

    2012-07-01

    If a suspension of magnetic micrometer-sized and nanosized particles is subjected to a homogeneous magnetic field, the nanoparticles are attracted to the microparticles and form thick anisotropic halos (clouds) around them. Such clouds can hinder the approach of microparticles and result in effective repulsion between them [M. T. López-López, A. Yu. Zubarev, and G. Bossis, Soft Matter10.1039/c0sm00261e 6, 4346 (2010)]. In this paper, we present detailed experimental and theoretical studies of nanoparticle concentration profiles and of the equilibrium shapes of nanoparticle clouds around a single magnetized microsphere, taking into account interactions between nanoparticles. We show that at a strong enough magnetic field, the ensemble of nanoparticles experiences a gas-liquid phase transition such that a dense liquid phase is condensed around the magnetic poles of a microsphere while a dilute gas phase occupies the rest of the suspension volume. Nanoparticle accumulation around a microsphere is governed by two dimensionless parameters—the initial nanoparticle concentration (φ0) and the magnetic-to-thermal energy ratio (α)—and the three accumulation regimes are mapped onto a α-φ0 phase diagram. Our local thermodynamic equilibrium approach gives a semiquantitative agreement with the experiments on the equilibrium shapes of nanoparticle clouds. The results of this work could be useful for the development of the bimodal magnetorheological fluids and of the magnetic separation technologies used in bioanalysis and water purification systems.

  10. Quantitative separation of bacteria in saline solution using lanthanide Er(III) and a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zborowski, M; Malchesky, P S; Jan, T F; Hall, G S

    1992-01-01

    A trivalent lanthanide ion, erbium (Er3+), has been used in combination with a magnetic separation technique to isolate seven bacterial species from suspensions in 0.9% saline. Erbium has an exceptionally high atomic magnetic moment of 9.3 Bohr magnetons, and following addition as ErCl3 (final concentration 5 mM) to bacterial suspensions, it imparts the magnetic moment to the bacterial cells by ionic binding to the cell surface. Strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were obtained from the Quality Control Depository of The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA as suspensions in 0.9% NaCl, in concentrations ranging from 10(2) to 10(8) c.f.u. ml-1. Bacteria were separated from solution inside a capillary flow cell exposed to a highly non-homogeneous magnetic field (maximum field intensity was 0.4 T) and quantified by a light scattering method. The quantity of cellular deposition in the magnetic field was correlated with the initial concentration of cells in the suspension, expressed in c.f.u. ml-1, and sample volume (1.5 and 3.0 ml), sample pH (prior to ErCl3 addition), affinity to Gram stain (negative vs positive) and species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Removal of malaria-infected red blood cells using magnetic cell separators: A computational study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongho; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F; Gandini, Alberto

    2012-02-15

    High gradient magnetic field separators have been widely used in a variety of biological applications. Recently, the use of magnetic separators to remove malaria-infected red blood cells (pRBCs) from blood circulation in patients with severe malaria has been proposed in a dialysis-like treatment. The capture efficiency of this process depends on many interrelated design variables and constraints such as magnetic pole array pitch, chamber height, and flow rate. In this paper, we model the malaria-infected RBCs (pRBCs) as paramagnetic particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid. Trajectories of the infected cells are numerically calculated inside a micro-channel exposed to a periodic magnetic field gradient. First-order stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the trajectory of particles under periodic magnetic fields due to an array of wires are solved numerically using the 1(st) -5(th) order adaptive step Runge-Kutta solver. The numerical experiments show that in order to achieve a capture efficiency of 99% for the pRBCs it is required to have a longer length than 80 mm; this implies that in principle, using optimization techniques the length could be adjusted, i.e., shortened to achieve 99% capture efficiency of the pRBCs. PMID:22345827

  12. Magnetic Field Separation Around Planets Using an Adjoint-Method Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabert, Christian; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Heyner, Daniel; Othmer, Carsten

    The two spacecraft of the BepiColombo mission will reach planet Mercury in 2022. The magnetometers on-board these polar orbiting spacecraft will provide a detailed map of the magnetic field in Mercury's environment. Unfortunately, a separation of the magnetic field into internal and external parts using the classical Gauss-algorithm is not possible due to strong electric currents in the orbit region of the spacecraft. These currents are due to the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury's planetary magnetic field. We use an MHD code to simulate this interaction process. This requires a first choice of Mercury's planetary field which is used and modified until the simulation results fit to the actual measurements. This optimization process is carried out most efficiently using an adjoint-method. The adjoint-method is well known for its low computational cost in order to determine sensitivities required for the minimization. In a first step, the validity of our approach to separate magnetic field contributions into internal and external parts is demonstrated using synthetic generated data. Furthermore, we apply our approach to satellite measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. We can compare the results with the well known planetary field of the Earth to prove practical suitability.

  13. Removal of malaria-infected red blood cells using magnetic cell separators: A computational study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongho; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F.; Gandini, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    High gradient magnetic field separators have been widely used in a variety of biological applications. Recently, the use of magnetic separators to remove malaria-infected red blood cells (pRBCs) from blood circulation in patients with severe malaria has been proposed in a dialysis-like treatment. The capture efficiency of this process depends on many interrelated design variables and constraints such as magnetic pole array pitch, chamber height, and flow rate. In this paper, we model the malaria-infected RBCs (pRBCs) as paramagnetic particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid. Trajectories of the infected cells are numerically calculated inside a micro-channel exposed to a periodic magnetic field gradient. First-order stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing the trajectory of particles under periodic magnetic fields due to an array of wires are solved numerically using the 1st –5th order adaptive step Runge-Kutta solver. The numerical experiments show that in order to achieve a capture efficiency of 99% for the pRBCs it is required to have a longer length than 80 mm; this implies that in principle, using optimization techniques the length could be adjusted, i.e., shortened to achieve 99% capture efficiency of the pRBCs. PMID:22345827

  14. Quantitative separation of bacteria in saline solution using lanthanide Er(III) and a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zborowski, M; Malchesky, P S; Jan, T F; Hall, G S

    1992-01-01

    A trivalent lanthanide ion, erbium (Er3+), has been used in combination with a magnetic separation technique to isolate seven bacterial species from suspensions in 0.9% saline. Erbium has an exceptionally high atomic magnetic moment of 9.3 Bohr magnetons, and following addition as ErCl3 (final concentration 5 mM) to bacterial suspensions, it imparts the magnetic moment to the bacterial cells by ionic binding to the cell surface. Strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were obtained from the Quality Control Depository of The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA as suspensions in 0.9% NaCl, in concentrations ranging from 10(2) to 10(8) c.f.u. ml-1. Bacteria were separated from solution inside a capillary flow cell exposed to a highly non-homogeneous magnetic field (maximum field intensity was 0.4 T) and quantified by a light scattering method. The quantity of cellular deposition in the magnetic field was correlated with the initial concentration of cells in the suspension, expressed in c.f.u. ml-1, and sample volume (1.5 and 3.0 ml), sample pH (prior to ErCl3 addition), affinity to Gram stain (negative vs positive) and species.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1556557

  15. Separation of true fat and water images by correcting magnetic field inhomogeneity in-situ

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, H.N.; Kormos, D.W.

    1986-06-01

    Dixon's method of chemical shift imaging of a two-component system is modified and extended without requiring additional imaging time. The modified method allows one to obtain truly segregated fat and water images of animal tissues. This is accomplished by acquiring additional image data from which information about in situ magnetic field inhomogeneity and bulk magnetic susceptibility can be derived. Applications to various anatomic sections of the normal human body are illustrated. The method is compared with the standard Dixon technique of chemical shift image separation.

  16. Magnetic Tilts and Polarity Separations in Sunspot Groups and Active Regions the Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, S. I.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    We present the analysis of magnetic tilts in active regions and sunspot groups for 1996-2005 that are automatically extracted from the Solar Feature Catalogues (http://solar.inf.brad.ac.uk ). We investigate the statistical variations of magnetic field tilt in sunspot groups and whole active regions, their longitudinal and latitudinal distributions, drifts and daily polarity separation during different phases of the solar cycle 23. The classification results are compared with the similar research for the previous cycles and the specifics on the cycle 23 is discussed in conjunction to the solar dynamo theory.

  17. Review and evaluation of extractants for strontium removal using magnetically assisted chemical separation

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, C.B.; Rogers, R.D.; Nunez, L.; Ziemer, M.D.; Pleune, T.T.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-11-01

    A literature review on extractants for strontium removal was initially performed at Northern Illinois University to assess their potential in magnetically assisted chemical separation. A series of potential strontium extractants was systematically evaluated there using radioanalytical methods. Initial experiments were designed to test the uptake of strontium from nitric acid using several samples of magnetic extractant particles that were coated with various crown ether ligands. High partition coefficient (K{sub d}) values for stimulant tank waste were obtained. Further studies demonstrated that the large partitioning was due to uncoated particles.

  18. Combined performance of biochar sorption and magnetic separation processes for treatment of chromium-contained electroplating wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-ye; Tang, Yan-kui; Li, Kun; Mo, Ya-yuan; Li, Hao-feng; Gu, Zhan-qi

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic biochar was prepared with eucalyptus leaf residue remained after essential oil being extracted. Batch experiments were conducted to examine the capacity of the magnetic biochar to remove Cr (VI) from electroplating wastewater and to be separated by an external magnetic field. The results show that the initial solution pH plays an important role on both sorption and separation. The removal rates of Cr (VI), total Cr, Cu (II), and Ni (II) were 97.11%, 97.63%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The turbidity of the sorption-treated solution was reduced to 21.8NTU from 4075NTU after 10min magnetic separation. The study also confirms that the magnetic biochar still retains the original magnetic separation performance after the sorption process.

  19. Combined performance of biochar sorption and magnetic separation processes for treatment of chromium-contained electroplating wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-ye; Tang, Yan-kui; Li, Kun; Mo, Ya-yuan; Li, Hao-feng; Gu, Zhan-qi

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic biochar was prepared with eucalyptus leaf residue remained after essential oil being extracted. Batch experiments were conducted to examine the capacity of the magnetic biochar to remove Cr (VI) from electroplating wastewater and to be separated by an external magnetic field. The results show that the initial solution pH plays an important role on both sorption and separation. The removal rates of Cr (VI), total Cr, Cu (II), and Ni (II) were 97.11%, 97.63%, 100% and 100%, respectively. The turbidity of the sorption-treated solution was reduced to 21.8NTU from 4075NTU after 10min magnetic separation. The study also confirms that the magnetic biochar still retains the original magnetic separation performance after the sorption process. PMID:25463783

  20. Cryo-Electron Tomography of Rubella Virus

    PubMed Central

    Battisti, Anthony J.; Yoder, Joshua D.; Plevka, Pavel; Winkler, Dennis C.; Mangala Prasad, Vidya; Kuhn, Richard J.; Frey, Teryl K.; Steven, Alasdair C.

    2012-01-01

    Rubella virus is the only member of the Rubivirus genus within the Togaviridae family and is the causative agent of the childhood disease known as rubella or German measles. Here, we report the use of cryo-electron tomography to examine the three-dimensional structure of rubella virions and compare their structure to that of Ross River virus, a togavirus belonging the genus Alphavirus. The ectodomains of the rubella virus glycoproteins, E1 and E2, are shown to be organized into extended rows of density, separated by 9 nm on the viral surface. We also show that the rubella virus nucleocapsid structure often forms a roughly spherical shell which lacks high density at its center. While many rubella virions are approximately spherical and have dimensions similar to that of the icosahedral Ross River virus, the present results indicate that rubella exhibits a large degree of pleomorphy. In addition, we used rotation function calculations and other analyses to show that approximately spherical rubella virions lack the icosahedral organization which characterizes Ross River and other alphaviruses. The present results indicate that the assembly mechanism of rubella virus, which has previously been shown to differ from that of the alphavirus assembly pathway, leads to an organization of the rubella virus structural proteins that is different from that of alphaviruses. PMID:22855483

  1. Cryo-comminution of plastic waste.

    PubMed

    Gente, Vincenzo; La Marca, Floriana; Lucci, Federica; Massacci, Paolo; Pani, Eleonora

    2004-01-01

    Recycling of plastics is a big issue in terms of environmental sustainability and of waste management. The development of proper technologies for plastic recycling is recognised as a priority. To achieve this aim, the technologies applied in mineral processing can be adapted to recycling systems. In particular, the improvement of comminution technologies is one of the main actions to improve the quality of recycled plastics. The aim of this work is to point out suitable comminution processes for different types of plastic waste. Laboratory comminution tests have been carried out under different conditions of temperature and sample pre-conditioning adopting as refrigerant agents CO2 and liquid nitrogen. The temperature has been monitored by thermocouples placed in the milling chamber. Also different internal mill screens have been adopted. A proper procedure has been set up in order to obtain a selective comminution and a size reduction suitable for further separation treatment. Tests have been performed on plastics coming from medical plastic waste and from a plant for spent lead batteries recycling. Results coming from different mill devices have been compared taking into consideration different indexes for representative size distributions. The results of the performed tests show as cryo-comminution improves the effectiveness of size reduction of plastics, promotes liberation of constituents and increases specific surface size of comminuted particles in comparison to a comminution process carried out at room temperature.

  2. D0 Cryo CC Heater Installation

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-03-16

    Nine pairs of heaters are installed in the bottom of the CC pressure vessel.The physical layout is shown in the CC internal development drawing, D0 dwg. 3740.510-ME-255523. Electrically the heater system is a delta configuration. Electrical details are found on D0 dwg. 3740.515EC-273761. The feedthrough connectors for power to the heaters are located in the instrumentation box. Connector positions are found on D0 dwg.3740.515-EC-273760. Original sketches for the above named drawings are included in this document. The heaters and wiring were cleaned various times prior to and after installation with ethyl a1chohol. At various stages in the installation hi-pot and continuity tests were successfully accomplished to verify the integrity of the system. The fmal hi-pot numbers are included in the documentation. The heaters and wiring are kept separated from thermometry and purity cell wiring by SS sheetmetal barriers. The fabrication, testing and installation was completed by M. Hentges and his crew from AD/Cryo.

  3. Electric arc furnace dust treatment: investigation on mechanical and magnetic separation methods.

    PubMed

    Sekula, R; Wnek, M; Selinger, A; Wróbel, M

    2001-08-01

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) is a major issue for processing technologies: Several million tons per year are generated, it contains both valuable and hazardous metals and yet no available treatment process has proven to be superior to all others. Processes currently applied or being developed are either of hydro- or pyrometallurgical type, which are very costly. In the paper testing of some physical separation methods of electric arc furnace dust from Polish steel industry were investigated. SEM, EDX analyses as well as grain size observations of dust particles were additionally performed. All investigations confirmed a possibility of effective magnetic and mechanical separation of EAFD particles.

  4. Magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance in strongly phase separated manganite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandpal, Lalit M.; Singh, Sandeep; Kumar, Pawan; Siwach, P. K.; Gupta, Anurag; Awana, V. P. S.; Singh, H. K.

    2016-06-01

    The present study reports the impact of magnetic anisotropy (MA) on magnetotransport properties such as the magnetic transitions, magnetic liquid behavior, glass transition and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) in epitaxial film (thickness 42 nm) of strongly phase separated manganite La5/8-yPryCa3/8MnO3 (y≈0.4). Angle dependent magnetization measurement confirms the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy with the magnetic easy axes aligned in the plane of the film and the magnetic hard axis along the normal to the film plane. The more prominent divergence between the zero filed cooled (ZFC) and field cooled warming (FCW) and the stronger hysteresis between the field cooled cooling (FCC) and FCW magnetization for H ∥ shows the weakening of the magnetic liquid along the magnetic hard axis. The peak at Tp≈42 K in FCW magnetization, which characterizes the onset of spin freezing shifts down to Tp≈18 K as the field direction is switched from the easy axes (H ∥) to the hard axis (H ⊥). The glass transition, which appears at Tg≈28 K for H ∥ disappears for H ⊥. The easy axis magnetization (M∣∣) appears to saturate around H~20 kOe, but the hard axis counterpart (M⊥) does not show such tendency even up to H=50 kOe. MA appears well above the ferromagnetic (FM) transition at T≈170 K, which is nearly the same as the Neel temperature (TN) of M⊥ - T . The temperature dependent resistivity measured at H=10 kOe applied along the easy axis (ρ|| - T) and the hard axis (ρ⊥ - T) shows insulator metal transition (IMT) at ≈106 K and ≈99 K in the cooling cycle, respectively. The large difference between ρ⊥ - T and ρ|| - T during the cooling cycle and in the vicinity of IMT results in huge AMR of ≈-142% and -115%. The observed properties have been explained in terms of the MA induced variation in the relative fraction of the coexisting magnetic phases.

  5. Tailored functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI, drug delivery, magnetic separation and immobilization of biosubstances.

    PubMed

    Hola, Katerina; Markova, Zdenka; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek

    2015-11-01

    In this critical review, we outline various covalent and non-covalent approaches for the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). Tuning the surface chemistry and design of magnetic nanoparticles are described in relation to their applicability in advanced medical technologies and biotechnologies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, targeted drug delivery, magnetic separations and immobilizations of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, targeting agents and other biosubstances. We review synthetic strategies for the controlled preparation of IONPs modified with frequently used functional groups including amine, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups as well as the preparation of IONPs functionalized with other species, e.g., epoxy, thiol, alkane, azide, and alkyne groups. Three main coupling strategies for linking IONPs with active agents are presented: (i) chemical modification of amine groups on the surface of IONPs, (ii) chemical modification of bioactive substances (e.g. with fluorescent dyes), and (iii) the activation of carboxyl groups mainly for enzyme immobilization. Applications for drug delivery using click chemistry linking or biodegradable bonds are compared to non-covalent methods based on polymer modified condensed magnetic nanoclusters. Among many challenges, we highlight the specific surface engineering allowing both therapeutic and diagnostic applications (theranostics) of IONPs and magnetic/metallic hybrid nanostructures possessing a huge potential in biocatalysis, green chemistry, magnetic bioseparations and bioimaging. PMID:25689073

  6. Tailored functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI, drug delivery, magnetic separation and immobilization of biosubstances.

    PubMed

    Hola, Katerina; Markova, Zdenka; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek

    2015-11-01

    In this critical review, we outline various covalent and non-covalent approaches for the functionalization of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). Tuning the surface chemistry and design of magnetic nanoparticles are described in relation to their applicability in advanced medical technologies and biotechnologies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, targeted drug delivery, magnetic separations and immobilizations of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, targeting agents and other biosubstances. We review synthetic strategies for the controlled preparation of IONPs modified with frequently used functional groups including amine, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups as well as the preparation of IONPs functionalized with other species, e.g., epoxy, thiol, alkane, azide, and alkyne groups. Three main coupling strategies for linking IONPs with active agents are presented: (i) chemical modification of amine groups on the surface of IONPs, (ii) chemical modification of bioactive substances (e.g. with fluorescent dyes), and (iii) the activation of carboxyl groups mainly for enzyme immobilization. Applications for drug delivery using click chemistry linking or biodegradable bonds are compared to non-covalent methods based on polymer modified condensed magnetic nanoclusters. Among many challenges, we highlight the specific surface engineering allowing both therapeutic and diagnostic applications (theranostics) of IONPs and magnetic/metallic hybrid nanostructures possessing a huge potential in biocatalysis, green chemistry, magnetic bioseparations and bioimaging.

  7. Design of microfluidic channels for magnetic separation of malaria-infected red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei-Tao; Martin, Andrea Blue; Gandini, Alberto; Aubry, Nadine; Massoudi, Mehrdad; Antaki, James F.

    2016-01-01

    This study is motivated by the development of a blood cell filtration device for removal of malaria-infected, parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs). The blood was modeled as a multi-component fluid using the computational fluid dynamics discrete element method (CFD-DEM), wherein plasma was treated as a Newtonian fluid and the red blood cells (RBCs) were modeled as soft-sphere solid particles which move under the influence of drag, collisions with other RBCs, and a magnetic force. The CFD-DEM model was first validated by a comparison with experimental data from Han et al. 2006 (Han and Frazier 2006) involving a microfluidic magnetophoretic separator for paramagnetic deoxygenated blood cells. The computational model was then applied to a parametric study of a parallel-plate separator having hematocrit of 40% with a 10% of the RBCs as pRBCs. Specifically, we investigated the hypothesis of introducing an upstream constriction to the channel to divert the magnetic cells within the near-wall layer where the magnetic force is greatest. Simulations compared the efficacy of various geometries upon the stratification efficiency of the pRBCs. For a channel with nominal height of 100 µm, the addition of an upstream constriction of 80% improved the proportion of pRBCs retained adjacent to the magnetic wall (separation efficiency) by almost 2 fold, from 26% to 49%. Further addition of a downstream diffuser reduced remixing, hence improved separation efficiency to 72%. The constriction introduced a greater pressure drop (from 17 to 495 Pa), which should be considered when scaling-up this design for a clinical-sized system. Overall, the advantages of this design include its ability to accommodate physiological hematocrit and high throughput – which is critical for clinical implementation as a blood-filtration system. PMID:27761107

  8. Rock Magnetic Mineral Assemblage in Mineral Separates from Xenoliths of Continental Lithospheric Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakhalova, E.; Feinberg, J. M.; Ionov, D. A.; Ferre, E. C.; Friedman, S. A.; Hernandez, F. M.; Neal, C. R.; Conder, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Studies of aeromagnetic anomalies suggest that the lithospheric mantle may contribute to long wavelength features. Examination of unaltered mantle xenoliths may reveal the mineralogical sources of these aeromagnetic anomalies. Prior work has reported microscopic inclusions of magnetic minerals in mantle silicates. Here we explore the magnetism of pure olivine, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and spinel separated from peridotite xenoliths from the Dariganga and Tariat localities in Mongolia that sample the lithospheric mantle. All separates were leached with HF and HCl to remove secondary minerals adhering to the surface of the grains or in cracks. Separates were then mounted in cement to create monomineralic specimens for investigation using hysteresis loops, first order reversal curves (FORC), alternating field and thermal demagnetization of a 1T IRM, and low-temperature magnetometry. All specimens showed trace concentrations of ferromagnetic inclusions with Ms values of ~10-3 Am2kg-1. Thermal demagnetization showed a range of unblocking temperatures with median destructive temperatures of 300-400°C. Two specimens showed a dramatic demagnetization at 585°C, consistent with pure magnetite (Mt). The presence of Mt was confirmed by observations of the Verwey transition at 100-120K and by backfield remanence acquisition curves that plateau at ~300 mT. The median destructive alternating field was ~20 mT and 40-80 mT for specimens from Dariganga and Tariat, respectively. FORC diagrams show single-domain-like behavior with a median Hc of ~20 mT. The demagnetization experiments suggest that Mt inclusions in the lattice of olivine, opx, cpx and spinel carry magnetic remanence. Thus, the lithospheric mantle may exhibit in-situ ferromagnetism carried by Mt below 585°C. The magnetization of separates varies between xenolith localities but is consistent amongst minerals of the same locality. Future work will address whether the Mt formed before or during xenolith ascent.

  9. Launch and Early Orbit Operations for CryoSat-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardel, Nic; Marchese, Franco

    2010-12-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched from Baikonur on 8th of April 2010 aboard a modified Dnepr ICBM, the so-called SS18 Satan. Following the ascent and separation from the launch vehicle the Flight Operations Segment (FOS) in ESOC, Darmstadt started the operations to configure the satellite into the correct mode to acquire science; switching on units, configuring software and ensuring that the satellite health and performance was as expected. This paper will describe the operations performed by the FOS during the first weeks in orbit, including the unexpected problems encountered, their implications and solutions.

  10. Antibody Conjugated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Cancer Cell Separation in Fresh Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hengyi; Aguilar, Zoraida P.; Yang, Lily; Kuang, Min; Duan, Hongwei; Xiong, Yonghua; Wei, Hua; Wang, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient process using iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (IO)-based immunomagnetic separation of tumor cells from fresh whole blood has been developed. The process involved polymer coated 30 nm IO that was modified with antibodies (Ab) against human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (anti-HER2 or anti-HER2/neu) forming IO-Ab. HER2 is a cell membrane protein that is over expressed in several types of human cancer cells. Using a HER2/neu over expressing human breast cancer cell line, SK-BR3, as a model cell, the IO-Ab was used to separate 73.6 % (with a maximum capture of 84%) of SK-BR3 cells that were spiked in 1 mL of fresh human whole blood. The IO-Ab preferentially bound to SK-BR3 cells over normal cells found in blood due to the high level of HER2/neu receptor on the cancer cells unlike the normal cell surfaces. The results showed that the nanosized magnetic nanoparticles exhibited an enrichment factor (cancer cells over normal cells) of 1:10,000,000 in a magnetic field (with gradient of 100 T/m) through the binding of IO-Ab on the cell surface that resulted in the preferential capture of the cancer cells. This research holds promise for efficient separation of circulating cancer cells in fresh whole blood. PMID:21920599

  11. Cesium separation from contaminated milk using magnetic particles containing crystalline silicotitantes.

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2000-11-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster in 1986 contaminated vast regions of prime grazing land. Subsequently, milk produced in the region has been contaminated with small amounts of the long-lived fission product cesium-137, and the Ukraine is seeking to deploy a simple separation process that will remove the Cs and preserve the nutritional value of the milk. Tiny magnetic particles containing crystalline silicotitanates (CST) have been manufactured and tested to this end. The results show that partitioning efficiency is optimized with low ratios of particle mass to volume. To achieve 90% Cs decontamination in a single-stage process, <3 g of magnetic CST per l milk is sufficient with a 30-min mixing time. A two-stage process would utilize <0.4 g/l per stage. The modeling of the magnetic CST system described herein can be achieved rather simply which is important for deployment in the affected Ukraine region.

  12. Recover vigorous cells of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 by capillary magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinhua; Ge, Xin; Zhang, Xiaokui; Chen, Guanjun; Pan, Yongxin

    2010-07-01

    Cultivable magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) in laboratory can provide sufficient samples for molecular microbiological and magnetic studies. However, a cold-stored MTB strain, such as Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1, often loses its ability to synthesize magnetosomes and consequently fails to sense the external magnetic field. It is therefore important to quickly recover vigorous bacteria cells that highly capable of magnetosome producing. In this study, a modified capillary magnetic separation system was designed to recover a deteriorating strain of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 that long-term cold-stored in a refrigerator. The results show that all cells obtained after a 3-cycle treatment were vigorous and had the ability to produce magnetosomes. Moreover, the 3rd-cycle recovered cells were able to form more magnetosome crystals. Compared with the colony formation method, this new method is time-saving, easily operated, and more efficient for recovering vigorous MTB cells.

  13. Separation of ferromagnetic components by analyzing the hysteresis loops of remanent magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosareva, L. R.; Utemov, E. V.; Nurgaliev, D. K.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Kosarev, V. E.; Yasonov, P. G.

    2015-09-01

    The new method is suggested for separating ferromagnetic components in sediments through analyzing the coercivity spectra of the samples by the continuous wavelet transform with the Gaussian-based wavelet (MHAT). A total of 1056 samples of Lake Khuvsgul's sediments (Mongolia) are studied. At least four groups of magnetic components are identified based on the analysis of their magnetization and remagnetization curves. Almost all samples are found to contain two components of bacterial origin which are represented by the assemblages of the interacting single-domain grains and differ by the grain compositions (magnetite and greigite). The applicability of the magnetic data for diagnosing magnetotactic bacteria in sediments and building paleoecological and paleoclimatic reconstructions is demonstrated.

  14. Temperature-Switchable Agglomeration of Magnetic Particles Designed for Continuous Separation Processes in Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Anja S; Heinzler, Raphael; Ooi, Huey Wen; Franzreb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this work was the synthesis and characterization of thermally switchable magnetic particles for use in biotechnological applications such as protein purification and enzymatic conversions. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization was employed to synthesize poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes via a "graft-from" approach on the surface of magnetic microparticles. The resulting particles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis and their temperature-dependent agglomeration behavior was assessed. The influence of several factors on particle agglomeration (pH, temperature, salt type, and particle concentration) was evaluated. The results showed that a low pH value (pH 3-4), a kosmotropic salt (ammonium sulfate), and a high particle concentration (4 g/L) resulted in improved agglomeration at elevated temperature (40 °C). Recycling of particles and reversibility of the temperature-switchable agglomeration were successfully demonstrated for ten heating-cooling cycles. Additionally, enhanced magnetic separation was observed for the modified particles. Ionic monomers were integrated into the polymer chain to create end-group functionalized particles as well as two- and three-block copolymer particles for protein binding. The adsorption of lactoferrin, bovine serum albumin, and lysozyme to these ion exchange particles was evaluated and showed a binding capacity of up to 135 mg/g. The dual-responsive particles combined magnetic and thermoresponsive properties for switchable agglomeration, easy separability, and efficient protein adsorption. PMID:26069936

  15. Temperature-Switchable Agglomeration of Magnetic Particles Designed for Continuous Separation Processes in Biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Anja S; Heinzler, Raphael; Ooi, Huey Wen; Franzreb, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this work was the synthesis and characterization of thermally switchable magnetic particles for use in biotechnological applications such as protein purification and enzymatic conversions. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization was employed to synthesize poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes via a "graft-from" approach on the surface of magnetic microparticles. The resulting particles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis and their temperature-dependent agglomeration behavior was assessed. The influence of several factors on particle agglomeration (pH, temperature, salt type, and particle concentration) was evaluated. The results showed that a low pH value (pH 3-4), a kosmotropic salt (ammonium sulfate), and a high particle concentration (4 g/L) resulted in improved agglomeration at elevated temperature (40 °C). Recycling of particles and reversibility of the temperature-switchable agglomeration were successfully demonstrated for ten heating-cooling cycles. Additionally, enhanced magnetic separation was observed for the modified particles. Ionic monomers were integrated into the polymer chain to create end-group functionalized particles as well as two- and three-block copolymer particles for protein binding. The adsorption of lactoferrin, bovine serum albumin, and lysozyme to these ion exchange particles was evaluated and showed a binding capacity of up to 135 mg/g. The dual-responsive particles combined magnetic and thermoresponsive properties for switchable agglomeration, easy separability, and efficient protein adsorption.

  16. Core-shell magnetic nanoparticles: a comparative study based on silica and polydopamine coating for magnetic bio-separation platforms.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ferat; Turan, Eylem; Tumturk, Hayrettin; Demirel, Gokhan

    2012-12-01

    Core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) offer tremendous opportunities in a large range of applications in biomedicine due to their superior magnetic properties, biocompatibility and suitability for modification. In most cases, these characteristic features are determined by their shell chemistry and morphology. Herein, we demonstrate a comparative study of silica and polydopamine (PDOP) coating onto MNP surfaces based on synthesis, characterization and usage in a bio-separation platform. It was found that monodispersed MNPs may be easily obtained on silica coating of varying shell thickness, whereas a continuous PDOP layer observed around the MNPs prevents the formation of the dispersed form. On the other hand, PDOP coated MNPs exhibited better superparamagnetic behavior and biological modification ability compared to the silica coated form. PMID:23050265

  17. Conjugates of magnetic nanoparticle-actinide specific chelator for radioactive waste separation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Zhang, Huijin; Martin, Leigh; Todd, Terry; Qiang, You

    2013-01-01

    A novel nanotechnology for the separation of radioactive waste that uses magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) conjugated with actinide specific chelators (MNP-Che) is reviewed with a focus on design and process development. The MNP-Che separation process is an effective way of separating heat generating minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) from spent nuclear fuel solution to reduce the radiological hazard. It utilizes coated MNPs to selectively adsorb the contaminants onto their surfaces, after which the loaded particles are collected using a magnetic field. The MNP-Che conjugates can be recycled by stripping contaminates into a separate, smaller volume of solution, and then become the final waste form for disposal after reusing number of times. Due to the highly selective chelators, this remediation method could be both simple and versatile while allowing the valuable actinides to be recovered and recycled. Key issues standing in the way of large-scale application are stability of the conjugates and their dispersion in solution to maintain their unique properties, especially large surface area, of MNPs. With substantial research progress made on MNPs and their surface functionalization, as well as development of environmentally benign chelators, this method could become very flexible and cost-effective for recycling used fuel. Finally, the development of this nanotechnology is summarized and its future direction is discussed.

  18. Conjugates of magnetic nanoparticle-actinide specific chelator for radioactive waste separation.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Zhang, Huijin; Martin, Leigh; Todd, Terry; Qiang, You

    2013-01-01

    A novel nanotechnology for the separation of radioactive waste that uses magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) conjugated with actinide specific chelators (MNP-Che) is reviewed with a focus on design and process development. The MNP-Che separation process is an effective way of separating heat generating minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) from spent nuclear fuel solution to reduce the radiological hazard. It utilizes coated MNPs to selectively adsorb the contaminants onto their surfaces, after which the loaded particles are collected using a magnetic field. The MNP-Che conjugates can be recycled by stripping contaminates into a separate, smaller volume of solution, and then become the final waste form for disposal after reusing number of times. Due to the highly selective chelators, this remediation method could be both simple and versatile while allowing the valuable actinides to be recovered and recycled. Key issues standing in the way of large-scale application are stability of the conjugates and their dispersion in solution to maintain their unique properties, especially large surface area, of MNPs. With substantial research progress made on MNPs and their surface functionalization, as well as development of environmentally benign chelators, this method could become very flexible and cost-effective for recycling used fuel. Finally, the development of this nanotechnology is summarized and its future direction is discussed. PMID:24070142

  19. Carboxyl modified magnetic nanoparticles coated open tubular column for capillary electrochromatographic separation of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentao; Xiao, Xing; Chen, Jia; Jia, Li

    2015-09-11

    Carboxyl modified magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-COOH MNPs) coated open tubular (OT) columns were prepared for capillary electrochromatography. The Fe3O4-COOH MNPs coatings were constructed on the surface of positively charged poly(diallydimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) modified capillaries through electrostatic self-assembly approach. The as-prepared PDDA@Fe3O4-COOH MNPs coated OT columns were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electroosmotic flow measurement. The electrochromatographic characterization of the OT columns was evaluated by separation of amino acids, dipeptides and proteins. The influences of background solution pH, concentration, and organic modifier content on separation were investigated. The separation of these analytes was primarily based on the electrophoretic mechanism in combination with chromatographic mechanism. The Fe3O4-COOH MNPs coatings improved the separation resolution of these analytes due to their large surface area. Three variants of bovine serum albumin, two variants of β-lactoglobulin and nine glycoisoforms of ovalbumin were successfully separated. The relative standard deviations of migration times of analytes representing run-to-run, day-to-day and column-to-column were less than 4.3%. Furthermore, the feasibility of the PDDA@Fe3O4-COOH MNPs coated OT column was verified by successful separation of acidic proteins in egg white. PMID:26265004

  20. A ferrofluid guided system for the rapid separation of the non-magnetic particles in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Asmatulu, R; Zhang, B; Nuraje, N

    2010-10-01

    A microfluidic device was fabricated via UV lithography technique to separate non-magnetic fluoresbrite carboxy microspheres (approximately 4.5 microm) in the pH 7 ferrofluids made of magnetite nanoparticles (approximately 10 nm). A mixture of microspheres and ferrofluid was injected to a lithographically developed Y shape microfluidic device, and then by applying the external magnet fields (0.45 T), the microspheres were clearly separated into different channels because of the magnetic force acting on those non-magnetic particles. During this study, various pumping speeds and particle concentrations associated with the various distances between the magnet and the microfluidic device were investigated for an efficient separation. This study may be useful for the separation of biological particles, which are very sensitive to pH value of the solutions. PMID:21137734

  1. Application of a Halbach magnetic array for long-range cell and particle separations in biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Joo H.; Driscoll, Harry; Super, Michael; Ingber, Donald E.

    2016-05-01

    Here, we describe a versatile application of a planar Halbach permanent magnet array for an efficient long-range magnetic separation of living cells and microparticles over distances up to 30 mm. A Halbach array was constructed from rectangular bar magnets using 3D-printed holders and compared to a conventional alternating array of identical magnets. We theoretically predicted the superiority of the Halbach array for a long-range magnetic separation and then experimentally validated that the Halbach configuration outperforms the alternating array for isolating magnetic microparticles or microparticle-bound bacterial cells at longer distances. Magnetophoretic velocities (ymag) of magnetic particles (7.9 μm diameter) induced by the Halbach array in a microfluidic device were significantly higher and extended over a larger area than those induced by the alternating magnet array (ymag = 178 versus 0 μm/s at 10 mm, respectively). When applied to 50 ml tubes (˜30 mm diameter), the Halbach array removed >95% of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cells bound with 1 μm magnetic particles compared to ˜70% removed using the alternating array. In addition, the Halbach array enabled manipulation of 1 μm magnetic beads in a deep 96-well plate for ELISA applications, which was not possible with the conventional magnet arrays. Our analysis demonstrates the utility of the Halbach array for the future design of devices for high-throughput magnetic separations of cells, molecules, and toxins.

  2. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases.

  3. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases.

    PubMed

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Rubinstein, John L

    2016-07-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases. PMID:27532044

  4. Cryo-EM studies of the structure and dynamics of vacuolar-type ATPases

    PubMed Central

    Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T.; Rubinstein, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) has significantly advanced our understanding of molecular structure in biology. Recent innovations in both hardware and software have made cryo-EM a viable alternative for targets that are not amenable to x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Cryo-EM has even become the method of choice in some situations where x-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are possible but where cryo-EM can determine structures at higher resolution or with less time or effort. Rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are crucial to the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. These enzymes couple the synthesis or hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to the use or production of a transmembrane electrochemical ion gradient, respectively. However, the membrane-embedded nature and conformational heterogeneity of intact rotary ATPases have prevented their high-resolution structural analysis to date. Recent application of cryo-EM methods to the different types of rotary ATPase has led to sudden advances in understanding the structure and function of these enzymes, revealing significant conformational heterogeneity and characteristic transmembrane α helices that are highly tilted with respect to the membrane. In this Review, we will discuss what has been learned recently about rotary ATPase structure and function, with a particular focus on the vacuolar-type ATPases. PMID:27532044

  5. Synergistic Effect of Detection and Separation for Pathogen Using Magnetic Clusters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Kook-Han; Kang, Eun Sung; Jo, Geoncheol; Ahn, Se Young; Park, Seon Hwa; Kim, Sung Il; Mun, Saem; Baek, Kyuwon; Kim, Byeongyoon; Lee, Kwangyeol; Yun, Wan Soo; Kim, Yong Ho

    2016-01-20

    Early diagnosis of infectious diseases is important for treatment; therefore, selective and rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria is essential for human health. We report a strategy for highly selective detection and rapid separation of pathogenic microorganisms using magnetic nanoparticle clusters. Our approach to develop probes for pathogenic bacteria, including Salmonella, is based on a theoretically optimized model for the size of clustered magnetic nanoparticles. The clusters were modified to provide enhanced aqueous solubility and versatile conjugation sites for antibody immobilization. The clusters with the desired magnetic property were then prepared at critical micelle concentration (CMC) by evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA). Two different types of target-specific antibodies for H- and O-antigens were incorporated on the cluster surface for selective binding to biological compartments of the flagella and cell body, respectively. For the two different specific binding properties, Salmonella were effectively captured with the O-antibody-coated polysorbate 80-coated magnetic nanoclusters (PCMNCs). The synergistic effect of combining selective targeting and the clustered magnetic probe leads to both selective and rapid detection of infectious pathogens. PMID:26710682

  6. Magnetic design and field optimization of a superferric dipole for the RISP fragment separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, A.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, D. G.; Jo, H. C.; Kim, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    The in-flight fragment separator of the Rare Isotope Science Project requires eight dipole magnets to produce a gap field of 1.7 T in a deflection sector of 30 degree with a 6-m central radius. If the beam-optics requirements are to be met, an integral field homogeneity of a few units (1 unit = 10-4) must be achieved. A superferric dipole magnet has been designed by using the Low-Temperature Superconducting wire NbTi and soft iron of grade SAE1010. The 3D magnetic design and field optimization have been performed using the Opera code. The length and the width of the air slots in the poles have been determined in an optimization process that considered not only the uniformity of the field in the straight section but also the field errors in the end regions. The field uniformity has also been studied for a range of operation of the dipole magnet from 0.4 T to 1.7 T. The magnetic design and field uniformity are discussed.

  7. Nanomagnetism of Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles and Application in Spent Nuclear Fuel Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarsem Singh, Maninder Kaur

    This dissertation presents the study on novel core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with unique magnetic properties. Understanding the fundamental physics of antiferromagnetic - ferromagnetic interactions is essential to apply in different applications. Chromium (Cr) doped and undoped core-shell iron/iron-oxide NPs have been synthesized using cluster deposition system and studied with respect to their nanostructures, morphologies, sizes, chemical composition and magnetic properties. The room-temperature magnetic properties of Fe based NPs shows the strong dependence of intra/inter-particle interaction on NP size. The Cr-doped Fe NP shows the origin of sigma-FeCr phase at very low Cr concentration (2 at.%) unlike others reported at high Cr content and interaction reversal from dipolar to exchange interaction. A theoretical model of watermelon is constructed based on the experimental results and core-shell NP system in order to explain the physics of exchange interaction in Cr-doped Fe particles. The magnetic nanoparticle---chelator separation nanotechnology is investigated for spent nuclear fuel recycling and is reported 97% and 80% of extraction for Am(III) and Pu(IV) actinides respectively. If the long-term heat generating actinides such as Am(III) can be efficiently removed from the used fuel raffinates, the volume of material that can be placed in a given amount of repository space can be significantly increased. As it is a simple, versatile, compact, and cost efficient process that minimizes secondary waste and improves storage performance.

  8. Removal and recycle of phosphate from treated water of sewage plants with zirconium ferrite adsorbent by high gradient magnetic separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, D.; Nishimura, K.; Miura, O.

    2009-03-01

    Zirconium ferrite particles are good adsorbent for phosphate ions. Magnetic separation characteristics for removal of phosphate from treated water of sewage plants with the adsorbent have been studied to prevent eutrophication of semi-enclosed bay, e.g. the bay of Tokyo. Based on the adsorption for the phosphate ions and ferromagnetic properties of the zirconium ferrite adsorbent, high gradient magnetic separation characteristics with using superconducting magnet was discussed. Very rapid magnetic filtration velocity, i.e. 1m/s, and regeneration properties of the adsorbent indicate that the zirconium ferrite is the excellent adsorbent for phosphorus removal and recycle from treated water of large scale sewage plants.

  9. Lipid-Based Immuno-Magnetic Separation of Archaea from a Mixed Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frickle, C. M.; Bailey, J.; Lloyd, K. G.; Shumaker, A.; Flood, B.

    2014-12-01

    Despite advancing techniques in microbiology, an estimated 98% of all microbial species on Earth have yet to be isolated in pure culture. Natural samples, once transferred to the lab, are commonly overgrown by "weed" species whose metabolic advantages enable them to monopolize available resources. Developing new methods for the isolation of thus-far uncultivable microorganisms would allow us to better understand their ecology, physiology and genetic potential. Physically separating target organisms from a mixed community is one approach that may allow enrichment and growth of the desired strain. Here we report on a novel method that uses known physiological variations between taxa, in this case membrane lipids, to segregate the desired organisms while keeping them alive and viable for reproduction. Magnetic antibodies bound to the molecule squalene, which is found in the cell membranes of certain archaea, but not bacteria, enable separation of archaea from bacteria in mixed samples. Viability of cells was tested by growing the separated fractions in batch culture. Efficacy and optimization of the antibody separation technique are being evaluated using qPCR and cell counts. Future work will apply this new separation technique to natural samples.

  10. 2D modeling and preliminary in vitro investigation of a prototype high gradient magnetic separator for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haitao; Kaminski, Michael D; Rosengart, Axel J

    2008-01-01

    High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) of magnetic materials from fluids or waste products has many established industrial applications. However, there is currently no technology employing HGMS for ex-vivo biomedical applications, such as for the removal of magnetic drug- or toxin-loaded spheres from the human blood stream. Importantly, human HGMS applications require special design modifications as, in contrast to conventional use where magnetic elements are permanently imbedded within the separation chambers, medical separators need to avoid direct contact between the magnetic materials and blood to reduce the risk of blood clotting and to facilitate convenient and safe treatment access for many individuals. We describe and investigate the performance of a magnetic separator prototype designed for biomedical applications. First, the capture efficiency of a prototype HGMS separator unit consisting of a short tubing segment and two opposing magnetizable fine wires along the outside of the tubing was investigated using 2D mathematical modeling. Second, the first-pass effectiveness to remove commercially available, magnetic polystyrene spheres from human blood using a single separator unit was experimentally verified. The theoretical and experimental data correlated well at low flow velocities (<5.0 cm/s) and high external magnetic fields (>0.05 T). This prototype separator unit removed >90% in a single pass of the magnetic spheres from water at mean flow velocity < or =8.0 cm/s and from blood mimic fluids (ethylene glycol-water solutions) at mean flow velocity < or =2.0 cm/s. In summary, we describe and prove the feasibility of a HGMS separator for biomedical applications.

  11. Accessible and green manufacturing of magnetite (ferrous ferric oxide) nanocrystals and their use in magnetic separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Cafer Tayyar

    This work describes the first size dependent magnetic separation in nanoscale. Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanocrystals of high quality and uniform size were synthesized with monodispersity below 10%. Magnetite nanocrystals of 4 nm to 33 nm (average diameter) were produced. Batch synthesis was shown to go up to 20 grams which is more than 10 times of a standard nanocrystal synthesis, without loosing the quality and monodispersity. Reactor design for mass (1 gram per hour) production of magnetite nanocrystals is reported for the first time. The cost of a kg of lab purity magnetite nanocrystals was shown to be 2600. A green synthesis that utilizes rust and edible oils was developed. The cost of a kg was brought down to 22. Size dependency of magnetism was shown in nanoscale for the first time. Reversible aggregation theory was developed to explain the low field magnetic separation and solution behavior of magnetite nanocrystals. Arsenic was removed from drinking water with magnetite nanocrystals 200 times better than commercial adsorbents. Silica coating was successfully applied to enable the known silica related biotechnologies. Magnetite-silica nanoshells were functionalized with amino groups. For the first time, silver was coated on the magnetite-silica nanoshells to produce triple multishells. Anti-microbial activity of multishells is anticipated.

  12. Effective antifouling using quorum-quenching acylase stabilized in magnetically-separable mesoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoungsoo; Yeon, Kyung-Min; Shim, Jongmin; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Jinwoo; Kim, Jungbae

    2014-04-14

    Highly effective antifouling was achieved by immobilizing and stabilizing an acylase, disrupting bacterial cell-to-cell communication, in the form of cross-linked enzymes in magnetically separable mesoporous silica. This so-called "quorum-quenching" acylase (AC) was adsorbed into spherical mesoporous silica (S-MPS) with magnetic nanoparticles (Mag-S-MPS), and further cross-linked for the preparation of nanoscale enzyme reactors of AC in Mag-S-MPS (NER-AC/Mag-S-MPS). NER-AC effectively stabilized the AC activity under rigorous shaking at 200 rpm for 1 month, while free and adsorbed AC lost more than 90% of their initial activities in the same condition within 1 and 10 days, respectively. When applied to the membrane filtration for advanced water treatment, NER-AC efficiently alleviated the biofilm maturation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 on the membrane surface, thereby enhancing the filtration performance by preventing membrane fouling. Highly stable and magnetically separable NER-AC, as an effective and sustainable antifouling material, has a great potential to be used in the membrane filtration for water reclamation.

  13. Three-dimensional modeling of a portable medical device for magnetic separation of particles from biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haitao; Bockenfeld, Danny; Rempfer, Dietmar; Kaminski, Michael D; Rosengart, Axel J

    2007-09-01

    A portable separator has been developed to quantitatively separate blood-borne magnetic spheres in potentially high-flow regimes for the human detoxification purpose. In the separator design, an array of biocompatible capillary tubing and magnetizable wires is immersed in an external magnetic field that is generated by two permanent magnets. The wires are magnetized and the high magnetic field gradient from the magnetized wires helps to collect blood-borne magnetic nano/micro-spheres from the blood flow. In this study, a 3D numerical model was created and the effect of tubing-wire configurations on the capture efficiency of the system was analyzed using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.3(R). The results showed that the configuration characterized by bi-directionally alternating wires and tubes was the best design with respect to the four starting configurations. Preliminary in vitro experiments verified the numerical predictions. The results helped us to optimize a prototype portable magnetic separator that is suitable for rapid sequestration of magnetic nano/micro-spheres from the human blood stream while accommodating necessary clinical boundary conditions.

  14. Three-dimensional modeling of a portable medical device for magnetic separation of particles from biological fluids.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Bockenfeld, D.; Rempfer, D.; Kaminski, M. D.; Rosengart, A. J.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Chicago; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    2007-09-07

    A portable separator has been developed to quantitatively separate blood-borne magnetic spheres in potentially high-flow regimes for the human detoxification purpose. In the separator design, an array of biocompatible capillary tubing and magnetizable wires is immersed in an external magnetic field that is generated by two permanent magnets. The wires are magnetized and the high magnetic field gradient from the magnetized wires helps to collect blood-borne magnetic nano/micro-spheres from the blood flow. In this study, a 3D numerical model was created and the effect of tubing-wire configurations on the capture efficiency of the system was analyzed using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.3{reg_sign}. The results showed that the configuration characterized by bi-directionally alternating wires and tubes was the best design with respect to the four starting configurations. Preliminary in vitro experiments verified the numerical predictions. The results helped us to optimize a prototype portable magnetic separator that is suitable for rapid sequestration of magnetic nano/micro-spheres from the human blood stream while accommodating necessary clinical boundary conditions.

  15. Cryo-Electron Tomography and Subtomogram Averaging.

    PubMed

    Wan, W; Briggs, J A G

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) allows 3D volumes to be reconstructed from a set of 2D projection images of a tilted biological sample. It allows densities to be resolved in 3D that would otherwise overlap in 2D projection images. Cryo-ET can be applied to resolve structural features in complex native environments, such as within the cell. Analogous to single-particle reconstruction in cryo-electron microscopy, structures present in multiple copies within tomograms can be extracted, aligned, and averaged, thus increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and resolution. This reconstruction approach, termed subtomogram averaging, can be used to determine protein structures in situ. It can also be applied to facilitate more conventional 2D image analysis approaches. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to cryo-ET and subtomogram averaging. We describe the overall workflow, including tomographic data collection, preprocessing, tomogram reconstruction, subtomogram alignment and averaging, classification, and postprocessing. We consider theoretical issues and practical considerations for each step in the workflow, along with descriptions of recent methodological advances and remaining limitations. PMID:27572733

  16. Cryo-Electron Tomography and Subtomogram Averaging.

    PubMed

    Wan, W; Briggs, J A G

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) allows 3D volumes to be reconstructed from a set of 2D projection images of a tilted biological sample. It allows densities to be resolved in 3D that would otherwise overlap in 2D projection images. Cryo-ET can be applied to resolve structural features in complex native environments, such as within the cell. Analogous to single-particle reconstruction in cryo-electron microscopy, structures present in multiple copies within tomograms can be extracted, aligned, and averaged, thus increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and resolution. This reconstruction approach, termed subtomogram averaging, can be used to determine protein structures in situ. It can also be applied to facilitate more conventional 2D image analysis approaches. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to cryo-ET and subtomogram averaging. We describe the overall workflow, including tomographic data collection, preprocessing, tomogram reconstruction, subtomogram alignment and averaging, classification, and postprocessing. We consider theoretical issues and practical considerations for each step in the workflow, along with descriptions of recent methodological advances and remaining limitations.

  17. Affinity Selection of Peptide Binders with Magnetic Beads via Organic Phase Separation (MOPS).

    PubMed

    Murai, Ryuichi; Nogi, Taiki; Tateoka, Komei; Sato, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new method for affinity selection of peptide binders for soluble protein targets using magnetic beads via organic phase separation (MOPS) from a phage display library. As a model target molecule, a mouse monoclonal antibody against human integrin α9β1 (Y9A2) immobilized onto protein G magnetic beads was incubated with a 15-mer or 20-mer random peptide phage-display library. The suspensions containing the phage-magnetic beads conjugates were then transferred onto the organic phase and centrifuged in order to recover the Y9A2 bound phage immobilized on the protein G magnetic beads in the lower organic phase. After three rounds of biopanning, we were able to isolate specific phage clones that could not be obtained by the conventional approach. Furthermore, this new approach was found to be highly effective for isolating phage-binders for Fc-fusion constructs; indeed, enrichment of specific phage-binders was observed after only the first panning cycle. Thus, MOPS can improve the selection of specific phage-binders for soluble protein targets mainly due to the removal of non-specific binders.

  18. Near-surface epigenetic magnetic indicators of buried hydrocarbons and separation of spurious signals

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, T.J.; O'Brien, D.P.; Bryan, J.G.; Shepherd, M.A.

    1986-05-01

    Significant geochemical alteration zones occurring over buried hydrocarbon deposits can be recognized and mapped by geophysical methods. The authors believe near-surface secondary magnetic minerals formed as a result of seeping hydrocarbons and associated compounds interacting with constituents of the overlying rocks. A new method is described to identify anomalous magnetic signatures associated with this mineralization, and to differentiate that signal from cultural interference and other surface shallow, and intermediate-depth geologic sources. Using low-altitude, high-sensitivity aeromagnetic data, the separation involves detailed spectral analysis, subsequent band-pass filtering, and analytic signal transformation of the filtered data. Depicted in contour form, the analytic signal minimizes spatial aliasing and allows us to map the areal distribution of subtle, near-surface anomalies related to probable epigenetic magnetic mineralization. This method is illustrated using data from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and Cook Inlet, Alaska, and from offshore Texas, where high-resolution seismic data support the aeromagnetic interpretation and suggest important structural controls. Correlations of published detailed gravimeter and low-altitude aeromagnetic data at the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, were coupled with interactive modeling studies. Except for the obvious extreme high wave-number spikes, cultural contamination cannot be responsible for the high wave-number signal there, and the epigenetic magnetic mineralization may be more extensive vertically than originally suggested.

  19. Solution for MEG inverse problem using Signal Space Separation and Magnetic Field Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitahara, Tadashi; Honda, Satoshi

    2011-06-01

    Magnetic Field Tomography (MFT) is a source localization method for Magnetoencephalography (MEG), a non-invasive method to observe the brain activity. MFT just requires the source to be a linear combination of lead fields that describe the distribution of the sensitivity of each sensor, while other commonly used MEG source localization methods such as equivalent current dipole (ECD) fitting or the beamformer require some more inappropriate assumptions. However, less requirements on the source results in a huge amount of computational load in MFT. In this paper, the reduction of the computational load for MFT was achieved by considering the coefficients of multipolar expansion as the measurements of virtual sensors. These coefficients are obtained by performing Signal Space Separation (SSS) in which the exclusion of external magnetic field generated by the external sensor arrays is enabled. Based on our simulation, the calculation time was reduced from 6 hours to about 10 seconds preserving the source localization ability.

  20. Magnetic-field-induced nematic-nematic phase separation and droplet formation in colloidal goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Pol, E.; Verhoeff, A. A.; Lupascu, A.; Diaconeasa, M. A.; Davidson, P.; Dozov, I.; Kuipers, B. W. M.; Thies-Weesie, D. M. E.; Vroege, G. J.

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrate the suitability of polarization microscopy to study the recently discovered (parallel) nematic-(perpendicular) nematic phase separation. This novel type of phase transition is induced by applying an external magnetic field to a nematic liquid crystal of boardlike colloidal goethite and is due to an interplay between the intrinsic magnetic properties of goethite and the collective effect of liquid crystal formation. It is shown that the intense ochre colour of goethite does not preclude the use of polarization microscopy and interference colours, and that dichroism can give valuable qualitative information on the nature of the phases, their anchoring and their sedimentation and order parameter profiles. We also apply these techniques to study 'nematic-nematic tactoids': nematic droplets sedimenting within a nematic medium with mutually perpendicular orientations.

  1. Magnetic-field-induced nematic-nematic phase separation and droplet formation in colloidal goethite.

    PubMed

    van den Pol, E; Verhoeff, A A; Lupascu, A; Diaconeasa, M A; Davidson, P; Dozov, I; Kuipers, B W M; Thies-Weesie, D M E; Vroege, G J

    2011-05-18

    We demonstrate the suitability of polarization microscopy to study the recently discovered (parallel) nematic-(perpendicular) nematic phase separation. This novel type of phase transition is induced by applying an external magnetic field to a nematic liquid crystal of boardlike colloidal goethite and is due to an interplay between the intrinsic magnetic properties of goethite and the collective effect of liquid crystal formation. It is shown that the intense ochre colour of goethite does not preclude the use of polarization microscopy and interference colours, and that dichroism can give valuable qualitative information on the nature of the phases, their anchoring and their sedimentation and order parameter profiles. We also apply these techniques to study 'nematic-nematic tactoids': nematic droplets sedimenting within a nematic medium with mutually perpendicular orientations. PMID:21525548

  2. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Catrin F.; Geroni, Gilles M.; Pirog, Antoine; Lloyd, David; Lees, Jonathan; Porch, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the "internet of things" is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.

  3. Novel polydopamine imprinting layers coated magnetic carbon nanotubes for specific separation of lysozyme from egg white.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruixia; Zhang, Lili; Hao, Yi; Cui, Xihui; Liu, Dechun; Zhang, Min; Tang, Yuhai

    2015-11-01

    Novel core-shell nanocomposites, consisting of magnetic carbon nanotubes (MCNTs) core surrounded by a thin polydopamine (PDA) imprinting shell for specific recognition of lysozyme (Lyz), were fabricated for the first time. The obtained products were characterized and the results showed that the PDA layer was successfully attached onto the surface of MCNTs and the corresponding thickness of imprinting layer was just about 10nm which could enable the template access the recognition cavities easily. The polymerization conditions and adsorption performance of the resultant nanomaterials were investigated in detail. The results indicated that the obtained imprinted polymers showed fast kinetic and high affinity towards Lyz and could be used to specifically separate Lyz from real egg white. In addition, the prepared materials had excellent stability and no obvious deterioration after five adsorption-regeneration cycles. Easy preparation, rapid separation, high binding capacity, and satisfactory selectivity for the template protein make this polymer attractive in biotechnology and biosensors.

  4. Formation and properties of magnetic chains for 100 nm nanoparticles used in separations of molecules and cells

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert J.; Hu, Wei; Fu, Cheryl Wong Po; Koh, Ai Leen; Gaster, Richard S.; Earhart, Christopher M.; Fu, Aihua; Heilshorn, Sarah C.; Sinclair, Robert; Wang, Shan X.

    2009-01-01

    Optical observations of 100 nm metallic magnetic nanoparticles are used to study their magnetic field induced self assembly. Chains with lengths of tens of microns are observed to form within minutes at nanoparticle concentrations of 1010 per mL. Chain rotation and magnetophoresis are readily observed, and SEM reveals that long chains are not simple single particle filaments. Similar chains are detected for several 100 nm commercial bio-separation nanoparticles. We demonstrate the staged magnetic condensation of different types of nanoparticles into composite structures and show that magnetic chains bind to immunomagnetically labeled cells, serving as temporary handles which allow novel magnetic cell manipulations. PMID:20161001

  5. Heterostructured magnetite-titanate nanosheets for prompt charge selective binding and magnetic separation of mixed proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qinhua; Lu, Zhufeng; Cao, Xuebo

    2014-02-01

    We reported the prompt charge selective binding and magnetic separation of mixed proteins by utilizing heterostructured Fe3O4-Na2Ti3O7 nanosheets. Fe3O4-Na2Ti3O7 nanosheets are found to combine a variety of structure and property merits, such as the increased interlayer galleries, exposed exchange sites, flexible framework, and magnetic manipulability. Probing the dissociation dynamics of Na(+) inside the nanosheets reveals that they possess remarkably enhanced Na(+) dissociation capability and the dissociation rate of Na(+) reaches 7.9×10(-)(6)mol g(-)(1)s(-)(1), much superior to titanate nanotubes. In model protein separation experiments, we utilize mixed proteins containing albumin and hemoglobin to assess Fe3O4-Na2Ti3O7 nanosheets. It is found that, by controlling the pH of the sample at 6, positively charged hemoglobin and negatively charged albumin are immediately separated (∼5s) by the nanosheets and the saturated loading capacity of hemoglobin on the nanosheets reaches 4.7±0.61g g(-)(1). Furthermore, hemoglobin bound to the nanosheets can be readily released after buffer wash and is not damaged, while the nanosheets are recyclable and maintain their high efficiency. The outstanding performance of Fe3O4-Na2Ti3O7 nanosheets in separating mixed proteins is attributed to the ultrafast Na(+) dissociation rate, flexible titanate framework, open geometry, and aqueous-like environment to stabilize proteins. These merits, together with the recyclability and cost effectiveness, should make Fe3O4-Na2Ti3O7 nanosheets ideal candidates for biological recognition, isolation, and purification under technologically useful conditions.

  6. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further.

  7. Processing of Cryo-EM Movie Data.

    PubMed

    Ripstein, Z A; Rubinstein, J L

    2016-01-01

    Direct detector device (DDD) cameras dramatically enhance the capabilities of electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) due to their improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) relative to other detectors. DDDs use semiconductor technology that allows micrographs to be recorded as movies rather than integrated individual exposures. Movies from DDDs improve cryo-EM in another, more surprising, way. DDD movies revealed beam-induced specimen movement as a major source of image degradation and provide a way to partially correct the problem by aligning frames or regions of frames to account for this specimen movement. In this chapter, we use a self-consistent mathematical notation to explain, compare, and contrast several of the most popular existing algorithms for computationally correcting specimen movement in DDD movies. We conclude by discussing future developments in algorithms for processing DDD movies that would extend the capabilities of cryo-EM even further. PMID:27572725

  8. Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

  9. Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

    1999-07-20

    A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

  10. Measuring Thermal Conductivity and Moisture Absorption of Cryo-Insulation Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    separate TPS and cryo-insulation materials, which are connected by means of adhesives or stand-offs (spacers). Three concepts are being considered: (1) the TPS is bonded directly to the cryo-insulation which, in turn, is bonded to the exterior of the tank, (2) stand-offs are used to make a gap between the TPS and the cryo-insulation, which is bonded externally to the tank, (3) TPS is applied directly or with stand-offs to the exterior so the tank, and cryo-insulation is applied directly to the interior of the tank. Many potential problems are inherent in these approaches. For example, mismatch between coefficients of thermal expansion of the TPS and cryo-insulation, as well as aerodynamic loads, could lead to failure of the bond. Internal cryo-insulation must be prevent from entering the sump of the fuel turbo-pump. The mechanical integrity of the stand-off structure (if used) must withstand multiple missions. During ground hold (i.e., prior to launch) moisture condensation must be minimized in the gap between the cryo-insulation and the TPS. The longer term solution requires the development of a single material to act as cryo- insulation during ground hold and as TPS during re-entry. Such a material minimizes complexity and weight while improving reliability and reducing cost.

  11. Adsorption mechanism of magnetically separable Fe3O4/graphene oxide hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Ke; Zhu, Chuanhe; Zhao, Ya; Wang, Leichao; Xie, Shan; Wang, Qun

    2015-11-01

    A reclaimable Fe3O4/graphene oxide (GO) magnetic hybrid was successfully synthesized via a facile one-pot polyol approach and employed as a recyclable adsorbent for Bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solutions. The maximum adsorption capacity (qm) of the Fe3O4/GO hybrid for BPA was 72.80 mg/g at 273 K. The kinetics of the adsorption process and the adsorption isotherm data were fitted using the Freundlich equation and a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results of the thermodynamic parameters ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG° showed that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Furthermore, the reusability of the samples was investigated, and the results indicated that the samples exhibited high stability. The magnetic characterization demonstrated that hybrids were superparamagnetic and could be recovered conveniently by magnetic separation. The strong π-π interaction was determined to be the predominant driving force behind the adsorption of BPA onto the Fe3O4/GO hybrid. Therefore, the Fe3O4/GO hybrid could be regarded as a potential adsorbent for wastewater treatment and purification processes.

  12. Easily separated silver nanoparticle-decorated magnetic graphene oxide: Synthesis and high antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huai-Zhi; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Gong, Ji-Lai; Ou, Xiao-Ming; Huan, Shuang-Yan

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated magnetic graphene oxide (MGO-Ag) was synthesized by doping silver and Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of GO, which was used as an antibacterial agent. MGO-Ag was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and magnetic property tests. It can be found that magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and nano-Ag was well dispersed on graphene oxide; and MGO-Ag exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Several factors were investigated to study the antibacterial effect of MGO-Ag, such as temperature, time, pH and bacterial concentration. We also found that MGO-Ag maintained high inactivation rates after use six times and can be separated easily after antibacterial process. Moreover, the antibacterial mechanism is discussed and the synergistic effect of GO, Fe3O4 nanoparticles and nano-Ag accounted for high inactivation of MGO-Ag. PMID:26994349

  13. Easily separated silver nanoparticle-decorated magnetic graphene oxide: Synthesis and high antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huai-Zhi; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Gong, Ji-Lai; Ou, Xiao-Ming; Huan, Shuang-Yan

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated magnetic graphene oxide (MGO-Ag) was synthesized by doping silver and Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of GO, which was used as an antibacterial agent. MGO-Ag was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and magnetic property tests. It can be found that magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and nano-Ag was well dispersed on graphene oxide; and MGO-Ag exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Several factors were investigated to study the antibacterial effect of MGO-Ag, such as temperature, time, pH and bacterial concentration. We also found that MGO-Ag maintained high inactivation rates after use six times and can be separated easily after antibacterial process. Moreover, the antibacterial mechanism is discussed and the synergistic effect of GO, Fe3O4 nanoparticles and nano-Ag accounted for high inactivation of MGO-Ag.

  14. Magnetic separation-based blood purification: a promising new approach for the removal of disease-causing compounds?

    PubMed

    Herrmann, I K; Schlegel, A A; Graf, R; Stark, W J; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies report promising results regarding extracorporeal magnetic separation-based blood purification for the rapid and selective removal of disease-causing compounds from whole blood. High molecular weight compounds, bacteria and cells can be eliminated from blood within minutes, hence offering novel treatment strategies for the management of intoxications and blood stream infections. However, risks associated with incomplete particle separation and the biological consequences of particles entering circulation remain largely unclear. This article discusses the promising future of magnetic separation-based purification while keeping important safety considerations in mind. PMID:26253109

  15. Magnetic separation-based blood purification: a promising new approach for the removal of disease-causing compounds?

    PubMed

    Herrmann, I K; Schlegel, A A; Graf, R; Stark, W J; Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies report promising results regarding extracorporeal magnetic separation-based blood purification for the rapid and selective removal of disease-causing compounds from whole blood. High molecular weight compounds, bacteria and cells can be eliminated from blood within minutes, hence offering novel treatment strategies for the management of intoxications and blood stream infections. However, risks associated with incomplete particle separation and the biological consequences of particles entering circulation remain largely unclear. This article discusses the promising future of magnetic separation-based purification while keeping important safety considerations in mind.

  16. Heterogeneous post-column immunoreaction detection using magnetized beads and a laboratory-constructed electromagnetic separator.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhe; Karnes, H Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The nature of immune reactors allows development of quantitative analytical methods that are highly selective and can often be used directly with complex biological matrixes such as blood, plasma or urine. A major limitation of immunoassay is that antibodies are sometimes unable to discriminate structurally similar species such as drug metabolites and synthetic analogs. The problem associated with the lack of discrimination can be circumvented by coupling immunoassay with liquid chromatography post-column. The most commonly used separation method in post-column immunoreaction detection is the affinity column. Affinity columns may create undesired effects such as a compromise of the chromatographic separation efficiency, the requirement for an antibody with fast reaction kinetics and the need for flushing the column. This paper reports a post-column immunoreaction detection system coupled with a laboratory-constructed on-line magnetic separation flow chamber that is designed to overcome these problems. The system uses disposable magnetic beads as a solid-phase support for separation that can be easily removed from the system. The model analytes chosen for this study were digoxin and its metabolites due to the commercial availability of monoclonal antibodies for these compounds. Digoxin was separated using a chromatographic method prior to being interfaced through a liquid handler system to the immunoreactor. Compatibility of the HPLC mobile phase was determined to be acceptable with a mixing ratio of 1:3 between the LC fraction and immunoreagent solution. The dynamic range of the calibration curve in digoxin-spiked phosphate buffer was found to be 0.25-12 ng/ml and a quadratic fit was found to provide the best fit to the data with a correlation coefficient of 0.9974. The residual error for all standards was less than 15%. The percentage RSDs for the two controls, 2 and 10 ng/ml, were 6.88 and 4.82% (n = 6) and the percentage errors were 7.07 and -6.89% (n = 6

  17. Upgrading of PVC rich wastes by magnetic density separation and hyperspectral imaging quality control.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Valentina; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Rem, Peter; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is one of the most produced polymers in Europe, with a share of 11% in terms of mass (8 milliontons) of total polymer consumption, but in 2010 only 5% of the total PVC production came from recycled materials, where other polymer recycling achieves a level of 15% on average. In order to find an innovative process to extract PVC from window frames waste, a combination of two innovative technologies was tested: magnetic density separation (MDS) and hyperspectral imaging (HSI). By its nature, MDS is a flexible high precision density separation technology that is applicable to any mixture of polymers and contaminants with non-overlapping densities. As PVC has a very distinctive high density, this technology was tested to obtain high-grade PVC pre-concentrates from window frame waste. HSI was used to perform a quality control of the products obtained by MDS showing that PVC was clearly discriminated from unwanted rubber particles of different colors. The results showed that the combined application of MDS and HSI techniques allowed to separate and to check the purity of PVC from window frame waste.

  18. Magnetic separation of encapsulated islet cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Esther; Trenkler, Anja; Feilen, Peter J; Wiegand, Frederik; Fottner, Christian; Ehrhart, Friederike; Zimmermann, Heiko; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Dong Yun; Fischer, Stefan; Schreiber, Laura M; Weber, Matthias M

    2013-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation is a promising option for the restoration of normal glucose homeostasis in patients with type 1 diabetes. Because graft volume is a crucial issue in islet transplantations for patients with diabetes, we evaluated a new method for increasing functional tissue yield in xenogeneic grafts of encapsulated islets. Islets were labeled with three different superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles (SPIONs; dextran-coated SPION, siloxane-coated SPION, and heparin-coated SPION). Magnetic separation was performed to separate encapsulated islets from the empty capsules, and cell viability and function were tested. Islets labeled with 1000 μg Fe/ml dextran-coated SPIONs experienced a 69.9% reduction in graft volume, with a 33.2% loss of islet-containing capsules. Islets labeled with 100 μg Fe/ml heparin-coated SPIONs showed a 46.4% reduction in graft volume, with a 4.5% loss of capsules containing islets. No purification could be achieved using siloxane-coated SPIONs due to its toxicity to the primary islets. SPION labeling of islets is useful for transplant purification during islet separation as well as in vivo imaging after transplantation. Furthermore, purification of encapsulated islets can also reduce the volume of the encapsulated islets without impairing their function by removing empty capsules.

  19. Glassy ferromagnetism and magnetic phase separation in La1-xSrxCoO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Leighton, C.

    2003-05-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive investigation of the dc magnetization, ac susceptibility, and magnetotransport properties of the glassy ferromagnet La1-xSrxCoO3. The compositions studied span the range from the end-member LaCoO3 (x=0.0) through to x=0.7. These materials have attracted attention recently, primarily due to the spin-state transition phenomena in LaCoO3 and the unusual nature of the magnetic ground state for finite x. In this paper we present a consistent picture of the magnetic behavior of La1-xSrxCoO3 in terms of short-range ferromagnetic ordering and intrinsic phase separation. At high Sr doping (x>0.2) the system exhibits unconventional ferromagnetism (with a Curie temperature up to 250 K), which is interpreted in terms of the coalescence of short-range-ordered ferromagnetic clusters. Brillouin function fits to the temperature dependence of the magnetization as well as high-temperature Curie-Weiss behavior suggest that the Co3+ and Co4+ ions are both in the intermediate spin state. At lower Sr doping (x<0.18) the system enters a mixed phase that displays the characteristics of both a spin glass and a ferromagnet. A cusp in the zero-field-cooled dc magnetization, a frequency-dependent peak in the ac susceptibility and time-dependent effects in both dc and ac magnetic properties all point towards glassy behavior. On the other hand, field cooling results in a relatively large ferromagneticlike moment, with zero-field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations bifurcating at an irreversibility point. Even in the region above x=0.2 the out-of-phase component of the ac susceptibility shows frequency-dependent peaks below the Curie temperature (indicative of glassy behavior) which have previously been interpreted in terms of the freezing of clusters. All of the results are consistent with the existence of a strong tendency towards magnetic phase separation in this material, a conclusion which is further reinforced by consideration of the electronic

  20. Separation of Plasmodium falciparum Late Stage-infected Erythrocytes by Magnetic Means

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Lorena Michelle; Tayler, Nicole Michelle; Correa, Ricardo; Giovani, Rita Marissa; Spadafora, Carmenza

    2013-01-01

    Unlike other Plasmodium species, P. falciparum can be cultured in the lab, which facilitates its study 1. While the parasitemia achieved can reach the ≈40% limit, the investigator usually keeps the percentage at around 10%. In many cases it is necessary to isolate the parasite-containing red blood cells (RBCs) from the uninfected ones, to enrich the culture and proceed with a given experiment. When P. falciparum infects the erythrocyte, the parasite degrades and feeds from haemoglobin 2, 3. However, the parasite must deal with a very toxic iron-containing haem moiety 4, 5. The parasite eludes its toxicity by transforming the haem into an inert crystal polymer called haemozoin 6, 7. This iron-containing molecule is stored in its food vacuole and the metal in it has an oxidative state which differs from the one in haem 8. The ferric state of iron in the haemozoin confers on it a paramagnetic property absent in uninfected erythrocytes. As the invading parasite reaches maturity, the content of haemozoin also increases 9, which bestows even more paramagnetism on the latest stages of P. falciparum inside the erythrocyte. Based on this paramagnetic property, the latest stages of P. falciparum infected-red blood cells can be separated by passing the culture through a column containing magnetic beads. These beads become magnetic when the columns containing them are placed on a magnet holder. Infected RBCs, due to their paramagnetism, will then be trapped inside the column, while the flow-through will contain, for the most part, uninfected erythrocytes and those containing early stages of the parasite. Here, we describe the methodology to enrich the population of late stage parasites with magnetic columns, which maintains good parasite viability 10. After performing this procedure, the unattached culture can be returned to an incubator to allow the remaining parasites to continue growing. PMID:23486405

  1. Wave-driven rotation and mass separation in rotating magnetic mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.

    Axisymmetric mirrors are attractive for fusion because of their simplicity, high plasma pressure at a given magnetic pressure, and steady state operation. Their subclass, rotating mirrors, are particularly interesting because they have increased parallel confinement, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and a natural heating mechanism. This thesis finds and explores an unusual effect in supersonically rotating plasmas: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. Extending the alpha channeling concept to rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field is a particularly simple way to achieve the latter effect. In the rotating frame, this perturbation is seen as a wave near the alpha particle cyclotron harmonic, and can break the azimuthal symmetry and magnetic moment conservation without changing the particles total energy. The particle may exit if it reduces its kinetic energy and becomes more trapped if it gains kinetic energy, leading to a steady state current that maintains the field. Simulations of single particles in rotating mirrors show that a stationary wave can extract enough energy from alpha particles for a reactor to be self-sustaining. In the same way, rotation can be produced in non-fusion plasmas. Waves are identified to produce rotation in plasma centrifuges, which separate isotopes based on their mass difference. Finally, a new high throughput mass filter which is well suited to separating nuclear waste is presented. The new filter, the magnetic centrifugal mass filter (MCMF), has well confined output streams and less potential for nuclear proliferation than competing technologies. To assess the usefulness of the

  2. Imaging endosomes and autophagosomes in whole mammalian cells using correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-soft X-ray microscopy (cryo-CLXM).

    PubMed

    Duke, Elizabeth M H; Razi, Minoo; Weston, Anne; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Henzler, Katja; Schneider, Gerd; Tooze, Sharon A; Collinson, Lucy M

    2014-08-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful imaging technique that can extract ultrastructural information from whole, unstained mammalian cells as close to the living state as possible. Subcellular organelles including the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria have been identified by morphology alone, due to the similarity in contrast to transmission electron micrographs. In this study, we used cryo-SXT to image endosomes and autophagosomes, organelles that are particularly susceptible to chemical fixation artefacts during sample preparation for electron microscopy. We used two approaches to identify these compartments. For early and recycling endosomes, which are accessible to externally-loaded markers, we used an anti-transferrin receptor antibody conjugated to 10nm gold particles. For autophagosomes, which are not accessible to externally-applied markers, we developed a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT workflow (cryo-CLXM) to localise GFP-LC3 and RFP-Atg9. We used a stand-alone cryo-fluorescence stage in the home laboratory to localise the cloned fluorophores, followed by cryo-soft X-ray tomography at the synchrotron to analyse cellular ultrastructure. We mapped the 3D ultrastructure of the endocytic and autophagic structures, and discovered clusters of omegasomes arising from 'hotspots' on the ER. Thus, immunogold markers and cryo-CLXM can be used to analyse cellular processes that are inaccessible using other imaging modalities.

  3. Imaging endosomes and autophagosomes in whole mammalian cells using correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-soft X-ray microscopy (cryo-CLXM)☆

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Elizabeth M.H.; Razi, Minoo; Weston, Anne; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Henzler, Katja; Schneider, Gerd; Tooze, Sharon A.; Collinson, Lucy M.

    2014-01-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful imaging technique that can extract ultrastructural information from whole, unstained mammalian cells as close to the living state as possible. Subcellular organelles including the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria have been identified by morphology alone, due to the similarity in contrast to transmission electron micrographs. In this study, we used cryo-SXT to image endosomes and autophagosomes, organelles that are particularly susceptible to chemical fixation artefacts during sample preparation for electron microscopy. We used two approaches to identify these compartments. For early and recycling endosomes, which are accessible to externally-loaded markers, we used an anti-transferrin receptor antibody conjugated to 10 nm gold particles. For autophagosomes, which are not accessible to externally-applied markers, we developed a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT workflow (cryo-CLXM) to localise GFP-LC3 and RFP-Atg9. We used a stand-alone cryo-fluorescence stage in the home laboratory to localise the cloned fluorophores, followed by cryo-soft X-ray tomography at the synchrotron to analyse cellular ultrastructure. We mapped the 3D ultrastructure of the endocytic and autophagic structures, and discovered clusters of omegasomes arising from ‘hotspots’ on the ER. Thus, immunogold markers and cryo-CLXM can be used to analyse cellular processes that are inaccessible using other imaging modalities. PMID:24238600

  4. Bio-inspired durable, superhydrophobic magnetic particles for oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Lili; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, superhydrophobic and superoleophilic microparticles with magnetic property were fabricated by combining the oxidation and self-polymerization of dopamine and formation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of the polydopamine (PDA) particles, followed by modification with low surface energy material. The modified PDA/Fe3O4 particles showed high water repellency with contact angle (CA) measured at 153.7±1.6° and high oil affinity. The superhydrophobic microparticles preserved high water CA after aging test, showing excellent durability. The microparticles were employed to effectively remove oil from water in different routes. Superhydrophobic sponge was prepared by modifying with the achieved microparticles. The sponge exhibited high absorption capability of oil, with weight gains ranging from 1348% to 7268%. The results suggest this work might provide a promising candidate for oily pollutants/water separation and transportation. PMID:26550784

  5. Research on high gradient magnetic separation of pneumatic conveyed powder products: Investigation from the viewpoint of interparticle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkawa, Kohei; Nakai, Yuki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-01-01

    The separation and removal of the metallic debris originating from pipe of manufacturing line are required in the manufacturing process of the fine particle products. In this study, we develop a high gradient magnetic separation system (HGMS) under a dry process by using a superconducting magnet to remove ferromagnetic particles such as the material stainless steel (SUS). To avoid the obstruction of the separation part by aggregation of the processed material, we develop a magnetic separation system using a pneumatic conveying as a new transportation method of the particles. The magnetic separations were experimented under the same conditions on different days, but the results were different. The reason is considered to be the difference in adhesion force between the particles due to a change of humidity, we have measured the adhesion forces between the ferromagnetic particles and the paramagnetic medium particles using AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) while changing the humidity. As a result, the adhesion force between the particles increased with the increasing of humidity. Furthermore, we saw that the effect of relative humidity was larger in the adhesion force of alumina with larger cohesive property. Based on these results, an appropriate condition of the separation experiment was clarified. And a dehumidification mechanism was introduced.

  6. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Cryo-worked Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettinali, Livio; Tosti, Silvano; Pizzuto, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    For manufacturing the magnets of fusion machines pure copper of both high mechanical resistance and electrical conductivity is required. Though high purity copper guarantees high electrical conductivity, its mechanical properties may be not suitable for the applications in tokamaks. In this view, a new procedure developed for obtaining high purity copper with excellent mechanical strength is described in this work. Samples of oxygen free copper (OFC) have been worked by pressing in liquid nitrogen (77 K). It has been verified that the mechanical properties of the worked metal are strongly dependent on the strain rate. Very low strain rates permitted to attain values of tensile yield strength (550 MPa) significantly higher than those obtained by traditional cold-working at room temperature (450 MPa). The electrical conductivity of the cryo-worked Cu decreases with the tensile yield strength even though the hardest samples of tensile yield strength of 550 MPa exhibit still acceptable values of conductivity (about 94 % IACS at room temperature).

  7. Tailoring transport properties of phase-separated manganite films with ordered magnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlaminck, V.; Yánez, W.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, A.; Niebieskikwiat, D.

    2016-08-01

    The magnetotransport properties of thin manganite films (La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 ) coupled with arrays of permalloy (Py) nanodots deposited on the surface of the film are studied as a function of temperature, magnetic field, and the size of the dots. In the presence of the magnetic dots, a reduction of the electrical resistivity is observed, especially at the insulator-to-metal transition, as well as a shift of the transition peak towards higher temperatures. This indicates that, due to local interface exchange coupling, highly conductive ferromagnetic domains are nucleated in the manganite film underneath the Py nanodots. The use of a simplified resistor network model allows us to estimate the size of the metallic regions induced by exchange coupling. At low temperatures, these regions extend ˜70 nm beyond the edge of the nanodots, a length scale comparable to the correlation length of the ferromagnetic clusters in the phase-separated state of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 .

  8. Recovery of metallic copper by integrated chemical reduction and high gradient magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wan-I; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Hong, Andy P K; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The recovery of metals from waste effluents is necessary for pollution prevention and sustainable practice. High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is seen as a viable method. We investigated the capture of valence copper from aqueous copper ion by HGMS in combination with a chemical reduction process. When a copper solution (3.9 or 15.6 mM) was exposed to excess of dithionite (mole ratio of 1:3) in the presence of ammonia (mole ratio of 4) and amended with MnCl2 (2.5 g/L) and the mixture passed through a flow reactor under a strong magnetic field (10000 Gauss), valence copper was obtained and captured in the reactor with well over 95% yields. The chemical reduction reactions were unaffected by the presence of MnCl2 while the amount of MnCl2 (0, 20 and 32 mM) has significantly varied the copper recovery efficiency, especially in the case of high initial copper ion concentration (15.6 mM). Formation of MnO2 flocs was found to have a detrimental effect on copper removal efficiency. The HGMS method offers a tool of resource recovery for copper from waste effluents.

  9. Templated synthesis of monodisperse mesoporous maghemite/silica microspheres for magnetic separation of genomic DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Shi, Ruobing; Xue, Yun; Chen, Lei; Wan, Qian-Hong

    2010-08-01

    A novel method is described for the preparation of superparamagnetic mesoporous maghemite (γ-Fe 2O 3)/silica (SiO 2) composite microspheres to allow rapid magnetic separation of DNA from biological samples. With magnetite (Fe 3O 4) and silica nanoparticles as starting materials, such microspheres were synthesized by the following two consecutive steps: (1) formation of monodispersed organic/inorganic hybrid microspheres through urea-formaldedyde (UF) polymerization and (2) removal of the organic template and phase transformation of Fe 3O 4 to γ-Fe 2O 3 by calcination at elevated temperatures. The as-synthesized particles obtained by heating at temperature 300 °C feature spherical shape and uniform particle size ( dparticle=1.72 μm), high saturation magnetization ( Ms=17.22 emu/g), superparamagnetism ( Mr/ Ms=0.023), high surface area ( SBET=240 m 2/g), and mesoporosity ( dpore=6.62 nm). The composite microsphere consists of interlocked amorphous SiO 2 nanoparticles, in which cubic γ-Fe 2O 3 nanocrystals are homogeneously dispersed and thermally stable against γ- to α-phase transformation at temperatures up to 600 °C. With the exposed iron oxide nanoparticles coated with a thin layer of silica shell, the magnetic microspheres were used as a solid-phase adsorbent for rapid extraction of genomic DNA from plant samples. The results show that the DNA templates isolated from pea and green pepper displayed single bands with molecular weights greater than 8 kb and A260/ A280 values of 1.60-1.72. The PCR amplification of a fragment encoding the endogenous chloroplast ndhB gene confirmed that the DNA templates obtained were inhibitor-free and amenable to sensitive amplification-based DNA technologies.

  10. A comparative analysis of the cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage methods

    SciTech Connect

    Petitpas, G; Benard, P; Klebanoff, L E; Xiao, J; Aceves, S M

    2014-07-01

    While conventional low-pressure LH₂ dewars have existed for decades, advanced methods of cryogenic hydrogen storage have recently been developed. These advanced methods are cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage, which operate best in the temperature range 30–100 K. We present a comparative analysis of both approaches for cryogenic hydrogen storage, examining how pressure and/or sorbent materials are used to effectively increase onboard H₂ density and dormancy. We start by reviewing some basic aspects of LH₂ properties and conventional means of storing it. From there we describe the cryo-compression and cryo-adsorption hydrogen storage methods, and then explore the relationship between them, clarifying the materials science and physics of the two approaches in trying to solve the same hydrogen storage task (~5–8 kg H₂, typical of light duty vehicles). Assuming that the balance of plant and the available volume for the storage system in the vehicle are identical for both approaches, the comparison focuses on how the respective storage capacities, vessel weight and dormancy vary as a function of temperature, pressure and type of cryo-adsorption material (especially, powder MOF-5 and MIL-101). By performing a comparative analysis, we clarify the science of each approach individually, identify the regimes where the attributes of each can be maximized, elucidate the properties of these systems during refueling, and probe the possible benefits of a combined “hybrid” system with both cryo-adsorption and cryo-compression phenomena operating at the same time. In addition the relationships found between onboard H₂ capacity, pressure vessel and/or sorbent mass and dormancy as a function of rated pressure, type of sorbent material and fueling conditions are useful as general designing guidelines in future engineering efforts using these two hydrogen storage approaches.

  11. The CryoCapsule: Simplifying correlative light to electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Heiligenstein, Xavier; Heiligenstein, Jérôme; Delevoye, Cédric; Hurbain, Ilse; Bardin, Sabine; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Sengmanivong, Lucie; Régnier, Gilles; Salamero, Jean; Antony, Claude; Raposo, Graca

    2014-01-01

    Correlating complementary multiple scale images of the same object is a straightforward means to decipher biological processes. Light and electron microscopy are the most commonly used imaging techniques, yet despite their complementarity, the experimental procedures available to correlate them are technically complex. We designed and manufactured a new device adapted to many biological specimens, the CryoCapsule, that simplifies the multiple sample preparation steps, which at present separate live cell fluorescence imaging from contextual high-resolution electron microscopy, thus opening new strategies for full correlative light to electron microscopy. We tested the biological application of this highly optimized tool on three different specimens: the in-vitro Xenopus laevis mitotic spindle, melanoma cells over-expressing YFP-langerin sequestered in organized membranous subcellular organelles and a pigmented melanocytic cell in which the endosomal system was labeled with internalized fluorescent transferrin. PMID:24533564

  12. Imaging protein three-dimensional nanocrystals with cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Nederlof, Igor; Li, Yao Wang; van Heel, Marin; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2013-05-01

    Flash-cooled three-dimensional crystals of the small protein lysozyme with a thickness of the order of 100 nm were imaged by 300 kV cryo-EM on a Falcon direct electron detector. The images were taken close to focus and to the eye appeared devoid of contrast. Fourier transforms of the images revealed the reciprocal lattice up to 3 Å resolution in favourable cases and up to 4 Å resolution for about half the crystals. The reciprocal-lattice spots showed structure, indicating that the ordering of the crystals was not uniform. Data processing revealed details at higher than 2 Å resolution and indicated the presence of multiple mosaic blocks within the crystal which could be separately processed. The prospects for full three-dimensional structure determination by electron imaging of protein three-dimensional nanocrystals are discussed. PMID:23633595

  13. Preliminary results of pre-combustion removal of mercury, arsenic, and selenium from coal by dry magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Oder, R.R.; Jamison, R.E.; Brandner, E.D.

    1999-07-01

    The authors report the results of preliminary measurements of pre-combustion separation of major metal oxides and trace elements from coal by dry magnetic separation. The measurements have been made as part of ETCi's development of MagMill{trademark} technology for removing mineral matter from coal at the pulverizer at the front end of a coal fired power plant. The technology is specific to separation of mercury, arsenic, and selenium because of their associations with iron pyrites in coal. Measurements were made on a suite of five Eastern US and five Illinois Basin bituminous rank coals prepared at 8 Mesh topsize and processed as 8 Mesh by zero fractions through a dry Para Trap Magnetic Separator. Measurements of major metals and trace elements were made on the feed coal, the magnetic refuse fraction and the magnetic clean coal product. The range of weight recoveries measured for 13 of the trace elements for the suite of coals indicates a significant potential for pre-combustion removal of trace elements and especially for mercury, selenium, and arsenic by dry magnetic methods. While these three elements are important because they are considered hazardous air pollutant precursors, pre-combustion removal of arsenic is especially important because of its role in poisoning catalysts used in emerging SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} control technologies.

  14. A rational design for the separation of metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes using a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chengzhi; Wan, Da; Jia, Junji; Li, Delong; Pan, Chunxu; Liao, Lei

    2016-06-01

    The separation of metallic (m-) and semiconducting (s-) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) without causing contamination and damage is a major challenge for SWNT-based devices. As a facile and nondestructive tool, the use of a magnetic field could be an ideal strategy to separate m-/s-SWNTs, based on the difference of magnetic susceptibilities. Here, we designed a novel magnetic field-assisted floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition system to separate m-/s-SWNTs. Briefly, m-SWNTs are attracted toward the magnetic pole, leaving s-SWNTs on the substrate. By using this strategy, s-SWNTs with a purity of 99% could be obtained, which is enough to construct high-performance transistors with a mobility of 230 cm2 V-1 s-1 and an on/off ratio of 106. We also established a model to quantitatively calculate the percentage of m-SWNTs on the substrate and this model shows a good match with the experimental data. Furthermore, our rational design also provides a new avenue for the growth of SWNTs with specific chirality and manipulated arrangement due to the difference of magnetic susceptibilities between different diameters, chiralities, and types.The separation of metallic (m-) and semiconducting (s-) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) without causing contamination and damage is a major challenge for SWNT-based devices. As a facile and nondestructive tool, the use of a magnetic field could be an ideal strategy to separate m-/s-SWNTs, based on the difference of magnetic susceptibilities. Here, we designed a novel magnetic field-assisted floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition system to separate m-/s-SWNTs. Briefly, m-SWNTs are attracted toward the magnetic pole, leaving s-SWNTs on the substrate. By using this strategy, s-SWNTs with a purity of 99% could be obtained, which is enough to construct high-performance transistors with a mobility of 230 cm2 V-1 s-1 and an on/off ratio of 106. We also established a model to quantitatively calculate the percentage of m

  15. Fabrication of chiral amino acid ionic liquid modified magnetic multifunctional nanospheres for centrifugal chiral chromatography separation of racemates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yating; Tian, Ailin; Wang, Xiong; Qi, Jing; Wang, Fengkang; Ma, Ying; Ito, Yoichiro; Wei, Yun

    2015-06-26

    As the rapid development of nanotechnology, the magnetic nanospheres modified with special chiral selective ligands show a great potentiality in enantiomeric separation. In this study, magnetic nanospheres modified with task-specific chiral ionic liquid were designed for the separation of chiral amino acids. These modified magnetic nanospheres were effective in a direct chiral separation of five racemic amino acids (D- and L-cysteine, D- and L-arginine, D- and L-leucine, D- and L-glutamine and D- and L-tryptophan). Furthermore, a new online method for complete separation of the enantiomers via the magnetic nanospheres was established with centrifugal chiral chromatography using a spiral tube assembly mounted on a type-J coil planet centrifuge. One kind of chiral compounds, D- and L-tryptophan was resolved well using this method. These results demonstrated that the modified nanospheres display a good chiral recognition ability, and can be used as a potential material for chiral separation of various racemates.

  16. Correlated cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy with high spatial precision and improved sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Schorb, Martin; Briggs, John A G

    2014-08-01

    Performing fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy on the same sample allows fluorescent signals to be used to identify and locate features of interest for subsequent imaging by electron microscopy. To carry out such correlative microscopy on vitrified samples appropriate for structural cryo-electron microscopy it is necessary to perform fluorescence microscopy at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Here we describe an adaptation of a cryo-light microscopy stage to permit use of high-numerical aperture objectives. This allows high-sensitivity and high-resolution fluorescence microscopy of vitrified samples. We describe and apply a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy workflow together with a fiducial bead-based image correlation procedure. This procedure allows us to locate fluorescent bacteriophages in cryo-electron microscopy images with an accuracy on the order of 50 nm, based on their fluorescent signal. It will allow the user to precisely and unambiguously identify and locate objects and events for subsequent high-resolution structural study, based on fluorescent signals.

  17. Imaging of magnetic colloids under the influence of magnetic field by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinsong; Aslam, M.; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2008-08-01

    The application of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under external ac magnetic field has attracted considerable research efforts in recent years. However, it is unclear how superparamagnetic nanostructures arrange themselves in fluidic environment under external magnetic field. Here, we report direct visualization of the effect of applied magnetic field to the ferrofluids (about 6 nm superparamagnetic magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticle "colloidal" suspension) using the cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). While long dipole chains (up to millimeter range) of the magnetite along the magnetic lines are found in samples dried inside the magnetic field, only short dipole chains (within tens of nanometer scale) with random orientations are observed in the wet sample observed by cryo-TEM. In the wet sample, aggregations of medium-length dipole chains (up to hundreds of nanometer) can be observed at the areas where the nanoparticles are "solidified" when phase separation occurs. In situ formation of flux-closure rings is observed at the edge where vitreous ice sublimes due to high-energy electron radiation that leaves magnetite nanoparticles isolated in the vacuum. Such observations may help elucidate the nature of magnetic field-induced assembly in fluidic environment as in the physiological aqueous conditions in MRI and related applications.

  18. Unified Data Resource for CryoEM

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    3D cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction methods are uniquely able to reveal structures of many important macromolecules and macromolecular complexes. EMDataBank.org, a joint effort of the Protein Data Bank in Europe (PDBe), the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB), and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI), is a “one-stop shop” resource for global deposition and retrieval of cryoEM map, model and associated metadata. The resource unifies public access to the two major EM Structural Data archives: EM Data Bank (EMDB) and Protein Data Bank (PDB), and facilitates use of EM structural data of macromolecules and macromolecular complexes by the wider scientific community. PMID:20888470

  19. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-17

    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  20. AMSD Reaction Structure Cryo Deformation Test Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Ron; Hraba, John; Thornton, Gary; Baker, Mark; Haight, Harlan; Hadaway, James; Blackwell, Lisa; Stahl, Phil (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The method developed for measuring both in-plane & out-of-plane cryo deformations of AMSD reaction structures at the XRCF will be presented. For in-plane measurements, a theodolite is used to track the positions of several (up to ten) targets on the reaction structure. For out-of-plane measurements, the Leica ADM is used to measure the change in distance to several (up to ten) corner cubes attached to the reaction structure.

  1. SIRTF cryo-optics technology plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, David D.

    1993-01-01

    A study was undertaken, early in 1992, to determine if a SIRTF class mission could be developed to allow the Observatory to be launched on an Atlas IIAS rather than the Titan IV/Centaur previously planned. The substantial mass reduction required to make that change resulted in a new set of requirements for science and a heightened interest in light weight optics. This paper addresses the rationale and plan for the Atlas SIRTF cryo-optics technology plan.

  2. D0 Cryo Instrument Air Backup System

    SciTech Connect

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-11-20

    The D0 instrument air system for cryo controls has an emergency backup supply of nitrogen gas. The backup system consists of a high pressure tube trailer (38 tubes - 2400 psig MAWP), piping, valves, regulators and pressure monitoring instrumentation. The trailer is located south of DAB alongside the LN{sub 2} Dewar. Fixed piping ties to the trailer with a flex-hose. The piping follows the cryo piping bridge entering the south wall of DAB. where it passes through the pipe chase and into the cryo pump room (Rm 315). The high pressure gas is regulated down to 90 psig before tying into the compressor supplied instrument air system. Check valves are installed at the tee for the primary air and the backup N{sub 2}. Normal operating pressure for instrument air is 100-120 psig. With the backup supply pressure set to 90 psig, 'emergency air' is supplied whenever primary air pressure falls below 90 psig. There are two additional, outside connections to the system: one is a connection for repumping the trailer after a minimum backup volume is reached and the other is an auxiliary flex-hose connection for another trailer. All manual valves at system connections will be locked closed when not in use. The system's maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is 2400 psi, which is the trailer MAWP. All piping and components have a minimum 2400 psi working pressure. Actual component working pressures are included in the component list.

  3. Antibody-based affinity cryo-EM grid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guimei; Li, Kunpeng; Jiang, Wen

    2016-05-01

    The Affinity Grid technique combines sample purification and cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM) grid preparation into a single step. Several types of affinity surfaces, including functionalized lipids monolayers, streptavidin 2D crystals, and covalently functionalized carbon surfaces have been reported. More recently, we presented a new affinity cryo-EM approach, cryo-SPIEM, which applies the traditional Solid Phase Immune Electron Microscopy (SPIEM) technique to cryo-EM. This approach significantly simplifies the preparation of affinity grids and directly works with native macromolecular complexes without need of target modifications. With wide availability of high affinity and high specificity antibodies, the antibody-based affinity grid would enable cryo-EM studies of the native samples directly from cell cultures, targets of low abundance, and unstable or short-lived intermediate states.

  4. Ultrasensitive detection of deltamethrin by immune magnetic nanoparticles separation coupled with surface plasmon resonance sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Li, Lei; Liu, You-Qian; Shi, Xing-Bo; Li, Wen-Jin; Yang, Yang; Mao, Lu-Gang

    2014-09-15

    Small molecules or analytes present in trace level are difficult to be detected directly using conventional surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor, due to its small changes in the refractive index induced by the binding of these analytes on the sensor surface. In this paper, a new approach that combines SPR sensor technology with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) assays is developed for directly detecting of deltamethrin in soybean. The Fe3O4 MNPs conjugated with antibodies specific to antigen serves as both labels for enhancing refractive index change due to the capture of target analyte, and "vehicles" for the rapid delivery of analyte from a sample solution to the sensor surface. Meanwhile, SPR direct detection format without Fe3O4 MNPs and gas chromatography (GC) analysis were conducted for detection of deltamethrin in soybean to demonstrate the amplification effect of Fe3O4 MNPs. A good linear relationship was obtained between SPR responses and deltamethrin concentrations over a range of 0.01-1 ng/mL with the lowest measurable concentration of 0.01 ng/mL. The results reveal that the detection sensitivity for deltamethrin was improved by 4 orders of magnitude compared with SPR direct detection format. The recovery of 95.5-119.8% was obtained in soybean. The excellent selectivity of the present biosensor is also confirmed by two kinds of pesticides (fenvalerate and atrazine) as controls. This magnetic separation and amplification strategy has great potential for detection of other small analytes in trace level concentration, with high selectivity and sensitivity by altering the target-analyte-capture agent labeled to the carboxyl-coated Fe3O4 MNPs.

  5. Physical and Structural Studies on the Cryo-cooling of Insulin Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelace, J.; Bellamy, H.; Snell, E. H.; Borgstahl, G.

    2003-01-01

    Reflection profiles were analyzed from microgravity-(mg) and earth-grown insulin crystals to measure mosaicity (h) and to reveal mosaic domain structure and composition. The effects of cryocooling on single and multi-domain crystals were compared. The effects of cryocooling on insulin structure were also re-examined. Microgravity crystals were larger, more homogeneous, and more perfect than earth crystals. Several mg crystals contained primarily a single mosaic domain with havg of 0.005deg. The earth crystals varied in quality and all contained multiple domains with havg of 0.031deg. Cryocooling caused a 43-fold increase in h for mg crystals (havg=0.217deg) and an %fold increase for earth crystals (havg=0.246deg). These results indicate that very well-ordered crystals are not completely protected from the stresses associated with cryocooling, especially when structural perturbations occur. However, there were differences in the reflection profiles. For multi-mosaic domain crystals, each domain individually broadened and separated from the other domains upon cryo-cooling. Cryo-cooling did not cause an increase in the number of domains. A crystal composed of a single domain retained this domain structure and the reflection profiles simply broadened. Therefore, an improved signal-to-noise ratio for each reflection was measured from cryo-cooled single domain crystals relative to cryo-cooled multi-domain crystals. This improved signal, along with the increase in crystal size, facilitated the measurement of the weaker high- resolution reflections. The observed broadening of reflection profiles indicates increased variation in unit cell dimensions which may be linked to cryo-cooling-associated structural changes and disorder.

  6. Magnetically separable nanocomposites with photocatalytic activity under visible light for the selective transformation of biomass-derived platform molecules

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel magnetically separable TiO2-guanidine-(Ni,Co)Fe2O4 nanomaterials were prepared and characterised by a series of techniques including XRD, SEM, TEM, N2 physisorption as well as XPS and subsequently tested for their photocatalytic activities in the selective transformation of...

  7. Metal organic framework derived magnetically separable 3-dimensional hierarchical Ni@C nanocomposites: Synthesis and adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yixuan; Qiang, Tingting; Ye, Ming; Ma, Qiuyang; Fang, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Design an effective absorbent that has high surface area, and perfect recyclable is imperative for pollution elimination. Herein, we report a facile two-step strategy to fabricate magnetically separable 3-dimensional (3D) hierarchical carbon-coated nickel (Ni@C) nanocomposites by calcinating nickel based metal organic framework (Ni3(OH)2(C8H4O4)2(H2O)4). SEM and TEM images illuminate that the nanocomposites were constructed by 8 nm nickel nanoparticle encapsulated in 3D flake like carbon. The specific surface area of the obtained nanocomposites is up to 120.38 m2 g-1. Room temperature magnetic measurement indicates the nanocomposites show soft magnetism property, which endows the nanocomposites with an ideal fast magnetic separable property. The maximum adsorption capacity of the nanocomposites for rhodamine B is 84.5 mg g-1. Furthermore, the nanocomposites also exhibit a high adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions. The adsorbent can be very easily separated from the solution by using a common magnet without exterior energy. The as-prepared Ni@C nanocomposites can apply in waste water treatment on a large-scale as a new adsorbent with high efficiency and excellent recyclability.

  8. A rational design for the separation of metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes using a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengzhi; Wan, Da; Jia, Junji; Li, Delong; Pan, Chunxu; Liao, Lei

    2016-07-14

    The separation of metallic (m-) and semiconducting (s-) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) without causing contamination and damage is a major challenge for SWNT-based devices. As a facile and nondestructive tool, the use of a magnetic field could be an ideal strategy to separate m-/s-SWNTs, based on the difference of magnetic susceptibilities. Here, we designed a novel magnetic field-assisted floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition system to separate m-/s-SWNTs. Briefly, m-SWNTs are attracted toward the magnetic pole, leaving s-SWNTs on the substrate. By using this strategy, s-SWNTs with a purity of 99% could be obtained, which is enough to construct high-performance transistors with a mobility of 230 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on/off ratio of 10(6). We also established a model to quantitatively calculate the percentage of m-SWNTs on the substrate and this model shows a good match with the experimental data. Furthermore, our rational design also provides a new avenue for the growth of SWNTs with specific chirality and manipulated arrangement due to the difference of magnetic susceptibilities between different diameters, chiralities, and types.

  9. Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaibu, B. S.; Reddy, M. L. P.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manchanda, V. K.

    2006-06-01

    In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In the present study, Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide) coated magnetic particles (cross-linked polyacrylamide and acrylic acid entrapping charcoal and iron oxide, 1:1:1, particle size=1-60 μm) are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. The effects of sorption kinetics, extractant and nitric acid concentrations on the uptake behaviour of metal ions were systematically studied. The influence of fission products (Cs(I), Sr(II)) and interfering ions including Fe(III), Cr(VI), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) were investigated. The recycling capacity of the extractant-coated magnetic particles was also evaluated.

  10. A rational design for the separation of metallic and semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes using a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengzhi; Wan, Da; Jia, Junji; Li, Delong; Pan, Chunxu; Liao, Lei

    2016-07-14

    The separation of metallic (m-) and semiconducting (s-) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) without causing contamination and damage is a major challenge for SWNT-based devices. As a facile and nondestructive tool, the use of a magnetic field could be an ideal strategy to separate m-/s-SWNTs, based on the difference of magnetic susceptibilities. Here, we designed a novel magnetic field-assisted floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition system to separate m-/s-SWNTs. Briefly, m-SWNTs are attracted toward the magnetic pole, leaving s-SWNTs on the substrate. By using this strategy, s-SWNTs with a purity of 99% could be obtained, which is enough to construct high-performance transistors with a mobility of 230 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and an on/off ratio of 10(6). We also established a model to quantitatively calculate the percentage of m-SWNTs on the substrate and this model shows a good match with the experimental data. Furthermore, our rational design also provides a new avenue for the growth of SWNTs with specific chirality and manipulated arrangement due to the difference of magnetic susceptibilities between different diameters, chiralities, and types. PMID:27315328

  11. Processing of Structurally Heterogeneous Cryo-EM Data in RELION.

    PubMed

    Scheres, S H W

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes algorithmic advances in the RELION software, and how these are used in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination. Since the presence of projections of different three-dimensional structures in the dataset probably represents the biggest challenge in cryo-EM data processing, special emphasis is placed on how to deal with structurally heterogeneous datasets. As such, this chapter aims to be of practical help to those who wish to use RELION in their cryo-EM structure determination efforts. PMID:27572726

  12. Correlated cryogenic photoactivated localization microscopy and cryo-electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Wei; Chen, Songye; Tocheva, Elitza I; Treuner-Lange, Anke; Löbach, Stephanie; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Jensen, Grant J

    2014-07-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (CET) produces three-dimensional images of cells in a near-native state at macromolecular resolution, but identifying structures of interest can be challenging. Here we describe a correlated cryo-PALM (photoactivated localization microscopy)-CET method for localizing objects within cryo-tomograms to beyond the diffraction limit of the light microscope. Using cryo-PALM-CET, we identified multiple and new conformations of the dynamic type VI secretion system in the crowded interior of Myxococcus xanthus.

  13. Processing of Structurally Heterogeneous Cryo-EM Data in RELION.

    PubMed

    Scheres, S H W

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes algorithmic advances in the RELION software, and how these are used in high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure determination. Since the presence of projections of different three-dimensional structures in the dataset probably represents the biggest challenge in cryo-EM data processing, special emphasis is placed on how to deal with structurally heterogeneous datasets. As such, this chapter aims to be of practical help to those who wish to use RELION in their cryo-EM structure determination efforts.

  14. Environmental friendly crush-magnetic separation technology for recycling metal-plated plastics from end-of-life vehicles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-03-01

    Metal-plated plastics (MPP), which are important from the standpoint of aesthetics or even performance, are increasingly employed in a wide variety of situations in the automotive industry. Serious environmental problems will be caused if they are not treated appropriately. Therefore, recycling of MPP is an important subject not only for resource recycling but also for environmental protection. This work represents a novel attempt to deal with the MPP. A self-designed hammer crusher was used to liberate coatings from the plastic substrate. The size distribution of particles was analyzed and described by the Rosin-Rammler function model. The optimum retaining time of materials in the crusher is 3 min. By this time, the liberation rate of the materials can reach 87.3%. When the density of the suspension is 31,250 g/m(3), the performance of liberation is the best. Two-step magnetic separation was adopted to avoid excessive crushing and to guarantee the quality of products. Concerning both the separation efficiency and grade of products, the optimum rotational speed of the magnetic separator is 50-70 rpm. On the basis of the above studies about the liberating and separating behavior of the materials, a continuous recycling system (the technology of crush-magnetic separation) is developed. This recycling system provides a feasible method for recycling MPP efficiently, economically, and environmentally. PMID:22304328

  15. Environmental friendly crush-magnetic separation technology for recycling metal-plated plastics from end-of-life vehicles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-03-01

    Metal-plated plastics (MPP), which are important from the standpoint of aesthetics or even performance, are increasingly employed in a wide variety of situations in the automotive industry. Serious environmental problems will be caused if they are not treated appropriately. Therefore, recycling of MPP is an important subject not only for resource recycling but also for environmental protection. This work represents a novel attempt to deal with the MPP. A self-designed hammer crusher was used to liberate coatings from the plastic substrate. The size distribution of particles was analyzed and described by the Rosin-Rammler function model. The optimum retaining time of materials in the crusher is 3 min. By this time, the liberation rate of the materials can reach 87.3%. When the density of the suspension is 31,250 g/m(3), the performance of liberation is the best. Two-step magnetic separation was adopted to avoid excessive crushing and to guarantee the quality of products. Concerning both the separation efficiency and grade of products, the optimum rotational speed of the magnetic separator is 50-70 rpm. On the basis of the above studies about the liberating and separating behavior of the materials, a continuous recycling system (the technology of crush-magnetic separation) is developed. This recycling system provides a feasible method for recycling MPP efficiently, economically, and environmentally.

  16. The magnetic field induced phase separation in a model of a superconductor with local electron pairing.

    PubMed

    Kapcia, Konrad; Robaszkiewicz, Stanisław

    2013-02-13

    We have studied the extended Hubbard model with pair hopping in the atomic limit for arbitrary electron density and chemical potential and focus on paramagnetic effects of the external magnetic field. The Hamiltonian considered consists of (i) the effective on-site interaction U and (ii) the intersite charge exchange interactions I, determining the hopping of electron pairs between nearest-neighbour sites. The phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of this model have been determined within the variational approach (VA), which treats the on-site interaction term exactly and the intersite interactions within the mean-field approximation. Our investigation of the general case shows that the system can exhibit not only the homogeneous phases-superconducting (SS) and non-ordered (NO)-but also the phase separated states (PS: SS-NO). Depending on the values of interaction parameters, the PS state can occur in higher fields than the SS phase (field induced PS). Some ground state results beyond the VA are also presented. PMID:23334285

  17. Chemical interferences when using high gradient magnetic separation for phosphate removal: consequences for lake restoration.

    PubMed

    de Vicente, I; Merino-Martos, A; Guerrero, F; Amores, V; de Vicente, J

    2011-09-15

    A promising method for lake restoration is the treatment of lake inlets through the specific adsorption of phosphate (P) on strongly magnetizable particles (Fe) and their subsequent removal using in-flow high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) techniques. In this work, we report an extensive investigation on the chemical interferences affecting P removal efficiencies in natural waters from 20 Mediterranean ponds and reservoirs. A set of three treatments were considered based on different Fe particles/P concentration ratios. High P removal efficiencies (>80%) were found in freshwater lakes (conductivities<600 μ S cm(-1)). However, a significant reduction in P removal was observed for extremely high mineralized waters. Correlation analysis showed that major cations (Mg(2+), Na(+) and K(+)) and anions (SO(4)(2-) and Cl(-)) played an essential role in P removal efficiency. Comparison between different treatments have shown that when increasing P and Fe concentrations at the same rate or when increasing Fe concentrations for a fixed P concentration, there exist systematic reductions in the slope of the regression lines relating P removal efficiency and the concentration of different chemical variables. These results evidence a general reduction in the chemical competition between P and other ions for adsorption sites on Fe particles. Additional analyses also revealed a reduction in water color, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and reactive silicate (Si) concentrations with the addition of Fe microparticles.

  18. Utility of magnetic cell separation as a molecular sperm preparation technique.

    PubMed

    Said, Tamer M; Agarwal, Ashok; Zborowski, Maciej; Grunewald, Sonja; Glander, Hans-Juergen; Paasch, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) have become the treatment of choice in many cases of infertility; however, the current success rates of these procedures remain suboptimal. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) most likely contributes to failed ART and to the decrease in sperm quality after cryopreservation. There is a likelihood that some sperm selected for ART will display features of apoptosis despite their normal appearance, which may be partially responsible for the low fertilization and implantation rates seen with ART. One of the features of apoptosis is the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) residues, which are normally present on the inner leaflet of the sperm plasma membrane. Colloidal superparamagnetic microbeads ( approximately 50 nm in diameter) conjugated with annexin V bind to PS and are used to separate dead and apoptotic spermatozoa by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Cells with externalized PS will bind to these microbeads, whereas nonapoptotic cells with intact membranes do not bind and could be used during ARTs. We have conducted a series of experiments to investigate whether the MACS technology could be used to improve ART outcomes. Our results clearly indicate that integrating MACS as a part of sperm preparation techniques will improve semen quality and cryosurvival rates by eliminating apoptotic sperm. Nonapoptotic spermatozoa prepared by MACS display higher quality in terms of routine sperm parameters and apoptosis markers. The higher sperm quality is represented by an increased oocyte penetration potential and cryosurvival rates. Thus, the selection of nonapoptotic spermatozoa by MACS should be considered to enhance ART success rates. PMID:18077822

  19. X-25 Cryo-ready In-vacuum Undulator at the NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Toshiya; Ablett, James; Berman, Lonny; Harder, David A.; Hulbert, Steve; Lehecka, Mike; Rakowsky, George; Skaritka, John; Deyhim, Alex; Johnson, Eric; Kulesza, Joe; Waterman, Dave

    2007-01-19

    The existing 15-year-old hybrid wiggler at the NSLS has been replaced by a state-of-the-art, cryo-ready in-vacuum undulator optimized for a dedicated macromolecular crystallography program. The device is a 1m long, 18mm period, hybrid PM-type with a minimum operating gap of 5.6mm, and has provision for cryo-cooling to 150K. Unlike the original SPring-8 cryo-PM undulator proposal, we use a new high-remanence, high-temperature grade of NdFeB (NEOMAX 42AH with Br=1.3T and Hcj=24 kOe) that can be baked to 100 deg. C to be UHV-ready in case of cooling system failure. A novel optical gap measurement system using a LED-based product ensures gap accuracy of {+-}2 micro meter. A friction stir welding technique is used for the first time in an accelerator UHV device to minimize stress and deformation of the magnet arrays due to temperature gradients. This paper describes design issues of the device and other considerations such as magnetic measurement at low temperature.

  20. Boundary-value problem for a counterrotating electrical discharge in an axial magnetic field. [plasma centrifuge for isotope separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, S. H.; Wilhelm, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    An electrical discharge between two ring electrodes embedded in the mantle of a cylindrical chamber is considered, in which the plasma in the anode and cathode regions rotates in opposite directions under the influence of an external axial magnetic field. The associated boundary-value problem for the coupled partial differential equations describing the azimuthal velocity and radial current-density fields is solved in closed form. The velocity, current density, induced magnetic induction, and electric fields are presented for typical Hartmann numbers, magnetic Reynolds numbers, and geometry parameters. The discharge is shown to produce anodic and cathodic plasma sections rotating at speeds of the order 1,000,000 cm/sec for conventional magnetic field intensities. Possible application of the magnetoactive discharge as a plasma centrifuge for isotope separation is discussed.

  1. Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, R.; Nunez, L.; Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Ritter, J.A.; Landsberger, S.

    1997-01-01

    'Vitrification has been selected as a final waste form technology in the US for long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). However, a foreseeable problem during vitrification in some waste feed streams lies in the presence of elements (e.g., transition metals) in the HLW that may cause instabilities in the final glass product. The formation of spinel compounds, such as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeCrO{sub 4}, results in glass phase separation and reduces vitrifier lifetime, and durability of the final waste form. A superconducting open gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) system maybe suitable for the removal of the deleterious transition elements (e.g. Fe, Co, and Ni) and other elements (lanthanides) from vitrification feed streams due to their ferromagnetic or paramagnetic nature. The OGMS systems are designed to deflect and collect paramagnetic minerals as they interact with a magnetic field gradient. This system has the potential to reduce the volume of HLW for vitrification and ensure a stable product. In order to design efficient OGMS and High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the waste feed streams is required. Using HLW simulant and radioactive fly ash and sludge samples from the Savannah River Technology Center, Rocky Flats site, and the Hanford reservation, several techniques were used to characterize and predict the separation capability for a superconducting OGMS system.'

  2. Magnetic phase separation in double layer ruthenates Ca3(Ru(1-x)Ti(x))2O7.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jin; Liu, J Y; Hu, J; Mao, Z Q; Zhang, F M; Wu, X S

    2016-01-01

    A phase transition from metallic AFM-b antiferromagnetic state to Mott insulating G-type antiferromagnetic (G-AFM) state was found in Ca3(Ru(1-x)Ti(x))2O7 at about x = 0.03 in our previous work. In the present, we focused on the study of the magnetic transition near the critical composition through detailed magnetization measurements. There is no intermediate magnetic phases between the AFM-b and G-AFM states, which is in contrasted to manganites where a similar magnetic phase transition takes place through the presence of several intermediate magnetic phases. The AFM-b-to-G-AFM transition in Ca3(Ru(1-x)Ti(x))2O7 happens through a phase separation process in the 2-5% Ti range, whereas similar magnetic transitions in manganites are tuned by 50-70% chemical substitutions. We discussed the possible origin of such an unusual magnetic transition and compared with that in manganites.

  3. Magnetic phase separation in double layer ruthenates Ca3(Ru1−xTix)2O7

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jin; Liu, J. Y.; Hu, J.; Mao, Z. Q.; Zhang, F. M.; Wu, X. S.

    2016-01-01

    A phase transition from metallic AFM-b antiferromagnetic state to Mott insulating G-type antiferromagnetic (G-AFM) state was found in Ca3(Ru1−xTix)2O7 at about x = 0.03 in our previous work. In the present, we focused on the study of the magnetic transition near the critical composition through detailed magnetization measurements. There is no intermediate magnetic phases between the AFM-b and G-AFM states, which is in contrasted to manganites where a similar magnetic phase transition takes place through the presence of several intermediate magnetic phases. The AFM-b-to-G-AFM transition in Ca3(Ru1−xTix)2O7 happens through a phase separation process in the 2–5% Ti range, whereas similar magnetic transitions in manganites are tuned by 50–70% chemical substitutions. We discussed the possible origin of such an unusual magnetic transition and compared with that in manganites. PMID:26771083

  4. Separation and correlation of structural and magnetic roughness in a Ni thin film by polarized off-specular neutron reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surendra; Basu, Saibal

    2009-02-01

    Diffuse (off-specular) neutron and x-ray reflectometry has been used extensively for the determination of interface morphology in solids and liquids. For neutrons, a novel possibility is off-specular reflectometry with polarized neutrons to determine the morphology of a magnetic interface. There have been few such attempts due to the lower brilliance of neutron sources, though magnetic interaction of neutrons with atomic magnetic moments is much easier to comprehend and easily tractable theoretically. We have obtained a simple and physically meaningful expression, under the Born approximation, for analyzing polarized diffuse (off-specular) neutron reflectivity (PDNR) data. For the first time PDNR data from a Ni film have been analyzed and separate chemical and magnetic morphologies have been quantified. Also specular polarized neutron reflectivity measurements have been carried out to measure the magnetic moment density profile of the Ni film. The fit to PDNR data results in a longer correlation length for in-plane magnetic roughness than for chemical (structural) roughness. The magnetic interface is smoother than the chemical interface. PMID:21817297

  5. CryoEM at IUCrJ: a new era

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sriram; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Henderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this overview, we briefly outline recent advances in electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) and explain why the journal IUCrJ, published by the International Union of Crystallography, could provide a natural home for publications covering many present and future developments in the cryoEM field. PMID:26870375

  6. Cryo-Electron Tomography for Structural Characterization of Macromolecular Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Julia; Heumann, John; Hoenger, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is an emerging 3-D reconstruction technology that combines the principles of tomographic 3-D reconstruction with the unmatched structural preservation of biological material embedded in vitreous ice. Cryo-ET is particularly suited to investigating cell-biological samples and large macromolecular structures that are too polymorphic to be reconstructed by classical averaging-based 3-D reconstruction procedures. This unit aims to make cryo-ET accessible to newcomers and discusses the specialized equipment required, as well as the relevant advantages and hurdles associated with sample preparation by vitrification and cryo-ET. Protocols describe specimen preparation, data recording and 3-D data reconstruction for cryo-ET, with a special focus on macromolecular complexes. A step-by-step procedure for specimen vitrification by plunge freezing is provided, followed by the general practicalities of tilt-series acquisition for cryo-ET, including advice on how to select an area appropriate for acquiring a tilt series. A brief introduction to the underlying computational reconstruction principles applied in tomography is described, along with instructions for reconstructing a tomogram from cryo-tilt series data. Finally, a method is detailed for extracting small subvolumes containing identical macromolecular structures from tomograms for alignment and averaging as a means to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and eliminate missing wedge effects inherent in tomographic reconstructions. PMID:21842467

  7. Cryo-electron tomography for structural characterization of macromolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Cope, Julia; Heumann, John; Hoenger, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is an emerging 3-D reconstruction technology that combines the principles of tomographic 3-D reconstruction with the unmatched structural preservation of biological matter embedded in vitreous ice. Cryo-ET is particularly suited to investigating cell-biological samples and large macromolecular structures that are too polymorphic to be reconstructed by classical averaging-based 3-D reconstruction procedures. This unit aims to make cryo-ET accessible to newcomers and discusses the specialized equipment required, as well as relevant advantages and hurdles associated with sample preparation by vitrification and cryo-ET. Protocols describe specimen preparation, data recording and 3-D data reconstruction for cryo-ET, with a special focus on macromolecular complexes. A step-by-step procedure for specimen vitrification by plunge freezing is provided, followed by the general practicalities of tilt-series acquisition for cryo-ET, including advice on how to select an area appropriate for acquiring a tilt series. A brief introduction to the underlying computational reconstruction principles applied in tomography is described, along with instructions for reconstructing a tomogram from cryo-tilt series data. Finally, a method is detailed for extracting small subvolumes containing identical macromolecular structures from tomograms for alignment and averaging as a means to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and eliminate missing wedge effects inherent in tomographic reconstructions.

  8. Cryo electron microscopy to determine the structure of macromolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Carroni, Marta; Saibil, Helen R

    2016-02-15

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a structural molecular and cellular biology technique that has experienced major advances in recent years. Technological developments in image recording as well as in processing software make it possible to obtain three-dimensional reconstructions of macromolecular assemblies at near-atomic resolution that were formerly obtained only by X-ray crystallography or NMR spectroscopy. In parallel, cryo-electron tomography has also benefitted from these technological advances, so that visualization of irregular complexes, organelles or whole cells with their molecular machines in situ has reached subnanometre resolution. Cryo-EM can therefore address a broad range of biological questions. The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of the principles and current state of the cryo-EM field.

  9. Near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for molecular virology.

    PubMed

    Hryc, Corey F; Chen, Dong-Hua; Chiu, Wah

    2011-08-01

    Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) is a technique in structural biology that is widely used to solve the three-dimensional structures of macromolecular assemblies, close to their biological and solution conditions. Recent improvements in cryo-EM and single-particle reconstruction methodologies have led to the determination of several virus structures at near-atomic resolution (3.3 - 4.6 Å). These cryo-EM structures not only resolve the Cα backbones and side-chain densities of viral capsid proteins, but also suggest functional roles that the protein domains and some key amino acid residues play. This paper reviews the recent advances in near-atomic-resolution cryo-EM for probing the mechanisms of virus assembly and morphogenesis.

  10. Colouring cryo-cooled crystals: online microspectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    McGeehan, John; Ravelli, Raimond B. G.; Murray, James W.; Owen, Robin Leslie; Cipriani, Florent; McSweeney, Sean; Weik, Martin; Garman, Elspeth F.

    2009-01-01

    X-rays can produce a high concentration of radicals within cryo-cooled macromolecular crystals. Some radicals have large extinction coefficients in the visible (VIS) range of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be observed optically and spectrally. An online microspectrophotometer with high temporal resolution has been constructed that is capable of measuring UV/VIS absorption spectra (200–1100 nm) during X-ray data collection. The typical X-ray-induced blue colour that is characteristic of a wide range of cryo-conditions has been identified as trapped solvated electrons. Disulphide-containing proteins are shown to form disulphide radicals at millimolar concentrations, with absorption maxima around 400 nm. The solvated electrons and the disulphide radicals seem to have a lifetime in the range of seconds up to minutes at 100 K. The temperature dependence of the kinetics of X-ray-induced radical formation is different for the solvated electrons compared with the disulphide radicals. The online microspectrophotometer provides a technique complementary to X-ray diffraction for analysing and characterizing intermediates and redox states of proteins and enzymes. PMID:19240328

  11. Training effects induced by cycling of magnetic field in ferromagnetic rich phase-separated nanocomposite manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Kalipada; Das, I.

    2015-12-01

    We have carried out an experimental investigation of magneto-transport and magnetic properties of charge-ordered Pr0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (PCMO) and ferromagnetic La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) nanoparticles along with a nanocomposite consisting of those two types of nanoparticles. From the magneto-transport measurements, clear irreversibility is observed in the field dependence of resistance due to magnetic field cycling in the case of PCMO nanoparticles. The value of resistance increases during such a field cycling. However such an irreversibility is absent in the case of LSMO nanoparticles as well as nanocomposites. On the other hand, the magnetic measurements indicate the gradual growth of antiferromagnetic phases in all samples leading to a decrease in magnetization. These inconsistencies between magneto-transport and magnetic behaviors are attributed to the magnetic training effects.

  12. Magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: an efficient adsorbent for the separation and removal of nitrate and nitrite ions from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Ensieh; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of magnetic nanosorbent, hydroxyapatite-coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles was synthesized and used for the adsorption and removal of nitrite and nitrate ions from environmental samples. The properties of synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. After the adsorption process, the separation of γ-Fe2O3@hydroxyapatite nanoparticles from the aqueous solution was simply achieved by applying an external magnetic field. The effects of different variables on the adsorption efficiency were studied simultaneously using an experimental design. The variables of interest were amount of magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, sample volume, pH, stirring rate, adsorption time, and temperature. The experimental parameters were optimized using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology after a Plackett-Burman screening design. Under the optimum conditions, the adsorption efficiencies of magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles adsorbents toward NO3(-) and NO2(-) ions (100 mg/L) were in the range of 93-101%. The results revealed that the magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles adsorbent could be used as a simple, efficient, and cost-effective material for the removal of nitrate and nitrite ions from environmental water and soil samples.

  13. Magnetic solid sulfonic acid decorated with hydrophobic regulators: a combinatorial and magnetically separable catalyst for the synthesis of α-aminonitriles.

    PubMed

    Mobaraki, Akbar; Movassagh, Barahman; Karimi, Babak

    2014-07-14

    A three-component, Strecker reaction of a series of aldehydes or ketones, amines, and trimethylsilyl cyanide for the synthesis of α-aminonitriles in the presence of a catalytic amount of a magnetic solid sulfonic acid catalyst, Fe3O4@SiO2@Me&Et-PhSO3H under solvent-free conditions have been investigated. This catalyst, with a combination of hydrophobicity and acidity on the Fe3O4@SiO2 core-shell of the magnetic nanobeads, as well as its water-resistant property, enabled easy mass transfer and catalytic activity in the Strecker reaction. The catalyst was easily separated by an external magnet and the recovered catalyst was reused in 6 successive reaction cycles without any significant loss of activity.

  14. Polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic beads for rapid and efficient separation of specific or unspecific nucleic acid sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oster, Jürgen; Parker, Jeffrey; à Brassard, Lothar

    2001-01-01

    The versatile application of polyvinyl-alcohol-based magnetic M-PVA beads is demonstrated in the separation of genomic DNA, sequence specific nucleic acid purification, and binding of bacteria for subsequent DNA extraction and detection. It is shown that nucleic acids can be obtained in high yield and purity using M-PVA beads, making sample preparation efficient, fast and highly adaptable for automation processes.

  15. Separating hyperfine from spin-orbit interactions in organic semiconductors by multi-octave magnetic resonance using coplanar waveguide microresonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, G.; Miller, R.; Ogden, L.; Kavand, M.; Jamali, S.; Ambal, K.; Venkatesh, S.; Schurig, D.; Malissa, H.; Lupton, J. M.; Boehme, C.

    2016-09-01

    Separating the influence of hyperfine from spin-orbit interactions in spin-dependent carrier recombination and dissociation processes necessitates magnetic resonance spectroscopy over a wide range of frequencies. We have designed compact and versatile coplanar waveguide resonators for continuous-wave electrically detected magnetic resonance and tested these on organic light-emitting diodes. By exploiting both the fundamental and higher-harmonic modes of the resonators, we cover almost five octaves in resonance frequency within a single setup. The measurements with a common π-conjugated polymer as the active material reveal small but non-negligible effects of spin-orbit interactions, which give rise to a broadening of the magnetic resonance spectrum with increasing frequency.

  16. Pathogen detection in complex samples by quartz crystal microbalance sensor coupled to aptamer functionalized core-shell type magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Ozalp, Veli C; Bayramoglu, Gulay; Erdem, Zehra; Arica, M Yakup

    2015-01-01

    A quartz crystal microbalance sensor (QCM) was developed for sensitive and specific detection of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium cells in food samples by integrating a magnetic bead purification system. Although many sensor formats based on bioaffinity agents have been developed for sensitive and specific detection of bacterial cells, the development of robust sensor applications for food samples remained a challenging issue. A viable strategy would be to integrate QCM to a pre-purification system. Here, we report a novel and sensitive high throughput strategy which combines an aptamer-based magnetic separation system for rapid enrichment of target pathogens and a QCM analysis for specific and real-time monitoring. As a proof-of-concept study, the integration of Salmonella binding aptamer immobilized magnetic beads to the aptamer-based QCM system was reported in order to develop a method for selective detection of Salmonella. Since our magnetic separation system can efficiently capture cells in a relatively short processing time (less than 10 min), feeding captured bacteria to a QCM flow cell system showed specific detection of Salmonella cells at 100 CFU mL(-1) from model food sample (i.e., milk). Subsequent treatment of the QCM crystal surface with NaOH solution regenerated the aptamer-sensor allowing each crystal to be used several times.

  17. Multifunctional superparamagnetic nanoshells: combining two-photon luminescence imaging, surface-enhanced Raman scattering and magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiulong; Li, Haiyan; Wang, Shanshan; Kong, Ni; Xu, Hong; Fu, Qihua; Gu, Hongchen; Ye, Jian

    2014-11-01

    With the increasing need for multi-purpose analysis in the biomedical field, traditional single diagnosis methods cannot meet the requirements. Therefore new multifunctional technologies and materials for the integration of sample collection, sensing and imaging are in great demand. Core-shell nanoparticles offer a unique platform to combine multifunctions in a single particle. In this work, we have constructed a novel type of core-shell superparamagnetic nanoshell (Fe₃O₄@SiO₂@Au), composed of a Fe₃O₄ cluster core, a thin Au shell and a SiO₂ layer in between. The obtained multifunctional nanoparticles combine the magnetic properties and plasmonic optical properties effectively, which were well investigated by a number of experimental characterization methods and theoretical simulations. We have demonstrated that Fe₃O₄@SiO₂@Au nanoparticles can be utilized for two-photon luminescence (TPL) imaging, near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering (NIR SERS) and cell collection by magnetic separation. The TPL intensity could be further greatly enhanced through the plasmon coupling effect in the self-assembled nanoparticle chains, which were triggered by an external magnetic field. In addition, Fe₃O₄@SiO₂@Au nanoparticles may have great potential applications such as enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photo-thermotherapy. Successful combination of multifunctions including magnetic response, biosensing and bioimaging in single nanoparticles allows further manipulation, real-time tracking, and intracellular molecule analysis of live cells at a single-cell level. PMID:25329447

  18. Purification of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) using magnetic ion exchange adsorbents in combination with high-gradient magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christine; Heidenreich, Elena; Franzreb, Matthias; Frankenfeld, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Current purification of the glycoprotein equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) from horse serum includes consecutive precipitation steps beginning with metaphosphoric acid pH fractionation, two ethanol precipitation steps, and dialysis followed by a numerous of fixed-bed chromatography steps up to the specific activity required. A promising procedure for a more economic purification procedure represents a simplified precipitation process requiring only onethird of the solvent, followed by the usage of magnetic ion exchange adsorbents employed together with a newly designed 'rotor-stator' type High Gradient Magnetic Fishing (HGMF) system for large-scale application, currently up to 100 g of magnetic adsorbents. Initially, the separation process design was optimized for binding and elution conditions for the target protein in mL scale. Subsequently, the magnetic filter for particle separation was characterized. Based on these results, a purification process for eCG was designed consisting of (i) pretreatment of the horse serum; (ii) binding of the target protein to magnetic ion exchange adsorbents in a batch reactor; (iii) recovery of loaded functionalized adsorbents from the pretreated solution using HGMF; (iv) washing of loaded adsorbents to remove unbound proteins; (v) elution of the target protein. Finally, the complete HGMF process was automated and conducted with either multiple single-cycles or multicycle operation of four sequential cycles, using batches of pretreated serum of up to 20 L. eCG purification with yields of approximately 53% from single HGMF cycles and up to 80% from multicycle experiments were reached, with purification and concentration factors of around 2,500 and 6.7, respectively.

  19. An improved cryo-FIB method for fabrication of frozen hydrated lamella.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianguo; Ji, Gang; Huang, Xiaojun; Xu, Wei; Sun, Fei

    2016-05-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) provides great insights into the ultrastructure of cells and tissues in their native state and provides a promising way to study the in situ 3D structures of macromolecular complexes. However, this technique has been limited on the very thin specimen, which is not applicable for most cells and tissues. Besides cryo-sectioning approach, cryo focused ion beam (cryo-FIB) appeared recently to achieve 'artifact-free' thin frozen hydrated lamella via fabrication. Considering that the current cryo-FIB methods need modified holders or cartridges, here, with a "D-shaped" molybdenum grid and a specific shutter system, we developed a simple cryo-FIB approach for thin frozen hydrated lamella fabrication, which fits both standard transmission cryo-electron microscopes with side-entry cryo-holders and state-of-the-art ones with AutoGrids. Our approach will expand the usage of cryo-FIB approach in many labs.

  20. Magnetic properties and loss separation in FeSi/MnZnFe2O4 soft magnetic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauda, M.; Füzer, J.; Kollár, P.; Strečková, M.; Bureš, R.; Kováč, J.; Baťková, M.; Baťko, I.

    2016-08-01

    We investigated composites that have been prepared from FeSi powders covered with MnZnFe2O4 (MnZn ferrite), which was prepared by sol-gel synthesis accompanied with the auto-combustion process. The aim of this paper is to analyze the complex permeability and core losses of prepared samples with different amount of MnZn ferrite. The microstructure and the powder morphology were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements on bulk samples were carried out using a vibrating sample magnetometer, an impedance analyzer and hysteresisgraphs. The results indicate that the composites with 2.6 wt% MnZn ferrite show better soft magnetic properties than the composites with about 6 wt% MnZn ferrite.

  1. Single-particle cryo-EM at crystallographic resolution

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Until only a few years ago, single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) was usually not the first choice for many structural biologists due to its limited resolution in the range of nanometer to subnanometer. Now, this method rivals X-ray crystallography in terms of resolution and can be used to determine atomic structures of macromolecules that are either refractory to crystallization or difficult to crystallize in specific functional states. In this review, I discuss the recent breakthroughs in both hardware and software that transformed cryo-microscopy, enabling understanding of complex biomolecules and their functions at atomic level. PMID:25910205

  2. Manipulation of magnetic phase separation and orbital occupancy in manganites by strain engineering and electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Bin; Song, Cheng; Pan, Feng; Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE) Team

    2015-03-01

    The modification of electronic phases in correlated oxides is one of the core issues of condensed matter. We report the reversible control of ferromagnetic phase transition in manganite films by ionic liquid gating, replicating the La1-xSrxMnO3 (LSMO) phase diagram. The formation and annihilation of an insulating and magnetically hard phase in the soft magnetic matrix, which randomly nucleates and grows across the film, is directly observed under different gate voltages (VG) . The realization of reversible metal-insulator transition in colossal magnetoresistance materials can lead to the development of four-state memories. The orbital occupancy and magnetic anisotropy of LSMO films are manipulated by VG in a reversible and quantitative manner. Positive and negative VG increases and reduces the occupancy of the orbital and magnetic anisotropy that were initially favored by strain (irrespective of tensile and compressive), respectively. This finding fills in the blank of electrical manipulation of four degrees of freedom in correlated system.

  3. Identifying and separating magnetic and electric microwave responses of chiral elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantsev, Yu. N.; Kraftmakher, G. A.; Mal'tsev, V. P.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a technique for identifying the type of resonance excitation by ac magnetic or electric fields in conducting chiral elements by reflection of electromagnetic waves in the standing- and travelingwave modes. The technique was tested experimentally in the microwave range and confirmed numerically. We demonstrate the possibility of broadband matching of composite radar absorbing materials with the use of a lattice of resonance elements excited by magnetic field of the wave rather instead of the traditional quarter- wavelength effects.

  4. Novel core-shell cerium(IV)-immobilized magnetic polymeric microspheres for selective enrichment and rapid separation of phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Cheng, Gong; Liu, Yan-Lin; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Ni, Jia-Zuan

    2014-03-01

    In this work, novel magnetic polymeric core-shell structured microspheres with immobilized Ce(IV), Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV), were designed rationally and synthesized successfully via a facile route for the first time. Magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres were first prepared by directly coating a thin layer of silica onto Fe3O4 magnetic particles using a sol-gel method, a poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA) shell was then coated on the Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres to form Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA microspheres through a radical polymerization reaction, and finally Ce(IV) ions were robustly immobilized onto the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA microspheres through strong chelation between Ce(IV) ions and phosphate moieties in the PVPA. The applicability of the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres for selective enrichment and rapid separation of phosphopeptides from proteolytic digests of standard and real protein samples was investigated. The results demonstrated that the core-shell structured Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres with abundant Ce(IV) affinity sites and excellent magnetic responsiveness can effectively purify phosphopeptides from complex biosamples for MS detection taking advantage of the rapid magnetic separation and the selective affinity between Ce(IV) ions and phosphate moieties of the phosphopeptides. Furthermore, they can be effectively recycled and show good reusability, and have better performance than commercial TiO2 beads and homemade Fe3O4@PMAA-Ce(IV) microspheres. Thus the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres can benefit greatly the mass spectrometric qualitative analysis of phosphopeptides in phosphoproteome research.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the phase separation in mixed preparations of moisturizing cream and steroid ointment after centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Funatani, Chiaki; Yokawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Fukami, Toshiro; Koide, Tatsuo; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    A mixed preparation consisting of a water-in-oil emulsion-type moisturizing cream and a steroid ointment is frequently prescribed for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. We have investigated the compatibility of moisturizing creams and ointments because there are concerns regarding the physical stability of these mixed preparations. The key technology used in this study was magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A commercial moisturizing cream and white petrolatum or clobetasone butyrate (CLB) ointment samples were mixed in a weight ratio of 1 : 1. A centrifugation test protocol (20000×g for 3 min) was implemented to accelerate the destabilization processes in the samples. After centrifugation, the mixed preparations separated into three distinct layers (upper, middle, and lower), while no phase separation was observed using moisturizing cream alone. The phase separation was monitored using chemical shift selective images of water and oil and quantitative T2 maps. In addition, MR and near-infrared spectroscopy were employed for component analysis of each phase-separated layer. Collectively, it was confirmed that the lower layer contained water, oils, and organic solvent, while the upper and middle layers were composed solely of oils. Furthermore, this study investigated the distribution of CLB in the phase-separated samples and showed that a heterogeneous distribution existed. From our results, it was confirmed that the mixed preparation became unstable because of the incompatibility of the moisturizing cream and ointment. PMID:25948331

  6. Design of a single magnet separator with mass resolving power m/Δm ≈ 20, 000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitenfeldt, Martin; Augustin, Mathieu; Catherall, Richard; Giles, Tim; Schoerling, Daniel; Tveten, Gry M.

    2016-06-01

    ISOLDE at CERN is a leading radioactive ion beam facility. With its upgrade, the HIE-ISOLDE project, an increase in primary beam intensity and energy is envisaged and the aim is a significant increase in intensity of the exotic beams. The high resolution separator (HRS) after the upgrade is required to suppress contaminations almost completely when the masses differ to the beam of interest by Δm / m > 1 / 20, 000 . Here a 120° magnet with a bending radius of 1.25 m has been chosen. The magnetic rigidity is 0.625 Tm (B-field of 0.5 T) to allow for separation of molecules of up to a mass of 300 u. The magnet comprises a yoke in wedged H-type configuration for stability and precision and pole face conductors for focusing and compensation of aberrations. The concept was derived analytically, refined with the OPERA 2D software and tested with the ray-tracing module of OPERA 3D.

  7. The TransActinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus (TASCA) at GSI Optimization of ion-optical structures and magnet designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semchenkov, A.; Brüchle, W.; Jäger, E.; Schimpf, E.; Schädel, M.; Mühle, C.; Klos, F.; Türler, A.; Yakushev, A.; Belov, A.; Belyakova, T.; Kaparkova, M.; Kukhtin, V.; Lamzin, E.; Sytchevsky, S.

    2008-10-01

    The new, highly efficient gas-filled TransActinide Separator and Chemistry Apparatus (TASCA) was designed and built at GSI with the aim to study chemical and physical properties of superheavy elements with atomic numbers 104 and higher produced in heavy-ion reactions with actinide targets. To reach the highest possible transmission, while exploiting an existing dipole magnet and two quadrupoles of a previously used gas-filled separator, an optimization of the ion-optical structure of TASCA was performed with the program TRANSPORT. Two modes of TASCA operation, the "High Transmission Mode" and the "Small Image-size Mode" were selected. Magnetic field measurements were carried out with the dipole and were compared with KOMPOT model calculations. Magnetic field model calculations of the dipole and the quadrupoles, including a duct and a large exit valve, were performed to optimize the pole pieces of the dipole and the ducts. This increased the efficiency up to 50%. Both modes of operation were successfully tested in first commissioning experiments.

  8. Influence of magnetic nanoparticle size on the particle dispersion and phase separation in an ABA triblock copolymer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinrong; Li, Hui; Wu, Siduo; Huang, Guangsu; Xing, Wang; Tang, Maozhu; Fu, Qiang

    2014-02-27

    Oleic acid modified iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs) with different sizes were synthesized and mixed with styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer (SBS) with a lamellar structure. The octadecene segments on the oleic acid molecules have chemical affinity with the polybutadiene (PB) blocks, which makes IONs tend to be selectively confined in the microphase-separated PB domains. However, the dispersion state strongly depends on the ratio of the particle diameter (d) to the lamellar thickness (l) of the PB domains, which further changes the phase separation of SBS. When d/l ∼0.5, most of IONs are concentrated in the middle of the PB layers at low particle loading. Upon increasing the particle loading, part of IONs contact each other to form long strings due to their strong magnetic interactions. Away from the strings, IONs are either selectively dispersed in the middle and at the interfaces of the PB domains, or randomly distributed at some regions in which the phase separation of SBS is suppressed. The phase separation of SBS transforms from the lamellar structure to a cylinder structure when the IONs loading is higher than 16.7 wt %. As d is comparable to l, IONs aggregate to form clusters of 100 to 300 nm in size, but within the clusters IONs are still selectively dispersed in the PB domains instead of forming macroscopic phase separation. It is interpreted in terms of the relatively small conformational entropy of the middle blocks of SBS; thus, incorporation of nanoparticles does not lead to much loss of conformational entropy. Although incorporation of IONs with d/l ∼1 significantly increases the interfacial curvature and roughness, it has less influence on the phase separation structure of SBS due to the inhomogeneous dispersion. When d is larger than l, IONs are macroscopically separated from the SBS matrix to form clusters of hundreds of nanometers to several micrometers. More interestingly, the phase separation of SBS transforms from the lamellar

  9. A pH-responsive and magnetically separable dynamic system for efficient removal of highly dilute antibiotics in water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanpeng; Ma, Jianqing; Shen, Chensi; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2016-03-01

    In order to control the antibiotic-related crisis and reduce the negative impacts on the environment and human health, it is urgent to develop effective technologies to eliminate residual antibiotics in water. Herein, we successfully fabricated a novel, pH-responsive and magnetically separable dynamic system for micropollutant adsorption and oxidation degradation in graphene oxide (GO)/nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) composite with macroscopic structure. The pH-responsive self-assembly behavior of GO/nZVI composite was explored. The macroscopic structure of GO/nZVI composite serves as an excellent adsorbent for antibiotic removal in water. The adsorption process is fast and highly efficient even in high salty and humic acid containing water under acid to neutral conditions. After removal antibiotics, GO/nZVI composite is conveniently separated by magnetic system and put into alkaline solution (pH > 9) for adsorbent regeneration. Interestingly, it is found that at pH > 9, GO/nZVI composite disassembles partly upon increasing pH values, leading to the elution of antibiotics for efficient antibiotics degradation by ozonization. More importantly, this pH-responsive GO/nZVI system exhibits high removal efficiency, high stability, reusability and easily separation, making it a promising method for treatment of water with micropollutants. PMID:26724436

  10. Spinel type CoFe oxide porous nanosheets as magnetic adsorbents with fast removal ability and facile separation.

    PubMed

    Ge, X; Gu, C D; Wang, X L; Tu, J P

    2015-09-15

    Adsorption is often time consuming due to slow diffusion kinetic. Sizing he adsorbent down might help to accelerate adsorption. For CoFe spinel oxide, a magnetically separable adsorbent, the preparation of nanosheets faces many challenges including phase separation, grain growth and difficulty in preparing two-dimensional materials. In this work, we prepared porous CoFe oxide nanosheet with chemical formula of Co2.698Fe0.302O4 through topochemical transformation of a CoFe precursor, which has a layered double hydroxide (LDH) analogue structure and a large interlayer spacing. The LDH precursor was synthesized from a cheap deep eutectic solvent (DES) system. The calcined Co2.698Fe0.302O4 has small grain size (10-20nm), nanosheet morphology, and porous structure, which contribute to a large specific surface area of 79.5m(2)g(-1). The Co2.698Fe0.302O4 nanosheets show fast removal ability and good adsorption capacity for both organic waste (305mgg(-1) in 5min for Congo red) and toxic heavy metal ion (5.27mgg(-1) in 30min for Cr (VI)). Furthermore, the Co2.698Fe0.302O4 can be separated magnetically. Considering the precursor can be prepared through a fast, simple, surfactant-free and high-yield synthetic strategy, this work should have practical significance in fabricating adsorbents.

  11. A pH-responsive and magnetically separable dynamic system for efficient removal of highly dilute antibiotics in water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanpeng; Ma, Jianqing; Shen, Chensi; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2016-03-01

    In order to control the antibiotic-related crisis and reduce the negative impacts on the environment and human health, it is urgent to develop effective technologies to eliminate residual antibiotics in water. Herein, we successfully fabricated a novel, pH-responsive and magnetically separable dynamic system for micropollutant adsorption and oxidation degradation in graphene oxide (GO)/nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) composite with macroscopic structure. The pH-responsive self-assembly behavior of GO/nZVI composite was explored. The macroscopic structure of GO/nZVI composite serves as an excellent adsorbent for antibiotic removal in water. The adsorption process is fast and highly efficient even in high salty and humic acid containing water under acid to neutral conditions. After removal antibiotics, GO/nZVI composite is conveniently separated by magnetic system and put into alkaline solution (pH > 9) for adsorbent regeneration. Interestingly, it is found that at pH > 9, GO/nZVI composite disassembles partly upon increasing pH values, leading to the elution of antibiotics for efficient antibiotics degradation by ozonization. More importantly, this pH-responsive GO/nZVI system exhibits high removal efficiency, high stability, reusability and easily separation, making it a promising method for treatment of water with micropollutants.

  12. New high performance hybrid magnet plates for DNA separation andbio-technology applications

    SciTech Connect

    Humphries, David; Pollard, Martin; Elkin, Chris; Petermann, Karl; Reiter, Charles; Cepeda, Mario

    2004-08-02

    A new class of magnet plates for biological and industrial applications has recently been developed at the D.O.E. Joint Genome Institute and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (JGI/LBNL). These devices utilize hybrid technology that combines linear permanent magnet material and ferromagnetic material to produce significantly higher fields and gradients than currently available commercial magnet plates. These hybrid structures incorporate ferromagnetic poles that can be easily shaped to produce complex field distributions for specialized applications. The higher maximum fields and strong gradients of the hybrid structures result in greater holding forces on magnetized targets that are being processed as well as faster draw-down. Current development versions of these magnet plates have exhibited maximum fields in excess of 9000.0 Gauss. The design of these structures is easily scalable to allow for field increases to significantly above 1.0 tesla (10000.0gauss). Author's note: 11000.0 Gauss peak fields have been achieved as of January 2005.

  13. Application of Graphene Oxide-MnFe2O4 Magnetic Nanohybrids as Magnetically Separable Adsorbent for Highly Efficient Removal of Arsenic from Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huong, Pham Thi Lan; Huy, Le Thanh; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Huy, Tran Quang; Nam, Man Hoai; Lam, Vu Dinh; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a functional magnetic nanohybrid consisting of manganese ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (MnFe2O4) deposited onto graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets was successfully synthesized using a modified co-precipitation method. The as-prepared GO-MnFe2O4 magnetic nanohybrids were characterized using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. Adsorption experiments were performed to evaluate the adsorption capacities and efficient removal of arsenic of the nanohybrid and compared with bare MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and GO nanosheets. Our obtained results reveal that the adsorption process of the nanohybrids was well fitted with a pseudo-second-order kinetic equation and a Freundlich isotherm model; the maximum adsorption capacity and removal efficiency of the nanohybrids obtained ~240.385 mg/g and 99.9% with a fast response of equilibrium adsorption time ~20 min. The larger adsorption capacity and shorter equilibrium time of the GO-MnFe2O4 nanohybrids showed better performance than that of bare MnFe2O4 nanoparticles and GO nanosheets. The advantages of reusability, magnetic separation, high removal efficiency, and quick kinetics make these nanohybrids very promising as low-cost adsorbents for fast and effective removal of arsenic from water.

  14. Selective Concentration of Ultra-trace Acetone in the Air by Cryogenic Temperature Programmed Desorption (cryo-TPD).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Taku T; Sakaguchi, Isao

    2016-01-01

    A gas analytical technique with compact size, low cost, sufficient sensitivity, and excellent reproducibility is required in many fields including exhaled breath analysis for medical monitoring. In the present study, we examined selective acetone concentration by quench condensation at cryogenic temperature followed by temperature programmed desorption (cryogenic temperature programmed desorption (cryo-TPD)) for possible applications to breath analysis for medical monitoring. The essence of cryo-TPD is rough mass selection by thermal desorption followed by quantification of certain species using mass spectrometry. The performance of cryo-TPD was investigated in the acetone concentration range below 1 × 10(-6) volume fraction (1 ppmv). It was found that acetone is selectively quench-condensed on a tungsten substrate at 50 K without the major components of air, such as N2 and O2. The concentrated acetone gas was obtained by the following thermal desorption at around 151 K. Under conditions of condensation for 1 min and pressure of 1 × 10(-2) Pa, the lowest limit of detection reached well below 10 × 10(-9) volume fraction (10 ppbv). The relationship between the cetone intensity of cryo-TPD and the acetone concentration in the gas was almost linear in the ppbv range. The separation of acetone and propanal using the fragmentation pattern, which have almost the identical molecular mass, was also demonstrated in the present study. PMID:27682397

  15. Model experiments for immunomagnetic elimination of leukemic cells from human bone marrow. Presentation of a novel magnetic separation system.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, B; Häfer, R; Müller, A; Andrä, W; Danan, H; Zintl, F

    1991-11-01

    Optimal conditions for removing leukemic cells from human bone marrow with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and magnetic immunobeads were investigated. Monodisperse 3 microns polystyrene microspheres containing magnetite were coated with affinity-purified rabbit antimouse IgG at 4 degrees C, pH 9.6 for 18 h. SKW-3 cells (T-CLL cell line) were marked with the supravital DNA stain Hoechst 33342, seeded into normal human bone marrow, and then incubated with the mAb CD1, CD6, and CD8 at 4 degrees C for 30 min. In preliminary experiments REH cells (cALL cells) and mouse anti-REH cell antibodies were used to find the most favorable conditions for the binding of magnetic beads to tumor cells. Optimal formation of cell-bead rosettes was achieved by rotating beads and tumor cells together at room temperature at a concentration of 1 x 10(7) cells/ml, a bead: tumor cell ratio of 100:1 and an incubation time of one hour. The novel magnetic separation apparatus consists of three polystyrene chambers connected by silicone rubber tubing. The chambers contain four steel inserts each equipped with 32 nickel wires, which are magnetized by permanent magnets in such a way that the inhomogeneous high gradient magnetic field could be established within the cell suspension containing the cells to be depleted. The fluid flow was established by a peristaltic pump. At a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and a field strength of 160 kA/m, no beads could be detected in the purged marrow. A cocktail of the three mAb was more effective than any single antibody in forming bead-cell rosettes. Two sequential purging cycles were superior to one. The marrow recovered was highly viable as assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion and by growth of CFU-GM. PMID:1786986

  16. Model experiments for immunomagnetic elimination of leukemic cells from human bone marrow. Presentation of a novel magnetic separation system.

    PubMed

    Gruhn, B; Häfer, R; Müller, A; Andrä, W; Danan, H; Zintl, F

    1991-11-01

    Optimal conditions for removing leukemic cells from human bone marrow with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and magnetic immunobeads were investigated. Monodisperse 3 microns polystyrene microspheres containing magnetite were coated with affinity-purified rabbit antimouse IgG at 4 degrees C, pH 9.6 for 18 h. SKW-3 cells (T-CLL cell line) were marked with the supravital DNA stain Hoechst 33342, seeded into normal human bone marrow, and then incubated with the mAb CD1, CD6, and CD8 at 4 degrees C for 30 min. In preliminary experiments REH cells (cALL cells) and mouse anti-REH cell antibodies were used to find the most favorable conditions for the binding of magnetic beads to tumor cells. Optimal formation of cell-bead rosettes was achieved by rotating beads and tumor cells together at room temperature at a concentration of 1 x 10(7) cells/ml, a bead: tumor cell ratio of 100:1 and an incubation time of one hour. The novel magnetic separation apparatus consists of three polystyrene chambers connected by silicone rubber tubing. The chambers contain four steel inserts each equipped with 32 nickel wires, which are magnetized by permanent magnets in such a way that the inhomogeneous high gradient magnetic field could be established within the cell suspension containing the cells to be depleted. The fluid flow was established by a peristaltic pump. At a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min and a field strength of 160 kA/m, no beads could be detected in the purged marrow. A cocktail of the three mAb was more effective than any single antibody in forming bead-cell rosettes. Two sequential purging cycles were superior to one. The marrow recovered was highly viable as assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion and by growth of CFU-GM.

  17. Virus particle dynamics derived from CryoEM studies.

    PubMed

    Doerschuk, Peter C; Gong, Yunye; Xu, Nan; Domitrovic, Tatiana; Johnson, John E

    2016-06-01

    The direct electron detector has revolutionized electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM). Icosahedral virus structures are routinely produced at 4Å resolution or better and the approach has largely displaced virus crystallography, as it requires less material, less purity and often produces a structure more rapidly. Largely ignored in this new era of CryoEM is the dynamic information in the data sets that was not available in X-ray structures. Here we review an approach that captures the dynamic character of viruses displayed in the CryoEM ensemble of particles at the moment of freezing. We illustrate the approach with a simple model, briefly describe the details and provide a practical application to virus particle maturation. PMID:27085980

  18. Recent technical advancements enabled atomic resolution CryoEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueming, Li

    2016-01-01

    With recent breakthroughs in camera and image processing technologies single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (CryoEM) has suddenly gained the attention of structural biologists as a powerful tool able to solve the atomic structures of biological complexes and assemblies. Compared with x-ray crystallography, CryoEM can be applied to partially flexible structures in solution and without the necessity of crystallization, which is especially important for large complexes and assemblies. This review briefly explains several key bottlenecks for atomic resolution CryoEM, and describes the corresponding solutions for these bottlenecks based on the recent technical advancements. The review also aims to provide an overview about the technical differences between its applications in biology and those in material science. Project supported by Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, China.

  19. Water-compatible magnetic imprinted microspheres for rapid separation and determination of triazine herbicides in environmental water.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fengxia; Row, Kyung Ho; Wang, Mengge

    2014-04-15

    A novel kind of water-compatible magnetic imprinted cyromazine microsphere (WCMM) was synthesized by water/oil/water suspension polymerization. The obtained WCMM was homogenously spherical with porous morphology and strong magnetic properties. The microspheres were successfully used as adsorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction (WCMM-dSPE) to selectively extract cyanazine and atrazine from environmental water. Good linearity of the two analytes was observed in the range from 2.5 to 200.0ngmL(-1). The average recoveries at three spiking levels ranged from 84.8% to 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 6.9%. Compared with magnetic non-imprinted particles (WCMN), the proposed WCMM adsorbent of dSPE efficiently improved the efficiency of extracting cyanazine and atrazine from environmental water samples and eliminated the effect of cyromazine leakage on the quantitative analysis of cyanazine and atrazine. The proposed WCMM-dSPE method combined the advantages of magnetic separation, molecular imprinted microspheres and dSPE.

  20. The analysis of various size, visually selected and density and magnetically separated fractions of Luna 16 and 20 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eglinton, G.; Gowar, A. P.; Jull, A. J. T.; Pillinger, C. T.; Agrell, S. O.; Agrell, J. E.; Long, J. V. P.; Bowie, S. H. U.; Simpson, P. R.; Beckinsale, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Samples of Luna 16 and 20 have been separated according to size, visual appearance, density, and magnetic susceptibility. Selected aliquots were examined in eight British laboratories. The studies included mineralogy and petrology, selenochronology, magnetic characteristics, Mossbauer spectroscopy, oxygen isotope ratio determinations, cosmic ray track and thermoluminescence investigations, and carbon chemistry measurements. Luna 16 and 20 are typically mare and highland soils, comparing well with their Apollo counterparts, Apollo 11 and 16, respectively. Both soils are very mature (high free iron, carbide, and methane and cosmogenic Ar), while Luna 16, but not Luna 20, is characterized by a high content of glassy materials. An aliquot of anorthosite fragments, handpicked from Luna 20, had a gas retention age of about 4.3 plus or minus 0.1 Gy.

  1. Novel Monoclonal Antibody and Peptide Binders for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Their Application for Magnetic Separation

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Lorna M.; Stewart, Linda D.; Strain, Sam A. J.; Grant, Irene R.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-specific monoclonal antibodies and phage-display derived peptide binders, along with their application for the magnetic separation (MS) of MAP cells, is described. Our aim was to achieve even greater MAP capture capability than is possible with peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS) using a 50:50 mix of biotinylated-aMp3 and biotinylated-aMptD peptide-coated beads. Gamma-irradiated whole MAP cells and ethanol extracted antigens (EEA) from these cells were used to elicit an immune response and as phage-display biopanning targets. A range of novel binders was obtained and coated onto paramagnetic beads, both individually and in various combinations, for MS evaluation. IS900 PCR was employed after MS to provide quick results. Capture sensitivity was assessed using a range of MAP concentrations after which the most promising beads were tested for their specificity for MAP, by performing MS followed by culture using 10 other Mycobacterium species. Magnetic beads coated with the biotinylated EEA402 peptide demonstrated a greater level of MAP capture than the current PMS method, even when low numbers of MAP (<10 cfu/ml) were present; however these beads also captured a range of other mycobacteria and so lacked capture specificity. Magnetic beads coated with monoclonal antibodies 6G11 and 15D10 (used as a 50:50 mix or as dually coated beads) also demonstrated improved MAP capture relative to the current PMS method, but with little cross-reactivity to other Mycobacterium spp. Therefore, two new MS protocols are suggested, the application of which would be dependent upon the required endpoint. Biotinylated EEA402-coated beads could potentially be used with a MAP-specific PCR to ensure detection specificity, while beads coated with 6G11 and 15D10 monoclonal antibodies could be used with culture or the phage amplification assay. PMID:26815790

  2. Magnetically separable Cu2O/chitosan-Fe3O4 nanocomposites: Preparation, characterization and visible-light photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chunhua; Xiao, Ling; Chen, Chunhua; Cao, Qihua

    2015-04-01

    A novel magnetically-separable visible-light-induced photocatalyst, Cu2O/chitosan-Fe3O4 nanocomposite (Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NC), was prepared via a facile one-step precipitation-reduction process by using magnetic chitosan chelating copper ions as precursor. The structure and properties of Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, HRTEM, SAED, EDS, BET, VSM, XPS and UV-vis/DRS. The photocatalytic activity of Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs was evaluated by decolorization of reactive brilliant red X-3B (X-3B) under visible light irradiation. The characterization results indicated that Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs exhibited relatively large specific surface areas and special dimodal pore structure because Cu2O was wrapped in chitosan matrix embedded with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The tight combination of magnetic Fe3O4 and semiconductor Cu2O through chitosan made the nanocomposites show good superparamagnetism and photocatalytic activity. It was found that X-3B could be decolorized more efficiently in acidic media than in neutral or alkaline media. The decolorization of X-3B was ascribed to the synergistic effect of photocatalysis and adsorption. Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs could be easily separated from the solution by an external magnet, and the decolorization rates of X-3B were still above 87% after five reaction cycles, indicating that Cu2O/CS-Fe3O4 NCs had excellent reusability and stability.

  3. Magnetic Phase Separation and its Relation to the Tolerance Factor in Cobaltites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Juan; Louca, Despina; Phelan, Daniel; Tomiyasu, Keisuke; Horigane, Kazumasa; Yamada, Kazuyoshi

    2009-03-01

    The doping of holes into the non-magnetic Mott insulator, LaCoO3, induces a magnetic inhomogeneous state resulting from competing magnetic phases. Elastic neutron scattering measurements on Ca, Sr, and Ba doped single crystals showed that phase competition is strongly dependent on the tolerance factor, t. When t is small as in La1-xCaxCoO3, only a ferromagnetic (FM) phase is present. As t gets large as in La1-xBaxCoO3, an incommensurate (IC) phase coexists with the FM phase. The IC phase becomes commensurate and as strong as the FM phase by x = 0.18, with a very long correlation length. This is in stark contrast from La1-xSrxCoO3 where the IC phase remains short-range and with its intensity reduced when the system orders ferromagnetically. Our observation shows that increasing t enhances the presence of two phases and favors the growth of nanoscale spin-ordered superstructures. The subtle lattice changes brought about by changing t have a direct effect on the Co-O hybridization that in turn affects the magnetic interactions. Double exchange interactions between Co^3+ and Co^4+ result in FM correlations while the superexchange between Co^3+ ions result in antiferromangetic correlations giving rise to the second phase. This may be mediated by a Jahn-Teller mechanism that sets in at high temperatures.

  4. Droplet-based microfluidic system to form and separate multicellular spheroids using magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sungjun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Minsoo; Park, Tai Hyun

    2013-04-21

    The importance of creating a three-dimensional (3-D) multicellular spheroid has recently been gaining attention due to the limitations of monolayer cell culture to precisely mimic in vivo structure and cellular interactions. Due to this emerging interest, researchers have utilized new tools, such as microfluidic devices, that allow high-throughput and precise size control to produce multicellular spheroids. We have developed a droplet-based microfluidic system that can encapsulate both cells and magnetic nanoparticles within alginate beads to mimic the function of a multicellular tumor spheroid. Cells were entrapped within the alginate beads along with magnetic nanoparticles, and the beads of a relatively uniform size (diameters of 85% of the beads were 170-190 μm) were formed in the oil phase. These beads were passed through parallel streamlines of oil and culture medium, where the beads were magnetically transferred into the medium phase from the oil phase using an external magnetic force. This microfluidic chip eliminates additional steps for collecting the spheroids from the oil phase and transferring them to culture medium. Ultimately, the overall spheroid formation process can be achieved on a single microchip. PMID:23426090

  5. Studies in matter antimatter separation and in the origin of lunar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, W. A.; Greeley, R.; Parkin, C.; Aggarwal, H.; Schultz, P.

    1975-01-01

    A progress report, covering lunar and planetary research is introduced. Data cover lunar ionospheric models, lunar and planetary geology, and lunar magnetism. Wind tunnel simulations of Mars aeolian problems and a comparative study of basaltic analogs of Lunar and Martial volcanic features was discussed.

  6. Cryo-focused-ion-beam applications in structural biology.

    PubMed

    Rigort, Alexander; Plitzko, Jürgen M

    2015-09-01

    The ability to precisely control the preparation of biological samples for investigations by electron cryo-microscopy is becoming increasingly important for ultrastructural imaging in biology. Precision machining instruments such as the focused ion beam microscope (FIB) were originally developed for applications in materials science. However, today we witness a growing use of these tools in the life sciences mainly due to their versatility, since they can be used both as manipulation and as imaging devices, when complemented with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The advent of cryo-preparation equipment and accessories made it possible to pursue work on frozen-hydrated biological specimens with these two beam (FIB/SEM) instruments. In structural biology, the cryo-FIB can be used to site-specifically thin vitrified specimens for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tomography. Having control over the specimen thickness is a decisive factor for TEM imaging, as the thickness of the object under scrutiny determines the attainable resolution. Besides its use for TEM preparation, the FIB/SEM microscope can be additionally used to obtain three-dimensional volumetric data from biological specimens. The unique combination of an imaging and precision manipulation tool allows sequentially removing material with the ion beam and imaging the milled block faces by scanning with the electron beam, an approach known as FIB/SEM tomography. This review covers both fields of cryo-FIB applications: specimen preparation for TEM cryo-tomography and volume imaging by cryo-FIB/SEM tomography.

  7. Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Chris; Burnley, Tom; Patwardhan, Ardan; Scheres, Sjors; Topf, Maya; Roseman, Alan; Winn, Martyn

    2015-01-01

    The Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy (CCP-EM) is a new initiative for the structural biology community, following the success of CCP4 for macromolecular crystallography. Progress in supporting the users and developers of cryoEM software is reported. The Collaborative Computational Project for Electron cryo-Microscopy (CCP-EM) has recently been established. The aims of the project are threefold: to build a coherent cryoEM community which will provide support for individual scientists and will act as a focal point for liaising with other communities, to support practising scientists in their use of cryoEM software and finally to support software developers in producing and disseminating robust and user-friendly programs. The project is closely modelled on CCP4 for macromolecular crystallography, and areas of common interest such as model fitting, underlying software libraries and tools for building program packages are being exploited. Nevertheless, cryoEM includes a number of techniques covering a large range of resolutions and a distinct project is required. In this article, progress so far is reported and future plans are discussed.

  8. Microcystin-LR removal from aqueous solutions using a magnetically separable N-doped TiO2 nanocomposite under visible light irradiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of magnetically separable N-doped TiO2 was found to be significantly improved when compared with a non-magnetic N-doped TiO2 for the aqueous removal of cyanotoxin Microcystin-LR. The observed enhanced photocatalytic activity may be related to the presence of ferri...

  9. Magnetic and highly recyclable macroporous carbon nanotubes for spilled oil sorption and separation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Xuchun; Zeng, Zhiping; Lin, Zhiqiang; Gan, Qiming; Xiang, Rong; Zhu, Yuan; Cao, Anyuan; Tang, Zikang

    2013-06-26

    Development of sorbent materials with high selectivity and sorption capacity, easy collection and recyclability is demanding for spilled oil recovery. Although many sorption materials have been proposed, a systematic study on how they can be reused and possible performance degradation during regeneration remains absent. Here we report magnetic carbon nanotube sponges (Me-CNT sponge), which are porous structures consisting of interconnected CNTs with rich Fe encapsulation. The Me-CNT sponges show high mass sorption capacity for diesel oil reached 56 g/g, corresponding to a volume sorption capacity of 99%. The sponges are mechanically strong and oil can be squeezed out by compression. They can be recycled using through reclamation by magnetic force and desorption by simple heat treatment. The Me-CNT sponges maintain original structure, high capacity, and selectivity after 1000 sorption and reclamation cycles. Our results suggest that practical application of CNT macrostructures in the field of spilled oil recovery is feasible. PMID:23721652

  10. Cell labeling and magnetic separation by means of immunoreagents based on polyacrolein microspheres.

    PubMed

    Rembaum, A; Yen, R C; Kempner, D H; Ugelstad, J

    1982-08-13

    Polyacrolein (PA) microspheres were synthesized by means of ionizing radiation and shown to contain aldehyde groups which form covalent bounds with amino compounds and proteins. PA microspheres made fluorescent after reaction with fluorescein-labeled antibodies were found to specifically label sensitized sheep red blood cells (SRBC). PA microspheres could also be grafted onto a variety of polymeric spheres of different sizes and composition by ionizing radiation. These hybrid spheres, i.e., preformed polymeric spheres with PA microspheres grafted on their surfaces could bind antibodies which retained specificity of reaction with cell surface receptors. Purification of sensitized SRBC from a mixture containing chicken red blood cells (CRBC) by means of hybrids magnetic spheres in a magnetic field was demonstrated. PMID:7130709

  11. CALCULATING SEPARATE MAGNETIC FREE ENERGY ESTIMATES FOR ACTIVE REGIONS PRODUCING MULTIPLE FLARES: NOAA AR11158

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana; Millhouse, Margaret

    2013-06-10

    It is well known that photospheric flux emergence is an important process for stressing coronal fields and storing magnetic free energy, which may then be released during a flare. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured the entire emergence of NOAA AR 11158. This region emerged as two distinct bipoles, possibly connected underneath the photosphere, yet characterized by different photospheric field evolutions and fluxes. The combined active region complex produced 15 GOES C-class, two M-class, and the X2.2 Valentine's Day Flare during the four days after initial emergence on 2011 February 12. The M and X class flares are of particular interest because they are nonhomologous, involving different subregions of the active region. We use a Magnetic Charge Topology together with the Minimum Current Corona model of the coronal field to model field evolution of the complex. Combining this with observations of flare ribbons in the 1600 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO, we propose a minimization algorithm for estimating the amount of reconnected flux and resulting drop in magnetic free energy during a flare. For the M6.6, M2.2, and X2.2 flares, we find a flux exchange of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, and 21.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, respectively, resulting in free energy drops of 3.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, 2.62 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, and 1.68 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg.

  12. Development of an aptamer-based impedimetric bioassay using microfluidic system and magnetic separation for protein detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixian; Ye, Zunzhong; Ping, Jianfeng; Jing, Shunru; Ying, Yibin

    2014-09-15

    An aptamer-based impedimetric bioassay using the microfluidic system and magnetic separation was developed for the sensitive and rapid detection of protein. The microfluidic impedance device was fabricated through integrating the gold interdigitated array microelectrode into a flow cell made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Aptamer modified magnetic beads were used to capture and separate the target protein, and concentrated into a suitable volume. Then the complexes were injected into the microfluidic flow cell for impedance measurement. To demonstrate the high performance of this novel detection system, thrombin was employed as the target protein. The results showed that the impedance signals at the frequency of 90 kHz have a good linearity with the concentrations of thrombin in a range from 0.1 nM to 10nM and the detection limit is 0.01 nM. Compared with the reported impedimetric aptasensors for thrombin detection, this method possesses several advantages, such as the increasing sensitivity, improving reproducibility, reducing sample volume and assay time. All these demonstrate the proposed detection system is an alternative way to enable sensitive, rapid and specific detection of protein. PMID:24709326

  13. Cryo-Tracker mass gauging system testing in a large-scale expendable launch vehicle LOX tank simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieb, Daniel J.; Haberbusch, Mark S.; Yeckley, Alexander J.

    2006-05-01

    Sierra Lobo tested its patented Cryo-Tracker(R) probe and Mass Gauging System in a large scale Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) liquid oxygen tank simulation for NASA. Typical Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank operations were simulated at Lockheed Martin's Engineering Propulsion Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. The Cryo-Tracker(R) probe is 33 feet long, the longest built to date. It was mounted in the tank at only two locations, separated by 26 feet. Each test simulated typical Lockheed Martin booster pre-launch tanking operations, including filling the tank with LOX at fill rates typically used at the launch pad, and maintaining the fill level for a period representative of a typical pad hold. The Cryo-Tracker(R) Mass Gauging System was the primary instrument used for monitoring the fill and controlling the topping operations. Each test also simulated a typical flight profile, expelling the LOX at representative pressures and expulsion flow rates. During expulsion, the Cryo-Tracker(R) System served to generate an Engine Cut-Off (ECO) signal. Test objectives were as follows: Cryo-Tracker(R) data will be validated by flight-like propellant instruments currently used in launch vehicles; the probe will survive the harsh environment (which will be documented by a digital video camera) with no loss of signal or structural integrity; the system will successfully measure liquid levels and temperatures under all conditions and calculate propellant mass in real-time; the system will successfully demonstrate its feasibility as a control sensor for LOX filling and topping operations, as well as for engine cut-off. All objectives were met and the test results are presented.

  14. Cryo-Imaging of Hydrogels Supermolecular Structure.

    PubMed

    Marmorat, Clement; Arinstein, Arkadii; Koifman, Naama; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zussman, Eyal; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin, derived from collagen, has both the mechanical properties required for tissue growth, as well the functional domains required for cell binding. In its natural state, gelatin derives its properties from a network of structured, intertwined, triple helical chains, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds at temperatures below 37 °C. The mechanical properties of such a structure can be further controlled by additional enzymatic cross-linking. But, in contrast to simple polymer systems, the response to an imposed deformation is here determined by two competing factors: the establishment of the cross-linked mesh vs. the self-assembly of the fibrils into larger and stronger hierarchical structures. Therefore, properties deduced from the response to measurements such as rheology or swelling, are a combination of these two very different factors, hence a modeling is impossible unless more precise knowledge regarding the internal structure is available. The cryogenic-temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was adopted to image the fully hydrated gelatin network in which distinct chain folding was observed at low densities, while cross-linked networks were observed at higher densities. Based on these images, a theoretical model which results in good agreement between the mesh sizes of both networks and their mechanical properties was developed. PMID:27147410

  15. Cryo-electron tomography of vaccinia virus

    PubMed Central

    Cyrklaff, Marek; Risco, Cristina; Fernández, Jose Jesús; Jiménez, Maria Victoria; Estéban, Mariano; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Carrascosa, José L.

    2005-01-01

    The combination of cryo-microscopy and electron tomographic reconstruction has allowed us to determine the structure of one of the more complex viruses, intracellular mature vaccinia virus, at a resolution of 4–6 nm. The tomographic reconstruction allows us to dissect the different structural components of the viral particle, avoiding projection artifacts derived from previous microscopic observations. A surface-rendering representation revealed brick-shaped viral particles with slightly rounded edges and dimensions of ≈360 × 270 × 250 nm. The outer layer was consistent with a lipid membrane (5–6 nm thick), below which usually two lateral bodies were found, built up by a heterogeneous material without apparent ordering or repetitive features. The internal core presented an inner cavity with electron dense coils of presumptive DNA–protein complexes, together with areas of very low density. The core was surrounded by two layers comprising an overall thickness of ≈18–19 nm; the inner layer was consistent with a lipid membrane. The outer layer was discontinuous, formed by a periodic palisade built by the side interaction of T-shaped protein spikes that were anchored in the lower membrane and were arranged into small hexagonal crystallites. It was possible to detect a few pore-like structures that communicated the inner side of the core with the region outside the layer built by the T-shaped spike palisade. PMID:15699328

  16. Cryo-Imaging of Hydrogels Supermolecular Structure

    PubMed Central

    Marmorat, Clement; Arinstein, Arkadii; Koifman, Naama; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zussman, Eyal; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin, derived from collagen, has both the mechanical properties required for tissue growth, as well the functional domains required for cell binding. In its natural state, gelatin derives its properties from a network of structured, intertwined, triple helical chains, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds at temperatures below 37 °C. The mechanical properties of such a structure can be further controlled by additional enzymatic cross-linking. But, in contrast to simple polymer systems, the response to an imposed deformation is here determined by two competing factors: the establishment of the cross-linked mesh vs. the self-assembly of the fibrils into larger and stronger hierarchical structures. Therefore, properties deduced from the response to measurements such as rheology or swelling, are a combination of these two very different factors, hence a modeling is impossible unless more precise knowledge regarding the internal structure is available. The cryogenic-temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was adopted to image the fully hydrated gelatin network in which distinct chain folding was observed at low densities, while cross-linked networks were observed at higher densities. Based on these images, a theoretical model which results in good agreement between the mesh sizes of both networks and their mechanical properties was developed. PMID:27147410

  17. Databases and Archiving for CryoEM.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, A; Lawson, C L

    2016-01-01

    CryoEM in structural biology is currently served by three public archives-EMDB for 3DEM reconstructions, PDB for models built from 3DEM reconstructions, and EMPIAR for the raw 2D image data used to obtain the 3DEM reconstructions. These archives play a vital role for both the structural community and the wider biological community in making the data accessible so that results may be reused, reassessed, and integrated with other structural and bioinformatics resources. The important role of the archives is underpinned by the fact that many journals mandate the deposition of data to PDB and EMDB on publication. The field is currently undergoing transformative changes where on the one hand high-resolution structures are becoming a routine occurrence while on the other hand electron tomography is enabling the study of macromolecules in the cellular context. Concomitantly the archives are evolving to best serve their stakeholder communities. In this chapter, we describe the current state of the archives, resources available for depositing, accessing, searching, visualizing and validating data, on-going community-wide initiatives and opportunities, and challenges for the future. PMID:27572735

  18. Cryo-Imaging of Hydrogels Supermolecular Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmorat, Clement; Arinstein, Arkadii; Koifman, Naama; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zussman, Eyal; Rafailovich, Miriam

    2016-05-01

    Gelatin, derived from collagen, has both the mechanical properties required for tissue growth, as well the functional domains required for cell binding. In its natural state, gelatin derives its properties from a network of structured, intertwined, triple helical chains, which is stabilized by hydrogen bonds at temperatures below 37 °C. The mechanical properties of such a structure can be further controlled by additional enzymatic cross-linking. But, in contrast to simple polymer systems, the response to an imposed deformation is here determined by two competing factors: the establishment of the cross-linked mesh vs. the self-assembly of the fibrils into larger and stronger hierarchical structures. Therefore, properties deduced from the response to measurements such as rheology or swelling, are a combination of these two very different factors, hence a modeling is impossible unless more precise knowledge regarding the internal structure is available. The cryogenic-temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was adopted to image the fully hydrated gelatin network in which distinct chain folding was observed at low densities, while cross-linked networks were observed at higher densities. Based on these images, a theoretical model which results in good agreement between the mesh sizes of both networks and their mechanical properties was developed.

  19. Magnetically separable mesoporous Fe3O4/silica catalysts with very low Fe3O4 content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau-Atienza, A.; Serrano, E.; Linares, N.; Svedlindh, P.; Seisenbaeva, G.; García-Martínez, J.

    2016-05-01

    Two magnetically separable Fe3O4/SiO2 (aerogel and MSU-X) composites with very low Fe3O4 content (<1 wt%) have been successfully prepared at room temperature by co-condensation of MPTES-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) with a silicon alkoxide. This procedure yields a homogeneous incorporation of the Fe3O4 NPs on silica supports, leading to magnetic composites that can be easily recovered using an external magnetic field, despite their very low Fe3O4 NPs content (ca. 1 wt%). These novel hybrid Fe3O4/SiO2 materials have been tested for the oxidation reaction of 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) with hydrogen peroxide showing an enhancement of the stability of the NPs in the Fe3O4/silica aerogel as compared to the Fe3O4 NPs alone, even after five catalytic cycles, no leaching or agglomeration of the Fe3O4/SiO2 systems.

  20. Process for decontaminating radioactive waste water using a ferrofluid and magnetic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, G.L.

    1980-07-31

    The present invention provides a process for decontaminating radioactive waste water containing a radioactive element that forms a water-insoluble compound. This process includes the steps of forming the compound of the radioactive element, treating the resulting waste water with a ferrofluid, dispersing the ferrofluid, diluting the solids concentration of the resulting mixture with a coagulation initiator, such as ethyl alcohol or acetone, and collecting by use of a magnetic field, the resulting radioactive sludge. In a variation of the process, the steps involving the use of the coagulation initiator and the use of the ferrofluid are reversed.

  1. Versatile fabrication of ultralight magnetic foams and application for oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning; Pan, Qinmin

    2013-08-27

    Ultralow-density (<10 mg cm(-3)) materials have many important technological applications; however, most of them were fabricated using either expensive materials or complicated procedures. In this study, ultralight magnetic Fe2O3/C, Co/C, and Ni/C foams (with a density <5 mg cm(-3)) were fabricated on the centimeter scale by pyrolyzing commercial polyurethane sponge grafted with polyelectrolyte layers based on the corresponding metal acrylate at 400 °C. The ultralight foams consisted of 3D interconnected hollow tubes that have a diameter of micrometer and nanoscale wall thickness, forming hierarchical structures from macroscopic to nanometer length scales. More interesting was that the wall thickness and morphology of the microtubes could be tuned by controlling the concentrations of acrylic acid and metallic cations. After modification with low-surface-energy polysiloxane, the ultralight foams showed superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, which quickly and selectively absorbed a variety of oils from a polluted water surface under magnetic field. The oil absorption capacity reached 100 times of the foams' own weight, exhibiting one of the highest values among existing absorptive counterparts. By controlling the composition and conformation of the grafted polyelectrolyte layers, the present approach is extendable to fabricate a variety of ultralow-density materials desirable for absorptive materials, electrode materials, catalyst supports, etc.

  2. Magnetically separable polymer (Mag-MIP) for selective analysis of biotin in food samples.

    PubMed

    Uzuriaga-Sánchez, Rosario Josefina; Khan, Sabir; Wong, Ademar; Picasso, Gino; Pividori, Maria Isabel; Sotomayor, Maria Del Pilar Taboada

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an efficient method for the preparation of magnetic nanoparticles modified with molecularly imprinted polymers (Mag-MIP) through core-shell method for the determination of biotin in milk food samples. The functional monomer acrylic acid was selected from molecular modeling, EGDMA was used as cross-linking monomer and AIBN as radical initiator. The Mag-MIP and Mag-NIP were characterized by FTIR, magnetic hysteresis, XRD, SEM and N2-sorption measurements. The capacity of Mag-MIP for biotin adsorption, its kinetics and selectivity were studied in detail. The adsorption data was well described by Freundlich isotherm model with adsorption equilibrium constant (KF) of 1.46 mL g(-1). The selectivity experiments revealed that prepared Mag-MIP had higher selectivity toward biotin compared to other molecules with different chemical structure. The material was successfully applied for the determination of biotin in diverse milk samples using HPLC for quantification of the analyte, obtaining the mean value of 87.4% recovery.

  3. Versatile fabrication of ultralight magnetic foams and application for oil-water separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning; Pan, Qinmin

    2013-08-27

    Ultralow-density (<10 mg cm(-3)) materials have many important technological applications; however, most of them were fabricated using either expensive materials or complicated procedures. In this study, ultralight magnetic Fe2O3/C, Co/C, and Ni/C foams (with a density <5 mg cm(-3)) were fabricated on the centimeter scale by pyrolyzing commercial polyurethane sponge grafted with polyelectrolyte layers based on the corresponding metal acrylate at 400 °C. The ultralight foams consisted of 3D interconnected hollow tubes that have a diameter of micrometer and nanoscale wall thickness, forming hierarchical structures from macroscopic to nanometer length scales. More interesting was that the wall thickness and morphology of the microtubes could be tuned by controlling the concentrations of acrylic acid and metallic cations. After modification with low-surface-energy polysiloxane, the ultralight foams showed superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, which quickly and selectively absorbed a variety of oils from a polluted water surface under magnetic field. The oil absorption capacity reached 100 times of the foams' own weight, exhibiting one of the highest values among existing absorptive counterparts. By controlling the composition and conformation of the grafted polyelectrolyte layers, the present approach is extendable to fabricate a variety of ultralow-density materials desirable for absorptive materials, electrode materials, catalyst supports, etc. PMID:23875978

  4. Improvement of the separation of tumour cells from peripheral blood cells using magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalbe, M.; Pachmann, K.; Höffken, K.; Clement, J. H.

    2006-09-01

    Circulating tumour cells are a key challenge in tumour therapy. Numerous approaches are on the way to achieving the elimination of these potential sources of metastasis formation. Antibody-directed magnetic cell sorting is supposed to enrich tumour cells with high selectivity, but low efficiency. The short term application of carboxymethyl dextran (CMD) coated magnetit/maghemit nanoparticles allows the discrimination of tumour cells from leukocytes. In the present work we show that the interaction of CMD nanoparticles is cell-type specific and time dependent. The breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the CML cell line K-562 are characterized by a rapid and high interaction rate, whereas leukocytes exhibit a decelerated behaviour. The addition of carboxymethyl dextran or glucose stimulated the magnetic labelling of leukocytes. The variation of the degree of substitution of dextran with carboxymethyl groups did not affect the labelling profile of leukocytes and MCF-7 cells. In order to verify the in vitro results, whole blood samples from 13 cancer patients were analysed ex vivo. Incubation of the purified leukocyte fraction with CMD nanoparticles in the presence of low amounts of plasma reduced the overall cell content in the positive fraction. In contrast, the absolute number of residual tumour cells in the positive fraction was 90% of the initial amount.

  5. Design of countercurrent separation of Ginkgo biloba terpene lactones by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Feng; Friesen, J Brent; McAlpine, James B; Pauli, Guido F

    2012-06-15

    Terpene lactones such as bilobalide, ginkgolides A, B, C, and J are major bioactive compounds of Ginkgo biloba L. Purification of these compounds is tedious due to their similar chemical properties. For the purpose of developing an effective and efficient method for both analytical and preparative separation of terpene lactones in G. biloba, an innovative orthogonality-enhanced high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) method was established. Taking advantage of quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR) methodology, partition coefficients (K) of individual terpene lactones were calculated directly from crude G. biloba leaf extract, using their H-12 signals as distinguishing feature. The partitioning experiment assisted the design of a two dimensional (2D) HSCCC procedure using a pair of orthogonal HSCCC solvent systems (SSs), ChMWat +4 and HEMSoWat +3/0.05%. It was surprising that the resolution of ginkgolides A and B was improved by 25% in the HEMWat +3 SS modified with 0.5% DMSO. Consequently, all five terpene lactones could be well separated with qHNMR purity>95% from G. biloba leaf extract. The separation was further evaluated by offline qHNMR analysis of HSCCC fractions associated with Gaussian curve fitting. The results showed less than 2% error in HSCCC retention predicted from the partitioning experiment. This compelling consistency demonstrates that qHNMR-derived K determination ("K-by-NMR") can be used to predict CCC fractionation and target purification of analytes from complex mixtures. Furthermore, Gaussian curve fitting enabled an accurate prediction of less than 2% impurity in the CCC fraction, which demonstrates its potential as a powerful tool to study the presence of minor constituents, especially when they are beyond the detection limit of conventional spectroscopic detectors.

  6. Towards correlative super-resolution fluorescence and electron cryo-microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Georg; Hagen, Christoph; Grünewald, Kay; Kaufmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) has become a powerful tool in life sciences. Particularly cryo-CLEM, the combination of fluorescence cryo-microscopy (cryo-FM) permitting for non-invasive specific multi-colour labelling, with electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) providing the undisturbed structural context at a resolution down to the Ångstrom range, has enabled a broad range of new biological applications. Imaging rare structures or events in crowded environments, such as inside a cell, requires specific fluorescence-based information for guiding cryo-EM data acquisition and/or to verify the identity of the structure of interest. Furthermore, cryo-CLEM can provide information about the arrangement of specific proteins in the wider structural context of their native nano-environment. However, a major obstacle of cryo-CLEM currently hindering many biological applications is the large resolution gap between cryo-FM (typically in the range of ∼400 nm) and cryo-EM (single nanometre to the Ångstrom range). Very recently, first proof of concept experiments demonstrated the feasibility of super-resolution cryo-FM imaging and the correlation with cryo-EM. This opened the door towards super-resolution cryo-CLEM, and thus towards direct correlation of structural details from both imaging modalities.

  7. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models.

  8. Cryo-balloon catheter localization in fluoroscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzendorfer, Tanja; Brost, Alexander; Jakob, Carolin; Mewes, Philip W.; Bourier, Felix; Koch, Martin; Kurzidim, Klaus; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert

    2013-03-01

    Minimally invasive catheter ablation has become the preferred treatment option for atrial fibrillation. Although the standard ablation procedure involves ablation points set by radio-frequency catheters, cryo-balloon catheters have even been reported to be more advantageous in certain cases. As electro-anatomical mapping systems do not support cryo-balloon ablation procedures, X-ray guidance is needed. However, current methods to provide support for cryo-balloon catheters in fluoroscopically guided ablation procedures rely heavily on manual user interaction. To improve this, we propose a first method for automatic cryo-balloon catheter localization in fluoroscopic images based on a blob detection algorithm. Our method is evaluated on 24 clinical images from 17 patients. The method successfully detected the cryoballoon in 22 out of 24 images, yielding a success rate of 91.6 %. The successful localization achieved an accuracy of 1.00 mm +/- 0.44 mm. Even though our methods currently fails in 8.4 % of the images available, it still offers a significant improvement over manual methods. Furthermore, detecting a landmark point along the cryo-balloon catheter can be a very important step for additional post-processing operations.

  9. Breaking Cryo-EM Resolution Barriers to Facilitate Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Merk, Alan; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Banerjee, Soojay; Falconieri, Veronica; Rao, Prashant; Davis, Mindy I; Pragani, Rajan; Boxer, Matthew B; Earl, Lesley A; Milne, Jacqueline L S; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2016-06-16

    Recent advances in single-particle cryoelecton microscopy (cryo-EM) are enabling generation of numerous near-atomic resolution structures for well-ordered protein complexes with sizes ≥ ∼200 kDa. Whether cryo-EM methods are equally useful for high-resolution structural analysis of smaller, dynamic protein complexes such as those involved in cellular metabolism remains an important question. Here, we present 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structures of the cancer target isocitrate dehydrogenase (93 kDa) and identify the nature of conformational changes induced by binding of the allosteric small-molecule inhibitor ML309. We also report 2.8-Å- and 1.8-Å-resolution structures of lactate dehydrogenase (145 kDa) and glutamate dehydrogenase (334 kDa), respectively. With these results, two perceived barriers in single-particle cryo-EM are overcome: (1) crossing 2 Å resolution and (2) obtaining structures of proteins with sizes < 100 kDa, demonstrating that cryo-EM can be used to investigate a broad spectrum of drug-target interactions and dynamic conformational states.

  10. Refinement of Atomic Structures Against cryo-EM Maps.

    PubMed

    Murshudov, G N

    2016-01-01

    This review describes some of the methods for atomic structure refinement (fitting) against medium/high-resolution single-particle cryo-EM reconstructed maps. Some of the tools developed for macromolecular X-ray crystal structure analysis, especially those encapsulating prior chemical and structural information can be transferred directly for fitting into cryo-EM maps. However, despite the similarities, there are significant differences between data produced by these two techniques; therefore, different likelihood functions linking the data and model must be used in cryo-EM and crystallographic refinement. Although tools described in this review are mostly designed for medium/high-resolution maps, if maps have sufficiently good quality, then these tools can also be used at moderately low resolution, as shown in one example. In addition, the use of several popular crystallographic methods is strongly discouraged in cryo-EM refinement, such as 2Fo-Fc maps, solvent flattening, and feature-enhanced maps (FEMs) for visualization and model (re)building. Two problems in the cryo-EM field are overclaiming resolution and severe map oversharpening. Both of these should be avoided; if data of higher resolution than the signal are used, then overfitting of model parameters into the noise is unavoidable, and if maps are oversharpened, then at least parts of the maps might become very noisy and ultimately uninterpretable. Both of these may result in suboptimal and even misleading atomic models. PMID:27572731

  11. Cryo-electron tomography in biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Koning, Roman I; Koster, Abraham J

    2009-11-01

    During the last six decades electron microscopy (EM) has been essential to ultra-structural studies of the cell to understand the fundamentals of cellular morphology and processes underlying diseases. More recently, electron tomography (ET) has emerged as a novel approach able to provide three-dimensional (3D) information on cells and tissues at molecular level. Electron tomography is comparable to medical tomographic techniques like CAT, PET and MRI in the sense that it provides a 3D view of an object, yet it does so at a cellular scale and with nanometer resolution. Electron tomography has the unique ability to visualize molecular assemblies, cytoskeletal elements and organelles within cells. The three-dimensional perspective it provides has revised our understanding of cellular organization and its relation with morphological changes in normal development and disease. Cryo-electron tomography of vitrified samples at cryogenic temperatures combines excellent structural preservation with direct high-resolution imaging. The use of cryo-preparation and imaging techniques eliminates artifacts induced by plastic embedding and staining of the samples is circumvented. This review describes the technique of cryo-electron tomography, its basic principles, cryo-specimen preparation, tomographic data acquisition and image processing. A number of illustrative examples ranging from whole cells, cytoskeletal filaments, viruses and organelles are presented along with a comprehensive list of research articles employing cryo-electron tomography as the key ultrastuctural technique.

  12. Evidence for Two Separate but Interlaced Components of the Chromospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reardom, K. P.; Wang, Y.-M.; Muglach, K.; Warren, H. P.

    2011-01-01

    Chromospheric fibrils are generally thought to trace out low-lying, mainly horizontal magnetic elds that fan out from flux concentrations in the photosphere. A high-resolution (approximately 0.1" per pixel) image, taken in the core of the Ca II 854.2 nm line and covering an unusually large area, shows the dark brils within an active region remnant as fine, looplike features that are aligned parallel to each other and have lengths comparable to a supergranular diameter. Comparison with simultaneous line-of-sight magnetograms confirms that the fibrils are centered above intranetwork areas (supergranular cell interiors), with one end rooted just inside the neighboring plage or strong unipolar network but the other endpoint less clearly defined. Focusing on a particular arcade-like structure lying entirely on one side of a lament channel (large-scale polarity inversion), we find that the total amount of positive-polarity flux underlying this "fibril arcade" is approximately 50 times greater than the total amount of negative-polarity flux. Thus, if the brils represent closed loops, they must consist of very weak fields (in terms of total magnetic flux), which are interpenetrated by a more vertical field that contains most of the flux. This surprising result suggests that the fibrils in unipolar regions connect the network to the nearby intranetwork flux, while the bulk of the network flux links to remote regions of the opposite polarity, forming a second, higher canopy above the fibril canopy. The chromospheric field near the edge of the network thus has an interlaced structure resembling that in sunspot penumbrae.

  13. EVIDENCE FOR TWO SEPARATE BUT INTERLACED COMPONENTS OF THE CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, K. P.; Wang, Y.-M.; Warren, H. P.; Muglach, K. E-mail: yi.wang@nrl.navy.mil E-mail: karin.muglach@nasa.gov

    2011-12-01

    Chromospheric fibrils are generally thought to trace out low-lying, mainly horizontal magnetic fields that fan out from flux concentrations in the photosphere. A high-resolution ({approx}0.''1 pixel{sup -1}) image, taken in the core of the Ca II 854.2 nm line and covering an unusually large area, shows the dark fibrils within an active region remnant as fine, looplike features that are aligned parallel to each other and have lengths comparable to a supergranular diameter. Comparison with simultaneous line-of-sight magnetograms confirms that the fibrils are centered above intranetwork areas (supergranular cell interiors), with one end rooted just inside the neighboring plage or strong unipolar network but the other endpoint less clearly defined. Focusing on a particular arcade-like structure lying entirely on one side of a filament channel (large-scale polarity inversion), we find that the total amount of positive-polarity flux underlying this 'fibril arcade' is {approx}50 times greater than the total amount of negative-polarity flux. Thus, if the fibrils represent closed loops, they must consist of very weak fields (in terms of total magnetic flux), which are interpenetrated by a more vertical field that contains most of the flux. This surprising result suggests that the fibrils in unipolar regions connect the network to the nearby intranetwork flux, while the bulk of the network flux links to remote regions of the opposite polarity, forming a second, higher canopy above the fibril canopy. The chromospheric field near the edge of the network thus has an interlaced structure resembling that in sunspot penumbrae.

  14. ISOTOPE SEPARATORS

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, C.G.

    1958-08-26

    An improvement is presented in the structure of an isotope separation apparatus and, in particular, is concerned with a magnetically operated shutter associated with a window which is provided for the purpose of enabling the operator to view the processes going on within the interior of the apparatus. The shutier is mounted to close under the force of gravity in the absence of any other force. By closing an electrical circuit to a coil mouated on the shutter the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus coacts with the magnetic field of the coil to force the shutter to the open position.

  15. Levitation Performance of Two Opposed Permanent Magnet Pole-Pair Separated Conical Bearingless Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Peter; Jansen, Ralph; Dever, Timothy; Nagorny, Aleksandr; Loparo, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    In standard motor applications, rotor suspension with traditional mechanical bearings represents the most economical solution. However, in certain high performance applications, rotor suspension without contacting bearings is either required or highly beneficial. Examples include applications requiring very high speed or extreme environment operation, or with limited access for maintenance. This paper expands upon a novel bearingless motor concept, in which two motors with opposing conical air-gaps are used to achieve full five-axis levitation and rotation of the rotor. Force in this motor is created by deliberately leaving the motor s pole-pairs unconnected, which allows the creation of different d-axis flux in each pole pair. This flux imbalance is used to create lateral force. This approach is different than previous bearingless motor designs, which require separate windings for levitation and rotation. This paper examines the predicted and achieved suspension performance of a fully levitated prototype bearingless system.

  16. Identification of new astatine isotopes using the gas-filled magnetic separator, SASSY

    SciTech Connect

    Yashita, S.

    1984-02-01

    A He-filled on-line mass separator system was built at the SuperHILAC and used to study the fusion products in the reaction /sup 56/Fe + /sup 141/Pr. The new neutron-deficient isotopes /sup 194/At and /sup 195/At were produced in this bombardment as three- and two- neutron-out products, respectively, and were identified by the ..cap alpha..-..cap alpha.. time-correlation technique. The measured ..cap alpha.. energies and half lives are 7.20 +- 0.02 MeV and 180 +- 80 msec for /sup 194/At, and 7.12 +- 0.02 MeV and 200 +- 100 msec for /sup 195/At. 66 references.

  17. Identification of new astatine isotopes using the gas-filled magnetic separator, Sassy

    SciTech Connect

    Yashita, S.

    1983-01-01

    A He-filled on-line separator system was built at the SuperHILAC and used to study the fusion products in the reaction /sup 56/Fe + /sup 141/Pr. The new neutron-deficient isotopes /sup 194/At and /sup 195/At were produced in this bombardment as three- and two-neutron-out products, respectively, and were identified by the ..cap alpha..-..cap alpha.. time-correlation technique. The measured ..cap alpha.. energies and half lives are 7.20 +/- 0.02 MeV and 180 +/- 80 msec for /sup 194/At, and 7.12 +/- 0.02 MeV and 200 +/- 100 msec for /sup 195/At.

  18. Monitoring the Stability of Perfluorocarbon Nanoemulsions by Cryo-TEM Image Analysis and Dynamic Light Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Grapentin, Christoph; Barnert, Sabine; Schubert, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions (PFC-NE) are disperse systems consisting of nanoscale liquid perfluorocarbon droplets stabilized by an emulsifier, usually phospholipids. Perfluorocarbons are chemically inert and non-toxic substances that are exhaled after in vivo administration. The manufacture of PFC-NE can be done in large scales by means of high pressure homogenization or microfluidization. Originally investigated as oxygen carriers for cases of severe blood loss, their application nowadays is more focused on using them as marker agents in 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging (19F MRI). 19F is scarce in organisms and thus PFC-NE are a promising tool for highly specific and non-invasive imaging of inflammation via 19F MRI. Neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages phagocytize PFC-NE and subsequently migrate to inflamed tissues. This technique has proven feasibility in numerous disease models in mice, rabbits and mini pigs. The translation to clinical trials in human needs the development of a stable nanoemulsion whose droplet size is well characterized over a long storage time. Usually dynamic light scattering (DLS) is applied as the standard method for determining particle sizes in the nanometer range. Our study uses a second method, analysis of transmission electron microscopy images of cryo-fixed samples (Cryo-TEM), to evaluate stability of PFC-NE in comparison to DLS. Four nanoemulsions of different composition are observed for one year. The results indicate that DLS alone cannot reveal the changes in particle size, but can even mislead to a positive estimation of stability. The combination with Cryo-TEM images gives more insight in the particulate evolution, both techniques supporting one another. The study is one further step in the development of analytical tools for the evaluation of a clinically applicable perfluorooctylbromide nanoemulsion. PMID:26098661

  19. CryoEDM: A cryogenic experiment to measure the neutron electric dipole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Grinten, M. G. D.; CryoEDM Collaboration; Balashov, S. N.; Francis, V.; Green, K.; Iaydjiev, P. S.; Ivanov, S. N.; Khazov, A.; Tucker, M. A. H.; Wark, D. L.; Davidson, A.; Hardiman, M.; Harris, P. G.; Katsika, K.; Pendlebury, J. M.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Shiers, D. B.; Smith, P.; Townsley, C.; Wardell, I.; Clarke, C.; Henry, S.; Kraus, H.; McCann, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Yoshiki, Y.

    2009-12-01

    CryoEDM is an experiment that aims to measure the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron to a precision of 10 -28 e cm. A description of CryoEDM, the apparatus, technologies and commissioning is presented.

  20. The effect of charge separation on nonlinear electrostatic waves in a magnetized dusty plasma with two-temperature ions

    SciTech Connect

    Maharaj, S. K.; Bharuthram, R.; Pillay, S. R.; Singh, S. V.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2008-09-07

    In view of the observations of parallel (to Earth's magnetic field) spiky electric field structures by the FAST satellite, a theoretical study is conducted using a dusty plasma model comprising Boltzmann distributed hot and cool ions, Boltzmann electrons and a negatively charged cold dust fluid to investigate the existence of similar low frequency nonlinear electrostatic waves in a dusty plasma which could have a similar appearance as the observed waveforms. Charge separation effects are incorporated into our model by the inclusion of Poisson's equation as opposed to assuming quasineutrality. The system of nonlinear equations is then numerically solved. The resulting electric field structure is examined as a function of various plasma parameters such as Mach number, driving electric field amplitude, bulk dust drift speed, particle densities and particle temperatures.

  1. Continuous changes in structure mapped by manifold embedding of single-particle data in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim; Ourmazd, Abbas

    2016-05-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy, when combined with single-particle reconstruction, is a powerful method for studying macromolecular structure. Recent developments in detector technology have pushed the resolution into a range comparable to that of X-ray crystallography. However, cryo-EM is able to separate and thus recover the structure of each of several discrete structures present in the sample. For the more general case involving continuous structural changes, a novel technique employing manifold embedding has been recently demonstrated. Potentially, the entire work-cycle of a molecular machine may be observed as it passes through a continuum of states, and its free-energy landscape may be mapped out. This technique will be outlined and discussed in the context of its application to a large single-particle dataset of yeast ribosomes. PMID:26884261

  2. Continuous changes in structure mapped by manifold embedding of single-particle data in cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim; Ourmazd, Abbas

    2016-05-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy, when combined with single-particle reconstruction, is a powerful method for studying macromolecular structure. Recent developments in detector technology have pushed the resolution into a range comparable to that of X-ray crystallography. However, cryo-EM is able to separate and thus recover the structure of each of several discrete structures present in the sample. For the more general case involving continuous structural changes, a novel technique employing manifold embedding has been recently demonstrated. Potentially, the entire work-cycle of a molecular machine may be observed as it passes through a continuum of states, and its free-energy landscape may be mapped out. This technique will be outlined and discussed in the context of its application to a large single-particle dataset of yeast ribosomes.

  3. Correlative Cryo-Tem Cryo-Stxm and Cryo-Shxm Investigation of Selenium Bioreduction in a Contaminated Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakra, S.; Luef, B.; Tyliszczak, T.; Castelle, C. J.; Mullin, S. W.; Hug, L. A.; Williams, K. H.; Marcus, M.; Banfield, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate mapping of the composition and ultrastructure of minerals and cells is key to understanding biogeochemical process in contaminated environments. Here we developed two apparatus that allow correlation of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (TEM), synchrotron hard X-ray microprobe (SHXM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) datasets. These cryogenic methods enabled precise determination of the distribution, valence state and structure of selenium in intact biofilms sampled during a biostimulation experiment in a contaminated aquifer near Rifle, CO, USA. Results were replicated in the laboratory via anaerobic selenate-reducing enrichment cultures. 16S rRNA analyses of field-derived biofilm indicated the dominance of Betaproteobacteria from the Comamonadaceae family, and uncultivated members of the Simplicispira genus. The major product in field and culture-derived biofilms consists of ~25-300 nm red amorphous Se0 aggregates of colloidal nanoparticles. Correlative analyses of the cultures provided direct evidence for microbial dissimilatory reduction of Se(VI) to Se(IV) to Se0. X-ray diffraction and Se K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy revealed red amorphous Se0 with a first shell Se-Se interatomic distance of 2.339 ± 0.003 Å. STXM showed that these aggregates are strongly associated with a protein-rich biofilm matrix containing acidic polysaccharides. From Rifle groundwater, we isolated a strain that shares 98.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with Dechloromonas aromatica RCB and grows anaerobically by oxidizing acetate and reducing selenate. We refer to this isolate as Dechloromonas selenatis strain RGW99. 3D cryo-electron tomography showed that Se0 particles do not form inside the cytoplasm but rather originate in the cell membrane. The end product of selenate reduction by D. selenatis is 240 ± 66 nm diameter red amorphous Se0 colloidal aggregates. This product was found to be stable for months. Overall

  4. Separation of Intra- and Extramyocellular Lipid Signals in Proton MR Spectra by Determination of Their Magnetic Field Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidle, G.; Machann, J.; Claussen, C. D.; Schick, F.

    2002-02-01

    In skeletal musculature intramyocellular (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipids (EMCL) are stored in compartments of different geometry and experience different magnetic field strengths due to geometrical susceptibility effects. The effect is strong enough to-at least partly-separate IMCL and EMCL contributions in 1H MR spectroscopy, despite IMCL and EMCL consisting of the same substances. The assessment of intramyocellular lipid stores in skeletal musculature by 1H MR spectroscopy plays an important role for studying physiological and pathological aspects of lipid metabolism. Therefore, a method using mathematical tools of Fourier analysis is developed to obtain the magnetic field distribution (MFD) from the measured spectra by deconvolution. A reference lipid spectrum is required which was recorded in tibial yellow bone marrow. It is shown that the separation of IMCL contributions can be performed more precisely-compared to other methods-based on the MFD. Examples of deconvolution in model systems elucidate the principle. Applications of the proposed approach on in vivo examinations in m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior are presented. Fitting the IMCL part of the MFD by a Gaussian lineshape with a linewidth kept fixed with respect to the linewidth of creatine and with the assumption of a smooth but not necessarily symmetrical shape for the EMCL part, the only free fit parameter, the amplitude of the IMCL part, is definite and subtraction leads to the EMCL part in the MFD. This procedure is especially justified for the soleus muscle showing a severely asymmetrical distribution which might lead to a marked overestimation of IMCL using common line fitting procedures.

  5. Analyses of Subnanometer Resolution Cryo-EM Density Maps

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Matthew L.; Baker, Mariah R.; Hryc, Corey F.; DiMaio, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Today, electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) can routinely achieve subnanometer resolutions of complex macromolecular assemblies. From a density map, one can extract key structural and functional information using a variety of computational analysis tools. At subnanometer resolution, these tools make it possible to isolate individual subunits, identify secondary structures, and accurately fit atomic models. With several cryo-EM studies achieving resolutions beyond 5 Å, computational modeling and feature recognition tools have been employed to construct backbone and atomic models of the protein components directly from a density map. In this chapter, we describe several common classes of computational tools that can be used to analyze and model subnanometer resolution reconstructions from cryo-EM. A general protocol for analyzing subnanometer resolution density maps is presented along with a full description of steps used in analyzing the 4.3 Å resolution structure of Mm-cpn. PMID:20888467

  6. Cryo-scanning transmission electron tomography of vitrified cells.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Houben, Lothar; Elbaum, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (CET) of fully hydrated, vitrified biological specimens has emerged as a vital tool for biological research. For cellular studies, the conventional imaging modality of transmission electron microscopy places stringent constraints on sample thickness because of its dependence on phase coherence for contrast generation. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using scanning transmission electron microscopy for cryo-tomography of unstained vitrified specimens (CSTET). We compare CSTET and CET for the imaging of whole bacteria and human tissue culture cells, finding favorable contrast and detail in the CSTET reconstructions. Particularly at high sample tilts, the CSTET signals contain more informative data than energy-filtered CET phase contrast images, resulting in improved depth resolution. Careful control over dose delivery permits relatively high cumulative exposures before the onset of observable beam damage. The increase in acceptable specimen thickness broadens the applicability of electron cryo-tomography.

  7. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of macromolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Skiniotis, Georgios; Southworth, Daniel R

    2016-02-01

    Recent technological breakthroughs in image acquisition have enabled single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to achieve near-atomic resolution structural information for biological complexes. The improvements in image quality coupled with powerful computational methods for sorting distinct particle populations now also allow the determination of compositional and conformational ensembles, thereby providing key insights into macromolecular function. However, the inherent instability and dynamic nature of biological assemblies remain a tremendous challenge that often requires tailored approaches for successful implementation of the methodology. Here, we briefly describe the fundamentals of single-particle cryo-EM with an emphasis on covering the breadth of techniques and approaches, including low- and high-resolution methods, aiming to illustrate specific steps that are crucial for obtaining structural information by this method.

  8. Cellular structural biology as revealed by cryo-electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Irobalieva, Rossitza N; Martins, Bruno; Medalia, Ohad

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the function of cellular machines requires a thorough analysis of the structural elements that underline their function. Electron microscopy (EM) has been pivotal in providing information about cellular ultrastructure, as well as macromolecular organization. Biological materials can be physically fixed by vitrification and imaged with cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) in a close-to-native condition. Using this technique, one can acquire three-dimensional (3D) information about the macromolecular architecture of cells, depict unique cellular states and reconstruct molecular networks. Technical advances over the last few years, such as improved sample preparation and electron detection methods, have been instrumental in obtaining data with unprecedented structural details. This presents an exciting opportunity to explore the molecular architecture of both individual cells and multicellular organisms at nanometer to subnanometer resolution. In this Commentary, we focus on the recent developments and in situ applications of cryo-ET to cell and structural biology.

  9. CryoScout: A Descent Through the Mars Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.; Saunders, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    CryoScout was proposed as a subsurface investigation of the stratigraphic climate record embedded in Mars North Polar cap. After landing on a gentle landscape in the midst of the mild summer season, CryoScout was to use the continuous polar sunlight to power the descent of a cryobot, a thermal probe, into the ice at a rate of about 1 m per day. CryoScout would probe deep enough into this time capsule to see the effects of planetary obliquity variations and discrete events such as dust storms or volcanic eruptions. By penetrating tens of meters of ice, the mission would explore at least one of the dominant "MOC layers" observed in exposed layered terrain.

  10. GRM crustal magnetic anomalies: Separating the Lord Howe Rise and Norfolk Ridge submarine structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple source bodies often lie within the resolution element of the MAGSAT and POGO data. Small weak sources lying near larger stronger sources will tend to be missed, although they do contribute to the total observed anomaly. Lower elevation magnetic anomaly surveys such as GRM alleviate this problem through the combined effects of significantly greater resolution and stronger signal amplitude. This permits the detection of smaller source bodies, and analysis of their structure and nature. The improvement a GRM will provide is demonstrated in the Lord Howe Rise/Norfolk Ridge area east of Australia, between the Tasman Sea and south Fiji Basin. The submarine features origin have important plate tectonic implications. The Lord Howe Rise (LHR) is a continental fragment broken off from Australia by the opening of the Tasman Sea. It is a wide, shallow structure lying between 160 and 165 deg longitude at 23 to 37 deg S latitude. Seismic refraction data show the LHR crust extending to depths in excess of 20 km.

  11. Preparation of chlorogenic acid surface-imprinted magnetic nanoparticles and their usage in separation of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiao-hong; Xu, Rong; Yuan, Gao-lin; Lu, Hui; Gu, Bing-ren; Xie, Hong-ping

    2010-08-18

    The chlorogenic acid (CGA) surface-imprinted magnetic polymer nanoparticles have been prepared via water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsions suspension polymerization. This kind of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MIPs) had the core-shell structure with the size of about 50 nm. Magnetic susceptibility was given by the successful encapsulation of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles with a high encapsulation efficiency of 19.3 wt%. MIPs showed an excellent recognition and selection properties for the imprinted molecule CGA. The recognition capacity of MIPs was near three times than that of non-imprinted polymer nanoparticles (NIPs). Compared with the competitive molecule caffeic acid (CFA), the selectivity of MIPs for CGA was 6.06 times as high as that of NIPs. MIPs could be reused and regenerated, and their rebinding amount in the fifth use was up to 78.85% of that in the first use. The MIPs prepared were successfully applied to the separation of CGA from the extract of Traditional Chinese Medicine Honeysuckle. PMID:20708118

  12. A rapid method for detection of genetically modified organisms based on magnetic separation and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Guven, Burcu; Boyacı, İsmail Hakkı; Tamer, Ugur; Çalık, Pınar

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a new method combining magnetic separation (MS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was developed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). An oligonucleotide probe which is specific for 35 S DNA target was immobilized onto gold coated magnetic nanospheres to form oligonucleotide-coated nanoparticles. A self assembled monolayer was formed on gold nanorods using 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and the second probe of the 35 S DNA target was immobilized on the activated nanorod surfaces. Probes on the nanoparticles were hybridized with the target oligonucleotide. Optimization parameters for hybridization were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. Optimum hybridization parameters were determined as: 4 μM probe concentration, 20 min immobilization time, 30 min hybridization time, 55 °C hybridization temperature, 750 mM buffer salt concentration and pH: 7.4. Quantification of the target concentration was performed via SERS spectra of DTNB on the nanorods. The correlation between the target concentration and the SERS signal was found to be linear within the range of 25-100 nM. The analyses were performed with only one hybridization step in 40 min. Real sample analysis was conducted using Bt-176 maize sample. The results showed that the developed MS-SERS assay is capable of detecting GMOs in a rapid and selective manner.

  13. Cryo-imaging in a toxicological study on mouse fetuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debashish; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Sloter, Eddie; Watanabe, Michiko; Wilson, David

    2010-03-01

    We applied the Case cryo-imaging system to detect signals of developmental toxicity in transgenic mouse fetuses resulting from maternal exposure to a developmental environmental toxicant (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD). We utilized a fluorescent transgenic mouse model that expresses Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) exclusively in smooth muscles under the control of the smooth muscle gamma actin (SMGA) promoter (SMGA/EGFP mice kindly provided by J. Lessard, U. Cincinnati). Analysis of cryo-image data volumes, comprising of very high-resolution anatomical brightfield and molecular fluorescence block face images, revealed qualitative and quantitative morphological differences in control versus exposed fetuses. Fetuses randomly chosen from pregnant females euthanized on gestation day (GD) 18 were either manually examined or cryo-imaged. For cryo-imaging, fetuses were embedded, frozen and cryo-sectioned at 20 μm thickness and brightfield color and fluorescent block-face images were acquired with an in-plane resolution of ~15 μm. Automated 3D volume visualization schemes segmented out the black embedding medium and blended fluorescence and brightfield data to produce 3D reconstructions of all fetuses. Comparison of Treatment groups TCDD GD13, TCDD GD14 and control through automated analysis tools highlighted differences not observable by prosectors performing traditional fresh dissection. For example, severe hydronephrosis, suggestive of irreversible kidney damage, was detected by cryoimaging in fetuses exposed to TCDD. Automated quantification of total fluorescence in smooth muscles revealed suppressed fluorescence in TCDD-exposed fetuses. This application demonstrated that cryo-imaging can be utilized as a routine high-throughput screening tool to assess the effects of potential toxins on the developmental biology of small animals.

  14. Imaging Drosophila brain by combining cryo-soft X-ray microscopy of thick vitreous sections and cryo-electron microscopy of ultrathin vitreous sections.

    PubMed

    Leforestier, Amélie; Levitz, Pierre; Preat, Thomas; Guttmann, Peter; Michot, Laurent J; Tchénio, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray microscopy is an emerging imaging tool complementary to cryo-electron microscopy, allowing to image frozen hydrated specimens ten to hundred times thicker, but at lower resolution. We describe how the method, so far restricted to isolated small cells or cell monolayers, can be extended to large cells and tissue. We image the synapses of the Kenyon cells in frozen hydrated Drosophila brains combining cryo-soft X-ray microscopy of thick vitreous sections, and cryo-electron microscopy of ultrathin vitreous sections. We show how to obtain frozen hydrated sections of thicknesses ranging from 40 nm up to 2.5 μm, by tuning the sectioning speed of the cryo-microtome. A fluorescent stereo-microscope mounted on the cryo-microtome allowed us to target the regions of interest after GFP-labeling of synapses. Thick cryo-sections were imaged by cryo-soft X-ray microscopy at a resolution better than 25 nm, while ultrathin cryo-sections of the same regions were explored in parallel at the nanometre level of resolution by cryo-electron microscopy.

  15. Cationized Magnetoferritin Enables Rapid Labeling and Concentration of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria in Magnetic Cell Separation Columns

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, J.; Schwarzacher, W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to identify pathogens rapidly and reliably, bacterial capture and concentration from large sample volumes into smaller ones are often required. Magnetic labeling and capture of bacteria using a magnetic field hold great promise for achieving this goal, but the current protocols have poor capture efficiency. Here, we present a rapid and highly efficient approach to magnetic labeling and capture of both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria using cationized magnetoferritin (cat-MF). Magnetic labeling was achieved within a 1-min incubation period with cat-MF, and 99.97% of the labeled bacteria were immobilized in commercially available magnetic cell separation (MACS) columns. Longer incubation times led to more efficient capture, with S. aureus being immobilized to a greater extent than E. coli. Finally, low numbers of magnetically labeled E. coli bacteria (<100 CFU per ml) were immobilized with 100% efficiency and concentrated 7-fold within 15 min. Therefore, our study provides a novel protocol for rapid and highly efficient magnetic labeling, capture, and concentration of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a significant global challenge. Rapid identification of pathogens will retard the spread of AMR by enabling targeted treatment with suitable agents and by reducing inappropriate antimicrobial use. Rapid detection methods based on microfluidic devices require that bacteria are concentrated from large volumes into much smaller ones. Concentration of bacteria is also important to detect low numbers of pathogens with confidence. Here, we demonstrate that magnetic separation columns capture small amounts of bacteria with 100% efficiency. Rapid magnetization was achieved by exposing bacteria to cationic magnetic nanoparticles, and magnetized bacteria were concentrated 7-fold inside the column. Thus, bacterial capture and concentration were achieved

  16. Evidence for Two Separate but Interlaced Components of the Chromospheric Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muglach, K.; Reardon, K. P.; Wang, Y.-M.; Warren, H. P.

    2012-01-01

    Chromospheric fibrils are generally thought to trace out horizontal magnetic fields that fan out from flux concentrations in the photosphere. A high-resolution (0.2") image taken in the core of the Ca IJ854.2 nm line shows the dark fibrils within an active region remnant as fine, loop-like features that are aligned parallel to each other and have lengths on the order of a supergranular diameter (approx.30 Mm). Comparison with a line-of-sight magnetogram confirms that the fibrils are centered above intranetwork areas, with one end rooted just inside the neighboring plage or strong unipolar network but the other endpoint less clearly defined. Focusing on a particular arcade-like structure lying entirely on one side of a filament channel (large-scale polarity inversion), we find that the total amount of positive-polarity flux underlying this "fibril arcade' is 50 times greater than the total amount of negative-polarity flux. Thus, if the fibrils represent closed loops, they must consist of very weak fields (in terms of flux density), which are interpenetrated by a more vertical field that contains most of the flux. This surprising result suggests that the fibrils in unipolar regions connect the network to the nearby intranetwork flux, while the bulk of the network flux is diverted upward into the corona and connects to remote regions of the opposite polarity. We conclude that the chromospheric field near the edge of the network has an interlaced structure resembling that in sunspot penumbrae, with the fibrils representing the low-lying horizontal flux that remains trapped within the highly nonpotential chromospheric layer.

  17. Magnetic-optical nanohybrids for targeted detection, separation, and photothermal ablation of drug-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ondera, Thomas J; Hamme, Ashton T

    2015-12-01

    A rapid, sensitive and quantitative immunoassay for the targeted detection and decontamination of E. coli based on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and plasmonic popcorn-shaped gold nanostructure attached single-walled carbon nanotubes (AuNP@SWCNT) is presented. The MNPs were synthesized as the support for a monoclonal antibody (mAb@MNP). E. coli (49979) was captured and rapidly preconcentrated from the sample with the mAb@MNP, followed by binding with Raman-tagged concanavalin A-AuNP@SWCNTs (Con A-AuNP@SWCNTs) as detector nanoprobes. A Raman tag 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) generated a Raman signal upon 670 nm laser excitation enabling the detection and quantification of E. coli concentration with a limit of detection of 10(2) CFU mL(-1) and a linear logarithmic response range of 1.0 × 10(2) to 1.0 × 10(7) CFU mL(-1). The mAb@MNP could remove more than 98% of E. coli (initial concentration of 1.3 × 10(4) CFU mL(-1)) from water. The potential of the immunoassay to detect E. coli bacteria in real water samples was investigated and the results were compared with the experimental results from the classical count method. There was no statistically significant difference between the two methods (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the MNP/AuNP@SWCNT hybrid system exhibits an enhanced photothermal killing effect. The sandwich-like immunoassay possesses potential for rapid bioanalysis and the simultaneous biosensing of multiple pathogenic agents. PMID:26469636

  18. Magnetic-optical nanohybrids for targeted detection, separation, and photothermal ablation of drug-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ondera, Thomas J; Hamme, Ashton T

    2015-12-01

    A rapid, sensitive and quantitative immunoassay for the targeted detection and decontamination of E. coli based on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and plasmonic popcorn-shaped gold nanostructure attached single-walled carbon nanotubes (AuNP@SWCNT) is presented. The MNPs were synthesized as the support for a monoclonal antibody (mAb@MNP). E. coli (49979) was captured and rapidly preconcentrated from the sample with the mAb@MNP, followed by binding with Raman-tagged concanavalin A-AuNP@SWCNTs (Con A-AuNP@SWCNTs) as detector nanoprobes. A Raman tag 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) generated a Raman signal upon 670 nm laser excitation enabling the detection and quantification of E. coli concentration with a limit of detection of 10(2) CFU mL(-1) and a linear logarithmic response range of 1.0 × 10(2) to 1.0 × 10(7) CFU mL(-1). The mAb@MNP could remove more than 98% of E. coli (initial concentration of 1.3 × 10(4) CFU mL(-1)) from water. The potential of the immunoassay to detect E. coli bacteria in real water samples was investigated and the results were compared with the experimental results from the classical count method. There was no statistically significant difference between the two methods (p > 0.05). Furthermore, the MNP/AuNP@SWCNT hybrid system exhibits an enhanced photothermal killing effect. The sandwich-like immunoassay possesses potential for rapid bioanalysis and the simultaneous biosensing of multiple pathogenic agents.

  19. Validation Experiments supporting the CryoSat-2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, R.; Davidson, M.; Wingham, D.

    2009-12-01

    The primary goals of CryoSat are to derive improved estimates of the rates of change concerning land ice elevation and sea ice thickness and freeboard of the Earth’s land and marine ice fields. Validating such retrievals derived from a phase coherent pulse-width limited polar observing radar altimeter such as SIRAL, the primary payload of CryoSat, is not a simple one. In order to understand all the respective error co-variances it is necessary to acquire many different types of in-situ measurements (GPR, neutron probe density profiles, drilled and electromagnetic derived sea-ice thicknesses, for example) in highly inhospitable regions of the cryosphere at times of the year to detect relevant signals. In order to correlate retrievals from CryoSat with the in-situ data it was decided early in the CryoSat development that an aircraft borne radar altimeter with similar functionality to SIRAL would provide the necessary link, albeit on the smaller scale, and provide pre-launch incite into expected performances. In 2001 ESA commenced the development of its own prototype radar altimeter that mimics the functionality of SIRAL to be operated along-side an airborne laser scanner. Similar to SIRAL, but with subtle functional differences, the airborne SAR/Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS) has now been the centre piece instrument for a number of large scale land and sea ice field campaigns in the Arctic during spring and autumn 2004 and 2006 and 2008. Additional smaller science/test campaigns have taken place in March 2003 (Svalbard), March 2005 (Bay of Bothnia), March 2006 (Western Greenland) and April 2007 (CryoVEx 2007 in Svalbard). It is a credit to all parties that constitute the CryoSat Validation and Retrieval Team (CVRT) for the coordination, planning, acquisition of in-situ and airborne measurements and the subsequent processing and distributing of its data for analysis. CVRT has a robust infrastructure in place for validating and providing measures of

  20. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Risk Reduction Cryo Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Scorse, Thomas R.; Spina, John A.; Noel, Darin M.; Havey, Keith A., Jr.; Huguet, Jesse A.; Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Walker, Chanda B.; Lunt, Sharon; Hadaway, James B.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Marsh, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Optical Ground Support Equipment was integrated into the large cryo vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and an initial Chamber Commissioning Test was completed. This insured that the support equipment was ready for the three Pathfinder telescope cryo tests. The Pathfinder telescope which consists of two primary mirror segment assemblies and the secondary mirror was delivered to JSC in February 2015 in support of this critical risk reduction test program prior to the flight hardware. This paper will detail the Chamber Commissioning and first optical test of the JWST Pathfinder telescope.

  1. Tandem assays of protein and glucose with functionalized core/shell particles based on magnetic separation and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xianming; Yu, Qian; Lv, Zhongpeng; Du, Xuezhong

    2013-10-11

    Tandem assays of protein and glucose in combination with mannose-functionalized Fe3 O4 @SiO2 and Ag@SiO2 tag particles have promising potential in effective magnetic separation and highly sensitive and selective SERS assays of biomaterials. It is for the first time that tandem assay of glucose is developed using SERS based on the Con A-sandwiched microstructures between the functionalized magnetic and tag particles.

  2. Coupling Underwater Superoleophobic Membranes with Magnetic Pickering Emulsions for Fouling-Free Separation of Crude Oil/Water Mixtures: An Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Dudchenko, Alexander V; Rolf, Julianne; Shi, Lucy; Olivas, Liana; Duan, Wenyan; Jassby, David

    2015-10-27

    Oil/water separations have become an area of great interest, as growing oil extraction activities are increasing the generation of oily wastewaters as well as increasing the risk of oil spills. Here, we demonstrate a membrane-based and fouling-free oil/water separation method that couples carbon nanotube-poly(vinyl alcohol) underwater superoleophobic ultrafiltration membranes with magnetic Pickering emulsions. We demonstrate that this process is insensitive to low water temperatures, high ionic strength, or crude oil loading, while allowing operation at high permeate fluxes and producing high quality permeate. Furthermore, we develop a theoretical framework that analyzes the stability of Pickering emulsions under filtration mechanics, relating membrane surface properties and hydrodynamic conditions in the Pickering emulsion cake layer to membrane performance. Finally, we demonstrate the recovery and recyclability of the nanomagnetite used to form the Pickering emulsions through a magnetic separation step, resulting in an environmentally friendly, continuous process for oil/water separation.

  3. Coupling Underwater Superoleophobic Membranes with Magnetic Pickering Emulsions for Fouling-Free Separation of Crude Oil/Water Mixtures: An Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Dudchenko, Alexander V; Rolf, Julianne; Shi, Lucy; Olivas, Liana; Duan, Wenyan; Jassby, David

    2015-10-27

    Oil/water separations have become an area of great interest, as growing oil extraction activities are increasing the generation of oily wastewaters as well as increasing the risk of oil spills. Here, we demonstrate a membrane-based and fouling-free oil/water separation method that couples carbon nanotube-poly(vinyl alcohol) underwater superoleophobic ultrafiltration membranes with magnetic Pickering emulsions. We demonstrate that this process is insensitive to low water temperatures, high ionic strength, or crude oil loading, while allowing operation at high permeate fluxes and producing high quality permeate. Furthermore, we develop a theoretical framework that analyzes the stability of Pickering emulsions under filtration mechanics, relating membrane surface properties and hydrodynamic conditions in the Pickering emulsion cake layer to membrane performance. Finally, we demonstrate the recovery and recyclability of the nanomagnetite used to form the Pickering emulsions through a magnetic separation step, resulting in an environmentally friendly, continuous process for oil/water separation. PMID:26422748

  4. [Cryo-microscopy, an alternative to the X-ray crystallography?].

    PubMed

    Boutin, Jean A; Li, Zhuolun; Vuillard, Laurent; Vénien-Bryan, Catherine

    Recent technological advances have revolutionized the field of structural biologists. Specifically, dramatic progress related to the development of new electron microscopes and image capture (direct electron detection camera) and the provision of new image analysis software has led to a breakthrough in terms of resolution attained using cryo-electron transmission microscopy. It is thus possible to calculate relatively quickly high-resolution structures of biological molecules whom structural study still resists to more conventional methods such as X-ray diffraction or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). These structures thus obtained may also bring complementary structural information to those already described by other methods. Some of these new structures resolved through cryo-electron microscopy revealed for the first time the precise operation of essential mechanisms necessary for the good physiological process of a cell. The ability to solve these structures at atomic resolution detail is essential for the development of new drugs that target these proteins of therapeutic interest. Thanks to these advanced techniques that we summarize in this revew, biological and medical issues have now become accessible, whereas this approach was inconceivable only five yeras ago. ‡. PMID:27615185

  5. Navigation for fluoroscopy-guided cryo-balloon ablation procedures of atrial fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourier, Felix; Brost, Alexander; Kleinoeder, Andreas; Kurzendorfer, Tanja; Koch, Martin; Kiraly, Attila; Schneider, Hans-Juergen; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert; Kurzidim, Klaus

    2012-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib), the most common arrhythmia, has been identified as a major cause of stroke. The current standard in interventional treatment of AFib is the pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). PVI is guided by fluoroscopy or non-fluoroscopic electro-anatomic mapping systems (EAMS). Either classic point-to-point radio-frequency (RF)- catheter ablation or so-called single-shot-devices like cryo-balloons are used to achieve electrically isolation of the pulmonary veins and the left atrium (LA). Fluoroscopy-based systems render overlay images from pre-operative 3-D data sets which are then merged with fluoroscopic imaging, thereby adding detailed 3-D information to conventional fluoroscopy. EAMS provide tracking and visualization of RF catheters by means of electro-magnetic tracking. Unfortunately, current navigation systems, fluoroscopy-based or EAMS, do not provide tools to localize and visualize single shot devices like cryo-balloon catheters in 3-D. We present a prototype software for fluoroscopy-guided ablation procedures that is capable of superimposing 3-D datasets as well as reconstructing cyro-balloon catheters in 3-D. The 3-D cyro-balloon reconstruction was evaluated on 9 clinical data sets, yielded a reprojected 2-D error of 1.72 mm +/- 1.02 mm.

  6. Natural circulation loop using liquid nitrogen for cryo-detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yeon Suk

    2014-01-29

    The natural circulation loop is designed for the cryogenic insert in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. Sensitivity is the key parameter of a FTICR mass spectrometer and the cryo-cooling of the pre-amplifier can reduce the thermal noise level and thereby improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The pre-amplifier consisted of non-magnetic materials is thermally connected to the cooling loop which is passing through the flange maintaining ultra-high vacuum in the ion cell. The liquid nitrogen passes through inside of the loop to cool the pre-amplifier indirectly. At the end, a cryocooler is located to re-condense nitrogen vapor generated due to the heat from the pre-amplifier. The circulating fluid removes heat from the pre-amplifier and transports it to the cryocooler or heat sink. In this paper the natural circulation loop for cryogenic pre-amplifier is introduced for improving the sensitivity of cryo-detector. In addition, the initial cool-down of the system by a cryocooler is presented and the temperature of the radiation shield is discussed with respect to the thickness of shield and the thermal radiation load.

  7. A Toolkit For CryoSat Investigations By The ESRIN EOP-SER Altimetry Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Bruno, Lucas; Benveniste, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this work is to feature the new tool for the exploitation of the CryoSat data, designed and developed entirely by the Altimetry Team at ESRIN EOP-SER (Earth Observation - Exploitation, Research and Development). The tool framework is composed of two separate components: the first one handles the data collection and management, the second one is the processing toolkit. The CryoSat FBR (Full Bit Rate) data is downlinked uncompressed from the satellite, containing un-averaged individual echoes. This data is made available in the Kiruna CalVal server in a 10 day rolling archive. Daily at ESRIN all the CryoSat FBR data, in SAR and SARin Mode, are downloaded (around 30 Gigabytes) catalogued and archived in local ESRIN EOP-SER workstations. As of March 2013, the total amount of FBR data is over 9 Terabytes, with CryoSat acquisition dates spanning January 2011 to February 2013 (with some gaps). This archive was built by merging partial datasets available at ESTEC and NOAA, that have been kindly made available for EOP-SER team. The on-demand access to this low level data is restricted to expert users with validated ESA P.I. credentials. Currently the main users of the archiving functionality are the team members of the Project CP4O (STSE- CryoSat Plus for Ocean), CNES and NOAA. The second component of the service is the processing toolkit. On the EOP-SER workstations there is internally and independently developed software that is able to process the FBR data in SAR/SARin mode to generate multi-looked echoes (Level 1B) and subsequently able to re-track them in SAR and SARin mode (Level 2) over open ocean, exploiting the SAMOSA model and other internally developed models. The processing segment is used for research & development scopes, supporting the development contracts awarded confronting the deliverables to ESA, on site demonstrations/training to selected users, cross- comparison against third part products (CLS/CNES CPP Products for instance), preparation

  8. Conceptual design and optimization for JET water detritiation system cryo-distillation facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, X.; Hollingsworth, A.; Parracho, A.; Dalgliesh, P.; Butler, B.; Smith, R.

    2015-03-15

    The aim of the Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) of the JET Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) is to convert all Q-based species (Q{sub 2}, Q-hydrocarbons) into Q{sub 2}O (Q being indifferently H, D or T) which is then trapped on molecular sieve beds (MSB). Regenerating the saturated MSBs leads to the production of tritiated water which is stored in Briggs drums. An alternative disposal solution to offsite shipping, is to process the tritiated water onsite via the implementation of a Water Detritiation System (WDS) based, in part, on the combination of an electrolyser and a cryo-distillation (CD) facility. The CD system will separate a Q{sub 2} mixture into a de-tritiated hydrogen stream for safe release and a tritiated stream for further processing on existing AGHS subsystems. A sensitivity study of the Souers' model using the simulation program ProSimPlus (edited by ProSim S.A.) has then been undertaken in order to perform an optimised dimensioning of the cryo-distillation system in terms of available cooling technologies, cost of investment, cost of operations, process performance and safety. (authors)

  9. Muscle structure, cryo-methods and image analysis.

    PubMed

    Squire, J; Edman, A C; Freundlich, A; Harford, J; Sjöström, M

    1982-02-01

    Negatively stained cryo-sections from glutaraldehyde fixed, anti-freeze treated muscle, quench-frozen in Freon cooled by liquid nitrogen, show improved preservation of axial structure of the myofibrils compared with conventional plastic sections. Such sections are being used both to characterize the structural differences inthe M-bands of different vertebrate muscles and fibre types and also to define the axial distribution of myosin crossbridges and non-myosin proteins in the crossbridge region of the A-band. Combined with analysis of the transverse A-band structure from plastic sections, the cryo-sections are helping to reconstruct a three-dimensional picture of the molecular architecture of the A-band. This, in turn, is providing the necessary structural background with which to interpret the wealth of published X-ray diffraction data on muscle. Such data should reveal the nature of the contractile event itself. Since good X-ray diffraction patterns can be obtained from living muscles, these can be compared with optical diffraction patterns from muscle cryo-sections as a means of testing the degree of preservation in the sections. Muscle is therefore an excellent tissue with which to evaluate new cryo-techniques. PMID:7086884

  10. A Bayesian View on Cryo-EM Structure Determination

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Sjors H.W.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) structure determination by single-particle analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) images requires many parameters to be determined from extremely noisy data. This makes the method prone to overfitting, that is, when structures describe noise rather than signal, in particular near their resolution limit where noise levels are highest. Cryo-EM structures are typically filtered using ad hoc procedures to prevent overfitting, but the tuning of arbitrary parameters may lead to subjectivity in the results. I describe a Bayesian interpretation of cryo-EM structure determination, where smoothness in the reconstructed density is imposed through a Gaussian prior in the Fourier domain. The statistical framework dictates how data and prior knowledge should be combined, so that the optimal 3D linear filter is obtained without the need for arbitrariness and objective resolution estimates may be obtained. Application to experimental data indicates that the statistical approach yields more reliable structures than existing methods and is capable of detecting smaller classes in data sets that contain multiple different structures. PMID:22100448

  11. Cryomesh: a new substrate for cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Craig; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S

    2010-02-01

    Here we evaluate a new grid substrate developed by ProtoChips Inc. (Raleigh, NC) for cryo-transmission electron microscopy. The new grids are fabricated from doped silicon carbide using processes adapted from the semiconductor industry. A major motivating purpose in the development of these grids was to increase the low-temperature conductivity of the substrate, a characteristic that is thought to affect the appearance of beam-induced movement (BIM) in transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of biological specimens. BIM degrades the quality of data and is especially severe when frozen biological specimens are tilted in the microscope. Our results show that this new substrate does indeed have a significant impact on reducing the appearance and severity of beam-induced movement in TEM images of tilted cryo-preserved samples. Furthermore, while we have not been able to ascertain the exact causes underlying the BIM phenomenon, we have evidence that the rigidity and flatness of these grids may play a major role in its reduction. This improvement in the reliability of imaging at tilt has a significant impact on using data collection methods such as random conical tilt or orthogonal tilt reconstruction with cryo-preserved samples. Reduction in BIM also has the potential for improving the resolution of three-dimensional cryo-reconstructions in general.

  12. Native immunogold labeling of cell surface proteins and viral glycoproteins for cryo-electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography applications.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hong; Strauss, Joshua D; Ke, Zunlong; Alonas, Eric; Dillard, Rebecca S; Hampton, Cheri M; Lamb, Kristen M; Hammonds, Jason E; Santangelo, Philip J; Spearman, Paul W; Wright, Elizabeth R

    2015-10-01

    Numerous methods have been developed for immunogold labeling of thick, cryo-preserved biological specimens. However, most of the methods are permutations of chemical fixation and sample sectioning, which select and isolate the immunolabeled region of interest. We describe a method for combining immunogold labeling with cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) of the surface proteins of intact mammalian cells or the surface glycoproteins of assembling and budding viruses in the context of virus-infected mammalian cells cultured on EM grids. In this method, the cells were maintained in culture media at physiologically relevant temperatures while sequentially incubated with the primary and secondary antibodies. Subsequently, the immunogold-labeled specimens were vitrified and observed under cryo-conditions in the transmission electron microscope. Cryo-EM and cryo-ET examination of the immunogold-labeled cells revealed the association of immunogold particles with the target antigens. Additionally, the cellular structure was unaltered by pre-immunolabeling chemical fixation and retained well-preserved plasma membranes, cytoskeletal elements, and macromolecular complexes. We think this technique will be of interest to cell biologists for cryo-EM and conventional studies of native cells and pathogen-infected cells.

  13. Native Immunogold Labeling of Cell Surface Proteins and Viral Glycoproteins for Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Cryo-Electron Tomography Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hong; Strauss, Joshua D.; Ke, Zunlong; Alonas, Eric; Dillard, Rebecca S.; Hampton, Cheri M.; Lamb, Kristen M.; Hammonds, Jason E.; Santangelo, Philip J.; Spearman, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous methods have been developed for immunogold labeling of thick, cryo-preserved biological specimens. However, most of the methods are permutations of chemical fixation and sample sectioning, which select and isolate the immunolabeled region of interest. We describe a method for combining immunogold labeling with cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) of the surface proteins of intact mammalian cells or the surface glycoproteins of assembling and budding viruses in the context of virus-infected mammalian cells cultured on EM grids. In this method, the cells were maintained in culture media at physiologically relevant temperatures while sequentially incubated with the primary and secondary antibodies. Subsequently, the immunogold-labeled specimens were vitrified and observed under cryo-conditions in the transmission electron microscope. Cryo-EM and cryo-ET examination of the immunogold-labeled cells revealed the association of immunogold particles with the target antigens. Additionally, the cellular structure was unaltered by pre-immunolabeling chemical fixation and retained well-preserved plasma membranes, cytoskeletal elements, and macromolecular complexes. We think this technique will be of interest to cell biologists for cryo-EM and conventional studies of native cells and pathogen-infected cells. PMID:26069287

  14. Microscopic validation of whole mouse micro-metastatic tumor imaging agents using cryo-imaging and sliding organ image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiqiao; Zhou, Bo; Qutaish, Mohammed; Wilson, David L.

    2016-03-01

    We created a metastasis imaging, analysis platform consisting of software and multi-spectral cryo-imaging system suitable for evaluating emerging imaging agents targeting micro-metastatic tumor. We analyzed CREKA-Gd in MRI, followed by cryo-imaging which repeatedly sectioned and tiled microscope images of the tissue block face, providing anatomical bright field and molecular fluorescence, enabling 3D microscopic imaging of the entire mouse with single metastatic cell sensitivity. To register MRI volumes to the cryo bright field reference, we used our standard mutual information, non-rigid registration which proceeded: preprocess --> affine --> B-spline non-rigid 3D registration. In this report, we created two modified approaches: mask where we registered locally over a smaller rectangular solid, and sliding organ. Briefly, in sliding organ, we segmented the organ, registered the organ and body volumes separately and combined results. Though sliding organ required manual annotation, it provided the best result as a standard to measure other registration methods. Regularization parameters for standard and mask methods were optimized in a grid search. Evaluations consisted of DICE, and visual scoring of a checkerboard display. Standard had accuracy of 2 voxels in all regions except near the kidney, where there were 5 voxels sliding. After mask and sliding organ correction, kidneys sliding were within 2 voxels, and Dice overlap increased 4%-10% in mask compared to standard. Mask generated comparable results with sliding organ and allowed a semi-automatic process.

  15. Using size-selected gold clusters on graphene oxide films to aid cryo-transmission electron tomography alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkill, Kenton P.; Mantell, Judith M.; Plant, Simon R.; Verkade, Paul; Palmer, Richard E.

    2015-03-01

    A three-dimensional reconstruction of a nano-scale aqueous object can be achieved by taking a series of transmission electron micrographs tilted at different angles in vitreous ice: cryo-Transmission Electron Tomography. Presented here is a novel method of fine alignment for the tilt series. Size-selected gold clusters of ~2.7 nm (Au561 +/- 14), ~3.2 nm (Au923 +/- 22), and ~4.3 nm (Au2057 +/- 45) in diameter were deposited onto separate graphene oxide films overlaying holes on amorphous carbon grids. After plunge freezing and subsequent transfer to cryo-Transmission Electron Tomography, the resulting tomograms have excellent (de-)focus and alignment properties during automatic acquisition. Fine alignment is accurate when the evenly distributed 3.2 nm gold particles are used as fiducial markers, demonstrated with a reconstruction of a tobacco mosaic virus. Using a graphene oxide film means the fiducial markers are not interfering with the ice bound sample and that automated collection is consistent. The use of pre-deposited size-selected clusters means there is no aggregation and a user defined concentration. The size-selected clusters are mono-dispersed and can be produced in a wide size range including 2-5 nm in diameter. The use of size-selected clusters on a graphene oxide films represents a significant technical advance for 3D cryo-electron microscopy.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic hexacyanoferrate (II) polymeric nanocomposite for separation of cesium from radioactive waste solutions.

    PubMed

    Sheha, Reda R

    2012-12-15

    Nanocrystalline potassium zinc hexacyanoferrate loaded on nanoscale magnetite substrate was successfully synthesized for significantly enhanced removal of cesium from low-level radioactive wastes. A description was given for preparation and properties of these precursors. The physicochemical properties of these nanocomposites were determined using different techniques including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Data clarified that supporting potassium zinc hexacyanoferrates on iron ferrite nanoparticles increased their thermal stability. Further, Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed that the nanocomposites were well coordinated and incorporated in the polymer matrix. The average particle sizes, of these nanoparticles, determined by SEM had a good agreement with XRD results. Based on characterization data, the prepared zinc hexacyanoferrates were proposed to have a zeolitic rhombohedral structure with cavities can host alkali metal ions and water molecules. The magnetic analysis showed a super-paramagnetic behavior. Batch technique was applied to evaluate the influences of initial pH value, contact time, and competing cations on the efficiency of cesium removal. The sorption process was fast initially, and maximum separation was attained within 2h of contact. Cesium exchange was independent from pH value and deviate from ideal exchange phenomena. In neutral solutions, Cs(+) was retained through exchange with K(+); however, in acidic solution, phase transformation was proposed. Sorption capacity of these materials attained values amounted 1965 mg g(-1). The synthesized nanocomposites exhibited different affinities toward Cs(I), Co(II), and Eu(III) elements and showed a good ability to separate them from each other.

  17. Recovery and separation of erythromycin from industrial wastewater by imprinted magnetic nanoparticles that exploit β-cyclodextrin as the functional monomer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Jinyang; Wang, FeiFei; Wu, Gang; Qv, Xue; Hong, Hua; Liu, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    A type of surface imprinting over magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles utilizing erythromycin-A as a template for use in the separation and recovery of erythromycin was developed and investigated. As the intermolecular forces play a key role in the performance of imprinted materials, differential scanning calorimetry, and (1) H NMR spectroscopy was employed to evaluate the interactions between erythromycin and the functional monomer β-cyclodextrin. To synthesize the surface imprinted polymers, magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles, the core materials, were modified with a free radical initiator to initialize polymerization in a "grafting from" manner. Then using acryloyl-modified β-cyclodextrin as the functional monomer and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, thin erythromycin-imprinted films were fabricated by the radical-induced graft copolymerization of monomers on the surface of the Fe3 O4 nanoparticles. Selectivity experiments showed that the erythromycin-A-imprinted materials had recognition ability toward erythromycin derivatives. Finally, these magnetic molecularly imprinted particles were successfully used for the separation and enrichment of erythromycin from the mother liquor. The recovery, detected by high-performance liquid chromatography and differential pulse voltammetry, approached 97%. The combination of the specific selectivity of the imprinted material and the magnetic separation provided a powerful tool that is simple, flexible, and selective for the separation and recovery of erythromycin. PMID:26805958

  18. Magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic polyurethane@Fe3O4@SiO2@fluoropolymer sponges for selective oil absorption and oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Li, Lingxiao; Li, Bucheng; Zhang, Junping; Wang, Aiqin

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic polyurethane (PU) sponges were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to bind the Fe3O4 nanoparticles tightly on the sponge and then dip-coating in a fluoropolymer (FP) aqueous solution. The sponges were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and other analytical techniques. The effects of CVD time of TEOS and FP concentration on wettability, mechanical properties, oil absorbency, and oil/water selectivity of the sponges were also investigated. The sponges exhibit fast magnetic responsivity and excellent superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity (CAwater = 157° and CAoil ≈ 0°). The sponges also show very high efficiency in oil/water separation and could, driven by a magnet, quickly absorb floating oils on the water surface and heavy oils under water. Moreover, the PU@Fe3O4@SiO2@FP sponges could be used as membranes for oil/water separation and for continuous separation of large amounts of oil pollutants from the water surface with the help of a pump. The in turn binding of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, SiO2, and FP can also improve mechanical properties of the PU sponge. The sponges maintain the superhydrophobicity even when they are stretched with 200% strain or compressed with 50% strain. The sponges also show excellent mechanical stability, oil stability, and reusability in terms of superhydrophobicity and oil absorbency. The magnetic, durable, and superhydrophobic PU sponges are very promising materials for practical oil absorption and oil/water separation. PMID:25671386

  19. Ultrasonic-assisted preparation of novel ternary ZnO/AgI/Fe3O4 nanocomposites as magnetically separable visible-light-driven photocatalysts with excellent activity.

    PubMed

    Shekofteh-Gohari, Maryam; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The present work demonstrates preparation of novel ternary ZnO/AgI/Fe3O4 nanocomposites, as magnetically separable visible-light-driven photocatalysts using ultrasonic irradiation method. The XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-vis DRS, FT-IR, PL, and VSM techniques was applied for characterization of structure, purity, morphology, optical, and magnetic properties of the resultant samples. The superior activity was seen for the nanocomposite with 8 weight ratio of ZnO/AgI to Fe3O4 in degradation of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. Photocatalytic activity of this nanocomposite in degradation of rhodamine B, methylene blue, and methyl orange is about 32, 6, and 5-fold higher than that of the ZnO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite. The highly enhanced activity of the ternary magnetic photocatalyst was mainly attributed to more visible-light absorption ability and efficiently separation of the charge carriers. Furthermore, it was revealed that the ultrasonic irradiation time and calcination temperature affect largely on the photocatalytic activity. Finally, the magnetic photocatalyst was successfully separated from the treated solution using external magnetic field.

  20. CryoSat Plus For Oceans: an ESA Project for CryoSat-2 Data Exploitation Over Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Cotton, D.; Clarizia, M.; Roca, M.; Gommenginger, C. P.; Naeije, M. C.; Labroue, S.; Picot, N.; Fernandes, J.; Andersen, O. B.; Cancet, M.; Dinardo, S.; Lucas, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The ESA CryoSat-2 mission is the first space mission to carry a space-borne radar altimeter that is able to operate in the conventional pulsewidth-limited (LRM) mode and in the novel Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode. Although the prime objective of the Cryosat-2 mission is dedicated to monitoring land and marine ice, the SAR mode capability of the Cryosat-2 SIRAL altimeter also presents the possibility of demonstrating significant potential benefits of SAR altimetry for ocean applications, based on expected performance enhancements which include improved range precision and finer along track spatial resolution. With this scope in mind, the "CryoSat Plus for Oceans" (CP4O) Project, dedicated to the exploitation of CryoSat-2 Data over ocean, supported by the ESA STSE (Support To Science Element) programme, brings together an expert European consortium comprising: DTU Space, isardSAT, National Oceanography Centre , Noveltis, SatOC, Starlab, TU Delft, the University of Porto and CLS (supported by CNES),. The objectives of CP4O are: - to build a sound scientific basis for new scientific and operational applications of Cryosat-2 data over the open ocean, polar ocean, coastal seas and for sea-floor mapping. - to generate and evaluate new methods and products that will enable the full exploitation of the capabilities of the Cryosat-2 SIRAL altimeter , and extend their application beyond the initial mission objectives. - to ensure that the scientific return of the Cryosat-2 mission is maximised. In particular four themes will be addressed: -Open Ocean Altimetry: Combining GOCE Geoid Model with CryoSat Oceanographic LRM Products for the retrieval of CryoSat MSS/MDT model over open ocean surfaces and for analysis of mesoscale and large scale prominent open ocean features. Under this priority the project will also foster the exploitation of the finer resolution and higher SNR of novel CryoSat SAR Data to detect short spatial scale open ocean features. -High Resolution Polar

  1. Microwave Heating and Pre-sintering of Copper Powder Metal Compacts in Separated Electric and Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Kelly; Johnson, Earnie; Ma, Junkun; Miskovsky, Nicholas; Weisel, Gary; Weiss, Brock; Zimmerman, Darin

    2006-03-01

    We present results of microwave heating and pre-sintering of pure copper metal powder compacts. Using a 2.45GHz, WR284 microwave system operating in TE102 single mode resonance, we have systematically studied the microwave heating and pre-sintering behavior of various copper powder metal compacts as a function of particle size and green density. Cylindrical samples (0.25in by 0.25in) were positioned in either the magnetic-- or electric--field antinode, allowing the study of the separate effects of the two fields. The results show significant differences in heating rates and sample microstructure (SEM) even when average sample temperatures are below half the melting point of bulk copper. Numerical simulations of the absorption and heating have been developed to check the consistency of the experimental results. We acknowledge the additional work of undergraduate students John Diehl, John Rea, Charles Smith, and Devin Spratt, who assisted in the setup of experimental apparatus, sample preparation, and data acquisition.

  2. Preparation of anionic polyelectrolyte modified magnetic nanoparticles for rapid and efficient separation of lysozyme from egg white.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Lin, Yuexin; Jia, Li

    2015-04-01

    Poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) modified magnetic nanoparticles (PSS-MNPs) were successfully synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, zeta potential, vibrating sample magnetometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry. The PSS-MNPs were found to enable effective separation of lysozyme from egg white. The impacts of solution pH, ionic strength, and contact time on the adsorption process were investigated. The adsorption kinetic data were well fitted using a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the adsorption equilibrium can be reached in 3 min. The adsorption isotherm data could be well described by the Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of PSS-MNPs for lysozyme was calculated to be 476.2 mg g(-1) according to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The fast and efficient adsorption of lysozyme by PSS-MNPs was mainly based on electrostatic interactions between them. The adsorbed lysozyme can be eluted using 20mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 1.0M NaCl with a recovery of 96%. The extracted lysozyme from egg white demonstrated high purity, retaining about 90.7% of total lysozyme activity. PMID:25728660

  3. Fenton-like degradation of Methylene Blue using paper mill sludge-derived magnetically separable heterogeneous catalyst: Characterization and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoqiang; Chen, Ziwen; Fang, Fei; He, Yuefeng; Sun, Haili; Shi, Huixiang

    2015-09-01

    For the paper industry, the disposal and management of the yielded sludge are a considerable challenge. In our work, the paper mill sludge-derived magnetically separable heterogeneous catalyst (PMS-Fe-380) was prepared easily through a facile synthesis method. The morphology and structure of PMS-Fe-380 were fully characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller analysis. The catalytic activity of PMS-Fe-380 was evaluated by degradation of Methylene Blue (MB). The reusability and stability of PMS-Fe-380 were evaluated in five repeated runs, which suggested that PMS-Fe-380 manifested excellent stability of catalytic activity. Moreover, leaching tests indicated that the leached iron is negligible (<0.5mg/L). This study provides an alternative environmentally friendly reuse method for paper mill sludge and a novel catalyst PMS-Fe-380 that can be considered as a promising heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst. PMID:26354688

  4. High-resolution structure of the Shigella type-III secretion needle by solid-state NMR and cryo-electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Jean-Philippe; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Kumar Vasa, Suresh; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baker, David; Lange, Adam; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G.

    2014-09-01

    We introduce a general hybrid approach for determining the structures of supramolecular assemblies. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data define the overall envelope of the assembly and rigid-body orientation of the subunits while solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) chemical shifts and distance constraints define the local secondary structure, protein fold and inter-subunit interactions. Finally, Rosetta structure calculations provide a general framework to integrate the different sources of structural information. Combining a 7.7-Å cryo-EM density map and 996 ssNMR distance constraints, the structure of the type-III secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri is determined to a precision of 0.4 Å. The calculated structures are cross-validated using an independent data set of 691 ssNMR constraints and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements. The hybrid model resolves the conformation of the non-conserved N terminus, which occupies a protrusion in the cryo-EM density, and reveals conserved pore residues forming a continuous pattern of electrostatic interactions, thereby suggesting a mechanism for effector protein translocation.

  5. High-resolution structure of the Shigella type-III secretion needle by solid-state NMR and cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Demers, Jean-Philippe; Habenstein, Birgit; Loquet, Antoine; Kumar Vasa, Suresh; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Baker, David; Lange, Adam; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a general hybrid approach for determining the structures of supramolecular assemblies. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) data define the overall envelope of the assembly and rigid-body orientation of the subunits while solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) chemical shifts and distance constraints define the local secondary structure, protein fold and inter-subunit interactions. Finally, Rosetta structure calculations provide a general framework to integrate the different sources of structural information. Combining a 7.7-Å cryo-EM density map and 996 ssNMR distance constraints, the structure of the type-III secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri is determined to a precision of 0.4 Å. The calculated structures are cross-validated using an independent data set of 691 ssNMR constraints and scanning transmission electron microscopy measurements. The hybrid model resolves the conformation of the non-conserved N terminus, which occupies a protrusion in the cryo-EM density, and reveals conserved pore residues forming a continuous pattern of electrostatic interactions, thereby suggesting a mechanism for effector protein translocation. PMID:25264107

  6. Improved Oceanographic Measurements with CryoSat SAR Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, David; Benveniste, Jérôme; Cipollini, Paolo; Andersen, Ole; Cancet, Mathilde; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Nilo Garcia, Pablo; Martin, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar "SAR" (or delay-Doppler) and interferometric SAR (SARin) modes. Studies on CryoSat data have analysed and confirmed the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry, through increased resolution and precision in sea surface height and wave height measurements, and have also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. We present work in four themes, building on work initiated in the CryoSat Plus for Oceans project (CP4O), each investigating different aspects of the opportunities offered by this new technology. The first two studies address the coastal zone, a critical region for providing a link between open-ocean and shelf sea measurements with those from coastal in-situ measurements, in particular tide gauges. Although much has been achieved in recent years through the Coastal Altimetry community, (http://www.coastalt.eu/community) there is a limit to the capabilities of pulse-limited altimetry, which often leaves an un-measured "white strip" right at the coastline. Firstly, a thorough analysis was made of the performance of "SAR" altimeter data (delay-Doppler processed) in the coastal zone. This quantified the performance, confirming the significant improvement over "conventional" pulse-limited altimetry. In the second study a processing scheme was developed with CryoSat SARin mode data to enable the retrieval of valid oceanographic measurements in coastal areas with complex topography. Thanks to further development of the algorithms, a new approach was achieved that can also be applied to SAR and conventional altimetry data (e.g., Sentinel-3, Jason series, Envisat). The third part of the project developed and evaluated improvements to the SAMOSA altimeter re-tracker that is implemented in the Sentinel-3 processing chain. The modifications to the

  7. Vapor-liquid phase separator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, Y. I.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1983-01-01

    Porous plugs serve as both entropy rejection devices and phase separation components separating the vapor phase on the downstream side from liquid Helium 2 upstream. The liquid upstream is the cryo-reservoir fluid needed for equipment cooling by means of Helium 2, i.e Helium-4 below its lambda temperature in near-saturated states. The topics outlined are characteristic lengths, transport equations and plug results.

  8. O-Allylation of phenols with allylic acetates in aqueous media using a magnetically separable catalytic system

    EPA Science Inventory

    Allylic ethers were synthesized in water using magnetically recoverable heterogeneous Pd catalyst via O-allylation of phenols with allylic acetates under ambient conditions. Aqueous reaction medium, easy recovery of the catalyst using an external magnet, efficient recycling, and ...

  9. Direct visualization of dispersed lipid bicontinuous cubic phases by cryo-electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Demurtas, Davide; Guichard, Paul; Martiel, Isabelle; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Hébert, Cécile; Sagalowicz, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Bulk and dispersed cubic liquid crystalline phases (cubosomes), present in the body and in living cell membranes, are believed to play an essential role in biological phenomena. Moreover, their biocompatibility is attractive for nutrient or drug delivery system applications. Here the three-dimensional organization of dispersed cubic lipid self-assembled phases is fully revealed by cryo-electron tomography and compared with simulated structures. It is demonstrated that the interior is constituted of a perfect bicontinuous cubic phase, while the outside shows interlamellar attachments, which represent a transition state between the liquid crystalline interior phase and the outside vesicular structure. Therefore, compositional gradients within cubosomes are inferred, with a lipid bilayer separating at least one water channel set from the external aqueous phase. This is crucial to understand and enhance controlled release of target molecules and calls for a revision of postulated transport mechanisms from cubosomes to the aqueous phase. PMID:26573367

  10. Direct visualization of dispersed lipid bicontinuous cubic phases by cryo-electron tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demurtas, Davide; Guichard, Paul; Martiel, Isabelle; Mezzenga, Raffaele; Hébert, Cécile; Sagalowicz, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Bulk and dispersed cubic liquid crystalline phases (cubosomes), present in the body and in living cell membranes, are believed to play an essential role in biological phenomena. Moreover, their biocompatibility is attractive for nutrient or drug delivery system applications. Here the three-dimensional organization of dispersed cubic lipid self-assembled phases is fully revealed by cryo-electron tomography and compared with simulated structures. It is demonstrated that the interior is constituted of a perfect bicontinuous cubic phase, while the outside shows interlamellar attachments, which represent a transition state between the liquid crystalline interior phase and the outside vesicular structure. Therefore, compositional gradients within cubosomes are inferred, with a lipid bilayer separating at least one water channel set from the external aqueous phase. This is crucial to understand and enhance controlled release of target molecules and calls for a revision of postulated transport mechanisms from cubosomes to the aqueous phase.

  11. Magnetically separable hybrid CdS-TiO2-Fe3O4 nanomaterial: Enhanced photocatalystic activity under UV and visible irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Xiaofang; Hong, Kunquan; Liu, Liqing; Xu, Mingxiang

    2013-09-01

    Magnetically separable photocatalyst of TiO2-CdS-Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposite was successfully prepared through a microwave heating method. The products exhibit enhanced photocatalystic activity which is more efficient than that of pure CdS and Degussa P25 TiO2 toward the degradation of RhB under both UV and visible irradiation. This is attributed to the charge separation and transformation from CdS to TiO2. The hysteresis loop of TiO2-CdS-Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposite indicates an excellent magnetic property with the saturated magnetization of 9 emu/g. We also show the fast magnetic separation behaviour of the TiO2-CdS-Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposite to remove and recycle the photocatalyst from the solution. These indicate TiO2-CdS-Fe3O4@SiO2 nanocomposite is an effective and convenient recyclable photocatalyst.

  12. Cryo electron tomography of herpes simplex virus during axonal transport and secondary envelopment in primary neurons.

    PubMed

    Ibiricu, Iosune; Huiskonen, Juha T; Döhner, Katinka; Bradke, Frank; Sodeik, Beate; Grünewald, Kay

    2011-12-01

    During herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) egress in neurons, viral particles travel from the neuronal cell body along the axon towards the synapse. Whether HSV1 particles are transported as enveloped virions as proposed by the 'married' model or as non-enveloped capsids suggested by the 'separate' model is controversial. Specific viral proteins may form a recruitment platform for microtubule motors that catalyze such transport. However, their subviral location has remained elusive. Here we established a system to analyze herpesvirus egress by cryo electron tomography. At 16 h post infection, we observed intra-axonal transport of progeny HSV1 viral particles in dissociated hippocampal neurons by live-cell fluorescence microscopy. Cryo electron tomography of frozen-hydrated neurons revealed that most egressing capsids were transported independently of the viral envelope. Unexpectedly, we found not only DNA-containing capsids (cytosolic C-capsids), but also capsids lacking DNA (cytosolic A-/B-capsids) in mid-axon regions. Subvolume averaging revealed lower amounts of tegument on cytosolic A-/B-capsids than on C-capsids. Nevertheless, all capsid types underwent active axonal transport. Therefore, even few tegument proteins on the capsid vertices seemed to suffice for transport. Secondary envelopment of capsids was observed at axon terminals. On their luminal face, the enveloping vesicles were studded with typical glycoprotein-like spikes. Furthermore, we noted an accretion of tegument density at the concave cytosolic face of the vesicle membrane in close proximity to the capsids. Three-dimensional analysis revealed that these assembly sites lacked cytoskeletal elements, but that filamentous actin surrounded them and formed an assembly compartment. Our data support the 'separate model' for HSV1 egress, i.e. progeny herpes viruses being transported along axons as subassemblies and not as complete virions within transport vesicles. PMID:22194682

  13. Enrichment of Rare Earth and Niobium from a REE-Nb-Fe Associated Ore via Reductive Roasting Followed by Magnetic Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mudan; You, Zhixiong; Peng, Zhiwei; Li, Xiang; Li, Guanghui

    2016-02-01

    REE-Nb-Fe ore is a typical refractory resource rich in valuable elements. In this article, coal-based reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation is proposed to recover rare earth element (REE), niobium (Nb), and powdered metallic iron (Fe) concentrate from a REE-Nb-Fe raw concentrate containing 31.9% total iron grade (TFe), 3.2% rare earth oxides (REO), and 2.9% Nb2O5. Sodium sulfate is employed to enhance the reduction of iron oxide and to facilitate the growth of metallic iron grains. A magnetic fraction with TFe of 89.3%, iron metallization of 95.8% and iron recovery of 91.5% is obtained by magnetic separation after the raw concentrate is reduced to 1100°C for 120 min in the presence of 15 wt.% sodium sulfate. The contents of rare earth and niobium in the nonmagnetic fraction are enriched to 5.4% (REO) and 4.6% (Nb2O5) with recoveries of 96.1% and 95.8%, respectively. The TFe in the nonmagnetic fraction obtained after the separation is decreased to 4.8% accordingly. The reactions between sodium sulfate and SiO2/Al2O3 enhance the reduction by destroying the mineral structure. The separation of iron from rare earth and niobium is highly improved as metallic iron grains grow markedly when roasted in the presence of sodium sulfate.

  14. How to operate a cryo-electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchuan; Li, Huilin

    2010-01-01

    We describe the basic principles for imaging frozen-hydrated specimens in a transmission electron microscope and provide a step-by-step guide to a new user, from starting up and aligning the microscope, to loading a cryo-grid into the specimen holder and inserting the holder into the microscope, to setting up the low dose mode for imaging, and eventually to shutting down the microscope. The procedure is based on a JEOL TEM; however, it is applicable to microscopes from other manufacturers with small modifications. We also give several tips on how to minimize specimen exposure before taking pictures; how to minimize the specimen drift and charging during exposure; how to estimate the thickness of the vitreous ice, and how to quickly estimate the electron exposure dose. Despite recent advances in instrumentation, the microscopist's patience and attention to detail may still be the key to acquiring a high quality cryo-electron micrograph. PMID:20887860

  15. Generalized single-particle cryo-EM--a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Frank, Joachim

    2016-02-01

    This is a brief account of the earlier history of single-particle cryo-EM of biological molecules lacking internal symmetry, which goes back to the mid-seventies. The emphasis of this review is on the mathematical concepts and computational approaches. It is written as the field experiences a turning point in the wake of the introduction of digital cameras capable of single electron counting, and near-atomic resolution can be reached even for smaller molecules. PMID:26566976

  16. Cryo-balloon catheter position planning using AFiT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinoeder, Andreas; Brost, Alexander; Bourier, Felix; Koch, Martin; Kurzidim, Klaus; Hornegger, Joachim; Strobel, Norbert

    2012-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is the most common heart arrhythmia. In certain situations, it can result in life-threatening complications such as stroke and heart failure. For paroxsysmal AFib, pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) by catheter ablation is the recommended choice of treatment if drug therapy fails. During minimally invasive procedures, electrically active tissue around the pulmonary veins is destroyed by either applying heat or cryothermal energy to the tissue. The procedure is usually performed in electrophysiology labs under fluoroscopic guidance. Besides radio-frequency catheter ablation devices, so-called single-shot devices, e.g., the cryothermal balloon catheters, are receiving more and more interest in the electrophysiology (EP) community. Single-shot devices may be advantageous for certain cases, since they can simplify the creation of contiguous (gapless) lesion sets around the pulmonary vein which is needed to achieve PVI. In many cases, a 3-D (CT, MRI, or C-arm CT) image of a patient's left atrium is available. This data can then be used for planning purposes and for supporting catheter navigation during the procedure. Cryo-thermal balloon catheters are commercially available in two different sizes. We propose the Atrial Fibrillation Planning Tool (AFiT), which visualizes the segmented left atrium as well as multiple cryo-balloon catheters within a virtual reality, to find out how well cryo-balloons fit to the anatomy of a patient's left atrium. First evaluations have shown that AFiT helps physicians in two ways. First, they can better assess whether cryoballoon ablation or RF ablation is the treatment of choice at all. Second, they can select the proper-size cryo-balloon catheter with more confidence.

  17. Covariance Matrix Estimation for the Cryo-EM Heterogeneity Problem*

    PubMed Central

    Katsevich, E.; Katsevich, A.; Singer, A.

    2015-01-01

    In cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), a microscope generates a top view of a sample of randomly oriented copies of a molecule. The problem of single particle reconstruction (SPR) from cryo-EM is to use the resulting set of noisy two-dimensional projection images taken at unknown directions to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the molecule. In some situations, the molecule under examination exhibits structural variability, which poses a fundamental challenge in SPR. The heterogeneity problem is the task of mapping the space of conformational states of a molecule. It has been previously suggested that the leading eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the 3D molecules can be used to solve the heterogeneity problem. Estimating the covariance matrix is challenging, since only projections of the molecules are observed, but not the molecules themselves. In this paper, we formulate a general problem of covariance estimation from noisy projections of samples. This problem has intimate connections with matrix completion problems and high-dimensional principal component analysis. We propose an estimator and prove its consistency. When there are finitely many heterogeneity classes, the spectrum of the estimated covariance matrix reveals the number of classes. The estimator can be found as the solution to a certain linear system. In the cryo-EM case, the linear operator to be inverted, which we term the projection covariance transform, is an important object in covariance estimation for tomographic problems involving structural variation. Inverting it involves applying a filter akin to the ramp filter in tomography. We design a basis in which this linear operator is sparse and thus can be tractably inverted despite its large size. We demonstrate via numerical experiments on synthetic datasets the robustness of our algorithm to high levels of noise. PMID:25699132

  18. Correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-scanning electron microscopy as a straightforward tool to study host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Strnad, Martin; Elsterová, Jana; Schrenková, Jana; Vancová, Marie; Rego, Ryan O M; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2015-12-10

    Correlative light and electron microscopy is an imaging technique that enables identification and targeting of fluorescently tagged structures with subsequent imaging at near-to-nanometer resolution. We established a novel correlative cryo-fluorescence microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy workflow, which enables imaging of the studied object of interest very close to its natural state, devoid of artifacts caused for instance by slow chemical fixation. This system was tested by investigating the interaction of the zoonotic bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi with two mammalian cell lines of neural origin in order to broaden our knowledge about the cell-association mechanisms that precedes the entry of the bacteria into the cell. This method appears to be an unprecedentedly fast (<3 hours), straightforward, and reliable solution to study the finer details of pathogen-host cell interactions and provides important insights into the complex and dynamic relationship between a pathogen and a host.

  19. Correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-scanning electron microscopy as a straightforward tool to study host-pathogen interactions

    PubMed Central

    Strnad, Martin; Elsterová, Jana; Schrenková, Jana; Vancová, Marie; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy is an imaging technique that enables identification and targeting of fluorescently tagged structures with subsequent imaging at near-to-nanometer resolution. We established a novel correlative cryo-fluorescence microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy workflow, which enables imaging of the studied object of interest very close to its natural state, devoid of artifacts caused for instance by slow chemical fixation. This system was tested by investigating the interaction of the zoonotic bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi with two mammalian cell lines of neural origin in order to broaden our knowledge about the cell-association mechanisms that precedes the entry of the bacteria into the cell. This method appears to be an unprecedentedly fast (<3 hours), straightforward, and reliable solution to study the finer details of pathogen-host cell interactions and provides important insights into the complex and dynamic relationship between a pathogen and a host. PMID:26658551

  20. Low-Cost Cryo-Light Microscopy Stage Fabrication for Correlated Light/Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, David B.; Evans, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The coupling of cryo-light microscopy (cryo-LM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) poses a number of advantages for understanding cellular dynamics and ultrastructure. First, cells can be imaged in a near native environment for both techniques. Second, due to the vitrification process, samples are preserved by rapid physical immobilization rather than slow chemical fixation. Third, imaging the same sample with both cryo-LM and cryo-EM provides correlation of data from a single cell, rather than a comparison of "representative samples". While these benefits are well known from prior studies, the widespread use of correlative cryo-LM and cryo-EM remains limited due to the expense and complexity of buying or building a suitable cryogenic light microscopy stage. Here we demonstrate the assembly, and use of an inexpensive cryogenic stage that can be fabricated in any lab for less than $40 with parts found at local hardware and grocery stores. This cryo-LM stage is designed for use with reflected light microscopes that are fitted with long working distance air objectives. For correlative cryo-LM and cryo-EM studies, we adapt the use of carbon coated standard 3-mm cryo-EM grids as specimen supports. After adsorbing the sample to the grid, previously established protocols for vitrifying the sample and transferring/handling the grid are followed to permit multi-technique imaging. As a result, this setup allows any laboratory with a reflected light microscope to have access to direct correlative imaging of frozen hydrated samples. PMID:21673645

  1. Self-assembled monolayers improve protein distribution on holey carbon cryo-EM supports

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Joel R.; Rao, Prashant; Kumar, Janesh; Chittori, Sagar; Banerjee, Soojay; Pierson, Jason; Mayer, Mark L.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Poor partitioning of macromolecules into the holes of holey carbon support grids frequently limits structural determination by single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Here, we present a method to deposit, on gold-coated carbon grids, a self-assembled monolayer whose surface properties can be controlled by chemical modification. We demonstrate the utility of this approach to drive partitioning of ionotropic glutamate receptors into the holes, thereby enabling 3D structural analysis using cryo-EM methods. PMID:25403871

  2. The development of cryo-EM into a mainstream structural biology technique

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has emerged over the last two decades as a technique capable of studying challenging systems that otherwise defy structural characterization. Recent technical advances have resulted in a ‘quantum leap’ in applicability, throughput and achievable resolution that has gained this technique worldwide attention. Here I discuss some of the major historical landmarks in the development of the cryo-EM field, ultimately leading to its present success. PMID:27110629

  3. Single-particle cryo-EM data acquisition by using direct electron detection camera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shenping; Armache, Jean-Paul; Cheng, Yifan

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) were largely facilitated by the application of direct electron detection cameras. These cameras feature not only a significant improvement in detective quantum efficiency but also a high frame rate that enables images to be acquired as 'movies' made of stacks of many frames. In this review, we discuss how the applications of direct electron detection cameras in cryo-EM have changed the way the data are acquired.

  4. CryoSat-2: A new perspective on the Cryosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, A.; Armitage, T.; Briggs, K.; Flament, T.; Hogg, A. E.; McMillan, M.; Muir, A.; Ridout, A.; Sundal, A.; Tilling, R.; Wingham, D.

    2014-12-01

    CryoSat-2 is ESA's first satellite mission dedicated to measuring changes in the polar land ice and sea ice cover. Following its launch in April 2010, we have examined the performance of the instrument over the continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland, the Artic Ocean, and, for the purposes of calibration, over the oceans. We have confirmed the engineering performance at system level of the interferometer demonstrating that it measures across-track surface slopes with a precision of 25 micro-radians and an accuracy of 10 micro-radians, greatly exceeding the pre-launch specifications (100 micro-radians). Over the polar ice sheets, we have examined the performance of the range estimation, and determined the range precision to be 19 cm RMS at 20 Hz. We have examined the retrieval of the phase information over the ice sheets, and found the phase estimates to be robust and little affected by the uncertain ice sheet topography. Based on the calibration of the interferometer, the contribution of the across track slope error is, at 0.4 mm, negligible. Over marine sea ice, we have verified the discrimination of sea ice and ocean lead returns using contemporaneous SAR imagery from ENVISAT, and we have estimated the precision of individual (20 Hz) measurements to be 2 cm. In summary, with the corrected data products, we are able to confirm that the system performance of CryoSat-2 will meet or exceed its specification over the continental and marine ice sheets. This presenetation sumamrises the key outcomes of the mission performance, and presents a series of example case studies where CryoSat-2 data have been applied to study changes in Earth's land and sea ice cover. We show that in 4 years CryoSat has been able to detect changes in the mass of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets with an accuracy comparable to that of the past 20 years of conventional satellite altimetry and that important changes have occured in these regions, we show that CryoSat has been able

  5. Pseudo LRM waveforms from CryoSat SARin acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso; Féménias, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    CryoSat was launched on the 8th April 2010 and is the first European ice mission dedicated to the monitoring of precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice. The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulsewidth limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. When SIRAL operates in SAR or SARin mode, the obtained waveforms have an along-track resolution and a speckle reduction which is increased with respect to the pulse-limited waveforms. Anyway, in order to analyze the continuity of the geophysical retrieved parameters among different acquisition modes, techniques to transform SARin mode data to pseudo-LRM mode data are welcome. The transformation process is known as SAR reduction and it is worth recalling here that only approximate pseudo-LRM waveforms can be obtained in case of closed burst acquisitions, as SIRAL operates. A SAR reduction processing scheme has been developed to obtain pseudo-LRM waveforms from CryoSat SARin acquisition. As a trade-off between the along-track length on Earth surface contributing to one SARin pseudo-LRM waveform and the noisiness of the waveform itself, it has been chosen a SAR reduction approach based on the averaging of all the SARin echoes received each 20Hz, resulting in one pseudo-LRM waveform for each SARin burst given the SARin burst repetition period. SARin pseudo-LRM waveforms have been produced for CryoSat acquisition both on ice and sea surfaces, aiming at verifying the continuity of the retracked surface height over the ellipsoid between genuine LRM products and pseudo-LRM products. Moreover, the retracked height from the SARin pseudo-LRM has been

  6. Cryo-technical design aspects of the superconducting SIS100 quadrupole doublet modules

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J. P.; Bleile, A.; Fischer, E.; Hess, G.; Macavei, J.; Spiller, P.

    2014-01-29

    The FAIR project was initiated to build an international accelerator and experimental facility for basic research activities in various fields of modern physics. The core component of the project will be the SIS100 heavy ion accelerator, producing heavy ion beams of uniquely high intensities and qualities. The superconducting main quadrupoles and corrector magnets are assembled within complex quadrupole doublet modules (QDMs), combining two superconducting quadrupole (focusing and defocusing), sextupole and steering magnets in one cryostat. In addition a cryo-catcher, a beam position monitor and a cold beam pipe will be integrated. In accordance with the magnet lattice structure, the QDM series for the SIS100 consists of four main families composed of eleven different configurations. The common technical feature of all configurations is a sophisticated common girder structure, mechanically integrating all functional components in one cold mass and being suspended in a corresponding cryostat system. The requirements to position preservation during thermal cycling are to be fulfilled by a precise and stable support of the functional elements, as well as by a reliable, reproducible and stable cold mass suspension system. The main design aspects of the QDMs will be discussed as a result of these requirements.

  7. Validation of CryoSat-2 Elevation Measurements along the Greenland Inland Traverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overly, T. B.; Hawley, R. L.; Wong, G. J.; Lutz, E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Courville, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet's sensitivity to climate change and potential contribution to sea-level rise make its mass balance of critical interest. Altimeter surveys of ice sheet elevation changes are a common method used to estimate changes in ice volume and mass balance. In-situ validation of CryoSat-2's measurements is key to assessing the satellite's performance. The 2011 Greenland Inland Traverse (GrIT) provides a detailed elevation profile across 1120km of the Greenland Ice Sheet. We compare GrIT Kinematic GPS elevations to remotely sensed elevation values from CryoSat-2's synthetic aperture interferometric radar altimeter (SIRAL). We examine CryoSat-2 measurement repeatability by comparing "crossover" points from ascending and descending satellite tracks. Overall CryoSat-2 crossover elevations agree, though some repeat measurements differ due to varying surface slope and facies conditions. Comparison of in-situ GPS data along the traverse with CryoSat-2 measured elevations reveals a small but constant vertical offset between GPS and CryoSat-2 elevation measurements. Comparing the mean GPS elevation within a single footprint reduces the offset. Calibrating CryoSat-2 elevations with GPS elevation measurements improves confidence in CryoSat-2 elevation values. Spatially extensive surface elevation measurements from CryoSat-2, validated with GrIT survey-grade GPS and combined with improved accumulation estimates, will reduce uncertainty in the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  8. Volta phase plate cryo-EM of the small protein complex Prx3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshouei, Maryam; Radjainia, Mazdak; Phillips, Amy J.; Gerrard, Juliet A.; Mitra, Alok K.; Plitzko, Jürgen M.; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Danev, Radostin

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-EM of large, macromolecular assemblies has seen a significant increase in the numbers of high-resolution structures since the arrival of direct electron detectors. However, sub-nanometre resolution cryo-EM structures are rare compared with crystal structure depositions, particularly for relatively small particles (<400 kDa). Here we demonstrate the benefits of Volta phase plates for single-particle analysis by time-efficient cryo-EM structure determination of 257 kDa human peroxiredoxin-3 dodecamers at 4.4 Å resolution. The Volta phase plate improves the applicability of cryo-EM for small molecules and accelerates structure determination.

  9. Influence of the static high magnetic field on the liquid-liquid phase separation during solidifying the hyper-monotectic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zhong, Y. B.; Fautrelle, Y.; Zheng, T. X.; Li, F.; Ren, Z. M.; Debray, F.

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic in-situ quenching refers to fixing and quenching the sample at a static high magnetic field (SHMF) up to 18 T; it has been achieved by a specially designed facility. Zn-7wt%Bi and Zn-10wt%Bi hyper-monotectic melts were quenched under different magnetic flux densities to investigate the influence of SHMF on the liquid-liquid phase separation process in solidifying hyper-monotectic alloys. Because this separation is mainly caused by the growth of minority phase droplets (Bi droplets in the present study), and such growth is attributed to the diffusion of Bi element and the coalescence between the droplets, the influence of SHMF on the growth of Bi droplets was analyzed. Results show that the imposed SHMF prevented the formation of layered structure in the Zn-10wt%Bi alloy and refined the Bi particles in the Zn-7wt%Bi alloy, which indicates that the SHMF retarded the liquid-liquid phase separation during solidifying the hyper-monotectic alloys. Indeed, the two motions of droplets in determining the coalescence, Marangoni migration and Stocks sedimentation, were slowed down by the applied SHMF. Analytical estimations of the magnitude of such damping effect have been made and show that the 18 T SHMF could reduce the speed of Stokes sedimentation and Marangoni migration of the minority phase droplets by about 95.5 % and 62.4 %, respectively.

  10. Magnetically separable ternary g-C3N4/Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites: Novel visible-light-driven photocatalysts based on graphitic carbon nitride.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Mitra; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2016-03-01

    The present work demonstrates preparation of magnetically separable ternary g-C3N4/Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites as novel visible-light-driven photocatalysts. The resultant samples were characterized using XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis DRS, FT-IR, PL, BET, and VSM techniques. The results revealed that weight percent of BiOI has considerable effect on photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. Among the prepared samples, the g-C3N4/Fe3O4/BiOI (20%) nanocomposite has the best photocatalytic activity. The activity of this nanocomposite is about 10, 22, and 21-fold higher than that of the g-C3N4 sample in degradation of rhodamine B, methylene blue, and methyl orange under the visible-light irradiation. The excellent activity of the magnetic nanocomposite was attributed to more harvesting of the visible-light irradiation and efficiently separation of the electron-hole pairs. More importantly, the nanocomposite was magnetically separated after five successive cycles. PMID:26669494

  11. Magnetically separable ternary g-C3N4/Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites: Novel visible-light-driven photocatalysts based on graphitic carbon nitride.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Mitra; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2016-03-01

    The present work demonstrates preparation of magnetically separable ternary g-C3N4/Fe3O4/BiOI nanocomposites as novel visible-light-driven photocatalysts. The resultant samples were characterized using XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis DRS, FT-IR, PL, BET, and VSM techniques. The results revealed that weight percent of BiOI has considerable effect on photodegradation of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. Among the prepared samples, the g-C3N4/Fe3O4/BiOI (20%) nanocomposite has the best photocatalytic activity. The activity of this nanocomposite is about 10, 22, and 21-fold higher than that of the g-C3N4 sample in degradation of rhodamine B, methylene blue, and methyl orange under the visible-light irradiation. The excellent activity of the magnetic nanocomposite was attributed to more harvesting of the visible-light irradiation and efficiently separation of the electron-hole pairs. More importantly, the nanocomposite was magnetically separated after five successive cycles.

  12. Simple synthesis of functionalized superparamagnetic magnetite/silica core/shell nanoparticles and their application as magnetically separable high-performance biocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jinwoo; Lee, Youjin; Youn, Jongkyu; Na, Hyon Bin; Yu, Taekyung; Kim, Hwan O.; Lee, Sang-mok; Koo, Yoon-mo; Kwak, Ja Hun; Park, Hyun-Gyu; Chang, Ho Nam; Hwang, Misun; Park, Je-Geun; Kim, Jungbae; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2008-01-01

    We report on the facile large-scale synthesis of magnetite@silica core-shell nanoparticles by a simple addition of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) into reverse micelles during the formation of uniformly-sized magnetite nanoparticles. The size of magnetic core was determined by the ratio of solvent and surfactant in reverse micelle solution while the thickness of silica shell could be easily controlled by adjusting the amount of added TEOS. Amino group functional groups were grafted to the magnetic nanoparticles, and crosslinked enzyme clusters (CEC) were fabricated on the surface of magnetite@silica nanoparticles. The resulting hybrid materials of magnetite and CEC were magnetically separable, highly active, and stable enough to show no decrease of enzyme activity under rigorous shaking for more than 15 days.

  13. Novel Phase Separation and Magnetic Volume Tuning in Underdoped NaFe1-xCoxAs (x ˜0.01)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Long; Dai, J.; Lu, X. R.; Tan, Guotai; Song, Yu; Dai, Pengcheng; Zhang, C. L.; Normand, B.; Yu, Weiqiang

    2013-03-01

    NaFeAs is a quasi-2D pnictide parent compound with a weak magnetic moment and separate structural and antiferromagnetic transitions. Because Co doping leads to a superconductor with Tc ~= 20 K at a very low optimal doping of x = 0 . 02 , NaFe1-xCoxAs is uniquely suited to sensitive studies of the cohabitation and competition between magnetism and superconductivity. Using NMR as a local probe of both antiferromagnetic order and superconductivity, we have compared Knight shifts and relaxation rates on the Na, As, and Co nuclei. Above Tc, we find weak doping inhomogeneity, in the form of residual paramagnetic regions with differing TN values, and a strongly field-controlled magnetic volume. Below Tc, we observe a strong competition between antiferromagnetism and superconductivity, in which the temperature is the dominant control parameter, suppressing the magnetic volume fraction very significantly in favor of the superconducting one, while the external field suppresses Tc. Our results suggest both a microscale phase separation in real space and in reciprocal space a competition between two order parameters requiring the same electrons on the quasi-2D Fermi surface.

  14. Interim cryo-cooler/detector report

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, K.; Ruhter, W.; Anderson, E.

    1995-04-19

    This report describes development of an electronic system designed to reduce vibration generated by a cryocooler. The diminished vibration makes it practical to use the active cooler to extract heat from a portable gamma ray detector instrument. The system was developed for a Sunpower cryocooler with an integrated counterbalance mass. The overall momentum cancellation approach is also applicable to other similar cryocoolers. The cancellation system is an assembly of several components tailored to accomplish the required vibration reduction with minimum power consumption and volume. It is designed to be powered by a 18--32 Volt battery. Up to ten harmonics of the 58.65 Hz drive frequency are controlled. In addition to the vibration cancellation, the electronic system produces the drive signal for the cryocooler and regulates the cooler temperature. The system employs a sinusoidal drive to reduce the amount of higher harmonic vibration. A digital signal processor (DSP) is used to perform the high speed vibration control. The Texas Instruments TMS320C31 processor is housed on a third-party board. A second board has analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters. The DSP was programmed in C. The physical system consists of two sets of electronics. The first is housed in a case that is separate from the detector unit.

  15. Entangled microwaves as a resource for entangling spatially separate solid-state qubits: Superconducting qubits, nitrogen-vacancy centers, and magnetic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Angela Viviana; Rodríguez, Ferney Javier; Quiroga, Luis; García-Ripoll, Juan José

    2016-06-01

    Quantum correlations present in a broadband two-line squeezed microwave state can induce entanglement in a spatially separated bipartite system consisting of either two single qubits or two-qubit ensembles. By using an appropriate master equation for a bipartite quantum system in contact with two separate but entangled baths, the generating entanglement process in spatially separated quantum systems is thoroughly characterized. Decoherence thermal effects on the entanglement transfer are also discussed. Our results provide evidence that this entanglement transfer by dissipation is feasible, yielding to a steady-state amount of entanglement in the bipartite quantum system which can be optimized for a wide range of realistic physical systems that include state-of-the-art experiments with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, superconducting qubits, or even magnetic molecules embedded in a crystalline matrix.

  16. A mechanism of viral immune evasion revealed by cryo-EM analysis of the TAP transporter

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Michael L.; Hite, Richard K.; Steffen, Alanna M.; Damko, Ermelinda; Li, Zongli; Walz, Thomas; Chen, Jue

    2015-01-01

    Cellular immunity against viral infection and tumor cells depends on antigen presentation by the major histocompatibility complex class 1 molecules (MHC I). Intracellular antigenic peptides are transported into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and then loaded onto the nascent MHC I, which are exported to the cell surface and present peptides to the immune system1. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize non-self peptides and program the infected or malignant cells for apoptosis. Defects in TAP account for immunodeficiency and tumor development. To escape immune surveillance, some viruses have evolved strategies to either down-regulate TAP expression or directly inhibit TAP activity. To date neither the architecture of TAP nor the mechanism of viral inhibition has been elucidated at the structural level. In this study we describe the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of human TAP in complex with its inhibitor ICP47, a small protein produced by the herpes simplex virus I. We show that the twelve transmembrane helices and two cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of the transporter adopt an inward-facing conformation with the two NBDs separated. The viral inhibitor ICP47 forms a long helical hairpin, which plugs the translocation pathway of TAP from the cytoplasmic side. Association of ICP47 precludes substrate binding and also prevents NBD closure necessary for ATP hydrolysis. This work illustrates a striking example of immune evasion by persistent viruses. By blocking viral antigens from entering the ER, herpes simplex virus is hidden from cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which may contribute to establishing a lifelong infection in the host. PMID:26789246

  17. Ni(2+)-zeolite/ferrosphere and Ni(2+)-silica/ferrosphere beads for magnetic affinity separation of histidine-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Vereshchagina, T A; Fedorchak, M A; Sharonova, O M; Fomenko, E V; Shishkina, N N; Zhizhaev, A M; Kudryavtsev, A N; Frank, L A; Anshits, A G

    2016-01-28

    Magnetic Ni(2+)-zeolite/ferrosphere and Ni(2+)-silica/ferrosphere beads (Ni-ferrosphere beads - NFB) of a core-shell structure were synthesized starting from coal fly ash ferrospheres having diameters in the range of 0.063-0.050 mm. The strategy of NFB fabrication is an oriented chemical modification of the outer surface preserving the magnetic core of parent beads with the formation of micro-mesoporous coverings. Two routes of ferrosphere modification were realized, such as (i) hydrothermal treatment in an alkaline medium resulting in a NaP zeolite layer and (ii) synthesis of micro-mesoporous silica on the glass surface using conventional methods. Immobilization of Ni(2+) ions in the siliceous porous shell of the magnetic beads was carried out via (i) the ion exchange of Na(+) for Ni(2+) in the zeolite layer or (ii) deposition of NiO clusters in the zeolite and silica pores. The final NFB were tested for affinity in magnetic separation of the histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP) directly from a cell lysate. Results pointed to the high affinity of the magnetic beads towards the protein in the presence of 10 mM EDTA. The sorption capacity of the ferrosphere-based Ni-beads with respect to GFP was in the range 1.5-5.7 mg cm(-3). PMID:26688000

  18. Synthesis of Fe3O4@poly(methylmethacrylate-co-divinylbenzene) magnetic porous microspheres and their application in the separation of phenol from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yulei; Wang, Li; Gao, Jingmin; Amer, Wael A; Ding, Wenbing; Yu, Haojie

    2011-08-15

    A simple strategy to fabricate magnetic porous microspheres of Fe(3)O(4)@poly(methylmethacrylate-co-divinylbenzene) was demonstrated. The magnetic microspheres, consisting of polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles, were synthesized by the modified suspension polymerization of methacrylate and divinylbenzene in the presence of a magnetic fluid. The morphology and the properties of the magnetic porous microspheres were examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, superconducting quantum interference device, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and X-ray powder diffraction. The pore size distribution and the specific surface area of the microspheres were measured by nitrogen sorption and mercury porosimetry technique. As predicted from the previous knowledge, the magnetic porous microspheres possessed a high specific surface area using n-hexane as a porogen. It was further found that the amounts of divinylbenzene and methacrylate, the ratio of porogens, and the dosage of ferrofluids affect the specific surface area of the microspheres. Furthermore, the microspheres were applied to remove phenol from aqueous solutions. The results showed that the microspheres had a high adsorption capacity for phenol and a high separation efficiency due to their porous structure, polar groups, and superparamagnetic characteristic. PMID:21601864

  19. Ni(2+)-zeolite/ferrosphere and Ni(2+)-silica/ferrosphere beads for magnetic affinity separation of histidine-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Vereshchagina, T A; Fedorchak, M A; Sharonova, O M; Fomenko, E V; Shishkina, N N; Zhizhaev, A M; Kudryavtsev, A N; Frank, L A; Anshits, A G

    2016-01-28

    Magnetic Ni(2+)-zeolite/ferrosphere and Ni(2+)-silica/ferrosphere beads (Ni-ferrosphere beads - NFB) of a core-shell structure were synthesized starting from coal fly ash ferrospheres having diameters in the range of 0.063-0.050 mm. The strategy of NFB fabrication is an oriented chemical modification of the outer surface preserving the magnetic core of parent beads with the formation of micro-mesoporous coverings. Two routes of ferrosphere modification were realized, such as (i) hydrothermal treatment in an alkaline medium resulting in a NaP zeolite layer and (ii) synthesis of micro-mesoporous silica on the glass surface using conventional methods. Immobilization of Ni(2+) ions in the siliceous porous shell of the magnetic beads was carried out via (i) the ion exchange of Na(+) for Ni(2+) in the zeolite layer or (ii) deposition of NiO clusters in the zeolite and silica pores. The final NFB were tested for affinity in magnetic separation of the histidine-tagged green fluorescent protein (GFP) directly from a cell lysate. Results pointed to the high affinity of the magnetic beads towards the protein in the presence of 10 mM EDTA. The sorption capacity of the ferrosphere-based Ni-beads with respect to GFP was in the range 1.5-5.7 mg cm(-3).

  20. Does contamination buildup limit throughput for automated cryoEM?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Anchi; Fellmann, Denis; Pulokas, James; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget

    2006-06-01

    The development of automated systems for data acquisition in cryo electron microscopy has enabled the possibility of acquiring very large number of images from a single specimen grid. We have demonstrated that over images of 250,000 single particles can be acquired in a 24 h period. This has raised questions as to whether contamination buildup on the specimen limits the quality of the data that can be acquired during these long duration experiments and also whether the data acquisition session could be extended to allow acquisition of more than 1,000,000 particles. We report here a systematic characterization of contamination of specimens maintained for long periods of time at liquid nitrogen temperatures using standard side entry cryo stages. As part of this characterization we developed a more reliable method for accurately estimating specimen ice thickness. Using the method, we were able to calibrate image contrast against ice thickness under a variety of magnifications, objective aperture positions, and defoci, and demonstrated the strong dependence of the calibration curve on these parameters. The results show the anti-contamination aperture is, as expected, critical to the prevention of contamination and that loading film into the microscope dramatically increases the contamination rate, particularly in the first 3 h after the insertion of the film box. In the absence of film, we were able to reproducibly demonstrate that the contamination rate can be limited to a rate of approximately 1 angstrom/h providing reassurance that contamination will not be a major limiting factor for long term cryoEM experiments if a CCD camera is used for the imaging.

  1. CryoCart Restoration and Vacuum Pipe Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaidez, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    first completed at the component level. During this process, the igniter of the main engine and the RCS thrusters will be tested under a vacuum. To complete the testing of the components, the test setup first needed to be finalized. The CryoCart is being used to feed the propellants to the test article. The CryoCart is a movable test set-up that was developed in 2009 to provide a mobile platform for testing oxygen/methane systems with hot-fire capability up to 100 lbf. The CryoCart consists of three different systems: Oxygen, Methane, and liquid Nitrogen. The Oxygen and Methane systems are placed into two different carts while the liquid nitrogen system is mainly located in the methane cart. Over the years, the CryoCart has been utilized for different projects and has undergone deterioration. For this reason, a new phase has been developed to rebuild it to working conditions once again. During my internship, I was aiding in the construction and restoration of the CryoCart. In the initial stages of the process, I updated the fluid and electrical schematics for the oxygen, methane, and test article systems. The original CryoCart consisted of an electrical panel that utilized electromechanical relays and a terminal to drive the igniter power and signal, as well as the main fuel and oxygen valves. This electrical panel connected to the CryoCart through various wire harnesses that could be found exiting from the CryoCart. First, it was determined how these harnesses connected to the electromechanical relays so that they worked correctly. Once the electrical system was understood, an alternative for the electromechanical relays and the Molex connectors used throughout the system was sought since these components can often prove to be unreliable. Solid State relays and MIL connectors were purchased to serve as replacements. Upon arrival of the parts, crimping and wiring was completed to install the new solid state relays and MIL connectors. During the replacement of the relays

  2. Cryo-SEM of hydrated high temperature proton exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Kelly A; More, Karren Leslie; Walker, Larry R; Benicewicz, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Alternative energy technologies, such as high temperature fuel cells and hydrogen pumps, rely on proton exchange membranes (PEM). A chemically and thermally stable PEM with rapid proton transport is sol-gel phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes. It is believed that the key to the high ionic conductivity of PA-doped PBI membranes is related to the gel morphology. However, the gel structure and general morphology of this PA-doped PBI membrane has not been widely investigated. In an effort to understand the gel morphology, two SEM sample preparation methodologies have been developed for PA-doped PBI membranes. Due to the high vacuum environment of conventional SEM, the beam-sensitivity of these membranes was reduced with a mild 120 C heat treatment to remove excess water without structural rearrangement (as verified from wide angle X-ray scattering). Cryo-SEM has also been implemented for both initial and heated membranes. Cryo-SEM is known to prevent dehydration of the specimen and reduce beam-sensitivity. The SEM cross-section image (Fig. 1A) of the heated samples exhibit 3{micro}m spheroidal features that are elongated in the direction of the casting blade. These features are distorted to 2{micro}m under conventional SEM conditions (Fig. 1B). The fine-scale gel morphology image (Fig. 2) is composed of 65nm diameter domains and 30nm walls, which resembles a cellular structure. In the future, the PA-doped PBI membranes will be cryo-microtomed and cryotransferred for elemental analysis in a TEM.

  3. Magnetically separable and recyclable Fe3O4-polydopamine hybrid hollow microsphere for highly efficient peroxidase mimetic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shujun; Fu, Jianwei; Wang, Minghuan; Yan, Ya; Xin, Qianqian; Cai, Lu; Xu, Qun

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic Fe3O4-polydopamine (PDA) hybrid hollow microspheres, in which Fe3O4 nanoparticles were firmly incorporated in the cross-linked PDA shell, have been prepared through the formation of core/shell PS/Fe3O4-PDA composites based on template-induced covalent assembly method, followed by core removal in a tetrahydrofuran solution. The morphology, composition, thermal property and magnetic property of the magnetic hybrid hollow microspheres were characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, XRD, TGA, and vibrating sample magnetometer, respectively. Results revealed that the magnetic hybrid hollow microspheres had about 380 nm of inner diameter and about 30 nm of shell thickness, and 13.6 emu g(-1) of magnetization saturation. More importantly, the Fe3O4-PDA hybrid hollow microspheres exhibited intrinsic peroxidase-like activity, as they could quickly catalyze the oxidation of typical substrates 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Compared with PDA/Fe3O4 composites where Fe3O4 nanoparticles were loaded on the surface of PDA microspheres, the stability of Fe3O4-PDA hybrid hollow microspheres was greatly improved. As-prepared magnetic hollow microspheres might open up a new application field in biodetection, biocatalysis, and environmental monitoring.

  4. Efficient estimation of three-dimensional covariance and its application in the analysis of heterogeneous samples in cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hstau Y; Hashem, Yaser; Frank, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a powerful tool for the study of macromolecular structures at high resolution. Classification allows multiple structural states to be extracted and reconstructed from the same sample. One classification approach is via the covariance matrix, which captures the correlation between every pair of voxels. Earlier approaches employ computing-intensive resampling and estimate only the eigenvectors of the matrix, which are then used in a separate fast classification step. We propose an iterative scheme to explicitly estimate the covariance matrix in its entirety. In our approach, the flexibility in choosing the solution domain allows us to examine a part of the molecule in greater detail. Three-dimensional covariance maps obtained in this way from experimental data (cryo-EM images of the eukaryotic pre-initiation complex) prove to be in excellent agreement with conclusions derived by using traditional approaches, revealing in addition the interdependencies of ligand bindings and structural changes.

  5. Sample preparation induced artifacts in cryo-electron tomographs

    PubMed Central

    Plevka, P.; Battisti, A.J.; Winkler, D.C.; Tars, K.; Holdaway, H.A.; Bator, C.M.; Rossmann, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of sample preparation and of the exposure to an electron beam on particles in cryo-electron tomographs. Various virus particles with icosahedral symmetry were examined, allowing a comparison of symmetrically related components that should be identical in structure but might be affected differently by these imaging artifacts. Comparison of tomographic reconstructions with previously determined structures established by an independent method showed that neither freezing nor electron beam exposure produced a significant amount of shrinkage along the z axis (thickness). However, we observed damage to regions of the particles located close to the surface of the vitreous ice. PMID:23040048

  6. Unmanned Aircraft Systems For CryoSat-2 Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Roger Ian; Maslanik, James A.

    2011-02-01

    A suite of sensors has been assembled to map surface elevation with fine-resolution from small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). The sensor package consists of a light detecting and ranging (LIDAR) instrument, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a GPS module, and digital still and video cameras. It has been utilized to map ice sheet topography in Greenland and to measure sea ice freeboard and roughness in Fram Strait. Data collected during these campaigns illustrate its potential to compliment ongoing CryoSat-2 (CS-2) calibration and validation efforts.

  7. Unravelling biological macromolecules with cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Leiro, Rafael; Scheres, Sjors H W

    2016-09-14

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of proteins and other biological macromolecules often aids understanding of how they perform complicated tasks in the cell. Because many such tasks involve the cleavage or formation of chemical bonds, structural characterization at the atomic level is most useful. Developments in the electron microscopy of frozen hydrated samples (cryo-electron microscopy) are providing unprecedented opportunities for the structural characterization of biological macromolecules. This is resulting in a wave of information about processes in the cell that were impossible to characterize with existing techniques in structural biology.

  8. Beam Breakup Studies for New Cryo-Unit

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, I. Shin, R. Kazimi, F. Marhauser ,F. Hannon ,G. Krafft ,B. Yunn ,A. Hofler

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we report the numerical simulations of cumulative beam breakup studies for a new cryo-unit for booster design at Jefferson lab. The system consists of two 1-cell and one 7-cell superconducting RF cavities. Combining two 1-cell into a 2-cell together with a 7-cell is also an option. Simulations have been performed using the 2-dimensional time-domain code. The 1-cell+1-cell+7-cell combination confirms beam stability, however, the arrangement 2-cell+7-cell shows instability.

  9. Unravelling biological macromolecules with cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Leiro, Rafael; Scheres, Sjors H W

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of proteins and other biological macromolecules often aids understanding of how they perform complicated tasks in the cell. Because many such tasks involve the cleavage or formation of chemical bonds, structural characterization at the atomic level is most useful. Developments in the electron microscopy of frozen hydrated samples (cryo-electron microscopy) are providing unprecedented opportunities for the structural characterization of biological macromolecules. This is resulting in a wave of information about processes in the cell that were impossible to characterize with existing techniques in structural biology. PMID:27629640

  10. High-precision correlative fluorescence and electron cryo microscopy using two independent alignment markers☆

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberger, Pascale; Kaufmann, Rainer; Siebert, C. Alistair; Hagen, Christoph; Wodrich, Harald; Grünewald, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is an emerging technique which combines functional information provided by fluorescence microscopy (FM) with the high-resolution structural information of electron microscopy (EM). So far, correlative cryo microscopy of frozen-hydrated samples has not reached better than micrometre range accuracy. Here, a method is presented that enables the correlation between fluorescently tagged proteins and electron cryo tomography (cryoET) data with nanometre range precision. Specifically, thin areas of vitrified whole cells are examined by correlative fluorescence cryo microscopy (cryoFM) and cryoET. Novel aspects of the presented cryoCLEM workflow not only include the implementation of two independent electron dense fluorescent markers to improve the precision of the alignment, but also the ability of obtaining an estimate of the correlation accuracy for each individual object of interest. The correlative workflow from plunge-freezing to cryoET is detailed step-by-step for the example of locating fluorescence-labelled adenovirus particles trafficking inside a cell. PMID:24262358

  11. Capturing enveloped viruses on affinity grids for downstream cryo-electron microscopy applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electron microscopy cryo-electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography are essential techniques used for characterizing basic virus morphology and determining the three-dimensional structure of viruses. Enveloped viruses, which contain an outer lipoprotein coat, constitute the largest group of pa...

  12. V-cryo-plate procedure as an effective protocol for cryobanks: case study of mint cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, S; Rafique, T; Fukui, K; Sekizawa, K; Niino, T

    2012-01-01

    A vitrification procedure using aluminium cryo-plates (V-Cryo-plate procedure) was successfully developed and adjusted for in vitro-grown mint (Mentha spp.) shoot tips. Shoots were cultured at 25°C on MS medium containing 0.088 M sucrose for 7 to 14 days after the last subculture. Shoot tips with a basal part (1-1.5 mm × 1 mm) were dissected from the shoots and precultured at 25°C for 1 day on the same medium. Precultured shoot tips were placed on aluminium cryo-plates with 10 wells and embedded in alginate gel. Osmoprotection was performed by immersing the cryo-plates for 30 min at 25 degree C in 25 ml pipetting reservoirs filled with loading solution (2 M glycerol + 0.8 M sucrose). For dehydration, the cryo-plates were transferred and immersed in 25 ml pipetting reservoirs filled with PVS2 for 20 min at 25 degree C. Then the cryo-plates were transferred in uncapped 2 ml cryotubes and directly plunged into liquid nitrogen. For rewarming, shoot tips attached to the cryo-plates were immersed in cryotubes containing 2 ml 1 M sucrose solution at room temperature. Using this procedure, regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips of line 'Fukuyamajisei' reached over 90 percent. This protocol was successfully applied to 16 additional Mentha lines, with regrowth ranging from 73 percent to 100 percent. This V-Cryo-plate method will facilitate the cryostorage of mint germplasm in our genebank.

  13. Bio-inspired Cryo-ink Preserves Red Blood Cell Phenotype and Function during Nanoliter Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Assal, Rami El; Guven, Sinan; Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Gozen, Irep; Shafiee, Hadi; Dalbeyber, Sedef; Abdalla, Noor; Thomas, Gawain; Fuld, Wendy; Illigens, Ben M.W.; Estanislau, Jessica; Khoory, Joseph; Kaufman, Richard; Zylberberg, Claudia; Lindeman, Neal; Wen, Qi; Ghiran, Ionita; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-01-01

    Current red blood cell cryopreservation methods utilize bulk volumes, causing cryo-injury of cells, which results in irreversible disruption of cell morphology, mechanics, and function. An innovative approach to preserve human red blood cell morphology, mechanics, and function following vitrification in nanoliter volumes is developed using a novel cryo-ink integrated with a bio-printing approach. PMID:25047246

  14. Using size-selected gold clusters on graphene oxide films to aid cryo-transmission electron tomography alignment.

    PubMed

    Arkill, Kenton P; Mantell, Judith M; Plant, Simon R; Verkade, Paul; Palmer, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional reconstruction of a nano-scale aqueous object can be achieved by taking a series of transmission electron micrographs tilted at different angles in vitreous ice: cryo-Transmission Electron Tomography. Presented here is a novel method of fine alignment for the tilt series. Size-selected gold clusters of ~2.7 nm (Au₅₆₁±₁₄ ), ~3.2 nm (Au₉₂₃± ₂₂ ), and ~4.3 nm (Au₂₀₅₇±₄₅) in diameter were deposited onto separate graphene oxide films overlaying holes on amorphous carbon grids. After plunge freezing and subsequent transfer to cryo-Transmission Electron Tomography, the resulting tomograms have excellent (de-)focus and alignment properties during automatic acquisition. Fine alignment is accurate when the evenly distributed 3.2 nm gold particles are used as fiducial markers, demonstrated with a reconstruction of a tobacco mosaic virus. Using a graphene oxide film means the fiducial markers are not interfering with the ice bound sample and that automated collection is consistent. The use of pre-deposited size-selected clusters means there is no aggregation and a user defined concentration. The size-selected clusters are mono-dispersed and can be produced in a wide size range including 2-5 nm in diameter. The use of size-selected clusters on a graphene oxide films represents a significant technical advance for 3D cryo-electron microscopy. PMID:25783049

  15. About the consistency between Envisat and CryoSat-2 radar freeboard retrieval over Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwegmann, Sandra; Rinne, Eero; Ricker, Robert; Hendricks, Stefan; Helm, Veit

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge about Antarctic sea-ice volume and its changes over the past decades has been sparse due to the lack of systematic sea-ice thickness measurements in this remote area. Recently, first attempts have been made to develop a sea-ice thickness product over the Southern Ocean from space-borne radar altimetry and results look promising. Today, more than 20 years of radar altimeter data are potentially available for such products. However, the characteristics of individual radar types differ for the available altimeter missions. Hence, it is important and our goal to study the consistency between single sensors in order to develop long and consistent time series. Here, the consistency between freeboard measurements of the Radar Altimeter 2 on board Envisat and freeboard measurements from the Synthetic-Aperture Interferometric Radar Altimeter on board CryoSat-2 is tested for their overlap period in 2011. Results indicate that mean and modal values are in reasonable agreement over the sea-ice growth season (May-October) and partly also beyond. In general, Envisat data show higher freeboards in the first-year ice zone while CryoSat-2 freeboards are higher in the multiyear ice zone and near the coasts. This has consequences for the agreement in individual sectors of the Southern Ocean, where one or the other ice class may dominate. Nevertheless, over the growth season, mean freeboard for the entire (regionally separated) Southern Ocean differs generally by not more than 3 cm (8 cm, with few exceptions) between Envisat and CryoSat-2, and the differences between modal freeboards lie generally within ±10 cm and often even below.

  16. Three dimensional structure of the anthrax toxin translocon–lethal factor complex by cryo-electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gogol, E P; Akkaladevi, N; Szerszen, L; Mukherjee, S; Chollet-Hinton, L; Katayama, H; Pentelute, B L; Collier, R J; Fisher, M T

    2013-01-01

    We have visualized by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) the complex of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) translocon and the N-terminal domain of anthrax lethal factor (LFN) inserted into a nanodisc model lipid bilayer. We have determined the structure of this complex at a nominal resolution of 16 Å by single-particle analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction. Consistent with our previous analysis of negatively stained unliganded PA, the translocon comprises a globular structure (cap) separated from the nanodisc bilayer by a narrow stalk that terminates in a transmembrane channel (incompletely distinguished in this reconstruction). The globular cap is larger than the unliganded PA pore, probably due to distortions introduced in the previous negatively stained structures. The cap exhibits larger, more distinct radial protrusions, previously identified with PA domain three, fitted by elements of the NMFF PA prepore crystal structure. The presence of LFN, though not distinguished due to the seven-fold averaging used in the reconstruction, contributes to the distinct protrusions on the cap rim volume distal to the membrane. Furthermore, the lumen of the cap region is less resolved than the unliganded negatively stained PA, due to the low contrast obtained in our images of this specimen. Presence of the LFN extended helix and N terminal unstructured regions may also contribute to this additional internal density within the interior of the cap. Initial NMFF fitting of the cryoEM-defined PA pore cap region positions the Phe clamp region of the PA pore translocon directly above an internal vestibule, consistent with its role in toxin translocation. PMID:23494942

  17. L-cysteine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (LCMNP): a novel magnetically separable organocatalyst for one-pot synthesis of 2-amino-4H-chromene-3-carbonitriles in water.

    PubMed

    Khalafi-Nezhad, Ali; Nourisefat, Maryam; Panahi, Farhad

    2015-07-28

    In this study, L-cysteine was chemically grafted to magnetic nanoparticles in order to prepare a reusable magnetic material incorporating an amino acid moiety. For this purpose, silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2) were reacted with trimethoxy(vinyl)silane to produce vinyl-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (VMNP). Reaction of a VMNP substrate with L-cysteine in the presence of azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) resulted in the production of L-cysteine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (LCMNP). The LCMNP material was characterized using different microscopy and spectroscopy techniques such as FT-IR, XRD, TEM, SEM, EDX, VSM, and elemental analysis. Also, LCMNP was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in order to determine its thermal behavior. The applicability of the LCMNP material was evaluated in a three-component coupling reaction between a nucleophile, salicylaldehyde and malononitrile as the catalyst for one-pot synthesis of 2-amino-4H-chromene-3-carbonitrile derivatives. The catalyst system showed high catalytic activity in this process and target products were obtained in high isolated yields in water as a green solvent. The LCMNP catalyst was reusable in this reaction at least 7 times with no significant decrease in its catalytic activity.

  18. A quantitative determination of magnetic nanoparticle separation using on-off field operation of quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation (QMgFFF).

    PubMed

    Orita, Toru; Moore, Lee R; Joshi, Powrnima; Tomita, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Takashi; Zborowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupole Magnetic Field-Flow Fractionation (QMgFFF) is a technique for characterization of sub-micrometer magnetic particles based on their retention in the magnetic field from flowing suspensions. Different magnetic field strengths and volumetric flow rates were tested using on-off field application and two commercial nanoparticle preparations that significantly differed in their retention parameter, λ (by nearly 8-fold). The fractograms showed a regular pattern of higher retention (98.6% v. 53.3%) for the larger particle (200 nm v. 90 nm) at the higher flow rate (0.05 mL/min v. 0.01 mL/min) at the highest magnetic field (0.52 T), as expected because of its lower retention parameter. The significance of this approach is a demonstration of a system that is simpler in operation than a programmed field QMgFFF in applications to particle mixtures consisting of two distinct particle fractions. This approach could be useful for detection of unwanted particulate contaminants, especially important in industrial and biomedical applications.

  19. Bifunctional magnetic nanobeads for sensitive detection of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus based on immunomagnetic separation and enzyme-induced metallization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen; Zhou, Chuan-Hua; Chen, Jian-Jun; Xiong, Chaochao; Chen, Ze; Pang, Dai-Wen; Zhang, Zhi-Ling

    2015-06-15

    Bifunctional magnetic nanobeads (bi-MBs) were fabricated by co-immobilizing target recognition molecules and signal molecules on a magnetic nanobead surface, which were used as both separation and enrichment carriers and signal carriers. The bi-MBs could capture and separate avian influenza A (H7N9) virus (H7N9 AIV) from complex samples efficiently based on the specific reaction between antigen-antibody and their good magnetic response, which simplified sample pretreatment and saved the detection time. Taking advantages of their high surface to volume ratio and rich surface functional groups, multiple alkaline phosphatase (ALP) signal molecules were tethered on the surface of bi-MBs which greatly amplified the detection signal. As an efficient signal amplification strategy, enzyme-induced metallization had been integrated with bi-MBs and anodic stripping voltammetry to construct an ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for H7N9 AIV detection. Under the optimal conditions, the introduction of bi-MBs could amplify the detection signal in about four times compared with the same immunoassay without MBs, and the method showed a wide linear range of 0.01-20 ng/mL with a detection limit of 6.8 pg/mL. The electrochemical immunosensor provides a simple and reliable platform with high sensitivity and selectivity which shows great potential in early diagnosis of diseases.

  20. Effective approach towards Si-bilayer-IDA modified CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles for high efficient protein separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhao; Chen, Mengjun; Gao, Zhuo; Du, Jie; Yang, Wantai; Yin, Meizhen

    2016-10-01

    Ultrafine cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles with narrow size distributions and regular morphologies were prepared through an improved procedure based on the high-temperature diol reduction method. By replacing the original reducing agent like expensive dihydric alcohol, oleylamine was applied as both stabilizer and reducing agent, which benefit for large scale synthesis of magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. To produce protein-separation agent with both high specific surface area and magnet content, inverse microemulsion system and substitution reaction were employed to render the produced CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with dense silica bilayer and iminodiacetic acid (IDA)-like structure modification. After the chelation with Cu(2+), the metal-immobilized CoFe2O4 nanoparticles can specifically absorb bovine hemoglobin (BHb) with maximum adsorption capacity as qm=1812.3mg/g. Compared with the reported Cu(2+)-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles, the as-prepared CoFe2O4@Si-IDA-Cu(2+) nanoparticles exhibited excellent adsorption capacity and were applied as high efficient protein separation agent in a real complex biological fluid like bovine blood. PMID:27400241

  1. Facile preparation of magnetic separable powdered-activated-carbon/Ni adsorbent and its application in removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xuanqi; Gondal, Mohammed A; Chang, Xiaofeng; Yamani, Zain H; Li, Nianwu; Lu, Hongling; Ji, Guangbin

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to synthesize magnetic separable Nickel/powdered activated carbon (Ni/PAC) and its application as an adsorbent for removal of PFOS from aqueous solution. In this work, the synthesized adsorbent using simple method was characterized by using X-ray diffractionometer (XRD), surface area and pore size analyzer, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The surface area, pore volume and pore size of synthesized PAC was 1521.8 m(2)g(-1), 0.96 cm(3)g(-1), 2.54 nm, respectively. Different kinetic models: the pseudo-first-order model, the pseudo-second-order model, and three adsorption isotherms--Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin--were applied to study the sorption kinetics and isothermal behavior of PFOS onto the surface of an as-prepared adsorbent. The rate constant using the pseudo-second-order model for removal of 150 ppm PFOS was estimated as 8.82×10(-5) and 1.64×10(-4) for PAC and 40% Ni/PAC, respectively. Our results demonstrated that the composite adsorbents exhibited a clear magnetic hysteretic behavior, indicating the potential practical application in magnetic separation of adsorbents from aqueous solution phase as well. PMID:21961696

  2. Ternary ZnO/Ag3VO4/Fe3O4 nanocomposites: Novel magnetically separable photocatalyst for efficiently degradation of dye pollutants under visible-light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekofteh-Gohari, Maryam; Habibi-Yangjeh, Aziz

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we successfully prepared a series of novel magnetically separable ZnO/Ag3VO4/Fe3O4 nanocomposites by a facile refluxing method using Fe3O4, zinc nitrate, silver nitrate, ammonium metavanadate, and sodium hydroxide as starting materials without using any post preparation treatments. The microstructure, purity, morphology, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties of the prepared samples were studied using XRD, EDX, SEM, TEM, UV-vis DRS, FT-IR, PL, and VSM techniques. The ZnO/Ag3VO4/Fe3O4 nanocomposite with 8:1 weight ratio of ZnO/Ag3VO4 to Fe3O4 has the superior activity in degradation of rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. Photocatalytic activity of this nanocomposite is about 11.5-fold higher than that of the ZnO/Fe3O4 nanocomposite. The results showed that the preparation time and calcination temperature significantly affect on the photocatalytic activity. The trapping experiments revealed that superoxide ions and holes have major influence on the degradation reaction. Furthermore, the enhanced activity of the nanocomposite for degradation of two more dye pollutants was confirmed. Finally, the nanocomposite was magnetically separated from the treated solution after four successive cycles.

  3. Effective approach towards Si-bilayer-IDA modified CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles for high efficient protein separation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhao; Chen, Mengjun; Gao, Zhuo; Du, Jie; Yang, Wantai; Yin, Meizhen

    2016-10-01

    Ultrafine cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles with narrow size distributions and regular morphologies were prepared through an improved procedure based on the high-temperature diol reduction method. By replacing the original reducing agent like expensive dihydric alcohol, oleylamine was applied as both stabilizer and reducing agent, which benefit for large scale synthesis of magnetic CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. To produce protein-separation agent with both high specific surface area and magnet content, inverse microemulsion system and substitution reaction were employed to render the produced CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with dense silica bilayer and iminodiacetic acid (IDA)-like structure modification. After the chelation with Cu(2+), the metal-immobilized CoFe2O4 nanoparticles can specifically absorb bovine hemoglobin (BHb) with maximum adsorption capacity as qm=1812.3mg/g. Compared with the reported Cu(2+)-immobilized magnetic nanoparticles, the as-prepared CoFe2O4@Si-IDA-Cu(2+) nanoparticles exhibited excellent adsorption capacity and were applied as high efficient protein separation agent in a real complex biological fluid like bovine blood.

  4. Yolk-shell nanostructured Fe3O4@NiSiO3 for selective affinity and magnetic separation of His-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Guangchuan; Xiao, Yun; Yang, Yuling; Tang, Ruikang

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments of nanotechnology encourage novel materials for facile separations and purifications of recombinant proteins, which are of great importance in disease diagnoses and treatments. We find that Fe3O4@NiSiO3 with yolk-shell nanostructure can be used to specifically purify histidine-tagged (His-tagged) proteins from mixtures of lysed cells with a recyclable process. Each individual nanoparticle composes by a mesoporous nickel silicate shell and a magnetic Fe3O4 core in the hollow inner, which is featured by its great loading efficiency and rapid response toward magnetic fields. The abundant Ni(2+) cations on the shell provide docking sites for selective coordination of histidine and the reversible release is induced by excess imidazole solution. Because of the Fe3O4 cores, the separation, concentration, and recycling of the nanocomposites become feasible under the controls of magnets. These characteristics would be highly beneficial in nanoparticle-based biomedical applications for targeted-drug delivery and biosensors. PMID:25303145

  5. Yolk-shell nanostructured Fe3O4@NiSiO3 for selective affinity and magnetic separation of His-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Guangchuan; Xiao, Yun; Yang, Yuling; Tang, Ruikang

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments of nanotechnology encourage novel materials for facile separations and purifications of recombinant proteins, which are of great importance in disease diagnoses and treatments. We find that Fe3O4@NiSiO3 with yolk-shell nanostructure can be used to specifically purify histidine-tagged (His-tagged) proteins from mixtures of lysed cells with a recyclable process. Each individual nanoparticle composes by a mesoporous nickel silicate shell and a magnetic Fe3O4 core in the hollow inner, which is featured by its great loading efficiency and rapid response toward magnetic fields. The abundant Ni(2+) cations on the shell provide docking sites for selective coordination of histidine and the reversible release is induced by excess imidazole solution. Because of the Fe3O4 cores, the separation, concentration, and recycling of the nanocomposites become feasible under the controls of magnets. These characteristics would be highly beneficial in nanoparticle-based biomedical applications for targeted-drug delivery and biosensors.

  6. A novel magnetically separable TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber with high photocatalytic activity under UV-vis light

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Cong-Ju; Wang, Jiao-Na; Wang, Bin; Gong, Jian Ru; Lin, Zhang

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: A novel magnetically separable composite photocatalyst TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber was prepared by sol-gel method and electrospinning technique, which can be reclaimed with a magnet, and the decolorizing efficiency of MB solution reached 95.87%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composite TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofibers with diameter of 110 {+-} 28 nm have been successfully synthesized by the combination of sol-gel method and electrospinning technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of Co{sup 2+} or/and Fe{sup 3+} ions may occupy some of the lattice sites of TiO{sub 2} to form an iron-titanium solid solution and narrow the band gap, which broadens the response region of visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resultant nanofibers not only have high decomposition efficiency with methylene blue (MB) under the UV irradiation, which is close to that of Degussa P25, but also can be separated with a magnet and avoid the secondary pollution of the treated water. -- Abstract: A novel magnetically separable heterogeneous photocatalyst TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofiber was prepared by sol-gel method and electrospinning technology, followed by heat treatment at 550 Degree-Sign C for 2 h. The phase structure, morphology and magnetic property of the composite nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer analysis. The photocatalytic studies of TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} fibers suggested that the presence of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} not only enhanced the absorbance of UV light, but also broadened the response region to visible light. The decolorizing efficiency of methylene blue (MB) solution reaches 95.87% over TiO{sub 2}/CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanofibers under 300 W Hg lamp after 5 h, which is close to that of Degussa P25. Furthermore, these fibers can be collected with a magnet for reuse and

  7. Filming the formation and fluctuation of skyrmion domains by cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, Jayaraman; Huang, Ping; Mancini, Giulia Fulvia; Murooka, Yoshie; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; McGrouther, Damien; Cantoni, Marco; Baldini, Edoardo; White, Jonathan Stuart; Magrez, Arnaud; Giamarchi, Thierry; Rønnow, Henrik Moodysson; Carbone, Fabrizio

    2015-11-17

    Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates as information carriers in logic or storage devices thanks to their robustness, guaranteed by the topological protection, and their nanometric size. Currently, little is known about the influence of parameters such as disorder, defects, or external stimuli on the long-range spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the skyrmion lattice. Here, using a large (7.3 × 7.3 μm(2)) single-crystal nanoslice (150 nm thick) of Cu2OSeO3, we image up to 70,000 skyrmions by means of cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy as a function of the applied magnetic field. The emergence of the skyrmion lattice from the helimagnetic phase is monitored, revealing the existence of a glassy skyrmion phase at the phase transition field, where patches of an octagonally distorted skyrmion lattice are also discovered. In the skyrmion phase, dislocations are shown to cause the emergence and switching between domains with different lattice orientations, and the temporal fluctuation of these domains is filmed. These results demonstrate the importance of direct-space and real-time imaging of skyrmion domains for addressing both their long-range topology and stability. PMID:26578765

  8. Filming the formation and fluctuation of skyrmion domains by cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rajeswari, Jayaraman; Huang, Ping; Mancini, Giulia Fulvia; Murooka, Yoshie; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; McGrouther, Damien; Cantoni, Marco; Baldini, Edoardo; White, Jonathan Stuart; Magrez, Arnaud; Giamarchi, Thierry; Rønnow, Henrik Moodysson; Carbone, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates as information carriers in logic or storage devices thanks to their robustness, guaranteed by the topological protection, and their nanometric size. Currently, little is known about the influence of parameters such as disorder, defects, or external stimuli on the long-range spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the skyrmion lattice. Here, using a large (7.3×7.3 μm2) single-crystal nanoslice (150 nm thick) of Cu2OSeO3, we image up to 70,000 skyrmions by means of cryo-Lorentz transmission electron microscopy as a function of the applied magnetic field. The emergence of the skyrmion lattice from the helimagnetic phase is monitored, revealing the existence of a glassy skyrmion phase at the phase transition field, where patches of an octagonally distorted skyrmion lattice are also discovered. In the skyrmion phase, dislocations are shown to cause the emergence and switching between domains with different lattice orientations, and the temporal fluctuation of these domains is filmed. These results demonstrate the importance of direct-space and real-time imaging of skyrmion domains for addressing both their long-range topology and stability. PMID:26578765

  9. Application of a magnetotactic bacterium, Stenotrophomonas sp. to the removal of Au(III) from contaminated wastewater with a magnetic separator.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui-Ping; Li, Xin-Gang; Sun, Jin-Sheng; Xu, Shi-Min; Han, Xu

    2008-06-01

    In this study, the feasibility of applying a magnetotactic bacterial isolate (MTB), Stenotrophomonas sp. to the removal of Au(III) was investigated. Biosorption experiments showed that Au(III) biosorption capacity exhibited no significant difference in the initial pH range of 1.0-5.5, while decreased more significantly in the initial pH range of 5.5-13.0. Langmuir isotherm indicated that the maximum Au(III) biosorption capacity of Stenotrophomonas sp. were 506, 369 and 308 mg g(-1) dry weight biomass at the initial pH values of 2.0, 7.0 and 12.0, respectively. Thiourea was proved to be an effective desorbent to recover Au from the MTB biomass and 91% Au adsorbed on the biomass could be recovered at equilibrium when the thiourea concentration was 0.8M. The magnetic separator developed by our research team used for separating Au loaded MTB biomass showed high separation efficiency, with 100% biomass removed at the magnetic intensity of 1200 Gs in 180 min. The analyses from FTIR and XRD further confirmed that the reduction of Au(III) to Au(0) by the reductants on the MTB biomass occurred, and the deposition of nano-crystal Au(0) particles, ranging from 24.7 to 31.4 nm, could be estimated on the biomass surface.

  10. Magnetically separable core-shell structural γ-Fe2O3@Cu/Al-MCM-41 nanocomposite and its performance in heterogeneous Fenton catalysis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Yuhan; Long, Mingce; Hu, Peidong; Chen, Ya; Huang, Juwei

    2014-01-15

    To target the low catalytic activity and the inconvenient separation of copper loading nanocatalysts in heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction, a core-shell structural magnetically separable catalyst, with γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles as the core layer and the copper and aluminum containing MCM-41 as the shell layer, has been fabricated. The role of aluminum has been discussed by comparing the copper containing mesoporous silica with various Cu contents. Their physiochemical properties have been characterized by XRD, UV-vis, FT-IR, TEM, nitrogen physisorption and magnetite susceptibility measurements. Double content Cu incorporation results in an improved catalytic activity for phenol degradation at the given condition (40°C, initial pH=4), but leads to a declined BET surface area and less ordered mesophase structure. Aluminum incorporation helps to retain the high BET surface area (785.2m(2)/g) and the regular hexagonal mesoporous structure of MCM-41, which make the catalyst possess a lower copper content and even a higher catalytic activity than that with the double copper content in the absence of aluminum. The catalysts can be facilely separated by an external magnetic field for recycle usage. PMID:24295771

  11. Factors that Influence the Formation and Stability of Thin, Cryo-EM Specimens.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Robert M; Han, Bong-Gyoon; Csencsits, Roseann; Killilea, Alison; Pulk, Arto; Cate, Jamie H D

    2016-02-23

    Poor consistency of the ice thickness from one area of a cryo-electron microscope (cryo-EM) specimen grid to another, from one grid to the next, and from one type of specimen to another, motivates a reconsideration of how to best prepare suitably thin specimens. Here we first review the three related topics of wetting, thinning, and stability against dewetting of aqueous films spread over a hydrophilic substrate. We then suggest that the importance of there being a surfactant monolayer at the air-water interface of thin, cryo-EM specimens has been largely underappreciated. In fact, a surfactant layer (of uncontrolled composition and surface pressure) can hardly be avoided during standard cryo-EM specimen preparation. We thus suggest that better control over the composition and properties of the surfactant layer may result in more reliable production of cryo-EM specimens with the desired thickness.

  12. Twist-induced defects of the P-SSP7 genome revealed by modeling the cryo-EM density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Myers, Christopher G; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2015-04-16

    We consider the consequences of assuming that DNA inside of phages can be approximated as a strongly nonlinear persistence length polymer. Recent cryo-EM experiments find a hole in the density map of P-SSP7 phage, located in the DNA segment filling the portal channel of the phage. We use experimentally derived structural constraints with coarse-grained simulation techniques to consider contrasting model interpretations of reconstructed density in the portal channel. The coarse-grained DNA models used are designed to capture the effects of torsional strain and electrostatic environment. Our simulation results are consistent with the interpretation that the vacancy or hole in the experimental density map is due to DNA strain leading to strand separation. We further demonstrate that a moderate negative twisting strain is able to account for the strand separation. This effect of nonlinear persistence length may be important in other aspects of phage DNA packing. PMID:25793549

  13. Structure of Halothiobacillus neapolitanus carboxysomes by cryo-electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Michael F; Paredes, Angel M; Khant, Htet A; Soyer, Ferda; Aldrich, Henry C; Chiu, Wah; Shively, Jessup M

    2006-12-01

    Carboxysomes are polyhedral bodies consisting of a proteinaceous shell filled with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). They are found in the cytoplasm of all cyanobacteria and some chemoautotrophic bacteria. Previous studies of Halothiobacillus neapolitanus and Nitrobacter agilis carboxysomes suggest that the structures are either icosahedral or dodecahedral. To determine the protein shell structure more definitively, purified H. neapolitanus carboxysomes were re-examined by cryo-electron tomography and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Due to the limited tilt angles in the electron microscope, the tomographic reconstructions are distorted. Corrections were made in the 3D orientation searching and averaging of the computationally extracted carboxysomes to minimize the missing data effects. It was found that H. neapolitanus carboxysomes vary widely in size and mass as shown by cryo-electron tomography and STEM mass measurements, respectively. We have aligned and averaged carboxysomes in several size classes from the 3D tomographic reconstruction by methods that are not model-biased. The averages reveal icosahedral symmetry of the shell, but not of the density inside it, for all the size classes.

  14. Cryo-fixation by self-pressurized rapid freezing.

    PubMed

    Grabenbauer, Markus; Han, Hong-Mei; Huebinger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    High-pressure freeze fixation is the method of choice to arrest instantly all dynamic and physiological processes inside cells, tissues, and small organisms. Embedded in vitreous ice, such samples can be further processed by freeze substitution or directly analyzed in their fully hydrated state by cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections (CEMOVIS) to explore cellular ultrastructure as close as possible to the native state. Here, we describe the procedure of self-pressurized rapid freezing as fast, easy-to-use, and low-cost freeze fixation method, avoiding the usage of a high-pressure freezing (HPF) apparatus. Cells or small organisms are placed in capillary metal tubes, which are tightly closed and plunged directly into liquid ethane cooled by liquid nitrogen. In parts of the tube, crystalline ice is formed and builds up pressure sufficient for the liquid-glass transition of the remaining specimen. The quality of samples is equivalent to preparations by conventional HPF apparatus, allowing for high-resolution cryo-EM applications or for freeze substitution and plastic embedding.

  15. A self-consistent two-dimensional resistive fluid theory of field-aligned potential structures including charge separation and magnetic and velocity shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl

    1990-01-01

    A self-consistent two-fluid theory that includes the magnetic field and shear patterns is developed to model stationary electrostatic structures with field-aligned potential drops. Shear flow is also included in the theory since this seems to be a prominent feature of the structures of interest. In addition, Ohmic dissipation, a Hall term, and pressure gradients in a generalized Ohm's law, modified for cases without quasi-neutrality, are included. In the analytic theory, the electrostatic force is balanced by field-aligned pressure gradients (i.e., thermal effects in the direction of the magnetic field) and by pressure gradients and magnetic stresses in the perpendicular direction. Within this theory, simple examples of applications are presented to demonstrate the kind of solutions resulting from the model. The results show how the effects of charge separation and shear in the magnetic field and the velocity can be combined to form self-consistent structures such as are found to exist above the aurora, suggested also in association with solar flares.

  16. Three Birds with One Fe3O4 Nanoparticle: Integration of Microwave Digestion, Solid Phase Extraction, and Magnetic Separation for Sensitive Determination of Arsenic and Antimony in Fish.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yun; Yu, Huimin; Wu, Li; Hou, Xiandeng; Yang, Lu; Zheng, Chengbin

    2015-06-16

    An environmentally friendly and fast sample treatment approach that integrates accelerated microwave digestion (MWD), solid phase extraction, and magnetic separation into a single step was developed for the determination of arsenic and antimony in fish samples by using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Compared to conventional microwave digestion, the consumption of HNO3 was reduced significantly to 12.5%, and the digestion time and temperature were substantially decreased to 6 min and 80 °C, respectively. This is largely attributed to Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles being a highly effective catalyst for rapid generation of oxidative radicals from H2O2, as well as an excellent absorber of microwave irradiation. Moreover, potential interferences from sample matrices were eliminated because the As and Sb species adsorbed on the nanoparticles were efficiently separated from the digests with a hand-held magnet prior to analysis. Limits of detection for arsenic and antimony were in the range of 0.01-0.06 μg g(-1) and 0.03-0.08 μg g(-1) by using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry, respectively, and further improved to 0.002-0.005 μg g(-1) and 0.005-0.01 μg g(-1) when inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used as a detector. The precision of replicate measurements (n = 9) was better than 6% by analyzing 0.1 g test sample spiked with 1 μg g(-1) arsenic and antimony. The proposed method was validated by analysis of two certified reference materials (DORM-3 and DORM-4) with good recoveries (90%-106%).

  17. Value Engineering in System of Cryoline and Cryo- distribution for ITER: In-kind Contribution from India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, B.; Shah, N.; Vaghela, H.; Bhattacharya, R.; Choukekar, K.; Patel, P.; Chang, H.-S.; Badgujar, S.; Chalifour, M.

    2015-12-01

    System of Cryoline and Cryo-distribution for ITER has matured to a stage of preliminary design with the advent of industrial associates. Starting from the cold power source, the system of Cryoline and Cryo-distribution transfers the controlled cold power through a large network to the superconducting magnets and cryopumps. The functional responsibility also includes very high reliability and availability with respect to the operation of the ITER machine. Following the completion of conceptual design, it was necessary to perform a detailed engineering study of the complete network of distribution system in totality, before entering in to the industrial phase. This is to ensure the functional responsibility of the system. Value engineering in the area of distribution boxes including interfacing Cryolines has been performed in order to access the integrated reliable performance with respect to the overall cryogenic system, reducing the risk transferred to the industrial partners. These include technical risk assessment, analysis, mitigation plan and implementation with the industrial partners. The paper describes the methodology of technical risk management, value engineering performed to ensure fulfilment of licensing and regulatory obligations, functional reliability, testing and manufacturability by standard industrial processes, so that highly reliable integrated distribution system is delivered for the project.

  18. Effect and mechanism of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) and Ultraviolet (UV) composite process on the inactivation of microbes in ballast water.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhijun; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Yue; Leng, Xiaodong; Shao, Jingchao

    2016-07-15

    The patented technology of a High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS)-Ultraviolet (UV) composite process was used to treat ballast water. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was selected as the reference bacteria. After treatment by the HGMS-UV process, the concentration of S. aureus on the log 10 scale was lower than 2 at different flow rates, S. aureus suffered the most serious damage, and K(+) leakage of the bacteria was 1.73mg/L higher than separate 60min UV irradiation (1.17mg/L) and HGMS (0.12mg/L) processes. These results demonstrated that the HGMS-UV composite process was an effective approach to treat ballast water. Further, the HGMS process had synergistic action on the subsequent UV irradiation process and accelerated cell membrane damage. Meanwhile, the results of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of bacteria and DNA band analyses indicated that the inactivation mechanisms were different for HGMS and UV irradiation. PMID:27126180

  19. Resource Recovery and Reuse: Recycled Magnetically Separable Iron-based Catalysts for Phosphate Recovery and Arsenic Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmentally friendly processes that aid human and environmental health include recovering, recycling, and reusing limited natural resources and waste materials. In this study, we re-used Iron-rich solid waste materials from water treatment plants to synthesize magnetic iron-o...

  20. Manipulating Migration Behavior of Magnetic Graphene Oxide via Magnetic Field Induced Casting and Phase Separation toward High-Performance Hybrid Ultrafiltration Membranes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiwei; Wu, Tengfei; Shi, Jie; Wang, Wei; Teng, Kunyue; Qian, Xiaoming; Shan, Mingjing; Deng, Hui; Tian, Xu; Li, Cuiyu; Li, Fengyan

    2016-07-20

    Hybrid membranes blended with nanomaterials such as graphene oxide (GO) have great opportunities in water applications due to their multiple functionalities, but they suffer from low modification efficiency of nanomaterials due to the fact that plenty of the nanomaterials are embedded within the polymer matrix during the blending process. Herein, a novel Fe3O4/GO-poly(vinylidene fluoride) (Fe3O4/GO-PVDF) hybrid ultrafiltration membrane was developed via the combination of magnetic field induced casting and a phase inversion technique, during which the Fe3O4/GO nanocomposites could migrate toward the membrane top surface due to magnetic attraction and thereby render the surface highly hydrophilic with robust resistance to fouling. The blended Fe3O4/GO nanocomposites migrated to the membrane surface with the magnetic field induced casting, as verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a result, the novel membranes exhibited significantly improved hydrophilicity (with a contact angle of 55.0°) and water flux (up to 595.39 L m(-2) h(-1)), which were improved by 26% and 206%, 12% and 49%, 25% and 154%, and 11% and 33% compared with those of pristine PVDF membranes and PVDF hybrid membranes blended with GO, Fe3O4, and Fe3O4/GO without the assistance of magnetic field during membrane casting, respectively. Besides, the novel membranes showed high rejection of bovine serum albumin (>92%) and high flux recovery ratio (up to 86.4%). Therefore, this study presents a novel strategy for developing high-performance hybrid membranes via manipulating the migration of nanomaterials to the membrane surface rather than embedding them in the membrane matrix. PMID:27355273

  1. Low cost, high performance processing of single particle cryo-electron microscopy data in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Cianfrocco, Michael A; Leschziner, Andres E

    2015-01-01

    The advent of a new generation of electron microscopes and direct electron detectors has realized the potential of single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) as a technique to generate high-resolution structures. Calculating these structures requires high performance computing clusters, a resource that may be limiting to many likely cryo-EM users. To address this limitation and facilitate the spread of cryo-EM, we developed a publicly available 'off-the-shelf' computing environment on Amazon's elastic cloud computing infrastructure. This environment provides users with single particle cryo-EM software packages and the ability to create computing clusters with 16-480+ CPUs. We tested our computing environment using a publicly available 80S yeast ribosome dataset and estimate that laboratories could determine high-resolution cryo-EM structures for $50 to $1500 per structure within a timeframe comparable to local clusters. Our analysis shows that Amazon's cloud computing environment may offer a viable computing environment for cryo-EM. PMID:25955969

  2. Resolving macromolecular structures from electron cryo-tomography data using subtomogram averaging in RELION.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Scheres, Sjors H W

    2016-11-01

    Electron cryo-tomography (cryo-ET) is a technique that is used to produce 3D pictures (tomograms) of complex objects such as asymmetric viruses, cellular organelles or whole cells from a series of tilted electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) images. Averaging of macromolecular complexes found within tomograms is known as subtomogram averaging, and this technique allows structure determination of macromolecular complexes in situ. Subtomogram averaging is also gaining in popularity for the calculation of initial models for single-particle analysis. We describe herein a protocol for subtomogram averaging from cryo-ET data using the RELION software (http://www2.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/relion). RELION was originally developed for cryo-EM single-particle analysis, and the subtomogram averaging approach presented in this protocol has been implemented in the existing workflow for single-particle analysis so that users may conveniently tap into existing capabilities of the RELION software. We describe how to calculate 3D models for the contrast transfer function (CTF) that describe the transfer of information in the imaging process, and we illustrate the results of classification and subtomogram averaging refinement for cryo-ET data of purified hepatitis B capsid particles and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 80S ribosomes. Using the steps described in this protocol, along with the troubleshooting and optimization guidelines, high-resolution maps can be obtained in which secondary structure elements are resolved subtomogram. PMID:27685097

  3. Site-Specific Cryo-focused Ion Beam Sample Preparation Guided by 3D Correlative Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Jan; Mahamid, Julia; Lucic, Vladan; de Marco, Alex; Fernandez, Jose-Jesus; Laugks, Tim; Mayer, Tobias; Hyman, Anthony A; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Plitzko, Jürgen M

    2016-02-23

    The development of cryo-focused ion beam (cryo-FIB) for the thinning of frozen-hydrated biological specimens enabled cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) analysis in unperturbed cells and tissues. However, the volume represented within a typical FIB lamella constitutes a small fraction of the biological specimen. Retaining low-abundance and dynamic subcellular structures or macromolecular assemblies within such limited volumes requires precise targeting of the FIB milling process. In this study, we present the development of a cryo-stage allowing for spinning-disk confocal light microscopy at cryogenic temperatures and describe the incorporation of the new hardware into existing workflows for cellular sample preparation by cryo-FIB. Introduction of fiducial markers and subsequent computation of three-dimensional coordinate transformations provide correlation between light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/FIB. The correlative approach is employed to guide the FIB milling process of vitrified cellular samples and to capture specific structures, namely fluorescently labeled lipid droplets, in lamellas that are 300 nm thick. The correlation procedure is then applied to localize the fluorescently labeled structures in the transmission electron microscopy image of the lamella. This approach can be employed to navigate the acquisition of cryo-ET data within FIB-lamellas at specific locations, unambiguously identified by fluorescence microscopy.

  4. Low cost, high performance processing of single particle cryo-electron microscopy data in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Cianfrocco, Michael A; Leschziner, Andres E

    2015-05-08

    The advent of a new generation of electron microscopes and direct electron detectors has realized the potential of single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) as a technique to generate high-resolution structures. Calculating these structures requires high performance computing clusters, a resource that may be limiting to many likely cryo-EM users. To address this limitation and facilitate the spread of cryo-EM, we developed a publicly available 'off-the-shelf' computing environment on Amazon's elastic cloud computing infrastructure. This environment provides users with single particle cryo-EM software packages and the ability to create computing clusters with 16-480+ CPUs. We tested our computing environment using a publicly available 80S yeast ribosome dataset and estimate that laboratories could determine high-resolution cryo-EM structures for $50 to $1500 per structure within a timeframe comparable to local clusters. Our analysis shows that Amazon's cloud computing environment may offer a viable computing environment for cryo-EM.

  5. Resolving macromolecular structures from electron cryo-tomography data using subtomogram averaging in RELION.

    PubMed

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Scheres, Sjors H W

    2016-11-01

    Electron cryo-tomography (cryo-ET) is a technique that is used to produce 3D pictures (tomograms) of complex objects such as asymmetric viruses, cellular organelles or whole cells from a series of tilted electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) images. Averaging of macromolecular complexes found within tomograms is known as subtomogram averaging, and this technique allows structure determination of macromolecular complexes in situ. Subtomogram averaging is also gaining in popularity for the calculation of initial models for single-particle analysis. We describe herein a protocol for subtomogram averaging from cryo-ET data using the RELION software (http://www2.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/relion). RELION was originally developed for cryo-EM single-particle analysis, and the subtomogram averaging approach presented in this protocol has been implemented in the existing workflow for single-particle analysis so that users may conveniently tap into existing capabilities of the RELION software. We describe how to calculate 3D models for the contrast transfer function (CTF) that describe the transfer of information in the imaging process, and we illustrate the results of classification and subtomogram averaging refinement for cryo-ET data of purified hepatitis B capsid particles and Saccharomyces cerevisiae 80S ribosomes. Using the steps described in this protocol, along with the troubleshooting and optimization guidelines, high-resolution maps can be obtained in which secondary structure elements are resolved subtomogram.

  6. Low cost, high performance processing of single particle cryo-electron microscopy data in the cloud

    PubMed Central

    Cianfrocco, Michael A; Leschziner, Andres E

    2015-01-01

    The advent of a new generation of electron microscopes and direct electron detectors has realized the potential of single particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) as a technique to generate high-resolution structures. Calculating these structures requires high performance computing clusters, a resource that may be limiting to many likely cryo-EM users. To address this limitation and facilitate the spread of cryo-EM, we developed a publicly available ‘off-the-shelf’ computing environment on Amazon's elastic cloud computing infrastructure. This environment provides users with single particle cryo-EM software packages and the ability to create computing clusters with 16–480+ CPUs. We tested our computing environment using a publicly available 80S yeast ribosome dataset and estimate that laboratories could determine high-resolution cryo-EM structures for $50 to $1500 per structure within a timeframe comparable to local clusters. Our analysis shows that Amazon's cloud computing environment may offer a viable computing environment for cryo-EM. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06664.001 PMID:25955969

  7. Initial assessment of CryoSat-2 Performance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingham, D.; Galin, N.; Ridout, A.; Cullen, R.; Giles, K. A.; Laxon, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    Following the launch of CryoSat-2 in April 2010, we have examined the performance of the CryoSat-2 SAR Interferometer over the continental ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland, the Artic Ocean, and, for the purposes of calibration, over the oceans. Our aim has been to provide confirmation of the engineering performance of the radar interferometer, and to provide an initial geophysical validation of the resulting elevation measurements. We have confirmed the engineering performance at system level of the interferometer through performing a sequence of satellite rolls over the oceans, which provide a surface of known behavior and surface gradient. The activity has identified some errors in the SARIN L1b data products presently issued by ESA. Once corrected, the ocean calibration has demonstrated that the interferometer measures across-track surface slopes with a precision of 25 micro-radians and an accuracy of 10 micro-radians, which may be compared with a pre-launch estimation of 100 micro-radians; in short, the engineering performance greatly its the specification. The elevation measurement over the ice sheets combines the interferometer measurement of across track slope with the range measurement deduced from the SAR echoes. We have examined the performance of the range estimation, and determined the range precision to be 19 cm RMS at 20 Hz. We have examined the retrieval of the phase information over the ice sheets, and found the phase estimates to be robust and little affected by the uncertain ice sheet topography. Based on the calibration of the interferometer, the contribution of the across track slope error is, at 0.4 mm, negligible. While the quantity of data available to us that contains the corrections identified by the interferometer is limited, we have been able to confirm the range precision values from a limited cross-over analysis. Over marine sea ice, we have verified the discrimination of sea ice and ocean lead returns using contemporaneous SAR

  8. Synthesis of Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@graphene composite: A magnetically separable and efficient catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ran; Bi, Huiping; He, Guangyu; Zhu, Junwu; Chen, Haiqun

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite was prepared by one-step solvent–thermal method. • The Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite exhibited the highest catalytic activity with excellent stability. • The Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite was magnetically separable. - Abstract: In this work, the Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite was prepared easily by a one-step solvent–thermal method, which achieved the formation of Cu nanoparticles (Cu NPs), Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs) and reduction of GO simultaneously. The morphology and structure of the composite was fully characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The time-dependent adsorption spectra of the reaction mixture was measured by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that the Cu NPs and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} NPs were densely and evenly deposited on the graphene (GE) sheets. It was found that the Cu-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@GE composite exhibited high catalytic activities on the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. Furthermore, the composite catalyst can be easily recovered due to its magnetic separability and high stability.

  9. Magnetically-Separable and Highly-Stable Enzyme System Based on Crosslinked Enzyme Aggregates Shipped in Magnetite-Coated Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jinwoo; Na, Hyon Bin; Kim, Byoung Chan; Lee, Jin Hyung; Lee, Byoungsoo; Kwak, Ja Hun; Hwang, Yosun; Park, Je-Geun; Gu, Man Bock; Kim, Jaeyun; Joo, Jin; Shin, Chae-Ho; Grate, Jay W.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Jungbae

    2009-10-15

    Magnetically-separable and highly-stable enzyme system was developed by adsorption of enzymes in superparamagnetic hierarchically ordered mesocellular mesoporous silica (M-HMMS) and subsequent enzyme crosslinking. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles were homogeneously incorporated into hierarchically-ordered mesocellular mesoporous silica (HMMS) by the decomposition of preformed iron propionate complex. The size of incorporated superparamagnetic 15 nanoparticles was around 5 nm, generating a magnetically separable host with high pore volumes and large pores (M-HMMS). α-chymotrypsin (CT) was adsorbed into M-HMMS with high loading (~30 wt%) in less than 30 minutes. Glutaraldehyde (GA) treatment of adsorbed CT resulted in nanometer scale crosslinked enzyme aggregates in M-HMMS (CLEA-M). The activity of these CT aggregates in M-HMMS (CLEA-M-CT) was 34 times than that of simply adsorbed CT in M20 HMMS, due to an effective prevention of enzyme leaching during washing via a ship-in-a-bottle approach. CLEA-M-CT maintained the intial activity not only under shaking (250 rpm) for 30 days, but also under recycled uses of 35 times. The same approach was employed for the synthesis of CLEA-M of lipase (CLEA-M-LP), and proven to be effective in improving the loading, activity, and stability of enzyme when compared to those of adsorbed LP in M-HMMS.

  10. Mesoporous silica beads embedded with semiconductor quantum dots and iron oxide nanocrystals: dual-function microcarriers for optical encoding and magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Tushar R; Agrawal, Amit; Nie, Shuming

    2006-08-15

    Mesoporous beads are promising materials for embedding functional nanoparticles because of their nanometer-sized pores and large surface areas. Here we report the development of silica microbeads embedded with both semiconductor quantum dots (QD) and iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanocrystals as a new class of dual-function carriers for optical encoding and magnetic separation. The embedding (doping) process is carried out by either simultaneous or sequential addition of quantum dots and iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanocrystals in solution. The doping process is fast and quantitative, but the incorporated iron oxide strongly attenuates the signal intensity of QD fluorescence. We find that this attenuation is not due to conventional fluorescence quenching but is caused by the broad optical absorption spectrum of mixed-valence Fe3O4. For improved biocompatibility and reduced nonspecific binding, the encoded beads are further coated with amphiphilic polymers such as octylamine poly(acrylic acid). The results indicate that the polymer-coated beads are well suited for target capturing and enrichment, yielding magnetic separation efficiencies higher than 99%. By combining the multiplexing capability of QDs with the superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanocrystals, this class of encoded beads is expected to find broad applications in high-throughput and multiplexed biomolecular assays. PMID:16906704

  11. Skeletal Muscle Triad Junction Ultrastructure by Focused-Ion-Beam Milling of Muscle and Cryo-Electron Tomography.

    PubMed

    Wagenknecht, Terence; Hsieh, Chyongere; Marko, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) has emerged as perhaps the only practical technique for revealing nanometer-level three-dimensional structural details of subcellular macromolecular complexes in their native context, inside the cell. As currently practiced, the specimen should be 0.1-0.2 microns in thickness to achieve optimal resolution. Thus, application of cryo-ET to intact frozen (vitreous) tissues, such as skeletal muscle, requires that they be sectioned. Cryo-ultramicrotomy is notoriously difficult and artifact-prone when applied to frozen cells and tissue, but a new technique, focused ion beam milling (cryo-FIB), shows great promise for "thinning" frozen biological specimens. Here we describe our initial results in applying cryo-FIB and cryo-ET to triad junctions of skeletal muscle.

  12. Microchannel liquid-flow focusing and cryo-polymerization preparation of supermacroporous cryogel beads for bioseparation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Junxian; Tu, Changming; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Xu, Linhong; Guo, Yantao; Shen, Shaochuan; Zhang, Songhong; Yao, Kejian; Guan, Yi-Xin; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2012-07-20

    Polymeric cryogels are sponge-like materials with supermacroporous structure, allowing them to be of interest as new chromatographic supports, cell scaffolds and drug carriers in biological and biomedical areas. The matrices of cryogels are always prepared in the form of monoliths by cryo-polymerization under frozen conditions. However, there are limited investigations on the production of cryogels in the form of adsorbent beads suitable for bioseparation. In this work, we provide a new approach by combining the microchannel liquid-flow focusing with cryo-polymerization for the preparation of polyacrylamide-based supermacroporous cryogel beads with a narrow particle size distribution. The present method was achieved by introducing the aqueous phase solution containing monomer, cross-linker and redox initiators, and the water-immiscible organic oil phase containing surfactant simultaneously into a microchannel with a cross-shaped junction, where the aqueous drops with uniform sizes were generated by the liquid shearing and the segmentation due to the steady flow focusing of the immiscible phase streams. These liquid drops were in situ suspended into the freezing bulk oil phase for cryo-polymerization and the cryogel matrix beads were obtained by thawing after the achievement of polymerization. By grafting the polymer chains containing sulfo binding groups onto these matrix beads, the cation-exchange cryogel beads for protein separation were produced. The results showed that at the aqueous phase velocities from 0.5 to 2.0 cm/s and the total velocities of the water-immiscible phase from 2.0 to 6.0 cm/s, the obtained cryogel beads by the present method have narrow size distributions with most of the bead diameters in the range from 800 to 1500 μm with supermacropores in sizes of about 3-50 μm. These beads also have high porosities with the averaged maximum porosity of 96.9% and the mean effective porosity of 86.2%, which are close to those of the polyacrylamide

  13. Microchannel liquid-flow focusing and cryo-polymerization preparation of supermacroporous cryogel beads for bioseparation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Junxian; Tu, Changming; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Xu, Linhong; Guo, Yantao; Shen, Shaochuan; Zhang, Songhong; Yao, Kejian; Guan, Yi-Xin; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2012-07-20

    Polymeric cryogels are sponge-like materials with supermacroporous structure, allowing them to be of interest as new chromatographic supports, cell scaffolds and drug carriers in biological and biomedical areas. The matrices of cryogels are always prepared in the form of monoliths by cryo-polymerization under frozen conditions. However, there are limited investigations on the production of cryogels in the form of adsorbent beads suitable for bioseparation. In this work, we provide a new approach by combining the microchannel liquid-flow focusing with cryo-polymerization for the preparation of polyacrylamide-based supermacroporous cryogel beads with a narrow particle size distribution. The present method was achieved by introducing the aqueous phase solution containing monomer, cross-linker and redox initiators, and the water-immiscible organic oil phase containing surfactant simultaneously into a microchannel with a cross-shaped junction, where the aqueous drops with uniform sizes were generated by the liquid shearing and the segmentation due to the steady flow focusing of the immiscible phase streams. These liquid drops were in situ suspended into the freezing bulk oil phase for cryo-polymerization and the cryogel matrix beads were obtained by thawing after the achievement of polymerization. By grafting the polymer chains containing sulfo binding groups onto these matrix beads, the cation-exchange cryogel beads for protein separation were produced. The results showed that at the aqueous phase velocities from 0.5 to 2.0 cm/s and the total velocities of the water-immiscible phase from 2.0 to 6.0 cm/s, the obtained cryogel beads by the present method have narrow size distributions with most of the bead diameters in the range from 800 to 1500 μm with supermacropores in sizes of about 3-50 μm. These beads also have high porosities with the averaged maximum porosity of 96.9% and the mean effective porosity of 86.2%, which are close to those of the polyacrylamide

  14. Alignment algorithms and per-particle CTF correction for single particle cryo-electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Galaz-Montoya, Jesús G; Hecksel, Corey W; Baldwin, Philip R; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott C; Schmid, Michael F; Ludtke, Steven J; Chiu, Wah

    2016-06-01

    Single particle cryo-electron tomography (cryoSPT) extracts features from cryo-electron tomograms, followed by 3D classification, alignment and averaging to generate improved 3D density maps of such features. Robust methods to correct for the contrast transfer function (CTF) of the electron microscope are necessary for cryoSPT to reach its resolution potential. Many factors can make CTF correction for cryoSPT challenging, such as lack of eucentricity of the specimen stage, inherent low dose per image, specimen charging, beam-induced specimen motions, and defocus gradients resulting both from specimen tilting and from unpredictable ice thickness variations. Current CTF correction methods for cryoET make at least one of the following assumptions: that the defocus at the center of the image is the same across the images of a tiltseries, that the particles all lie at the same Z-height in the embedding ice, and/or that the specimen, the cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) grid and/or the carbon support are flat. These experimental conditions are not always met. We have developed a CTF correction algorithm for cryoSPT without making any of the aforementioned assumptions. We also introduce speed and accuracy improvements and a higher degree of automation to the subtomogram averaging algorithms available in EMAN2. Using motion-corrected images of isolated virus particles as a benchmark specimen, recorded with a DE20 direct detection camera, we show that our CTF correction and subtomogram alignment routines can yield subtomogram averages close to 4/5 Nyquist frequency of the detector under our experimental conditions. PMID:27016284

  15. Alignment algorithms and per-particle CTF correction for single particle cryo-electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Galaz-Montoya, Jesús G; Hecksel, Corey W; Baldwin, Philip R; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott C; Schmid, Michael F; Ludtke, Steven J; Chiu, Wah

    2016-06-01

    Single particle cryo-electron tomography (cryoSPT) extracts features from cryo-electron tomograms, followed by 3D classification, alignment and averaging to generate improved 3D density maps of such features. Robust methods to correct for the contrast transfer function (CTF) of the electron microscope are necessary for cryoSPT to reach its resolution potential. Many factors can make CTF correction for cryoSPT challenging, such as lack of eucentricity of the specimen stage, inherent low dose per image, specimen charging, beam-induced specimen motions, and defocus gradients resulting both from specimen tilting and from unpredictable ice thickness variations. Current CTF correction methods for cryoET make at least one of the following assumptions: that the defocus at the center of the image is the same across the images of a tiltseries, that the particles all lie at the same Z-height in the embedding ice, and/or that the specimen, the cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) grid and/or the carbon support are flat. These experimental conditions are not always met. We have developed a CTF correction algorithm for cryoSPT without making any of the aforementioned assumptions. We also introduce speed and accuracy improvements and a higher degree of automation to the subtomogram averaging algorithms available in EMAN2. Using motion-corrected images of isolated virus particles as a benchmark specimen, recorded with a DE20 direct detection camera, we show that our CTF correction and subtomogram alignment routines can yield subtomogram averages close to 4/5 Nyquist frequency of the detector under our experimental conditions.

  16. Solid-solid grinding/templating route to magnetically separable nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon for the removal of Cu(2+) ions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aibing; Yu, Yifeng; Zhang, Yue; Xing, Tingting; Wang, Yanyan; Zhang, Yexin; Zhang, Jian

    2014-08-30

    N-doped ordered mesoporous carbon materials (NOMC) with 2D hexagonal symmetry structure were synthesized via a facile solid-solid grinding/templating route, in which the ionic liquids (ILs) of 1-cyanoethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and SBA-15 were employed as the precursor and hard template, respectively. The as-synthesized NOMC features with a uniform mesoporous size (3.5nm), ropes-like morphology (0.4-1μm in length) and high surface area (803m(2)/g). The quantitative analysis revealed the nitrogen content on the surface of NOMC is 5.5at%. Magnetic iron nanoparticles were successfully embedded into the carbon matrix by introducing iron chloride to the mixture of SBA-15 and ILs during the synthesis process. The NOMC-Fe composite possessed superior adsorption capacity of Cu(2+) ions (23.6mg/g). Kinetic and isothermal analysis demonstrated the strong interactions between Cu(2+) ion and the adsorbent. Furthermore, the composite was magnetically separable from solution under an external magnetic field and thus displayed a superior reusability in the recycling test. PMID:25072134

  17. CryoClim: A New Operational System And Service For Climate Monitoring Of The Cryosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solberg, Rune; Killie, Mari Anne; Andreassen, Liss Marie; Konig, Max

    2013-12-01

    CryoClim is an Internet service providing cryospheric climate products, primarily based on satellite observations. The service is delivered through a web service and web portal (www.cryoclim.net). The portal includes manual searching, viewing and downloading capabilities. CryoClim is an operational and permanent service for long-term systematic climate monitoring of the cryosphere. The product production and the product repositories are hosted by mandated organisations. The databases are connected over the Internet in a seamless and scalable network, open for inclusion of more databases/sub-services. CryoClim provides sea ice and snow products of global coverage and glacier products covering Norway (mainland and Svalbard).

  18. Dengue virus purification and sample preparation for cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joanne L; Lok, Shee Mei

    2014-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is a valuable tool used to study the structures of icosahedral viruses without having to resort to crystallization. During the last few decades, significant progress has been made where virus structures previously resolved only to low resolution have now breached the sub-nanometer threshold. Critical to such excellent results are the acquisition of highly purified virus samples and well-frozen samples in vitreous ice. With the virus particles locked in their native conformations, cryo-EM together with single-particle analysis can then be deployed to study the structures of the viruses in their fully hydrated states.

  19. Label-Free Visualization of Ultrastructural Features of Artificial Synapses via Cryo-EM

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The ultrastructural details of presynapses formed between artificial substrates of submicrometer silica beads and hippocampal neurons are visualized via cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The silica beads are derivatized by poly-d-lysine or lipid bilayers. Molecular features known to exist at presynapses are clearly present at these artificial synapses, as visualized by cryo-EM. Key synaptic features such as the membrane contact area at synaptic junctions, the presynaptic bouton containing presynaptic vesicles, as well as microtubular structures can be identified. This is the first report of the direct, label-free observation of ultrastructural details of artificial synapses. PMID:22860164

  20. Developments in cryo-electron tomography for in situ structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Dubrovsky, Anna; Sorrentino, Simona; Harapin, Jan; Sapra, K Tanuj; Medalia, Ohad

    2015-09-01

    Structural analysis of macromolecular assemblies and their remodeling during physiological processes is instrumental to defining the fundament of cellular and molecular biology. Recent advances in computational and analytical tools for cryo-electron tomography have enabled the study of macromolecular structures in their native environment, providing unprecedented insights into cell function. Moreover, the recent implementation of direct electron detectors has progressed cryo-electron tomography to a stage where it can now be applied to the reconstruction of macromolecular structures at high resolutions. Here, we discuss some of the recent technical developments in cryo-electron tomography to reveal structures of macromolecular complexes in their physiological medium, focusing mainly on eukaryotic cells.