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Sample records for cryogenic cables

  1. Solid-cryogen-stabilized, cable-in-conduit (CIC) superconducting cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voccio, J. P.; Michael, P. C.; Bromberg, L.; Hahn, S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers the use of a solid cryogen as a means to stabilize, both mechanically and thermally, magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting strands within a dual-channel cable-in-conduit (CIC) cable for use in AC applications, such as a generator stator winding. The cable consists of two separate channels; the outer channel contains the superconducting strands and is filled with a fluid (liquid or gas) that becomes solid at the device operating temperature. Several options for fluid will be presented, such as liquid nitrogen, hydrocarbons and other chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that have a range of melting temperatures and volumetric expansions (from solid at operating temperature to fixed volume at room temperature). Implications for quench protection and conductor stability, enhanced through direct contact with the solid cryogen, which has high heat capacity and thermal conductivity (compared with helium gas), will be presented. Depending on the cryogen, the conductor will be filled initially either with liquid at atmospheric conditions or a gas at high pressure (∼100 atm). After cooldown, the cryogen in the stranded-channel will be solid, essentially locking the strands in place, preventing strand motion and degradation due to mechanical deformation while providing enhanced thermal capacity for stability and protection. The effect of cryogen porosity is also considered. The relatively high heat capacity of solid cryogens at these lower temperatures (compared to gaseous helium) enhances the thermal stability of the winding. During operation, coolant flow through the open inner channel will minimize pressure drop.

  2. Cryogenic and Electrical Test Results of 30 M Hts Power Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sytnikov, V. E.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Fetisov, S. S.; Nosov, A. A.; Shakaryan, Yu. G.; Kochkin, V. I.; Kiselev, A. N.; Terentyev, Yu. A.; Patrikeev, V. M.; Zubko, V. V.

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of the Russian R&D Program for HTS power devices, 3×30 m cable with operating current of ˜1.5-2 kA and operating voltage of 20 kV was delivered by Russian Scientific R&D Cable Institute as the first stage of the HTS power cables project. Different basic HTS materials, cryostats and current leads were used for the cable design in this essentially research part of the project. The cable is being tested at special test facility for superconducting power devices developed at the R&D Center for Power Engineering. The cryogenic system for the test facility was provided by Stirling. The basic cryogenic system was equipped with a specially developed flow distribution unit. This unit permits variation and control of liquid nitrogen flows, pressures and temperatures in all three cable phases. Dependencies on temperature of critical currents of each phase were measured during cable tests. The results of the project]s first stage were used to develop and produce a 3×200 m cable system for Moscow distribution grid. In the paper results of cryogenic system tests and cable electrical tests are presented.

  3. Experimental Studies on Cryogenic System for 22.9 KV Hts Cable Sytem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Ryoo, H. S.; Kim, C. D.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, S. K.; Hwang, S. D.

    2008-03-01

    In terms of high transmission capacity with lower voltage, a high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable system is a very attractive challenge for utilities. However, the concomitant cryogenic system for the HTS cable system is one of the tantalizing problems in the operation. The reliability and maintainability of cryogenic system are the key issues to apply it to the real electric power grid. Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) is making an attempt to verify the applicability of the HTS cable system to improve the efficiency of electric power industry. Since May 2006, a 22.9-kV, 50-MVA, 3-phase, 100-m class HTS cable system with an open cooling system has been operated at the KEPCO Gochang test yard. Concurrently, another HTS cable verification test with the same electrical specification and an hybrid cooling system has been carried out by LS Cable (LSC) Ltd in close proximity to the KEPCO's HTS cable system within Gochang test yard. KEPCO conducts the operation of the open cooling system, and is evaluating the hybrid system of LSC with respect to facility performance and usability. This paper compares the cryogenic performance of both HTS cable systems and discusses cooling test results such as step response.

  4. Cryogenic helium gas circulation system for advanced characterization of superconducting cables and other devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamidi, Sastry; Kim, Chul Han; Kim, Jae-Ho; Crook, Danny; Dale, Steinar

    2012-04-01

    A versatile cryogenic test bed, based on circulating cryogenic helium gas, has been designed, fabricated, and installed at the Florida State University Center for Advanced Power Systems (FSU-CAPS). The test bed is being used to understand the benefits of integrating the cryogenic systems of multiple superconducting power devices. The helium circulation system operates with four sets of cryocooler and heat exchanger combinations. The maximum operating pressure of the system is 2.1 MPa. The efficacy of helium circulation systems in cooling superconducting power devices is evaluated using a 30-m-long simulated superconducting cable in a flexible cryostat. Experiments were conducted at various mass flow rates and a variety of heat load profiles. A 1-D thermal model was developed to understand the effect of the gas flow parameters on the thermal gradients along the cable. Experimental results are in close agreement with the results from the thermal model.

  5. Reducing current noise in cryogenic experiments by vacuum-insulated cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykkänen, E.; Lehtinen, J. S.; Kemppinen, A.; Krause, C.; Drung, D.; Nissilä, J.; Manninen, A. J.

    2016-10-01

    We measure the current noise of several cryogenic cables in a pulse tube based dilution refrigerator at frequencies between about 1 mHz and 50 kHz. We show that vibration-induced noise can be efficiently suppressed by using vacuum-insulated cables between room temperature and the 2nd pulse tube stage. A noise peak below 4 fA at the 1.4 Hz operation frequency of the pulse tube and a white noise density of 0.44 fA / √{ Hz } in the millihertz range are obtained.

  6. Design of a cryogenic system for a 20m direct current superconducting MgB2 and YBCO power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheadle, Michael J.; Bromberg, Leslie; Jiang, Xiaohua; Glowacki, Bartek; Zeng, Rong; Minervini, Joseph; Brisson, John

    2014-01-01

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom, and Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, are collaborating to design, construct, and test a 20 m, direct current, superconducting MgB2 and YBCO power cable. The cable will be installed in the State Key Laboratory of Power Systems at Tsinghua University in Beijing beginning in 2013. In a previous paper [1], the cryogenic system was briefly discussed, focusing on the cryogenic issues for the superconducting cable. The current paper provides a detailed discussion of the design, construction, and assembly of the cryogenic system and its components. The two-stage system operates at nominally 80 K and 20 K with the primary cryogen being helium gas. The secondary cryogen, liquid nitrogen, is used to cool the warm stage of binary current leads. The helium gas provides cooling to both warm and cold stages of the rigid cryostat housing the MgB2 and YBCO conductors, as well as the terminations of the superconductors at the end of the current leads. A single cryofan drives the helium gas in both stages, which are thermally isolated with a high effectiveness recuperator. Refrigeration for the helium circuit is provided by a Sumitomo RDK415 cryocooler. This paper focuses on the design, construction, and assembly of the cryostat, the recuperator, and the current leads with associated superconducting cable terminations.

  7. A Distributed Method for Modeling Effective Cryogenic Flat Cable Heat Sinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobrist, N. R.; Daal, M.; Sadoulet, B.; Golwala, S.

    2014-09-01

    A common challenge in low temperature instrumentation is adequately heat sinking signal wires between room temperature and devices at base temperature. Using cryostat space for adequate heat sinking typically comes at the cost of complexity or experimental space. As such, it is useful to know how much heat sinking is adequate given the materials, heat sources and cooling capacities involved. We present a differential equation for modeling the heat flowing out of a flat cable along an interval over which it is adhered to an insulating interface which is bound to a metallic heat sinking surface and numerical results for realistic heat sinks in the Kelvin range. We also present a computational method for solving this differential equation.

  8. Cryogenic Tests of 30 m Flexible Hybrid Energy Transfer Line with Liquid Hydrogen and Superconducting MgB2 Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysotsky, V. S.; Antyukhov, I. V.; Firsov, V. P.; Blagov, E. V.; Kostyuk, V. V.; Nosov, A. A.; Fetisov, S. S.; Zanegin, S. Yu.; Rachuk, V. S.; Katorgin, B. I.

    Recently we reported about first in the world test of 10 m hybrid energy transfer line with liquid hydrogen and MgB2 superconducting cable. In this paper we present the new development of our second hybrid energy transfer line with 30 m length. The flexible 30 m hydrogen cryostat has three sections with different types of thermal insulation in each section: simple vacuum superinsulation, vacuum superinsulation with liquid nitrogen shield and active evaporating cryostatting (AEC) system. We performed thermo-hydraulic tests of the cryostat to compare three thermo-insulating methods. The tests were performed at temperatures from 20 to 26 K, hydrogen flow from 100 to 450 g/s and pressure from 0.25 to 0.5 MPa. It was found that AEC thermal insulation practically eliminated completely heat transfer from room temperature to liquid hydrogen in the 10 m section. AEC thermal insulation method can be used for long superconducting power cables. High voltage current leads were developed as well. The current leads and superconducting MgB2 cable have been passed high voltage DC test up to 50 kV DC. Critical current of the cable at ∼21 K was ∼3500 A. The 30 m hybrid energy system developed is able to deliver up to 135 MW of chemical and electrical power in total.

  9. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  10. Cryogenic design and test results of 30-m flexible hybrid energy transfer line with liquid hydrogen and superconducting MgB2 cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, V. V.; Blagov, E. V.; Antyukhov, I. V.; Firsov, V. P.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Nosov, A. A.; Fetisov, S. S.; Zanegin, S. Yu.; Svalov, G. G.; Rachuk, V. S.; Katorgin, B. I.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we present the development of a new hybrid energy transfer line with 30 m length. The line is essentially a flexible 30 m hydrogen cryostat that has three sections with different types of thermal insulation in each section: simple vacuum superinsulation, vacuum superinsulation with liquid nitrogen precooling and active evaporating cryostatting (AEC) system. We performed thermo-hydraulic tests of the cryostat to compare three thermo-insulating methods. The tests were made at temperatures from 20 to 26 K, hydrogen flow from 70 to 450 g/s and pressure from 0.25 to 0.5 MPa. It was found that AEC thermal insulation was the most effective in reducing heat transfer from room temperature to liquid hydrogen in ∼10 m section of the cryostat, indicating that it can be used for long superconducting power cables. High voltage current leads were developed as well. The current leads and superconducting MgB2 cable passed high voltage DC test up to 50 kV DC. Critical current of the cable at ∼21 K was 3500 A. It means that the 30 m hybrid energy system developed is able to deliver ∼50-60 MW of chemical power and ∼50-75 MW of electrical power, i.e. up to ∼135 MW in total.

  11. Horizontal cryogenic bushing for the termination of a superconducting power-transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Minati, K.F.; Morgan, G.H.; McNerney, A.J.; Schauer, F.

    1982-07-29

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminated the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  12. Termination for a superconducting power transmission line including a horizontal cryogenic bushing

    DOEpatents

    Minati, Kurt F.; Morgan, Gerry H.; McNerney, Andrew J.; Schauer, Felix

    1984-01-01

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminates the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  13. Superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Allais, Arnaud; Schmidt, Frank; Marzahn, Erik

    2010-05-04

    A superconductor cable is described, having a superconductive flexible cable core (1) , which is laid in a cryostat (2, 3, 4), in which the cable core (1) runs in the cryostat (2, 3, 4) in the form of a wave or helix at room temperature.

  14. Cable Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    A guide to the economic factors that influence cable television systems is presented. Designed for local officials who must have some familiarity with cable operations in order to make optimum decisions, the guide analyzes the financial framework of a cable system, not only from the operators viewpoint, but also from the perspective of the…

  15. Cable compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, J.; Eklund, W.; Burkhardt, R.; Rossoni, P.

    1992-01-01

    The object of the investigation was to solve mechanical problems using cable-in-bending and cable-in-torsion. These problems included robotic contacts, targets, and controls using cable compliance. Studies continued in the use of cable compliance for the handicapped and the elderly. These included work stations, walkers, prosthetic knee joints, elbow joints, and wrist joints. More than half of these objects were met, and models were made and studies completed on most of the others. It was concluded that the many different and versatile solutions obtained only opened the door to many future challenges.

  16. Cryogenic exciter

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, James William; Garces, Luis Jose

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  17. Cable Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA Tech Brief's provided Sonics Associates, Inc. with a method of saving many hours of testing time and money. James B. Cawthon, Sonics Vice-President, read about a device developed at Ames Research Center. Sonics adapted the device and produced an effective tester that uses a clocked shift register to apply a voltage to a cable under test. This is the active part of the Ames development, and the passive is a small box containing light emitting diodes (LEDs). When connected to the other end of the tested cable, the LEDs light in the same sequence as the generator. This procedure allows the technician to immediately identify a miswired cable.

  18. Superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Allais, Arnaud; Schmidt, Frank (Langenhagen, DE

    2009-12-15

    A superconductor cable includes a superconductive cable core (1) and a cryostat (2) enclosing the same. The cable core (1) has a superconductive conductor (3), an insulation (4) surrounding the same and a shielding (5) surrounding the insulation (4). A layer (3b) of a dielectric or semiconducting material is applied to a central element (3a) formed from a normally conducting material as a strand or tube and a layer (3c) of at least one wire or strip of superconductive material is placed helically on top. The central element (3a) and the layer (3c) are connected to each other in an electrically conducting manner at the ends of the cable core (1).

  19. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  20. Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This report provides information about cable television and the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating its operation. The initial jurisdiction and rules covered in this report pertain to the court test, public hearing, certificate of compliance, franchising, signal carriage, leapfrogging, access and origination…

  1. Cable Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Basic geographic, demographic, economic, historical, and marketing facts and figures for cable television are presented in this short booklet. The data is succinctly arranged for easy reading and is intended to provide background information for state and local officials who might possibly be required to make public interest decisions in regard to…

  2. Superconducting Cable

    DOEpatents

    Hughey, Raburn L.; Sinha, Uday K.; Reece, David S.; Muller, Albert C.

    2005-07-22

    In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

  3. Superconducting Cable

    DOEpatents

    Hughey, Raburn L.; Sinha, Uday K.; Reece, David S.; Muller, Albert C.

    2005-03-08

    In order to provide a flexible oxide superconducting cable which is reduced in AC loss, tape-shaped superconducting wires covered with a stabilizing metal are wound on a flexible former. The superconducting wires are preferably laid on the former at a bending strain of not more than 0.2%. In laying on the former, a number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on a core member in a side-by-side manner, to form a first layer. A prescribed number of tape-shaped superconducting wires are laid on top of the first layer in a side-by-side manner, to form a second layer. The former may be made of a metal, plastic, reinforced plastic, polymer, or a composite and provides flexibility to the superconducting wires and the cable formed therewith.

  4. Heat loss analysis of a 10 kA warm dielectric HTS DC cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shaotao; Xiao, Liye; Teng, Yuping; Song, Naihao; Gao, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Zhiqing; Liang, Xueming; Cao, Zhicheng; Zhang, Dong; Ma, Tao; Zhang, Hongen; Lin, Liangzhen

    2014-09-01

    A 10 kA/360 m warm-dielectric high-temperature superconducting direct current (DC) power cable system (10 kA cable), supported jointly the Chinese government and industrial enterprise, was developed and has been operating as a branch circuit to transmit power for a 320 kA aluminum electrolyzing production line for more than 10 months at an industrial plant in central China. Both the 10 kA cable and its supporting system of the cable system are introduced. The cryogenic system for the 10 kA cable adopts closed loop and the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen is forced to flow inside by a pump. The design of corrugated cryogenic envelope pipe is modularized and every independent module has two standardized joints, which makes it easy to integrate with the other pipes and the terminations. The heat loss sources and the structure including both the termination and the cryogenic envelope pipe of the 10 kA cable are discussed. The total heat loss of the 10 kA cable excluding the loss of cryogenic pipe for liquid nitrogen backward flowing is designed to be less than 1698 W at 10 kA, and the heat loss was compared and discussed with that of the aluminum bar. The field test and commissioning of the cable show that the 10 kA cable performs steadily and its heat loss is less than the expected value.

  5. Superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Darrell F.; Lake, Bill L.; Ballinger, Ronald G.

    1988-01-01

    A superconducting cable comprising an in-situ-formed type II superconductor, e.g. Nb.sub.3 Sn, in association with a stabilizing conductor both in heat transfer relationship with at least one passage adapted to carry liquified gaseous refrigerant. The conductor and said at least one passage are enclosed by a sheath comprising an alloy consisting essentially of about 49% nickel, about 4% chromium, about 3% niobium, about 1.4% titanium, about 1% aluminum, balance essentially iron.

  6. CABLE CONNECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Caller, J.M.

    1962-05-01

    An electrical connector is designed for utilization in connection with either round or flat coaxial cables. The connector comprises a bayonet-type coupling arrangement with a splined movable locking sleeve adapted to lock together components of the connector. A compression spring is attached to one of the connector components and functions to forcibly separate mating components when the locking sleeve is in an unlocked condition so as to minimize the possibility of leaving the conductors electrically coupled. (AEC)

  7. Armored spring-core superconducting cable and method of construction

    DOEpatents

    McIntyre, Peter M.; Soika, Rainer H.

    2002-01-01

    An armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) is provided. The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may include a spring-core (20), at least one superconducting strand (24) wound onto the spring-core (20), and an armored shell (22) that encases the superconducting strands (24). The spring-core (20) is generally a perforated tube that allows purge gases and cryogenic liquids to be circulated through the armored superconducting cable (12), as well as managing the internal stresses within the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12). The armored shell (22) manages the external stresses of the armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) to protect the fragile superconducting strands (24). The armored spring-core superconducting cable (12) may also include a conductive jacket (34) formed outwardly of the armored shell (22).

  8. CRYOGENIC MAGNETS

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.; Taylor, C.E.

    1963-05-21

    A cryogenic magnet coil is described for generating magnetic fields of the order of 100,000 gauss with a minimum expenditure of energy lost in resistive heating of the coil inductors and energy lost irreversibly in running the coil refrigeration plant. The cryogenic coil comprises a coil conductor for generating a magnetic field upon energization with electrical current, and refrigeration means disposed in heat conductive relation to the coil conductor for cooling to a low temperature. A substantial reduction in the power requirements for generating these magnetic fields is attained by scaling the field generating coil to large size and particular dimensions for a particular conductor, and operating the coil at a particular optimum temperature commensurate with minimum overall power requirements. (AEC)

  9. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  10. Superconducting cable

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, H.

    1983-03-22

    A superconducting cable containing a plurality of individual wires which are stranded or plaited to wire bundles and ropes, wherein in order to avoid relative movement and/or deformation between the wire bundles and/or ropes as, for example, may otherwise be caused by high current loading, the individual wire bundles and the ropes are materially joined together at their points of contact, preferably by soldering, to form a mechanically rigid structure, in which the parts between the soldered areas can as well as possible deform elastically, thereby avoiding all disadvantages associated with freely movable wire bundles. In a preferred embodiment, the ropes are made from wire bundles arranged in a lattice.

  11. Cable-Twisting Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurnett, S.

    1982-01-01

    New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

  12. Seismic cable compass system

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, E.C.

    1984-11-06

    An apparatus for determining the azimuthal direction of a marine streamer cable at selected points along the cable. The apparatus comprises a pod that is clamped to the cable and contains a gimbaled magnetic compass and mean for establishing two-way communication between the pod and the cable.

  13. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  14. CRYOGENIC DEWAR

    DOEpatents

    Chamberlain, W.H.; Maseck, H.E.

    1964-01-28

    This patent relates to a dewar for storing cryogenic gase and is of the type having aii inner flask surrounded by a vacuum jacket and having a vent spout through which evaporating gas escapes. Heretofore substantial gas loss has resulted from the radiation of heat towards the flask from the warmer outer elements of the dewar. In this invention, the mask is surrounded by a thermally conducting shield which is disposed in the vacuum space between the flask and the outer elements of the dewar. The shield contacts only the vent spout, which is cooled by the evaporating gas, and thus is maintained at a temperature very close to that of the flask itself. Accordingly, heat radiated toward the flask is intercepted and conducted to the evaporating gas rather than being re-radiated towards the hask. In a liquid helium dewar of typical configniration the mention reduces the boil-off rate by approximately one-half.(AEC)

  15. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  16. Cable load sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Beus, Michael J.; McCoy, William G.

    1998-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the magnitude of a load on a cable as the cable is employed to support the load includes a beam structure clamped to the cable so that a length of the cable lies along the beam structure. A spacer associated with the beam structure forces a slight curvature in a portion of the length of cable under a cable "no-load" condition so that the portion of the length of cable is spaced from the beam structure to define a cable curved portion. A strain gauge circuit including strain gauges is secured to the beam structure by welding. As the cable is employed to support a load the load causes the cable curved portion to exert a force normal to the cable through the spacer and on the beam structure to deform the beam structure as the cable curved portion attempts to straighten under the load. As this deformation takes place, the resistance of the strain gauges is set to a value proportional to the magnitude of the normal strain on the beam structure during such deformation. The magnitude of the normal strain is manipulated in a control device to generate a value equal to the magnitude or weight of the load supported by the cable.

  17. Cutting Edge Cable Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Describes how one school district was able to efficiently install fragile telecommunication cabling throughout its high school and save thousands of dollars. Discusses solutions to some common cable-management problems. (GR)

  18. Cable-fault locator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cason, R. L.; Mcstay, J. J.; Heymann, A. P., Sr.

    1979-01-01

    Inexpensive system automatically indicates location of short-circuited section of power cable. Monitor does not require that cable be disconnected from its power source or that test signals be applied. Instead, ground-current sensors are installed in manholes or at other selected locations along cable run. When fault occurs, sensors transmit information about fault location to control center. Repair crew can be sent to location and cable can be returned to service with minimum of downtime.

  19. Vertex Detector Cable Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, William E.; /Fermilab

    2009-02-01

    Vertex detector cable requirements are considered within the context of the SiD concept. Cable material should be limited so that the number of radiation lengths represented is consistent with the material budget. In order to take advantage of the proposed accelerator beam structure and allow cooling by flow of dry gas, 'pulsed power' is assumed. Potential approaches to power distribution, cable paths, and cable design for operation in a 5 T magnetic field are described.

  20. Cables and fire hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanelli, C.; Philbrick, S.; Beretta, G.

    1986-01-01

    Besides describing the experiments conducted to develop a nonflammable cable, this article discusses several considerations regarding other hazards which might result from cable fires, particularly the toxicity and opacity of the fumes emitted by the burning cable. In addition, this article examines the effects of using the Oxygen Index as a gauge of quality control during manufacture.

  1. Molds for cable dielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Roose, L.D.

    1996-12-10

    Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. 5 figs.

  2. Molds for cable dielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    1996-01-01

    Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made.

  3. Colleges and Cable Franchising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Neal D.

    After noting issues of audience appeal and financial and philosophical support for educational broadcasting, this paper urges community colleges to play an active role in the process of cable franchising. The paper first describes a cable franchise as a contract between a government unit and the cable television (CATV) company which specifies what…

  4. Cryogenic vacuumm RF feedthrough device

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Genfa; Phillips, Harry Lawrence

    2008-12-30

    A cryogenic vacuum rf feedthrough device comprising: 1) a probe for insertion into a particle beam; 2) a coaxial cable comprising an inner conductor and an outer conductor, a dielectric/insulating layer surrounding the inner conductor, the latter being connected to the probe for the transmission of higher mode rf energy from the probe; and 3) a high thermal conductivity stub attached to the coaxial dielectric about and in thermal contact with the inner conductor which high thermal conductivity stub transmits heat generated in the vicinity of the probe efficiently and radially from the area of the probe and inner conductor all while maintaining useful rf transmission line characteristics between the inner and outer coaxial conductors.

  5. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  6. Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, M. G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Research in cryogenically cooled refrigerators is discussed. Low-power Stirling cryocoolers; spacecraft-borne long-life units; heat exchangers; performance tests; split-stirling, linear-resonant, cryogenic refrigerators; and computer models are among the topics discussed.

  7. Electronically controlled cable wrapper

    DOEpatents

    Young, Thomas M.

    1984-01-01

    A spindle assembly engages and moves along a length of cable to be wrapped with insulating tape. Reels of insulating tape are mounted on a outer rotatable spindle which revolves around the cable to dispense insulating tape. The rate of movement of the spindle assembly along the length of the cable is controlled by a stepper motor which is programmably synchronized to the rate at which rotatable spindle wraps the cable. The stepper motor drives a roller which engages the cable and moves the spindle assembly along the length of the cable as it is being wrapped. The spindle assembly is mounted at the end of an articulated arm which allows free movement of the spindle assembly and allows the spindle assembly to follow lateral movement of the cable.

  8. Electronically controlled cable wrapper

    DOEpatents

    Young, T.M.

    1982-08-17

    A spindle assembly engages and moves along a length of cable to be wrapped with insulating tape. Reels of insulating tape are mounted on a outer rotatable spindle which revolves around the cable to dispense insulating tape. The rate of movement of the spindle assembly along the length of the cable is controlled by a stepper motor which is programmably synchronized to the rate at which rotatable spindle wraps the cable. The stepper motor drives a roller which engages the cable and moves the spindle assembly along the length of the cable as it is being wrapped. The spindle assembly is mounted at the end of an articulated arm which allows free movement of the spindle assembly and allows the spindle assembly to follow lateral movement of the cable.

  9. Cable load transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Scott E.; Abdow, David A.

    1994-10-01

    An apparatus for measuring the loads, moments and torque at a constrained end of a cable created by the action of the cable in a fluid medium in which the cable is suspended. The cable is suspended in the medium by means of a strut. The apparatus connects the cable to the strut. The apparatus includes two flexure members, one rigidly connected to the strut, the other to the cable. A universal joint couples the two flexure members so that the flexure member connected to the strut can be fitted with strain gages to measure bending while the other flexure member has strain gages to measure axial force and torque. The universal joint enables the isolation of axial and torsional strains at the flexure member connected to the cable.

  10. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    DOEpatents

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  11. Test Results for a 25 Meter Prototype Fault Current Limiting Hts Cable for Project Hydra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, C. M.; Duckworth, R. C.; Demko, J. A.; Ellis, A.; James, D. R.; Gouge, M. J.; Tuncer, E.

    2010-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its HTS cable test facility. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture between Southwire and nkt cables. System integration and HTS wire were provided by American Superconductor Corporation who was the overall team leader of the project. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ˜200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3-Φ) HTS Triax™ design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase (7967 V phase-to-ground) and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

  12. Cable Tester Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  13. Cable Measuring Engine Operation Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1997-07-11

    The Cable Measuring Engine (CME) is a tool which measures and records the cable dimensions in a nondestructive fashion. It is used in-line with the superconductor cable as it is being made. The CME is intended to be used as a standard method of measuring cable by the various manufacturers involved in the cable process.

  14. Cable suspended windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Moses G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A windmill is disclosed which includes an airframe having an upwind end and a downwind end. The first rotor is rotatably connected to the airframe, and a generator is supported by the airframe and driven by the rotor. The airframe is supported vertically in an elevated disposition by poles which extend vertically upwardly from the ground and support cables which extend between the vertical poles. Suspension cables suspend the airframe from the support cable.

  15. Progress and status of cryogenic refrigeration system for project Hydra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.; Catseman, F.; Tilleman, H.; Henderson, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the last two decades, HTS cables have been successfully demonstrated around the world, preparing HTS power cables for a full commercial introduction. Among the demonstration projects, circulating subcooled liquid nitrogen to maintain the HTS cable at operating temperature is a widely adopted approach. In this approach, the cooling systems are absolutely critical to the successful operation of the HTS cables. This paper describes the progress and status of the cryogenic refrigeration system designed and manufactured for project Hydra, which is a project jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. American Superconductor is leading the team supported by Con Edison, Ultera, Altran Solutions, and DH Industries. The cable is an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable, approximately 200 m long and designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The cable will be installed and energized near New York City. The refrigeration system was designed and manufactured by DH Industries. This paper provides details on the successful factory acceptance testing completed in November 2014.

  16. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  17. Design and development of 500 m long HTS cable system in the KEPCO power grid, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Yang, B. M.; Lee, S. K.; Jang, H. M.; Kim, Y. H.; Yang, H. S.; Kim, D. L.; Kim, H. R.; Yim, S. W.; Won, Y. J.; Hwang, S. D.

    2010-11-01

    In Korea, two long-term field demonstrations for high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable have been carried out for several years; Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) and LS Cable Ltd. (LSC) independently. Encouraged at the result of the projects performed in parallel, a new project targeting the real grid operation was launched in the fourth quarter of 2008 with the Korean government’s financial support. KEPCO and LSC are jointly collaborating in the selection of substation, determination of cable specification, design of cryogenic system, and the scheme of protection coordination. A three phase 500 m long HTS cable at a distribution level voltage of 22.9 kV is to be built at 154/22.9 kV Icheon substation located in near Seoul. A hybrid cryogenic system reflecting the contingency plan is being designed including cryocoolers. The HTS cable system will be installed in the second quarter of 2010, being commissioned by the fall of 2010. This paper describes the objectives of the project and design issues of the cable and cryogenic system in detail.

  18. Connect to Cable TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Jean

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Library Cable Network (LCN), a public access cable television network in Illinois. Discussion covers costs; organization and personnel; programing, including a series of author interviews, children's programs, and features on local attractions; new audiences, particularly minority and ethnic groups; and future telecommunications…

  19. Multistrand superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Borden, Albert R.

    1985-01-01

    Improved multistrand Rutherford-type superconductor cable is produced by using strands which are preformed, prior to being wound into the cable, so that each strand has a variable cross section, with successive portions having a substantially round cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a rectangular cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a round cross section and so forth, in repetitive cycles along the length of the strand. The cable is wound and flattened so that the portions of rectangular cross section extend across the two flat sides of the cable at the strand angle. The portions of round cross section are bent at the edges of the flattened cable, so as to extend between the two flat sides. The rectangular portions of the strands slide easily over one another, so as to facilitate flexing and bending of the cable, while also minimizing the possibility of causing damage to the strands by such flexing or bending. Moreover, the improved cable substantially maintains its compactness and cross-sectional shape when the cable is flexed or bent.

  20. Submarine cable route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber submarine cables is privileged to that of satellites. These submarine telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.

  1. Cable Television and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Joseph L.

    Cable television can augment educational broadcast services and also provide a level of individualized educational services not possible with either broadcasting or classroom audiovisual aids. The extra channels provided by cable television allow the following extra services for education: 1) broadcast of a multitude of programs, including delayed…

  2. Cryogenics program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the cryogenics program of the Goddard Space Flight Center is given in viewgraph form. Goddard's role and the flight programs requiring cryogenics are outlined. Diagrams are given of the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator, a liquid cryogenic cooler for the Shuttle Glow Experiment, a liquid helium dewar, and the X-ray spectrometer on the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility.

  3. Multistrand superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Borden, A.R.

    1984-03-08

    Improved multistrand Rutherford-type superconductor cable is produced by using strands which are preformed, prior to being wound into the cable, so that each strand has a variable cross section, with successive portions having a substantially round cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a rectangular cross section, a transitional oval cross section, a round cross section and so forth, in repetitive cycles along the length of the strand. The cable is wound and flattened so that the portions of rectangular cross section extend across the two flat sides of the cable at the strand angle. The portions of round cross section are bent at the edges of the flattened cable, so as to extend between the two flat sides. The rectangular portions of the strands slide easil

  4. Fundamentals of Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley; Tomsik, Thomas; Moder, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the extreme conditions that are encountered in cryogenic systems requires the most effort out of analysts and engineers. Due to the costs and complexity associated with the extremely cold temperatures involved, testing is sometimes minimized and extra analysis is often relied upon. This short course is designed as an introduction to cryogenic engineering and analysis, and it is intended to introduce the basic concepts related to cryogenic analysis and testing as well as help the analyst understand the impacts of various requests on a test facility. Discussion will revolve around operational functions often found in cryogenic systems, hardware for both tests and facilities, and what design or modelling tools are available for performing the analysis. Emphasis will be placed on what scenarios to use what hardware or the analysis tools to get the desired results. The class will provide a review of first principles, engineering practices, and those relations directly applicable to this subject including such topics as cryogenic fluids, thermodynamics and heat transfer, material properties at low temperature, insulation, cryogenic equipment, instrumentation, refrigeration, testing of cryogenic systems, cryogenics safety and typical thermal and fluid analysis used by the engineer. The class will provide references for further learning on various topics in cryogenics for those who want to dive deeper into the subject or have encountered specific problems.

  5. Triaxial HTS Cable for the AEP Bixby Project

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A; Gouge, Michael J; Lindsay, David T; Roden, Mark L; Tolbert, Jerry Carlton

    2007-01-01

    Ultera has installed a single 200-meter long high temperature superconducting (HTS) 3-phase triaxial design cable at the American Electric Power (AEP) Bixby substation in Columbus, Ohio. The cable connects a 132/13.8 kV transformer to the distribution switchgear serving seven outgoing circuits. It was designed to carry 3000 Arms. Testing of 3- to 5-meter length prototype cables, including a 5-meter prototype with full scale terminations tested at ORNL was conducted prior to the manufacture and installation of the AEP triaxial cable. These prototypes were used to demonstrate the crucial operating conditions including steady state operation at the 3000 Arms design current, high voltage operation, high voltage withstand and 110 kV impulse, and overcurrent fault capability. A summary of the results from the thermal analysis and testing conducted by Ultera and ORNL will be presented. Some analysis of the cable thermal-hydraulic response based on the testing that were used to determine some of the cable cryogenic system requirements are also presented.

  6. Cable and Line Inspection Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Terence J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated cable and line inspection mechanism visually scans the entire surface of a cable as the mechanism travels along the cable=s length. The mechanism includes a drive system, a video camera, a mirror assembly for providing the camera with a 360 degree view of the cable, and a laser micrometer for measuring the cable=s diameter. The drive system includes an electric motor and a plurality of drive wheels and tension wheels for engaging the cable or line to be inspected, and driving the mechanism along the cable. The mirror assembly includes mirrors that are positioned to project multiple images of the cable on the camera lens, each of which is of a different portion of the cable. A data transceiver and a video transmitter are preferably employed for transmission of video images, data and commands between the mechanism and a remote control station.

  7. Cable and line inspection mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Terence J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated cable and line inspection mechanism visually scans the entire surface of a cable as the mechanism travels along the cable=s length. The mechanism includes a drive system, a video camera, a mirror assembly for providing the camera with a 360 degree view of the cable, and a laser micrometer for measuring the cable=s diameter. The drive system includes an electric motor and a plurality of drive wheels and tension wheels for engaging the cable or line to be inspected, and driving the mechanism along the cable. The mirror assembly includes mirrors that are positioned to project multiple images of the cable on the camera lens, each of which is of a different portion of the cable. A data transceiver and a video transmitter are preferably employed for transmission of video images, data and commands between the mechanism and a remote control station.

  8. High Voltage Breakdown, Partial Discharge and Aging in Lapped Tape Insulated Cold Dielectric Model Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauers, I.; James, D. R.; Pace, M. O.; Ellis, A. R.; Muller, A. C.

    2004-06-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables generally follow either of two generic designs, cold dielectric and warm dielectric. In the cold dielectric design, lapped tape insulation and liquid nitrogen are used in combination to provide the electrical insulation between the conductor and the ground shield of an HTS cable. Lapped tape insulated model cables have been tested at high voltage, including AC breakdown, negative impulse breakdown, partial discharge, and long term aging under AC stress. Tapes tested include Cryoflex™ (a proprietary tape developed by Southwire) and PPLP® (a commercial semi synthetic tape). Two high voltage cryostats have been built for short and long term aging studies that permit testing of model cables under the combined conditions of high electric stress, cryogenic temperature and elevated pressures up to 15 bar. For the aging studies, a log-log plot of electric stress versus time-to-breakdown has yielded an estimate of cable lifetime. Since aging at cryogenic temperatures is not expected to have a thermal cause, dielectric wear in HTS cables reduces to partial discharge as the primary aging mechanism. Phase and amplitude resolved partial discharge data of model cables in liquid nitrogen will be presented.

  9. Bringing Cable into the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blubaugh, Donelle

    1999-01-01

    Cable TV may be an educationally and fiscally sound way to inspire active learning. Creative TV applications help teachers address potentially disabling social and emotional factors. The Cable in the Classroom program offers over 80,000 eligible schools free cable connections, free basic monthly cable service, and copyright clearances for off-air…

  10. Cryogenic Information Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohling, Robert A.; Marquardt, Eric D.; Fusilier, Fred C.; Fesmire, James E.

    2003-01-01

    The Cryogenic Information Center (CIC) is a not-for-profit corporation dedicated to preserving and distributing cryogenic information to government, industry, and academia. The heart of the CIC is a uniform source of cryogenic data including analyses, design, materials and processes, and test information traceable back to the Cryogenic Data Center of the former National Bureau of Standards. The electronic database is a national treasure containing over 146,000 specific bibliographic citations of cryogenic literature and thermophysical property data dating back to 1829. A new technical/bibliographic inquiry service can perform searches and technical analyses. The Cryogenic Material Properties (CMP) Program consists of computer codes using empirical equations to determine thermophysical material properties with emphasis on the 4-300K range. CMP's objective is to develop a user-friendly standard material property database using the best available data so government and industry can conduct more accurate analyses. The CIC serves to benefit researchers, engineers, and technologists in cryogenics and cryogenic engineering, whether they are new or experienced in the field.

  11. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, S.T.

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies for the Superconducting Super Collider. The correction coil cables have wires collected in wire array with a center rib sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly. The core assembly is surrounded by an assembly housing having an inner spiral wrap and a counter wound outer spiral wrap. An alternate embodiment of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable on a particle tube in a particle tube assembly. 7 figs.

  12. Electrical characteristics of high- Tc superconducting mini-model cable under mechanical stresses in liquid nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. J.; Kwag, D. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    To develop 22.9 kV class high- Tc superconducting (HTS) cable in Korea, we have been studying electrical insulation properties of dielectric paper, such as breakdown voltage, partial discharge, which is one of the HTS cable structure elements. However, the research on the mechanical stress of dielectric paper compared to breakdown properties of dielectric paper is insufficient. A cracking and variation of the electrical insulation due to mechanical stresses during cooling and bending of HTS cables in cryogenic temperature is a serious problem. Thus, we investigated tensile stress and breakdown stress of dielectric paper under mechanical stress. Moreover, we manufactured mini-model cables investigated breakdown stress under bending stress to design a cable drum for conveyance. In the AC, impulse and partial discharge properties, all test results showed a similar tendency, and the suitable bending radius ratio R/ r was decided to be more than 25.

  13. The cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Based on theoretical studies and experience with a low speed cryogenic tunnel and with a 1/3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, the cryogenic wind tunnel concept was shown to offer many advantages with respect to the attainment of full scale Reynolds number at reasonable levels of dynamic pressure in a ground based facility. The unique modes of operation available in a pressurized cryogenic tunnel make possible for the first time the separation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and aeroelastic effects. By reducing the drive-power requirements to a level where a conventional fan drive system may be used, the cryogenic concept makes possible a tunnel with high productivity and run times sufficiently long to allow for all types of tests at reduced capital costs and, for equal amounts of testing, reduced total energy consumption in comparison with other tunnel concepts.

  14. Polyamide 66 as a cryogenic dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuncer, Enis; Polizos, Georgios; Sauers, Isidor; Randy James, D.; Ellis, Alvin R.; Messman, Jamie M.; Aytuğ, Tolga

    2009-09-01

    Improvements in superconductor and cryogenic technologies enable novel power apparatus, e.g., cables, transformers, fault current limiters, generators, it etc., with better device characteristics than their conventional counterparts. In these applications electrical insulation materials play an important role in system weight, footprint (size), and voltage level. The trend in the electrical insulation material selection has been to adapt or to employ conventional insulation materials to these new systems. However, at low temperatures, thermal contraction and loss of mechanical strength in many materials make them unsuitable for superconducting power applications. In this paper, a widely used commercial material was characterized as a potential cryogenic dielectric. The material is used in "oven bags" which is a heat-resistant polyamide (nylon) used in cooking (produced by ; this value is approximately 46kVmm higher than PPLP™. Comparison of the mechanical properties of PA and PPLP™ indicates that PA66 has low storage and loss moduli than PPLP™. It is concluded that PA66 may be a good candidate for cryogenic applications. Finally, a summary of dielectric properties of some of the commercial tape insulation materials and various polymers is also provided.

  15. End moldings for cable dielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    2000-01-01

    End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed is a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves.

  16. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing.

    To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. The Discrete Hanging Cable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James V.

    2004-01-01

    Using the methods of finite difference equations the discrete analogue of the parabolic and catenary cable are analysed. The fibonacci numbers and the golden ratio arise in the treatment of the catenary.

  18. Infiniband Based Cable Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Minich, Makia

    2007-07-01

    As Infiniband continues to be more broadly adopted in High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter applications, one major challenge still plagues implementation: cabling. With the transition to DDR (double data rate) from SDR (single datarate), currently available Infiniband implementations such as standard CX4/IB4x style copper cables severely constrain system design (10m maximum length for DDR copper cables, thermal management due to poor airflow, etc.). This paper will examine some of the options available and compare performance with the newly released Intel Connects Cables. In addition, we will take a glance at Intel's dual-core and quad-core systems to see if core counts have noticeable effect on expected IO patterns.

  19. The surface discharge and breakdown characteristics of HTS DC cable and stop joint box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. W.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-09-01

    A high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC cable system consists of a HTS cable and cable joint. The HTS DC cable should be electrically connected in joint boxes because of the unit length of HTS cable is limited to several-hundred meters. In particular, the stop joint box (SJB) must be developed for a compact cooling system. Polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) and epoxy maybe used as insulating materials for HTS DC cable and SJB. To develop a HTS DC cable, it is necessary to develop the cryogenic insulation technology, materials and the joint methods. In this paper, we will mainly discuss on the DC and impulse characteristics of epoxy and PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN2). The surface discharge characteristics of epoxy included fillers, PPLP and epoxy with PPLP composite (epoxy + PPLP) were measured under 0.4 MPa. Also, the PPLP-insulated mini-model cable was fabricated and then DC, impulse and DC polarity reversal breakdown strength of mini-model cable under 0.4 MPa were investigated.

  20. Cryogenic Pound Circuits for Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi

    2006-01-01

    Two modern cryogenic variants of the Pound circuit have been devised to increase the frequency stability of microwave oscillators that include cryogenic sapphire-filled cavity resonators. The original Pound circuit is a microwave frequency discriminator that provides feedback to stabilize a voltage-controlled microwave oscillator with respect to an associated cavity resonator. In the present cryogenic Pound circuits, the active microwave devices are implemented by use of state-of-the-art commercially available tunnel diodes that exhibit low flicker noise (required for high frequency stability) and function well at low temperatures and at frequencies up to several tens of gigahertz. While tunnel diodes are inherently operable as amplitude detectors and amplitude modulators, they cannot, by themselves, induce significant phase modulation. Therefore, each of the present cryogenic Pound circuits includes passive circuitry that transforms the AM into the required PM. Each circuit also contains an AM detector that is used to sample the microwave signal at the input terminal of the high-Q resonator for the purpose of verifying the desired AM null at this point. Finally, each circuit contains a Pound signal detector that puts out a signal, at the modulation frequency, having an amplitude proportional to the frequency error in the input signal. High frequency stability is obtained by processing this output signal into feedback to a voltage-controlled oscillator to continuously correct the frequency error in the input signal.

  1. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections between cables and to power sources shall not be...

  2. Cryogenic test technology, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, R. J.; Schimanski, D.; Hartzuiker, J. P.

    1985-04-01

    This report reviews the new information available on cryogenic test technology since the report of the Converters' Group on Cryogenic Test Technology was written in 1981. The present position is summarized. The major events since the Converters' report have been the completion and commissioning of the National Transonic Facility (NTF), the suspension of further work on the Douglas 4-WT blowdown tunnel, the conversion of ONERA T2 for cryogenic operation, the steady progress with the DF-LP KKK, and the slow but positive progress with the ETW project, including installation of the pilot tunnel PETW.

  3. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.; Casagrande, F.

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  4. SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hatfield; F. Casagrande; I. Campisi; P. Gurd; M. Howell; D. Stout; H. Strong; D. Arenius; J. Creel; K. Dixon; V. Ganni; and P. Knudsen

    2005-08-29

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

  5. SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, D.; Casagrande, F.; Campisi, I.; Gurd, P.; Howell, M.; Stout, D.; Strong, H.; Arenius, D.; Creel, J.; Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2006-04-27

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

  6. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable... or broken under load....

  7. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable... or broken under load....

  8. 30 CFR 77.605 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.605 Breaking trailing cable and power cable... or broken under load....

  9. CRYOGENICS IN BEPCII UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,L.; WANG,L.; LI,S.

    2002-07-22

    THIS PAPER PRESENTS A CRYOGENIC DESIGN FOR UPGRADING THE BEIJING ELECTRON POSITRON COLLIDER AT THE INSTITUTE OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS IN BEIJING. THE UPGRADE INVOLVES 3 NEW SUPERCONDUCTING FACILITIES, THE INTERACTION REGION QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS, THE DETECTOR SOLENOID MAGNETS AND THE SRF CAVITIES. FOR COOLING OF THESE DEVICES, A NEW CRYPLANT WITH A TOTAL CAPACITY OF 1.0KW AT 4.5K IS TO BE BUILT AT IHEP. AN INTEGRATED CRYOGENIC DESIGN TO FIT THE BEPCII CRYOGENIC LOADS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY IS CARRIEDOUT USING COMPUTATIONAL PROCESS ANALYSIS SOFTWARE WITH THE EMPHASES ON ECONOMICS AND SAFETY IN BOTH CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE PLANT. THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE CRYOGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICE, THEIR COOLING SCHEMES AND THE OVERALL CRYOPLANT.

  10. Cryogenic Insulation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.; Wikstrom, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of cryogenic insulation systems performed are presented. The key aspects of thermal insulation relative to cryogenic system design, testing, manufacturing, and maintenance are discussed. An overview of insulation development from an energy conservation perspective is given. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications provide three levels of thermal conductivity. Actual thermal performance of standard multilayer insulation (MLI) is several times less than laboratory performance and often 10 times worse than ideal performance. The cost-effectiveness of the insulation system depends on thermal performance; flexibility and durability; ease of use in handling, installation, and maintenance; and overall cost including operations, maintenance, and life cycle. Results of comprehensive testing of both conventional and novel materials such as aerogel composites using cryostat boil-off methods are given. The development of efficient, robust cryogenic insulation systems that operate at a soft vacuum level is the primary focus of this paper.

  11. Cable-Dispensing Cart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredberg, Alan S.

    2003-01-01

    A versatile cable-dispensing cart can support as many as a few dozen reels of cable, wire, and/or rope. The cart can be adjusted to accommodate reels of various diameters and widths, and can be expanded, contracted, or otherwise reconfigured by use of easily installable and removable parts that can be carried onboard. Among these parts are dispensing rods and a cable guide that enables dispensing of cables without affecting the direction of pull. Individual reels can be mounted on or removed from the cart without affecting the other reels: this feature facilitates the replacement or reuse of partially depleted reels, thereby helping to reduce waste. Multiple cables, wires, or ropes can be dispensed simultaneously. For maneuverability, the cart is mounted on three wheels. Once it has been positioned, the cart is supported by rubber mounts for stability and for prevention of sliding or rolling during dispensing operations. The stability and safety of the cart are enhanced by a low-center-of-gravity design. The cart can readily be disassembled into smaller units for storage or shipping, then reassembled in the desired configuration at a job site.

  12. Settled Cryogenic Propellant Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; Sakla, Steve; Wall, John; Hopkins, Josh; Saks, Greg; Duffey, Jack; Chato, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant transfer can significantly benefit NASA s space exploration initiative. LMSSC parametric studies indicate that "Topping off" the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) in LEO with approx.20 mT of additional propellant using cryogenic propellant transfer increases the lunar delivered payload by 5 mT. Filling the EDS to capacity in LEO with 78 mT of propellants increases the delivered payload by 20 mT. Cryogenic propellant transfer is directly extensible to Mars exploration in that it provides propellant for the Mars Earth Departure stage and in-situ propellant utilization at Mars. To enable the significant performance increase provided by cryogenic propellant transfer, the reliability and robustness of the transfer process must be guaranteed. By utilizing low vehicle acceleration during the cryogenic transfer the operation is significantly simplified and enables the maximum use of existing, reliable, mature upper stage cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) techniques. Due to settling, large-scale propellant transfer becomes an engineering effort, and not the technology development endeavor required with zero-gravity propellant transfer. The following key CFM technologies are all currently implemented by settling on both the Centaur and Delta IV upper stages: propellant acquisition, hardware chilldown, pressure control, and mass gauging. The key remaining technology, autonomous rendezvous and docking, is already in use by the Russians, and must be perfected for NASA whether the use of propellant transfer is utilized or not.

  13. Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Smith, Trent; Breakfield, Robert; Baughner, Kevin; Heckle, Kenneth; Meneghelli, Barry

    2010-01-01

    The Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus (CMA) is designed for quantifying the amount of moisture from the surrounding air that is taken up by cryogenic-tank-insulating material specimens while under typical conditions of use. More specifically, the CMA holds one face of the specimen at a desired low temperature (e.g., the typical liquid-nitrogen temperature of 77 K) while the opposite face remains exposed to humid air at ambient or near-ambient temperature. The specimen is weighed before and after exposure in the CMA. The difference between the "after" and "before" weights is determined to be the weight of moisture absorbed by the specimen. Notwithstanding the term "cryogenic," the CMA is not limited to cryogenic applications: the low test temperature can be any temperature below ambient, and the specimen can be made of any material affected by moisture in air. The CMA is especially well suited for testing a variety of foam insulating materials, including those on the space-shuttle external cryogenic tanks, on other cryogenic vessels, and in refrigerators used for transporting foods, medicines, and other perishables. Testing is important because absorbed moisture not only adds weight but also, in combination with thermal cycling, can contribute to damage that degrades insulating performance. Materials are changed internally when subjected to large sub-ambient temperature gradients.

  14. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Sou-Tien

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly (10, 310) adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies (532) for the superconducting super collider. The correction coil cables (10, 310) have wires (14, 314) collected in wire arrays (12, 312) with a center rib (16, 316) sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly (18, 318 ). The core assembly (18, 318) is surrounded by an assembly housing (20, 320) having an inner spiral wrap (22, 322) and a counter wound outer spiral wrap (24, 324). An alternate embodiment (410) of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable (410) on a particle tube (733) in a particle tube assembly (732).

  15. Operating experience with the southwire 30-meter high-temperature superconducting power cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, J. P.; Lue, J. W.; Demko, J. A.; Fisher, P. W.; Gouge, M. J.; Hawsey, R. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Hughey, R. L.; Lindsay, D. T.; Roden, M. L.; Sinha, U. K.; Tolbert, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    Southwire Company is operating a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable system at its corporate headquarters. The 30-m long, 3-phase cable system is powering three Southwire manufacturing plants and is rated at 12.4-kV, 1250-A, 60-Hz. Cooling is provided by a pressurized liquid nitrogen system operating at 70-80 K. The cables were energized on January 5, 2000 for on-line testing and operation and in April 2000 were placed into extended service. As of June 1, 2001, the HTS cables have provided 100% of the customer load for 8000 hours. The cryogenic system has been in continuous operation since November 1999. The HTS cable system has not been the cause of any power outages to the average 20 MW industrial load served by the cable. The cable has been exposed to short-circuit currents caused by load-side faults without damage. Based upon field measurements described herein, the cable critical current-a key performance parameter-remains the same and has not been affected by the hours of real-world operation, further proving the viability of this promising technology.

  16. The US market for high-temperature superconducting wire in transmission cable applications

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, D

    1996-04-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 utility engineers concerning the future prospects for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cables. All have direct responsibility for transmission in their utility, most of them in a management capacity. The engineers represented their utilities as members of the Electric Power Research Institute`s Underground Transmission Task Force (which has since been disbanded). In that capacity, they followed the superconducting transmission cable program and are aware of the cryogenic implications. Nineteen of the 23 engineers stated the market for underground transmission would grow during the next decade. Twelve of those specified an annual growth rate; the average of these responses was 5.6%. Adjusting that figure downward to incorporate the remaining responses, this study assumes an average growth rate of 3.4%. Factors driving the growth rate include the difficulty in securing rights-of-way for overhead lines, new construction techniques that reduce the costs of underground transmission, deregulation, and the possibility that public utility commissions will allow utilities to include overhead costs in their rate base. Utilities have few plans to replace existing cable as preventive maintenance, even though much of the existing cable has exceeded its 40-year lifetime. Ten of the respondents said the availability of a superconducting cable with the same life-cycle costs as a conventional cable and twice the ampacity would induce them to consider retrofits. The respondents said a cable with those characteristics would capture 73% of their cable retrofits.

  17. High acceleration cable deployment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canning, T. N.; Barns, C. E.; Murphy, J. P.; Gin, B.; King, R. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A deployment system that will safely pay one cable from a ballistic forebody when the forebody is separated from an afterbody (to which the cable is secured and when the separation is marked by high acceleration and velocity) is described.

  18. Space Flight Cable Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spak, Kaitlin

    2013-01-01

    This work concentrates the modeling efforts presented in last year's VSGC conference paper, "Model Development for Cable-Harnessed Beams." The focus is narrowed to modeling of space-flight cables only, as a reliable damped cable model is not yet readily available and is necessary to continue modeling cable-harnessed space structures. New experimental data is presented, eliminating the low-frequency noise that plagued the first year's efforts. The distributed transfer function method is applied to a single section of space flight cable for Euler-Bernoulli and shear beams. The work presented here will be developed into a damped cable model that can be incorporated into an interconnected beam-cable system. The overall goal of this work is to accurately predict natural frequencies and modal damping ratios for cabled space structures.

  19. Effects of Cryogenic Temperatures on Spacecraft Internal Dielectric Discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale c.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Most calculations of internal dielectric charging on spacecraft use tabulated values of material surface and bulk conductivities, dielectric constants, and dielectric breakdown strengths. Many of these properties are functions of temperature, and the temperature dependences are not well known. At cryogenic temperatures, where it is well known that material conductivities decrease dramatically, it is an open question as to the timescales over which buried charge will dissipate and prevent the eventual potentially disastrous discharges of dielectrics. In this paper, measurements of dielectric charging and discharging for cable insulation materials at cryogenic temperatures (approx. 90 K) are presented using a broad spectrum electron source at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The measurements were performed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which will orbit at the Earth-Sun L2 point, and parts of which will be perennially at temperatures as low as 40 K. Results of these measurements seem to show that Radiation Induced Conductivity (RIC) under cryogenic conditions at L2 will not be sufficient to allow charges to bleed off of some typical cable insulation materials even over the projected JWST lifetime of a dozen years or more. After the charging and discharging measurements are presented, comparisons are made between the material conductivities that can be inferred from the measured discharges and conductivities calculated from widely used formulae. Furthermore, the measurement-inferred conductivities are compared with extrapolations of recent measurements of materials RIC and dark conductivities performed with the charge-storage method at Utah State University. Implications of the present measurements are also given for other spacecraft that may operate at cryogenic temperatures, such as probes of the outer planets or the permanently dark cratered areas on the moon. The present results will also be of interest to those who must design or

  20. A cable SGEMP tutorial :

    SciTech Connect

    Liscum-Powell, Jennifer L.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Turner, C. David

    2007-05-01

    This tutorial is aimed at guiding a user through the process of performing a cable SGEMP simulation. The tutorial starts with processing a differential photon spectrum obtained from a Monte Carlo code such as ITS into a discrete (multi-group) spectrum used in CEPXS and CEPTRE. Guidance is given in the creation of a nite element mesh of the cable geometry. The set-up of a CEPTRE simulation is detailed. Users are instructed in evaluating the quality of the CEPTRE radiation transport results. The post-processing of CEPTRE results using Exostrip is detailed. And finally, an EMPHASIS/CABANA simulation is detailed including the interpretation of the output.

  1. Coaxial cable cutter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Leslie C.; Hedges, Robert S.

    1990-04-10

    A cutting device is provided which is useful in trimming the jackets from semi-rigid coaxial cables and wire having a cutting bit and support attached to movable jaws. A thumbpiece is provided to actuate the opening of the jaws for receiving the cable to be trimmed, and a spring member is provided to actuate the closing of the jaws when thumbpiece is released. The cutting device utilizes one moving part during the cutting operation by using a rolling cut action. The nature of the jaws allows the cutting device to work in space having clearances less than 0.160 inches.

  2. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  3. Cables and connectors: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A technological compilation on devices and techniques for various types of electrical cables and connections is presented. Data are reported under three sections: flat conductor cable technology, newly developed electrical connectors, and miscellaneous articles and information on cables and connector techniques.

  4. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  5. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  6. Noise from implantable Cooper cable.

    PubMed

    Carrington, V; Zhou, L; Donaldson, N

    2005-09-01

    Cooper cable is made for implanted devices, usually for connection to stimulating electrodes. An experiment has been performed to see whether these cables would be satisfactory for recording electroneurogram (ENG) signals from cuffs. Four cables were subjected to continuous flexion at 2 Hz while submerged in saline. The cables were connected to a low-noise amplifier, and the noise was measured using a spectrum analyser. These cables had not fractured after 184 million flexions, and the noise in the neural band (500-5000 Hz) had not increased owing to age. Noise in the ENG band increased by less than 3 dB owing to the motion. A fifth, worn cable did fail during the experiment, the conductors becoming exposed to the saline, but this was only apparent by extra noise when the cable was in motion. After 184 million flexions, the four cables were given a more severe test: instead of being connected to the amplifier reference node, two of the four cores of each cable were connected to 18V batteries. Two of the cables were then noisier, but only when in motion, presumably because of leakage between cores. Cooper cables are excellent for transmitting neural signals alone; transmission in one cable of neural signals and power supplies should be avoided if possible. PMID:16411634

  7. 30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.601 Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices. Temporary splices in trailing cables or portable cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner...

  8. 30 CFR 75.607 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.607 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections...

  9. Cable TV: Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Educational Library/Media Association, Columbus.

    Designed to aid in planning the best use of cable television in a particular educational situation, this pamphlet was prepared by a joint committee of the Ohio Educational Library Media Association and the Greater Miami Valley Instructional Television Council in order to share their plans, experiences, problems, and solutions with others who are…

  10. Urban Cable Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, William F.; And Others

    Analysis of demographic, social, municipal and commercial characteristics of Washington, D.C., indicate that a sophisticated three-stage cable television (CATV) system could be economically viable. The first stage would provide one-way CATV service offering 30 video channels and local program origination at a monthly fee of $3.50. The second stage…

  11. Comparison of cable ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaček, Vít; Kohout, Tomáš

    2010-03-01

    Two cable types, which currently are used in nuclear power plants (NPP) and which are composed by jacket/insulation materials, i.e. PVC/PVC and PVC/PE, were exposed to accelerated ageing conditions, in order to simulate their behavior after 10 years in service. The cables were aged under two different test conditions: With relatively high accelerating ageing speed:Radiation ageing was carried out at room temperature at a dose rate of 2900 Gy/h, followed by thermal ageing at 100 °C. This accelerated ageing condition was fairly fast, but still in compliance with the standards. With moderate ageing speed:The radiation and thermal ageing was performed simultaneously (superimposed) at a dose rate of 2.7-3.7Gy/h and a temperature of 68-70 °C. Such a test condition seems to be very close to the radiation and temperature impact onto the cables in the real NPP service. Finally, mechanical properties were measured to characterize the ageing status of the cables. The purpose of this study was to compare degradation effects, derived from both ageing methods, and to demonstrate that results obtained from high values of accelerating parameters and from fast ageing simulation can be very different from reality. The observed results corroborated this assumption.

  12. Flat conductor cable applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the numerous applications of flat conductor cable (FCC) systems are briefly described. Both government and commercial uses were considered, with applications designated as either aerospace, military, or commercial. The number and variety of ways in which FCC is being applied and considered for future designs are illustrated.

  13. Superconducting Cable Termination

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Uday K.; Tolbert, Jerry

    2005-08-30

    Disclosed is a termination that connects high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable immersed in pressurized liquid nitrogen to high voltage and neutral (shield) external bushings at ambient temperature and pressure. The termination consists of a splice between the HTS power (inner) and shield (outer) conductors and concentric copper pipes which are the conductors in the termination. There is also a transition from the dielectric tape insulator used in the HTS cable to the insulators used between and around the copper pipe conductors in the termination. At the warm end of the termination the copper pipes are connected via copper braided straps to the conventional warm external bushings which have low thermal stresses. This termination allows for a natural temperature gradient in the copper pipe conductors inside the termination which enables the controlled flashing of the pressurized liquid coolant (nitrogen) to the gaseous state. Thus the entire termination is near the coolant supply pressure and the high voltage and shield cold bushings, a highly stressed component used in most HTS cables, are eliminated. A sliding seal allows for cable contraction as it is cooled from room temperature to ˜72-82 K. Seals, static vacuum, and multi-layer superinsulation minimize radial heat leak to the environment.

  14. Multilayer flat electrical cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, P. G.

    1973-01-01

    Flat electrical cable is lightweight, flexible over wide temperature range, withstands continuous exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation, and can carry high currents with minimum of temperature rise. Its magnetic cleanliness is equal to or better than twisted pair of wires, and it can be terminated in conventional electrical connector.

  15. Schools and Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Educational Technology Div.

    The papers gathered here are designed to provide a foundation of background information for those charged with the responsibility of formulating school district goals regarding cable television (CATV) and of obtaining the necessary cooperation from the local CATV franchise operators to reach these goals. The position of the National Education…

  16. Disposable telemetry cable deployment system

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A disposable telemetry cable deployment system for facilitating information retrieval while drilling a well includes a cable spool adapted for insertion into a drill string and an unarmored fiber optic cable spooled onto the spool cable and having a downhole end and a stinger end. Connected to the cable spool is a rigid stinger which extends through a kelly of the drilling apparatus. A data transmission device for transmitting data to a data acquisition system is disposed either within or on the upper end of the rigid stinger.

  17. Internal coaxial cable seal system

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, David R.; Sneddon, Cameron; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-07-25

    The invention is a seal system for a coaxial cable and is placed within the coaxial cable and its constituent components. A series of seal stacks including load ring components and elastomeric rings are placed on load bearing members within the coaxial cable sealing the annular space between the coaxial cable and an electrical contact passing there through. The coaxial cable is disposed within drilling components to transmit electrical signals between drilling components within a drill string. The seal system can be used in a variety of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

  18. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  19. CRYOGENICS FOR FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Dauguet, P.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F.; Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Boissin, J. C.

    2008-03-16

    Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to 'fusion for energy' will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

  20. Cryogenic process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Panek, J.; Johnson, S.

    1994-01-01

    Combining accurate fluid property databases with a commercial equation-solving software package running on a desktop computer allows simulation of cryogenic processes without extensive computer programming. Computer simulation can be a powerful tool for process development or optimization. Most engineering simulations to date have required extensive programming skills in languages such as Fortran, Pascal, etc. Authors of simulation code have also usually been responsible for choosing and writing the particular solution algorithm. This paper describes a method of simulating cryogenic processes with a commercial software package on a desktop personal computer that does not require these traditional programming tasks. Applications include modeling of cryogenic refrigerators, heat exchangers, vapor-cooled power leads, vapor pressure thermometers, and various other engineering problems.

  1. The Basic Properties of PPLP for HTS DC Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, H. J.; Cho, J. W.; Kim, S. H.

    In order to develop high temperature superconducting (HTS) DC cable, it is important to understand the cooling system, high voltage insulation and materials at cryogenic temperature. Especially, the basic properties of insulating materials must be solved for the long life, reliability and compact of system. In this paper, we will discuss mainly on the electrical and the mechanical properties of polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) in liquid nitrogen (LN2). The polarity effect of DC and impulse voltage, the volume resistivity and the space charge distribution and frost were studied. Furthermore, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength of PPLP at LN2 (77 K) and room temperature (300 K) were studied.

  2. Cryogenic Propellant Densification Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewart, R. O.; Dergance, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Ground and vehicle system requirements are evaluated for the use of densified cryogenic propellants in advanced space transportation systems. Propellants studied were slush and triple point liquid hydrogen, triple point liquid oxygen, and slush and triple point liquid methane. Areas of study included propellant production, storage, transfer, vehicle loading and system requirements definition. A savings of approximately 8.2 x 100,000 Kg can be achieved in single stage to orbit gross liftoff weight for a payload of 29,484 Kg by utilizing densified cryogens in place of normal boiling point propellants.

  3. Cryogenic generator cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckels, P. W.; Fagan, T. J.; Parker, J. H., Jr.; Long, L. J.; Shestak, E. J.; Calfo, R. M.; Hannon, W. F.; Brown, D. B.; Barkell, J. W.; Patterson, A.

    The concept for a hydrogen cooled aluminum cryogenic generator was presented by Schlicher and Oberly in 1985. Following their lead, this paper describes the thermal design of a high voltage dc, multimegawatt generator of high power density. The rotor and stator are cooled by saturated liquid and supercritical hydrogen, respectively. The brushless exciter on the same shaft is also cooled by liquid hydrogen. Component development testing is well under way and some of the test results concerning the thermohydraulic performance of the conductors are reported. The aluminum cryogenic generator's characteristics are attractive for hydrogen economy applications.

  4. Unique Cryogenic Welded Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushchenko, K. A.; Monko, G. G.

    2004-06-01

    For the last few decades, the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute has been active in the field of cryogenic materials science. Integrated research on development of new grades of steels and alloys for cryogenic engineering was carried out in collaboration with the leading institutions of Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Commercially applied welding technologies and consumables were developed. They include large, spherical tanks for storage of liquefied gases (from oxygen to helium) under high pressures; space simulators with a capacity of 10 000 m3 and more; and load-carrying elements of superconducting fusion magnetic systems for the TOKAMAK, MGD, and ITER series.

  5. Unique Cryogenic Welded Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yushchenko, K.A.; Monko, G.G.

    2004-06-28

    For the last few decades, the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute has been active in the field of cryogenic materials science. Integrated research on development of new grades of steels and alloys for cryogenic engineering was carried out in collaboration with the leading institutions of Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Commercially applied welding technologies and consumables were developed. They include large, spherical tanks for storage of liquefied gases (from oxygen to helium) under high pressures; space simulators with a capacity of 10 000 m3 and more; and load-carrying elements of superconducting fusion magnetic systems for the TOKAMAK, MGD, and ITER series.

  6. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  7. Polyamide 66 as a Cryogenic Dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Polyzos, Georgios; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Messman, Jamie M; Aytug, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    Improvements in superconductor and cryogenic technologies enable novel power apparatus, \\eg, cables, transformers, fault current limiters, generators, \\etc, with better device characteristics than their conventional counterparts. In these applications electrical insulation materials play an important role in system weight, footprint (size), and voltage level. The trend in the electrical insulation material selection has been to adapt or to employ conventional insulation materials to these new systems. However, at low temperatures, thermal contraction and loss of mechanical strength in many materials make them unsuitable for superconducting power applications. In this paper, a widely used commercial material was characterized as a potential cryogenic dielectric. The material is used in ``oven bag'' a heat-resistant polyamide (nylon) used in cooking (produced by Reynolds\\textregistered, Richmond, VA, USA). It is first characterized by Fourier transform infrared and x-ray diffraction techniques and determined to be composed of polyamide 66 (PA66) polymer. Secondly the complex dielectric permittivity and dielectric breakdown strength of the PA66 films are investigated. The dielectric data are then compared with data reported in the literature. A comparison of dielectric strength with a widely used high-temperature superconductor electrical insulation material, polypropylene-laminated paper (PPLP\\texttrademark\\ a product of Sumitomo Electric Industries, Japan), is provided. It is observed that the statistical analysis of the PA66 films yields 1\\% failure probability at $127\\ \\kilo\\volt\\milli\\meter^{-1}$; this value is approximately $46\\ \\kilo\\volt\\milli\\meter^{-1}$ higher than PPLP\\texttrademark. It is concluded that PA66 may be a good candidate for cryogenic applications. Finally, a summary of dielectric properties of some of the commercial tape insulation materials and various polymers is also provided.

  8. Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented.

  9. Development of inspection robots for bridge cables.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hae-Bum; Kim, Se-Hoon; Wu, Liuliu; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented. PMID:24459453

  10. Development of Inspection Robots for Bridge Cables

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Jae

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the bridge cable inspection robot developed in Korea. Two types of the cable inspection robots were developed for cable-suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridge. The design of the robot system and performance of the NDT techniques associated with the cable inspection robot are discussed. A review on recent advances in emerging robot-based inspection technologies for bridge cables and current bridge cable inspection methods is also presented. PMID:24459453

  11. Cryogenics Research and Engineering Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficient storage, transfer and use of cryogens and cryogenic propellants on Earth and in space have a direct impact on NASA, government and commercial programs. Research and development on thermal insulation, propellant servicing, cryogenic components, material properties and sensing technologies provides industry, government and research institutions with the cross-cutting technologies to manage low-temperature applications. Under the direction of the Cryogenic Testing Lab at Kennedy Space Center, the work experience acquired allowed me to perform research, testing, design and analysis of current and future cryogenic technologies to be applied in several projects.

  12. Method to improve superconductor cable

    DOEpatents

    Borden, A.R.

    1984-03-08

    A method is disclosed of making a stranded superconductor cable having improved flexing and bending characteristics. In such method, a plurality of superconductor strands are helically wound around a cylindrical portion of a mandrel which tapers along a transitional portion to a flat end portion. The helically wound strands form a multistrand hollow cable which is partially flattened by pressure rollers as the cable travels along the transitional portion. The partially flattened cable is impacted with repeated hammer blows as the hollow cable travels along the flat end portion. The hammer blows flatten both the internal and the external surfaces of the strands. The cable is fully flattened and compacted by two sets of pressure rollers which engage the flat sides and the edges of the cable after it has traveled away from the flat end portion of the mandrel. The flattened internal surfaces slide easily over one another when the cable is flexed or bent so that there is very little possibility that the cable will be damaged by the necessary flexing and bending required to wind the cable into magnet coils.

  13. Cable coupling lightning transient qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Simulated lightning strike testing of instrumentation cabling on the redesigned solid rocket motor was performed. Testing consisted of subjecting the lightning evaluation test article to simulated lightning strikes and evaluating the effects of instrumentation cable transients on cables within the system tunnel. The maximum short-circuit current induced onto a United Space Boosters, Inc., operational flight cable within the systems tunnel was 92 A, and the maximum induced open-circuit voltage was 316 V. These levels were extrapolated to the worst-case (200 kA) condition of NASA specification NSTS 07636 and were also scaled to full-scale redesigned solid rocket motor dimensions. Testing showed that voltage coupling to cables within the systems tunnel can be reduced 40 to 90 dB and that current coupling to cables within the systems tunnel can be reduced 30 to 70 dB with the use of braided metallic sock shields around cables that are external to the systems tunnel. Testing also showed that current and voltage levels induced onto cables within the systems tunnel are partially dependant on the cables' relative locations within the systems tunnel. Results of current injections to the systems tunnel indicate that the dominant coupling mode on cables within the systems tunnel is not from instrumentation cables but from coupling through the systems tunnel cover seam apertures. It is recommended that methods of improving the electrical bonding between individual sections of the systems tunnel covers be evaluated. Further testing to better characterize redesigned solid rocket motor cable coupling effects as an aid in developing methods to reduce coupling levels, particularly with respect to cable placement within the systems tunnel, is also recommended.

  14. Cable shield connecting device

    DOEpatents

    Silva, Frank A.

    1979-01-01

    A cable shield connecting device for installation on a high voltage cable of the type having a metallic shield, the device including a relatively conformable, looped metal bar for placement around a bared portion of the metallic shield to extend circumferentially around a major portion of the circumference of the metallic shield while being spaced radially therefrom, a plurality of relatively flexible metallic fingers affixed to the bar, projecting from the bar in an axial direction and spaced circumferentially along the bar, each finger being attached to the metallic shield at a portion located remote from the bar to make electrical contact with the metallic shield, and a connecting conductor integral with the bar.

  15. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  16. Compact cryogenic inductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Carr, W.J. Jr.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Hordubay, T.D.; Chuboy, H.L. . Science and Technology Center)

    1994-07-01

    Power systems requiring power levels as high as a few megawatts to a few gigawatts for periods of several microseconds to several milliseconds with repetitive frequencies of a few hertz to a few kilohertz are being considered for potential space applications. The impulsive nature of the power presents the opportunity to use inductive energy storage techniques for pulse duty to enhance economic and practical considerations. An inductors must be efficient, lightweight, and reliable, and it must have high energy density if it is to be used in space based power systems. Cryogenic inductors are best studied for such an application. Parametric analyses of the two potential types of cryogenic inductors (superconducting and hyperconducting reveal that the hyperconducting (high purity aluminum)) inductor would be significantly lighter and achieve higher energy densities without the added penalty of a helium refrigeration system, thus resulting in improved overall system reliability. The lightweight hyperconducting cryogenic inductor technology is, however, in its infancy. This paper describes the required technology base which would allow the eventual application of the lightweight cryogenic inductor in space power systems, and also conclusively demonstrates the underlying principles.

  17. Valve for cryogenic service

    DOEpatents

    Worwetz, H.A.

    1975-09-02

    This patent relates to a valve for use with a liquefied gas at cryogenic temperatures in which a pair of joined knife edges are bellows controlled to contact an indium alloy seat in an annular slot when flow is to be stopped. The sealing alloy may be renewed by heating in situ. (auth)

  18. Hanging Windmills From Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Moses G.

    1987-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive structure enables raising and lowering of windmills. Windmills supported, according to new concept, by hanging from cables. Possible to raise and lower windmills easily for maintenance and to lower them to avoid excessive windspeeds. Airframe consists of fuselage and empennage. Windmill turns shaft driving electrical generator. Device aerodynamically stable so it will rotate in yaw to maintain windmill in downwind position as wind direction changes.

  19. High conductance surge cable

    DOEpatents

    Murray, Matthew M.; Wilfong, Dennis H.; Lomax, Ralph E.

    1998-01-01

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressers to ectrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation.

  20. High conductance surge cable

    DOEpatents

    Murray, M.M.; Wilfong, D.H.; Lomax, R.E.

    1998-12-08

    An electrical cable for connecting transient voltage surge suppressors to electrical power panels. A strip of electrically conductive foil defines a longitudinal axis, with a length of an electrical conductor electrically attached to the metallic foil along the longitudinal axis. The strip of electrically conductive foil and the length of an electrical conductor are covered by an insulating material. For impedance matching purposes, triangular sections can be removed from the ends of the electrically conductive foil at the time of installation. 6 figs.

  1. Analysis of the cryogenic system behavior for pulsed heat load in EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L. B.; Zhuang, M.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    EAST is the first full superconducting fusion device. The plasma is confined by the magnetic fields generated from a large set of superconducting magnets which are made of cable in-conduit conductor (CICC). In operation, these magnets suffer heat loads from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as the eddy currents and the AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and the resistive heat generated at the current lead transiting to room temperature. The cryogenic system of our EAST consists of a 2kW/4K helium refrigerator and a distribution system for the cooling of poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) coils, structures, thermal shields, buslines and current leads. Pulsed heat load is the main difference between the cryogenic system of a full superconducting Tokamak system and other large scale cryogenic systems. The cryogenic system operates in a pulsed heat loads mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time. At the same time, the cryogenic system parameters such as helium cooling superconducting magnets, helium refrigerator and helium distribution system are changing. In this paper, the variation range of the parameters of superconducting magnets and refrigerator has been analyzed in the typical plasma discharge mode. The control scheme for the pulsed loads characteristics of the cryogenic system has been proposed, the implementation of which helps to smooth the pulse loads and to improve the stability of the operation of the cryogenic system.

  2. Analysis of the cryogenic system behavior for pulsed heat load in EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, L. B.; Zhuang, M.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H.

    2014-01-29

    EAST is the first full superconducting fusion device. The plasma is confined by the magnetic fields generated from a large set of superconducting magnets which are made of cable in-conduit conductor (CICC). In operation, these magnets suffer heat loads from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as the eddy currents and the AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and the resistive heat generated at the current lead transiting to room temperature. The cryogenic system of our EAST consists of a 2kW/4K helium refrigerator and a distribution system for the cooling of poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) coils, structures, thermal shields, buslines and current leads. Pulsed heat load is the main difference between the cryogenic system of a full superconducting Tokamak system and other large scale cryogenic systems. The cryogenic system operates in a pulsed heat loads mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time. At the same time, the cryogenic system parameters such as helium cooling superconducting magnets, helium refrigerator and helium distribution system are changing. In this paper, the variation range of the parameters of superconducting magnets and refrigerator has been analyzed in the typical plasma discharge mode. The control scheme for the pulsed loads characteristics of the cryogenic system has been proposed, the implementation of which helps to smooth the pulse loads and to improve the stability of the operation of the cryogenic system.

  3. 14 CFR 23.689 - Cable systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 23.689 Section 23.689... Systems § 23.689 Cable systems. (a) Each cable, cable fitting, turnbuckle, splice, and pulley used must meet approved specifications. In addition— (1) No cable smaller than 1/8 inch diameter may be used...

  4. Tapping the television cable.

    PubMed

    Clarke, M; Findlay, A; Canac, J F; Vergez, A

    1996-01-01

    Immediate access to patient data is essential to support good clinical decision making and support. However, away from the surgery, the doctor is currently unable to have any access to the clinical database. Solutions exist to support remote access, such as modems or radio data networks, but these are slow, with typical speeds in the 2-10 kbaud region. We propose a novel solution, to use the TV cable already installed in many homes. Using this technology, a suitably equipped computer (RF modern) is capable of connecting at speeds in excess of 500 kbaud and will run applications in exactly the same way as if connected to a surgery network: the cable TV becomes a LAN, but on a metropolitan scale. Brunel University, in collaboration with the Cable Corporation, has been piloting such a network. Issues include not only levels of service, but also security on the network and access, since the data are being effectively received in every home. However, close scrutiny of channel use can create closed networks reserved for specific users. The technology involves use of an RF modem to transmit data on a reverse channel (based at 16 MHz) on each subnet to a router at the head end of the cable network. This frequency translates the packet and retransmits it to all the subnets on a forward channel (based at 178 MHz). Each channel occupies the bandwidth normally allocated to one TV channel. Access is based on a modified CSMA/CD protocol, so treating the cable network as single multiple access network. The modem comes as a standard card installed in a PC and appears much as an ethernet card, but at reduced speed. With an NDIS driver it is quite able to support almost any network software, and has successfully demonstrated Novell and TCP/IP. We describe the HomeWorker network and the results from a pilot study being undertaken to determine the performance of the system and its impact on working practice. PMID:9375105

  5. Non-Intrusive Cable Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Simpson, Howard J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A cable tester is described for low frequency testing of a cable for faults. The tester allows for testing a cable beyond a point where a signal conditioner is installed, minimizing the number of connections which have to be disconnected. A magnetic pickup coil is described for detecting a test signal injected into the cable. A narrow bandpass filter is described for increasing detection of the test signal. The bandpass filter reduces noise so that a high gain amplifier provided for detecting a test signal is not completely saturate by noise. To further increase the accuracy of the cable tester, processing gain is achieved by comparing the signal from the amplifier with at least one reference signal emulating the low frequency input signal injected into the cable. Different processing techniques are described evaluating a detected signal.

  6. 30 CFR 75.607 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable....607 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  7. 30 CFR 75.607 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable....607 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  8. 30 CFR 75.607 - Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Breaking trailing cable and power cable....607 Breaking trailing cable and power cable connections. Trailing cable and power cable connections to junction boxes shall not be made or broken under load....

  9. Monitoring cables for local degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; Sliter, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    Recent experiences in operating nuclear plants in the United States have demonstrated the need for an in situ cable condition monitoring technique that can assess whether installed, low-voltage, unshielded cables have local damage that could compromise their ability to function under normal and accident service conditions. This paper summarizes current US programs that have been initiated to develop a technological basis for monitoring cables with local degradation. 7 refs.

  10. Superconducting flat tape cable magnet

    DOEpatents

    Takayasu, Makoto

    2015-08-11

    A method for winding a coil magnet with the stacked tape cables, and a coil so wound. The winding process is controlled and various shape coils can be wound by twisting about the longitudinal axis of the cable and bending following the easy bend direction during winding, so that sharp local bending can be obtained by adjusting the twist pitch. Stack-tape cable is twisted while being wound, instead of being twisted in a straight configuration and then wound. In certain embodiments, the straight length should be half of the cable twist-pitch or a multiple of it.

  11. Transient overvoltages on cable sheaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabringhaus, H. G.

    1983-08-01

    Transient overvoltage on the sheaths of high voltage cables with single point sheath earthing or cross bonding of the cable sheaths involve danger for the cable and the joints. The investigations of transient overvoltages in the case of a switching operation on a 110 kV single core oil filled cable with single sided sheath earthing are reported. A comparison between measured transient voltage variations and those calculated with the help of a traveling wave analyzer program shows very good agreement. The investigations showed that with single point sheath earthing, the unearthed sheath end ought to be protected against overvoltages.

  12. The Future of Cable Communications in Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brigette L.

    1976-01-01

    Cable technology, the regulatory framework, and the cable industry's economic situation are examined. It is proposed that libraries engage in informational activities using the cable which are different from those presently undertaken. (Author)

  13. Put Your Cable Wiring to the Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Discusses why schools and universities should use testing procedures in any wire bid specification for cable wiring and also know how experienced the installers are in testing and installing structured cabling systems. Key cabling terms are included. (GR)

  14. 5. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF CABLE SHED AND CABLE TRAY EMANATING FROM SOUTH FACE OF LAUNCH OPERATIONS BUILDING. MICROWAVE DISH IN FOREGROUND. METEOROLOGICAL TOWER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    DOEpatents

    Brindza, Paul Daniel; Wines, Robin Renee; Takacs, James Joseph

    1999-01-01

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

  16. Oxygen chemisorption cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a chemisorption compressor cryogenic refrigerator which employs oxygen to provide cooling at 60 to 100 K. The invention includes dual vessels containing an oxygen absorbent material, alternately heated and cooled to provide a continuous flow of high pressure oxygen, multiple heat exchangers for precooling the oxygen, a Joule-Thomson expansion valve system for expanding the oxygen to partially liquefy it and a liquid oxygen pressure vessel. The primary novelty is that, while it was believed that once oxygen combined with an element or compound the reaction could not reverse to release gaseous oxygen, in this case oxygen will indeed react in a reversible fashion with certain materials and will do so at temperatures and pressures which make it practical for incorporation into a cryogenic refrigeration system.

  17. Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, M. G.; Sherman, A.; Studer, P. A.; Daniels, A.; Goldowsky, M. P.

    1983-06-01

    A long lifetime Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler particularly adapted for space applications is described. It consists of a compressor section centrally aligned end to end with an expansion section, and respectively includes a reciprocating compressor piston and displacer radially suspended in interconnecting cylindrical housings by active magnetic bearings and has adjacent reduced clearance regions so as to be in noncontacting relationship therewith and wherein one or more of these regions operate as clearance seals. The piston and displacer are reciprocated in their housings by linear drive motors to vary the volume of respectively adjacent compression and expansion spaces which contain a gaseous working fluid and a thermal regenerator to effect Stirling cycle cryogenic cooling.

  18. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, Thomas H.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.

    1988-01-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

  19. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, Jose Luis; Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-04-03

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  20. Cryogenic Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Goloborod'ko, S.; /Fermilab

    1989-02-27

    The control system (CS) for the cryogenic arrangement of the DO Liquid Argon Calorimeter consists of a Texas instruments 560/565 Programmable Logical Controller (PLC), two remote bases with Remote Base Controllers and a corresponding set of input/output (I/O) modules, and a PC AST Premium 286 (IBM AT Compatible). The PLC scans a set of inputs and provides a set of outputs based on a ladder logic program and PID control loops. The inputs are logic or analog (current, voltage) signals from equipment status switches or transducers. The outputs are logic or analog (current or voltage) signals for switching solenoids and positioning pneumatic actuators. Programming of the PLC is preformed by using the TISOFT2/560/565 package, which is installed in the PC. The PC communicates to the PLC through a serial RS232 port and provides operator interface to the cryogenic process using Xpresslink software.

  1. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.

  2. The quench experiment on long length cable-in-conduit conductor (QUELL) in SULTAN

    SciTech Connect

    Anghel, A.

    1995-03-01

    A description of the QUELL experiment at the SULTAN facility, its objectives and plan is given. After reviewing the quench properties of the Cable in Conduit Conductors and a short review of the theoretical background foreseen for the interpretation of the experimental results, information are given concerning the QUELL sample layout, quench sensors, cryogenic system, power supplies, current bus, current leads and data acquisition system. A detailed test plan and information on the experiment time schedule are also presented.

  3. Cryogenic Selective Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Nurge, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Under our NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) project we have theoretically demonstrated a novel selective surface that reflects roughly 100 times more solar radiation than any other known coating. If this prediction holds up under experimental tests it will allow cryogenic temperatures to be reached in deep space even in the presence of the sun. It may allow LOX to be carried to the Moon and Mars. It may allow superconductors to be used in deep space without a refrigeration system.

  4. Advances in Helium Cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciver, S. W. Van

    This review provides a survey of major advances that have occurred in recent years in the area of helium cryogenics. Helium-temperature cryogenics is the enabling technology for a substantial and growing number of low-temperature systems from superconducting magnets to space-based experimental facilities. In recent years there have been many advances in the technology of low-temperature helium, driven mostly by new applications. However, to keep the review from being too broad, this presentation focuses mainly on three of the most significant advances. These are: (1) the development of large-scale recuperative refrigeration systems mainly for superconducting magnet applications in accelerators and other research facilities; (2) the use of stored superfluid helium (He II) as a coolant for spacebased astrophysics experiments; and (3) the application of regenerative cryocoolers operating at liquid helium temperatures primarily for cooling superconducting devices. In each case, the reader should observe that critical technologies were developed to facilitate these applications. In addition to these three primary advances, other significant helium cryogenic technologies are briefly reviewed at the end of this chapter, along with some vision for future developments in these areas.

  5. Cryogenic Treatment of Metal Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Chillar, Rahul; Agrawal, S. C.

    2006-03-31

    Cryogenic treatment and its variables have been described. Results of eight engineering tests carried out on cryotreated parts have been presented. Cryogenic treatment of metal parts enhances useful properties which in turn, improves various strengths. Our tests viz. Abrasion, Torsion, Fatigue, Tensile, Shear, Hardness and Impact on Mild steel, Cast Iron, Brass and Copper show that the cryogenic treatment improved useful properties of mild steel parts appreciably but did not show promise with brass and copper parts.

  6. Surface Tension Confines Cryogenic Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.; Schein, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    New type of Dewar provides passive, constant-temperature cryogenic cooling for scientific instruments under normal-to low-gravity conditions. Known as Surface-Tension-Contained Liquid Cryogen Cooler (STCLCC), keeps liquid cryogen in known location inside the Dewar by trapping liquid inside spongelike material. Unique sponge material fills most of volume of inner tank. Sponge is all-silica, open-cell material similar to that used for Space Shuttle thermal-protection tiles.

  7. Cable Television and Public Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranberg, Gilbert

    One of the most promising applications of cable television (CATV) is municipal surveillance of public areas for protection against crime, fire detection, control of air pollution, and traffic. Thus far, however, the CATV industry has made minimal efforts to realize the potential of CATV for community protection--the use of cable for public safety…

  8. A Glossary of Cable Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    Prepared as part of the ongoing series of publications designed to assist local and state government policy makers with cable television planning and decision-making, this glossary updates the document originally published in 1972. It contains definitions of terms frequently encountered in matters concerning cable television. (DGC)

  9. Cable Television and the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Richard

    Universities contain powerful blocs of resistance to new educational technology, perhaps especially to television. University attitudes and structures as well as faculty ignorance, apathy, and resistance affect the development of cable television. No one seems to speak with great confidence and precision about the educational potential of cable.…

  10. Cable Television: Notebook Number Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notebook, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Cable television has been introduced to the public as a revolutionary development in communications, but its history, evolving structure, and present operation indicate otherwise. A few large industrial conglomerates have come to dominate the field of cable television and studies by private institutions and the regulatory activities of the Federal…

  11. Construction and 1st Experiment of the 500-meter and 1000-meter DC Superconducting Power Cable in Ishikari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Ivanov, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Chikumoto, N.; Koshiduka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Sawamura, T.

    Ishikari project constructs two lines. The length of the Line 1 is 500 m, and connects the photovoltaic cell to the internet-data center. The other line is 1 km length, and it is a test facility and called Line 2. The structures of the cable systems are not same to test their performance. The construction was started from 2014 in the field, the Line 1 was completed in May 2015, and it was cooled down and do the current experiment, and warmed up. The Line 2 is almost complete in October 2015. It will be tested in November and December, 2015. In order to reduce the stress of the cable induced by the thermal expansion and contraction, we adopted the way of the helical deformation of the cable. The force of the cable is reduced to 1/3 of an usual cable test. Because the cryogenic pipes are welded in the field and we cannot use the baking of the vacuum chamber of the cryogenic pipe, a new vacuum pumping method was proposed and tested for the cryogenic pipe. Since the straight pipes are used to compose the cryogenic pipe, the pressure drop of the circulation would be 1/100 of the corrugated pipe in the present condition, and it is suitable for longer cable system. The heat leak of the cryogenic pipe is ∼1.4W/m including the cable pipe's and the return pipe's. The heat leak of the current lead is ∼30W/kA in the test bench. Finally the current of 6kA/3 sec and the current of 5kA/15 min were achieved in Line 1. The reduction of heat leak will be a major subject of the longer cable system. The cost of the construction will be almost twice higher than that of the copper and aluminum over-head line with the iron tower in the present Japan. The cost construction of the over-head line is an average value, and depends on the newspaper.

  12. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sanderson, Stephen N; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C

    2014-06-24

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  13. Photonic-powered cable assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sanderson, Stephen N.; Appel, Titus James; Wrye, IV, Walter C.

    2013-01-22

    A photonic-cable assembly includes a power source cable connector ("PSCC") coupled to a power receive cable connector ("PRCC") via a fiber cable. The PSCC electrically connects to a first electronic device and houses a photonic power source and an optical data transmitter. The fiber cable includes an optical transmit data path coupled to the optical data transmitter, an optical power path coupled to the photonic power source, and an optical feedback path coupled to provide feedback control to the photonic power source. The PRCC electrically connects to a second electronic device and houses an optical data receiver coupled to the optical transmit data path, a feedback controller coupled to the optical feedback path to control the photonic power source, and a photonic power converter coupled to the optical power path to convert photonic energy received over the optical power path to electrical energy to power components of the PRCC.

  14. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-07-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measurement of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 \\upmu m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detector wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered aluminum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97 %.

  15. Cryogenic Flow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justak, John

    2010-01-01

    An acousto-optic cryogenic flow sensor (CFS) determines mass flow of cryogens for spacecraft propellant management. The CFS operates unobtrusively in a high-pressure, high-flowrate cryogenic environment to provide measurements for fluid quality as well as mass flow rate. Experimental hardware uses an optical plane-of-light (POL) to detect the onset of two-phase flow, and the presence of particles in the flow of water. Acousto-optic devices are used in laser equipment for electronic control of the intensity and position of the laser beam. Acousto-optic interaction occurs in all optical media when an acoustic wave and a laser beam are present. When an acoustic wave is launched into the optical medium, it generates a refractive index wave that behaves like a sinusoidal grating. An incident laser beam passing through this grating will diffract the laser beam into several orders. Its angular position is linearly proportional to the acoustic frequency, so that the higher the frequency, the larger the diffracted angle. If the acoustic wave is traveling in a moving fluid, the fluid velocity will affect the frequency of the traveling wave, relative to a stationary sensor. This frequency shift changes the angle of diffraction, hence, fluid velocity can be determined from the diffraction angle. The CFS acoustic Bragg grating data test indicates that it is capable of accurately determining flow from 0 to 10 meters per second. The same sensor can be used in flow velocities exceeding 100 m/s. The POL module has successfully determined the onset of two-phase flow, and can distinguish vapor bubbles from debris.

  16. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B.; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and electric fields indicated electron transfer between vertically separated anodic and cathodic half-reactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Desulfobulbaceae filaments. In addition, in situ measurements of oxygen, pH, and electric potential distributions in the waterlogged banks of Giber Å demonstrated the presence of distant electric redox coupling in naturally occurring freshwater sediment. At the same site, filamentous Desulfobulbaceae with cable bacterium morphology were found to be present. Their 16S rRNA gene sequence placed them as a distinct sister group to the known marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the cable phenotype within Desulfobulbaceae with subsequent diversification into a freshwater and a marine lineage. PMID:26116678

  17. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments.

    PubMed

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2015-09-01

    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and electric fields indicated electron transfer between vertically separated anodic and cathodic half-reactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Desulfobulbaceae filaments. In addition, in situ measurements of oxygen, pH, and electric potential distributions in the waterlogged banks of Giber Å demonstrated the presence of distant electric redox coupling in naturally occurring freshwater sediment. At the same site, filamentous Desulfobulbaceae with cable bacterium morphology were found to be present. Their 16S rRNA gene sequence placed them as a distinct sister group to the known marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the cable phenotype within Desulfobulbaceae with subsequent diversification into a freshwater and a marine lineage.

  18. Vibration dampers for cryogenic turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Olan, Emmanuel; Ibrahim, Azman Syed; Kascak, Albert F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the development of effective and reliable minimum-weight and minimum-envelope vibration dampers for cryogenic turbines. To meet this objective, a high speed test rig was designed and fabricated, which is currently used to test a curved beam type damper. The operation, capacity, structural characteristics, measurement system, and safety features of the cryogenic damper test rig are discussed.

  19. Optical Detection Of Cryogenic Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyett, Lynn M.

    1988-01-01

    Conceptual system identifies leakage without requiring shutdown for testing. Proposed device detects and indicates leaks of cryogenic liquids automatically. Detector makes it unnecessary to shut equipment down so it can be checked for leakage by soap-bubble or helium-detection methods. Not necessary to mix special gases or other materials with cryogenic liquid flowing through equipment.

  20. Cryogenic container compound suspension strap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A support strap for use in a cryogenic storage vessel for supporting the inner shell from the outer shell with a minimum heat leak is presented. The compound suspension strap is made from a unidirectional fiberglass epoxy composite material with an ultimate tensile strength and fatigue strength which are approximately doubled when the material is cooled to a cryogenic temperature.

  1. Cryogenic insulation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonhard, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Multilayer insulations for long term cryogenic storage are described. The development effort resulted in an insulation concept using lightweight radiation shields, separated by low conductive Dacron fiber tufts. The insulation is usually referred to as Superfloc. The fiber tufts are arranged in a triangular pattern and stand about .040 in. above the radiation shield base. Thermal and structural evaluation of Superfloc indicated that this material is a strong candidate for the development of high performance thermal protection systems because of its high strength, purge gas evacuation capability during boost, its density control and easy application to a tank.

  2. Refrigerated cryogenic envelope

    DOEpatents

    Loudon, John D.

    1976-11-16

    An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

  3. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  4. Cryogenic support member

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.; Nicol, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    A cryogenic support member is comprised of a non-metallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

  5. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Knudsen, Peter N.; Arenius, Dana M.; Barrios, Matthew N.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  6. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D.; Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F.

    2014-01-29

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  7. Cable Modem Technology Implementation: Challenges and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Marlyn Kemper

    1998-01-01

    Describes cable modem technology (i.e., an external device that facilitates high-speed access to the Internet via the same network configuration employed for cable television). Examples of cable field trials carried out in collaboration with educational user communities are presented, and cable technical capabilities, advantages, and constraints…

  8. Cable Television: Citizen Participation in Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.

    The historical background of citizen participation in local affairs and its relevance at the onset of community concern about cable television are briefly discussed in this report. The participation of citizens, municipal officials, and cable operators in laying the groundwork for a cable system as well as the pros and cons of cable television as…

  9. 14 CFR 25.689 - Cable systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cable systems. 25.689 Section 25.689... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.689 Cable systems. (a) Each cable, cable fitting, turnbuckle, splice, and pulley must be approved. In addition— (1) No...

  10. Cable in Connecticut; a Citizen's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Margaret

    This handbook for Connecticut cable television consumers addresses a variety of topics, including: (1) a definition of cable television services; (2) the public stake in cable television; (3) program variety; (4) pay cable service; (5) public satellites; (6) government regulation; (7) proposed regulation; (8) role of the Connecticut Public…

  11. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1365 - Electric cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric cables. 27.1365 Section 27.1365... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Electrical Systems and Equipment § 27.1365 Electric cables. (a) Each electric connecting cable must be of adequate capacity. (b) Each cable that would...

  13. 105. VIEW NORTH FROM SLC3W CABLE TUNNEL INTO CABLE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    105. VIEW NORTH FROM SLC-3W CABLE TUNNEL INTO CABLE VAULT AND SLC-3E CABLE TUNNEL. NOTE WOODEN PLANKING ON FLOOR OF TUNNEL AND CABLE TRAYS LINING TUNNEL WALLS. STAIRS ON EAST WALL OF CABLE VAULT LEAD INTO LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. Biological Applications of Cryogenic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S

    2003-12-03

    High energy resolution and broadband efficiency are enabling the use of cryogenic detectors in biological research. Two areas where they have found initial application are X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). In synchrotron-based fluorescence-detected XAS cryogenic detectors are used to examine the role of metals in biological systems by measuring their oxidation states and ligand symmetries. In time-of-flight mass spectrometry cryogenic detectors increase the sensitivity for biomolecule detection and identification for masses above {approx}50 kDa, and thus enable TOF-MS on large protein complexes or even entire viruses. More recently, cryogenic detectors have been proposed as optical sensors for fluorescence signals from biomarkers. We discuss the potential for cryogenic detectors in biological research, as well as the challenges the technology faces.

  15. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOEpatents

    Forsyth, E.B.; Muller, A.C.

    1983-07-15

    The present invention is a cable which, although constructed from inexpensive polyolefin tapes and using typical impregnating oils, furnishes high voltage capability up to 765 kV, and has such excellent dielectric characteristics and heat transfer properties that it is capable of operation at capacities equal to or higher than presently available cables at a given voltage. This is accomplished by using polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene insulating tape which has been specially processed to attain properties which are not generally found in these materials, but are required for their use in impregnated electrical cables. Chief among these properties is compatibility with impregnating oil.

  16. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  17. Cryogenic magnet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sarwinski, R.E.; Purcell, J.R.; Parker, J.W.; Burnett, S.C.

    1987-07-21

    This patent describes a cryogenic superconducting magnet system for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices, the system comprising: an evacuated container, a first tank mounted within the evacuated container and thermally insulated; boiling liquid helium disposed in the first tank and exhausted to the outside of the container; a cryogenic superconducting magnet disposed in the first tank, a metallic heat radiation shield disposed in the evacuated container and substantially surrounding the first tank, the shield being thermally insulated from both the container and the first tank; and a neon refrigeration system external to the shield for cooling the shield, the neon refrigeration system including neon refrigerant. A second tank contains the neon refrigerant in its liquid state, at least one thermal siphon for circulating the neon refrigerant by convection from the second tank to the shield. The boiling of the neon refrigerant at the shield acts to circulate the neon refrigerant in the thermal siphon and cool the shield. A mechanical cryoccooler is remote from the container for condensing the neon refrigerant from the gaseous to the liquid state, and thermally insulated transfer means for transferring the neon refrigerant in its gaseous state from the second tank to the cryocooler. The neon refrigerant is in its liquid state from the cryocooler to the second tank.

  18. Cryogenic Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Cook, William B.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric stack actuators and flextensional actuators were designed, prototyped and characterized for space optics applications. Single crystal stack actuators with footprint of 10 mm x10 mm and the height of 50 mm were assembled using 10 mm x10mm x0.15mm PMN-PT plates. These actuators showed stroke > 65 - 85 microns at 150 V at room temperature, and > 30 microns stroke at 77 K. Flextensional actuators with dimension of 10mm x 5 mm x 7.6 mm showed stroke of >50 microns at room temperature at driving voltage of 150 V. A flextensional stack actuator with dimension of 10 mm x 5 mm x 47 mm showed stroke of approx. 285 microns at 150 V at room temperature and > 100 microns at 77K under driving of 150 V should be expected. The large cryogenic stroke and high precision of these actuators are promising for cryogenic optics applications.

  19. Cryogenics maintenance strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzat, Fabiola

    2012-09-01

    ALMA is an interferometer composed of 66 independent systems, with specific maintenance requirements for each subsystem. To optimize the observation time and reduce downtime maintenance, requirements are very demanding. One subsystem with high maintenance efforts is cryogenics and vacuum. To organize the maintenance, the Cryogenic and Vacuum department is using and implementing different tools. These are monitoring and problem reporting systems and CMMS. This leads to different maintenance approaches: Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance. In order to coordinate activities with other departments the preventive maintenance schedule is kept as flexible as systems allow. To cope with unavoidable failures, the team has to be prepared to work under any condition with the spares on time. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) will help to manage inventory control for reliable spare part handling, the correct record of work orders and traceability of maintenance activities. For an optimized approach the department is currently evaluating where preventive or condition based maintenance applies to comply with the individual system demand. Considering the change from maintenance contracts to in-house maintenance will help to minimize costs and increase availability of parts. Due to increased number of system and tasks the cryo team needs to grow. Training of all staff members is mandatory, in depth knowledge must be built up by doing complex maintenance activities in the Cryo group, use of advanced computerized metrology systems.

  20. Process of modifying a cable end

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    1995-01-01

    End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed are a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves.

  1. Process of modifying a cable end

    DOEpatents

    Roose, L.D.

    1995-08-01

    End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed are a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves. 5 figs.

  2. Cable SGEMP Code Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, William Parker

    2013-05-01

    This report compared data taken on the Modular Bremsstrahlung Simulator using copper jacketed (cujac) cables with calculations using the RHSD-RA Cable SGEMP analysis tool. The tool relies on CEPXS/ONBFP to perform radiation transport in a series of 1D slices through the cable, and then uses a Green function technique to evaluate the expected current drive on the center conductor. The data were obtained in 2003 as part of a Cabana verification and validation experiment using 1-D geometries, but were not evaluated until now. The agreement between data and model is not adequate unless gaps between the dielectric and outer conductor (ground) are assumed, and these gaps are large compared with what is believed to be in the actual cable.

  3. Cables and connectors: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A compilation is presented that reflects the uses, adaptation, and maintenance plus service, that are innovations derived from problem solutions in the space R and D programs, both in house and by NASA and AEC contractors. Data cover: (1) technology revelant to the employment of flat conductor cables and their adaptation to and within conventional systems, (2) connectors and various adaptations, and (3) maintenance and service technology, and shop hints useful in the installation and care of cables and connectors.

  4. Fully synthetic taped insulation cables

    DOEpatents

    Forsyth, Eric B.; Muller, Albert C.

    1984-01-01

    A high voltage oil-impregnated electrical cable with fully polymer taped insulation operable to 765 kV. Biaxially oriented, specially processed, polyethylene, polybutene or polypropylene tape with an embossed pattern is wound in multiple layers over a conductive core with a permeable screen around the insulation. Conventional oil which closely matches the dielectric constant of the tape is used, and the cable can be impregnated after field installation because of its excellent impregnation characteristics.

  5. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Collins P.; Brown, Donald P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates.

  6. Ultrastable Cryogenic Microwave Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Anthony G.

    Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are secondary frequency standards in the microwave domain. The best of these oscillators have demonstrated a short term frequency stability in the range 10-14 to a few times 10-16. The main application for these oscillators is as flywheel oscillators for the next generation of passive atomic frequency standards, and as local oscillators in space telemetry ground stations to clean up the transmitter close in phase noise. Fractional frequency stabilities of passive atomic frequency standards are now approaching 3 x10^-14 /τ where τ is the measurement time, limited only by the number of atoms that are being interrogated. This requires an interrogation oscillator whose short-term stability is of the order of 10-14 or better, which cannot be provided by present-day quartz technology. Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are based on resonators which have very high electrical Q-factors. The resolution of the resonator's linewidth is typically limited by electronics noise to about 1ppm and hence Q-factors in excess of 108 are required. As these are only attained in superconducting cavities or sapphire resonators at low temperatures, use of liquid helium cooling is mandatory, which has so far restricted these oscillators to the research or metrology laboratory. Recently, there has been an effort to dispense with the need for liquid helium and make compact flywheel oscillators for the new generation of primary frequency standards. Work is under way to achieve this goal in space-borne and mobile liquid-nitrogen-cooled systems. The best cryogenic oscillators developed to date are the ``whispering gallery'' (WG) mode sapphire resonator-oscillators of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of Western Australia (UWA), as well as Stanford University's superconducting cavity stabilized oscillator (SCSO). All of these oscillators have demonstrated frequency

  7. Cryogenic expansion machine

    DOEpatents

    Pallaver, Carl B.; Morgan, Michael W.

    1978-01-01

    A cryogenic expansion engine includes intake and exhaust poppet valves each controlled by a cam having adjustable dwell, the valve seats for the valves being threaded inserts in the valve block. Each cam includes a cam base and a ring-shaped cam insert disposed at an exterior corner of the cam base, the cam base and cam insert being generally circular but including an enlarged cam dwell, the circumferential configuration of the cam base and cam dwell being identical, the cam insert being rotatable with respect to the cam base. GI CONTRACTUAL ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the UNITED STATES ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION.

  8. Cryogenic nuclear gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Gallop, J.C.; Potts, S.P.

    1980-09-30

    A cryogenic nuclear gyroscope is described that is comprised of a cylinder of niobium cooled within a helium cryostat so as to be superconducting and to provide a trapped, substantially homogeneous magnetic field, a helium-3 sample contained within a spherical pyrex cell having nuclei possessing a net magnetic moment, coils provided to polarize the sample to provide that net magnetic moment, and a SQUID magnetometer coupled to the sample by a pick-up coil of a transformer and frequency sensitive means coupled to the SQUID to detect changes in the precession of the nuclear moments of the sample caused by rotation of the gyroscope about an axis parallel to the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. A superconducting lead shield isolates the helium-3 sample from external magnetic fields.

  9. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

    1983-01-04

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

  10. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Paulson, Douglas N.; Allen, Paul C.

    1983-01-01

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

  11. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  12. Vibration-induced electrical noise in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator: Characterization, mitigation, and impact on qubit coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Dehollain, Juan Pablo; Bar, Daniel; Freer, Solomon; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T.; Morello, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Cryogen-free low-temperature setups are becoming more prominent in experimental science due to their convenience and reliability, and concern about the increasing scarcity of helium as a natural resource. Despite not having any moving parts at the cold end, pulse tube cryocoolers introduce vibrations that can be detrimental to the experiments. We characterize the coupling of these vibrations to the electrical signal observed on cables installed in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator. The dominant electrical noise is in the 5-10 kHz range and its magnitude is found to be strongly temperature dependent. We test the performance of different cables designed to diagnose and tackle the noise, and find triboelectrics to be the dominant mechanism coupling the vibrations to the electrical signal. Flattening a semi-rigid cable or jacketing a flexible cable in order to restrict movement within the cable, successfully reduces the noise level by over an order of magnitude. Furthermore, we characterize the effect of the pulse tube vibrations on an electron spin qubit device in this setup. Coherence measurements are used to map out the spectrum of the noise experienced by the qubit, revealing spectral components matching the spectral signature of the pulse tube.

  13. Vibration-induced electrical noise in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator: Characterization, mitigation, and impact on qubit coherence.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Dehollain, Juan Pablo; Bar, Daniel; Freer, Solomon; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T; Morello, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Cryogen-free low-temperature setups are becoming more prominent in experimental science due to their convenience and reliability, and concern about the increasing scarcity of helium as a natural resource. Despite not having any moving parts at the cold end, pulse tube cryocoolers introduce vibrations that can be detrimental to the experiments. We characterize the coupling of these vibrations to the electrical signal observed on cables installed in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator. The dominant electrical noise is in the 5-10 kHz range and its magnitude is found to be strongly temperature dependent. We test the performance of different cables designed to diagnose and tackle the noise, and find triboelectrics to be the dominant mechanism coupling the vibrations to the electrical signal. Flattening a semi-rigid cable or jacketing a flexible cable in order to restrict movement within the cable, successfully reduces the noise level by over an order of magnitude. Furthermore, we characterize the effect of the pulse tube vibrations on an electron spin qubit device in this setup. Coherence measurements are used to map out the spectrum of the noise experienced by the qubit, revealing spectral components matching the spectral signature of the pulse tube. PMID:27475569

  14. Improved cryogenic aluminum mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Don, Ken; Sumner, Richard E.

    1998-09-01

    Optical surface deformation of metal mirrors used at cryogenic temperatures is reduced through the use of a new process of plating amorphous aluminum on aluminum. The AlumiPlateTM process (produced by AlumiPlate, Inc. in Minneapolis, MN) plates a layer of 99.9+% high purity aluminum about 125 micrometers thick atop the substrate. Very good surface finishes are produced by direct diamond turning of the plating, with some samples below 40 angstroms RMS. Optical testing of a 175-mm diameter, 550-mm optical radius of curvature 6061-T651/AlumiPlateTM aluminum sphere was performed at 65 K to determine cryogenic optical surface figure stability. In five cycles from 300 to 65 K, an average optical surface change of 0.047 wave RMS (1 wave equals 633 nm) was observed. A total optical figure change of 0.03 wave RMS at 65 K was observed from the first to last cycle. The cause of this relatively small long-term change is not yet determined. The test mirror is bi-concave, with a semi- kinematic toroidal mount, and is machined from the axis of a billet. An `uphill quench' heat treatment consisting of five cycles from liquid nitrogen to boiling water temperatures is used to minimize residual stress in the test mirror. Initial diamond turning of the mirror by the Optical Filter Corp., Keene, NH, produced a 300 K unmounted optical surface figure of 0.380 wave peak-to-valley and 0.059 wave RMS. A second effort at diamond turning by II-VI, Inc., Saxonburg, PA produced a 300 K optical figure of 0.443 wave peak-to-valley and 0.066 wave RMS, with a surface roughness varying from 29 to 42 angstroms.

  15. Thermal Insulation Performance of Flexible Piping for Use in HTS Power Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables that typically operate at temperatures below 80 K are being developed for power transmission. The practical application of HTS power cables will require the use of flexible piping to contain the cable and the liquid nitrogen coolant. A study of thermal performance of multilayer insulation (MLI) was conducted in geometries representing both rigid and flexible piping. This experimental study performed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center provides a framework for the development of cost-effective, efficient thermal insulation systems that will support these long-distance flexible lines containing HTS power cables. The overall thermal performance of the insulation system for a rigid configuration and for a flexible configuration, simulating a flexible HTS power cable, was determined by the steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff method under the full range of vacuum levels. Two different cylindrically rolled material systems were tested: a standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI). Comparisons of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping are presented.

  16. Thermal conductance at millikelvin temperatures of woven ribbon cable with phosphor-bronze clad superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcraft, Adam L.; Ventura, Guglielmo; Martelli, Valentina; Holland, Wayne S.

    2010-08-01

    Woven Nomex® ribbon cables made up with superconducting niobium-titanium wire are used at millikelvin temperatures in many large cryogenic instruments. It is important to know how much heat in transmitted down such cables. However, the conductivity of the materials used is not well known. Another problem is that the wires are normally clad with alloys which exhibit some magnetism. This is a potential problem for instruments employing superconducting detectors. A safe non-magnetic alternative to the usual materials is phosphor-bronze clad niobium-titanium wiring. However, there is little experience with such wires. We have therefore measured the conductance of a ribbon cable made up with these wires. The measured values are in good agreement with our predictions, suggesting that the values we have used to model the cable are sufficiently accurate, and could therefore be used to predict the performance of ribbon cables using other cladding materials, so long as the conductivity of the cladding is reasonably well known. As part of our analysis, we consider the likely variation in thermal conductivity values for C51000 phosphor bronze caused by legitimate variations in composition.

  17. Introduction to cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The background to the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel is outlined, with particular reference to the late 60's/early 70's when efforts were begun to re-equip with larger wind tunnels. The problems of providing full scale Reynolds numbers in transonic testing were proving particularly intractible, when the notion of satisfying the needs with the cryogenic tunnel was proposed, and then adopted. The principles and advantages of the cryogenic tunnel are outlined, along with guidance on the coolant needs when this is liquid nitrogen, and with a note on energy recovery. Operational features of the tunnels are introduced with reference to a small low speed tunnel. Finally the outstanding contributions are highlighted of the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) at NASA Langley Research Center, and its personnel, to the furtherance of knowledge and confidence in the concept.

  18. Flat conductor cable design, manufacture, and installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Hankins, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Pertinent information for hardware selection, design, manufacture, and quality control necessary for flat conductor cable interconnecting harness application is presented. Comparisons are made between round wire cable and flat conductor cable. The flat conductor cable interconnecting harness systems show major cost, weight, and space savings, plus increased system performance and reliability. The design application section includes electrical characteristics, harness design and development, and a full treatise on EMC considerations. Manufacturing and quality control sections pertain primarily to the developed conductor-contact connector system and special flat conductor cable to round wire cable transitions.

  19. Flow field studies on yawed, stranded cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batill, S. M.; Nelson, R. C.; Nebres, J. V.

    A study of the flowfield near yawed, stranded cables was conducted in order to investigate the mechanisms associated with the generation of both steady and unsteady fluid forces on the cables. Rigid cable models and a circular cylinder were tested in a wind tunnel at four different cable angles over a Reynolds number range from 6000 to 14,600 based on the nominal cable diameter. The smoke-wire and the kerosene smoke flow visualization techniques were used to qualitatively evaluate the flowfields associated with each cable geometry.

  20. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  1. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  2. Latest developments in cryogenic safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of cryogenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

  3. Latest developments in cryogenic safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, T. J.

    1983-03-01

    The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of cryogenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

  4. Charge-Dissipative Electrical Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolasinski, John R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    Electrical cables that dissipate spurious static electric charges, in addition to performing their main functions of conducting signals, have been developed. These cables are intended for use in trapped-ion or ionizing-radiation environments, in which electric charges tend to accumulate within, and on the surfaces of, dielectric layers of cables. If the charging rate exceeds the dissipation rate, charges can accumulate in excessive amounts, giving rise to high-current discharges that can damage electronic circuitry and/or systems connected to it. The basic idea of design and operation of charge-dissipative electrical cables is to drain spurious charges to ground by use of lossy (slightly electrically conductive) dielectric layers, possibly in conjunction with drain wires and/or drain shields (see figure). In typical cases, the drain wires and/or drain shields could be electrically grounded via the connector assemblies at the ends of the cables, in any of the conventional techniques for grounding signal conductors and signal shields. In some cases, signal shields could double as drain shields.

  5. Ames Lab 101: Reinventing the Power Cable

    ScienceCinema

    Russell, Alan

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory researchers are working to develop new electrical power cables that are stronger and lighter than the cables currently used in the nation's power grid. Nano Tube animation by Iain Goodyear

  6. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in the construction of such plant. This account shall also include the cost of trenching for and...) Nonmetallic cable. This subsidiary record category shall include the original cost of optical fiber cable...

  7. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in the construction of such plant. This account shall also include the cost of trenching for and...) Nonmetallic cable. This subsidiary record category shall include the original cost of optical fiber cable...

  8. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in the construction of such plant. This account shall also include the cost of trenching for and...) Nonmetallic cable. This subsidiary record category shall include the original cost of optical fiber cable...

  9. Ames Lab 101: Reinventing the Power Cable

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Alan

    2013-09-27

    Ames Laboratory researchers are working to develop new electrical power cables that are stronger and lighter than the cables currently used in the nation's power grid. Nano Tube animation by Iain Goodyear

  10. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) at an ambient temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). (8) Monitor the electric current through the power... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of...

  11. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) at an ambient temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). (8) Monitor the electric current through the power... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of...

  12. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) at an ambient temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). (8) Monitor the electric current through the power... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of...

  13. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) at an ambient temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). (8) Monitor the electric current through the power... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of...

  14. 30 CFR 7.407 - Test for flame resistance of electric cables and cable splices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) at an ambient temperature of 104 °F (40 °C). (8) Monitor the electric current through the power... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test for flame resistance of electric cables... Electric Cables, Signaling Cables, and Cable Splice Kits § 7.407 Test for flame resistance of...

  15. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  16. Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulators

    SciTech Connect

    Chavanne, J.; Lebec, G.; Penel, C.; Revol, F.; Kitegi, C.

    2010-06-23

    For an in-vacuum undulator operated at small gaps the permanent magnet material needs to be highly resistant to possible electron beam exposure. At room temperature, one generally uses Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} or high coercivity NdFeB magnets at the expense of a limited field performance. In a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU), at a temperature of around 150 K, any NdFeB grade reveals a coercivity large enough to be radiation resistant. In particular, very high remanence NdFeB material can be used to build undulators with enhanced field and X-ray brilliance at high photon energy provided that the pre-baking of the undulator above 100 deg. C can be eliminated. The ESRF has developed a full scale 2 m long CPMU with a period of 18 mm. This prototype has been in operation on the ID6 test beamline since January 2008. A significant effort was put into the characterization of NdFeB material at low temperature, the development of dedicated magnetic measurement systems and cooling methods. The measured heat budget with beam is found to be larger than expected without compromising the smooth operation of the device. Leading on from this first experience, new CPMUs are currently being considered for the upgrade of the ESRF.

  17. 47 CFR 76.990 - Small cable operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Small cable operators. 76.990 Section 76.990... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.990 Small cable operators. (a) Effective February 8, 1996, a small cable operator is exempt from rate regulation on its cable programming services tier,...

  18. Online Cable Tester and Rerouter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Mark; Medelius, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Hardware and algorithms have been developed to transfer electrical power and data connectivity safely, efficiently, and automatically from an identified damaged/defective wire in a cable to an alternate wire path. The combination of online cable testing capabilities, along with intelligent signal rerouting algorithms, allows the user to overcome the inherent difficulty of maintaining system integrity and configuration control, while autonomously rerouting signals and functions without introducing new failure modes. The incorporation of this capability will increase the reliability of systems by ensuring system availability during operations.

  19. Dual Cryogenic Capacitive Density Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Cox, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A dual cryogenic capacitive density sensor has been developed. The device contains capacitive sensors that monitor two-phase cryogenic flow density to within 1% accuracy, which, if temperature were known, could be used to determine the ratio of liquid to gas in the line. Two of these density sensors, located a known distance apart, comprise the sensor, providing some information on the velocity of the flow. This sensor was constructed as a proposed mass flowmeter with high data acquisition rates. Without moving parts, this device is capable of detecting the density change within a two-phase cryogenic flow more than 100 times a second. Detection is enabled by a series of two sets of five parallel plates with stainless steel, cryogenically rated tubing. The parallel plates form the two capacitive sensors, which are measured by electrically isolated digital electronics. These capacitors monitor the dielectric of the flow essentially the density of the flow and can be used to determine (along with temperature) the ratio of cryogenic liquid to gas. Combining this information with the velocity of the flow can, with care, be used to approximate the total two-phase mass flow. The sensor can be operated at moderately high pressures and can be lowered into a cryogenic bath. The electronics have been substantially improved over the older sensors, incorporating a better microprocessor, elaborate ground loop protection and noise limiting circuitry, and reduced temperature sensitivity. At the time of this writing, this design has been bench tested at room temperature, but actual cryogenic tests are pending

  20. NEMA wire and cable standards development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the nation's largest trade association for manufacturers of electrical equipment. Its member companies produce components, end-use equipment and systems for the generation, transmission, distribution, control and use of electricity. The wire and cable division is presented in 6 sections: building wire and cable, fabricated conductors, flexible cords, high performance wire and cable, magnet wire, and power and control cable. Participating companies are listed.

  1. Hawaii Deep Water Cable Program: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1990-09-01

    The Hawaii Deep Water Cable Program has succeeded unequivocally in determining the feasibility of deploying a submarine power cable system between the islands of Hawaii and Oahu. Major accomplishments of the program include designing, fabricating and testing an appropriate power cable, developing an integrated system to control all aspects of the cable laying operation, and testing all deployment systems at sea in the most challenging sections of the route.

  2. Insulation Characteristics of Bushing Shed at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    In the development of high-Tc superconducting(HTS) devices, the bushing for HTS devices (HTS bushing) is the core technology, the need to because of supply high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. The lower part of the bushing is exposed to the liquid nitrogen (LN2), and it has many sheds. In particular, the insulation body with sheds and electrical insulation at cryogenic temperature have attracted a great deal of interest from the view point of the size, weight and efficiency of bushing. This study has mainly investigated the shed and insulation body by comparing glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in LN2. We investigated the surface discharge characteristics according to insulating materials, width and height of the shed.

  3. Integrated Cable System Aging Management Guidance: Low-Voltage Cable

    SciTech Connect

    W.M.Denny

    2003-01-02

    The document provides insights into common aging issues and symptoms and includes pictures and descriptions of deterioration that is observable. The report provides a rapid review of the important information necessary to assess the aging of the low-voltage cable system used in nuclear power plants.

  4. Heat Transfer Study for HTS Power Transfer Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S.; Fesmire, J.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal losses are a key factor in the successful application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. Existing concepts and prototypes rely on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) systems that are subject to large variations in actual performance. The small space available for the thermal insulation materials makes the application even more difficult because of bending considerations, mechanical loading, and the arrangement between the inner and outer piping. Each of these mechanical variables affects the heat leak rate. These factors of bending and spacing are examined in this study. Furthermore, a maintenance-free insulation system (high vacuum level for 20 years or longer) is a practical requirement. A thermal insulation system simulating a section of a flexible FITS power cable was constructed for test and evaluation on a research cryostat. This paper gives experimental data for the comparison of ideal MLI, MLI on rigid piping, and MLI between flexible piping. A section of insulated flexible piping was tested under cryogenic vacuum conditions including simulated bending and spacers.

  5. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) This account shall include the original cost of buried cable as well as the cost of other material used...) Nonmetallic cable. This subsidiary record category shall include the original cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the transmission...

  6. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the... cable or aerial wire as well as the cost of other material used in construction of such plant... the original cost of single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used...

  7. Aspen Notebook: Cable and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Richard; Baer, Walter S.

    This is the first of a planned series of Aspen Notebooks on cable television (CATV). Part I reports on research conducted by the Aspen Workshop on Uses of the Cable. It describes the status of continuing education and the history of educational television and explores the prospects created by cable's development for extending access to continuing…

  8. Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1995-01-01

    Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.

  9. Your Personal Genie in the Cable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlafly, Hubert J.

    The technology necessary for the use of cable television (TV) has been invented; it simply must be put to use. By the 1970's, cable TV should be commonplace in this country. Its rapid growth was caused in part by its appearance at a time of explosive expansion of related technologies like data theory and computer design. The coaxial cable system…

  10. What Do We Know about the Audience for Cable Television? A Uses and Gratifications Analysis of Cable Decliners, Basic Cable Subscribers, and Pay Cable Subscribers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, David E., Jr.; Felsenthal, Norman A.

    How do cable television subscribers differ from those who choose not to subscribe to cable? A study employed the uses and gratification paradigm to construct a questionnaire that solicited data from 600 television households in the Dayton, Ohio market. The sample was stratified to assure that one-third of the households had cable available but…

  11. Latest developments in cryogenic safety

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, T.J.

    1983-03-01

    The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of crygenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

  12. Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

  13. Plate-fin Heat-exchangers for a 10 kW Brayton Cryocooler and a 1 km HTS Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Jung, Seyong; Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si-Dole

    Plate-fin heat exchangers (PFHX) are designed and fabricated for a cryogenic cooling system, serving for a 10 kW Brayton cryocooler and a 1 km HTS transmission cable under development in Korea. To achieve compactness and thermal efficiency at the same time, a recuperative HX for Brayton cycle and a sub-cooling HX of liquid nitrogen for HTS cable are designed as integrated parts. A key design feature is focused on the coldest part of sub-cooling HX, where the streams of liquid nitrogen and refrigerant (helium gas) are arranged as two-pass cross-flow so that the risk of freeze-out of liquid nitrogen can be reduced. Details of hardware PFHX design are presented and discussed towards its immediate application to the HTS cable system.

  14. ALOHA Cabled Observatory: Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, B. M.; Lukas, R.; Duennebier, F. K.

    2011-12-01

    The ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) was installed 6 June 2011, extending power, network communications and timing to a seafloor node and instruments at 4726 m water depth 100 km north of Oahu. The system was installed using ROV Jason operated from the R/V Kilo Moana. Station ALOHA is the field site of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program that has investigated temporal dynamics in biology, physics, and chemistry since 1988. HOT conducts near monthly ship-based sampling and makes continuous observations from moored instruments to document and study climate and ecosystem variability over semi-diurnal to decadal time scales. The cabled observatory system will provide the infrastructure for continuous, interactive ocean sampling enabling new measurements as well as a new mode of ocean observing that integrates ship and cabled observations. The ACO is a prototypical example of a deep observatory system that uses a retired first-generation fiber-optic telecommunications cable. Sensors provide live video, sound from local and distant sources, and measure currents, pressure, temperature, and salinity. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed.

  15. COUPLER FOR TOOL AND CABLE

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, W.E.; Frantz, C.E.

    1962-02-27

    A two-part device is designed for pulling a splitting tool through a fuel tube. The device can be readily disconnected by unthreading the parts by means of a movable head carrying a transverse key which fits into a slot in the threaded part attached to the cable. (AEC)

  16. Interactive Cable Television. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Active Learning Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

    This report describes an interactive video system developed by Active Learning Systems which utilizes a cable television (TV) network as its delivery system to transmit computer literacy lessons to high school and college students. The system consists of an IBM PC, Pioneer LDV 4000 videodisc player, and Whitney Supercircuit set up at the head end…

  17. 300 Area signal cable study

    SciTech Connect

    Whattam, J.W.

    1994-09-15

    This report was prepared to discuss the alternatives available for removing the 300 Area overhead signal cable system. This system, installed in 1969, has been used for various monitoring and communication signaling needs throughout the 300 Area. Over the years this cabling system has deteriorated, has been continually reconfigured, and has been poorly documented to the point of nonreliability. The first step was to look at the systems utilizing the overhead signal cable that are still required for operation. Of the ten systems that once operated via the signal cable, only five are still required; the civil defense evacuation alarms, the public address (PA) system, the criticality alarms, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Facilities Management Control System (FMCS), and the 384 annunciator panel. Of these five, the criticality alarms and the FMCS have been dealt with under other proposals. Therefore, this study focused on the alternatives available for the remaining three systems (evacuation alarms, PA system, and 384 panel) plus the accountability aid phones. Once the systems to be discussed were determined, then three alternatives for providing the signaling pathway were examined for each system: (1) re-wire using underground communication ducts, (2) use the Integrated Voice/Data Telecommunications System (IVDTS) already installed and operated by US West, and (3) use radio control. Each alternative was developed with an estimated cost, advantages, and disadvantages. Finally, a recommendation was provided for the best alternative for each system.

  18. Development of modular cable mesh deployable antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Akira; Mitsugi, Jin; Andou, Kazuhide

    1993-03-01

    This report describes a concept and key technologies for the modular mesh deployable antenna. The antenna reflector composed of independently manufactured and tested modules is presented. Each module consists of a mesh surface, a cable network, and a deployable truss structure. The cable network comprises three kinds of cables, surface, tie, and back cables. Adjustment of tie cable lengths improves the surface accuracy. Synchronous deployment truss structures are considered as a supporting structure. Their design method, BBM's (Bread Board Model) and deployment analysis are also explained.

  19. GEOS-20 m cable boom mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, B. K.; Suttner, K.

    1977-01-01

    The GEOS cable boom mechanism allows the controlled deployment of a 20 m long cable in a centrifugal force field. In launch configuration the flat cable is reeled on a 240 mm diameter drum. The electrical connection between the rotating drum and the stationary housing is accomplished via a flexlead positioned inside the drum. Active motion control of this drum is achieved by a self locking worm gear, driven by a stepper motor. The deployment length of the cable is monitored by an optical length indicator, sensing black bars engraved on the cable surface.

  20. The GEOS-20 m Cable Boom Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, G. K.; Suttner, K.

    1977-01-01

    The GEOS Cable Boom Mechanism which allows the controlled deployment of a 20 m long cable in a centrifugal force field is described. In launch configuration the flat cable is reeled on a 240 mm diameter drum. The electrical connection between the rotating drum and the stationary housing is accomplished via a flexlead positioned inside the drum. Active motion control of this drum is achieved by a self locking worm gear, driven by a stepper motor. The deployment length of the cable is monitored by an optical length indicator, sensing black bars engraved on the cable surface.

  1. Latest developments in cryogenic safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, T.

    1982-05-01

    The Cryogenic Safety Manual, published under the auspices of the British Cryogenics Council, is summarized. Since an awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is considered important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise, the manual lists the more important properties, such as molecular weight, boiling point, and freezing point. Since hydrogen and helium are very light, the possibility arises of explosive mixtures being formed at high points in buildings. Since argon is unexpectedly heavy, its removal requires suction rather than blowing. It is also pointed out that the use of inert liquid nitrogen can lead to the creation of a noninert atmosphere which supports combustion because it contains oxygen. Attention is also given to the danger of asphyxiation posed by the growing use of inert gases.

  2. Other cryogenic wind tunnel projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    The first cryogenic tunnel was built in 1972. Since then, many cryogenic wind-tunnel projects were started at aeronautical research centers around the world. Some of the more significant of these projects are described which are not covered by other lecturers at this Special Course. Described are cryogenic wind-tunnel projects in five countries: China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center); England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, and Royal Aerospace Establishment-Bedford); Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy); United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and NASA Langley); and U.S.S.R. (Central Aero-Hydronamics Institute (TsAGI), Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ITAM), and Physical-Mechanical Institute at Kharkov (PMI-K).

  3. Other Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The first cryogenic tunnel was built at the NASA Langley Research Center in 1972. Since then, many cryogenic wind-tunnels have been built at aeronautical research centers around the world. In this lecture some of the more interesting and significant of these projects that have not been covered by other lecturers at this Special Course are described. In this lecture authors describe cryogenic wind-tunnel projects at research centers in four countries: China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center); England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, and Defence Research Agency - Bedford); Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy); and United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and NASA Langley).

  4. Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Rocket fuel needs to stay cool - super cool, in fact. The ability to store gas propellants like liquid hydrogen and oxygen at cryogenic temperatures (below -243 F) is crucial for space missions in order to reduce their volumes and allow their storage in smaller (and therefore, less costly) tanks. The Agency has used these cryogenic fluids for vehicle propellants, reactants, and life support systems since 1962 with the Centaur upper stage rocket, which was powered with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During proposed long-duration missions, super-cooled fluids will also be used in space power systems, spaceports, and lunar habitation systems. In the next generation of launch vehicles, gaseous propellants will be cooled to and stored for extended periods at even colder temperatures than currently employed via a process called densification. Densification sub-cools liquids to temperatures even closer to absolute zero (-459 F), increasing the fluid s density and shrinking its volume beyond common cryogenics. Sub-cooling cryogenic liquid hydrogen, for instance, from 20 K (-423 F) to 15 K (-432.4 F) reduces its mass by 10 percent. These densified liquid gases can provide more cost savings from reduced payload volume. In order to benefit from this cost savings, the Agency is working with private industry to prevent evaporation, leakage, and other inadvertent loss of liquids and gases in payloads - requiring new cryogenic systems to prevent 98 percent (or more) of boil-off loss. Boil-off occurs when cryogenic or densified liquids evaporate, and is a concern during launch pad holds. Accurate sensing of propellants aboard space vehicles is also critical for proper engine shutdown and re-ignition after launch, and zero boil-off fuel systems are also in development for the Altair lunar lander.

  5. Construction of a 25-T cryogen-free superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Awaji, S.; Oguro, H.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Hanai, S.; Miyazaki, H.; Tosaka, T.; Takahashi, M.; Ioka, S.

    2014-12-01

    The construction of a 25-T cryogen-free superconducting magnet (25T-CSM) has started in 2013 at the High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University. The 25T-CSM consists of a low-T superconducting (LTS) coil and a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) coil. A high-strength CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford cable with the reinforcing stabilizer CuNb composite is adopted for the middle LTS section coil. The characteristic feature of the new technology using a CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford cable is a react-and-wind method for the coil-winding process. The LTS coil of 300-mm winding inner diameter is fabricated, and a central magnetic field of 14 T is generated at an operation current of 851 A. The HTS insert coil wound with GdBa2Cu3Oy (Gd123) tape has a 52-mm experimental room temperature bore, and a central magnetic field of 25.5 T will be generated at an operation current of 150 A in a background field of 14 T.

  6. Self-healing cable apparatus and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Dryver (Inventor); Esser, Brian (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods are disclosed. The cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the cable or just one or more portions of the cable. The adaptive cover includes a protective layer having an initial damage resistance, and a reactive layer. When the cable is subjected to a localized damaging force, the reactive layer responds by creating a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healed region provides the cable with enhanced damage resistance as compared to the cable's initial damage resistance. Embodiments of the invention utilize conventional epoxies or foaming materials in the reactive layer that are released to form the self-healed region when the damaging force reaches the reactive layer.

  7. Development of REBCO HTS Power Cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, O.; Ohkuma, T.; Masuda, T.; Ohya, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Yagi, M.; Saitoh, T.; Aoki, N.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Hayakawa, N.

    A Japanese national project, called "Materials & Power applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC)", started in FY2008. In this project, we are developing 66 kV/5 kA large current high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable and 275 kV/3 kA high voltage HTS cable using REBCO tapes. These HTS cables are expected as a compact size with large capacity and low loss power transmission. We have examined AC loss, thermal characteristics of the cables under over-current, the optimum cable design and so on. After the design studies and elemental tests are completed, long cable systems will be built for verification purposes. This paper described the overview and current status of these HTS cables development in the M-PACC project. (PACS: 84.71.Fk)

  8. Cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.

    1979-01-01

    The development of spiral artery cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes was continued. Ethane was the working fluid and stainless steel the heat pipe material in all cases. The major tasks included: (1) building a liquid blockage (blocking orifice) thermal diode suitable for the HEPP space flight experiment; (2) building a liquid trap thermal diode engineering model; (3) retesting the original liquid blockage engineering model, and (4) investigating the startup dynamics of artery cryogenic thermal diodes. An experimental investigation was also conducted into the wetting characteristics of ethane/stainless steel systems using a specially constructed chamber that permitted in situ observations.

  9. Optical Cryogenic Tank Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffell, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Cryogenic fluids play an important role in space transportation. Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are vital fuel components for liquid rocket engines. It is also difficult to accurately measure the liquid level in the cryogenic tanks containing the liquids. The current methods use thermocouple rakes, floats, or sonic meters to measure tank level. Thermocouples have problems examining the boundary between the boiling liquid and the gas inside the tanks. They are also slow to respond to temperature changes. Sonic meters need to be mounted inside the tank, but still above the liquid level. This causes problems for full tanks, or tanks that are being rotated to lie on their side.

  10. Operational and troubleshooting experiences in the SST-1 cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesuria, G.; Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.; Sonara, D.; Gupta, N. C.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Patel, K.; Shah, P.; Nimavat, H.; Sharma, R.; Patel, J. C.; Tank, J.; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the cooldown and current charging campaign have been carried out towards the demonstration of the first successful plasma discharge in the steady state superconducting Tokomak (SST-1). The SST-1 machine consists of cable-in-conduit wound superconducting toroidal as well as poloidal coils, cooled using 1.3 kW at 4.5 K helium refrigerator -cum- liquefier (HRL) system. The cryo system provides the two-phase helium at 0.13 MPa at 4.5 K as well as forced-flow pressurized helium at 0.4 MPa and in addition to 7 g-s-1 liquefaction capacity required for the current leads and other cold mass at 4.5 K. The entire integrated cold masses having different thermo hydraulic resistances cooled with the SST-1 HRL in optimised process parameters. In order to maintain different levels of temperatures and to facilitate smooth and reliable cooldown, warm-up, normal operations as well as to handle abnormal events such as, quench or utilities failures etc., exergy efficient process are adopted for the helium refrigerator-cum-liquefier (HRL) with an installed equivalent capacity of 1.3 kW at 4.5 K. Using the HRL, the cold mass of about 40 tons is being routinely cooled down from ambient temperature to 4.5 K with an average cooldown rate of 0.75 - 1 K-h-1. Long-term cryogenic stable conditions were obtained within 15 days in the superconducting coils and their connecting feeders. Afterwards, all of the cold mass is warmed-up in a controlled manner to ambient temperature. In this paper, we report the recent operational results of the cryogenic system during the first plasma discharge in SST-1 as well as the troubleshooting experiences of the cryogenic plant related hardware.

  11. "Flexible aerogel as a superior thermal insulation for high temperature superconductor cable applications"

    SciTech Connect

    White, Shannon O.; Demko, Jonathan A; Tomich, A.

    2010-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are an advanced technology that can both strengthen and improve the national electrical distribution infrastructure. HTS cables require sufficient cooling to overcome inherent low temperature heat loading. Heat loads are minimized by the use of cryogenic envelopes or cryostats. Cryostats require improvement in efficiency, reliability, and cost reduction to meet the demanding needs of HTS conductors (1G and 2G wires). Aspen Aerogels has developed a compression resistant aerogel thermal insulation package to replace compression sensitive multi-layer insulation (MLI), the incumbent thermal insulation, in flexible cryostats for HTS cables. Oak Ridge National Laboratory tested a prototype aerogel package in a lab-scale pipe apparatus to measure the rate of heat invasion. The lab-scale pipe test results of the aerogel solution will be presented and directly compared to MLI. A compatibility assessment of the aerogel material with HTS system components will also be presented. The aerogel thermal insulation solution presented will meet the demanding needs of HTS cables.

  12. Flexible Aerogel as a Superior Thermal Insulation for High Temperature Superconductor Cable Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, S.; Demko, J.; Tomich, A.

    2010-04-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are an advanced technology that can both strengthen and improve the national electrical distribution infrastructure. HTS cables require sufficient cooling to overcome inherent low temperature heat loading. Heat loads are minimized by the use of cryogenic envelopes or cryostats. Cryostats require improvement in efficiency, reliability, and cost reduction to meet the demanding needs of HTS conductors (1G and 2G wires). Aspen Aerogels has developed a compression resistant aerogel thermal insulation package to replace compression sensitive multi-layer insulation (MLI), the incumbent thermal insulation, in flexible cryostats for HTS cables. Oak Ridge National Laboratory tested a prototype aerogel package in a lab-scale pipe apparatus to measure the rate of heat invasion. The lab-scale pipe test results of the aerogel solution will be presented and directly compared to MLI. A compatibility assessment of the aerogel material with HTS system components will also be presented. The aerogel thermal insulation solution presented will meet the demanding needs of HTS cables.

  13. Test plan and report for Space Shuttle launch environment testing of Bergen cable technology safety cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralph, John

    1992-01-01

    Bergen Cable Technology (BCT) has introduced a new product they refer to as 'safety cable'. This product is intended as a replacement for lockwire when installed per Aerospace Standard (AS) 4536 (included in Appendix D of this document). Installation of safety cable is reportedly faster and more uniform than lockwire. NASA/GSFC proposes to use this safety cable in Shuttle Small Payloads Project (SSPP) applications on upcoming Shuttle missions. To assure that BCT safety cable will provide positive locking of fasteners equivalent to lockwire, the SSPP will conduct vibration and pull tests of the safety cable.

  14. Filling an Unvented Cryogenic Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Phillip; Willen, Gary S.

    1987-01-01

    Slow-cooling technique enables tank lacking top vent to be filled with cryogenic liquid. New technique: pressure buildup prevented through condensation of accumulating gas resulting in condensate being added to bulk liquid. Filling method developed for vibration test on vacuum-insulated spherical tank containing liquid hydrogen.

  15. Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

  16. Cryogenics Testbed Technology Focus Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Our mission is to bring together the mutual elements of research, industry, and training in the field of cryogenics to advance technology development for the spaceports of the future. Successful technology and productive collaboration comes from these three ingredients working together in a triangle of interaction.

  17. Status Of Sorption Cryogenic Refrigeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1988-01-01

    Report reviews sorption refrigeration. Developed for cooling infrared detectors, cryogenic research, and other advanced applications, sorption refrigerators have few moving parts, little vibration, and lifetimes of 10 years or more. Describes types of sorption stages, multistage and hybrid refrigeration systems, power requirements, cooling capacities, and advantages and disadvantages of various stages and systems.

  18. Background Reduction in Cryogenic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.

    2005-09-08

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  19. Foam shell cryogenic ICF target

    DOEpatents

    Darling, Dale H.

    1987-01-01

    A uniform cryogenic layer of DT fuel is maintained in a fusion target having a low density, small pore size, low Z rigid foam shell saturated with liquid DT fuel. Capillary action prevents gravitational slumping of the fuel layer. The saturated shell may be cooled to produce a solid fuel layer.

  20. Dust Charge in Cryogenic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, J.; Kojima, C.; Sekine, W.; Ishihara, O.

    2008-09-07

    Dust charges in a complex helium gas plasma, surrounded by cryogenic liquid, are studied experimentally. The charge is determined by frequency and equilibrium position of damped dust oscillation proposed by Tomme et al.(2000) and is found to decrease with ion temperature of the complex plasma.

  1. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  2. Operation of large cryogenic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rode, C.H.; Ferry, B.; Fowler, W.B.; Makara, J.; Peterson, T.; Theilacker, J.; Walker, R.

    1985-06-01

    This report is based on the past 12 years of experiments on R and D and operation of the 27 kW Fermilab Tevatron Cryogenic System. In general the comments are applicable for all helium plants larger than 1000W (400 l/hr) and non mass-produced nitrogen plants larger than 50 tons per day. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Sources of Cryogenic Data and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohling, R. A.; Hufferd, W. L.; Marquardt, E. D.

    It is commonly known that cryogenic data, technology, and information are applied across many military, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and civilian product lines. Before 1950, however, there was no centralized US source of cryogenic technology data. The Cryogenic Data Center of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) maintained a database of cryogenic technical documents that served the national need well from the mid 1950s to the early 1980s. The database, maintained on a mainframe computer, was a highly specific bibliography of cryogenic literature and thermophysical properties that covered over 100 years of data. In 1983, however, the Cryogenic Data Center was discontinued when NBS's mission and scope were redefined. In 1998, NASA contracted with the Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) and Technology Applications, Inc. (TAI) to reconstitute and update Cryogenic Data Center information and establish a self-sufficient entity to provide technical services for the cryogenic community. The Cryogenic Information Center (CIC) provided this service until 2004, when it was discontinued due to a lack of market interest. The CIC technical assets were distributed to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Plans are under way in 2006 for CPIA to launch an e-commerce cryogenic website to offer bibliography data with capability to download cryogenic documents.

  4. A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into

  5. A cryogenic phase locking loop system for a superconducting integrated receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudchenko, A. V.; Koshelets, V. P.; Dmitriev, P. N.; Ermakov, A. B.; Yagoubov, P. A.; Pylypenko, O. M.

    2009-08-01

    The authors present a new cryogenic device, an ultrawideband cryogenic phase locking loop system (CPLL). The CPLL was developed for phase locking of a flux-flow oscillator (FFO) in a superconducting integrated receiver (SIR) but can be used for any cryogenic terahertz oscillator. The key element of the CPLL is the cryogenic phase detector (CPD), a recently proposed new superconducting element. The CPD is an innovative implementation of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction. All components of the CPLL reside inside a cryostat at 4.2 K, with the loop length of cables 50 cm and the total loop delay 4.5 ns. So small a delay results in a CPLL synchronization bandwidth as wide as 40 MHz and allows phase locking of more than 60% of the power emitted by the FFO, even for FFO linewidths of about 11 MHz. This percentage of phase locked power is three times that achieved with conventional room temperature PLLs. Such an improvement enables reducing the FFO phase noise and extending the SIR operation range.

  6. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  7. VERY LOW FREQUENCY BREAKDOWN PROPERTIES OF ELECTRICAL INSULATION MATERIALS AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, I.; Tuncer, E.; Polizos, G.; James, D. R.; Ellis, A. R.; Pace, M. O.

    2010-04-08

    For long cables or equipment with large capacitance it is not always possible to conduct high voltage withstand tests at 60 Hz due to limitations in charging currents of the power supply. Very low frequency (typically at a frequency of 0.1 Hz) has been used for conventional cables as a way of getting around the charging current limitation. For superconducting grid applications the same issues apply. However there is very little data at cryogenic temperatures on how materials perform at low frequency compared to 60 Hz and whether higher voltages should be applied when performing a high voltage acceptability test. Various materials including G10 (fiberglass reinforced plastic or FRP), Cryoflex (a tape insulation used in some high temperature superconducting cables), kapton (commonly used polyimide), polycarbonate, and polyetherimide, and in liquid nitrogen alone have been tested using a step method for frequencies of 60 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and dc. The dwell time at each step was chosen so that the aging factor would be the same in both the 60 Hz and 0.1 Hz tests. The data indicated that, while there is a small frequency dependence for liquid nitrogen, there are significant differences for the solid materials studied. Breakdown data for these materials and for model cables will be shown and discussed.

  8. Very Low Frequency Breakdown Properties of Electrical Insulation Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauers, I.; Tuncer, E.; Polizos, G.; James, D. R.; Ellis, A. R.; Pace, M. O.

    2010-04-01

    For long cables or equipment with large capacitance it is not always possible to conduct high voltage withstand tests at 60 Hz due to limitations in charging currents of the power supply. Very low frequency (typically at a frequency of 0.1 Hz) has been used for conventional cables as a way of getting around the charging current limitation. For superconducting grid applications the same issues apply. However there is very little data at cryogenic temperatures on how materials perform at low frequency compared to 60 Hz and whether higher voltages should be applied when performing a high voltage acceptability test. Various materials including G10 (fiberglass reinforced plastic or FRP), Cryoflex™ (a tape insulation used in some high temperature superconducting cables), kapton (commonly used polyimide), polycarbonate, and polyetherimide, and in liquid nitrogen alone have been tested using a step method for frequencies of 60 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and dc. The dwell time at each step was chosen so that the aging factor would be the same in both the 60 Hz and 0.1 Hz tests. The data indicated that, while there is a small frequency dependence for liquid nitrogen, there are significant differences for the solid materials studied. Breakdown data for these materials and for model cables will be shown and discussed.

  9. VERY LOW FREQUENCY BREAKDOWN PROPERTIES OF ELECTRICAL INSULATION MATERIALS AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, I.; Tuncer, E.; Polizos, G.; James, D. R.; Ellis, A. R.; Pace, M. O.

    2010-01-01

    For long cables or equipment with large capacitance it is not always possible to conduct high voltage withstand tests at 60 Hz due to limitations in charging currents of the power supply. Very low frequency (typically at a frequency of 0 1 Hz) has been used for conventional cables as a way of getting around the charging current limitation For superconducting grid applications the same issues apply. However there is very little data at cryogenic temperatures on how materials perform at low frequency compared to 60 Hz and whether higher voltages should be applied when performing a high voltage acceptability test. Various materials including G 10 (fiberglass reinforced plastic or FRP), Cryoflex (TM) (a tape insulation used in some high temperature superconducting cables), kapton (commonly used polyimide), polycarbonate, and polyetherimide, and in liquid nitrogen alone have been tested using a step method for frequencies of 60 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and dc The dwell time at each step was chosen so that the aging factor would be the same in both the 60 Hz and 0 I Hz tests. The data indicated that, while there is a small frequency dependence for liquid nitrogen, there are significant differences for the solid materials studied. Breakdown data for these materials and for model cables will be shown and discussed.

  10. VERY LOW FREQUENCY BREAKDOWN PROPERTIES OF ELECTRICAL INSULATION MATERIALS AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, Isidor; Tuncer, Enis; Polyzos, Georgios; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Pace, Marshall O

    2010-01-01

    For long cables or equipment with large capacitance it is not always possible to conduct high voltage withstand at tests at 60 Hz due to limitations in charging currents of the power supply. Very low frequency (typically at a frequency of 0.1 Hz) has been used for conventional cables as a way of getting around the charging current limitation. For superconducting grid applications the same issues apply. However there is very little data at cryogenic temperatures on how materials perform at low frequency compared to 60 Hz and whether higher voltages should be applied when performing a high voltage acceptability test. Various materials including G10 (fiberglass reinforced plastic or FRP), Cryoflex (a tape insulation used in some high temperature superconducting cables), kapton (commonly used polyimide), polycarbonate, and polyetherimide, and in liquid nitrogen alone have been tested using a step method for frequencies of 60 Hz, 0.1 Hz, and dc. The dwell time at each step was chosen so that the aging factor would be the same in both the 60 Hz and 0.1 Hz tests. The data indicated that, while there is a small frequency dependence for liquid nitrogen, there are significant differences for the solid materials studied. Breakdown data for these materials and for model cables will be shown and discussed.

  11. Helical grip for the cable cars of San Francisco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peyran, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A helical cable car grip to minimize high maintenance costs of San Francisco's cable car operation is presented. The grip establishes a rolling contact between the cable and grip to reduce sliding friction and associated cable wear. The design, development, and testing of the helical cable car grip are described.

  12. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable...

  13. 47 CFR 76.956 - Cable operator response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable operator response. 76.956 Section 76.956... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.956 Cable operator response. (a) Unless otherwise directed by the local franchising authority, a cable operator must file with the local franchise...

  14. 47 CFR 76.1205 - CableCARD support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) CableCARD rental fees shall be priced uniformly throughout a cable system by such provider without... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CableCARD support. 76.1205 Section 76.1205... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation Devices § 76.1205 CableCARD support....

  15. 47 CFR 76.1205 - CableCARD support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) CableCARD rental fees shall be priced uniformly throughout a cable system by such provider without... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CableCARD support. 76.1205 Section 76.1205... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation Devices § 76.1205 CableCARD support....

  16. 47 CFR 76.1205 - CableCARD support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) CableCARD rental fees shall be priced uniformly throughout a cable system by such provider without... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CableCARD support. 76.1205 Section 76.1205... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation Devices § 76.1205 CableCARD support....

  17. 47 CFR 76.1205 - CableCARD support.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) CableCARD rental fees shall be priced uniformly throughout a cable system by such provider without... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CableCARD support. 76.1205 Section 76.1205... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Competitive Availability of Navigation Devices § 76.1205 CableCARD support....

  18. Cable force monitoring system of cable stayed bridges using accelerometers inside mobile smart phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Yu, Yan; Hu, Weitong; Jiao, Dong; Han, Ruicong; Mao, Xingquan; Li, Mingchu; Ou, Jinping

    2015-03-01

    Cable force is one of the most important parameters in structural health monitoring system integrated on cable stayed bridges for safety evaluation. In this paper, one kind of cable force monitoring system scheme was proposed. Accelerometers inside mobile smart phones were utilized for the acceleration monitoring of cable vibration. Firstly, comparative tests were conducted in the lab. The test results showed that the accelerometers inside smartphones can detect the cable vibration, and then the cable force can be obtained. Furthermore, there is good agreement between the monitoring results of different kinds of accelerometers. Finally, the proposed cable force monitoring system was applied on one cable strayed bridge structure, the monitoring result verified the feasibility of the monitoring system.

  19. Long-life cable development. Cable-processing survey. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mangaraj, D.; Preston, J.R.

    1985-09-01

    A survey of cable manufacturers in North America, Europe, and Japan identified state-of-the-art techniques for processing extruded dielectric cables. The review highlights optimal approaches to such process operations as materials handling, extrusion, and vulcanization.

  20. Modified Spot Welder Solders Flat Cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, Carl L.

    1992-01-01

    Soldering device, essentially modified spot welder, melts high-melting-temperature solders without damaging plastic insulation on flat electrical cables. Solder preform rests on exposed conductor of cable, under connector pin. Electrodes press pin/preform/conductor sandwich together and supply pulse of current to melt preform, bonding pin to conductor. Anvil acts as support and heat sink. Device used to solder flexible ribbon cables to subminiature pin connectors.

  1. Cryogenics and the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current plans within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars presently planned in 2011. Integral to all hum Mars mission phases is cryogenic fluid management. Cryogenic fluids will be required both as propellant and for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Without safe and efficient cryogen storage human Mars missions will not be possible. Effective control and handling of cryogenic fluids is the key to affordable Mars missions, and advancing active thermal control technology is synergistic with all of NASA's exploration initiatives and with existing and future instrument cooling programs, including MTPE and Origins. Present mission scenarios for human exploration require cryogenic propellant storage for up to 1700 days and for up to 60 metric tons. These requirements represent increases of an order of magnitude over previous storage masses and lifetimes. The key cryogenic terminology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Long-term storage for the thermal control of cryogenic propellants is best accomplished with a mix of passive and active technologies. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer insulation (MLI) concepts will be combined with the development of active coolers (cryogenic refrigerators). Candidates for long-life active cooling applications include Reverse Turbo-Brayton, Stirling, and Pulse-Tube coolers. The integration of passive and active technologies will form a hybrid system optimized to minimize the launch mass while preserving the cryogenic propellants. Since cryogenic propellants are the largest mass that Mars missions must launch from earth, even a modest reduction in the percentage of propellant carried results in a significant weight saving. This paper will present a brief overview of cryogenic fluid management

  2. Computer compensation for cable signal degradations

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, W B

    1987-12-01

    This paper describes two techniques for computing software cable compensation filters. These filters are used in correcting waveforms recorded from diagnostics on pulsed power accelerator. Applicable topics in continuous and discrete linear systems theory are reviewed. The first technique for computing a compensation function consists of recursively solving a discrete time domain convolution equation using measured undegraded and cable degraded pulses. The second tecnique computes the compensation function in the frequency domain using an analytical model of the cable frequency response and a constrained inverse filter. Detailed procedurs are described for computing cable compensation filters using an interactive data manipulation and hardware control program. 6 refs., 24 figs.

  3. Vincennes University: Pioneer in Cable TV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckes, Isaac K.

    1972-01-01

    The development of cable educational television at Vincennes University (Indiana) is discussed in terms of the financing, securing of franchises, educational goals and plans for future expansion. (RN)

  4. Capacitor discharge process for welding braided cable

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Rick D.

    1995-01-01

    A capacitor discharge process for welding a braided cable formed from a plurality of individual cable strands to a solid metallic electrically conductive member comprises the steps of: (a) preparing the electrically conductive member for welding by bevelling one of its end portions while leaving an ignition projection extending outwardly from the apex of the bevel; (b) clamping the electrically conductive member in a cathode fixture; (c) connecting the electrically conductive member clamped in the cathode fixture to a capacitor bank capable of being charged to a preselected voltage value; (d) preparing the braided cable for welding by wrapping one of its end portions with a metallic sheet to form a retaining ring operable to maintain the individual strands of the braided cable in fixed position within the retaining ring; (e) clamping the braided cable and the retaining ring as a unit in an anode fixture so that the wrapped end portion of the braided cable faces the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member; and (f) moving the cathode fixture towards the anode fixture until the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member contacts the end portion of the braided cable thereby allowing the capacitor bank to discharge through the electrically conductive member and through the braided cable and causing the electrically conductive member to be welded to the braided cable via capacitor discharge action.

  5. Cryogenic High-Sensitivity Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Peter; Chui, Talso; Goodstein, David

    2005-01-01

    A proposed magnetometer for use in a cryogenic environment would be sensitive enough to measure a magnetic-flux density as small as a picogauss (10(exp -16) Tesla). In contrast, a typical conventional flux-gate magnetometer cannot measure a magnetic-flux density smaller that about 1 microgauss (10(exp -10) Tesla). One version of this device, for operation near the low end of the cryogenic temperature range, would include a piece of a paramagnetic material on a platform, the temperature of which would be controlled with a periodic variation. The variation in temperature would be measured by use of a conventional germanium resistance thermometer. A superconducting coil would be wound around the paramagnetic material and coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer.

  6. A cryogenic receiver for EPR.

    PubMed

    Narkowicz, R; Ogata, H; Reijerse, E; Suter, D

    2013-12-01

    Cryogenic probes have significantly increased the sensitivity of NMR. Here, we present a compact EPR receiver design capable of cryogenic operation. Compared to room temperature operation, it reduces the noise by a factor of ≈2.5. We discuss in detail the design and analyze the resulting noise performance. At low microwave power, the input noise density closely follows the emission of a cooled 50Ω resistor over the whole measurement range from 20K up to room temperature. To minimize the influence of the microwave source noise, we use high microwave efficiency (≈1.1-1.7mTW(-1/2)) planar microresonators. Their efficient conversion of microwave power to magnetic field permits EPR measurements with very low power levels, typically ranging from a few μW down to fractions of nW.

  7. Advanced cryogenic tank development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, G. F.; Tack, W. T.; Scholz, E. F.

    1993-06-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of materials, structures, and manufacturing technologies for the next generation of cryogenic propellant tanks under the auspices of a joint U.S. Air Force/NASA sponsored advanced development program. This paper summarizes the achievements of this three-year program, particularly in the evolution and properties of Weldalite 049, net shape component technology, Al-Li welding technology, and efficient manufacturing concepts. Results of a recent mechanical property characterization of a full-scale integrally stiffened barrel panel extrusion are presented, as well as plans for an additional weld process optimization program using response surface design of experiment techniques. A further discussion is given to the status of hardware completed for the Advanced Manufacturing Development Center and Martin Marietta's commitment to the integration of these technologies into the production of low-cost, light-weight cryogenic propellant tanks.

  8. Cryogenic VPH grisms for MOIRCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Ichiyama, Kotaro; Ebizuka, Noboru; Murata, Chihiro; Taniguchi, Yuichiro; Okura, Tsutomu; Harashima, Masakazu; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Maruyama, Miyoko; Iye, Masanori; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2008-07-01

    We present the development and first astronomical applications of VPH grisms which are now operated at cryogenic temperature in MOIRCS, a Cassegrain near-infrared instrument of the Subaru Telescope. We designed and fabricated the VPH grisms with a resolving power ~3000 for the use in near-infrared bands. The VPH grating, encapsulated in BK7 glass, is glued between two ZnSe prisms with vertex angle of 20 deg. After repeating several thermal cycles down to ~100 K carefully enough not to cause irreparable damage on the grism during cooling, we evaluated the performance at cryogenic temperature in the laboratory and found no deterioration and no large difference in the performance from that measured in room temperature. Based on commissioning observations with MOIRCS, we have confirmed the high efficiency (~0.8) and the resolving power of the original design. Common use of the grisms is due to start in the second semester of 2008.

  9. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Joel

    2004-05-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is an experiment to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The experiment initially was deployed at a shallow underground site, and is currently deployed at a deep underground site at the Soudan Mine in Minnesota. The detectors operate at cryogenic temperature, and are capable of distinguishing nuclear recoils from WIMP interactions from various backgrounds. The detectors are shielded from background by both active and passive elements. We will describe the components of the overall experiment, and focus on the novel data acquisition system that has been develop to control and monitor the experiment via the World Wide Web. Preliminary signals from the operation at Soudan will be discussed.

  10. Electromagnetic dampers for cryogenic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Dirusso, Eliseo

    1988-01-01

    Cryogenic turbomachinery of the type used to pump high-pressure liquid hydrogen at -423 F and liquid oxygen at -297 F to the main engines of the Space Shuttle are subjected to lateral rotor vibrations from unbalance forces and transient loads. Conventional dampers which utilize viscous fluids such as lubricating oil cannot be used in turbopumps because the bearing components are filled with either liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen, which have viscosity comparable to air and, therefore, are not effective in viscous dampers. Electromagentic dampers are currently being explored as a means of providing damping in cryogenic turbopumps because their damping effectiveness increases as temperature decreases and because they are compatible with the liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen in the turbopumps.

  11. Cryogenic Flange and Seal Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The assembly of flanges, seals, and pipes are used to carry cryogenic fluid from a storage tank to the vehicle at launch sites. However, after a certain amount of cycles these raised face flanges with glass-filled Teflon gaskets have been found to have torque relaxation and are as a result susceptible to cryogenic fluid leakage if not re-torqued. The intent of this project is to identify alternate combinations of flanges and seals which may improve thermal cycle performance and decrease re-torque requirements. The general approach is to design a test fixture to evaluate leak characteristics between spiral and concentric serrations and to test alternate flange and seal combinations. Due to insufficient time, it was not possible to evaluate these different types of combinations for the combination that improved thermal cycle performance the most. However, the necessary drawings for the test fixture were designed and assembled along with the collection of the necessary parts.

  12. 46 CFR 120.340 - Cable and wiring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ring or the flanged spade type. (l) A cable must not be spliced in a hazardous location. (m) A cable... material in the splice and with the materials in the cable. (o) Ampacities of wires must meet Section...

  13. 46 CFR 120.340 - Cable and wiring requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ring or the flanged spade type. (l) A cable must not be spliced in a hazardous location. (m) A cable... material in the splice and with the materials in the cable. (o) Ampacities of wires must meet Section...

  14. ALA Statement on Cable Telecommunications Act of 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Eileen D.

    1982-01-01

    Presents views of the American Library Association on the Cable Telecommunications Act of 1982, providing a brief overview of library involvement in cable television and endorsing amendments suggested by the National Federation of Local Cable Programmers. (EJS)

  15. 7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative number 1485, classification series 002, 12. - Floor of the Valley Road, Cable Creek Bridge, Spanning Cable Creek on Floor of Valley, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  16. 30 CFR 77.606 - Energized trailing cables; handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606 Energized trailing cables; handling. Energized medium- and high-voltage trailing cables shall be handled only by persons wearing protective rubber gloves (see §...

  17. 30 CFR 77.606 - Energized trailing cables; handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606 Energized trailing cables; handling. Energized medium- and high-voltage trailing cables shall be handled only by persons wearing protective rubber gloves (see §...

  18. 30 CFR 77.606 - Energized trailing cables; handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606 Energized trailing cables; handling. Energized medium- and high-voltage trailing cables shall be handled only by persons wearing protective rubber gloves (see §...

  19. Dynamic simulation of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Chan Woo; Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si Dole

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of a Brayton cryocooler is presented as a partial effort of a Korean governmental project to develop 1˜3 km HTS cable systems at transmission level in Jeju Island. Thermodynamic design of a 10 kW Brayton cryocooler was completed, and a prototype construction is underway with a basis of steady-state operation. This study is the next step to investigate the transient behavior of cryocooler for two purposes. The first is to simulate and design the cool-down process after scheduled or unscheduled stoppage. The second is to predict the transient behavior following the variation of external conditions such as cryogenic load or outdoor temperature. The detailed specifications of key components, including plate-fin heat exchangers and cryogenic turbo-expanders are incorporated into a commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) to estimate the temporal change of temperature and flow rate over the cryocooler. An initial cool-down scenario and some examples on daily variation of cryocooler are presented and discussed, aiming at stable control schemes of a long cable system.

  20. Dynamic simulation of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Chan Woo; Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si Dole

    2014-01-29

    Dynamic simulation of a Brayton cryocooler is presented as a partial effort of a Korean governmental project to develop 1∼3 km HTS cable systems at transmission level in Jeju Island. Thermodynamic design of a 10 kW Brayton cryocooler was completed, and a prototype construction is underway with a basis of steady-state operation. This study is the next step to investigate the transient behavior of cryocooler for two purposes. The first is to simulate and design the cool-down process after scheduled or unscheduled stoppage. The second is to predict the transient behavior following the variation of external conditions such as cryogenic load or outdoor temperature. The detailed specifications of key components, including plate-fin heat exchangers and cryogenic turbo-expanders are incorporated into a commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) to estimate the temporal change of temperature and flow rate over the cryocooler. An initial cool-down scenario and some examples on daily variation of cryocooler are presented and discussed, aiming at stable control schemes of a long cable system.

  1. Cryogenic moderator simulations : confronting reality.

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, E. B.

    1999-01-06

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a spallation neutron source dedicated to materials research. Its three cryogenic methane moderators provide twelve neutron beams to fourteen instruments and test facilities. This report concerns ongoing activities for benchmarking our Monte Carlo model of the IPNS neutron generation system. This paper concentrates on the techniques (both experimental and calculational) used in such benchmarking activities.

  2. Cryogenic properties of unidirectional composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. P.; Golda, M.

    The tensile, compressive, fatigue, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and specific heat of unidirectional laminates reinforced with boron, alumina, aramid, S-glass, E-glass, and high strength, high modulus and medium modulus carbon fibres are reviewed. The ratio of strength to thermal conductivity is used to assess the suitability of various fibre-reinforced laminates for supporting struts (experiencing compression) or straps (experiencing tension) at cryogenic temperatures. The relationships between laminate properties and reinforcement fibres are discussed.

  3. Insulating Cryogenic Pipes With Frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, J. G.; Bova, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Crystallized water vapor fills voids in pipe insulation. Small, carefully controlled amount of water vapor introduced into dry nitrogen gas before it enters aft fuselage. Vapor freezes on pipes, filling cracks in insulation. Ice prevents gaseous nitrogen from condensing on pipes and dripping on structure, in addition to helping to insulate all parts. Industrial applications include large refrigeration plants or facilities that use cryogenic liquids.

  4. Positronium production in cryogenic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, B. S.; Alonso, A. M.; Deller, A.; Liszkay, L.; Cassidy, D. B.

    2016-03-01

    We report measurements of positronium (Ps) formation following positron irradiation of mesoporous SiO2 films and Ge(100) single crystals at temperatures ranging from 12-700 K. As both of these materials generate Ps atoms via nonthermal processes, they are able to function as positron-positronium converters at cryogenic temperatures. Our data show that such Ps formation is possibly provided the targets are not compromised by adsorption of residual gas. In the case of SiO2 films, we observe a strong reduction in the Ps formation efficiency following irradiation with UV laser light (λ =243.01 nm) below 250 K, in accordance with previous observations of radiation-induced surface paramagnetic centers. Conversely, Ps emission from Ge is enhanced by irradiation with visible laser light (λ =532 nm) via a photoemission process that persists at cryogenic temperatures. Both mesoporous SiO2 films and Ge crystals were found to produce Ps efficiently in cryogenic environments. Accordingly, these materials are likely to prove useful in several areas of research, including Ps mediated antihydrogen formation conducted in the cold bore of a superconducting magnet, the production of Rydberg Ps for experiments in which the effects of black-body radiation must be minimized, and the utilization of mesoporous structures that have been modified to produce cold Ps atoms.

  5. Cryogenic fluid management in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1988-01-01

    Many future space based vehicles and satellites will require on orbit refuelling procedures. Cryogenic fluid management technology is being developed to assess the requirements of such procedures as well as to aid in the design and development of these vehicles. Cryogenic fluid management technology for this application could be divided into two areas of study, one is concerned with fluid transfer process and the other with cryogenic liquid storage. This division is based upon the needed technology for the development of each area. In the first, the interaction of fluid dynamics with thermodynamics is essential, while in the second only thermodynamic analyses are sufficient to define the problem. The following specific process related to the liquid transfer area are discussed: tank chilldown and fill; tank pressurization; liquid positioning; and slosh dynamics and control. These specific issues are discussed in relation with the required technology for their development in the low gravity application area. In each process the relevant physics controlling the technology is identified and methods for resolving some of the basic questions are discussed.

  6. Cryogenic microwave anisotropic artificial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, Frank

    This thesis addresses analysis and design of a cryogenic microwave anisotropic wave guiding structure that isolates an antenna from external incident fields from specific directions. The focus of this research is to design and optimize the radome's constituent material parameters for maximizing the isolation between an interior receiver antenna and an exterior transmitter without significantly disturbing the transmitter antenna far field characteristics. The design, characterization, and optimization of high-temperature superconducting metamaterials constitutive parameters are developed in this work at X-band frequencies. A calibrated characterization method for testing arrays of split-ring resonators at cryogenic temperature inside a TE10 waveguide was developed and used to back-out anisotropic equivalent material parameters. The artificial material elements (YBCO split-ring resonators on MgO substrate) are optimized to improve the narrowband performance of the metamaterial radome with respect to maximizing isolation and minimizing shadowing, defined as a reduction of the transmitted power external to the radome. The optimized radome is fabricated and characterized in a parallel plate waveguide in a cryogenic environment to demonstrate the degree of isolation and shadowing resulting from its presence. At 11.12 GHz, measurements show that the HTS metamaterial radome achieved an isolation of 10.5 dB and the external power at 100 mm behind the radome is reduced by 1.9 dB. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating a structure that provides good isolation between two antennas and low disturbance of the transmitter's fields.

  7. ZERODUR TAILORED for cryogenic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, R.; Westerhoff, T.

    2014-07-01

    ZERODUR® glass ceramic from SCHOTT is known for its very low thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. It is widely used for ground-based astronomical mirrors but also for satellite applications. Many reference application demonstrate the excellent and long lasting performance of ZERODUR® components in orbit. For space application a low CTE of the mirror material is required at cryogenic temperatures together with a good match of the thermal expansion to the supporting structure material. It is possible to optimize the coefficient of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® for cryogenic applications. This paper reports on measurements of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® down to cryogenic temperatures of 10 K performed by the PTB (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstallt, Braunschweig, Germany, the national metrology laboratory). The ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO presented in this paper has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion down to 70 K. The maximum absolute integrated thermal expansion down to 10 K is only about 20 ppm. Mirror blanks made from ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO can be light weighted to almost 90% with our modern processing technologies. With ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO, SCHOTT offers the mirror blank material for the next generation of space telescope applications.

  8. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 4: Cryogenic cooling in environmental control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of cryogenic fluid cooling in the environmental control system of the space shuttle was conducted. The technique for treating the cryogenic fluid storage and supply tanks and subsystems as integrated systems was developed. It was concluded that a basic incompatibility exists between the heat generated and the cryogen usage rate and cryogens cannot be used to absorb the generated heat. The use of radiators and accumulators to provide additional cooling capability is recommended.

  9. POTS to broadband ... cable modems.

    PubMed

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    There have been 3 columns talking about broadband communications and now at the very end when it's time to compare using a telco or cableco, I'm asking does it really matter? So what if I can actually get the whole 30 Mbps with a cable network when the website I'm connecting to is running on an ISDN line at 128 Kbps? Broadband offers a lot more bandwidth than the connections many Internet servers have today. Except for the biggest websites, many servers connect to the Internet with a switched 56-Kbps, ISDN, or fractional T1 line. Even with the big websites, my home network only runs a 10 Mbps Ethernet connection to my cable modem. Maybe it doesn't matter that the cable lines are shared or that I can only get 8 Mbps from an ADSL line. Maybe the ISP that I use has a T1 line connection to the Internet so my new ADSL modem has a fatter pipe than my provider! (See table 1). It all makes me wonder what's in store for us in the future. PC technology has increased exponentially in the last 10 years with super fast processor speeds, hard disks of hundreds of gigabytes, and amazing video and audio. Internet connection speeds have failed to keep the same pace. Instead of hundreds of times better or faster--modem speeds are barely 10 times faster. Broadband connections offer some additional speed but still not comparable growth as broadband connections are still in their infancy. Rather than trying to make use of existing communication paths, maybe we need a massive infrastructure makeover of something new. How about national wireless access points so we can connect anywhere, anytime? To use the latest and fastest wireless technology you will simply need to buy another $9.95 WLAN card or download the latest super slick WLAN compression/encryption software. Perhaps it is time for a massive infra-restructuring. Consider the past massive infrastructure efforts. The telcos needed to put in their wiring infrastructure starting in the 1870s before telephones were useful to the

  10. Properties of cryogenically worked metals. [stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzberg, F. R.; Kiefer, T. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine whether the mechanical properties of cryogenically worked 17-7PH stainless steel are suitable for service from ambient to cryogenic temperatures. It was determined that the stress corrosion resistance of the cryo-worked material is quite adequate for structural service. The tensile properties and fracture toughness at room temperature were comparable to titanium alloy 6Al-4V. However, at cryogenic temperatures, the properties were not sufficient to recommend consideration for structural service.

  11. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  12. Cryogenics at the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisend, J. G., II; Arnold, P.; Hees, J. Fydrych. W.; Jurns, J. M.; Wang, X. L.

    Cryogenics plays an important role at the European Spallation Source, a world class neutron science center, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden. Three principal applications of cryogenics are found at ESS. The SRF cryomodules of the ESS proton linac require cooling at 2 K, 4.5 K and 40 K; the hydrogenmoderator surrounding the target that produces neutrons, requires cooling via 16.5 K helium and LHe is required for many of the scientific instruments. These needs will be met by a set of three cryogenic refrigeration/liquefaction plants and an extensive cryogenic distribution system. Significant progress has been made on the ESS cryogenic system in preparation for the expected first beam on target in 2019. This work includes: funding of industry studies for the accelerator cryoplant, preliminary design of the cryogenic distribution system, investigation of possible in kind contributors and release of the invitation to tender for the accelerator cryoplant.This paper describes the requirements, design solutions and current status of the ESS cryogenic system. The planned recovery of waste heat from the cryogenic plants, a unique aspect of ESS, is described. The procurement of the cryogenic system, expected to be done via a combination of purchase via competitive bids and in kind contributions is also discussed.

  13. Eddy Current Damper for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starin, Scott; Crosno, Fred

    2002-09-01

    This presentation considers the following topics: the need for cryogenic energy absorption, high speed damper characteristics, gearbox characteristics, composite assembly characteristics, performance tests, simulation models.

  14. Cryogenic Technology Development for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the status and findings of different cryogenic technology research projects in support of the President s Vision for Space Exploration. The exploration systems architecture study is reviewed for cryogenic fluid management needs. It is shown that the exploration architecture is reliant on the cryogenic propellants of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and liquid methane. Needs identified include: the key technologies of liquid acquisition devices, passive thermal and pressure control, low gravity mass gauging, prototype pressure vessel demonstration, active thermal control; as well as feed system testing, and Cryogenic Fluid Management integrated system demonstration. Then five NASA technology projects are reviewed to show how these needs are being addressed by technology research. Projects reviewed include: In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot; Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technology; Cryogenic Propellant Operations Demonstrator; Zero Boil-Off Technology Experiment; and Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development. Advances are found in the areas of liquid acquisition of liquid oxygen, mass gauging of liquid oxygen via radio frequency techniques, computational modeling of thermal and pressure control, broad area cooling thermal control strategies, flight experiments for resolving low gravity issues of cryogenic fluid management. Promising results are also seen for Joule-Thomson pressure control devices in liquid oxygen and liquid methane and liquid acquisition of methane, although these findings are still preliminary.

  15. An efficient optical fiber cable installation system using self-controlling cable pullers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takanobu; Mitsuke, Hitoshi; Enami, Makoto

    1986-11-01

    In this paper, an efficient cable installation system using self-controlling cable pullers is discussed. This system is based on a computer simulation carried out to identify the cable installation system most cost efficient for conduits. These simulation results indicate that a distributed cable pulling system with a pulling force of 200 kgf can reduce cable line construction (installation and jointing) costs below that of one-end cable pulling systems. Up until now, an optical fiber cable puller with a pulling force of 200 kgf has been employed in NTT's distributed cable pulling system. Now, a self-controlling puller is being developed to improve this present puller operation. This newly developed puller can control its own pulling force and speed as well as automatically adjust the clearance between its two rubber caterpillars which arises from differences in rope or cable diameters. Its additional features of smaller size and lighter weight make it possible to set up the puller in manholes more easily. Consequently, the distributed cable pulling system employing newly developed self-controlling pullers at present appears to be the most efficient system for installing optical fiber cables in conduits.

  16. A new multiconstraint method for determining the optimal cable stresses in cable-stayed bridges.

    PubMed

    Asgari, B; Osman, S A; Adnan, A

    2014-01-01

    Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM). The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method.

  17. Braided tubular superelastic cables provide improved spinal stability compared to multifilament sublaminar cables.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Jaëlle; Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Brailovski, Vladimir; Petit, Yvan

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the use of braided tubular superelastic cables, previously used for sternum closure following sternotomy, as sublaminar fixation method. It compares the biomechanical performance of spinal instrumentation fixation systems with regular sublaminar cables and proprietary superelastic cables. A hybrid experimental protocol was applied to six porcine L1-L4 spinal segments to compare multifilament sublaminar cables (Atlas, Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN) with proprietary superelastic cables. First, intact total range of motion was determined for all specimens using pure moment loading. Second, pure moments were imposed to the instrumented specimens until these intact total ranges of motion were reproduced. Compared to the intact specimens, the use of superelastic cables resulted in stiffer instrumented specimens than the use of multifilament cables for all the loading modes except axial torsion. Consequently, the superelastic cables limited the instrumented segments mobility more than the multifilament cables. Spinal instrumentation fixation systems using superelastic cables could be a good alternative to conventional sublaminar cables as it maintains a constant stabilization of the spine during loading.

  18. A New Multiconstraint Method for Determining the Optimal Cable Stresses in Cable-Stayed Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, B.; Osman, S. A.; Adnan, A.

    2014-01-01

    Cable-stayed bridges are one of the most popular types of long-span bridges. The structural behaviour of cable-stayed bridges is sensitive to the load distribution between the girder, pylons, and cables. The determination of pretensioning cable stresses is critical in the cable-stayed bridge design procedure. By finding the optimum stresses in cables, the load and moment distribution of the bridge can be improved. In recent years, different research works have studied iterative and modern methods to find optimum stresses of cables. However, most of the proposed methods have limitations in optimising the structural performance of cable-stayed bridges. This paper presents a multiconstraint optimisation method to specify the optimum cable forces in cable-stayed bridges. The proposed optimisation method produces less bending moments and stresses in the bridge members and requires shorter simulation time than other proposed methods. The results of comparative study show that the proposed method is more successful in restricting the deck and pylon displacements and providing uniform deck moment distribution than unit load method (ULM). The final design of cable-stayed bridges can be optimised considerably through proposed multiconstraint optimisation method. PMID:25050400

  19. Cable Technology: A Challenge for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palchinsky, Jo

    The penetration of cable television throughout American communities makes it a potentially significant tool for improving the quality and accessibility of adult education. As cities begin to include in the cable franchise allotment monies for access by community members, adult educators need to become actively involved during the development of a…

  20. Cable Television: A Method for Delivering Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This report presents the recommendations of a committee that was formed to explore the possibility of using cable television networks as a method of delivering extension education programs to urban audiences. After developing and testing a pilot project that used cable television as a mode to disseminate horticulture and 4-H leader training…

  1. 30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.45 Cable reels. (a) A self-propelled machine, that receives electrical energy through a portable..., hydraulically, or electrically driven reel upon which to wind the portable cable. (b) The enclosure for...

  2. Cable in the Classroom: Free and Easy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glantz, Shelley

    1998-01-01

    Cable in the Classroom (CIC) is a nonprofit service of the cable television industry, offering commercial-free programming with extended copyright clearance for educational use. This article discusses participating networks and program availability; using video in the classroom; curriculum guides and support materials; and other services offered…

  3. 76 FR 32866 - Cable Landing Licenses; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Systems Agency in the regulations that we published in the Federal Register of January 14, 2002, 67 FR... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Cable Landing Licenses; Correction AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... streamlined processing of cable landing license applications. Need for Correction As published, the...

  4. STS-98 cable and connector inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A KSC solid rocket booster worker inspects the reusable cables and connectors located inside the external tank attachment ring on the STS-98 left-hand solid rocket booster. Inspection and X- ray analysis of the ordnance-related cable connectors is required as part of an evaluation of their flight readiness before Space Shuttle Atlantis can rollout to Launch Pad 39A.

  5. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... other material used in the construction of such plant. Subsidiary record categories, as defined below... cable. This subsidiary record category shall include the original cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the transmission of telecommunications...

  6. Revisiting Cable TV in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Glen A.; Wenrich, John

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of cable television focuses on its use in the classroom. Topics include the learning environment; design, preparation, and delivery of instruction; teacher-learner interactions; examples of cable television use in the classroom; program development; equipment infrastructure; costs; and current trends and federal legislation. (LRW)

  7. 30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... constitute an integral part of a circuit for transmitting electrical energy. (d) Cable reels for shuttle cars... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.45 Cable reels. (a) A self-propelled machine, that receives electrical energy through a...

  8. Local Government Uses of Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    The local government cable access channel is essentially a television station completely controlled by the local government. It differs from a local broadcast television station by being able to reach only those places which are connected to the cable system, having much less programming distribution costs, and having the capacity to deliver…

  9. Electrically-Conductive Polyaramid Cable And Fabric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orban, Ralph F.

    1988-01-01

    Tows coated with metal provide strength and conductance. Cable suitable for use underwater made of electrically conductive tows of metal-coated polyaramid filaments surrounded by electrically insulating jacket. Conductive tows used to make conductive fabrics. Tension borne by metal-coated filaments, so upon release, entire cable springs back to nearly original length without damage.

  10. Cable Television; Takeoff Into Sustained Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quantum Science Corp., New York, NY.

    This comprehensive report, prepared by a national commercial information company, describes the current status (1972) of cable television in the United States. The report provides general historical and background information pertaining to the future growth of the industry, the national marketing outlook, the relationship between cable operators…

  11. 30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... constitute an integral part of a circuit for transmitting electrical energy. (d) Cable reels for shuttle cars... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.45 Cable reels. (a) A self-propelled machine, that receives electrical energy through a...

  12. 30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... constitute an integral part of a circuit for transmitting electrical energy. (d) Cable reels for shuttle cars... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.45 Cable reels. (a) A self-propelled machine, that receives electrical energy through a...

  13. 30 CFR 18.45 - Cable reels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... constitute an integral part of a circuit for transmitting electrical energy. (d) Cable reels for shuttle cars... MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.45 Cable reels. (a) A self-propelled machine, that receives electrical energy through a...

  14. The Social Effects of Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leland L.

    Cable television illustrates the problems that can arise in exploiting a promising new technology to meet social needs. Cable operators' marketing procedures have emphasized improvement of the quality of reception from local broadcasting stations, increased programming choice by introduction of distant signals, and introduction of special pay…

  15. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buried cable. 32.2423 Section 32.2423 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable....

  16. Cable Television: Its Urban Context and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warthman, Forrest

    Cable television's future in urban settings is discussed in the context of alternative media capable of serving similar markets with similar programing. In addition to cable television, other transmission networks such as the telephone network, radio and television broadcasting, microwave networks, domestic satellites, and recording media are…

  17. Arc tracking of cables for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D.; Frontzek, F. R.; Hanson, J.; Reher, H. J.; Judd, M. D.; Bryant, D.

    1995-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop a new test method that is suitable for the assessment of the resistance of aerospace cables to arc tracking for different specific environmental and network conditions of spacecrafts. This paper reports the purpose, test conditions, test specimen, test procedure, and test acceptance criteria of seven different (200-250 mm long) cables.

  18. 21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrode cable. 890.1175 Section 890.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable....

  19. 21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrode cable. 890.1175 Section 890.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable....

  20. 21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrode cable. 890.1175 Section 890.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable....

  1. 21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrode cable. 890.1175 Section 890.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable....

  2. 21 CFR 890.1175 - Electrode cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrode cable. 890.1175 Section 890.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1175 Electrode cable....

  3. Trace cable, locate faults with one instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, A. )

    1994-12-01

    One of the problems with cable-tracing instruments that use radio-frequency (RF) signals is that they tend to radiate to nontarget conductors belonging to other utilities, such as telecommunications, gas, and cable TV. False readings generated by these RF units put repair crews at risk of locating the wrong lines, marking them, digging them up and so damaging another company's facilities. Crews at Florida Power Light Co (FP L) now are using a microprocessor-controlled transmitter that energizes the target cable at about 7776 Hz. This tracing frequency energizes only the secondary cable, even when nontarget conductors are nearby. An above-ground receiver detects this signal and guides the operator along the cable path. The instrument, known as the SFL-2000, is sold by AVO International, Blue Bell, Pa. 3 figs.

  4. An Internal Coaxil Cable Seal System

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-23

    The invention is a seal system for a coaxial cable more specifically an internal seal system placed within the coaxial cable and its constituent components. A series of seal stacks including flexible rigid rings and elastomeric rings are placed on load bearing members within the coaxial cable. The current invention is adapted to seal the annular space between the coaxial cable and an electrical contact passing there through. The coaxial cable is disposed within drilling components to transmit electrical signals between drilling components within a drill string. During oil and gas exploration, a drill string can see a range of pressures and temperatures thus resulting in multiple combinations of temperature and pressure and increasing the difficulty of creating a robust seal for all combinations. The seal system can be used in a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

  5. Counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Yang, Li-Farn (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a counter-balanced, multiple cable construction crane. The apparatus for hoisting payloads comprises a crane having a lifting means, the lifting means comprising an end effector means and three suspension means or cables. One end of each cable attaches to a different winding means located on the lifting means, and the other end of each cable attaches to a different point on the end effector, such that the three cables have a theoretical point of convergence with this point corresponding to the center of mass of the payload. Three controls command rotation of the winding means to a predetermined position. Accordingly, the crane provides precise and autonomous positioning of the payload without human guidance. The crane further comprises a counter-balancing means. Two controls position the counter-balancing means to offset the overturning moment which arises during the lifting of heavy payloads.

  6. Vertical cable surveys deliver additional seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Texaco and a Norwegian seismic firm have patented a new system for deploying hydrophones on vertical cables for offshore surveys. The system was used in Texaco North Sea UK Ltd.`s Strathspey field during the summer. The new technique was introduced in the article, ``Peaceful use for war technology,`` published in Texaco UK`s Agenda monthly news magazine, October 1995. That article is summarized here. Using technology developed by the US Navy for antisubmarine warfare, the vertical-cable survey relies on hydrophones attached at regular intervals vertically along cables secured to the ocean floor and held taut by a buoy. The shooting vessel fires the airguns in a pattern over a large area on the surface, over and around the cables. The cables are then moved to a new location and the process is repeated, up to six times in the Strathspey application described here.

  7. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  8. Dynamic Characteristics of Pressure Build Up Tank for HTS Power Cable Refrigeration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongmin; Park, Heecheol; Kim, Seokho; Jang, Hyunman; Kim, Yanghun

    HTS power cables are cooled by the forced circulation of sub-cooled liquid nitrogen to remove heat loss and maintain a cryogenic temperature. The refrigeration systems used consist of cryocoolers, a pressure build-up tank, heat exchangers, and circulation pumps. Liquid nitrogen expands or shrinks according to the temperature variation inside the fixed volume of the refrigeration system and the cable cryostat. The system pressure also changes depending on the volume change of the liquid nitrogen. The pressure of the liquid nitrogen should be kept above a certain level to ensure its dielectric strength. In addition, the pressure should be kept below the allowable pressure level considering the mechanical strength of the refrigeration system. To enhance the pressure controllability, external heating and cooling should be possible in the pressure build-up tank. For the precise modeling of the pressure build-up tank, thermal stratification and axial thermal conduction are considered. An analysis of such a refrigeration system is performed using the commercial code 'Sinda/fluint', a comprehensive finite-difference, one-dimensional, lumped parameter tool. This paper presents the transient thermo-hydraulic characteristics and the design directions of an HTS cable refrigeration system according to a variable heat load including pressure build-up tank.

  9. Ground-Based Investigations with the Cryogenic Hydrogen Maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.; Mattison, Edward; Vessot, Robert F. C.

    2003-01-01

    The cryogenic hydrogen maser (CHM) developed at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) was designed to be functionally similar to SAO room temperature hydrogen masers with appropriate modifications made for operation at cryogenic temperatures. A schematic of the SAO CHM is shown in Figure 1, and a description of this device and its operation follows. A beam of molecular hydrogen is dissociated into atoms at room temperature. The resultant beam of atomic hydrogen is then cooled, magnetically state selected, and focused into a quartz storage bulb centered inside of a microwave cavity resonant with the hydrogen hyperfine transition at 1420 MHz. The quartz storage bulb is coated with a superfluid He-4 film, and both the bulb and cavity are maintained near 0.5 K. The maser signal is coupled out inductively and carried to room temperature via semi-rigid coaxial cable. After passing through a room temperature isolator and preamp, the maser signal is detected with a low-noise heterodyne receiver as used in the room temperature SAO hydrogen masers. The maser temperature is lowered to 0.5 K using a recirculating He-3 refrigerator. This refrigerator consists of several cooling stages: a liquid nitrogen stage at 77 K, a liquid 4He bath at 4.2 K, a pumped He-4 pot at approximately 1.7 K, and the pumped, recirculating He-3 stage at 0.5 K. The atomic hydrogen beam, state selector, storage bulb and cavity are all connected inside a single, maser vacuum chamber (MVC). This space is pumped out from below by a turbo pump. Above the MVC, an inlet to the space allows for the input of flowing superfluid 4He film. External to the MVC is a second, outer vacuum chamber (OVC), maintained for operation of the cryostat and also pumped by a turbo pump. Inside the OVC, there is radiation shielding at 77 K and 1.7 K.

  10. Dependence of DC HTS Cable Critical Current on the Temperature Distribution along the Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyatkin, Vladimir S.; Sun, Jian; Ivanov, Yury V.; Chikumoto, Noriko; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Shyshkin, Oleg; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    A temperature of the long HTS cable increases with the temperature of the liquid nitrogen flowing along the cable accumulating the heat load. Therefore, the critical current decreases along the cable and in the part of the cable near outlet becomes the minimum. The critical current of the long HTS cable is estimated by the voltage drop across the cable. The typical n-value of the voltage-current characteristic of the cable is about 10-20. The decreasing of the critical current near the outlet leads the increasing of local electrical losses and it causes consequently the increasing of the local temperature of liquid nitrogen. In spite of the fact, that average electrical field is enough low (E0 = 10-6V/cm) the local current can be higher than the critical one. Measurement of the critical current with criterion of average electrical field cannot provide the safe heat losses value in every part of the cable. In the present paper the local heat generation along the cable and the method for providing the safe local DC heat losses in the every part of the cable are discussed.

  11. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, Erich

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  12. Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    The Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System was tested with LH2 and LOX in a vacuum chamber to simulate space vacuum and the temperatures of low Earth orbit. Testing was successful and results validated the scaling study model that predicts active cooling reduces upper stage cryogenic propulsion mass for loiter periods greater than 2 weeks.

  13. Continuous-Reading Cryogen Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, F. E.; Fox, E.; Macumber, S.

    1984-01-01

    Two pressure transducers used in system for measuring amount of cryogenic liquid in tank. System provides continuous measurements accurate within 0.03 percent. Sensors determine pressure in liquid and vapor in tank. Microprocessor uses pressure difference to compute mass of cryogenic liquid in tank. New system allows continuous sensing; unaffected by localized variations in composition and density as are capacitance-sensing schemes.

  14. Neutron Detection with Cryogenics and Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    bell, Z.W.; Carpenter, D.A.; Cristy, S.S.; Lamberti, V.E.

    2005-03-10

    The common methods of neutron detection are reviewed with special attention paid to the application of cryogenics and semiconductors to the problem. The authors' work with LiF- and boron-based cryogenic instruments is described as well as the use of CdTe and HgI{sub 2} for direct detection of neutrons.

  15. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOEpatents

    Spear, Jonathan D

    2011-07-05

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  16. Low Mn alloy steel for cryogenic service

    DOEpatents

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Niikura, M.

    A ferritic cryogenic steel which has a relatively low (about 4 to 6%) manganese content and which has been made suitable for use at cryogenic temperatures by a thermal cycling treatment followed by a final tempering. The steel includes 4 to 6% manganese, 0.02 to 0.06% carbon, 0.1 to 0.4% molybdenum and 0 to 3% nickel.

  17. Self-Sealing Cryogenic Fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Lin Xiang; Chow, Wen Lung; Moslemian, Davood; Lin, Gary; Melton, Greg

    1994-01-01

    Self-sealing fitting for cryogenic tubes remains free of leakage from room temperature to liquid-helium temperature even at internal pressure as high as 2.7 MPa. Fitting comprises parts made of materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion to prevent leakage gaps from forming as temperature decreases. Consists of coupling nut, two flared tube ends, and flared O-ring spacer. Spacer contracts more than tube ends do as temperature decreases. This greater contraction seals tube ends more tightly, preventing leakage.

  18. Fiberglass supports for cryogenic tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Analysis, design, fabrication, and test activities were conducted to develop additional technology needed for application of filament-wound fiberglass struts to cryogenic flight tankage. It was conclusively verified that monocoque cylinder or ogive struts are optimum or near-optimum for the range of lengths and loads studied, that a higher strength-to-weight ratio can be achieved for fiberglass struts than for any metallic struts, and that integrally-wrapped metallic end fittings can be used to achieve axial load transfer without reliance on bond strength or mechanical fasteners.

  19. Residual contact restraints in cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretegny, J. F.; Demonicault, J. M.

    The use of residual stress measurements to evaluate the state of cryogenic turbomachines, whose surfaces are worn by the working conductions in dry contact, is addressed. Their contribution to the understanding of the reasons of possible ruptures is considered. It is stated that residual stress measurements should be used as a complementary tool rather than as input data for models. It is shown, thanks to two examples concerning the ball bearings and splines of the liquid hydrogen turbopump of the Vulcain engine, what can be expected from such techniques. Total exploitation of the results has still to be done, but preliminary results are quite encouraging.

  20. ISOCAM experiment cryogenic test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sa, L.; Collaudin, B.

    The thermal requirements for ISOCAM, an IR camera to be mounted aboard the ISO satellite, are reviewed, and model predictions are matched with test results. The degree of model validation suggested by analytical prediction vs test results is described. Predictions of thermal conduction through mounting screws, from ball bearings, and of the heat distribution in the rotor and stator of a cryogenic stepper motor correlate well with actual test results. It is shown that ISOCAM meets the thermal requirements necessary for successful on-orbit operation. The model predicted such phenomena as 'chopped' motor function and the twofold increase in temperature resulting from continuous motor operation.

  1. Time constants of flat superconducting cables

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, S.; Yamamoto, J.

    1997-06-01

    The frequency dependence of coupling losses is calculated for flat superconducting cables, including the electromagnetic coupling between different current loops on the cable. It is shown that there are two characteristic time constants for both parallel and transverse coupling losses. The values of these time constants {tau}{sub 0} and {tau}{sub 1} are calculated by introducing effective inductances for the current loops. In both cases, {tau}{sub 1} is considerably smaller than {tau}{sub 0}. As the most important methods of determining {tau}{sub 0} from AC losses - namely, the limiting slope of loss/cycle at zero frequency and the position of the maximum loss/cycle vs. frequency - estimate {tau}{sub 0} and {tau}{sub 1}, respectively, the results are important for practical measurements and evaluation of time constants from AC losses. At larger frequencies, the losses are more likely to those in normal conductors (skin effect). The calculation schemes can be applied to cables with closely wound strands (like the cable-in-conduit conductors), too. However, several other effects should be considered being different and/or more important with respect to other cable types (demagnetization factor of strands and cables, larger regions near the cable edges, smaller number of strands and subcables, etc.).

  2. Triad mode resonant interactions in suspended cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, TieDing; Kang, HouJun; Wang, LianHua; Zhao, YueYu

    2016-03-01

    A triad mode resonance, or three-wave resonance, is typical of dynamical systems with quadratic nonlinearities. Suspended cables are found to be rich in triad mode resonant dynamics. In this paper, modulation equations for cable's triad resonance are formulated by the multiple scale method. Dynamic conservative quantities, i.e., mode energy and Manley-Rowe relations, are then constructed. Equilibrium/dynamic solutions of the modulation equations are obtained, and full investigations into their stability and bifurcation characteristics are presented. Various bifurcation behaviors are detected in cable's triad resonant responses, such as saddle-node, Hopf, pitchfork and period-doubling bifurcations. Nonlinear behaviors, like jump and saturation phenomena, are also found in cable's responses. Based upon the bifurcation analysis, two interesting properties associated with activation of cable's triad resonance are also proposed, i.e., energy barrier and directional dependence. The first gives the critical amplitude of high-frequency mode to activate cable's triad resonance, and the second characterizes the degree of difficulty for activating cable's triad resonance in two opposite directions, i.e., with positive or negative internal detuning parameter.

  3. Self-healing cable for extreme environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, Dryver R. (Inventor); Tolmie, Bernard R. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Self-healing cable apparatus and methods disclosed. The self-healing cable has a central core surrounded by an adaptive cover that can extend over the entire length of the self-healing cable or just one or more portions of the self-healing cable. The adaptive cover includes an axially and/or radially compressible-expandable (C/E) foam layer that maintains its properties over a wide range of environmental conditions. A tape layer surrounds the C/E layer and is applied so that it surrounds and axially and/or radially compresses the C/E layer. When the self-healing cable is subjected to a damaging force that causes a breach in the outer jacket and the tape layer, the corresponding localized axially and/or radially compressed portion of the C/E foam layer expands into the breach to form a corresponding localized self-healed region. The self-healing cable is manufacturable with present-day commercial self-healing cable manufacturing tools.

  4. Tool for cutting insulation from electrical cables

    DOEpatents

    Harless, Charles E.; Taylor, Ward G.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an efficient hand tool for precisely slitting the sheath of insulation on an electrical cable--e.g., a cable two inches in diameter--in a manner facilitating subsequent peeling or stripping of the insulation. The tool includes a rigid frame which is slidably fitted on an end section of the cable. The frame carries a rigidly affixed handle and an opposed, elongated blade-and-handle assembly. The blade-and-handle assembly is pivotally supported by a bracket which is slidably mounted on the frame for movement toward and away from the cable, thus providing an adjustment for the depth of cut. The blade-and-handle assembly is mountable to the bracket in two pivotable positions. With the assembly mounted in the first position, the tool is turned about the cable to slit the insulation circumferentially. With the assembly mounted in the second position, the tool is drawn along the cable to slit the insulation axially. When cut both circumferentially and axially, the insulation can easily be peeled from the cable.

  5. Techniques for on-orbit cryogenic servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLee, C. H.; Barfknecht, P.; Breon, S.; Boyle, R.; DiPirro, M.; Francis, J.; Huynh, J.; Li, X.; McGuire, J.; Mustafi, S.; Tuttle, J.; Wegel, D.

    2014-11-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) has a renewed interest in on-orbit cryogen storage and transfer to support its mission to explore near-earth objects such as asteroids and comets. The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission (CPST-TDM), managed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and scheduled for launch in 2018, will demonstrate numerous key technologies applicable to a cryopropellant fuel depot. As an adjunct to the CPST-TDM work, experiments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) will support the development of techniques to manage and transfer cryogens on-orbit and expand these techniques as they may be applicable to servicing science missions using solid cryogens such as the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The results of several ground experiments are described, including autogenous pressurization used for transfer of liquid nitrogen and argon, characterization of the transfer and solidification of argon, and development of robotic tools for cryogen transfer.

  6. Numerical simulations of cryogenic cavitating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Hyeongjun; Min, Daeho; Kim, Chongam

    2015-12-01

    The present study deals with a numerical method for cryogenic cavitating flows. Recently, we have developed an accurate and efficient baseline numerical scheme for all-speed water-gas two-phase flows. By extending such progress, we modify the numerical dissipations to be properly scaled so that it does not show any deficiencies in low Mach number regions. For dealing with cryogenic two-phase flows, previous EOS-dependent shock discontinuity sensing term is replaced with a newly designed EOS-free one. To validate the proposed numerical method, cryogenic cavitating flows around hydrofoil are computed and the pressure and temperature depression effect in cryogenic cavitation are demonstrated. Compared with Hord's experimental data, computed results are turned out to be satisfactory. Afterwards, numerical simulations of flow around KARI turbopump inducer in liquid rocket are carried out under various flow conditions with water and cryogenic fluids, and the difference in inducer flow physics depending on the working fluids are examined.

  7. Conceptual design of a cryogenic test bench system for millimeter wavelength detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, S.; Ferrusca, D.; Ibarra-Medel, E.

    2014-07-01

    We present the design of a cryogenic system for testing different technologies of millimeter wavelength detectors. The proposed design is developed at the Astronomical Instrumentation Laboratory for Millimeter Wavelength at the National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, in México. The cryogenic system is integrated by a closed cycle pulse tube cooler with a 4 Kelvin 12 inches cold plate and a He-4/He-3 fridge and would be able to characterize KIDs (Kinetic Inductor Detectors), TES (Transition Edge Sensors) or semiconductor bolometers using a thermal link to a 250 mK stage. Readout electronics will be installed at the 4 Kelvin cold plate along with connectors and cables for the thermometry. In this paper we present a preliminary 3D model design which its main goal is to use efficiently the limited space in the cryostat with emphasis on the interchangeability for installing each time any of the three different detector technologies in the same cold plate; results for the thermal calculations and finite-element modeling are also shown. The system would allow, with some minor changes, to replace the He-4/He-3 fridge by a dilution fridge in order to reach temperatures about 100 mK to have more flexibility in the detector testing. The importance of the cryogenic test bench relies in the need for an easier and quicker characterization of detectors arrays as part of the research for the development of instruments for millimeter telescopes.

  8. Regulations; Office of Cable Television, State of New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Public Utilities, Trenton. Office of Cable Television.

    Regulations promulgated in accordance with the authority provided the Office of Cable Television, Board of Public Utility Commissioners, State of New Jersey, to regulate cable television in the public interest are set forth. These apply to cable television (CATV) companies which own, control, operate, or manage cable television systems and to…

  9. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600... cables; flame resistance. Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant cables....

  10. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600... cables; flame resistance. Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant cables....

  11. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600... cables; flame resistance. Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant cables....

  12. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600... cables; flame resistance. Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the requirements established by the Secretary for flame-resistant cables....

  13. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum cable conductor size. 111.60-4 Section 111.60-4...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-4 Minimum cable conductor size. Each cable conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must...

  14. 30 CFR 77.602 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent splicing of trailing cables. 77.602... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.602 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be: (a) Mechanically strong with adequate electrical conductivity;...

  15. 30 CFR 75.606 - Protection of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of trailing cables. 75.606 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.606 Protection of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be adequately protected to prevent damage by mobile equipment....

  16. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.600 Trailing cables; flame resistance. Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the requirements established...

  17. 30 CFR 75.604 - Permanent splicing of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permanent splicing of trailing cables. 75.604... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.604 Permanent splicing of trailing cables. When permanent splices in trailing cables are made, they shall be:...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12014 - Handling energized power cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Handling energized power cables. 57.12014... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12014 Handling energized power cables. Power cables energized to..., insulated from such equipment, are used. When such energized cables are moved manually, insulated...

  19. 46 CFR 111.81-3 - Cables entering boxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cables entering boxes. 111.81-3 Section 111.81-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Outlet Boxes and Junction Boxes § 111.81-3 Cables entering boxes. Each cable entering... through which a conductor enters must be closed. (b) Cable armor must be secured to the box or fitting....

  20. 30 CFR 57.12039 - Protection of surplus trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of surplus trailing cables. 57.12039... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12039 Protection of surplus trailing cables. Surplus trailing cables to shovels, cranes and similar equipment shall be— (a) Stored in cable boats; (b) Stored on...

  1. 30 CFR 77.604 - Protection of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of trailing cables. 77.604 Section 77.604 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... MINES Trailing Cables § 77.604 Protection of trailing cables. Trailing cables shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 18.40 - Cable clamps and grips.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable clamps and grips. 18.40 Section 18.40... Requirements § 18.40 Cable clamps and grips. Insulated clamps shall be provided for all portable (trailing) cables to prevent strain on the cable terminals of a machine. Also insulated clamps shall be provided...

  3. 30 CFR 75.602 - Trailing cable junctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cable junctions. 75.602 Section 75.602... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.602 Trailing cable junctions. When two or more trailing cables junction to the same distribution center, means shall be provided...

  4. 30 CFR 75.600-1 - Approved cables; flame resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved cables; flame resistance. 75.600-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.600-1 Approved cables; flame resistance. Cables shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame resistant....

  5. 30 CFR 77.505 - Cable fittings; suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cable fittings; suitability. 77.505 Section 77... Electrical Equipment-General § 77.505 Cable fittings; suitability. Cables shall enter metal frames of motors... cables, pass through metal frames, the holes shall be substantially bushed with insulated bushings....

  6. Possibilities and Limitations of Cable TV for Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, John A.

    The paper investigates various organizational models of cable TV ownership and control, legislation in Canada and the United States regarding cable systems, and the potential of cable as an information network for adult education. With a view to giving everyone access to the cable medium and an opportunity to participate, advantages and…

  7. 30 CFR 18.35 - Portable (trailing) cables and cords.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conductor of a current-carrying capacity consistent with the Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association... a portable (trailing) cable shall not exceed 500 feet. Where the method of mining requires the length of a portable (trailing) cable to be more than 500 feet, such length of cable shall be...

  8. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Minimum cable conductor size. 111.60-4 Section 111.60-4...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-4 Minimum cable conductor size. Each cable conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must...

  9. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum cable conductor size. 111.60-4 Section 111.60-4...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-4 Minimum cable conductor size. Each cable conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must...

  10. New-type cable accessories for power distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjo, K.; Kawano, K.; Shiraoka, K.; Yasuda, N.; Yatsuka, K.

    1982-12-01

    This paper describes new types of cable accessories for improving the reliability of power distribution cable systems. The practical development of a 25kV-class cable termination, and a waterproof sleeve for cable joints based on heat-shrinkable components made of irradiated polyolefine is discussed. Furthermore, the theoretical and practical data are given.

  11. BSCCO-2212 Wire and Cable Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Kikuchi, A.; Lamm, M.; Rusy, A.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2008-03-01

    BSCCO-2212 round wires are being studied at Fermilab for possible use in accelerator magnets. Several billets were produced by OST with various fill factors in a diameter range between 0.7 mm and 1 mm. To allow for cabling the strands, a modified process was implemented as opposed to the regular process with oxygen anneal. Rutherford-type cables were fabricated and the performance of extracted strands was compared with that of virgin samples. Cables were also tested using a superconducting transformer.

  12. Cable-catenary large antenna concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akle, W.

    1985-04-01

    Deployable to very large diameters (over 1000 ft), while still remaining compatible with a complete satellite system launch by STS, the cable-catenary antenna comprises: 8 radial deployable boom masts; a deployable hub and feed support center mast; balanced front and back, radial and circumferential catenary cabling for highly accurate (mm) surface control; no interfering cabling in the antenna field; and an RF reflecting mesh supported on the front catenaries. Illustrations show the antenna-satellite system deployed and stowed configurations; the antenna deployment sequence; the design analysis logic; the sizing analysis output, and typical parametric design data.

  13. Simulations of Cavitating Cryogenic Inducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations of cavitating turbopump inducers at their design flow rate are presented. Results over a broad range of Nss, numbers extending from single-phase flow conditions through the critical head break down point are discussed. The flow characteristics and performance of a subscale geometry designed for water testing are compared with the fullscale configuration that employs LOX. In particular, thermal depression effects arising from cavitation in cryogenic fluids are identified and their impact on the suction performance of the inducer quantified. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD[R] code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework suitable for turbomachinery applications. An advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids that models temperature depression and real fluid property variations is employed. The formulation has been extensively validated for both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen by simulating the experiments of Hord on hydrofoils; excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable.

  14. CRYOTE (Cryogenic Orbital Testbed) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravlee, Mari; Kutter, Bernard; Wollen, Mark; Rhys, Noah; Walls, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Demonstrating cryo-fluid management (CFM) technologies in space is critical for advances in long duration space missions. Current space-based cryogenic propulsion is viable for hours, not the weeks to years needed by space exploration and space science. CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed (CRYOTE) provides an affordable low-risk environment to demonstrate a broad array of critical CFM technologies that cannot be tested in Earth's gravity. These technologies include system chilldown, transfer, handling, health management, mixing, pressure control, active cooling, and long-term storage. United Launch Alliance is partnering with Innovative Engineering Solutions, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and others to develop CRYOTE to fly as an auxiliary payload between the primary payload and the Centaur upper stage on an Atlas V rocket. Because satellites are expensive, the space industry is largely risk averse to incorporating unproven systems or conducting experiments using flight hardware that is supporting a primary mission. To minimize launch risk, the CRYOTE system will only activate after the primary payload is separated from the rocket. Flying the testbed as an auxiliary payload utilizes Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle performance excess to cost-effectively demonstrate enhanced CFM.

  15. Cryogenic Capillary Screen Heat Entrapment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshinskiy, L.G.; Hastings, L.J.; Stathman, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cryogenic liquid acquisition devices (LADs) for space-based propulsion interface directly with the feed system, which can be a significant heat leak source. Further, the accumulation of thermal energy within LAD channels can lead to the loss of sub-cooled propellant conditions and result in feed system cavitation during propellant outflow. Therefore, the fundamental question addressed by this program was: "To what degree is natural convection in a cryogenic liquid constrained by the capillary screen meshes envisioned for LADs.?"Testing was first conducted with water as the test fluid, followed by LN2 tests. In either case, the basic experimental approach was to heat the bottom of a cylindrical column of test fluid to establish stratification patterns measured by temperature sensors located above and below a horizontal screen barrier position. Experimentation was performed without barriers, with screens, and with a solid barrier. The two screen meshes tested were those typically used by LAD designers, "200x1400" and "325x2300", both with Twill Dutch Weave. Upon consideration of both the water and LN2 data it was concluded that heat transfer across the screen meshes was dependent upon barrier thermal conductivity and that the capillary screen meshes were impervious to natural convection currents.

  16. Cryogenics for HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavian, L.; Brodzinski, K.; Claudet, S.; Ferlin, G.; Wagner, U.; van Weelderen, R.

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at CERN in 2012 is the start of a major program of work to measure this particle's properties with the highest possible precision for testing the validity of the Standard Model and to search for further new physics at the energy frontier. The LHC is in a unique position to pursue this program. Europe's top priority is the exploitation of the full potential of the LHC, including the high-luminosity upgrade of the machine and detectors with an objective to collect ten times more data than in the initial design, by around 2030. To reach this objective, the LHC cryogenic system must be upgraded to withstand higher beam current and higher luminosity at top energy while keeping the same operation availability by improving the collimation system and the protection of electronics sensitive to radiation. This chapter will present the conceptual design of the cryogenic system upgrade with recent updates in performance requirements, the corresponding layout and architecture of the system as well as the main technical challenges which have to be met in the coming years.

  17. Models for cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, Pierce L.

    1989-01-01

    Model requirements, types of model construction methods, and research in new ways to build models are discussed. The 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel was in operation for 16 years and many 2-D airfoil pressure models were tested. In addition there were airfoil models dedicated to transition detection techniques and other specialized research. There were also a number of small 3-D models tested. A chronological development in model building technique is described which led to the construction of many successful models. The difficulties of construction are illustrated by discussing several unsuccessful model fabrication attempts. The National Transonic Facility, a newer and much larger tunnel, was used to test a variety of models including a submarine, transport and fighter configurations, and the Shuttle Orbiter. A new method of building pressure models was developed and is described. The method is centered on the concept of bonding together plates with pressure channels etched into the bond planes, which provides high density pressure instrumentation with minimum demand on parent model material. With care in the choice of materials and technique, vacuum brazing can be used to produce strong bonds without blocking pressure channels and with no bonding voids between channels. Using multiple plates, a 5 percent wing with 96 orifices was constructed and tested in a transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Samples of test data are presented and future applications of the technology are suggested.

  18. Shadowgraphy of transcritical cryogenic fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. D.; Talley, D. G.; Anderson, T. J.; Winter, M.

    1994-01-01

    The future of liquid-rocket propulsion depends heavily on continued development of high pressure liquid oxygen/hydrogen systems that operate near or above the propellant critical states; however, current understanding of transcritical/supercritical injection and combustion is yet lacking. The Phillips Laboratory and the United Technologies Research Center are involved in a collaborative effort to develop diagnostics for and make detailed measurements of transcritical droplet vaporization and combustion. The present shadowgraph study of transcritical cryogenic fluids is aimed at providing insight into the behavior of liquid oxygen or cryogenic stimulants as they are injected into a supercritical environment of the same or other fluids. A detailed history of transcritical injection of liquid nitrogen into gaseous nitrogen at reduced pressures of 0.63 (subcritical) to 1.05 (supercritical) is provided. Also, critical point enhancement due to gas phase solubility and mixture effects is investigated by adding helium to the nitrogen system, which causes a distinct liquid phase to re-appear at supercritical nitrogen pressures. Liquid oxygen injection into supercritical argon or nitrogen, however, does not indicate an increase in the effective critical pressure of the system.

  19. The cryogenic storage ring CSR.

    PubMed

    von Hahn, R; Becker, A; Berg, F; Blaum, K; Breitenfeldt, C; Fadil, H; Fellenberger, F; Froese, M; George, S; Göck, J; Grieser, M; Grussie, F; Guerin, E A; Heber, O; Herwig, P; Karthein, J; Krantz, C; Kreckel, H; Lange, M; Laux, F; Lohmann, S; Menk, S; Meyer, C; Mishra, P M; Novotný, O; O'Connor, A P; Orlov, D A; Rappaport, M L; Repnow, R; Saurabh, S; Schippers, S; Schröter, C D; Schwalm, D; Schweikhard, L; Sieber, T; Shornikov, A; Spruck, K; Sunil Kumar, S; Ullrich, J; Urbain, X; Vogel, S; Wilhelm, P; Wolf, A; Zajfman, D

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm(-3) is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10(-14) mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams.

  20. The cryogenic storage ring CSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hahn, R.; Becker, A.; Berg, F.; Blaum, K.; Breitenfeldt, C.; Fadil, H.; Fellenberger, F.; Froese, M.; George, S.; Göck, J.; Grieser, M.; Grussie, F.; Guerin, E. A.; Heber, O.; Herwig, P.; Karthein, J.; Krantz, C.; Kreckel, H.; Lange, M.; Laux, F.; Lohmann, S.; Menk, S.; Meyer, C.; Mishra, P. M.; Novotný, O.; O'Connor, A. P.; Orlov, D. A.; Rappaport, M. L.; Repnow, R.; Saurabh, S.; Schippers, S.; Schröter, C. D.; Schwalm, D.; Schweikhard, L.; Sieber, T.; Shornikov, A.; Spruck, K.; Sunil Kumar, S.; Ullrich, J.; Urbain, X.; Vogel, S.; Wilhelm, P.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm-3 is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10-14 mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams.

  1. A new cryogenic diode thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, S. S.; Swinehart, P. R.; Yeager, C. J.

    2002-05-01

    While the introduction of yet another cryogenic diode thermometer is not earth shattering, a new diode thermometer, the DT-600 series, recently introduced by Lake Shore Cryotronics, possesses three features that make it unique among commercial diode thermometers. First, these diodes have been probed at the chip level, allowing for the availability of a bare chip thermometer matching a standard curve-an important feature in situations where real estate is at a premium (IR detectors), or where in-situ calibration is difficult. Second, the thermometry industry has assumed that interchangeability should be best at low temperatures. Thus, good interchangeability at room temperatures implies a very good interchangeability at cryogenic temperature, resulting in a premium priced sensor. The DT-600 series diode thermometer is available in an interchangeability band comparable to platinum RTDs with the added advantage of interchangeability to 2 K. Third, and most important, the DT-600 series diode does not exhibit an instability in the I-V characteristic in the 8 K to 20 K temperature range that is observed in other commercial diode thermometer devices [1]. This paper presents performance characteristics for the DT-600 series diode thermometer along with a comparison of I-V curves for this device and other commercial diode thermometers exhibiting an I-V instability.

  2. The cryogenic storage ring CSR.

    PubMed

    von Hahn, R; Becker, A; Berg, F; Blaum, K; Breitenfeldt, C; Fadil, H; Fellenberger, F; Froese, M; George, S; Göck, J; Grieser, M; Grussie, F; Guerin, E A; Heber, O; Herwig, P; Karthein, J; Krantz, C; Kreckel, H; Lange, M; Laux, F; Lohmann, S; Menk, S; Meyer, C; Mishra, P M; Novotný, O; O'Connor, A P; Orlov, D A; Rappaport, M L; Repnow, R; Saurabh, S; Schippers, S; Schröter, C D; Schwalm, D; Schweikhard, L; Sieber, T; Shornikov, A; Spruck, K; Sunil Kumar, S; Ullrich, J; Urbain, X; Vogel, S; Wilhelm, P; Wolf, A; Zajfman, D

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm(-3) is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10(-14) mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams. PMID:27370434

  3. 65. CALIFORNIA STREET CABLE RAILWAY WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. CALIFORNIA STREET CABLE RAILWAY - WINDING MACHINERY: Photocopy of February 1955 photograph showing the winding machinery of the California Street Cable Railroad. The two suspended sheaves on the right of the photograph bore down on the cable as it left the winders, supplying tension to the cable and eliminating the need for a long tension run. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. Accelerated cable life testing of EPR-insulated medium voltage distribution cables

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, M.D. ); Bernstein, B.S. ); Smith, J.T. III ); Thue, W.A. , Stuart, FL ); Groeger, J.H. )

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents results aimed at developing a reliable accelerated aging tank test for EPR-insulated cables. Aging was performed at 2 to 4 times rated voltage on load cycling to temperatures of 45 C, 60 C, 75 C, and 90 C at the conductor with water in the conductor strands and outside the cable. Results show that cable failure is more rapid at the highest electrical stress and lowest conductor load cycle temperature. Cables aged at higher temperatures and various levels of electrical stress rarely failed and retained in excess of 40% of their original breakdown strength after 1,500+ days of aging. Aging performed at 90 C load cycle temperature and 4 times rated voltage with air on the outside and water at the conductor of the cable showed more rapid loss of life than with water outside. Results indicate the optimum aging conditions for EPR-insulated cables in the accelerated cable life test (ACLT) differ significantly from those previously observed for XLPE-insulated cables, and that the appropriate test methodology for EPR-insulated cables requires additional study.

  5. Condition Monitoring of Cables Task 3 Report: Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables

    SciTech Connect

    Villaran, M.; Lofaro, R.; na

    2009-11-30

    For more than 20 years the NRC has sponsored research studying electric cable aging degradation, condition monitoring, and environmental qualification testing practices for electric cables used in nuclear power plants. This report summarizes several of the most effective and commonly used condition monitoring techniques available to detect damage and measure the extent of degradation in electric cable insulation. The technical basis for each technique is summarized, along with its application, trendability of test data, ease of performing the technique, advantages and limitations, and the usefulness of the test results to characterize and assess the condition of electric cables.

  6. 49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... not be installed on any cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid unless the parts are... installed on any cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid or any flammable cryogenic liquid. (6) A cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid must be provided with a manhole (see §...

  7. 49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... not be installed on any cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid unless the parts are... installed on any cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid or any flammable cryogenic liquid. (6) A cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid must be provided with a manhole (see §...

  8. 49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... not be installed on any cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid unless the parts are... installed on any cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid or any flammable cryogenic liquid. (6) A cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid must be provided with a manhole (see §...

  9. System for effecting underwater coupling of optical fiber cables characterized by a novel V-probe cable capture mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillenbrand, Christopher F.; Barron, Thomas D.; Nugent, David M.

    1995-03-01

    A submarine trails one fiber optic cable and an undersea vehicle is controlled by this first cable. A missile/torpedo trails a second cable that is to be coupled to the first cable. The second cable has a segment suspended vertically underwater between a buoyant pod and a sea anchor type buoy. The undersea vehicle, or Autonomous Undersea Vehicle, (AUV) hunts for the pod by conventional homing means. A forked cable pickup device in the nose of the AUV captures the suspended cable segment directing it into a slot so a male socket in the underside of the pod mates with a female socket in the slot.

  10. Cable TV--And Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchese, Lamar

    1971-01-01

    The transformation now occurring in the cable TV industry from program conveyance to program production provides adult educators with the opportunity to help form the instrument that in years to come will help form them. (Author/EB)

  11. The manufacture of flat conductor cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1974-01-01

    The major techniques are described for fabricating flat conductor cable (FCC). Various types of FCC, including unshielded, shielded, power, and signal, in both existing and conceptual constructions, are covered.

  12. Cable Belt Conveyors in mine haulage

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.E.

    1983-06-01

    The Cable Belt is not a conveyor in the conventional sense, but rather a continuous bulk handling system. It is custom built for the application. It may come as a surprise to some people to learn that the Cable Belt system is not new, having been invented in the requirements at that time for long-haul, high-lift, single-flight, heavy duty applications, primarily in the coal mining industry. In those days, belt conveyors of 200 HP were regarded as heavy duty units; it was therefore inevitable that, as mining progressed into the next decade and the demand for minerals increased, technology also had to keep pace to fulfill the industries' needs. With the simplicity of the Cable Belt design, this was achieved, a position which today is maintained by Cable Belt as leaders in long-distance, single-flight, single-drive conveyor applications.

  13. Causes of Cracking of Ignition Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silsbee, F B

    1921-01-01

    The experiments described here show that the cracking at sharp bends, observed in the insulation of internal combustion engine high tension ignition wires after service, is due to a chemical attack upon the rubber by the ozone produced by the electric discharge that takes place at the surface of the cable. This cracking does not occur if the insulating material is not under tension, or if the cable is surrounded by some medium other than air. But it does occur even if the insulation is not subjected to electric stress, provided that the atmosphere near the cable contains ozone. The extent of this cracking varies greatly with the insulating material used. The cracking can be materially reduced by using braided cable and by avoiding sharp bends.

  14. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the... constructing a physical path for the transmission of telecommunications signals. (b) The cost of permits...

  15. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the... constructing a physical path for the transmission of telecommunications signals. (b) The cost of permits...

  16. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... associated material used in constructing a physical path for the transmission of telecommunications signals... paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for...

  17. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... associated material used in constructing a physical path for the transmission of telecommunications signals... paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for...

  18. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the... constructing a physical path for the transmission of telecommunications signals. (b) The cost of permits...

  19. 47 CFR 32.2421 - Aerial cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cost of optical fiber cable and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the... constructing a physical path for the transmission of telecommunications signals. (b) The cost of permits...

  20. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... associated material used in constructing a physical path for the transmission of telecommunications signals... paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for...

  1. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... associated material used in constructing a physical path for the transmission of telecommunications signals... paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in constructing a physical path for...

  2. Databases for analysis of superconducting cable manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Bardos, V.A.; Coleman, E.S.; Erdmann, M.J.; Jones, B.A.; Kozman, K.S.; Little, D.J.; Seuntjens, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    Starting in September 1991, eight cable vendors began fabricating approximately 10,000 kg each of Inner or Outer superconducting cable for the Superconducting Super Collider`s (SSC) cable Vendor Qualification Program (VQP). This program, designed to identify vendor`s for competition for the supplying of superconducting cable for the manufacture of SSC magnet systems, will conclude in June, 1993. The conductor database was developed as an integral part of the VQP in order to analyze the origins of variation within the conductor fabrication processes, and develop and implement control procedures to minimize such variations. In addition, the database development effort will provide a direct link to the MAGCOM database system being implemented by the Test and Data Management Department of the Magnet Systems Division of the SSCL.

  3. Databases for analysis of superconducting cable manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Bardos, V.A.; Coleman, E.S.; Erdmann, M.J.; Jones, B.A.; Kozman, K.S.; Little, D.J.; Seuntjens, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    Starting in September 1991, eight cable vendors began fabricating approximately 10,000 kg each of Inner or Outer superconducting cable for the Superconducting Super Collider's (SSC) cable Vendor Qualification Program (VQP). This program, designed to identify vendor's for competition for the supplying of superconducting cable for the manufacture of SSC magnet systems, will conclude in June, 1993. The conductor database was developed as an integral part of the VQP in order to analyze the origins of variation within the conductor fabrication processes, and develop and implement control procedures to minimize such variations. In addition, the database development effort will provide a direct link to the MAGCOM database system being implemented by the Test and Data Management Department of the Magnet Systems Division of the SSCL.

  4. Ecology: Electrical Cable Bacteria Save Marine Life.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2016-01-11

    Animals at the bottom of the sea survive oxygen depletion surprisingly often, and a new study identifies cable bacteria in the sediment as the saviors. The bacterial electrical activity creates an iron 'carpet', trapping toxic hydrogen sulfide.

  5. Improved 60 Hz superconducting power transmission cable

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, G.H.; Schauer, F.; Thomas, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The third in a series of 10 m, Nb/sub 3/Sn cables for ac power transmission has been installed in a horizontal, refrigerated cryostat. Like the two previous ones, this coaxial cable has its ends rigidly fixed so that it cannot contract axially on cooldown, and has two layers of superconducting helices and two layers of high purity aluminum helices for stabilization in each conductor. It differs from the previous one in having thicker electrical insulation (7.4 mm vs 3.6 mm), in having increased contact resistance between the superconducting layers to reduce ac loss, and in being driven by an external supply through horizontal, coaxial, vapor-cooled current leads. This is the final short cable prior to construction late this year of a 100 m cable which will be tested with high voltage and high current simultaneously. Results of current tests are presented, including ac loss at various temperatures and recovery from thermally induced quenches.

  6. Throttling Cryogen Boiloff To Control Cryostat Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    An improved design has been proposed for a cryostat of a type that maintains a desired low temperature mainly through boiloff of a liquid cryogen (e.g., liquid nitrogen) at atmospheric pressure. (A cryostat that maintains a low temperature mainly through boiloff of a cryogen at atmospheric pressure is said to be of the pour/fill Dewar-flask type because its main component is a Dewar flask, the top of which is kept open to the atmosphere so that the liquid cryogen can boil at atmospheric pressure and cryogenic liquid can be added by simply pouring it in.) The major distinguishing feature of the proposed design is control of temperature and cooling rate through control of the flow of cryogen vapor from a heat exchanger. At a cost of a modest increase in complexity, a cryostat according to the proposal would retain most of the compactness of prior, simpler pour/fill Dewar-flask cryostats, but would utilize cryogen more efficiently (intervals between cryogen refills could be longer).

  7. Ceramic Fiber Structures for Cryogenic Load-Bearing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Eckel, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This invention is intended for use as a load-bearing device under cryogenic temperatures and/or abrasive conditions (i.e., during missions to the Moon). The innovation consists of small-diameter, ceramic fibers that are woven or braided into devices like ropes, belts, tracks, or cables. The fibers can be formed from a variety of ceramic materials like silicon carbide, carbon, aluminosilicate, or aluminum oxide. The fiber architecture of the weave or braid is determined by both the fiber properties and the mechanical requirements of the application. A variety of weave or braid architectures is possible for this application. Thickness of load-bearing devices can be achieved by using either a 3D woven structure, or a layered, 2D structure. For the prototype device, a belt approximately 0.10 in. (0.25 cm) thick, and 3.0 in. (7.6 cm) wide was formed by layering and stitching a 2D aluminosilicate fiber weave.

  8. A Cable-Shaped Lithium Sulfur Battery.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin; Weng, Wei; Ren, Jing; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-01-20

    A carbon nanostructured hybrid fiber is developed by integrating mesoporous carbon and graphene oxide into aligned carbon nanotubes. This hybrid fiber is used as a 1D cathode to fabricate a new cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery. The fiber cathode exhibits a decent specific capacity and lifespan, which makes the cable-shaped lithium-sulfur battery rank far ahead of other fiber-shaped batteries.

  9. Hybrid Composite Cryogenic Tank Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid lightweight composite tank has been created using specially designed materials and manufacturing processes. The tank is produced by using a hybrid structure consisting of at least two reinforced composite material systems. The inner composite layer comprises a distinct fiber and resin matrix suitable for cryogenic use that is a braided-sleeve (and/or a filamentwound layer) aramid fiber preform that is placed on a removable mandrel (outfitted with metallic end fittings) and is infused (vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded) with a polyurethane resin matrix with a high ductility at low temperatures. This inner layer is allowed to cure and is encapsulated with a filamentwound outer composite layer of a distinct fiber resin system. Both inner and outer layer are in intimate contact, and can also be cured at the same time. The outer layer is a material that performs well for low temperature pressure vessels, and it can rely on the inner layer to act as a liner to contain the fluids. The outer layer can be a variety of materials, but the best embodiment may be the use of a continuous tow of carbon fiber (T-1000 carbon, or others), or other high-strength fibers combined with a high ductility epoxy resin matrix, or a polyurethane matrix, which performs well at low temperatures. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the outer layer. While the hybrid structure is not limited to two particular materials, a preferred version of the tank has been demonstrated on an actual test tank article cycled at high pressures with liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, and the best version is an inner layer of PBO (poly-pphenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibers with a polyurethane matrix and an outer layer of T-1000 carbon with a high elongation epoxy matrix suitable for cryogenic temperatures. A polyurethane matrix has also been used for the outer layer. The construction method is ideal because the fiber and resin of the inner layer has a high strain to failure at cryogenic

  10. Two-way cable television system characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, Paul T.

    1995-11-01

    This presentation is a report of the testing activities of the CableLabs Network Integrity Working Group. The working group consisted of several CableLabs member companies which conducted rf analog and digital bit-error testing at five CATV networks in the U.S. and Canada. The purpose of the working group was to measure the reliability and availability of the contemporary CATV network as specified by traditional switched access telephony performance parameters. Transmission data was collected for both forward and reverse (sub- split) paths of the rf broadband network, in both traditional and hybrid fiber/coax architectures, and for baseline and controlled variation events. The basic premise of this testing was to ascertain which cable television network elements adversely affected transmission of a 'generic' digital communications system and how they can be managed or controlled. The digital transmission utilized in the test was a QPSK modulated, T-1 rate (1.544 Mbit/second), modem without error correction. The intent was not to derive the necessary modulation technique and error correction scheme to properly operate in every cable television system, but rather to determine the principal sources of impairments existing in these networks and deduce corrective measures. The full report of the Network Integrity Working Group is published by CableLabs, Inc., and is titled, 'Two-Way Cable Television System Characterization -- Final Report', April 1995.

  11. Coaxial Cables for Martian Extreme Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Harvey, Wayne L.; Valas, Sam; Tsai, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Work was conducted to validate the use of the rover external flexible coaxial cabling for space under the extreme environments to be encountered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The antennas must survive all ground operations plus the nominal 670-Martian-day mission that includes summer and winter seasons of the Mars environment. Successful development of processes established coaxial cable hardware fatigue limits, which were well beyond the expected in-flight exposures. In keeping with traditional qualification philosophy, this was accomplished by subjecting flight-representative coaxial cables to temperature cycling of the same depth as expected in-flight, but for three times the expected number of in-flight thermal cycles. Insertion loss and return loss tests were performed on the coaxial cables during the thermal chamber breaks. A vector network analyzer was calibrated and operated over the operational frequency range 7.145 to 8.450 GHz. Even though some of the exposed cables function only at UHF frequencies (approximately 400 MHz), the testing was more sensitive, and extending the test range down to 400 MHz would have cost frequency resolution. The Gore flexible coaxial cables, which were the subject of these tests, proved to be robust and displayed no sign of degradation due to the 3X exposure to the punishing Mars surface operations cycles.

  12. Noise performance of magneto-inductive cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltshire, M. C. K.; Syms, R. R. A.

    2014-07-01

    Magneto-inductive (MI) waveguides are metamaterial structures based on periodic arrangements of inductively coupled resonant magnetic elements. They are of interest for power transfer, communications and sensing, and can be realised in a flexible cable format. Signal-to-noise ratio is extremely important in applications involving signals. Here, we present the first experimental measurements of the noise performance of metamaterial cables. We focus on an application involving radiofrequency signal transmission in internal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where the subdivision of the metamaterial cable provides intrinsic patient safety. We consider MI cables suitable for use at 300 MHz during 1H MRI at 7 T, and find noise figures of 2.3-2.8 dB/m, together with losses of 3.0-3.9 dB/m, in good agreement with model calculations. These values are high compared to conventional cables, but become acceptable when (as here) the environment precludes the use of continuous conductors. To understand this behaviour, we present arguments for the fundamental performance limitations of these cables.

  13. Terrain-based routing of distribution cables

    SciTech Connect

    West, N.A.; Dwolatzky, B.; Meyer, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Specifying the actual layout of all overhead lines and underground cables is one of the key tasks to be carried out in the design of electrical distribution networks. Voltage drop and other network calculations can be performed only after the length of each cable segment is determined. Although automatic cable routers are currently available, they are mainly for formally planned urban areas. These routers are not always appropriate for use in designing rural distribution networks, because they fail to account for some of the special circumstances found in rural areas. A more practical approach bases automatic cable routing on the terrain of a given area rather than on the layout of roads. The automatic Distribution Network Router (DNR) finds the least-cost path (not merely the shortest one) connecting two nodes. This article briefly discusses methods currently used to determine cable routes for distribution networks, the unsuitability of these methods for routing cables in rural and informal urban areas, the proposed approach that relies on dividing the terrain into cost regions, and the benefits gained in its application. Emphasis is on the practical application of the new approach.

  14. Noise performance of magneto-inductive cables

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, M. C. K. Syms, R. R. A.

    2014-07-21

    Magneto-inductive (MI) waveguides are metamaterial structures based on periodic arrangements of inductively coupled resonant magnetic elements. They are of interest for power transfer, communications and sensing, and can be realised in a flexible cable format. Signal-to-noise ratio is extremely important in applications involving signals. Here, we present the first experimental measurements of the noise performance of metamaterial cables. We focus on an application involving radiofrequency signal transmission in internal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where the subdivision of the metamaterial cable provides intrinsic patient safety. We consider MI cables suitable for use at 300 MHz during {sup 1}H MRI at 7 T, and find noise figures of 2.3–2.8 dB/m, together with losses of 3.0–3.9 dB/m, in good agreement with model calculations. These values are high compared to conventional cables, but become acceptable when (as here) the environment precludes the use of continuous conductors. To understand this behaviour, we present arguments for the fundamental performance limitations of these cables.

  15. Structural damping studies at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Buehrle, Ralph D.

    1994-01-01

    Results of an engineering study to measure changes in structural damping properties of two cryogenic wind tunnel model systems and two metallic test specimens at cryogenic temperatures are presented. Data are presented which indicate overall, a trend toward reduced structural damping at cryogenic temperatures (-250 degrees F) when compared with room temperature damping properties. The study was focused on structures and materials used for model systems tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The study suggests that the significant reductions in damping at extremely cold temperatures are most likely associated with changes in mechanical joint compliance damping rather than changes in material (solid) damping.

  16. Cryogenic denervation of the intermetatarsal space neuroma.

    PubMed

    Hodor, L; Barkal, K; Hatch-Fox, L D

    1997-01-01

    Cryoanalgesia is commonly used by pain management specialists to alleviate painful nerve disorders of the back, face, and thoracic region. While cryogenic denervation results in pain relief, there is little to no incidence of neuritis or amputation-neuroma formation. The authors have used the Neurostat unit (Westco Medical Corporation), which was designed for cryogenic denervation of sensory and motor nerves, in the treatment of the intermetatarsal space neuroma. The authors present an overview of cryoanalgesic therapy, including a discussion of history, mechanism of action, indications, and description of the apparatus. The authors submit a case study of cryogenic denervation of the third intermetatarsal space.

  17. Nanosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser

    SciTech Connect

    Perevezentsev, E A; Mukhin, I B; Kuznetsov, I I; Vadimova, O L; Palashov, O V

    2014-05-30

    A cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser is modernised to increase its average and peak power. The master oscillator unit of the laser is considerably modified so that the pulse duration decreases to several nanoseconds with the same pulse energy. A cryogenic disk laser head with a flow-through cooling system is developed. Based on two such laser heads, a new main amplifier is assembled according to an active multipass cell scheme. The total small-signal gain of cryogenic cascades is ∼10{sup 8}. (lasers)

  18. Other cryogenic wind-tunnel projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Following the development of the cryogenic wind tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center in 1972, a large number of cryogenic wind-tunnel projects have been undertaken at various research establishments around the world. Described in this lecture are cryogenic wind-tunnel projects in China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center), England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, Royal Aircraft Establishment - Bedford, and University of Southampton), Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy), Sweden (Rollab), and the United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and NASA Langley).

  19. Cryogenic denervation of the intermetatarsal space neuroma.

    PubMed

    Hodor, L; Barkal, K; Hatch-Fox, L D

    1997-01-01

    Cryoanalgesia is commonly used by pain management specialists to alleviate painful nerve disorders of the back, face, and thoracic region. While cryogenic denervation results in pain relief, there is little to no incidence of neuritis or amputation-neuroma formation. The authors have used the Neurostat unit (Westco Medical Corporation), which was designed for cryogenic denervation of sensory and motor nerves, in the treatment of the intermetatarsal space neuroma. The authors present an overview of cryoanalgesic therapy, including a discussion of history, mechanism of action, indications, and description of the apparatus. The authors submit a case study of cryogenic denervation of the third intermetatarsal space. PMID:9298449

  20. Apollo cryogenic integrated systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seto, R. K. M.; Cunningham, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    The integrated systems program is capable of simulating both nominal and anomalous operation of the Apollo cryogenics storage system (CSS). Two versions of the program exist; one for the Apollo 14 configuration and the other for J Type Mission configurations. The program consists of two mathematical models which are dynamically coupled. A model of the CSS components and lines determines the oxygen and hydrogen flowrate from each storage tank given the tank pressures and temperatures, and the electrical power subsystem and environmental control subsystem flow demands. Temperatures and pressures throughout the components and lines are also determined. A model of the CSS tankage determines the pressure and temperatures in the tanks given the flowrate from each tank and the thermal environment. The model accounts for tank stretch and includes simplified oxygen tank heater and stratification routines. The program is currently operational on the Univac 1108 computer.

  1. ESS Cryogenic System Process Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, P.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Su, X. T.; Wang, X. L.; Weisend, J. G., II

    2015-12-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron-scattering facility funded and supported in collaboration with 17 European countries in Lund, Sweden. Cryogenic cooling at ESS is vital particularly for the linear accelerator, the hydrogen target moderators, a test stand for cryomodules, the neutron instruments and their sample environments. The paper will focus on specific process design criteria, design decisions and their motivations for the helium cryoplants and auxiliary equipment. Key issues for all plants and their process concepts are energy efficiency, reliability, smooth turn-down behaviour and flexibility. The accelerator cryoplant (ACCP) and the target moderator cryoplant (TMCP) in particular need to be prepared for a range of refrigeration capacities due to the intrinsic uncertainties regarding heat load definitions. Furthermore the paper addresses questions regarding process arrangement, 2 K cooling methodology, LN2 precooling, helium storage, helium purification and heat recovery.

  2. Cryogenic Magnetostrictive Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, C. H.; Mavanur, A.; Tai, C.-Y.; Han, Z.-X.; Rodenbush, A. J.; Wong, Y.

    2004-06-01

    Energen has patented KelvinAll™, the first material, to exhibit magnetostrictive properties from elevated temperatures to near absolute zero, opening up a new range of applications for magnetostrictive devices. Magnetostrictive materials change their shape in the presence of a magnetic field. This elongation is precise, predictable, reversible and repeatable thereby enabling practical electromechanical devices. KelvinAll has magnetostriction comparable to Terfenol-D at room temperature and its magnetostriction increases at cryogenic temperatures. Energen has developed and prototyped practical electromechanical devices using KelvinAll. These devices include tuners for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, components for magnetic refrigerators, flow control valves and precision translation stages some of which will be discussed in greater detail. Energen's KelvinAll products enhance performance, increase reliability and reduce development costs.

  3. Cryogenic thermal control technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Leonhard, K. E.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization is presented of the pertinent literature associated with cryogenic thermal control technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer systems and/or associated space storage. Initially, a literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in detail. Each summary, where applicable, consists of; (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4)major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer (GD/C). Specific areas covered are; (1) multilayer insulation of storage tanks with and without vacuum jacketing, (2) other insulation such as foams, shadow shields, microspheres, honeycomb, vent cooling and composites, (3) vacuum jacketed and composite fluid lines, and (4) low conductive tank supports and insulation penetrations. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  4. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R < or = 0.003, from 800 to 4800/cm (12 - 2 microns ). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10,000/ cm-1 (25 - 1 microns) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R < or = 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to approx.4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented

  5. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  6. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  7. Computed tomography of cryogenic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Gerd; Anderson, E.; Vogt, S.; Knochel, C.; Weiss, D.; LeGros, M.; Larabell, C.

    2001-08-30

    Due to the short wavelengths of X-rays and low numerical aperture of the Fresnel zone plates used as X-ray objectives, the depth of field is several microns. Within the focal depth, imaging a thick specimen is to a good approximation equivalent to projecting the specimen absorption. Therefore, computed tomography based on a tilt series of X-ray microscopic images can be used to reconstruct the local linear absorption coefficient and image the three-dimensional specimen structure. To preserve the structural integrity of biological objects during image acquisition, microscopy is performed at cryogenic temperatures. Tomography based on X-ray microscopic images was applied to study the distribution of male specific lethal 1 (MSL-1), a nuclear protein involved in dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster, which ensures that males with single X chromosome have the same amount of most X-linked gene products as females with two X chromosomes. Tomographic reconstructions of X-ray microscopic images were used to compute the local three-dimensional linear absorption coefficient revealing the arrangement of internal structures of Drosophila melanogaster cells. Combined with labelling techniques, nanotomography is a new technique to study the 3D distribution of selected proteins inside whole cells. We want to improve this technique with respect to resolution and specimen preparation. The resolution in the reconstruction can be significantly improved by reducing the angular step size to collect more viewing angles, which requires an automated data acquisition. In addition, fast-freezing with liquid ethane instead of cryogenic He gas will be applied to improve the vitrification of the hydrated samples. We also plan to apply cryo X-ray nanotomography in order to study different types of cells and their nuclear protein distributions.

  8. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  9. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-02-23

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating positive'' terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating negative'' terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  10. Generalized cable theory for neurons in complex and heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, Claude; Destexhe, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Cable theory has been developed over the last decade, usually assuming that the extracellular space around membranes is a perfect resistor. However, extracellular media may display more complex electrical properties due to various phenomena, such as polarization, ionic diffusion, or capacitive effects, but their impact on cable properties is not known. In this paper, we generalize cable theory for membranes embedded in arbitrarily complex extracellular media. We outline the generalized cable equations, then consider specific cases. The simplest case is a resistive medium, in which case the equations recover the traditional cable equations. We show that for more complex media, for example, in the presence of ionic diffusion, the impact on cable properties such as voltage attenuation can be significant. We illustrate this numerically, always by comparing the generalized cable to the traditional cable. We conclude that the nature of intracellular and extracellular media may have a strong influence on cable filtering as well as on the passive integrative properties of neurons.

  11. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 33 - Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Saint Charles, IL, June 14-18, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, R. W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on superconductivity applications including magnets, electronics, rectifiers, magnet stability, coil protection, and cryogenic techniques. Also considered are insulation, heat transfer to liquid helium and nitrogen, heat and mass transfer in He II, superfluid pumps, and refrigeration for superconducting systems. Other topics include cold compressors, refrigeration and liquefaction, magnetic refrigeration, and refrigeration for space applications. Papers are also presented on cryogenic applications, commercial cryogenic plants, the properties of cryogenic fluids, and cryogenic instrumentation and data acquisition.

  12. 47 CFR 76.640 - Support for unidirectional digital cable products on digital cable systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Support for unidirectional digital cable... information tables: EIT-0, -1, -2 and -3; (C) The format of event information data format shall conform to... Delivered Out-of-Band for Digital Cable Television” (incorporated by reference, see § 76.602) (profiles 4...

  13. Internal strain gage balances for cryogenic windtunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, K.; Ewald, B.; Graewe, E.

    The five cryogenic wind-tunnel balances which were built and calibrated as part of the cryogenic balance program initiated in 1979 by the German Ministry of Research and Technology are described. Particular attention is given to factors affecting the calibration of cryogenic balances, such as the changes in the temperature and temperature gradients in the balance body caused by changes in the tunnel temperature. It is shown that it is possible to have a cryogenic wind-tunnel balance with the same accuracy and repeatability as a conventional balance. The effect of temperature gradients can be minimized by a new design of the axial-force element and an advanced calibration, and the zero shift can be reduced by matching procedures and calibration.

  14. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2010-04-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost-effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailorable array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given.

  15. The cryogenic control system of BEPCII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Ke-Xiang; Zhao, Ji-Jiu; Yue, Ke-Juan; Dai, Ming-Hui; Huang, Yi-Ling; Jiang, Bo

    2008-04-01

    A superconducting cryogenic system has been designed and deployed in the Beijing Electron- Positron Collider Upgrade Project (BEPCII). The system consists of a Siemens PLC (S7-PLC, Programmable Logic Controller) for the compressor control, an Allen Bradley (AB) PLC for the cryogenic equipments, and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) that integrates the PLCs. The system fully automates the superconducting cryogenic control with process control, PID (Proportional-Integral-Differential) control loops, real-time data access and data storage, alarm handler and human machine interface. It is capable of automatic recovery as well. This paper describes the BEPCII cryogenic control system, data communication between S7-PLC and EPICS Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), and the integration of the flow control, the low level interlock, the AB-PLC, and EPICS.

  16. Evaluation of two designs for cryogenic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Shingle-type, crinkled, aluminized polyethylene ester is thermally and structurally tested for cryogenic insulation. Insulation systems require thermal efficiency with minimum weight, and the ability to withstand vibration, acceleration, and rapid pressure drops.

  17. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

  18. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  19. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  20. Below-Ambient and Cryogenic Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal insulation systems operating in below-ambient temperature conditions are inherently susceptible to moisture intrusion and vapor drive toward the cold side. The subsequent effects may include condensation, icing, cracking, corrosion, and other problems. Methods and apparatus for real-world thermal performance testing of below-ambient systems have been developed based on cryogenic boiloff calorimetry. New ASTM International standards on cryogenic testing and their extension to future standards for below-ambient testing of pipe insulation are reviewed.

  1. Filament-wound, fiberglass cryogenic tank supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. S.; Timberlake, T. E.

    1971-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of filament-wound, fiberglass cryogenic tank supports for a LH2 tank, a LF2/FLOX tank and a CH4 tank. These supports consist of filament-wound fiberglass tubes with titanium end fittings. These units were satisfactorily tested at cryogenic temperatures, thereby offering a design that can be reliably and economically produced in large or small quantities. The basic design concept is applicable to any situation where strong, lightweight axial load members are desired.

  2. Progress in Cryogenic Target Implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Hu, S. X.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Short, R. W.; Shvarts, D.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Yaakobi, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Séguin, F. H.; Casey, D. T.

    2016-10-01

    Cryogenic deuterium-tritium targets are imploded on the OMEGA Laser System in a direct-drive configuration. Areal densities of approximately 200 mg/cm2 have been measured with implosion velocities of 3 × 107 cm/s. These implosions are used to study the dynamics of cryogenic target compression and to develop areal-density diagnostics that will be used as part of the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility.

  3. Large Cryogenic Germanium Detector. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mandic, Vuk

    2013-02-13

    The goal of this project was to investigate possible ways of increasing the size of cryogenic Ge detectors. This project identified two possible approaches to increasing the individual cryogenic Ge detector size. The first approach relies on using the existing technology for growing detector-grade (high-purity) germanium crystals of dislocation density 100-7000 cm{sup -2}. The second approach is to consider dislocation-free Ge crystals.

  4. FET's Perform Well At Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sclar, N.

    1992-01-01

    New metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors designed for source-follower preamplifiers operating at liquid-helium temperatures in conjunction with infrared detectors. Lower thresholds and offset give CryoFET's greater dynamic range and linearity than conventional MOSFET's at low temperatures and facilitates pair balancing to reduce offsets in output. Reduces heat loading of cryogenic system, extending life, reliability, and performance of cryogenic infrared instruments.

  5. Detonator cable initiation system safety investigation: Consequences of energizing the detonator and actuator cables

    SciTech Connect

    Osher, J.; Chau, H.; Von Holle, W.

    1994-03-01

    This study was performed to explore and assess the worst-case response of a W89-type weapons system, damaged so as to expose detonator and/or detonator safing strong link (DSSL) cables to the most extreme, credible lightning-discharge, environment. The test program used extremely high-current-level, fast-rise-time (1- to 2-{mu}s) discharges to simulate lightning strikes to either the exposed detonator or DSSL cables. Discharges with peak currents above 700 kA were required to explode test sections of detonator cable and launch a flyer fast enough potentially to detonate weapon high explosive (HE). Detonator-safing-strong-link (DSSL) cables were exploded in direct contact with hot LX-17 and Ultrafine TATB (UFTATB). At maximum charging voltage, the discharge system associated with the HE firing chamber exploded the cables at more than 600-kA peak current; however, neither LX-17 nor UFTATB detonated at 250{degree}C. Tests showed that intense surface arc discharges of more than 700 kA/cm in width across the surface of hot UFTATB [generally the more sensitive of the two insensitive high explosives (IHE)] could not initiate this hot IHE. As an extension to this study, we applied the same technique to test sections of the much-narrower but thicker-cover-layer W87 detonator cable. These tests were performed at the same initial stored electrical energy as that used for the W89 study. Because of the narrower cable conductor in the W87 cables, discharges greater than 550-kA peak current were sufficient to explode the cable and launch a fast flyer. In summary, we found that lightning strikes to exposed DSSL cables cannot directly detonate LX-17 or UFTATB even at high temperatures, and they pose no HE safety threat.

  6. D0 Cryogenic System Operator Training

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, D.; /Fermilab

    1991-11-30

    D0 is a collider detector. It will be operating and doing physics at the same time as CDP, therefore it has been decided to train CDP operators to operate and respond to the D0 cryogenic control system. A cryogenic operator will be required to be in residence at D0, during the cooldown and liquid Argon fill of any of the calorimeters. The cryogenic system at D0 is designed to be unmanned during steady state operation. CDP operations has 2 man cryogenic shifts 24 hours a day. It is intended that CDP operators monitor the D0 cryogenic systems, evaluate and respond to alarms, and notify a D0 cryo expert in the event of an unusual problem. A D0 cryogenic system view node has been installed at CDP to help facilitate these goals. It should be noted that even though the CDP view node is a fully operational node it is intended that it be more of an information node and is therefore password protected. The D0 cryo experts may reassess the use of the CDP node at a later date based on experience and operating needs. This engineering note outlines the format of the training and testing given to the CDP operators to make them qualified D0 operators.

  7. Cryogenic ion chemistry and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wolk, Arron B; Leavitt, Christopher M; Garand, Etienne; Johnson, Mark A

    2014-01-21

    The use of mass spectrometry in macromolecular analysis is an incredibly important technique and has allowed efficient identification of secondary and tertiary protein structures. Over 20 years ago, Chemistry Nobelist John Fenn and co-workers revolutionized mass spectrometry by developing ways to non-destructively extract large molecules directly from solution into the gas phase. This advance, in turn, enabled rapid sequencing of biopolymers through tandem mass spectrometry at the heart of the burgeoning field of proteomics. In this Account, we discuss how cryogenic cooling, mass selection, and reactive processing together provide a powerful way to characterize ion structures as well as rationally synthesize labile reaction intermediates. This is accomplished by first cooling the ions close to 10 K and condensing onto them weakly bound, chemically inert small molecules or rare gas atoms. This assembly can then be used as a medium in which to quench reactive encounters by rapid evaporation of the adducts, as well as provide a universal means for acquiring highly resolved vibrational action spectra of the embedded species by photoinduced mass loss. Moreover, the spectroscopic measurements can be obtained with readily available, broadly tunable pulsed infrared lasers because absorption of a single photon is sufficient to induce evaporation. We discuss the implementation of these methods with a new type of hybrid photofragmentation mass spectrometer involving two stages of mass selection with two laser excitation regions interfaced to the cryogenic ion source. We illustrate several capabilities of the cryogenic ion spectrometer by presenting recent applications to peptides, a biomimetic catalyst, a large antibiotic molecule (vancomycin), and reaction intermediates pertinent to the chemistry of the ionosphere. First, we demonstrate how site-specific isotopic substitution can be used to identify bands due to local functional groups in a protonated tripeptide designed to

  8. Reusable Hot-Wire Cable Cutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Steinkraus, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early development stage of balloon deployment systems for missions, nichrome wire cable cutters were often used in place of pyro-actuated cutters. Typically, a nichrome wire is wrapped around a bundle of polymer cables with a low melting point and connected to a relay-actuated electric circuit. The heat from the nichrome reduces the strength of the cable bundle, which quickly breaks under a mechanical load and can thus be used as a release mechanism for a deployment system. However, the use of hand-made heated nichrome wire for cutters is not very reliable. Often, the wrapped nichrome wire does not cut through the cable because it either pulls away from its power source or does not stay in contact with the cable being cut. Because nichrome is not readily soldered to copper wire, unreliable mechanical crimps are often made to connect the nichrome to an electric circuit. A self-contained device that is reusable and reliable was developed to sever cables for device release or deployment. The nichrome wire in this new device is housed within an enclosure to prevent it from being damaged by handling. The electric power leads are internally connected within the unit to the nichrome wire using a screw terminal connection. A bayonet plug, a quick and secure method of connecting the cutter to the power source, is used to connect the cutter to the power leads similar to those used in pyro-cutter devices. A small ceramic tube [0.25-in. wide 0.5-in. long (.6.4-mm wide 13-mm long)] houses a spiraled nichrome wire that is heated when a cable release action is required. The wire is formed into a spiral coil by wrapping it around a mandrel. It is then laid inside the ceramic tube so that it fits closely to the inner surface of the tube. The ceramic tube provides some thermal and electrical insulation so that most of the heat generated by the wire is directed toward the cable bundle in the center of the spiral. The ceramic tube is cemented into an aluminum block, which

  9. Distance and Cable Length Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169

  10. High temperature solder device for flat cables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haehner, Carl L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature solder device for flat cables includes a microwelder, an anvil which acts as a heat sink and supports a flexible flat ribbon cable that is to be connected to a multiple pin connector. The microwelder is made from a modified commercially available resistance welding machine such as the Split Tip Electrode microwelder by Weltek, which consists of two separate electrode halves with a removable dielectric spacer in between. The microwelder is not used to weld the items together, but to provide a controlled compressive force on, and energy pulse to, a solder preform placed between a pin of the connector and a conductor of the flexible flat ribbon cable. When the microwelder is operated, an electric pulse will flow down one electrode, through the solder preform and back up the other electrode. This pulse of electrical energy will cause the solder preform to heat up and melt, joining the pin and conductor.

  11. Computer-Aided Engineering Of Cabling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    Program generates data sheets, drawings, and other information on electrical connections. DFACS program, centered around single data base, has built-in menus providing easy input of, and access to, data for all personnel involved in system, subsystem, and cabling. Enables parallel design of circuit-data sheets and drawings of harnesses. Also recombines raw information to generate automatically various project documents and drawings, including index of circuit-data sheets, list of electrical-interface circuits, lists of assemblies and equipment, cabling trees, and drawings of cabling electrical interfaces and harnesses. Purpose of program to provide engineering community with centralized data base for putting in, and gaining access to, functional definition of system as specified in terms of details of pin connections of end circuits of subsystems and instruments and data on harnessing. Primary objective to provide instantaneous single point of interchange of information, thus avoiding

  12. Development of a cryogenic microcalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkin, David Stuart

    The motivation for this project has been to measure β-decay using a low background detector which encapsulated the β source (4π coverage). It was realized that the ideal detector for this measurement was a microcalorimeter (a small cryogenic detector consisting of an absorber, thermistor and thermal link). Presently microcalorimeters are an active area of research and development because of possible applications in weak interaction physics, x-ray astronomy and dark matter searches. The development of such a detector requires an interdisciplinary effort involving nuclear physics, solid state physics, electronics, and statistical mechanics. We have designed, constructed and characterized microcalorimeters employing two types of thermistors (AuxGe(x-1) and P:Si). In the process we constructed a dilution refrigerator, assembled the necessary electronics, and built a data acquisition and analysis system based on networked desktop computers. This stage of the project has concluded by characterizing the performance of the AuxGe(x-1) based microcalorimeters by measuring /alpha s and low energy /gamma s. The measured energy spectra have been compared to theoretical predictions, and the linearity of the devices has been tested. Future work will permit these devices to be used to measure β spectra.

  13. The future of cryogenic propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palerm, S.; Bonhomme, C.; Guelou, Y.; Chopinet, J. N.; Danous, P.

    2015-07-01

    As the French Space Agency, CNES is funding an ambitious program to identify, develop and evaluate the technologies and skills that will enable to design cost efficient future launchers. This program deals together with, researches for mastering complex physical phenomena, set ups of robust and efficient numerical tools for design and justification, and identification of innovative manufacturing processes and hardware. It starts from low Technical Readiness Level (TRL 2) up to a maturation of TRL 6 with the use of demonstrators, level that allows to be ready for a development. This paper focuses on cryogenic propulsion activities conducted with SNECMA and French laboratories to prepare next generation engines. The physics in that type of hardware addresses a large range of highly complex phenomena, among them subcritical and supercritical combustion and possible associated High Frequency oscillations in combustion devices, tribology in bearings and seals, cavitation and rotordynamics in turbopump. The research activities conducted to master those physical phenomena are presented. Moreover, the operating conditions of these engines are very challenging, both thermally and mechanically. The innovative manufacturing processes and designs developed to cope with these conditions while filling cost reduction requirements are described. Finally, the associated demonstrators put in place to prepare the implementation of these new technologies on future engines are presented.

  14. A cryogenic infrared calibration target.

    PubMed

    Wollack, E J; Kinzer, R E; Rinehart, S A

    2014-04-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R ⩽ 0.003, from 800 to 4800 cm(-1) (12 - 2 μm). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10,000 cm(-1) (25 - 1 μm) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R ⩽ 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to ∼4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented.

  15. A cryogenic infrared calibration target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R ⩽ 0.003, from 800 to 4800 cm-1 (12 - 2 μm). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10 000 cm-1 (25 - 1 μm) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R ⩽ 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to ˜4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials—Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder—are characterized and presented.

  16. Active Costorage of Cryogenic Propellants for Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavan, E. R.; Boyle, R. F.; Mustafi, S.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term storage of cryogenic propellants is a critical requirement for NASA's effort to return to the moon. Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen provide the highest specific impulse of any practical chemical propulsion system, and thus provides the greatest payload mass per unit of launch mass. Future manned missions will require vehicles with the flexibility to remain in orbit for months, necessitating long-term storage of these cryogenic liquids. For decades cryogenic scientific satellites have used cryogens to cool instruments. In many cases, the lifetime of the primary cryogen tank has been extended by intercepting much of the heat incident on the tank at an intermediate-temperature shield cooled either by a second cryogen tank or a mechanical cryocooler. For an LH2/LO2 propellant system, a combination of these ideas can be used, in which the shield around the LO2 tank is attached to, and at the same temperature as, the LO2 tank, but is actively cooled so as to remove all heat impinging on the tank and shield. This configuration eliminates liquid oxygen boil-off and cuts the liquid hydrogen boil-off to a small fraction of the unshielded rate. This paper studies the concept of active costorage as a means of long-term cryogenic propellant storage. The paper describes the design impact of an active costorage system for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). This paper also compares the spacecraft level impact of the active costorage concept with a passive storage option in relation to two different scales of spacecraft that will be used for the lunar exploration effort, the CEV and the Earth Departure Stage (EDS). Spacecraft level studies are performed to investigate the impact of scaling of the costorage technologies for the different components of the Lunar Architecture and for different mission durations.

  17. Burning Characteristics and Flammability of PVC Cables in Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikado, T.; Akita, K.

    1988-01-01

    Because burning cables represent a danger of increasing secondary damage it is of utmost importance for disaster prevention to correctly evaluate the combustion characteristics of cable. However, in many cases cable is laid out in bundles complicating the combustion characteristics. A situation has developed where group cable characteristics are not completely understood. A new method is developed for testing the combustion of high polymer type cable and earlier reports gave comparative combustion measurement results. It was learned that there is considerable difference between the combustion characteristics of the grouped cables and those of single cables. This study is supplemental research concerning the special behavior of group PVC cables, throwing some light on their combustion characteristics.

  18. 20. TURNTABLE WITH CABLE CAR BAY & TAYLOR: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. TURNTABLE WITH CABLE CAR - BAY & TAYLOR: View to northwest of the Bay and Taylor turntable. The gripman and conductor are turning the car around. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 30 CFR 75.816 - Guarding of cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.816 Guarding of cables. (a) High-voltage cables must be guarded at the following...

  20. 30 CFR 75.827 - Guarding of trailing cables.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.827 Guarding of trailing cables. (a) Guarding. (1) The high-voltage cable must...