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Sample records for cryogenic composite detectors

  1. Biological Applications of Cryogenic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S

    2003-12-03

    High energy resolution and broadband efficiency are enabling the use of cryogenic detectors in biological research. Two areas where they have found initial application are X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). In synchrotron-based fluorescence-detected XAS cryogenic detectors are used to examine the role of metals in biological systems by measuring their oxidation states and ligand symmetries. In time-of-flight mass spectrometry cryogenic detectors increase the sensitivity for biomolecule detection and identification for masses above {approx}50 kDa, and thus enable TOF-MS on large protein complexes or even entire viruses. More recently, cryogenic detectors have been proposed as optical sensors for fluorescence signals from biomarkers. We discuss the potential for cryogenic detectors in biological research, as well as the challenges the technology faces.

  2. Large Cryogenic Germanium Detector. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mandic, Vuk

    2013-02-13

    The goal of this project was to investigate possible ways of increasing the size of cryogenic Ge detectors. This project identified two possible approaches to increasing the individual cryogenic Ge detector size. The first approach relies on using the existing technology for growing detector-grade (high-purity) germanium crystals of dislocation density 100-7000 cm{sup -2}. The second approach is to consider dislocation-free Ge crystals.

  3. Cryogenic Detectors (Narrow Field Instruments)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoevers, H.; Verhoeve, P.

    Two cryogenic imaging spectrometer arrays are currently considered as focal plane instruments for XEUS. The narrow field imager 1 (NFI 1) will cover the energy range from 0.05 to 3 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV, or better, at 500 eV. A second narrow field imager (NFI 2) covers the energy range from 1 to 15 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV (at 1 keV) and 5 eV (at 7 keV), creating some overlap with part of the NFI 1 energy window. Both narrow field imagers have a 0.5 arcmin field of view. Their imaging capabilities are matched to the XEUS optics of 2 to 5 arcsec leading to 1 arcsec pixels. The detector arrays will be cooled by a closed cycle system comprising a mechanical cooler with a base temperature of 2.5 K and either a low temperature 3He sorption pump providing the very low temperature stage and/or an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR). The ADR cooler is explicitly needed to cool the NFI 2 array. The narrow field imager 1} Currently a 48 times 48 element array of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) is envisaged. Its operating temperature is in the range between 30 and 350 mK. Small, single Ta STJs (20-50 mum on a side) have shown 3.5 eV (FWHM) resolution at E = 525 eV and small arrays have been successfully demonstrated (6 times 6 pixels), or are currently tested (10 times 12 pixels). Alternatively, a prototype Distributed Read-Out Imaging Device (DROID), consisting of a linear superconducting Ta absorber of 20 times 100 mum2, including a 20 times 20 mum STJ for readout at either end, has shown a measured energy resolution of 2.4 eV (FWHM) at E = 500 eV. Simulations involving the diffusion properties as well as loss and tunnel rates have shown that the performance can be further improved by slight modifications in the geometry, and that the size of the DROIDS can be increased to 0.5-1.0 mm without loss in energy resolution. The relatively large areas and good energy resolution compared to single STJs make DROIDS good candidates for the

  4. Background Reduction in Cryogenic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.

    2005-09-08

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  5. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  6. A Rapid Turnaround Cryogenic Detector Characterization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic j.; Dipirro, Michael J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Jackson, Clifton E.; Jackson, Michael L.; Kogut, Al; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shirron, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Upcoming major NASA missions such as the Einstein Inflation Probe and the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory require arrays of detectors with thousands of elements, operating at temperatures near l00 mK and sensitive to wavelengths from approx. 100 microns to approx. 3 mm. Such detectors represent a substantial enabling technology for these missions, and must be demonstrated soon in order for them to proceed. In order to make rapid progress on detector development, the cryogenic testing cycle must be made convenient and quick. We have developed a cryogenic detector characterization system capable of testing superconducting detector arrays in formats up to 8 x 32, read out by SQUID multiplexers. The system relies on the cooling of a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator immersed in a liquid helium bath. This approach permits a detector to be cooled from 300K to 50 mK in about 4 hours, so that a test cycle begun in the morning will be over by the end of the day. Tine system is modular, with two identical immersible units, so that while one unit is cooling, the second can be reconfigured for the next battery of tests. We describe the design, construction, and performance of this cryogenic detector testing facility.

  7. Status of the cryogenic payload system for the KAGRA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Chen, D.; Hagiwara, A.; Kajita, T.; Miyamoto, T.; Suzuki, T.; Sakakibara, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Tomaru, T.

    2016-05-01

    KAGRA is a large scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope currently under construction in Japan. The detector is located 200 m underground in the Kamioka mine and will employ cryogenic technologies to achieve high sensitivity. The mirrors of the interferometer will be in the form of multiple pendulums and the final stages will employ cryogenic sapphire suspension system operating at 20 Kelvin. In this paper we report the ongoing activities of the cryogenic payload group involved in the design and fabrication of the cryogenic payload system for the KAGRA detector

  8. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; Crowley, K. T.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Duff, S. M.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; van Engelen, A.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Hills, F.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hloẑek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Huffenberger, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A. B.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Thornton, R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies—imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution—will enable precision cosmological constraints and also a wide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the Advanced ACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the Advanced ACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  9. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, S.W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies-imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution-will enable precision cosmological constraints and also awide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the AdvancedACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the AdvancedACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  10. Hybrid Composite Cryogenic Tank Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid lightweight composite tank has been created using specially designed materials and manufacturing processes. The tank is produced by using a hybrid structure consisting of at least two reinforced composite material systems. The inner composite layer comprises a distinct fiber and resin matrix suitable for cryogenic use that is a braided-sleeve (and/or a filamentwound layer) aramid fiber preform that is placed on a removable mandrel (outfitted with metallic end fittings) and is infused (vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded) with a polyurethane resin matrix with a high ductility at low temperatures. This inner layer is allowed to cure and is encapsulated with a filamentwound outer composite layer of a distinct fiber resin system. Both inner and outer layer are in intimate contact, and can also be cured at the same time. The outer layer is a material that performs well for low temperature pressure vessels, and it can rely on the inner layer to act as a liner to contain the fluids. The outer layer can be a variety of materials, but the best embodiment may be the use of a continuous tow of carbon fiber (T-1000 carbon, or others), or other high-strength fibers combined with a high ductility epoxy resin matrix, or a polyurethane matrix, which performs well at low temperatures. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the outer layer. While the hybrid structure is not limited to two particular materials, a preferred version of the tank has been demonstrated on an actual test tank article cycled at high pressures with liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, and the best version is an inner layer of PBO (poly-pphenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibers with a polyurethane matrix and an outer layer of T-1000 carbon with a high elongation epoxy matrix suitable for cryogenic temperatures. A polyurethane matrix has also been used for the outer layer. The construction method is ideal because the fiber and resin of the inner layer has a high strain to failure at cryogenic

  11. SQUID Multiplexers for Cryogenic Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Kent; Beall, James; Deiker, Steve; Doriese, Randy; Duncan, William; Hilton, Gene; Moseley, S. Harvey; Reintsema, Carl; Stahle, Caroline; Ullom, Joel; Vale, Leila

    2004-01-01

    SQUID multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of cryogenic detectors with a manageable number of readout channels. We are developing time-division SQUID multiplexers based on Nb trilayer SQUIDs to read arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors. Our first-generation, 8-channel SQUID multiplexer was used in FIBRE, a one-dimensional TES array for submillimeter astronomy. Our second-generation 32-pixel multiplexer, based on an improved architecture, has been developed for instruments including Constellation-X, SCUBA-2, and solar x-ray astronomy missions. SCUBA-2, which is being developed for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, will have more than 10,000 pixels. We are now developing a third-generation architecture based on superconducting hot-electron switches. The use of SQUID multiplexers in instruments operating at above 2 K will also be discussed.

  12. Cryogenic properties of unidirectional composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, R. P.; Golda, M.

    The tensile, compressive, fatigue, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity and specific heat of unidirectional laminates reinforced with boron, alumina, aramid, S-glass, E-glass, and high strength, high modulus and medium modulus carbon fibres are reviewed. The ratio of strength to thermal conductivity is used to assess the suitability of various fibre-reinforced laminates for supporting struts (experiencing compression) or straps (experiencing tension) at cryogenic temperatures. The relationships between laminate properties and reinforcement fibres are discussed.

  13. Development of cryogenic installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamowski, M.; Bremer, J.; Geynisman, M.; Hentschel, S.; Montanari, D.; Nessi, M.; Norris, B.

    2015-12-01

    A proposal for a very large liquid argon (68,000 kg) based neutrino detector is being studied. To validate the design principles and the detector technology, and to gain experience in the development of the cryostats and the cryogenic systems needed for such large experiments, several smaller scale installations will be developed and implemented, at Fermilab and CERN. The cryogenic systems for these installations will be developed, constructed, installed and commissioned by an international engineering team. These installations shall bring the required cooling power under specific conditions to the experiments for the initial cool-down and the long term operation, and shall also guarantee the correct distribution of the cooling power within the cryostats to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution within the cryostat itself. The cryogenic systems shall also include gaseous and liquid phase argon purification devices to be used to reach and maintain the very stringent purity requirements needed for these installations (parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination). This paper gives an overview of the installations involved in these cryogenic projects, describes the functional demands made to these cryogenic systems and presents the initial studies on which these future cryogenic systems will be based.

  14. Energy-sensitive cryogenic detectors for high-mass biomolecule mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Frank, M; Labov, S E; Westmacott, G; Benner, W H

    1999-01-01

    Energy-sensitive calorimetric detectors that operate at low temperatures ("cryogenic detectors") have recently been applied for the first time as ion detectors in time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Compared to conventional, ionization-based detectors, which rely on secondary electron formation or the charge created in a semiconductor, cryogenic detectors measure low-energy solid state excitations created by a particle impact. This energy sensitivity of cryogenic detectors results in several potential advantages for TOF-MS. Cryogenic detectors are expected to have near 100% efficiency even for very large, slow-moving molecules, in contrast to microchannel plates whose efficiency drops considerably at large mass. Thus, cryogenic detectors could contribute to extending the mass range accessible by TOF-MS and help improving detection limits. In addition, the energy resolution provided by cryogenic detectors can be used for charge discrimination and studies of ion fragmentation, ion-detector interaction, and internal energies of large molecular ions. Cryogenic detectors could therefore prove to be a valuable diagnostic tool in TOF-MS. Here, we give a general introduction to the cryogenic detector types most applicable to TOF-MS including those types already used in several TOF-MS experiments. We review and compare the results of these experiments, discuss practical aspects of operating cryogenic detectors in TOF-MS systems, and describe potential near future improvements of cryogenic detectors for applications in mass spectrometry.

  15. British Aerospace Cryogenic Coolers For Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, Harry W.

    1988-10-01

    The British Aerospace Dynamics Division has been active in the infrared field since the early 1950's. Originally infrared sensors were, and in many cases still are, cooled with Joule-Thomson coolers associated with rechargeable gas-bottles. Today, there is also a need for zero maintenance systems. To meet this need British Aerospace has productionised a range of viable Stirling Cycle cryogenic coolers. This paper summarises the intensive development programme which has taken place over the last seven years on such applications as the British Aerospace infrared linescan system for the Tornado and their suitability for further applications; both infrared and other sensors where signal-to-noise improvements at low temperatures are beneficial.

  16. Using Composite Materials in a Cryogenic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batton, William D.; Dillard, James E.; Rottmund, Matthew E.; Tupper, Michael L.; Mallick, Kaushik; Francis, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Several modifications have been made to the design and operation of an extended-shaft cryogenic pump to increase the efficiency of pumping. In general, the efficiency of pumping a cryogenic fluid is limited by thermal losses which is itself caused by pump inefficiency and leakage of heat through the pump structure. A typical cryogenic pump includes a drive shaft and two main concentric static components (an outer pressure containment tube and an intermediate static support tube) made from stainless steel. The modifications made include replacement of the stainless-steel drive shaft and the concentric static stainless-steel components with components made of a glass/epoxy composite. The leakage of heat is thus reduced because the thermal conductivity of the composite is an order of magnitude below that of stainless steel. Taking advantage of the margin afforded by the decrease in thermal conductivity, the drive shaft could be shortened to increase its effective stiffness, thereby increasing the rotordynamic critical speeds, thereby further making it possible to operate the pump at a higher speed to increase pumping efficiency. During the modification effort, an analysis revealed that substitution of the shorter glass/epoxy shaft for the longer stainless-steel shaft was not, by itself, sufficient to satisfy the rotordynamic requirements at the desired increased speed. Hence, it became necessary to increase the stiffness of the composite shaft. This stiffening was accomplished by means of a carbon-fiber-composite overwrap along most of the length of the shaft. Concomitantly with the modifications described thus far, it was necessary to provide for joining the composite-material components with metallic components required by different aspects of the pump design. An adhesive material formulated specially to bond the composite and metal components was chosen as a means to satisfy these requirements.

  17. Flexible composite radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, Edward B.

    2006-12-05

    A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

  18. Investigation of woven composites as potential cryogenic tank materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. S.; Melendez-Soto, E.; Castellanos, A. G.; Prabhakar, P.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, carbon fiber and Kevlar® fiber woven composites were investigated as potential cryogenic tank materials for storing liquid fuel in spacecraft or rocket. Towards that end, both carbon and Kevlar® fiber composites were manufactured and tested with and without cryogenic exposure. The focus was on the investigation of the influence of initial cryogenic exposure on the degradation of the composite. Tensile, flexural and inter laminar shear strength (ILSS) tests were conducted, which indicate that Kevlar® and carbon textile composites are potential candidates for use under cryogenic exposure.

  19. Unlined Reuseable Filament Wound Composite Cryogenic Tank Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, A. W.; Lake, R. E.; Wilkerson, C.

    1999-01-01

    An unlined reusable filament wound composite cryogenic tank was tested at the Marshall Space Flight Center using LH2 cryogen and pressurization to 320 psig. The tank was fabricated by Phillips Laboratory and Wilson Composite Group, Inc., using an EnTec five-axis filament winder and sand mandrels. The material used was IM7/977-2 (graphite/epoxy).

  20. The integrated cryogenic system for the atmospheric vertical interferometric detector on FY-4 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yinong; Liu, EnGuang; Jiang, Zhenhua; Yang, Baoyu; Mu, Yongbin

    2016-05-01

    The cryogenic system for the atmospheric vertical interferometric detector on FY-4 satellite includes a Stirling cryocooler, a radiant cooler, a cryogenic heat pipe and some flexible thermal links as well. These cryogenic elements were integrated together in order to decrease the background radiation and maximize the sensitivity with high efficiency and high reliability. This paper summarizes the cryogenic integration design, technical challenges, and the results of thermal and performance testing.

  1. Optimizing Cryogenic Detectors for Low-Mass WIMP Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Q.; Billard, J.; Juillard, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results from a study dedicated to the optimization of cryogenic detectors for low-mass WIMP searches. Considering a data-driven background model from the EDELWEISS-III experiment, and two analysis methods, namely profile likelihood and boosted decision tree, we indentify the main experimental constraints and performances that have to be improved. We found that there is a clear difference in how to optimize the detector setup whether focusing on WIMPs with masses below 5 GeV or above. Finally, in the case of a hundred-kg scale experiment, we discuss the requirements to probe most of the parameter space region delimited by the ultimate neutrino bound below 6 GeV.

  2. Carbon fiber composites for cryogenic filament-wound vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J. V.; Simon, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced unidirectional and bidirectional carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites were evaluated for physical and mechanical properties over a cryogenic to room temperature range for potential application to cryogenic vessels. The results showed that Courtaulds HTS carbon fiber was the superior fiber in terms of cryogenic strength properties in epoxy composites. Of the resin systems tested in ring composites, CTBN/ERLB 4617 exhibited the highest composite strengths at cryogenic temperatures, but very low interlaminar shear strengths at room temperature. Tests of unidirectional and bidirectional composite bars showed that the Epon 828/Empol 1040 resin was better at all test temperatures. Neither fatigue cycling nor thermal shock had a significant effect on composite strengths or moduli. Thermal expansion measurements gave negative values in the fiber direction and positive values in the transverse direction of the composites.

  3. Adhesive Bonding Characterization of Composite Joints for Cryogenic Usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, Neil A.; Schieleit, Gregory F.; Biggs, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The development of polymer composite cryogenic tanks is a critical step in creating the next generation of launch vehicles. Future reusable launch vehicles need to minimize the gross liftoff weight (GLOW). This weight reduction is possible due to the large reduction in weight that composite materials can provide over current aluminum technology. In addition to composite technology, adhesively bonded joints potentially have several benefits over mechanically fastened joints, such as weight savings and cryogenic fluid containment. Adhesively bonded joints may be used in several areas of these cryogenic tanks, such as in lobe-to-lobe joints (in a multi-lobe concept), skirt-to-tank joint, strut-to-tank joint, and for attaching stringers and ring frames. The bonds, and the tanks themselves, must be able to withstand liquid cryogenic fuel temperatures that they contain. However, the use of adhesively bonded composite joints at liquid oxygen and hydrogen temperatures is largely unknown and must be characterized. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Michoud Operations performed coupon-level tests to determine effects of material selection, cure process parameters, substrate surface preparation, and other factors on the strength of these composite joints at cryogenic temperatures. This led to the selection of a material and process that would be suitable for a cryogenic tank. KEY WORDS: Composites, Adhesive Bonding, Cryogenics

  4. IR characterization of graphite black-coating for cryogenic detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellouki, I.; Bennaji, N.; Yacoubi, N.

    2007-03-01

    We are developing an infrared thermal sensor to meet the growing needs of such detectors, operating at room and cryogenic temperature. For these facilities, two types of optical absorbing coatings were investigated. First was graphite-black coating and second was matt black paint, both are deposed on substrates simply by spray. IR spectroscopy measurements made on graphite layer revealed that reflectance at normal incidence varies by less than 10% at 10 μm and at 20 μm. Hence, thermal sensors using this coating had high and flat spectral sensitivity from 2.5 μm to 20 μm. These results are compared to measurements made on matt black paint and gold-black coatings documented in bibliography. Electrical characterization at room and cryogenic temperature indicated that graphite-black had a temperature coefficient of 5.510 -3 K -1 at 300 K and -5.110 -3 K -1 at 80 K, while matt black paints was electrically insulator.

  5. CALDER: Cryogenic light detectors for background-free searches

    SciTech Connect

    Cardani, L.; Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Coppolecchia, A.; Cosmelli, C.; Cruciani, A.; Vignati, M.; Castellano, M. G.; Colantoni, I.; Di Domizio, S.; Tomei, C.

    2015-08-17

    The development of background-free detectors is essential for experiments searching for rare events. Bolometers, that are among the most competitive devices for the study of neutrino-less double beta decay (0νDBD) and Dark Matter interactions, suffer from the absence of techniques that allow to identify the nature of the interacting particles. This limit can be overcome by coupling the bolometer to an independent device for the measurement of the light emitted by interactions, as the combined read-out of the bolometric and light signals allows to identify and reject particles different from those of interest. CUORE, the most advanced bolometric experiment for 0νDBD searches, could disentangle the electrons produced by 0νDBD from the dangerous background due to α particles, by measuring the (tiny) Cherenkov light emitted by electrons and not by α’s. LUCIFER, a project based on ZnSe scintillating bolometers for the study of {sup 82}Se 0νDBD, would be competitive also in the search of Dark Matter interactions if equipped with light detectors that allow to distinguish and reject the background due to electrons and γ’s. These advances require cryogenic detectors characterized by noise lower than 20 eV, large active area, wide temperature range of operation, high radio-purity and ease in fabricating hundreds of channels. The CALDER collaboration aims to develop such detectors by exploiting the superb energy resolution and natural multiplexed read-out provided by Kinetic Inductance Detectors.

  6. Ultra-high-mass mass spectrometry with charge discrimination using cryogenic detectors

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Matthias; Mears, Carl A.; Labov, Simon E.; Benner, W. Henry

    1999-01-01

    An ultra-high-mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer using a cryogenic particle detector as an ion detector with charge discriminating capabilities. Cryogenic detectors have the potential for significantly improving the performance and sensitivity of time-of-flight mass spectrometers, and compared to ion multipliers they exhibit superior sensitivity for high-mass, slow-moving macromolecular ions and can be used as "stop" detectors in time-of-flight applications. In addition, their energy resolving capability can be used to measure the charge state of the ions. Charge discrimination is very valuable in all time-of-flight mass spectrometers. Using a cryogenically-cooled Nb-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -Nb superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction (STJ) detector operating at 1.3 K as an ion detector in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer for large biomolecules it was found that the STJ detector has charge discrimination capabilities. Since the cryogenic STJ detector responds to ion energy and does not rely on secondary electron production, as in the conventionally used microchannel plate (MCP) detectors, the cryogenic detector therefore detects large molecular ions with a velocity-independent efficiency approaching 100%.

  7. Cryogenic absolute radiometers as laboratory irradiance standards, remote sensing detectors, and pyroheliometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, Peter V.; Hoyt, C.; Kochling, H.; Miller, P.

    1990-01-01

    The dramatic improvement in heat diffusivity of pure Cu at liquid-He temperatures makes possible very important advances in the absolute accuracy, reproducibility, sensitivity, and time constant of cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs), relative to conventional ESRs. The design and characterization of a table-top cryogenic ESR now available for detector calibration work to the 0.01-percent level of absolute accuracy under laser illumination is discussed. A sensitive cryogenic ESR recently delivered to the NIST for radiometric calibrations of black bodies is also described, along with the design and testing of a very fast cryogenic ESR developed for NASA remote-sensing studies of the earth's radiation budget.

  8. Tensile Properties of Polymeric Matrix Composites Subjected to Cryogenic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2004-01-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMC s) have seen limited use as structural materials in cryogenic environments. One reason for the limited use of PMC s in cryogenic structures is a design philosophy that typically requires a large, validated database of material properties in order to ensure a reliable and defect free structure. It is the intent of this paper to provide an initial set of mechanical properties developed from experimental data of an advanced PMC (IM7/PETI-5) exposed to cryogenic temperatures and mechanical loading. The application of this data is to assist in the materials down-select and design of cryogenic fuel tanks for future reusable space vehicles. The details of the material system, test program, and experimental methods will be outlined. Tension modulus and strength were measured at room temperature, -196 C, and -269 C on five different laminates. These properties were also tested after aging at -186 C with and without loading applied. Microcracking was observed in one laminate.

  9. A cryogen-free HTS Josephson junction detector for terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Smart, K.; Li, L.; Leslie, K. E.; Hanham, S. M.; Wang, D. H. C.; Foley, C. P.; Ji, F.; Li, X. D.; Zeng, D. Z.

    2015-08-01

    A cryogen-free terahertz (THz) imaging system based on a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) Josephson junction detector is reported. The detector was made of a YBa2Cu3O7-x step-edge Josephson junction and integrated into an on-chip thin-film antenna. The HTS Josephson detector was cooled via a commercial mechanical cryocooler; an important step towards cryogen-free THz instrumentation, which is critical for industrial acceptance. In addition, it is shown that operating the detector in a cryocooler provides improved flexibility for optimizing the detector parameters and performance due to the ability to adjust the temperature compared to liquid nitrogen cooling methods. The dc and ac characteristics, the detector responsivity and the noise-equivalent power of the detector, and resulting image quality were studied as the function of operating temperatures.

  10. Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, E.; Aja, B.; de la Fuente, L.; Artal, E.

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the design, fabrication, and performance analysis of a square-law Schottky diode detector based on lossy transmission lines working under cryogenic temperature (15 K). The design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low effective Schottky barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat sensitivity versus frequency. The designed circuit demonstrates good sensitivity, as well as a good return loss in a wide bandwidth at Ka-band, at both room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K) temperatures. A good sensitivity of 1000 mV/mW and input return loss better than 12 dB have been achieved when it works as a zero-bias Schottky diode detector at room temperature, increasing the sensitivity up to a minimum of 2200 mV/mW, with the need of a DC bias current, at cryogenic temperature.

  11. Performance evaluation of a lossy transmission lines based diode detector at cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Villa, E; Aja, B; de la Fuente, L; Artal, E

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the design, fabrication, and performance analysis of a square-law Schottky diode detector based on lossy transmission lines working under cryogenic temperature (15 K). The design analysis of a microwave detector, based on a planar gallium-arsenide low effective Schottky barrier height diode, is reported, which is aimed for achieving large input return loss as well as flat sensitivity versus frequency. The designed circuit demonstrates good sensitivity, as well as a good return loss in a wide bandwidth at Ka-band, at both room (300 K) and cryogenic (15 K) temperatures. A good sensitivity of 1000 mV/mW and input return loss better than 12 dB have been achieved when it works as a zero-bias Schottky diode detector at room temperature, increasing the sensitivity up to a minimum of 2200 mV/mW, with the need of a DC bias current, at cryogenic temperature.

  12. Facesheet Delamination of Composite Sandwich Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Odegard, Gregory M.; Herring, Helen M.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation of space transportation vehicles will require advances in lightweight structural materials and related design concepts to meet the increased demands on performance. One potential source for significant structural weight reduction is the replacement of traditional metallic cryogenic fuel tanks with new designs for polymeric matrix composite tanks. These new tank designs may take the form of thin-walled sandwich constructed with lightweight core and composite facesheets. Life-time durability requirements imply the materials must safely carry pressure loads, external structural loads, resist leakage and operate over an extremely wide temperature range. Aside from catastrophic events like tank wall penetration, one of the most likely scenarios for failure of a tank wall of sandwich construction is the permeation of cryogenic fluid into the sandwich core and the subsequent delamination of the sandwich facesheet due to the build-up of excessive internal pressure. The research presented in this paper was undertaken to help understand this specific problem of core to facesheet delamination in cryogenic environments and relate this data to basic mechanical properties. The experimental results presented herein provide data on the strain energy release rate (toughness) of the interface between the facesheet and the core of a composite sandwich subjected to simulated internal pressure. A unique test apparatus and associated test methods are described and the results are presented to highlight the effects of cryogenic temperature on the measured material properties.

  13. Applicability Study of Composite Laminates to the Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, T.; Ishikawa, T.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive application of light weight composite materials is one of the major technical challenges for drastic reduction of structural weight of the planned reusable launch vehicles (RLV) and space planes. Cryogenic propellant tanks are the dominating structural components of the vehicle structure and thus the application of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) to these components is one of the most promising but challenging technologies for achieving the aimed goal of weight reduction. Research effort has been made to scrutinize the cryogenic mechanical performance of currently available candidates of CFRP material systems suitable for use under cryogenic conditions. Seven different types of material systems of CFRP are chosen and are experimentally and analytically evaluated to discuss their applicability to the liquid propellant tanks and to provide basic information for material selections. Static tensile tests were conducted with quasi-isotropic laminates to acquire static strengths, both under cryogenic and room temperatures. The development of matrix cracks and free-edge delaminations were also experimentally investigated and were compared with the numerical calculations. Interlaminar fracture toughness at cryogenic temperature was also evaluated to investigate the damage susceptibility of the materials. The decrease in matrix crack onset stresses observed in the laminate performance experiments suggested that the propellant leakage may be a key issue when applying CFRP to the propellant tanks, as well as the durability concern. Thus the propellant leakage under matrix crack accumulation was simulated by the gas helium leakage tests. Leakage model was also developed and successfully applied to the prediction of the propellant leakage. Preliminary results of adhesive joint tests under cryogenic conditions will also be referred to.

  14. Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Matthias; Mears, Carl A.; Labov, Simon E.; Hiller, Larry J.; Barfknecht, Andrew T.

    2003-03-04

    A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

  15. International and national security applications of cryogenic detectors - mostly nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    As with science, so with security - in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma ray, neutron, and alpha particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invi sible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

  16. Cryogenic Detectors for Rare Alpha Decay Search: A New Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casali, N.; Dubovik, A.; Nagorny, S.; Nisi, S.; Orio, F.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S.; Schäffner, K.; Tupitsyna, I.; Yakubovskaya, A.

    2016-08-01

    The detection of ^{148}Sm alpha decay with a precise measured half-life of ( {6.4_{-1.3}^{+1.2} }) × 10^{15}y and a Q-value of 1987.3 ± 0.5 keV was achieved by a new experimental approach, where a conventional ZnWO4 scintillating crystal doped with enriched ^{148}Sm isotope is operated as a cryogenic scintillating bolometer (phonon and light channel) at mK-temperatures.

  17. Cryogenic phonon-scintillation detectors with PMT readout for rare event search experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Lin, J.; Mikhailik, V. B.; Kraus, H.

    2016-06-01

    Cryogenic phonon-scintillation detectors (CPSD) for rare event search experiments require reliable, efficient and robust photon detectors that can resolve individual photons in a scintillation event. We report on a cryogenic detector containing a scintillating crystal, equipped with an NTD-Ge phonon sensor and a photon detector based on a low-temperature photomultiplier tube (PMT) that is powered by a Cockcroft-Walton generator. Here we present results from the characterisation of two detector modules, one with CaWO4, the other with CaMoO4 as scintillator. The energy resolutions (FWHM) at 122.1 keV for the scintillation/PMT channel are 19.9% and 29.7% respectively for CaWO4 and CaMoO4 while the energy resolutions (FWHM) for the phonon channels are 2.17 keV (1.8%) and 0.97 keV (0.79%). These characteristics compare favourably with other CPSDs currently used in cryogenic rare-event search experiments. The detection module with PMT readout benefits from the implementation of a well-understood, reliable, and commercially available component and improved time resolution, while retaining the major advantages of conventional CPSD, such as high sensitivity, resolving power and discrimination ability.

  18. Conceptual design of a cryogenic test bench system for millimeter wavelength detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, S.; Ferrusca, D.; Ibarra-Medel, E.

    2014-07-01

    We present the design of a cryogenic system for testing different technologies of millimeter wavelength detectors. The proposed design is developed at the Astronomical Instrumentation Laboratory for Millimeter Wavelength at the National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics, in México. The cryogenic system is integrated by a closed cycle pulse tube cooler with a 4 Kelvin 12 inches cold plate and a He-4/He-3 fridge and would be able to characterize KIDs (Kinetic Inductor Detectors), TES (Transition Edge Sensors) or semiconductor bolometers using a thermal link to a 250 mK stage. Readout electronics will be installed at the 4 Kelvin cold plate along with connectors and cables for the thermometry. In this paper we present a preliminary 3D model design which its main goal is to use efficiently the limited space in the cryostat with emphasis on the interchangeability for installing each time any of the three different detector technologies in the same cold plate; results for the thermal calculations and finite-element modeling are also shown. The system would allow, with some minor changes, to replace the He-4/He-3 fridge by a dilution fridge in order to reach temperatures about 100 mK to have more flexibility in the detector testing. The importance of the cryogenic test bench relies in the need for an easier and quicker characterization of detectors arrays as part of the research for the development of instruments for millimeter telescopes.

  19. Evaluation of high temperature superconductive thermal bridges for space borne cryogenic detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Elaine P.

    1996-01-01

    Infrared sensor satellites are used to monitor the conditions in the earth's upper atmosphere. In these systems, the electronic links connecting the cryogenically cooled infrared detectors to the significantly warmer amplification electronics act as thermal bridges and, consequently, the mission lifetimes of the satellites are limited due to cryogenic evaporation. High-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials have been proposed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley's Research Center (NASA-LaRC) as an alternative to the currently used manganin wires for electrical connection. The potential for using HTS films as thermal bridges has provided the motivation for the design and the analysis of a spaceflight experiment to evaluate the performance of this superconductive technology in the space environment. The initial efforts were focused on the preliminary design of the experimental system which allows for the quantitative comparison of superconductive leads with manganin leads, and on the thermal conduction modeling of the proposed system. Most of the HTS materials were indicated to be potential replacements for the manganin wires. In the continuation of this multi-year research, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the sources of heat transfer on the thermal bridges that have been neglected in the preliminary conductive model and then to develop a methodology for the estimation of the thermal conductivities of the HTS thermal bridges in space. The Joule heating created by the electrical current through the manganin wires was incorporated as a volumetric heat source into the manganin conductive model. The radiative heat source on the HTS thermal bridges was determined by performing a separate radiant interchange analysis within a high-T(sub c) superconductor housing area. Both heat sources indicated no significant contribution on the cryogenic heat load, which validates the results obtained in the preliminary conduction

  20. Development of a Navigator and Imaging Techniques for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wilen, Chris; /Carleton Coll. /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-06-22

    This project contributes to the detection of flaws in the germanium detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Specifically, after imaging the detector surface with a precise imaging and measuring device, they developed software to stitch the resulting images together, applying any necessary rotations, offsets, and averaging, to produce a smooth image of the whole detector that can be used to detect flaws on the surface of the detector. These images were also tiled appropriately for the Google Maps API to use as a navigation tool, allowing viewers to smoothly zoom and pan across the detector surface. Automated defect identification can now be implemented, increasing the scalability of the germanium detector fabrication.

  1. Durability Characterization of Advanced Polymeric Composites at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, T. S.

    2001-01-01

    The next generation of reusable launch vehicles will require technology development in several key areas. Of these key areas, the development of polymeric composite cryogenic fuel tanks promises to present one of the most difficult technical challenges. It is envisioned that a polymer matrix composite (PMC) tank would be a large shell structure capable of containing cryogenic fuels and carrying a range of structural loads. The criteria that will be imposed on such a design include reduced weight, conformal geometry, and impermeability. It is this last criterion, impermeability, that will provide the focus of this paper. The essence of the impermeability criterion is that the tank remains leak free throughout its design lifetime. To address this criterion, one of the first steps is to conduct a complete durability assessment of the PMC materials. At Langley Research Center, a durability assessment of promising new polyimide-based PMCs is underway. This durability program has focused on designing a set of critical laboratory experiments that will determine fundamental material properties under combined thermal-mechanical loading at cryogenic temperatures. The test program provides measurements of lamina and laminate properties, including strength, stiffness, and fracture toughness. The performance of the PMC materials is monitored as a function of exposure conditions and aging time. Residual properties after exposure are measured at cryogenic temperatures and provide quantitative values of residual strength and stiffness. Primary degradation mechanisms and the associated damage modes are measured with both destructive and nondestructive techniques. In addition to mechanical properties, a range of physical properties, such as weight, glass transition, and crack density, are measured and correlated with the test conditions. This paper will report on the progress of this research program and present critical results and illustrative examples of current findings.

  2. Composite polycrystalline semiconductor neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieber, M.; Zuck, A.; Marom, G.; Khakhan, O.; Roth, M.; Alfassi, Z. B.

    2007-08-01

    Composite polycrystalline semiconductor detectors bound with different binders, both inorganic molten glasses, such as B 2O 3, PbO/B 2O 3, Bi 2O 3/PbO, and organic polymeric binders, such as isotactic polypropylene (iPP), polystyrene or nylon-6, and coated with different metal electrodes were tested at room temperature for α-particles and very weak thermal neutron sources. The detector materials tested were natural occurring hexagonal BN and cubic LiF, where both are not containing enriched isotopes of 10B or 6Li. The radiation sources were 5.5 MeV α's from 241Am, 5.3 MeV from 210Po and also 4.8 MeV from 226Ra. Some of these detectors were also tested with thermal neutrons from very weak 227Ac 9Be, 241Am- 10Be sources and also from a weak 238Pu+ 9Be and somewhat stronger 252Cf sources. The neutrons were thermalized with paraffin. Despite very low signal to noise ratio of only ˜2, the neutrons could be counted by subtracting the noise from the signal.

  3. A Novel Low Background Cryogenic Detector for Radon in Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Marcin; Zuzel, Grzegorz

    2007-03-01

    A prototype of a new detector for measurements of radon in gases and radon emanation investigations is presented. It is based on the low-temperature collection of 222Rn on a stainless steel plate and the following counting of emitted alpha particles using a standard ORTEC semiconductor detector for alpha spectroscopy. A low background of the constructed system was achieved, in the order of 25 counts per day for the 222Rn energy window. Relatively high detection efficiency of 32 % in 2π geometry, and large volume of the detector allow radon concentration measurements at the level of 12 mBq/m3 with a 30 % accuracy. The detector can be also used to measure short-lived 220Rn. In the next step we plan to improve the system so that we could reach the sensitivity of 1 mBq/m3. This can be achieved by reducing the background, improving the detection efficiency and/or increasing the active volume of the detector (with respect to the prototype).

  4. A Novel Low Background Cryogenic Detector for Radon in Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, Marcin; Zuzel, Grzegorz

    2007-03-28

    A prototype of a new detector for measurements of radon in gases and radon emanation investigations is presented. It is based on the low-temperature collection of 222Rn on a stainless steel plate and the following counting of emitted alpha particles using a standard ORTEC semiconductor detector for alpha spectroscopy. A low background of the constructed system was achieved, in the order of 25 counts per day for the 222Rn energy window. Relatively high detection efficiency of 32% in 2{pi} geometry, and large volume of the detector allow radon concentration measurements at the level of 12 mBq/m3 with a 30% accuracy. The detector can be also used to measure short-lived 220Rn. In the next step we plan to improve the system so that we could reach the sensitivity of 1 mBq/m3. This can be achieved by reducing the background, improving the detection efficiency and/or increasing the active volume of the detector (with respect to the prototype)

  5. A Cryogen-Free Miniature Dilution Refrigerator for Low-Temperature Detector Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teleberg, G.; Chase, S. T.; Piccirillo, L.

    2008-05-01

    We describe a miniature dilution refrigerator, suitable for many detector applications at temperatures down to 50 mK. Unlike conventional systems, the 3He gas is recycled internally which eliminates the need for any room-temperature pumps and gas handling system. No fine capillaries, moving parts or cooled O-rings are required which makes the system mechanically very reliable and minimizes the risk of developing blockages or cryogenic leaks during thermal cycles. We have integrated our dilution refrigerator with a pulse-tube cooler to create a cryogen-free, push button system which is now being used for TES detector developments. Temperatures below 50 mK and a cooling power of several micro-Watt at 100 mK is available for more than 15 hours at the time, with a re-cycle period of about 4 hours.

  6. EVALUATION OF SILICON DIODES AS IN-SITU CRYOGENIC FIELD EMISSION DETECTORS FOR SRF CAVITY DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng

    2012-07-01

    We performed in-situ cryogenic testing of four silicon diodes as possible candidates for field emission (FE) monitors of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities during qualification testing and in accelerator cryo-modules. We evaluated diodes from 2 companies - from Hamamatsu corporation model S1223-01; and from OSI Optoelectronics models OSD35-LR-A, XUV-50C, and FIL-UV20. The measurements were done by placing the diodes in superfluid liquid helium near the top of a field emitting 9-cell cavity during its vertical test. For each diode, we will discuss their viability as a 2K cryogenic detector for FE mapping of SRF cavities and the directionality of S1223-01 in such environments. We will also present calibration curves between the diodes and JLab's standard radiation detector placed above the Dewar's top plate.

  7. An HEMT-Based Cryogenic Charge Amplifier for Sub-kelvin Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, A.; Sadoulet, B.; Juillard, A.; Jin, Y.

    2016-07-01

    We present the design and noise performance of a fully cryogenic (T=4 K) high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT)-based charge amplifier for readout of sub-kelvin semiconductor radiation detectors. The amplifier is being developed for use in direct detection dark matter searches such as the cryogenic dark matter search and will allow these experiments to probe weakly interacting massive particle masses below 10 GeV/c^2 while retaining background discrimination. The amplifier dissipates ≈ 1 mW of power and provides an open loop voltage gain of several hundreds. The measured noise performance is better than that of JFET-based charge amplifiers and is dominated by the noise of the input HEMT. An optimal filter calculation using the measured closed loop noise and typical detector characteristics predicts a charge resolution of σ _q=106 eV (35 electrons) for leakage currents below 4 × 10^{-15} A.

  8. A measurement of the beta spectrum of 63Ni using a new type of cryogenic detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaistkell, R. J.; Angrave, L. C.; Booth, N. E.; Hahn, A. D.; Salmon, G. L.; Swift, A. M.

    1996-02-01

    A precision measurement of the beta spectrum of 63Ni has been performed using a new type of cryogenic particle detector. This is the first nuclear physics experiment using this technique, and we discuss the principles of the method, its advantages and its shortcomings. Careful studies of detector stability, calibration, pulse pile-up and systematics have made it possible to collect large numbers of events (∼ 10 8) over long periods (∼ 28 days). The measurement is consistent with no 17 keV/c 2 neutrino admixture, giving a preferred value of (-0.05 ± 0.31)%.

  9. Environmental testing of high Tc superconductive thermal isolators for space-borne cryogenic detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Buckley, John D.; Randolf, Henry W.; Verbelyi, Darren; Haertling, Gene H.; Hooker, Matthew W.; Selim, Raouf; Caton, Randall

    1992-01-01

    Thick films of superconductive material on low thermal conductivity substrates (e.g., yttria-stabilized zirconia and fused silica) are considered as a replacement for the existing electrical connections between the detector array and data acquisition and storage electronics in the cryogenic detector systems being developed by NASA. The paper describes some of the design constraints on the superconducting device and presents results of a preliminary analysis of the effects of vibration, gamma irradiation, and long-term exposure to high vacuum and liquid nitrogen encountered in operating such a device in space.

  10. Focal-plane optimization for detector noise limited performance in cryogenic Fourier transform spectrometer /FTS/ sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguirk, M.; Logan, L.

    1980-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the optimum focal plane configuration including optics, filters and detector-preamplifier selection. The configuration was optimized particularly with respect to minimizing the noise level, but fabrication considerations for a cryogenic environment were also taken into account. The noise terms from source, background, detector electronics and charged particle radiation were quantitatively evaluated. It appears that noise equivalent spectral radiance less than 10 to the -11th W/sq cm per sr per kayser can be achieved between 2.5 and 20 microns.

  11. Development of a scintillation light detector for a cryogenic rare-event-search experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. J.; So, J. H.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, G. B.; Kim, S. R.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, M. K.; Yoon, W. S.; Kim, Y. H.

    2015-06-01

    We developed a light detector to measure scintillation light from a crystal utilized in heat and light measurements at low temperatures for a rare-event-search experiment. A 2-in. Ge wafer was used as the light absorber, while a metallic magnetic calorimeter was employed to read out the temperature increase of the absorber. The light detector was tested at 25-100 mK using a cryogen-free adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. The performance in terms of energy resolution, rise time and signal amplitude was measured using radioactive sources with a consideration of the absorption position on the wafer. The light detector was used to measure the scintillation light of a CaMoO4 crystal at mK temperatures. We also discuss for the potential application of this detector in a neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment.

  12. Sensitivity of sodium iodide cryogenic scintillation-phonon detectors to WIMP signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M.; Nadeau, P.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Roth, S.; von Sivers, M.; Yavin, I.

    2016-05-01

    There is great interest in performing dark matter direct detection experiments using alkali halides such as NaI to test the DAMA/LIBRA claim. Cryogenic scintillation-phonon detectors measure both scintillation light and phonons to provide event-by-event discrimination between particles interacting with nuclei and particles interacting with electrons. An alkali halide scintillation-phonon detector could test the DAMA/LIBRA claim in a model-independent way using a similar material with added background discrimination. We present simulations of such detectors to determine their possible sensitivity to both annual modulation and particle interaction signals. We find that a 5 kg detector array could test the modulation reported by DAMA/LIBRA within 2 years using a likelihood-ratio test.

  13. Autonomous Cryogenic Leak Detector for Improving Launch Site Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goswami, Kisholoy

    2013-01-01

    NASA, military, and commercial satellite users need launch services that are highly reliable, less complex, easier to test, and cost effective. This project has developed a tapered optical fiber sensor for detecting hydrogen. The invention involves incorporating chemical indicators on the tapered end of an optical fiber using organically modified silicate nanomaterials. The Hazardous Gas Detection Lab (HGDL) at Kennedy Space Center is involved in the design and development of instrumentation that can detect and qualify various mission-critical chemicals. Historically, hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon are the first five gases of HGDL focus. The use of these cryogenic fluids in the area of propulsion offers challenges. Due to their extreme low temperatures, these fluids induce contraction of the materials they contact, a potential cause of leakage. Among them, hydrogen is of particular concern. Small sensors are needed in multiple locations without adding to the structural weight. The most vulnerable parts of the engine are the connection flanges on the transfer lines, which have to support cycles of large thermal amplitude. The thermal protection of the engine provides a closed area, increasing the likelihood of an explosive atmosphere. Thus, even a small leak represents an unacceptable hazardous condition during loading operations, in flight, or after an aborted launch. Tapered fibers were first fabricated from 1/1.3-mm core/cladding (silica/ plastic) optical fibers. Typically a 1-ft (approx. 30- cm) section of the 1-mm fiber is cut from the bundle and marked with a pen into five 2-.-in. (.5.7-cm) sections. A propane torch is applied at every alternate mark to burn the jacket and soften the glass core. While the core is softening, the two ends of the fiber are pulled apart slowly to create fine tapers of .- to .-in. (.6- to 12-mm) long on the 1-mm optical fiber. Following this, the non-tapered ends of the fibers are polished to a 0.3-micron finish

  14. Study of a Vuilleumier cycle cryogenic refrigerator for detector cooling on the limb scanning infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, S. C.

    1976-01-01

    A program to detect and monitor the presence of trace constituents in the earth's atmosphere by using the Limb Scanning Infrared Radiometer (LSIR) is reported. The LSIR, which makes radiometric measurements of the earth's limb radiance profile from a space platform, contains a detector assembly that must be cooled to a temperature of 65 + or - 2 K. The feasibility of cooling the NASA-type detector package with Vuilleumier (VM) cryogenic refrigerator was investigated to develop a preliminary conceptual design of a VM refrigerator that is compatible with a flight-type LSIR instrument. The scope of the LSIR program consists of analytical and design work to establish the size, weight, power consumption, interface requirements, and other important characteristics of a cryogenic cooler that would meet the requirements of the LSIR. The cryogenic cooling requirements under the conditions that NASA specified were defined. Following this, a parametric performance analysis was performed to define the interrelationships between refrigeration characteristics and mission requirements. This effort led to the selection of an optimum refrigerator design for the LSIR mission.

  15. Stability of the spectral responsivity of cryogenically cooled InSb infrared detectors.

    PubMed

    Theocharous, Evangelos

    2005-10-10

    The spectral responsivity of two cryogenically cooled InSb detectors was observed to drift slowly with time. The origin of these drifts was investigated and was shown to occur due to a water-ice thin film that was deposited onto the active areas of the cold detectors. The presence of the ice film (which is itself a dielectric film) modifies the transmission characteristics of the antireflection coatings deposited on the active areas of the detectors, thus giving rise to the observed drifts. The magnitude of the drifts was drastically reduced by evacuating the detector dewars while baking them at 50 degrees C for approximately 48 h. All InSb detectors have antireflection coatings to reduce the Fresnel reflections and therefore enhance their spectral responsivity. This work demonstrates that InSb infrared detectors should be evacuated and baked at least annually and in some cases (depending on the quality of the dewar and the measurement uncertainty required) more frequently. These observations are particularly relevant to InSb detectors mounted in dewars that use rubber O rings since the ingress of moisture was found to be particularly serious in this type of dewar. PMID:16237922

  16. Stability of the spectral responsivity of cryogenically cooled InSb infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharous, Evangelos

    2005-10-10

    The spectral responsivity of two cryogenically cooled InSb detectors was observed to drift slowly with time. The origin of these drifts was investigated and was shown to occur due to a water-ice thin film that was deposited onto the active areas of the cold detectors. The presence of the ice film (which is itself a dielectric film) modifies the transmission characteristics of the antireflection coatings deposited on the active areas of the detectors, thus giving rise to the observed drifts. The magnitude of the drifts was drastically reduced by evacuating the detector dewars while baking them at 50 deg. C for approximately 48 h. All InSb detectors have antireflection coatings to reduce the Fresnel reflections and therefore enhance their spectral responsivity. This work demonstrates that InSb infrared detectors should be evacuated and baked at least annually and in some cases (depending on the quality of the dewar and the measurement uncertainty required) more frequently. These observations are particularly relevant to InSb detectors mounted in dewars that use rubber O rings since the ingress of moisture was found to be particularly serious in this type of dewar.

  17. Characterization of the room temperature payload prototype for the cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave detector KAGRA.

    PubMed

    Peña Arellano, Fabián Erasmo; Sekiguchi, Takanori; Fujii, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Barton, Mark; Hirata, Naoatsu; Shoda, Ayaka; van Heijningen, Joris; Flaminio, Raffaele; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Okutumi, Koki; Akutsu, Tomotada; Aso, Yoichi; Ishizaki, Hideharu; Ohishi, Naoko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyakawa, Osamu; Kamiizumi, Masahiro; Takamori, Akiteru; Majorana, Ettore; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Hennes, Eric; van den Brand, Jo; Bertolini, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    KAGRA is a cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave detector currently under construction in the Kamioka mine in Japan. Besides the cryogenic test masses, KAGRA will also rely on room temperature optics which will hang at the bottom of vibration isolation chains. The payload of each chain comprises an optic, a system to align it, and an active feedback system to damp the resonant motion of the suspension itself. This article describes the performance of a payload prototype that was assembled and tested in vacuum at the TAMA300 site at the NAOJ in Mitaka, Tokyo. We describe the mechanical components of the payload prototype and their functionality. A description of the active components of the feedback system and their capabilities is also given. The performance of the active system is illustrated by measuring the quality factors of some of the resonances of the suspension. Finally, the alignment capabilities offered by the payload are reported. PMID:27036793

  18. Characterization of the room temperature payload prototype for the cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave detector KAGRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Arellano, Fabián Erasmo; Sekiguchi, Takanori; Fujii, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Barton, Mark; Hirata, Naoatsu; Shoda, Ayaka; van Heijningen, Joris; Flaminio, Raffaele; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Okutumi, Koki; Akutsu, Tomotada; Aso, Yoichi; Ishizaki, Hideharu; Ohishi, Naoko; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyakawa, Osamu; Kamiizumi, Masahiro; Takamori, Akiteru; Majorana, Ettore; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Hennes, Eric; van den Brand, Jo; Bertolini, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    KAGRA is a cryogenic interferometric gravitational wave detector currently under construction in the Kamioka mine in Japan. Besides the cryogenic test masses, KAGRA will also rely on room temperature optics which will hang at the bottom of vibration isolation chains. The payload of each chain comprises an optic, a system to align it, and an active feedback system to damp the resonant motion of the suspension itself. This article describes the performance of a payload prototype that was assembled and tested in vacuum at the TAMA300 site at the NAOJ in Mitaka, Tokyo. We describe the mechanical components of the payload prototype and their functionality. A description of the active components of the feedback system and their capabilities is also given. The performance of the active system is illustrated by measuring the quality factors of some of the resonances of the suspension. Finally, the alignment capabilities offered by the payload are reported.

  19. Cryogenic Temperature Effects on Performance of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, David; Dutta, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the low temperature behavior of polymer composites down to the cryogenic temperature range. This would be accomplished by study of its behavior in several ways. First we would study the microfracture growth by observing the acoustic emission as the temperature is lowered. We would also note any damage growth by ultrasonic velocity testing applying the pulse echo method. Effects of such low temperature would then be studied by examining the shear properties by the short beam shear test, and also the fracture toughness properties over a wide range of strain rate and temperature. At present these studies are continuing. The limited data obtained from these studies are reported in this report.

  20. Layered composite thermal insulation system for nonvacuum cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.

    2016-03-01

    A problem common to both space launch applications and cryogenic propulsion test facilities is providing suitable thermal insulation for complex cryogenic piping, tanks, and components that cannot be vacuum-jacketed or otherwise be broad-area-covered. To meet such requirements and provide a practical solution to the problem, a layered composite insulation system has been developed for nonvacuum applications and extreme environmental exposure conditions. Layered composite insulation system for extreme conditions (or LCX) is particularly suited for complex piping or tank systems that are difficult or practically impossible to insulate by conventional means. Consisting of several functional layers, the aerogel blanket-based system can be tailored to specific thermal and mechanical performance requirements. The operational principle of the system is layer-pairs working in combination. Each layer pair is comprised of a primary insulation layer and a compressible radiant barrier layer. Vacuum-jacketed piping systems, whether part of the ground equipment or the flight vehicle, typically include numerous terminations, disconnects, umbilical connections, or branches that must be insulated by nonvacuum means. Broad-area insulation systems, such as spray foam or rigid foam panels, are often the lightweight materials of choice for vehicle tanks, but the plumbing elements, feedthroughs, appurtenances, and structural supports all create "hot spot" areas that are not readily insulated by similar means. Finally, the design layouts of valve control skids used for launch pads and test stands can be nearly impossible to insulate because of their complexity and high density of components and instrumentation. Primary requirements for such nonvacuum thermal insulation systems include the combination of harsh conditions, including full weather exposure, vibration, and structural loads. Further requirements include reliability and the right level of system breathability for thermal

  1. Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipes for the Cooling of Small Particle Detectors at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, H.; Haug, F.; Silva, P.; Wu, J.; Koettig, T.

    2010-04-01

    The loop heat pipe (LHP) is among the most effective heat transfer elements. Its principle is based on a continuous evaporation/condensation process and its passive nature does not require any mechanical devices such as pumps to circulate the cooling agent. Instead a porous wick structure in the evaporator provides the capillary pumping forces to drive the fluid [1]. Cryogenic LHP are investigated as potential candidates for the cooling of future small-scale particle detectors and upgrades of existing ones. A large spectrum of cryogenic temperatures can be covered by choosing appropriate working fluids. For high luminosity upgrades of existing experiments installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) (TOTEM) and planned ones (FP420) [2-3] being in the design phase, radiation-hard solutions are studied with noble gases as working fluids to limit the radiolysis effect on molecules detrimental to the functioning of the LHP. The installation compactness requirement of experiments such as the CAST frame-store CCD detector cooling system impels also the design of a compact shaped LHP [4]. This paper reports on the design and experimental results of a general purpose LHP for temperatures as low as 110 K, for which the performances were measured using a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cooler as the cold source, combination envisaged for the cooling of future particle detectors.

  2. Feasibility of Carbon Fiber/PEEK Composites for Cryogenic Fuel Tank Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, K.; Doyle, A.; O Bradaigh, C. M.; Jaredson, D.

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of CF/PEEK composites for manufacture of cryogenic fuel tanks for Next Generation Space Launchers. The material considered is CF/PEEK tape from Suprem SA and the proposed manufacturing process for the fuel tank is Automated Tape Placement. Material characterization was carried out on test laminates manufactured in an autoclave and also by Automated Tape Placement with in-situ consolidation. The results of the two processes were compared to establish if there is any knock down in properties for the automated tape placement process. A permeability test rig was setup with a helium leak detector and the effect of thermal cycling on the permeability properties of CF/PEEK was measured. A 1/10th scale demonstrator was designed and manufactured consisting of a cylinder manufactured by automated tape placement and an upper dome manufactured by autoclave processing. The assembly was achieved by Amorphous Interlayer Bonding with PEI.

  3. Detector Simulation and WIMP Search Analysis for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, Kevin

    2013-06-01

    Astrophysical and cosmological measurements on the scales of galaxies, galaxy clusters, and the universe indicate that 85% of the matter in the universe is composed of dark matter, made up of non-baryonic particles that interact with cross-sections on the weak scale or lower. Hypothetical Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or WIMPs, represent a potential solution to the dark matter problem, and naturally arise in certain Standard Model extensions. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) collaboration aims to detect the scattering of WIMP particles from nuclei in terrestrial detectors. Germanium and silicon particle detectors are deployed in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. These detectors are instrumented with phonon and ionization sensors, which allows for discrimination against electromagnetic backgrounds, which strike the detector at rates orders of magnitude higher than the expected WIMP signal. This dissertation presents the development of numerical models of the physics of the CDMS detectors, implemented in a computational package collectively known as the CDMS Detector Monte Carlo (DMC). After substantial validation of the models against data, the DMC is used to investigate potential backgrounds to the next iteration of the CDMS experiment, known as SuperCDMS. Finally, an investigation of using the DMC in a reverse Monte Carlo analysis of WIMP search data is presented.

  4. Thermostabilization System Based on Two-phase Closed Cryogenic Thermosyphon for RED100 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolozdynya, A. I.; Efremenko, Yu. V.; Khromov, V. A.; Shafigullin, R. R.; Shakirov, A. V.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Tolstukhin, I. A.

    The RED 100 emission detector requires thermostabilization at about 100K. The heat transfer characteristics of a two-phase closed cryogenic thermosyphon made of copper pipe and bellow flex hoses with nitrogen fluid have been investigated. The thermosyphon consists of sealed pipe enclosed in a vacuum jacket and uses a free-boiling liquid nitrogen pool as a cooling machine. The system is very flexible and can provide heat transfer rate up to 100 W in the temperature range of 80-100 K.

  5. Stress Analysis and Permeability Testing of Cryogenic Composite Feed Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Tsuchin Philip

    1999-01-01

    For the next generation Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the use of advanced composite materials is highly desirable and critical to the success of the mission. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been working with the aerospace industry for many years to develop and demonstrate the cryogenic composite propellant tanks and feed lines technologies. A 50.8-mm diameter composite feed line for the Clipper Graham (DCY.A) was developed and tested. The purpose of the program is to demonstrate the LH2 permeability, composite to composite and metal joints, as well as composite flange interface of the composite feed line. Stress analysis and permeability testing have been performed on this article. Recently, a larger composite feed line design is being investigated and developed at MSFC for potential use in future RLV. The diameter of the feed line is 203 mm and the overall length is approximately 2.2 meters. This one piece unlined feed line consists of three straight tubular sections joined by two 90 degree elbows. The material chosen is IM7/977-3 prepreg fabric. The lay-up pattern is [0/90, plus or minus 45]s and is built up to 18 plies to the flanges at both ends. A preliminary stress analysis has been conducted to identify potential critical stresses and to develop the finite element analysis (FEA) capability of composite feed lines. As expected, the critical stresses occurred at the rims of some flange holes and the onset of the tapered tubular sections. Further analysis is required to determine the loads, flange deflection, vibration, and combined maximum loads. Two permeability-testing apparatuses were also designed for both flat panel specimens and curved feed line sections after impact damage. A larger permeant gas exposed area is required to accurately determine the effect of impact damage on the permeability of the feed line materials. The flat panel tester was fabricated and assembled. Three test coupons were made of graphite

  6. Fatigue properties of unidirectional carbon fibre composites at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannkoke, K.; Wagner, H.-J.

    Design engineers working with composite materials are still confronted with uncertainties as to their fatigue behaviour, especially for cryogenic applications. In the course of cooling, different thermal contraction of the fibre and matrix gives rise to thermal stresses and strains which influence most of the mechanical properties. In this paper, the fatigue behaviour of unidirectional (UD) composites with different fibres and matrices will be described. A first step in understanding the failure mechanism under cyclic loading will be presented. In earlier tests excellent fatigue properties were found for carbon fibre UD composites made of T300 carbon fibres and an epoxy matrix 1,2. However, the applied epoxy resin was brittle, especially at low temperatures. Therefore the brittle resin was substituted by polycarbonate (PC), a tough thermoplastic polymer 3,4. Nevertheless, for a composite with that matrix the fatigue endurance limit, normalized to the static strength, was found to be much lower (43%). SEM studies illustrated a poor fibre - matrix bond. To determine the bond's influence on fatigue properties, another tough matrix system was tested. The polymer PEEK is known to build a strong bond to carbon fibres, initiated by crystal growth onto the fibre surface 4,5. However, investigations on the fatigue behaviour of this composite at 77 K yielded the same low fatigue endurance limit as was found for the carbon fibre - PC system 4. At this point it can be concluded that the poor fatigue behaviour is not necessarily due to a strong or poor fibre - matrix bond. It is the purpose of this work to examine whether this different fatigue behaviour is due to matrix failure.

  7. Invited Review Article: Physics and Monte Carlo techniques as relevant to cryogenic, phonon, and ionization readout of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Leman, Steven W.

    2012-09-15

    This review discusses detector physics and Monte Carlo techniques for cryogenic, radiation detectors that utilize combined phonon and ionization readout. A general review of cryogenic phonon and charge transport is provided along with specific details of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search detector instrumentation. In particular, this review covers quasidiffusive phonon transport, which includes phonon focusing, anharmonic decay, and isotope scattering. The interaction of phonons in the detector surface is discussed along with the downconversion of phonons in superconducting films. The charge transport physics include a mass tensor which results from the crystal band structure and is modeled with a Herring-Vogt transformation. Charge scattering processes involve the creation of Neganov-Luke phonons. Transition-edge-sensor (TES) simulations include a full electric circuit description and all thermal processes including Joule heating, cooling to the substrate, and thermal diffusion within the TES, the latter of which is necessary to model normal-superconducting phase separation. Relevant numerical constants are provided for these physical processes in germanium, silicon, aluminum, and tungsten. Random number sampling methods including inverse cumulative distribution function (CDF) and rejection techniques are reviewed. To improve the efficiency of charge transport modeling, an additional second order inverse CDF method is developed here along with an efficient barycentric coordinate sampling method of electric fields. Results are provided in a manner that is convenient for use in Monte Carlo and references are provided for validation of these models.

  8. An efficient, movable single-particle detector for use in cryogenic ultra-high vacuum environments

    SciTech Connect

    Spruck, Kaija; Becker, Arno; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; Hahn, Robert von; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan

    2015-02-15

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to ∼10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum compatible, high-temperature bakeable, and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK’s Cryogenic Storage Ring. We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  9. An efficient, movable single-particle detector for use in cryogenic ultra-high vacuum environments.

    PubMed

    Spruck, Kaija; Becker, Arno; Fellenberger, Florian; Grieser, Manfred; von Hahn, Robert; Klinkhamer, Vincent; Novotný, Oldřich; Schippers, Stefan; Vogel, Stephen; Wolf, Andreas; Krantz, Claude

    2015-02-01

    A compact, highly efficient single-particle counting detector for ions of keV/u kinetic energy, movable by a long-stroke mechanical translation stage, has been developed at the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik (Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, MPIK). Both, detector and translation mechanics, can operate at ambient temperatures down to ∼10 K and consist fully of ultra-high vacuum compatible, high-temperature bakeable, and non-magnetic materials. The set-up is designed to meet the technical demands of MPIK's Cryogenic Storage Ring. We present a series of functional tests that demonstrate full suitability for this application and characterise the set-up with regard to its particle detection efficiency.

  10. Pulse-Shape Analysis of Ionization Signals in Cryogenic Ge Detectors for Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, N.; Broniatowski, A.; Eitel, K.; Marnieros, S.; Paul, B.; Piro, M.-C.; Siebenborn, B.

    2016-08-01

    The detectors of the direct dark matter search experiment EDELWEISS consist of high-purity germanium crystals operated at cryogenic temperatures (mathrm {{<}20 mK}) and low electric fields (mathrm {{<}1 V/cm}). The surface discrimination is based on the simultaneous measurement of the charge amplitudes on different sets of electrodes. As the rise time of a charge signal strongly depends on the location of an interaction in the crystal, a time-resolved measurement can also be used to identify surface interactions. This contribution presents the results of a study of the discrimination power of the rise time parameter from a hot carrier transport simulation in combination with time-resolved measurements using an EDELWEISS-type detector in a test cryostat at ground level. We show the setup for the time-resolved ionization signal read-out in the EDELWEISS-III experiment and first results from data taking in the underground laboratory of Modane.

  11. Reliable cool-down of GridPix detectors for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, R.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.; Bilevych, Y.; van Bakel, N.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present thermal cycling experiments of GridPix radiation imaging detectors, in view of a potential application in a cryogenic experiment. The robustness of the GridPix detector is studied for various grid designs, as well as various mechanical and thermal surroundings. The grid design variations had insignificant effect on the grid strength. A low cool-down rate as well as good thermal contact are crucial for the durability of the grid. Further, additional strengthening at the grid edges proved necessary to maintain the integrity of the structure during thermal cycling, which was done using globtop adhesive. The combination of these measures led to 100% survival rate after thermal cycling down to -130 °C.

  12. Towards Background-Limited Kinetic Inductance Detectors for a Cryogenic Far-Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyhrie, A.; Glenn, J.; Wheeler, J.; Day, P.; Eom, B. H.; Leduc, H.; Skrutskie, M.

    2016-08-01

    Arrays of tens of thousands of sensitive far-infrared detectors coupled to a cryogenic 4-6 m class orbital telescope are needed to trace the assembly of galaxies over cosmic time. The sensitivity of a 4 Kelvin telescope observing in the far-infrared (30-300 \\upmu m) would be limited by zodiacal light and Galactic interstellar dust emission, and require broadband detector noise equivalent powers (NEPs) in the range of 3× 10^{-19} W/√{Hz}. We are fabricating and testing 96 element arrays of lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed to reach NEPs near this level in a low-background laboratory environment. The LEKIDs are fabricated with aluminum: the low normal-state resistivity of Al permits the use of very thin wire-grid absorber lines (150 nm) for efficient absorption of radiation, while the small volumes enable high sensitivities because quasiparticle densities are high. Such narrow absorption lines present a fabrication challenge, but we deposit TiN atop the Al to increase the robustness of the detectors and achieve a 95 % yield. We present the design of these Al/TiN bilayer LEKIDs and preliminary sensitivity measurements at 350 \\upmu m optically loaded by cold blackbody radiation.

  13. Ageing effects in cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theocharous, E.; Fox, N. P.

    2005-02-01

    The spectral responsivity of two commercially available InSb detectors with low-pass cold filters attached on their cold shields for optimum operation in the 1.6-2.6 µm wavelength range was observed to drift slowly with time. The origin of these drifts was investigated. The drifts were shown to arise due to a thin film of water-ice deposition on the cold low-pass filters mounted on the cold shields of the two detectors. The presence of the ice film (which is itself a dielectric film) modifies the transmission characteristics of the filter, thus giving rise to the observed drifts. The drifts were completely eliminated by evacuating the detector dewars while baking them at 50 °C for 72 h. This work confirms that infrared detectors employing cold multi-layer dielectric filters should be evacuated and baked at least annually and in some cases (depending on the quality of the dewar and the measurement uncertainty required) more frequently. These observations are particularly relevant to space instruments which use cryogenically cooled infrared filter radiometers for earth observation. The deposition of a thin film of ice on the cold band-pass filters can account for the oscillatory drifts observed in the response of some of the channels of the ATSR-2, and Landsat-3 and Landsat-5 space missions.

  14. Development of a cryogenic radiation detector for mapping radio frequency superconducting cavity field emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Danny Dotson; John Mammosser

    2005-05-01

    Field emissions in a super conducting helium cooled RF cavity and the production of radiation (mostly X-Rays) have been measured externally on cryomodules at Jefferson Lab since 1991. External measurements are limited to radiation energies above 100 keV due to shielding of the stainless steel cryogenic body. To measure the onset of and to map field emissions from a superconducting cavity requires the detecting instrument be inside the shield and within the liquid Helium. Two possible measurement systems are undergoing testing at JLab. A CsI detector array set on photodiodes and an X-Ray film camera with a fixed aperture. Several devices were tested in the cell with liquid Helium without success. The lone survivor, a CsI array, worked but saturated at high power levels due to backscatter. The array was encased in a lead shield with a slit opening set to measure the radiation emitted directly from the cell eliminating a large portion of the backscatter. This is a work in progress and te sting should be complete before the PAC 05. The second system being tested is passive. It is a shielded box with an aperture to expose radiation diagnostic film located inside to direct radiation from the cell. Developing a technique for mapping field emissions in cryogenic cells will assist scientists and engineers in pinpointing any surface imperfections for examination.

  15. Split-Stirling, linear-resonant, cryogenic refrigerators for detector cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehrfeld, D.

    1983-01-01

    For the past decade, military IR systems have preferred to see cryogenic coolers provided as split units; separating the functions of compressor and cold-end for system packaging and vibration isolation reasons. A family of split-cycle coolers designed for long MTBF and in the final stages of development is the focus of the discussion. Their technological evolution, from multi-year-MTBF satellite system Stirling coolers developed in the U.S., and the UA 7011 cooler (the first all-linear, military, production cooler) developed in Holland, is explained. Two new split-cycle machines are discussed. They provided 1/4 watt and 1 watt (nominal capacity) at 80 K and 85 K respectively. These linear-resonant, free-displacer Stirling coolers are designed for thousands of hours of service-free operation. They are designed to be compatible with standard U.S. 60 element and 120/180 element detector/dewars, respectively.

  16. On the stability of the spectral responsivity of cryogenically cooled photoconductive HgCdTe infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theocharous, E.

    2006-08-01

    The spectral responsivity of cryogenically cooled HgCdTe detectors was observed to drift slowly with time. The magnitude of the drift was shown to be strongly dependent on wavelength. The origin of the drift was investigated and was shown to arise due to a thin film of water ice depositing on the active area of the cold detector. The presence of the ice film (which is a dielectric film) interacts with the detector structure thus altering its absorbance characteristics and gives rise to the observed drifts. The drifts were temporarily eliminated by evacuating the detector dewars while baking them at 50 °C for about 48 h. This work demonstrates that HgCdTe infrared detectors should be evacuated and baked at least annually and in some cases (depending on the quality of the dewar and the measurement uncertainty required) more frequently. These observations are particularly relevant to HgCdTe detectors mounted in dewars which utilise rubber O-rings, as the ingress of moisture was found to be particularly serious in this type of dewar. This paper also identified other sources of drift present in the output of cryogenically cooled photoconductive HgCdTe detectors whose origins are currently not understood.

  17. Foam/aerogel composite materials for thermal and acoustic insulation and cryogen storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Sass, Jared P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention involves composite materials containing a polymer foam and an aerogel. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability, good acoustic insulation, and excellent physical mechanical properties. The composite materials can be used, for instance, for heat and acoustic insulation on aircraft, spacecraft, and maritime ships in place of currently used foam panels and other foam products. The materials of the invention can also be used in building construction with their combination of light weight, strength, elasticity, ability to be formed into desired shapes, and superior thermal and acoustic insulation power. The materials have also been found to have utility for storage of cryogens. A cryogenic liquid or gas, such as N.sub.2 or H.sub.2, adsorbs to the surfaces in aerogel particles. Thus, another embodiment of the invention provides a storage vessel for a cryogen.

  18. Foam/Aerogel Composite Materials for Thermal and Acoustic Insulation and Cryogen Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Sass, Jared P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention involves composite materials containing a polymer foam and an aerogel. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability, good acoustic insulation, and excellent physical mechanical properties. The composite materials can be used, for instance, for heat and acoustic insulation on aircraft, spacecraft, and maritime ships in place of currently used foam panels and other foam products. The materials of the invention can also be used in building construction with their combination of light weight, strength, elasticity, ability to be formed into desired shapes, and superior thermal and acoustic insulation power. The materials have also been found to have utility for storage of cryogens. A cryogenic liquid or gas, such as N.sub.2 or H.sub.2, adsorbs to the surfaces in aerogel particles. Thus, another embodiment of the invention provides a storage vessel for a cryogen.

  19. Micromechanics, Fracture Mechanics and Gas Permeability of Composite Laminates for Cryogenic Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sukjoo; Sankar, Bhavani; Ebaugh, Newton C.

    2005-01-01

    A micromechanics method is developed to investigate microcrack propagation in a liquid hydrogen composite tank at cryogenic temperature. The unit cell is modeled using square and hexagonal shapes depends on fiber and matrix layout from microscopic images of composite laminates. Periodic boundary conditions are applied to the unit cell. The temperature dependent properties are taken into account in the analysis. The laminate properties estimated by the micromechanics method are compared with empirical solutions using constituent properties. The micro stresses in the fiber and matrix phases based on boundary conditions in laminate level are calculated to predict the formation of microcracks in the matrix. The method is applied to an actual liquid hydrogen storage system. The analysis predicts micro stresses in the matrix phase are large enough to cause microcracks in the composite. Stress singularity of a transverse crack normal to a ply-interface is investigated to predict the fracture behavior at cryogenic conditions using analytical and finite element analysis. When a transverse crack touches a ply-interface of a composite layer with same fiber orientation, the stress singularity is equal to 1/2. When the transverse crack propagates to a stiffer layer normal to the ply-direction, the singularity becomes less than 1/2 and vice versa. Finite element analysis is performed to predict the fracture toughness of a laminated beam subjected to fracture loads measured by four-point bending tests at room and cryogenic temperatures. As results, the fracture load at cryogenic temperature is significantly lower than that at room temperature. However, when thermal stresses are taken into consideration, for both cases of room and cryogenic temperatures, the difference of the fracture toughness becomes insignificant. The result indicates fracture toughness is a characteristic property, which is independent to temperature changes. The experimental analysis is performed to

  20. The Cryogenic AntiCoincidence detector for ATHENA: the progress towards the final pixel design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macculi, Claudio; Piro, Luigi; Cea, Donatella; Colasanti, Luca; Lotti, Simone; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Gatti, Flavio; Bagliani, Daniela; Biasotti, Michele; Corsini, Dario; Pizzigoni, Giulio; Torrioli, Guido; Barbera, Marco; Mineo, Teresa; Perinati, Emanuele

    2014-07-01

    "The Hot and Energetic Universe" is the scientific theme approved by the ESA SPC for a Large mission to be flown in the next ESA slot (2028th) timeframe. ATHENA is a space mission proposal tailored on this scientific theme. It will be the first X-ray mission able to perform the so-called "Integral field spectroscopy", by coupling a high-resolution spectrometer, the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), to a high performance optics so providing detailed images of its field of view (5' in diameter) with an angular resolution of 5" and fine energy-spectra (2.5eV@E<7keV). The X-IFU is a kilo-pixel array based on TES (Transition Edge Sensor) microcalorimeters providing high resolution spectroscopy in the 0.2-12 keV range. Some goals is the detection of faint and diffuse sources as Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) or galaxies outskirts. To reach its challenging scientific aims, it is necessary to shield efficiently the X-IFU instrument against background induced by external particles: the goal is 0.005 cts/cm^2/s/keV. This scientific requirement can be met by using an active Cryogenic AntiCoincidence (CryoAC) detector placed very close to X-IFU (~ 1 mm below). This is shown by our GEANT4 simulation of the expected background at L2 orbit. The CryoAC is a TES based detector as the X-IFU sharing with it thermal and mechanical interfaces, so increasing the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of the payload. It is a 2x2 array of microcalorimeter detectors made by Silicon absorber (each of about 80 mm^2 and 300 μm thick) and sensed by an Ir TES. This choice shows that it is possible to operate such a detector in the so-called athermal regime which gives a response faster than the X-IFU (< 30 μs), and low energy threshold (above few keV). Our consortium has developed and tested several samples, some of these also featured by the presence of Al-fins to efficiently collect the athermal phonons, and increased x-ray absorber area (up to 1 cm^2). Here the results of deep test

  1. Characterization of the low-background Hamamatsu R11410- 20 cryogenic PMTs for the RED100 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, D. Yu; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Efremenko, Yu V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Khromov, A. V.; Melikyan, Yu A.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    The RED100 two-phase liquid xenon emission detector for neutrino coherent scattering experiments is equipped with 38 Hamamatsu R11410-20 photomultiplier tubes capable to operate at cryogenic temperatures and made of low background materials. A dedicated characterization procedure has been carried out for each PMT unit to be installed into the detector. The results presented here include single photoelectron analysis, gain curves for a wide range of the bias voltage values, data on dark count rate for 34 PMT samples. Peculiar noise characteristics of selected PMT units are analysed and discussed.

  2. Final results of the EDELWEISS-I dark matter search with cryogenic heat-and-ionization Ge detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sanglard, V.; Chabert, L.; Jesus, M. de; Di Stefano, P.; Drain, D.; Gascon, J.; Gerlic, E.; Goyot, M.; Luca, M.; Stern, M.; Vagneron, L.; Benoit, A.; Berge, L.; Broniatowski, A.; Censier, B.; Collin, S.; Dolgorouky, Y.; Dumoulin, L.; Juillard, A.; Kikuchi, C.

    2005-06-15

    The final results of the EDELWEISS-I dark matter search using cryogenic heat-and-ionization Ge detectors are presented. The final data sample corresponds to an increase by a factor 5 in exposure relative to the previously published results. A recoil energy threshold of 13 keV or better was achieved with three 320 g detectors working simultaneously over four months of stable operation. Limits on the spin-independent cross section for the scattering of a weakly interacting massive particle on a nucleon are derived from an accumulated fiducial exposure of 62 kg d.

  3. Optimization of a muon collider interaction region with respect to detector backgrounds and the heat load to the cryogenic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, C.J.; Mokhov, N.V.

    1996-10-16

    In a 2 X 2 TeV {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} Collider almost 15 MW of power is deposited in the machine and detector components due to the unavoidable {mu}{r_arrow}{ital e{nu}{nu}{anti {nu}}} decays. The resulting heat load to the cryogenic systems and the background levels in the collider detectors significantly exceed those in any existing or designed hadron and {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup -} colliders. This paper shows that by carefully designing the final focus system, by embedding shielding and by taking other protective measures the heat load and backgrounds can be mitigated by several orders of magnitude.

  4. High-accuracy X-ray detector calibration based on cryogenic radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.

    2010-06-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2 %, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity is used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3 %. For some silicon photodiodes, the photocurrent is not linear with the incident radiant power.

  5. Characterization of zero-bias microwave diode power detectors at cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Vincent; Fluhr, Christophe; Dubois, Benoît; Rubiola, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    We present the characterization of commercial tunnel diode low-level microwave power detectors at room and cryogenic temperatures. The sensitivity as well as the output voltage noise of the tunnel diodes is measured as functions of the applied microwave power. We highlight strong variations of the diode characteristics when the applied microwave power is higher than a few microwatts. For a diode operating at 4 K, the differential gain increases from 1000 V/W to about 4500 V/W when the power passes from -30 dBm to -20 dBm. The diode white noise floor is equivalent to a Noise Equivalent Power of 0.8 pW/Hz and 8 pW/Hz at 4 K and 300 K, respectively. Its flicker noise is equivalent to a relative amplitude noise power spectral density Sα(1 Hz) = - 120 dB/Hz at 4 K. Flicker noise is 10 dB higher at room temperature. PMID:27587142

  6. Characterization of zero-bias microwave diode power detectors at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Vincent; Fluhr, Christophe; Dubois, Benoît; Rubiola, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    We present the characterization of commercial tunnel diode low-level microwave power detectors at room and cryogenic temperatures. The sensitivity as well as the output voltage noise of the tunnel diodes is measured as functions of the applied microwave power. We highlight strong variations of the diode characteristics when the applied microwave power is higher than a few microwatts. For a diode operating at 4 K, the differential gain increases from 1000 V/W to about 4500 V/W when the power passes from -30 dBm to -20 dBm. The diode white noise floor is equivalent to a Noise Equivalent Power of 0.8 pW/ √{ Hz } and 8 pW/ √{ Hz } at 4 K and 300 K, respectively. Its flicker noise is equivalent to a relative amplitude noise power spectral density Sα(1 Hz) = - 120 dB/Hz at 4 K. Flicker noise is 10 dB higher at room temperature.

  7. Characterization of zero-bias microwave diode power detectors at cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Vincent; Fluhr, Christophe; Dubois, Benoît; Rubiola, Enrico

    2016-08-01

    We present the characterization of commercial tunnel diode low-level microwave power detectors at room and cryogenic temperatures. The sensitivity as well as the output voltage noise of the tunnel diodes is measured as functions of the applied microwave power. We highlight strong variations of the diode characteristics when the applied microwave power is higher than a few microwatts. For a diode operating at 4 K, the differential gain increases from 1000 V/W to about 4500 V/W when the power passes from -30 dBm to -20 dBm. The diode white noise floor is equivalent to a Noise Equivalent Power of 0.8 pW/Hz and 8 pW/Hz at 4 K and 300 K, respectively. Its flicker noise is equivalent to a relative amplitude noise power spectral density Sα(1 Hz) = - 120 dB/Hz at 4 K. Flicker noise is 10 dB higher at room temperature.

  8. Thermal/Mechanical Response and Damage Growth in Polymeric Composites at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    In order to increase the reliability of the next generation of space transportation systems, the mechanical behavior of polymeric matrix composite (PMC) materials at cryogenic temperatures must be investigated. This paper presents experimental data on the residual mechanical properties of a carbon fiber polymeric composite, IM7/PETI-5 both before and after aging at cryogenic temperatures. Tension modulus and strength were measured at room temperature, -196 C, and -269 C on five different specimen ply lay-ups, [0](sub 12), [90](sub 12), [+/-45](sub 3S), [+/-25](sub 3s) and [45,90(sub 3),-45,0(sub 3),-45,90(sub 3),45]. Specimens were preconditioned with one set of coupons being isothermally aged for 555 hours at -184 C in an unloaded state. Another set of corresponding coupons were mounted in constant displacement fixtures such that a constant uniaxial strain was applied to the specimens for 555 hours at -184 C. The measured lamina level properties indicated that cryogenic temperatures have an appreciable influence on behavior, and residual stress calculations based on lamination theory showed that the transverse tensile ply stresses could be quite high for cryogenic test temperatures. Microscopic examination of the surface morphology showed evidence of degradation along the exposed edges of the material due to aging at cryogenic temperatures.

  9. Evaluation of neutron background in cryogenic Germanium target for WIMP direct detection when using reactor neutrino detector as neutron veto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ye; Lan, Jieqin; Bai, Ying; Gao, Weiwei

    2016-09-01

    A direct WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle) detector with a neutron veto system is designed to better reject neutrons. An experimental configuration is studied in the present paper: 984 Ge modules are placed inside a reactor neutrino detector. In order to discriminate between nuclear and electron recoil, both ionization and heat signatures are measured using cryogenic germanium detectors in this detection. The neutrino detector is used as a neutron veto device. The neutron background for the experimental design has been estimated using the Geant4 simulation. The results show that the neutron background can decrease to O(0.01) events per year per tonne of high purity Germanium. We calculate the sensitivity to spin-independent WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering. An exposure of one tonne × year could reach a cross-section of about 2×10-11 pb.

  10. Carrier Transport and Related Effects in Detectors of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    SciTech Connect

    Sundqvist, Kyle Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is searching for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPS), which could explain the dark matter problem in cosmology and particle physics. By simultaneously measuring signals from deposited charge and the energy in nonequilibrium phonons created by particle interactions in intrinsic germanium crystals at a temperature of 40 mK, a signature response for each event is produced. This response, combined with phonon pulse-shape information, allows CDMS to actively discriminate candidate WIMP interactions with nuclei from electromagnetic radioactive background which interacts with electrons. The challenges associated with these techniques are unique. Carrier scattering is dominated by the spontaneous emission of Luke-Neganov phonons due to zeropoint fluctuations of the lattice ions. Drift fields are maintained at only a few V/cm, else these emitted phonons would dominate the phonons of the original interaction. The dominant systematic issues with CDMS detectors are due to the effects of space charge accumulation. It has been an open question how space charge accrues, and by which of several potential recombination and ionization processes. In this work, we have simulated the transport of electrons and holes in germanium under CDMS conditions. We have implemented both a traditional Monte Carlo technique based on carrier energy, followed later by a novel Monte Carlo algorithm with scattering rates defined and sampled by vector momentum. This vector-based method provides for a full anisotropic simulation of carrier transport including free-fight acceleration with an anisotropic mass, and anisotropic scattering rates. With knowledge of steady state carrier dynamics as a function of applied field, the results of our Monte Carlo simulations allow us to make a wide variety of predictions for energy dependent processes for both electrons and holes. Such processes include carrier capture by charged impurities, neutral impurities, static

  11. Evaluation of Microcracking in Two Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy-Matrix Composite Cryogenic Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    Two graphite/epoxy cryogenic pressure vessels were evaluated for microcracking. The X-33 LH2 tank lobe skins were extensively examined for microcracks. Specimens were removed from the inner skin of the X-33 tank for tensile testing. The data obtained from these tests were used to model expected microcrack density as a function of stress. Additionally, the laminate used in the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Composite Conformal, Cryogenic, Common Bulkhead, Aerogel-Insulated Tank (CBAT) was evaluated. Testing was performed in an attempt to predict potential microcracking during testing of the CBAT.

  12. The cryogenic bonding evaluation at the metallic-composite interface of a composite overwrapped pressure vessel with additional impact investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Eric A.

    A bonding evaluation that investigated the cryogenic tensile strength of several different adhesives/resins was performed. The test materials consisted of 606 aluminum test pieces adhered to a wet-wound graphite laminate in order to simulate the bond created at the liner-composite interface of an aluminum-lined composite overwrapped pressure vessel. It was found that for cryogenic applications, a flexible, low modulus resin system must be used. Additionally, the samples prepared with a thin layer of cured resin -- or prebond -- performed significantly better than those without. It was found that it is critical that the prebond surface must have sufficient surface roughness prior to the bonding application. Also, the aluminum test pieces that were prepared using a surface etchant slightly outperformed those that were prepared with a grit blast surface finish and performed significantly better than those that had been scored using sand paper to achieve the desired surface finish. An additional impact investigation studied the post impact tensile strength of composite rings in a cryogenic environment. The composite rings were filament wound with several combinations of graphite and aramid fibers and were prepared with different resin systems. The rings were subjected to varying levels of Charpy impact damage and then pulled to failure in tension. It was found that the addition of elastic aramid fibers with the carbon fibers mitigates the overall impact damage and drastically improves the post-impact strength of the structure in a cryogenic environment.

  13. Heat release in the cryogenic system of a superconducting integrated detector and the influence of heat on its operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinev, N. V.; Koshelets, V. P.

    2013-03-01

    Heat release in the cryogenic system of a subterahertz-range superconducting integrated detector at ≈4.2 K is studied, and the influence of the released heat on its main characteristics is estimated. The detector chip mounted on a silicon lens is connected to a bias board by aluminum wires 25 μm in diameter, which are fixed by ultrasonic bonding. They are necessary for setting a bias current through the working components of the detector and represent an integral part of the system. The contact resistance between the wires and contact pads of the microchip is measured. The contact resistance is found to considerably exceed the resistance of the aluminum wire and, hence, makes a major contribution to heat release in the system. A "multipoint contact with one wire" technique is suggested. Tests show its efficiency: the contact resistance decreases considerably compared with the standard approach.

  14. Numerical Modeling, Thermomechanical Testing, and NDE Procedures for Prediction of Microcracking Induced Permeability of Cryogenic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noh, Jae; Whitcomb, John; Oh, Bongtaek; Lagoudas, Dimitris; Maslov, Konstatin; Ganpatyre, Atul; Kinra, Vikram

    2003-01-01

    Reusable Space Vehicles will include light cryogenic composite fuel tanks that must not leak excessively even after multiple launches. Damage in cryogenic composite fuel tanks induced during manufacturing and advanced by thermomechanical cycling can accelerate leakage of the propellant. Whether the leakage exceeds tolerable levels depends on many factors, including pressure gradients, microcrack density, other damage such as delamination, connectivity of the cracks, residual stresses from manufacture, service-induced stresses from thermal and mechanical loads, and composite lay-up. Although it is critical to experimentally characterize permeability during various thermal and mechanical load histories, optimal design depends on having analytical models that can predict the effect of various parameters on performance. Our broad goal is to develop such models that are experimentally validated by destructive and non-destructive evaluation means.

  15. A study of cooling time reduction of interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors using a high-emissivity coating

    SciTech Connect

    Sakakibara, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Chen, D.; Tokoku, C.; Uchiyama, T.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Kimura, N.; Suzuki, T.; Koike, S.

    2014-01-29

    In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

  16. Mechanical properties of heterophase polymer blends of cryogenically fractured soy flour composite filler and poly(styrene-butadiene)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reinforcement effect of cryogenically fractured soy Flour composite filler in soft polymer was investigated in this study. Polymer composites were prepared by melt-mixing polymer and soy flour composite fillers in an internal mixer. Soy flour composite fillers were prepared by blending aqueous dis...

  17. Cryogenic Silicon Detectors with Implanted Contacts for the Detection of Visible Photons Using the Neganov-Trofimov-Luke Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defay, X.; Mondragon, E.; Willers, M.; Langenkämper, A.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Münster, A.; Zöller, A.; Wawoczny, S.; Steiger, H.; Hitzler, F.; Bruhn, C.; Schönert, S.; Potzel, W.; Chapellier, M.

    2016-07-01

    There is a common need in astroparticle experiments such as direct dark matter detection, double-beta decay without emission of neutrinos [0 ν β β ] and coherent neutrino nucleus scattering experiments for light detectors with a very low energy threshold. By employing the Neganov-Trofimov-Luke Effect, the thermal signal of particle interactions in a semiconductor absorber operated at cryogenic temperatures can be amplified by drifting the photogenerated electrons and holes in an electric field. This technology is not used in current experiments, in particular because of a reduction of the signal amplitude with time which is due to trapping of the charges within the absorber. We present here the first results of a novel type of Neganov-Trofimov-Luke Effect light detector with an electric field configuration designed to improve the charge collection within the semiconductor.

  18. Cryogenic optical measurements of 12-segment-bonded carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite mirror with support mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Onaka, Takashi; Enya, Keigo; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Takaki, Junji; Haruna, Masaki; Kume, Masami; Ozaki, Tsuyoshi

    2008-03-10

    A 720 mm diameter 12-segment-bonded carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) composite mirror has been fabricated and tested at cryogenic temperatures. Interferometric measurements show significant cryogenic deformation of the C/SiC composite mirror, which is well reproduced by a model analysis with measured properties of the bonded segments. It is concluded that the deformation is due mostly to variation in coefficients of thermal expansion among segments. In parallel, a 4-degree-of-freedom ball-bearing support mechanism has been developed for cryogenic applications. The C/SiC composite mirror was mounted on an aluminum base plate with the support mechanism and tested again. Cryogenic deformation of the mirror attributed to thermal contraction of the aluminum base plate via the support mechanism is highly reduced by the support, confirming that the newly developed support mechanism is promising for its future application to large-aperture cooled space telescopes.

  19. Cryogenic optical measurements of 12-segment-bonded carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite mirror with support mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Onaka, Takashi; Enya, Keigo; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Takaki, Junji; Haruna, Masaki; Kume, Masami; Ozaki, Tsuyoshi

    2008-03-01

    A 720 mm diameter 12-segment-bonded carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) composite mirror has been fabricated and tested at cryogenic temperatures. Interferometric measurements show significant cryogenic deformation of the C/SiC composite mirror, which is well reproduced by a model analysis with measured properties of the bonded segments. It is concluded that the deformation is due mostly to variation in coefficients of thermal expansion among segments. In parallel, a 4-degree-of-freedom ball-bearing support mechanism has been developed for cryogenic applications. The C/SiC composite mirror was mounted on an aluminum base plate with the support mechanism and tested again. Cryogenic deformation of the mirror attributed to thermal contraction of the aluminum base plate via the support mechanism is highly reduced by the support, confirming that the newly developed support mechanism is promising for its future application to large-aperture cooled space telescopes.

  20. Inductively coupled plasma etching of HgCdTe IRFPAs detectors at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Ye, Z. H.; Sun, C. H.; Zhang, S.; Hu, X. N.; Ding, R. J.; He, L.

    2016-05-01

    To fabricate various advanced structures with HgCdTe material, the Inductively Coupled Plasma enhanced Reactive Ion Etching system is indispensable. However, due to low damage threshold and complicated behaviors of mercury in HgCdTe, the lattice damage and induced electrical conversion is very common. According to the diffusion model during etching period, the mercury interstitials, however, may not diffuse deep into the material at cryogenic temperature. In this report, ICP etching of HgCdTe at cryogenic temperature was implemented. The etching system with cryogenic assembly is provided by Oxford Instrument. The sample table was cooled down to 123K with liquid nitrogen. The mask of SiO2 with a contact layer of ZnS functioned well at this temperature. The selectivity and etching velocity maintained the same as reported in the etching of room temperature. Smooth and clean surfaces and profiles were achieved with an optimized recipe.

  1. Hydrogen Permeability of Polymer Matrix Composites at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenoble, Ray W.; Gates, Thomas S

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents experimental methods and results of an ongoing study of the correlation between damage state and hydrogen gas permeability of laminated composite materials under mechanical strains and thermal loads. A specimen made from IM-7/977-2 composite material has been mechanically cycled at room temperature to induce microcrack damage. Crack density and tensile modulus were observed as functions of number of cycles. Damage development was found to occur most quickly in the off-axis plies near the outside of the laminate. Permeability measurements were made after 170,000 cycles and 430,000 cycles. Leak rate was found to depend on applied mechanical strain, crack density, and test temperature.

  2. Polymeric compositions and their method of manufacture. [forming filled polymer systems using cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, B. G.; Landel, R. F. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    Filled polymer compositions are made by dissolving the polymer binder in a suitable sublimable solvent, mixing the filler material with the polymer and its solvent, freezing the resultant mixture, and subliming the frozen solvent from the mixture from which it is then removed. The remaining composition is suitable for conventional processing such as compression molding or extruding. A particular feature of the method of manufacture is pouring the mixed solution slowly in a continuous stream into a cryogenic bath wherein frozen particles of the mixture result. The frozen individual particles are then subjected to the sublimation.

  3. Thermal/Mechanical Durability of Polymer-Matrix Composites in Cryogenic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Whitley, Karen S.; Grenoble, Ray W.; Bandorawalla, Tozer

    2003-01-01

    In order to increase the reliability of the next generation of space transportation systems, the mechanical behavior of polymeric-matrix composite (PMC) materials at cryogenic temperatures must be investigated. This paper presents experimental data on the residual mechanical properties of a carbon fiber polymeric composite, IM7/PETI-5 as a function of temperature and aging. Tension modulus and strength were measured at room temperature, -196 C, and -269 C on five different specimens ply lay-ups. Specimens were preconditioned with one set of coupons being isothermally aged for 576 hours at -184 C, in an unloaded state. Another set of corresponding coupons were mounted in constant strain fixtures such that a constant uniaxial strain was applied to the specimens for 576 hours at -184 C. A third set was mechanically cycled in tension at -184 C. The measured properties indicated that temperature, aging, and loading mode can all have significant influence on performance. Moreover, this influence is a strong function of laminate stacking sequence. Thermal-stress calculations based on lamination theory predicted that the transverse tensile ply stresses could be quite high for cryogenic test temperatures. Microscopic examination of the surface morphology showed evidence of degradation along the exposed edges of the material because of aging at cryogenic temperatures. ________________

  4. Lightweight thermally efficient composite feedlines for the space tug cryogenic propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spond, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Six liquid hydrogen feedline design concepts were developed for the cryogenic space tug. The feedlines include composite and all-metal vacuum jacketed and nonvacuum jacketed concepts, and incorporate the latest technological developments in the areas of thermally efficient vacuum jacket end closures and standoffs, radiation shields in the vacuum annulus, thermal coatings, and lightweight dissimilar metal flanged joints. The feedline design concepts are evaluated on the basis of thermal performance, weight, cost, reliability, and reusability. Design concepts were proved in a subscale test program. Detail design was completed on the most promising composite feedline concept and an all-metal feedline. Three full scale curved composite feedlines and one all-metal feedline assembly were fabricated and subjected to a test program representative of flight hardware qualification. The test results show that composite feedline technology is fully developed. Composite feedlines are ready for space vehicle application and offer significant reduction in weights over the conventional all-metal feedlines presently used.

  5. Methods and Piezoelectric Imbedded Sensors for Damage Detection in Composite Plates Under Ambient and Cryogenic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engberg, Robert; Ooi, Teng K.

    2004-01-01

    New methods for structural health monitoring are being assessed, especially in high-performance, extreme environment, safety-critical applications. One such application is for composite cryogenic fuel tanks. The work presented here attempts to characterize and investigate the feasibility of using imbedded piezoelectric sensors to detect cracks and delaminations under cryogenic and ambient conditions. A variety of damage detection methods and different Sensors are employed in the different composite plate samples to aid in determining an optimal algorithm, sensor placement strategy, and type of imbedded sensor to use. Variations of frequency, impedance measurements, and pulse echoing techniques of the sensors are employed and compared. Statistical and analytic techniques are then used to determine which method is most desirable for a specific type of damage. These results are furthermore compared with previous work using externally mounted sensors. Results and optimized methods from this work can then be incorporated into a larger composite structure to validate and assess its structural health. This could prove to be important in the development and qualification of any 2" generation reusable launch vehicle using composites as a structural element.

  6. Structural Health Monitoring of Composite Plates Under Ambient and Cryogenic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engberg, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    Methods for structural health monitoring are now being assessed, especially in high-performance, extreme environment, safety-critical applications. One such application is for composite cryogenic fuel tanks. The work presented here attempts to characterize and investigate the feasibility of using imbedded piezoelectric sensors to detect cracks and delaminations under cryogenic and ambient conditions. Different types of excitation and response signals and different sensors are employed in composite plate samples to aid in determining an optimal algorithm, sensor placement strategy, and type of imbedded sensor to use. Variations of frequency and high frequency chirps of the sensors are employed and compared. Statistical and analytic techniques are then used to determine which method is most desirable for a specific type of damage and operating environment. These results are furthermore compared with previous work using externally mounted sensors. More work is needed to accurately account for changes in temperature seen in these environments and be statistically significant. Sensor development and placement strategy are other areas of further work to make structural health monitoring more robust. Results from this and other work might then be incorporated into a larger composite structure to validate and assess its structural health. This could prove to be important in the development and qualification of any 2nd generation reusable launch vehicle using composites as a structural element.

  7. Design and construction of a cryogenic distillation device for removal of krypton for liquid xenon dark matter detectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhou; Bao, Lei; Hao, Xihuan; Ju, Yonglin

    2014-01-01

    Liquid xenon (Xe) is one of the commendable detecting media for the dark matter detections. However, the small content of radioactive krypton-85 ((85)Kr) always exists in the commercial xenon products. An efficient cryogenic distillation system to remove this krypton (Kr) from commercial xenon products has been specifically designed, developed, and constructed in order to meet the requirements of the dark matter experiments with high- sensitivity and low-background. The content of krypton in regular commercial xenon products can be reduced from 10(-9) to 10(-12), with 99% xenon collection efficiency at maximum flow rate of 5 kg/h (15SLPM). The purified xenon gases produced by this distillation system can be used as the detecting media in the project of Panda X, which is the first dark matter detector developed in China.

  8. Cryogenic Yb:YAG composite-thin-disk for high energy and average power amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Luis E; Lin, Hua; Calendron, Anne-Laure; Cankaya, Huseyin; Hemmer, Michael; Reichert, Fabian; Huang, W Ronny; Granados, Eduardo; Hong, Kyung-Han; Kärtner, Franz X

    2015-06-01

    A cryogenic composite-thin-disk amplifier with amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) rejection is implemented that overcomes traditional laser system problems in high-energy pulsed laser drivers of high average power. A small signal gain of 8 dB was compared to a 1.5 dB gain for an uncapped thin-disk without ASE mitigation under identical pumping conditions. A strict image relayed 12-pass architecture using an off-axis vacuum telescope and polarization switching extracted 100 mJ at 250 Hz in high beam quality stretched 700 ps pulses of 0.6-nm bandwidth. PMID:26030570

  9. Tensile deformation mechanisms of an in-situ Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite at cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Bai, J; Li, J S; Qiao, J W; Wang, J; Feng, R; Kou, H C; Liaw, P K

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable tensile ductility was first obtained in an in-situ Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite at cryogenic temperature (77 K). The novel cryogenic tensile plasticity is related to the effective accommodation of ductile body-centered cubic dendrites at 77 K, characteristic of the prevailing slip bands and dislocations, as well as lattice disorder, which can effectively hinder the propagation of critical shear bands. The greatly increased yield strength of dendrites contributes to the high yield strength of composite at 77 K. A trend of stronger softening is observed at low temperature, and a criterion is proposed to understand the softening behavior. The current research could also provide a guidance to the promising cryogenic application of these new advanced BMG composites. PMID:27576728

  10. Tensile deformation mechanisms of an in-situ Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite at cryogenic temperature

    PubMed Central

    Bai, J.; Li, J. S.; Qiao, J. W.; Wang, J.; Feng, R.; Kou, H. C.; Liaw, P. K.

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable tensile ductility was first obtained in an in-situ Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite at cryogenic temperature (77 K). The novel cryogenic tensile plasticity is related to the effective accommodation of ductile body-centered cubic dendrites at 77 K, characteristic of the prevailing slip bands and dislocations, as well as lattice disorder, which can effectively hinder the propagation of critical shear bands. The greatly increased yield strength of dendrites contributes to the high yield strength of composite at 77 K. A trend of stronger softening is observed at low temperature, and a criterion is proposed to understand the softening behavior. The current research could also provide a guidance to the promising cryogenic application of these new advanced BMG composites. PMID:27576728

  11. Tensile deformation mechanisms of an in-situ Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite at cryogenic temperature.

    PubMed

    Bai, J; Li, J S; Qiao, J W; Wang, J; Feng, R; Kou, H C; Liaw, P K

    2016-08-31

    Remarkable tensile ductility was first obtained in an in-situ Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite at cryogenic temperature (77 K). The novel cryogenic tensile plasticity is related to the effective accommodation of ductile body-centered cubic dendrites at 77 K, characteristic of the prevailing slip bands and dislocations, as well as lattice disorder, which can effectively hinder the propagation of critical shear bands. The greatly increased yield strength of dendrites contributes to the high yield strength of composite at 77 K. A trend of stronger softening is observed at low temperature, and a criterion is proposed to understand the softening behavior. The current research could also provide a guidance to the promising cryogenic application of these new advanced BMG composites.

  12. Tensile deformation mechanisms of an in-situ Ti-based metallic glass matrix composite at cryogenic temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J.; Li, J. S.; Qiao, J. W.; Wang, J.; Feng, R.; Kou, H. C.; Liaw, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    Remarkable tensile ductility was first obtained in an in-situ Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) composite at cryogenic temperature (77 K). The novel cryogenic tensile plasticity is related to the effective accommodation of ductile body-centered cubic dendrites at 77 K, characteristic of the prevailing slip bands and dislocations, as well as lattice disorder, which can effectively hinder the propagation of critical shear bands. The greatly increased yield strength of dendrites contributes to the high yield strength of composite at 77 K. A trend of stronger softening is observed at low temperature, and a criterion is proposed to understand the softening behavior. The current research could also provide a guidance to the promising cryogenic application of these new advanced BMG composites.

  13. Impedance-Based Structural Health Monitoring for Composite Laminates at Cryogenic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    One of the important ways of increasing the payload in a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is to replace heavy metallic materials by lightweight composite laminates. Among various parts and systems of the RLV, this project focuses on tanks containing cryogenic fuel. Historically, aluminum alloys have been used as the materials to construct fuel tanks for launch vehicles. To replace aluminum alloys with composite laminates or honeycomb materials, engineers have to make sure that the composites are free of defects before, during, and after launch. In addition to robust design and manufacturing procedures, the performance of the composite structures needs to be monitored constantly.In recent years, the impedance-based health monitoring technique has shown its promise in many applications. This technique makes use of the special properties of smart piezoelectric materials to identify the change of material properties due to the nucleation and progression of damage. The piezoceramic patch serves as a sensor and an actuator simultaneously. The piezoelectric patch is bonded onto an existing structure or embedded into a new structure and electrically excited at high frequencies. The signature (impedance or admittance) is extracted as a function of the exciting frequency and is compared with the baseline signature of the healthy state. The damage is quantified using root mean square deviation (RMSD) in the impedance signatures with respect to the baseline signature. A major advantage of this technique is that the procedure is nondestructive in nature and does not perturb the properties and performance of the materials and structures. This project aims at applying the impedance-based nondestructive testing technique to the damage identification of composite laminates at cryogenic temperature.

  14. Action of Cryogenic chill on Mechanical properties of Nickel alloy Metal Matrix Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, B. K. Anil; Ananthaprasad, M. G.; GopalaKrishna, K.

    2016-09-01

    In the area of material science engineering, metallurgists may be at the forefront of new technologies, developing metals for new applications, or involved in the traditional manufacture. By doing so it is possible for metallurgist to apply their knowledge of metals to solve complex problems and looking for ways to improve the mechanical properties of the materials. Therefore, an investigation in the present research was made to fabricate and evaluate the microstructure and mechanical properties of composites developed using cryogenically cooled copper chills, consisting of nickel alloy matrix and garnet particles as the reinforcement. The reinforcement being added ranges from 3 to 12 wt.% in steps of 3%. A stir casting process was used to fabricate the nickel base matrix alloy fused with garnet reinforcement particle. The matrix alloy was melted in a casting furnace at around 1350°C, the garnet particulates which was preheated to 600°C, was introduced evenly into the molten metal alloy. An arrangement was made at one end of the mould by placing copper chill blocks of varying thickness brazed with MS hallow block in which liquid nitrogen was circulated for cryogenic effect. After solidification, the composite materials thus synthesized were examined for microstructural and mechanical properties as per ASTM standards.

  15. Thermal/Mechanical Response of a Polymer Matrix Composite at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Karen S.; Gates, Thomas S.

    2003-01-01

    In order for polymeric-matrix composites to be considered for use as structural materials in the next generation of space transportation systems, the mechanical behavior of these materials at cryogenic temperatures must be investigated. This paper presents experimental data on the residual mechanical properties of a carbon-fiber polymeric composite, IM7/PETI-5, both before and after aging. Both tension and compression modulus and strength were measured at room temperature, -196C, and -269 C on five different laminate configurations. One set of specimens was aged isothermally for 576 hours at -184 C in an unconstrained state. Another set of corresponding specimens was aged under constant uniaxial strain for 576 hours at -184 C. Based on the experimental data presented, it is shown that trends in stiffness and strength that result from changes in temperature are not always smooth and consistent. Moreover, it is shown that loading mode and direction are significant for both stiffness and strength, and aging at cryogenic temperature while under load can alter the mechanical properties of pristine, un-aged laminates made of IM7/PETI-5 material.

  16. Composite,Cryogenic, Conformal, Common Bulkhead, Aerogel-Insulated Tank (CBAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. K.; Kovach, M. P.; McMahon, W. M.; Finckenor, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the Composite, Cryogenic, Conformal, Common Bulkhead, Aerogel-insulated Tank (CBAT) Program is to evaluate the potential for using various new technologies in next generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) through design, fabrication, and testing of a subscale system. The new technologies include polymer matrix composites (PMCs), conformal propellant storage, common bulkhead packaging, and aerogel insulation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Thiokol Propulsion from Cordant Technologies are working together to develop a design and the processing methodologies which will allow integration of these technologies into a single structural component assembly. Such integration will significantly decrease subsystem weight and reduce shape, volume, and placement restrictions, thereby enhancing overall launch system performance. This paper/presentation focuses on the challenges related to materials and processes that were encountered and overcome during this program to date.

  17. Development of Low-Noise High Value Chromium Silicide Resistors for Cryogenic Detector Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Babu, Sachi; Monroy, Carlos; Darren, C.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extremely high sensitivity detectors, such as silicon bolometers are required in many NASA missions for detection of photons from the x-ray to the far infrared regions. Typically, these detectors are cooled to well below the liquid helium (LHe) temperature (4.2 K) to achieve the maximum detection performance. As photoconductors, they are generally operated with a load resistor and a pre-set bias voltage, which is then coupled to the input gate of a source-follower Field Effect Transistor (FET) circuit. It is imperative that the detector system signal to noise performance be limited by the noise of the detector and not by the noise of the external components. The load resistor value is selected to optimize the detector performance. These two criteria tend to be contradictory in that these detectors require load resistors in the hundreds of megaohms, which leads to a higher Johnson noise. Additionally, the physical size of the resistor must be small for device integration as required by such missions as the NASA High Resolution Airborne Wide-Band Camera (HAWC) instrument and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC) for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We have designed, fabricated and characterized thin film resistors using a CrSi/TiW/Al metal system on optical quality quartz substrates. The resistor values range from 100 megaohms to over 650 megaohms and are Johnson noise limited at LHe temperatures. The resistor film is sputtered with a sheet resistance ranging from 300 ohms to 1600 ohms and the processing sequence developed for these devices allows for chemically fine tuning the sheet resistance in-situ. The wafer fabrication process was of sufficiently high yield (>80%) providing clusters of good resistors for integrated multiple detector channels, a very important feature in the assembly of these two instruments.

  18. Calibration system with cryogenically-cooled loads for cosmic microwave background polarization detectors.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, M; Tajima, O; Chinone, Y; Hazumi, M; Ishidoshiro, K; Nagai, M

    2011-05-01

    We present a novel system to calibrate millimeter-wave polarimeters for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization measurements. This technique is an extension of the conventional metal mirror rotation approach, however, it employs cryogenically-cooled blackbody absorbers. The primary advantage of this system is that it can generate a slightly polarized signal (∼100 mK) in the laboratory; this is at a similar level to that measured by ground-based CMB polarization experiments observing a ∼10 K sky. It is important to reproduce the observing condition in the laboratory for reliable characterization of polarimeters before deployment. In this paper, we present the design and principle of the system and demonstrate its use with a coherent-type polarimeter used for an actual CMB polarization experiment. This technique can also be applied to incoherent-type polarimeters and it is very promising for the next-generation CMB polarization experiments.

  19. Cryogenic Property Measurements on Icy Compositions with Application to Solar System Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, C.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Barmatz, M.; Mitchell, K.

    2007-08-01

    grains). Post-synthesis microstructural characterization will be performed using Cryogenic Optical Microscopy integrating a cross-polarizer to analyze thin sections, and a Cryogenic Scanning Electron Microscope. Mechanical property measurements on solid specimens will be performed between 80 and 270 K with a cryogenically cooled Instron measurement system. Compression measurements will be conducted as a function of temperature, strain-rate, microstructural length scale and orientation. The time dependent viscous response will be measured by performing creep measurements over the same range of temperatures. Using low-frequency cyclic loading, the dissipation factor will be measured at frequencies approaching satellite orbital frequencies. We will report preliminary mechanical property measurements of Antarctic glacial specimens at cryogenic temperatures. Fluids. In order to improve our understanding of effusive cryovolcanism, the rheological properties of liquid and mixed (slurry) materials will be measured between 80 and 300 K using a cryogenically cooled Brookfield rotational rheometer. We will report preliminary measurements of the temperature dependence of the viscous response for several compositions in the Methanol-Water System. Also, we will describe an experiment designed to measure methane wetting on water ice. These experiments will be carried out in order to explore the effects of the presence of methane lakes on Titan's surface. We are developing the capability to investigate more complex materials relevant to surface processes on Titan, including methane-ethane phase studies, hydrocarbons such as acetylene and benzene, as well as tholins and clathrates, which should exhibit a range of rheological and mechanical properties from fast-moving fluids to glacial creep. Acknowledgements: Most of the research described in this presentation was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National

  20. Cryogenic detectors based on superconducting transition-edge sensors for time-energy-resolved single-photon counters and for dark matter searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, B.; Clarke, R.; Miller, A.; Nam, S. W.; Romani, R.; Saab, T.; Young, B.

    2000-05-01

    We present the recent progress using transition-edge sensors (TES) for cryogenic particle detectors. First, by directly absorbing photons in tungsten TES devices, an instrument has been made which time stamps (0.1μs) and energy resolves (0.15 eV FWHM) each photon at rates up to 10 kHz. Observations of the Crab pulsar are the first broad spectrum infrared through full optical and time resolved on any astronomical object. Second, in the CDMS (cryogenic dark matter search) experiment looking for WIMPs, large crystals of silicon and germanium are instrumented with QET (quasiparticle-trap-assisted electrothermal-feedback transition-edge sensors) phonon sensors which provide the recoil energy and location in /x,y and /z for each event. Together with an ionization readout, these detectors provide powerful discrimination capabilities against known backgrounds and they are now probing new regions for WIMP dark matter.

  1. The ITER pre-compression rings – A first in cryogenic composite technology

    SciTech Connect

    Rajainmaki, Hannu; Fanthome, John; Losasso, Marcello; Rodriguez, Jesus; Evans, David; Diaz, Victor

    2014-01-27

    The ITER Pre-Compression Rings represent one of the heaviest composite structures ever manufactured as a single piece and the largest - the outer diameter will be above 5.5 meters - intended for use in a cryogenic environment. With a cross section of 337 mm × 288 mm, each item will weigh more than 3,000 kg. A development program, based on filament wound and dry wound S2 glass unidirectional fibers, the latter processed by VARTM, was completed on one fifth scale rings, and these materials and techniques were shown to be satisfactory. The paper describes how a technology applied to build up primary structures of European launchers is being accommodated to produce the ITER Pre-Compression Rings, fulfilling its extremely challenging requirements. In addition, we will describe how the structural analysis is correlated with the test results of scaled down rings, as well as how the pre-compression rings’ manufacturing process will be qualified.

  2. Canister cryogenic system for cooling germanium semiconductor detectors in borehole and marine probes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boynton, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    High resolution intrinsic and lithium-drifted germanium gamma-ray detectors operate at about 77-90 K. A cryostat for borehole and marine applications has been designed that makes use of prefrozen propane canisters. Uses of such canisters simplifies cryostat construction, and the rapid exchange of canisters greatly reduces the time required to restore the detector to full holding-time capability and enhances the safety of a field operation where high-intensity 252Cf or other isotopic sources are used. A holding time of 6 h at 86 K was achieved in the laboratory in a simulated borehole probe in which a canister 3.7 cm diameter by 57 cm long was used. Longer holding times can be achieved by larger volume canisters in marine probes. ?? 1975.

  3. Optimizing the design and analysis of cryogenic semiconductor dark matter detectors for maximum sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Pyle, Matt Christopher

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we illustrate how the complex E- field geometry produced by interdigitated electrodes at alternating voltage biases naturally encodes 3D fiducial volume information into the charge and phonon signals and thus is a natural geometry for our next generation dark matter detectors. Secondly, we will study in depth the physics of import to our devices including transition edge sensor dynamics, quasi- particle dynamics in our Al collection fins, and phonon physics in the crystal itself so that we can both understand the performance of our previous CDMS II device as well as optimize the design of our future devices. Of interest to the broader physics community is the derivation of the ideal athermal phonon detector resolution and it's T3 c scaling behavior which suggests that the athermal phonon detector technology developed by CDMS could also be used to discover coherent neutrino scattering and search for non-standard neutrino interaction and sterile neutrinos. These proposed resolution optimized devices can also be used in searches for exotic MeV-GeV dark matter as well as novel background free searches for 8GeV light WIMPs.

  4. A cryogenic monitor system for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter in the SLD detector

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.J.; Fox, J.D.

    1988-10-01

    This paper describes the monitoring electronics system design for the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) portion of the SLD detector. This system measures temperatures and liquid levels inside the LAC cryostat and transfers the results over a fiber-optic serial link to an external monitoring computer. System requirements, unique design constraints, and detailed analog, digital and software designs are presented. Fault tolerance and the requirement for a single design to work in several different operating environments are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Cryogenic-Compatible Winchester Connector Mount and Retaining System for Composite Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, James; McGuffey, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    A connector retainer and mounting system has been designed to replace screw-mounting of Winchester connectors. Countersunk screws are normally used to secure connectors to structures, and to keep them from coming apart. These screws are normally put into threaded or through-holes in metallic structures. This unique retainer is designed such that integral posts keep the connector halves retained, and a groove permits a cable tie to be fastened around the retainer and composite tube, thus securing the connector to the structure. The system is compatible for use on cryogenic (and conventional) bonded composite tube assemblies. Screws and tapped/through-holes needed to retain and mount Winchester connectors cannot be used on blind-access composite tubes. This system allows for rapid installation, removal, low-molecular-outgassing materials, and particulate-free installation and removal. Installation and/or changes late in the integration, and test flow with limited access in a cleanroom environment are possible. No sanding or bonding is needed.

  6. An investigation into the impact of cryogenic environment on mechanical stresses in FRP composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fifo, O.; Basu, B.

    2015-07-01

    Fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are fast becoming a highly utilised engineering material for high performance applications due to their light weight and high strength. Carbon fibre and other high strength fibres are commonly used in design of aerospace structures, wind turbine blades, etc. and potentially for propellant tanks of launch vehicles. For the aforementioned fields of application, stability of the material is essential over a wide range of temperature particularly for structures in hostile environments. Many studies have been conducted, experimentally, over the last decade to investigate the mechanical behaviour of FRP materials at varying subzero temperature. Likewise, tests on aging and cycling effect (room to low temperature) on the mechanical response of FRP have been reported. However, a relatively lesser focused area has been the mechanical behaviour of FRP composites under cryogenic environment. This article reports a finite element method of investigating the changes in the mechanical characteristics of an FRP material when temperature based analysis falls below zero. The simulated tests are carried out using a finite element package with close material properties used in the cited literatures. Tensile test was conducted and the results indicate that the mechanical responses agree with those reported in the literature sited.

  7. Design/Analysis of Metal/Composite Bonded Joints for Survivability at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszyk, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    A major design and analysis challenge for the JWST ISM structure is the metal/composite bonded joints that will be required to survive down to an operational ultra-low temperature of 30K (-405 F). The initial and current baseline design for the plug-type joint consists of a titanium thin walled fitting (1-3mm thick) bonded to the interior surface of an M555/954-6 composite truss square tube with an axially stiff biased lay-up. Metallic fittings are required at various nodes of the truss structure to accommodate instrument and lift-point bolted interfaces. Analytical experience and design work done on metal/composite bonded joints at temperatures below liquid nitrogen are limited and important analysis tools, material properties, and failure criteria for composites at cryogenic temperatures are virtually nonexistent. Increasing the challenge is the difficulty in testing for these required tools and parameters at 30K. A preliminary finite element analysis shows that failure due to CTE mismatch between the biased composite and titanium or aluminum is likely. Failure is less likely with Invar, however an initial mass estimate of Invar fittings demonstrates that Invar is not an automatic alternative. In order to gain confidence in analyzing and designing the ISM joints, a comprehensive joint development testing program has been planned and is currently running. The test program is designed for the correlation of the analysis methodology, including tuning finite element model parameters, and developing a composite failure criterion for the effect of multi-axial composite stresses on the strength of a bonded joint at 30K. The testing program will also consider stress mitigation using compliant composite layers and potential strength degradation due to multiple thermal cycles. Not only will the finite element analysis be correlated to the test data, but the FEA will be used to guide the design of the test. The first phase of the test program has been completed and the

  8. A search for low-mass dark matter with the cryogenic dark matter search and the development of highly multiplexed phonon-mediated particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Craig

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of astrophysical observations indicate that approximately 85% of the matter in the universe is nonbaryonic and nonluminous. Understanding the nature of this "dark matter" is one of the most important outstanding questions in cosmology. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are a leading candidate for dark matter since they would be thermally produced in the early universe in the correct abundance to account for the observed relic density of dark matter. If WIMPs account for the dark matter, then rare interactions from relic WIMPs should be observable in terrestrial detectors. Recently, unexplained excess events in the DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, and CRESST-II experiments have been interpreted as evidence of scattering from WIMPs with masses ~10 GeV and spin-independent scattering cross sections of 10-41-10-40 cm2. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) attempts to identify WIMP interactions using an array of cryogenic germanium and silicon particle detectors located at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in northern Minnesota. In this dissertation, data taken by CDMS II are reanalyzed using a 2 keV recoil energy threshold to increase the sensitivity to WIMPs with masses ~10 GeV. These data disfavor an explanation for the DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, and CRESST-II results in terms of spin-independent elastic scattering of WIMPs with masses ≲12 GeV, under standard assumptions. At the time of publication, they provided the strongest constraints on spin-independent elastic scattering from 5-9 GeV, ruling out previously unexplored parameter space. To detect WIMPs or exclude the remaining parameter space favored by the most popular models will ultimately require detectors with target masses ≳1 ton, requiring an increase in mass by more than two orders of magnitude over CDMS II. For cryogenic detectors such as CDMS, scaling to such large target masses will require individual detector elements to be fabricated more quickly and cheaply, while

  9. High-precision CTE measurement of hybrid C/SiC composite for cryogenic space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enya, K.; Yamada, N.; Imai, T.; Tange, Y.; Kaneda, H.; Katayama, H.; Kotani, M.; Maruyama, K.; Naitoh, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Onaka, T.; Suganuma, M.; Ozaki, T.; Kume, M.; Krödel, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents highly precise measurements of thermal expansion of a "hybrid" carbon-fiber reinforced silicon carbide composite, HB-Cesic® - a trademark of ECM, in the temperature region of ˜310-10 K. Whilst C/SiC composites have been considered to be promising for the mirrors and other structures of space-borne cryogenic telescopes, the anisotropic thermal expansion has been a potential disadvantage of this material. HB-Cesic® is a newly developed composite using a mixture of different types of chopped, short carbon-fiber, in which one of the important aims of the development was to reduce the anisotropy. The measurements indicate that the anisotropy was much reduced down to 4% as a result of hybridization. The thermal expansion data obtained are presented as functions of temperature using eighth-order polynomials separately for the horizontal (XY-) and vertical (Z-) directions of the fabrication process. The average CTEs and their dispersion (1σ) in the range 293-10 K derived from the data for the XY- and Z-directions were 0.805 ± 0.003 × 10-6 K-1 and 0.837 ± 0.001 × 10-6 K-1, respectively. The absolute accuracy and the reproducibility of the present measurements are suggested to be better than 0.01 × 10-6 K-1 and 0.001 × 10-6 K-1, respectively. The residual anisotropy of the thermal expansion was consistent with our previous speculation regarding carbon-fiber, in which the residual anisotropy tended to lie mainly in the horizontal plane.

  10. Sea Spray Aerosol Structure and Composition Using Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The composition and surface properties of atmospheric aerosol particles largely control their impact on climate by affecting their ability to uptake water, react heterogeneously, and nucleate ice in clouds. However, in the vacuum of a conventional electron microscope, the native surface and internal structure often undergo physicochemical rearrangement resulting in surfaces that are quite different from their atmospheric configurations. Herein, we report the development of cryogenic transmission electron microscopy where laboratory generated sea spray aerosol particles are flash frozen in their native state with iterative and controlled thermal and/or pressure exposures and then probed by electron microscopy. This unique approach allows for the detection of not only mixed salts, but also soft materials including whole hydrated bacteria, diatoms, virus particles, marine vesicles, as well as gel networks within hydrated salt droplets—all of which will have distinct biological, chemical, and physical processes. We anticipate this method will open up a new avenue of analysis for aerosol particles, not only for ocean-derived aerosols, but for those produced from other sources where there is interest in the transfer of organic or biological species from the biosphere to the atmosphere. PMID:26878061

  11. Cryogenic EBSD reveals structure of directionally solidified ice–polymer composite

    SciTech Connect

    Donius, Amalie E.; Obbard, Rachel W.; Burger, Joan N.; Hunger, Philipp M.; Baker, Ian; Doherty, Roger D.; Wegst, Ulrike G.K.

    2014-07-01

    Despite considerable research efforts on directionally solidified or freeze-cast materials in recent years, little fundamental knowledge has been gained that links model with experiment. In this contribution, the cryogenic characterization of directionally solidified polymer solutions illustrates, how powerful cryo-scanning electron microscopy combined with electron backscatter diffraction is for the structural characterization of ice–polymer composite materials. Under controlled sublimation, the freeze-cast polymer scaffold structure is revealed and imaged with secondary electrons. Electron backscatter diffraction fabric analysis shows that the ice crystals, which template the polymer scaffold and create the lamellar structure, have a-axes oriented parallel to the direction of solidification and the c-axes perpendicular to it. These results indicate the great potential of both cryo-scanning electron microscopy and cryo-electron backscatter diffraction in gaining fundamental knowledge of structure–property–processing correlations. - Highlights: • Cryo-SEM of freeze-cast polymer solution reveals an ice-templated structure. • Cryo-EBSD reveals the ice crystal a-axis to parallel the solidification direction. • The honeycomb-like polymer phase favors columnar ridges only on one side. • Combining cryo-SEM with EBSD links solidification theory with experiment.

  12. Drifts exhibited by cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors and their importance to the ATSR-2 and Landsat-5 Earth observation missions.

    PubMed

    Theocharous, Evangelos

    2005-07-10

    The spectral responsivity of commercially available InSb detectors with low-pass cold filters attached to their cold shields for optimum operation in the 1.6-2.6 microm wavelength range is observed to drift slowly with time. These drifts are shown to arise because of a thin film of water-ice deposited on the cold low-pass filters mounted on the cold shields of the detectors. The temporal characteristics of these drifts are shown to strongly depend on wavelength. A model is proposed for the behavior of the water present in the Dewar vacuum, which can explain and predict the temporal characteristics of the observed drifts for all wavelengths. These observations are particularly relevant to space instruments that use cryogenically cooled IR filter radiometers for Earth observation. The temporal profile of drifts observed in missions such as Landsat-5 is identical to that observed in cryogenically cooled filtered InSb detectors during laboratory measurements. This study confirms that the deposition of a thin film of a material such as ice on the cold bandpass filters and windows is therefore the most likely source of the oscillatory drifts observed in the response of some of the channels of the ATSR-2, Landsat-4, and Landsat-5 Earth observation missions.

  13. Flexural fatigue performance and electrical resistance response of carbon nanotube-based polymer composites at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhijuan; Takeda, Tomo; Narita, Fumio; Shindo, Yasuhide

    2014-01-01

    We study the flexural failure and electrical resistance change of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based polymer composites under cyclic loading at cryogenic temperatures. Fatigue tests were performed on CNT/polycarbonate composites at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) using the three-point bending method, and the measurements of the specimen electrical resistance were made during the tests. Also, the specimen fracture surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to verify the failure mechanisms of the nanocomposites. The dependence of the mechanical and electrical responses of the nanocomposites on the temperature and the nanotube content was then discussed.

  14. Cryogenic Interlaminar Fracture Properties of Woven Glass/Epoxy Composite Laminates Under Mixed-Mode I/III Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Masaya; Shindo, Yasuhide; Takeda, Tomo; Narita, Fumio

    2013-08-01

    We characterize the combined Mode I and Mode III delamination fracture behavior of woven glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite laminates at cryogenic temperatures. The eight-point bending plate (8PBP) tests were conducted at room temperature, liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) and liquid helium temperature (4 K) using a new test fixture. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was also performed to calculate the energy release rate distribution along the delamination front, and the delamination fracture toughnesses were evaluated for various mixed-mode I/III ratios. Furthermore, the microscopic examinations of the fracture surfaces were carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the mixed-mode I/III delamination fracture mechanisms in the woven GFRP laminates at cryogenic temperatures were assessed. The fracture properties were then correlated with the observed characteristics.

  15. A cryogenic testbed for the characterisation of large detector arrays for astronomical and Earth-observing applications in the near to very-long-wavelength infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brien, Thomas L. R.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Haiml, Markus; Hargrave, Peter C.; Höhnemann, Holger; Pascale, Enzo; Sudiwala, Rashmi V.; Van Aken, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we describe a cryogenic testbed designed to offer complete characterisation-via a minimal number of experimental configurations— of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector arrays for low-photon background applications, including exoplanet science and solar system exploration. Specifically, the testbed offers a platform to measure the dark current of detector arrays at various temperatures, whilst also characterising their optical response in numerous spectral bands. The average modulation transfer function (MTF) can be found in both dimensions of the array along with the overall quantum efficiency. Working from a liquid-helium bath allows for measurement of arrays from 4.2 K and active-temperature control of the surface to which the array is mounted allows for characterisation of arrays at temperatures up to 80 K, with the temperature of the array holder known to an accuracy of at least 1 mK, with the same level of long-term stability.

  16. Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Detection of Gamma Interactions in a Prototype Cryogenic Ge Detector of the EDELWEISS Collaboration for Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broniatowski, A.; Piro, M.-C.; Marnieros, S.; Bergé, L.; Dumoulin, L.; Chapellier, M.

    2016-07-01

    As a part of an R&D program to improve the sensitivity of its detectors to low-mass (<10 GeV) weakly interacting massive particles, the Edelweiss dark matter collaboration is developing cryogenic ionization-and-heat coplanar grid germanium detectors, operated in a high-bias mode where advantage is taken of the voltage-assisted amplification of the ionization signals for enhanced sensitivity to low-energy (detector, capable of sustaining collection voltages up to 180 V with a corresponding gain of 60 in the heat measurement channel for electron recoil interactions. Event populations are analyzed based on ionization and heat data and on computer modeling of the detector signals, and a tentative interpretation of the results for the heat resolution is presented, involving athermal ballistic phonon losses in the device with consequent fluctuations in the thermometer response to the energy deposit of a particle.

  17. THERMAL-MECHANICAL RESPONSE OF CRACKED SATIN WEAVE CFRP COMPOSITES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, S.; Shindo, Y.; Narita, F.; Takeda, T.

    2008-03-03

    This paper examines the thermal-mechanical response of satin weave carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates with internal and/or edge cracks subjected to uniaxial tension load at cryogenic temperatures. Cracks are considered to occur in the transverse fiber bundles and extend through the entire thickness of the fiber bundles. Two-dimentional generalized plane strain finite element models are developed to study the effects of residual thermal stresses and cracks on the mechanical behavior of CFRP woven laminates. A detailed examination of the Young's modulus and stress distributions near the crack tip is carried out which provides insight into material behavior at cryogenic temperatures.

  18. Measuring symmetry of implosions in cryogenic Hohlraums at the NIF using gated x-ray detectors (invited).

    PubMed

    Kyrala, G A; Dixit, S; Glenzer, S; Kalantar, D; Bradley, D; Izumi, N; Meezan, N; Landen, O L; Callahan, D; Weber, S V; Holder, J P; Glenn, S; Edwards, M J; Bell, P; Kimbrough, J; Koch, J; Prasad, R; Suter, L; Kline, J L; Kilkenny, J

    2010-10-01

    Ignition of imploding inertial confinement capsules requires, among other things, controlling the symmetry with high accuracy and fidelity. We have used gated x-ray imaging, with 10 μm and 70 ps resolution, to detect the x-ray emission from the imploded core of symmetry capsules at the National Ignition Facility. The measurements are used to characterize the time dependent symmetry and the x-ray bang time of the implosion from two orthogonal directions. These measurements were one of the primary diagnostics used to tune the parameters of the laser and Hohlraum to vary the symmetry and x-ray bang time of the implosion of cryogenically cooled ignition scale deuterium/helium filled plastic capsules. Here, we will report on the successful measurements performed with up to 1.2 MJ of laser energy in a fully integrated cryogenics gas-filled ignition-scale Hohlraum and capsule illuminated with 192 smoothed laser beams. We will describe the technique, the accuracy of the technique, and the results of the variation in symmetry with tuning parameters, and explain how that set was used to predictably tune the implosion symmetry as the laser energy, the laser cone wavelength separation, and the Hohlraum size were increased to ignition scales. We will also describe how to apply that technique to cryogenically layered tritium-hydrogen-deuterium capsules.

  19. The Cryogenic AntiCoincidence Detector for the ATHENA X-IFU: Design Aspects by Geant4 Simulation and Preliminary Characterization of the New Single Pixel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macculi, C.; Argan, A.; D'Andrea, M.; Lotti, S.; Piro, L.; Biasotti, M.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Orlando, A.; Torrioli, G.

    2016-08-01

    The ATHENA observatory is the second large-class ESA mission, in the context of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, scheduled to be launched on 2028 at L2 orbit. One of the two planned focal plane instruments is the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU), which will be able to perform simultaneous high-grade energy spectroscopy and imaging over the 5 arcmin FoV by means of a kilo-pixel array of transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters, coupled to a high-quality X-ray optics. The X-IFU sensitivity is degraded by the particle background, induced by primary protons of both solar and cosmic rays' origin and secondary electrons. A Cryogenic AntiCoincidence (CryoAC) TES-based detector, located <1 mm below the TES array, will allow the mission to reach the background level that enables its scientific goals. The CryoAC is a 4-pixel detector made of Silicon absorbers sensed by Iridium TESs. We currently achieve a TRL = 3-4 at the single-pixel level. We have designed and developed two further prototypes in order to reach TRL = 4. The design of the CryoAC has been also optimized using the Geant4 simulation tool. Here we will describe some results from the Geant4 simulations performed to optimize the design and preliminary test results from the first of the two detectors, 1 cm2 area, made of 65 Ir TESs.

  20. Cryogenic Pound Circuits for Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi

    2006-01-01

    Two modern cryogenic variants of the Pound circuit have been devised to increase the frequency stability of microwave oscillators that include cryogenic sapphire-filled cavity resonators. The original Pound circuit is a microwave frequency discriminator that provides feedback to stabilize a voltage-controlled microwave oscillator with respect to an associated cavity resonator. In the present cryogenic Pound circuits, the active microwave devices are implemented by use of state-of-the-art commercially available tunnel diodes that exhibit low flicker noise (required for high frequency stability) and function well at low temperatures and at frequencies up to several tens of gigahertz. While tunnel diodes are inherently operable as amplitude detectors and amplitude modulators, they cannot, by themselves, induce significant phase modulation. Therefore, each of the present cryogenic Pound circuits includes passive circuitry that transforms the AM into the required PM. Each circuit also contains an AM detector that is used to sample the microwave signal at the input terminal of the high-Q resonator for the purpose of verifying the desired AM null at this point. Finally, each circuit contains a Pound signal detector that puts out a signal, at the modulation frequency, having an amplitude proportional to the frequency error in the input signal. High frequency stability is obtained by processing this output signal into feedback to a voltage-controlled oscillator to continuously correct the frequency error in the input signal.

  1. Distributed sensing of Composite Over-wrapped Pressure Vessel using Fiber-Bragg Gratings at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings are use to monitor the structural properties of composite pressure vessels. These gratings optically inscribed into the core of a single mode fiber are used as a tool to monitor the stress strain relation in laminate structure. The fiber Bragg sensors are both embedded within the composite laminates and bonded to the surface of the vessel with varying orientations with respect to the carbon fiber in the epoxy matrix. The response of these fiber-optic sensors is investigated by pressurizing the cylinder up to its burst pressure of around 2800 psi. This is done at both ambient and cryogenic temperatures using water and liquid nitrogen. The recorded response is compared with the response from conventional strain gauge also present on the vessel. Additionally, several vessels were tested that had been damaged to simulate different type of events, such as cut tow, delimitation and impact damage.

  2. Distributed Sensing of Composite Over-wrapped Pressure Vessel Using Fiber-Bragg Gratings at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Fiber Bragg gratings are use to monitor the structural properties of composite pressure vessels. These gratings optically inscribed into the core of a single mode fiber are used as a tool to monitor the stress strain relation in laminate structure. The fiber Bragg sensors are both embedded within the composite laminates and bonded to the surface of the vessel with varying orientations with respect to the carbon fiber in the epoxy matrix. The response of these fiber-optic sensors is investigated by pressurizing the cylinder up to its burst pressure of around 2800 psi. This is done at both ambient and cryogenic temperatures using water and liquid nitrogen. The recorded response is compared with the response from conventional strain gauge also present on the vessel. Additionally, several vessels were tested that had been damaged to simulate different type of events, such as cut tow, delimitation and impact damage.

  3. Optical Detection Of Cryogenic Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyett, Lynn M.

    1988-01-01

    Conceptual system identifies leakage without requiring shutdown for testing. Proposed device detects and indicates leaks of cryogenic liquids automatically. Detector makes it unnecessary to shut equipment down so it can be checked for leakage by soap-bubble or helium-detection methods. Not necessary to mix special gases or other materials with cryogenic liquid flowing through equipment.

  4. High Pressure Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Development Tests at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, David M.; Greene, Nathanael J.; Revilock, Duane; Sneddon, Kirk; Anselmo, Estelle

    2008-01-01

    Development tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of 2 COPV designs at cryogenic temperatures. This allows for risk reductions for critical components for a Gaseous Helium (GHe) Pressurization Subsystem for an Advanced Propulsion System (APS) which is being proposed for NASA s Constellation project and future exploration missions. It is considered an advanced system since it uses Liquid Methane (LCH4) as the fuel and Liquid Oxygen (LO2) as the oxidizer for the propellant combination mixture. To avoid heating of the propellants to prevent boil-off, the GHe will be stored at subcooled temperatures equivalent to the LO2 temperature. Another advantage of storing GHe at cryogenic temperatures is that more mass of the pressurized GHe can be charged in to a vessel with a smaller volume, hence a smaller COPV, and this creates a significant weight savings versus gases at ambient temperatures. The major challenge of this test plan is to verify that a COPV can safely be used for spacecraft applications to store GHe at a Maximum Operating Pressure (MOP) of 4,500 psig at 140R to 160R (-320 F to -300 F). The COPVs for these tests were provided by ARDE , Inc. who developed a resin system to use at cryogenic conditions and has the capabilities to perform high pressure testing with LN2.

  5. Development and Performance of Detectors for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment with an Increased Sensitivity Based on a Maximum Likelihood Analysis of Beta Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Donald D.; /Case Western Reserve U.

    2004-01-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) uses cryogenically-cooled detectors made of germanium and silicon in an attempt to detect dark matter in the form of Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The expected interaction rate of these particles is on the order of 1/kg/day, far below the 200/kg/day expected rate of background interactions after passive shielding and an active cosmic ray muon veto. Our detectors are instrumented to make a simultaneous measurement of both the ionization energy and thermal energy deposited by the interaction of a particle with the crystal substrate. A comparison of these two quantities allows for the rejection of a background of electromagnetically-interacting particles at a level of better than 99.9%. The dominant remaining background at a depth of {approx} 11 m below the surface comes from fast neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons interacting in the rock surrounding the experiment. Contamination of our detectors by a beta emitter can add an unknown source of unrejected background. In the energy range of interest for a WIMP study, electrons will have a short penetration depth and preferentially interact near the surface. Some of the ionization signal can be lost to the charge contacts there and a decreased ionization signal relative to the thermal signal will cause a background event which interacts at the surface to be misidentified as a signal event. We can use information about the shape of the thermal signal pulse to discriminate against these surface events. Using a subset of our calibration set which contains a large fraction of electron events, we can characterize the expected behavior of surface events and construct a cut to remove them from our candidate signal events. This thesis describes the development of the 6 detectors (4 x 250 g Ge and 2 x 100 g Si) used in the 2001-2002 CDMS data run at the Stanford Underground Facility with a total of 119 livedays of data. The preliminary results presented are based on the

  6. CERN-RD39 collaboration activities aimed at cryogenic silicon detector application in high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zheng; Eremin, Vladimir; Verbitskaya, Elena; Dehning, Bernd; Sapinski, Mariusz; Bartosik, Marcin R.; Alexopoulos, Andreas; Kurfürst, Christoph; Härkönen, Jaakko

    2016-07-01

    Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) made of silicon are new devices for monitoring of radiation environment in the vicinity of superconductive magnets of the Large Hadron Collider. The challenge of BLMs is extreme radiation hardness, up to 1016 protons/cm2 while placed in superfluid helium (temperature of 1.9 K). CERN BE-BI-BL group, together with CERN-RD39 collaboration, has developed prototypes of BLMs and investigated their device physics. An overview of this development-results of the in situ radiation tests of planar silicon detectors at 1.9 K, performed in 2012 and 2014-is presented. Our main finding is that silicon detectors survive under irradiation to 1×1016 p/cm2 at 1.9 K. In order to improve charge collection, current injection into the detector sensitive region (Current Injection Detector (CID)) was tested. The results indicate that the detector signal increases while operated in CID mode.

  7. CRYOGENICS IN BEPCII UPGRADE.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,L.; WANG,L.; LI,S.

    2002-07-22

    THIS PAPER PRESENTS A CRYOGENIC DESIGN FOR UPGRADING THE BEIJING ELECTRON POSITRON COLLIDER AT THE INSTITUTE OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS IN BEIJING. THE UPGRADE INVOLVES 3 NEW SUPERCONDUCTING FACILITIES, THE INTERACTION REGION QUADRUPOLE MAGNETS, THE DETECTOR SOLENOID MAGNETS AND THE SRF CAVITIES. FOR COOLING OF THESE DEVICES, A NEW CRYPLANT WITH A TOTAL CAPACITY OF 1.0KW AT 4.5K IS TO BE BUILT AT IHEP. AN INTEGRATED CRYOGENIC DESIGN TO FIT THE BEPCII CRYOGENIC LOADS WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY IS CARRIEDOUT USING COMPUTATIONAL PROCESS ANALYSIS SOFTWARE WITH THE EMPHASES ON ECONOMICS AND SAFETY IN BOTH CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE PLANT. THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE CRYOGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICE, THEIR COOLING SCHEMES AND THE OVERALL CRYOPLANT.

  8. FaceSheet Push-off Tests to Determine Composite Sandwich Toughness at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Herring, Helen M.

    2001-01-01

    A new novel test method, associated analysis, and experimental procedures are developed to investigate the toughness of the facesheet-to-core interface of a sandwich material at cryogenic temperatures. The test method is designed to simulate the failure mode associated with facesheet debonding from high levels of gas pressure in the sandwich core. The effects of specimen orientation are considered, and the results of toughness measurements are presented. Comparisons are made between room and liquid nitrogen (-196 C) test temperatures. It was determined that the test method is insensitive to specimen facesheet orientation and strain energy release rate increases with a decrease in the test temperature.

  9. Cryogenic Optical Performance of the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) Flight Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losch, Patricia; Lyons, James J., III; Hagopian, John

    1998-01-01

    The CIRS half-meter diameter beryllium flight telescope's optical performance was tested at the instrument operating temperature of 170 Kelvin. The telescope components were designed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) but fabricated out of house and then assembled, aligned and tested upon receipt at GSFC. A 24 inch aperture cryogenic test facility utilizing a 1024 x 1024 CCD array was developed at GSFC specifically for this test. The telescope's image quality (measured as encircled energy), boresight stability and focus stability were measured. The gold coated beryllium design exceeded the image performance requirement of 80% encircled energy within a 432 microns diameter circle.

  10. Cryogenic Optical Performance of the Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) Flight Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Losch, Patricia; Lyons, James J., III; Hagopian, John

    1998-01-01

    The CIRS half-meter diameter beryllium flight telescope's optical performance was tested at the instrument operating temperature of 170 Kelvin. The telescope components were designed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) but fabricated out of house and then assembled, aligned and tested upon receipt at GSFC. A 24 inch aperture cryogenic test facility utilizing a 1024 x 1024 CCD array was developed at GSFC specifically for this test. The telescope,s image quality (measured as encircled energy), boresight stability and focus stability were measured. The gold coated beryllium design exceeded the cold image performance requirement of 80% encircled energy within a 460 micron diameter circle.

  11. Cryogenic (70K) measurement of an all-composite 2-meter diameter mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catanzaro, B.; Connell, S.; Mimovich, M.; Backovsky, S.; Williams, G.; Thomas, James A.; Barber, D.; Johnston, R.; Hylton, J.; Dodson, K.; Cohen, E.

    2001-01-01

    The Herschel Space observatory (formerly known as FIRST) consists of a 3.5 m space telescope. In order to develop lightweight telescope technology suitable for this mission, COI designed and fabricated aspherical, f/1 2 m aperture prototype primary mirror using solely carbon fiber reinforced polypmer (CFR) materials. To assess the performance of this technology, optical metrology of the mirror surface was performed from ambient to an intended operational temperature for IR-telescopes of 70K. Testing was performed horizontally in a cryogenic vacuum chamber at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC), Tennessee.

  12. A search for particle dark matter using cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors in the one- and two- tower runs of CDMS-II at Soudan

    SciTech Connect

    Reuben Walter Ogburn, IV

    2008-06-01

    Images of the Bullet Cluster of galaxies in visible light, X-rays, and through gravitational lensing confirm that most of the matter in the universe is not composed of any known form of matter. The combined evidence from the dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, the cosmic microwave background, big bang nucleosynthesis, and other observations indicates that 80% of the universe's matter is dark, nearly collisionless, and cold. The identify of the dar, matter remains unknown, but weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a very good candidate. They are a natural part of many supersymmetric extensions to the standard model, and could be produced as a nonrelativistic, thermal relic in the early universe with about the right density to account for the missing mass. The dark matter of a galaxy should exist as a spherical or ellipsoidal cloud, called a 'halo' because it extends well past the edge of the visible galaxy. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) seeks to directly detect interactions between WIMPs in the Milky Way's galactic dark matter halo using crystals of germanium and silicon. Our Z-sensitive ionization and phonon ('ZIP') detectors simultaneously measure both phonons and ionization produced by particle interactions. In order to find very rare, low-energy WIMP interactions, they must identify and reject background events caused by environmental radioactivity, radioactive contaminants on the detector,s and cosmic rays. In particular, sophisticated analysis of the timing of phonon signals is needed to eliminate signals caused by beta decays at the detector surfaces. This thesis presents the firs two dark matter data sets from the deep underground experimental site at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. These are known as 'Run 118', with six detectors (1 kg Ge, 65.2 live days before cuts) and 'Run 119', with twelve detectors (1.5 kg Ge, 74.5 live days before cuts). They have analyzed all data from the two runs together in a single

  13. Influence of grain structure and solute composition on the work hardening behavior of aluminium at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, D.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    An unrecrystallized structure is found to significantly improve the work hardening characteristics by lowering the work hardening rate during early stages of deformation. This is in contrast to a recrystallized structure, which requires a higher work hardening rate to accommodate the greater degree of multiple slip necessary to maintain strain compatibility between the more randomly oriented grains. The stronger texture associated with the unrecrystallized structure allows deformation to occur more efficiently. Addition of magnesium also improves work hardening by increasing overall level of the work hardening rate. The improved characteristics of the work hardening behavior result in a parallel increase in both the strength and ductility at cryogenic temperatures. These findings are positive since they suggest a method by which improvements in the work hardening behavior and subsequent mechanical properties may be obtained through practical modifications of the microstructure and composition.

  14. A search for particle dark matter using cryogenic germanium and silicon detectors in the one- and two-tower runs of CDMS-II at Soudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogburn, Reuben Walter, IV

    Images of the Bullet Cluster of galaxies in visible light, X-rays, and through gravitational lensing confirm that most of the matter in the universe is not composed of any known form of matter. The combined evidence from the dynamics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies, the cosmic microwave background, big bang nucleosynthesis, and other observations indicates that 80% of the universe's matter is dark, nearly collisionless, and cold. The identity of the dark matter remains unknown, but weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a very good candidate. They are a natural part of many supersymmetric extensions to the standard model, and could be produced as a nonrelativistic, thermal relic in the early universe with about the right density to account for the missing mass. The dark matter of a galaxy should exist as a spherical or ellipsoidal cloud, called a "halo" because it extends well past the edge of the visible galaxy. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) seeks to directly detect interactions between WIMPs in the Milky Way's galactic dark matter halo using crystals of germanium and silicon. Our Z-sensitive ionization and phonon ("ZIP") detectors simultaneously measure both phonons and ionization produced by particle interactions. In order to find very rare, low-energy WIMP interactions, we must identify and reject background events caused by environmental radioactivity, radioactive contaminants on the detectors, and cosmic rays. In particular, sophisticated analysis of the timing of phonon signals is needed to eliminate signals caused by beta decays at the detector surfaces. This thesis presents the first two dark matter data sets from the deep underground experimental site at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. These are known as "Run 118," with six detectors (1 kg Ge, 65.2 live days before cuts) and "Run 119," with twelve detectors (1.5 kg Ge, 74.5 live days before cuts). We have analyzed all data from the two runs together in a single

  15. Cryogenic Insulation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.; Wikstrom, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of cryogenic insulation systems performed are presented. The key aspects of thermal insulation relative to cryogenic system design, testing, manufacturing, and maintenance are discussed. An overview of insulation development from an energy conservation perspective is given. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications provide three levels of thermal conductivity. Actual thermal performance of standard multilayer insulation (MLI) is several times less than laboratory performance and often 10 times worse than ideal performance. The cost-effectiveness of the insulation system depends on thermal performance; flexibility and durability; ease of use in handling, installation, and maintenance; and overall cost including operations, maintenance, and life cycle. Results of comprehensive testing of both conventional and novel materials such as aerogel composites using cryostat boil-off methods are given. The development of efficient, robust cryogenic insulation systems that operate at a soft vacuum level is the primary focus of this paper.

  16. The Effect of the Variability in the Isotopic Composition of Gases on Top-Accuracy Cryogenic Temperature Standards and Remedies

    SciTech Connect

    Pavese, F.

    2006-04-27

    In the cryogenic range, temperature standards are based on the measurement of phase transitions of substances that are gaseous at room temperature. For total uncertainty budgets today approaching, for the most accurate realizations, 50 {mu}K, the effect of different isotopic compositions in the samples measured can become so large as to be the leading component of the total uncertainty budget.The variability of the isotopic composition is a well-known issue and is regularly monitored and reviewed by bodies such as the IUPAC. However, these data cover the whole spectrum of the variability observed on the earth. The actual variability that can be observed when buying commercial substances could be smaller to such an extent to alleviate or eliminate the practical problem, or could instead remain relevant. Only recently attention has been paid to the latter problem and the results were partially unexpected. This paper briefly reviews the modern analytical and thermal techniques, the resulting present knowledge and problems, and some recent solutions.

  17. Task I: Dark Matter Search Experiments with Cryogenic Detectors: CDMS-I and CDMS-II Task II: Experimental Study of Neutrino Properties: EXO and KamLAND

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, Blas; Gratta, Giorgio

    2013-08-30

    Dark Matter Search - During the period of performance, our group continued the search for dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. As a key member of the CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) collaboration, we completed the CDMS II experiment which led the field in sensitivity for more than five years. We fabricated all detectors, and participated in detector testing and verification. In addition, we participated in the construction and operation of the facility at the Soudan Underground Laboratory and played key roles in the data acquisition and analysis. Towards the end of the performance period, we began operating the SuperCDMS Soudan experiment, which consists of 15 advanced Ge (9 kg) detectors. The advanced detector design called iZIP grew out of our earlier DOE Particle Detector R&D program which demonstrated the rejection of surface electrons to levels where they are no longer the dominant source of background. Our group invented this advanced design and these larger detectors were fabricated on the Stanford campus in collaboration with the SLAC CDMS group and the Santa Clara University group. The sensitivity reach is expected to be up to 5 times better than CDMS II after two years of operation. We will check the new limits on WIMPs set by XENON100, and we expect improved sensitivity for light mass WIMPs beyond that of any other existing experiment. Our group includes the Spokesperson for SuperCDMS and continues to make important contributions to improvements in the detector technology which are enabling the very low trigger thresholds used to explore the low mass WIMP region. We are making detailed measurements of the charge transport and trapping within Ge crystals, measuring the diffusive trapping distance of the quasiparticle excitations within the Al phonon collector fins on the detector surface, and we are contributing to the development of much improved detector Monte Carlos which are essential to guide the detector

  18. Neutron detector using lithiated glass-scintillating particle composite

    DOEpatents

    Wallace, Steven; Stephan, Andrew C.; Dai, Sheng; Im, Hee-Jung

    2009-09-01

    A neutron detector composed of a matrix of scintillating particles imbedded in a lithiated glass is disclosed. The neutron detector detects the neutrons by absorbing the neutron in the lithium-6 isotope which has been enriched from the natural isotopic ratio to a commercial ninety five percent. The utility of the detector is optimized by suitably selecting scintillating particle sizes in the range of the alpha and the triton. Nominal particle sizes are in the range of five to twenty five microns depending upon the specific scintillating particle selected.

  19. Evaluation of cryogenic insulation materials and composites for use in nuclear radiation environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bullock, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The following subjects are studied: (1) composite materials tests; (2) test of liquid level sensors and fission couples; (3) test of valve-seal materials; (4) boron epoxy composites; (5) radiation analysis of explosive materials and bifuels for RNS applications; and (6) test of thermal insulation.

  20. Cryogenic container compound suspension strap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A support strap for use in a cryogenic storage vessel for supporting the inner shell from the outer shell with a minimum heat leak is presented. The compound suspension strap is made from a unidirectional fiberglass epoxy composite material with an ultimate tensile strength and fatigue strength which are approximately doubled when the material is cooled to a cryogenic temperature.

  1. Cryogenic exciter

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, James William; Garces, Luis Jose

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  2. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  3. Recent results of the energy spectrum and mass composition from Telescope Array Fluorescence Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Daisuke

    2013-02-01

    The Telescope Array experiment is the largest hybrid detector to observe Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays in the northern hemisphere. The observation started in November 2007 for Fluorescence Detector (FD) and in March 2008 for Surface Detectors (SD). Here, we present the preliminary results of the energy spectrum and mass composition of the UHECRs measured by the FD and hybrid technique from the Telescope Array three year observations. The energy spectrum measured by the Middle Drum FD station, which is the refurbished HiRes-I detector is consistent with the results from HiRes. The energy spectrum with the two newly constructed FDs and SD is also in good agreement with the result from HiRes, especially for the energy scale. The mass composition study with the slant depth of the maximum shower development (Xmax) is obtained by using the stereo and hybrid analysis. The result of the mass composition is consistent with the proton prediction.

  4. Mechanical and thermal expansion properties of glass fibers reinforced PEEK composites at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X. X.; Wu, Z. X.; Huang, R. J.; Zhou, Y.; Li, L. F.

    2010-02-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been widely used as matrix material for high performance composites. In this work, 30% chopped glass fibers reinforced PEEK composites were prepared by injection molding, and then the tensile, flexural and impact properties were tested at different temperatures. The modulus, strength and specific elongation of glass fibers reinforced PEEK at room temperature, 77 K and 20 K have been compared. And the fracture morphologies of different samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed a dependence of mechanical properties of glass fibers reinforced PEEK composites on temperature. The coefficient of thermal expansion of unfilled PEEK and glass fibers reinforced PEEK were also investigated from 77 K to room temperature. The results indicated that the thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) of PEEK matrix was nearly a constant in this temperature region, and it can be significantly decreased by adding glass fibers.

  5. NASA Prototype All Composite Tank Cryogenic Pressure Tests to Failure with Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werlink, Rudolph J.; Pena, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This Paper will describe the results of pressurization to failure of 100 gallon composite tanks using liquid nitrogen. Advanced methods of health monitoring will be compared as will the experimental data to a finite element model. The testing is wholly under NASA including unique PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) based active vibration technology. Other technologies include fiber optics strain based systems including NASA AFRC technology, Acoustic Emission, Acellent smart sensor, this work is expected to lead to a practical in-Sutu system for composite tanks.

  6. Development of Lightweight Material Composites to Insulate Cryogenic Tanks for 30-Day Storage in Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for an MLI system which will meet the design constraints of an ILRV used for 7- to 30-day missions. The ten tasks are briefly described: (1) material survey and procurement, material property tests, and selection of composites to be considered; (2) definition of environmental parameters and tooling requirements, and thermal and structural design verification test definition; (3) definition of tanks and associated hardware to be used, and definition of MLI concepts to be considered; (4) thermal analyses, including purge, evacuation, and reentry repressurization analyses; (5) structural analyses (6) thermal degradation tests of composite and structural tests of fastener; (7) selection of MLI materials and system; (8) definition of a conceptual MLI system design; (9) evaluation of nondestructive inspection techniques and definition of procedures for repair of damaged areas; and (10) preparation of preliminary specifications.

  7. Eddy Current Damper for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starin, Scott; Crosno, Fred

    2002-09-01

    This presentation considers the following topics: the need for cryogenic energy absorption, high speed damper characteristics, gearbox characteristics, composite assembly characteristics, performance tests, simulation models.

  8. Development of dual solid cryogens for high reliability refrigeration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caren, R. P.; Coston, R. M.

    1967-01-01

    High reliability solid cryogen refrigeration system consists of a container initially filled with a solid cryogen which is coupled thermally to an infrared detector by means of a link of high thermal conductivity extending from a heat exchanger within the cryogen container.

  9. Vacuum jacketed composite propulsion feedlines for cryogenic launch and space vehicles, volume 1. [development of glass fiber composite for strength and protection from handling damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spond, D. E.; Laintz, D. J.; Hall, C. A.; Dulaigh, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thin metallic liners that provide leak-free service in cryogenic propulsion systems are overwrapped with a glass-fiber composite that provides strength and protection from handling damage. The resultant tube is lightweight, strong, and has a low thermal flux. The inside commodity flow line and the outside vacuum jacket were fabricated using this method. Several types of vacuum jackets were fabricated and tested at operating temperatures from 294 to 21 K (+70 to minus 423 F) and operating pressure up to 69 N/cm2 (100 psi). The primary objective of the program was to develop vacuum jacket concepts, using previously developed concepts for the inner line. All major program objectives were met resulting in a design concept that is adaptable to a wide range of aerospace vehicle requirements. Major items of development included convolution of thin metallic sections up to 46 cm (18 in.) in diameter, design and fabrication of an extremely lightweight tension membrane concept for the vacuum jacket, and analytical tools that predict the failure mode and levels.

  10. Polymer-Ceramic Composite Materials for Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, M. D; Currie, J. R.; Penn, B. G.; Batra, A. K.; Lal, R. B.

    2007-01-01

    Ferroelectrics:Polymer composites can be considered an established substitute for conventional electroceramics and ferroelectric polymers. The composites have a unique blend of polymeric properties such as mechanical flexibility, high strength, formability, and low cost, with the high electro-active properties of ceramic materials. They have attracted considerable interest because of their potential use in pyroelectric infrared detecting devices and piezoelectric transducers. These flexible sensors and transducers may eventually be useful for their health monitoring applications for NASA crew launch vehicles and crew exploration vehicles being developed. In the light of many technologically important applications in this field, it is worthwhile to present an overview of the pyroelectric infrared detector theory, models to predict dielectric behavior and pyroelectric coefficient, and the concept of connectivity and fabrication techniques of biphasic composites. An elaborate review of Pyroelectric-Polymer composite materials investigated to date for their potential use in pyroelectric infrared detectors is presented.

  11. Cryogenically cooled detector pin mount

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Jr., William E; Chrisp, Michael P

    2014-06-03

    A focal plane assembly facilitates a molybdenum base plate being mounted to another plate made from aluminum. The molybdenum pin is an interference fit (press fit) in the aluminum base plate. An annular cut out area in the base plate forms two annular flexures.

  12. Status Of Sorption Cryogenic Refrigeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1988-01-01

    Report reviews sorption refrigeration. Developed for cooling infrared detectors, cryogenic research, and other advanced applications, sorption refrigerators have few moving parts, little vibration, and lifetimes of 10 years or more. Describes types of sorption stages, multistage and hybrid refrigeration systems, power requirements, cooling capacities, and advantages and disadvantages of various stages and systems.

  13. Apparatus permits flexure testing of specimens at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denaburg, C. R.; Reece, O. Y.

    1965-01-01

    Cryostat with support structure for test specimen allows flexure fatigue testing of honeycomb composite sandwich structures at cryogenic temperatures. The cryostat consists of a cryogen container enclosing two pairs of yokes which support two rotating end clamps.

  14. Spectroscopic micro-tomography of metallic-organic composites by means of photon-counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichotka, M.; Jakubek, J.; Vavrik, D.

    2015-12-01

    The presumed capabilities of photon counting detectors have aroused major expectations in several fields of research. In the field of nuclear imaging ample benefits over standard detectors are to be expected from photon counting devices. First of all a very high contrast, as has by now been verified in numerous experiments. The spectroscopic capabilities of photon counting detectors further allow material decomposition in computed tomography and therefore inherently adequate beam hardening correction. For these reasons measurement setups featuring standard X-ray tubes combined with photon counting detectors constitute a possible replacement of the much more cost intensive tomographic setups at synchrotron light-sources. The actual application of photon counting detectors in radiographic setups in recent years has been impeded by a number of practical issues, above all by restrictions in the detectors size. Currently two tomographic setups in Czech Republic feature photon counting large-area detectors (LAD) fabricated in Prague. The employed large area hybrid pixel-detector assemblies [1] consisting of 10×10/10×5 Timepix devices have a surface area of 143×143 mm2 / 143×71,5 mm2 respectively, suitable for micro-tomographic applications. In the near future LAD devices featuring the Medipix3 readout chip as well as heavy sensors (CdTe, GaAs) will become available. Data analysis is obtained by a number of in house software tools including iterative multi-energy volume reconstruction.In this paper tomographic analysis of of metallic-organic composites is employed to illustrate the capabilities of our technology. Other than successful material decomposition by spectroscopic tomography we present a method to suppress metal artefacts under certain conditions.

  15. X-ray inspection of composite materials for aircraft structures using detectors of Medipix type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandejsek, I.; Jakubek, J.; Jakubek, M.; Prucha, P.; Krejci, F.; Soukup, P.; Turecek, D.; Vavrik, D.; Zemlicka, J.

    2014-05-01

    This work presents an overview of promising X-ray imaging techniques employed for non-destructive defectoscopy inspections of composite materials intended for the Aircraft industry. The major emphasis is placed on non-tomographic imaging techniques which do not require demanding spatial and time measurement conditions. Imaging methods for defects visualisation, delamination detection and porosity measurement of various composite materials such as carbon fibre reinforced polymers and honeycomb sendwiches are proposed. We make use of the new large area WidePix X-ray imaging camera assembled from up to 100 edgeless Medipix type detectors which is highly suitable for this type of measurements.

  16. CRYOGENIC MAGNETS

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.; Taylor, C.E.

    1963-05-21

    A cryogenic magnet coil is described for generating magnetic fields of the order of 100,000 gauss with a minimum expenditure of energy lost in resistive heating of the coil inductors and energy lost irreversibly in running the coil refrigeration plant. The cryogenic coil comprises a coil conductor for generating a magnetic field upon energization with electrical current, and refrigeration means disposed in heat conductive relation to the coil conductor for cooling to a low temperature. A substantial reduction in the power requirements for generating these magnetic fields is attained by scaling the field generating coil to large size and particular dimensions for a particular conductor, and operating the coil at a particular optimum temperature commensurate with minimum overall power requirements. (AEC)

  17. Introduction to Quantum Sensors in Cryogenic Particle Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Hamb; Kim, Sun Kee

    Cryogenic detectors have been important tools in many aspects of science because their sensitivities can provide more than extreme limits of conventional semiconductor based detectors. The sensor developments in cryogenic particle detection are based on the precise measurement of noble properties of condensed matter in low temperatures. The major measurement technologies originate from quantum measurements, phase transitions and superconducting electronics. Although the early developments of cryogenic detectors were initiated by applications to elementary particle physics, they have been adopted in biology, forensics, and security as well as astronomy and nuclear science. Various types of cryogenic detectors cover a wide energy range from THz radiations to hundreds MeV particles. We review the recent development of sensor technologies in cryogenic particle detection. The measurement principles are covered together with applications to elementary particle physics and THz measurement.

  18. Continuous-Reading Cryogen Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, F. E.; Fox, E.; Macumber, S.

    1984-01-01

    Two pressure transducers used in system for measuring amount of cryogenic liquid in tank. System provides continuous measurements accurate within 0.03 percent. Sensors determine pressure in liquid and vapor in tank. Microprocessor uses pressure difference to compute mass of cryogenic liquid in tank. New system allows continuous sensing; unaffected by localized variations in composition and density as are capacitance-sensing schemes.

  19. The cryogenic challenge: status of the KAGRA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaminio, Raffaele; KAGRA Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KAGRA project is building a gravitational wave detector inside the Kamioka mine (Japan). The detector is based on a laser interferometer with arms 3 km in length. In addition to its underground location the detector will be characterized by its mirrors made of sapphire and operated at cryogenic temperature. This paper describes the status of the construction at the site and gives an overview of the developments ongoing to prepare the cryogenic operation.

  20. Composite Cryotank Technologies and Demonstration Project

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Composite Cryogenic Propellant Tank project will develop and ground demonstrate large-scale composite cryogenic propellant tanks applicable to heavy-lift launch vehicles, propellant depots, and...

  1. Novel fabrication techniques for low-mass composite structures in silicon particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Neal; Silber, Joseph; Anderssen, Eric; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gilchriese, Murdock; Johnson, Thomas; Cepeda, Mario

    2013-12-01

    The structural design of silicon-based particle detectors is governed by competing demands of reducing mass while maximizing stability and accuracy. These demands can only be met by fiber reinforced composite laminates (CFRP). As detecting sensors and electronics become lower mass, the motivation to reduce structure as a proportion of overall mass pushes modern detector structures to the lower limits of composite ply thickness, while demanding maximum stiffness. However, classical approaches to composite laminate design require symmetric laminates and flat structures, in order to minimize warping during fabrication. This constraint of symmetry in laminate design, and a “flat plate” approach to fabrication, results in more massive structures. This study presents an approach to fabricating stable and accurate, geometrically complex composite structures by bonding warped, asymmetric, but ultra-thin component laminates together in an accurate tool, achieving final overall precision normally associated with planar structures. This technique has been used to fabricate a prototype “I-beam” that supports two layers of detecting elements, while being up to 20 times stiffer and up to 30% lower mass than comparable, independent planar structures (typically known as “staves”).

  2. FET's Perform Well At Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sclar, N.

    1992-01-01

    New metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors designed for source-follower preamplifiers operating at liquid-helium temperatures in conjunction with infrared detectors. Lower thresholds and offset give CryoFET's greater dynamic range and linearity than conventional MOSFET's at low temperatures and facilitates pair balancing to reduce offsets in output. Reduces heat loading of cryogenic system, extending life, reliability, and performance of cryogenic infrared instruments.

  3. Constraints on Vesta's elemental composition: Fast neutron measurements by Dawn's gamma ray and neutron detector

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, David J; Peplowski, Patrick N; Prettyman, Thomas H; Feldman, William C; Bazell, David; Mittlefehldt, David W; Reedy, Robert C; Yamashita, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Surface composition information from Vesta is reported using fast neutron data collected by the gamma ray and neutron detector on the Dawn spacecraft. After correcting for variations due to hydrogen, fast neutrons show a compositional dynamic range and spatial variability that is consistent with variations in average atomic mass from howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites. These data provide additional compositional evidence that Vesta is the parent body to HED meteorites. A subset of fast neutron data having lower statistical precision show spatial variations that are consistent with a 400 ppm variability in hydrogen concentrations across Vesta and supports the idea that Vesta's hydrogen is due to long-term delivery of carbonaceous chondrite material. PMID:26074718

  4. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Joel

    2004-05-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is an experiment to search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). The experiment initially was deployed at a shallow underground site, and is currently deployed at a deep underground site at the Soudan Mine in Minnesota. The detectors operate at cryogenic temperature, and are capable of distinguishing nuclear recoils from WIMP interactions from various backgrounds. The detectors are shielded from background by both active and passive elements. We will describe the components of the overall experiment, and focus on the novel data acquisition system that has been develop to control and monitor the experiment via the World Wide Web. Preliminary signals from the operation at Soudan will be discussed.

  5. CRYOGENIC DEWAR

    DOEpatents

    Chamberlain, W.H.; Maseck, H.E.

    1964-01-28

    This patent relates to a dewar for storing cryogenic gase and is of the type having aii inner flask surrounded by a vacuum jacket and having a vent spout through which evaporating gas escapes. Heretofore substantial gas loss has resulted from the radiation of heat towards the flask from the warmer outer elements of the dewar. In this invention, the mask is surrounded by a thermally conducting shield which is disposed in the vacuum space between the flask and the outer elements of the dewar. The shield contacts only the vent spout, which is cooled by the evaporating gas, and thus is maintained at a temperature very close to that of the flask itself. Accordingly, heat radiated toward the flask is intercepted and conducted to the evaporating gas rather than being re-radiated towards the hask. In a liquid helium dewar of typical configniration the mention reduces the boil-off rate by approximately one-half.(AEC)

  6. Collapsible Cryogenic Storage Vessel Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Collapsible cryogenic storage vessels may be useful for future space exploration missions by providing long-term storage capability using a lightweight system that can be compactly packaged for launch. Previous development efforts have identified an 'inflatable' concept as most promising. In the inflatable tank concept, the cryogen is contained within a flexible pressure wall comprised of a flexible bladder to contain the cryogen and a fabric reinforcement layer for structural strength. A flexible, high-performance insulation jacket surrounds the vessel. The weight of the tank and the cryogen is supported by rigid support structures. This design concept is developed through physical testing of a scaled pressure wall, and through development of tests for a flexible Layered Composite Insulation (LCI) insulation jacket. A demonstration pressure wall is fabricated using Spectra fabric for reinforcement, and burst tested under noncryogenic conditions. An insulation test specimens is prepared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the insulation when subject to folding effects, and to examine the effect of compression of the insulation under compressive loading to simulate the pressure effect in a nonrigid insulation blanket under the action atmospheric pressure, such as would be seen in application on the surface of Mars. Although pressure testing did not meet the design goals, the concept shows promise for the design. The testing program provides direction for future development of the collapsible cryogenic vessel concept.

  7. The effect of caries detector dyes and a cavity cleansing agent on composite resin bonding to enamel and dentin.

    PubMed

    el-Housseiny, A A; Jamjoum, H

    2000-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of caries detector dyes and/or cavity cleanser on composite bonding and etching patterns of enamel and dentin. One hundred and eight non-carious premolars were divided into six groups according to the enamel and dentin pretreatment investigated. The different pretreatment were as follows: Group I: teeth with prophylaxis only, Group II: Sable seek caries detector dye, Groups III: chlorhexidine cavity cleanser, Group IV: the caries detectors dye followed by prophylaxis, Group V: the cavity cleanser followed by the caries detector dye, and Group IV: Snoop caries detector dye. The shear bond strength of composite resin bonded to enamel and dentin was evaluated by the Instron Universal testing machine while, the topographic details of enamel and dentin were examined by the SEM following the different pretreatment and acid etching. Results of the shear bond strength showed no statistically significant difference among the six groups, with no substantial differences in SEM results. It is concluded that using the caries detector dyes and/or chlorhexidine cavity cleanser before acid etching does not significantly affect composite bonding to enamel and dentin.

  8. Advanced composite materials and processes for the manufacture of SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) and RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) superconducting magnets used at cryogenic temperatures in a high radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Sondericker, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Presently, BNL work on superconducting magnets centers mainly on the development of 17 meter length dipoles for the Superconducting Super Collider Project, approved for construction at Waxahatchie, Texas and 9.7 meter dipoles and quadrupoles for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, a BNL project to start construction next year. This paper will discuss the role of composites in the manufacture of magnets, their operational requirements in cryogenic and radiation environments, and the benefits derived from their use. 13 figs.

  9. Effect of Matrix Modification on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhixiong; Li, Jingwen; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng

    In order to investigate the effect of the matrix variability on the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of glass fiber reinforced composites at 77K, three kinds of modifiers were employed to diethyl toluene diamine (DETD) cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) epoxy resin system. The woven glass fiber reinforced composites were fabricated by vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI). The ILSS at 77 K was studied and the results indicated that introduction of modifiers used in this study can enhance the ILSS of composite at 77 K. A maximum of 14.87% increase was obtained by addition of 10 wt% IPBE into the epoxy matrix. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the fracture mechanism and strengthening effect.

  10. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  11. Refrigeration for Cryogenic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, M. G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Research in cryogenically cooled refrigerators is discussed. Low-power Stirling cryocoolers; spacecraft-borne long-life units; heat exchangers; performance tests; split-stirling, linear-resonant, cryogenic refrigerators; and computer models are among the topics discussed.

  12. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    DOEpatents

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  13. A probe for neutron activation analysis in a drill hole using 252Cf, and a Ge(Li) detector cooled by a melting cryogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, A.B.; Moxham, R.M.; Senftle, F.E.; Baicker, J.A.

    1972-01-01

    A sonde has been built for high-resolution measurement of natural or neutron-induced gamma rays in boreholes. The sonde is 7.3 cm in diameter and about 2.2 m in length and weighs about 16 kg. The lithium-compensated germanium semiconductor detector is stabilized at -185 to -188??C for as much as ten hours by a cryostatic reservoir containing melting propane. During periods when the sonde is not in use the propane is kept frozen by a gravity-fed trickle of liquid nitrogen from a reservoir temporarily attached to the cryostat section. A 252Cf source, shielded from the detector, may be placed in the bottom section of the sonde for anlysis by measurement of neutron-activation or neutron-capture gamma rays. Stability of the cryostat with changing hydrostatic pressure, absence of vibration, lack of need for power to the cryostat during operation, and freedom of orientation make the method desirable for borehole, undersea, space, and some laboratory applications. ?? 1972.

  14. Quantum-limited Terahertz detection without liquid cryogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Under this contract, we have successfully designed, fabricated and tested a revolutionary new type of detector for Terahertz (THz) radiation, the tunable antenna-coupled intersubband Terahertz (TACIT) detector. The lowest-noise THz detectors used in the astrophysics community require cooling to temperatures below 4K. This deep cryogenic requirement forces satellites launched for THz- observing missions to include either large volumes of liquid Helium, complex cryocoolers, or both. Cryogenic requirements thus add significantly to the cost, complexity and mass of satellites and limit the duration of their missions. It hence desirable to develop new detector technologies with less stringent cryogenic requirements. Such detectors will not only be important in space-based astrophysics, but also respond to a growing demand for THz technology for earth-based scientific and commercial applications.

  15. D0 Cryogenic System Operator Training

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, D.; /Fermilab

    1991-11-30

    D0 is a collider detector. It will be operating and doing physics at the same time as CDP, therefore it has been decided to train CDP operators to operate and respond to the D0 cryogenic control system. A cryogenic operator will be required to be in residence at D0, during the cooldown and liquid Argon fill of any of the calorimeters. The cryogenic system at D0 is designed to be unmanned during steady state operation. CDP operations has 2 man cryogenic shifts 24 hours a day. It is intended that CDP operators monitor the D0 cryogenic systems, evaluate and respond to alarms, and notify a D0 cryo expert in the event of an unusual problem. A D0 cryogenic system view node has been installed at CDP to help facilitate these goals. It should be noted that even though the CDP view node is a fully operational node it is intended that it be more of an information node and is therefore password protected. The D0 cryo experts may reassess the use of the CDP node at a later date based on experience and operating needs. This engineering note outlines the format of the training and testing given to the CDP operators to make them qualified D0 operators.

  16. Estimation of mammary gland composition using CdTe series detector developed for photon-counting mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihori, Akiko; Okamoto, Chizuru; Yamakawa, Tsutomu; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Okada, Masahiro; Nakajima, Ai; Kato, Misa; Kodera, Yoshie

    2016-03-01

    Energy resolved photon-counting mammography is a new technology, which counts the number of photons that passes through an object, and presents it as a pixel value in an image of the object. Silicon semiconductor detectors are currently used in commercial mammography. However, the disadvantage of silicon is the low absorption efficiency for high X-ray energies. A cadmium telluride (CdTe) series detector has a high absorption efficiency over a wide energy range. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate the composition of the mammary gland using a CdTe series detector as a photon-counting detector. The fact that the detection rate of breast cancer in mammography is affected by mammary gland composition is now widely accepted. Assessment of composition of the mammary gland has important implications. An important advantage of our proposed technique is its ability to discriminate photons using three energy bins. We designed the CdTe series detector system using the MATLAB simulation software. The phantom contains nine regions with the ratio of glandular tissue and adipose varying in increments of 10%. The attenuation coefficient for each bin's energy was calculated from the number of input and output photons possessed by each. The evaluation results obtained by plotting the attenuation coefficient μ in a three-dimensional (3D) scatter plot show that the plots had a regular composition order congruent with that of the mammary gland. Consequently, we believe that our proposed method can be used to estimate the composition of the mammary gland.

  17. Laboratory measurements of cryogenic liquid alkane microwave absorptivity and implications for the composition of Ligeia Mare, Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Karl L.; Barmatz, Martin B.; Jamieson, Corey S.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2015-03-01

    The complex dielectric constants of liquids methane and ethane were measured at 90 K and 14.1 GHz, close to the frequency of the Cassini RADAR. The liquid ethane loss tangent is far greater than that of liquid methane, facilitating discrimination by remote sensing. The results suggest a methane-dominated composition for the northern sea, Ligeia Mare, on the basis of a recent loss tangent determination using Cassini RADAR altimetry. This contrasts a previous far higher loss tangent for the southern lake, Ontario Lacus, which is inconsistent with simple mixtures of methane and ethane. The apparent nonequilibrium methane-to-ethane ratio of Ligeia Mare can be explained by poor admixture of periodically cycled methane with a deeper ethane-rich alkanofer system, consistent with obliquity-driven volatile cycling, sequestration of ethane from the hydrocarbon cycle by incorporation into crustal clathrate hydrates, or periodic flushing of Ligeia Mare into adjacent Kraken Mare by fresh rainfall.

  18. Determination of the triglyceride composition of avocado oil by high-performance liquid chromatography using a light-scattering detector.

    PubMed

    Hierro, M T; Tomás, M C; Fernández-Martín, F; Santa-María, G

    1992-08-28

    The triglyceride composition of avocado oil was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using a light-scattering detector. Two avocado varieties, Fuerte and Hass, were analysed, and the qualitative composition of each was found to be similar, though quantitative differences were detected. The triglyceride composition was predicted using a system of equations based on the relationship between log k' and the molecular variables equivalent carbon number, chain length and number of double bonds for each of the fatty acids in the glycerides. A total of 24 molecular species of triglycerides were identified. The chromatographic system used successfully separated the critical pairs OOO-LOS, PaPaO-LnPP and PaOO-LOP (O = olein; L = linolein; S = stearin; Pa = palmitolein; Ln = linolenin; P = palmitin). Detector response was found to have a linear relationship with the amount of sample injected over the injection range 10-70 micrograms.

  19. Cryogenics program overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the cryogenics program of the Goddard Space Flight Center is given in viewgraph form. Goddard's role and the flight programs requiring cryogenics are outlined. Diagrams are given of the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope, an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator, a liquid cryogenic cooler for the Shuttle Glow Experiment, a liquid helium dewar, and the X-ray spectrometer on the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility.

  20. Metals for cryogenic applications. (Latest citations from METADEX). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology and development of metals for cryogenic applications. The processing, mechanical properties, and compositions of specific alloys are detailed. Applications include aircraft, rockets, spacecraft, and equipment used to store and transport cryogenic fluids. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Cryogenic fluid management experiment trunnion fatigue verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.; Toth, J. M., Jr.; Kasper, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    A subcritical liquid hydrogen orbital storage and transfer experiment was designed for flight in the Shuttle cargo bay. The Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) includes a liquid hydrogen tank supported in a vacuum jacket by two fiberglass epoxy trunnion mounts. This composite material was selected for the trunnions since it provides desirable strength, weight and thermal characteristics for supporting cryogenic tankage. An experimental program was conducted to provide material property and fatigue data for S-glass epoxy composite materials at ambient and liquid hydrogen temperatures and to verify structural integrity of the CFME trunnion supports.

  2. Fundamentals of Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley; Tomsik, Thomas; Moder, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the extreme conditions that are encountered in cryogenic systems requires the most effort out of analysts and engineers. Due to the costs and complexity associated with the extremely cold temperatures involved, testing is sometimes minimized and extra analysis is often relied upon. This short course is designed as an introduction to cryogenic engineering and analysis, and it is intended to introduce the basic concepts related to cryogenic analysis and testing as well as help the analyst understand the impacts of various requests on a test facility. Discussion will revolve around operational functions often found in cryogenic systems, hardware for both tests and facilities, and what design or modelling tools are available for performing the analysis. Emphasis will be placed on what scenarios to use what hardware or the analysis tools to get the desired results. The class will provide a review of first principles, engineering practices, and those relations directly applicable to this subject including such topics as cryogenic fluids, thermodynamics and heat transfer, material properties at low temperature, insulation, cryogenic equipment, instrumentation, refrigeration, testing of cryogenic systems, cryogenics safety and typical thermal and fluid analysis used by the engineer. The class will provide references for further learning on various topics in cryogenics for those who want to dive deeper into the subject or have encountered specific problems.

  3. COMBINED GAMMA-RAY AND NEUTRON DETECTOR FOR MEASURING THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF AIRLESS PLANETARY BODIES.

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, David J. ,; Barraclough, B. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Wiens, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) constant1,y itnpinge all planetary bodies and produce characteristic gamma-ray lines and leakage neutrons as reaction products. Together with gamma-ray lines produced by radioactive decay, these nuclear emissions provide a powerful technique for remotely measuring the chemical composition of airless planetary surfaces. While lunar gamma-ray spectroscopy was first demonstrated with Apollo Gamma-Ray measurements, the full value of combined gamma-ray and neutron spectroscopy was shown for the first time with the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray (LP-GRS) and Neutron Spectrometers (LP-NS). Any new planetary mission will likely have the requirement that instrument mass and power be kept to a minimum. To satisfy such requirements, we have been designing a GR/NS instrument which combines all the functionality of the LP-GRS and LP-NS for a fraction of the mass and power. Specifically, our design uses a BGO scintillator crystal to measure gamma-rays from 0.5-10 MeV. A borated plastic scintillator and a lithium gliiss scintillator are used to separately measure thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons as well as serve as an anticoincidence shield for the BGO. All three scintillators are packaged together in a compact phoswich design. Modifications to this design could include a CdZnTe gamma-ray detector for enhanced energy resolution at low energies (0.5-3 MeV). While care needs to be taken to ensure that an adequate count rate is achieved for specific mission designs, previous mission successes demonstrate that a cornbined GR/NS provides essential information about planetary surfaces.

  4. Development of a cryogenic microcalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkin, David Stuart

    The motivation for this project has been to measure β-decay using a low background detector which encapsulated the β source (4π coverage). It was realized that the ideal detector for this measurement was a microcalorimeter (a small cryogenic detector consisting of an absorber, thermistor and thermal link). Presently microcalorimeters are an active area of research and development because of possible applications in weak interaction physics, x-ray astronomy and dark matter searches. The development of such a detector requires an interdisciplinary effort involving nuclear physics, solid state physics, electronics, and statistical mechanics. We have designed, constructed and characterized microcalorimeters employing two types of thermistors (AuxGe(x-1) and P:Si). In the process we constructed a dilution refrigerator, assembled the necessary electronics, and built a data acquisition and analysis system based on networked desktop computers. This stage of the project has concluded by characterizing the performance of the AuxGe(x-1) based microcalorimeters by measuring /alpha s and low energy /gamma s. The measured energy spectra have been compared to theoretical predictions, and the linearity of the devices has been tested. Future work will permit these devices to be used to measure β spectra.

  5. Cryogenic Information Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohling, Robert A.; Marquardt, Eric D.; Fusilier, Fred C.; Fesmire, James E.

    2003-01-01

    The Cryogenic Information Center (CIC) is a not-for-profit corporation dedicated to preserving and distributing cryogenic information to government, industry, and academia. The heart of the CIC is a uniform source of cryogenic data including analyses, design, materials and processes, and test information traceable back to the Cryogenic Data Center of the former National Bureau of Standards. The electronic database is a national treasure containing over 146,000 specific bibliographic citations of cryogenic literature and thermophysical property data dating back to 1829. A new technical/bibliographic inquiry service can perform searches and technical analyses. The Cryogenic Material Properties (CMP) Program consists of computer codes using empirical equations to determine thermophysical material properties with emphasis on the 4-300K range. CMP's objective is to develop a user-friendly standard material property database using the best available data so government and industry can conduct more accurate analyses. The CIC serves to benefit researchers, engineers, and technologists in cryogenics and cryogenic engineering, whether they are new or experienced in the field.

  6. The cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Based on theoretical studies and experience with a low speed cryogenic tunnel and with a 1/3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, the cryogenic wind tunnel concept was shown to offer many advantages with respect to the attainment of full scale Reynolds number at reasonable levels of dynamic pressure in a ground based facility. The unique modes of operation available in a pressurized cryogenic tunnel make possible for the first time the separation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and aeroelastic effects. By reducing the drive-power requirements to a level where a conventional fan drive system may be used, the cryogenic concept makes possible a tunnel with high productivity and run times sufficiently long to allow for all types of tests at reduced capital costs and, for equal amounts of testing, reduced total energy consumption in comparison with other tunnel concepts.

  7. Detector Arrays For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Anderson, G. M.; Lee, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Paper describes status of program for developing integrated infrared detectors for astronomy. Program covers variety of detectors, including extrinsic silicon, extrinsic germanium, and indium antimonide devices with hybrid silicon multiplexers. Paper notes for arrays to reach background noise limit in cryogenic telescope, continued reductions in readout noise and dark current needed.

  8. Detection of special nuclear material by observation of delayed neutrons with a novel fast neutron composite detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Michael; Nattress, Jason; Barhoumi Meddeb, Amira; Foster, Albert; Trivelpiece, Cory; Rose, Paul; Erickson, Anna; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-10-01

    Detection of shielded special nuclear material is crucial to countering nuclear terrorism and proliferation, but its detection is challenging. By observing the emission of delayed neutrons, which is a unique signature of nuclear fission, the presence of nuclear material can be inferred. We report on the observation of delayed neutrons from natural uranium by using monoenergetic photons and neutrons to induce fission. An interrogating beam of 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV gamma-rays and neutrons was produced using the 11B(d,n-γ)12C reaction and used to probe different targets. Neutron detectors with complementary Cherenkov detectors then discriminate material undergoing fission. A Li-doped glass-polymer composite neutron detector was used, which displays excellent n/ γ discrimination even at low energies, to observe delayed neutrons from uranium fission. Delayed neutrons have relatively low energies (~0.5 MeV) compared to prompt neutrons, which makes them difficult to detect using recoil-based detectors. Neutrons were counted and timed after the beam was turned off to observe the characteristic decaying time profile of delayed neutrons. The expected decay of neutron emission rate is in agreement with the common parametrization into six delayed neutron groups.

  9. Cryogenics for HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavian, L.; Brodzinski, K.; Claudet, S.; Ferlin, G.; Wagner, U.; van Weelderen, R.

    The discovery of a Higgs boson at CERN in 2012 is the start of a major program of work to measure this particle's properties with the highest possible precision for testing the validity of the Standard Model and to search for further new physics at the energy frontier. The LHC is in a unique position to pursue this program. Europe's top priority is the exploitation of the full potential of the LHC, including the high-luminosity upgrade of the machine and detectors with an objective to collect ten times more data than in the initial design, by around 2030. To reach this objective, the LHC cryogenic system must be upgraded to withstand higher beam current and higher luminosity at top energy while keeping the same operation availability by improving the collimation system and the protection of electronics sensitive to radiation. This chapter will present the conceptual design of the cryogenic system upgrade with recent updates in performance requirements, the corresponding layout and architecture of the system as well as the main technical challenges which have to be met in the coming years.

  10. A new cryogenic diode thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courts, S. S.; Swinehart, P. R.; Yeager, C. J.

    2002-05-01

    While the introduction of yet another cryogenic diode thermometer is not earth shattering, a new diode thermometer, the DT-600 series, recently introduced by Lake Shore Cryotronics, possesses three features that make it unique among commercial diode thermometers. First, these diodes have been probed at the chip level, allowing for the availability of a bare chip thermometer matching a standard curve-an important feature in situations where real estate is at a premium (IR detectors), or where in-situ calibration is difficult. Second, the thermometry industry has assumed that interchangeability should be best at low temperatures. Thus, good interchangeability at room temperatures implies a very good interchangeability at cryogenic temperature, resulting in a premium priced sensor. The DT-600 series diode thermometer is available in an interchangeability band comparable to platinum RTDs with the added advantage of interchangeability to 2 K. Third, and most important, the DT-600 series diode does not exhibit an instability in the I-V characteristic in the 8 K to 20 K temperature range that is observed in other commercial diode thermometer devices [1]. This paper presents performance characteristics for the DT-600 series diode thermometer along with a comparison of I-V curves for this device and other commercial diode thermometers exhibiting an I-V instability.

  11. Cryogenic test technology, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, R. J.; Schimanski, D.; Hartzuiker, J. P.

    1985-04-01

    This report reviews the new information available on cryogenic test technology since the report of the Converters' Group on Cryogenic Test Technology was written in 1981. The present position is summarized. The major events since the Converters' report have been the completion and commissioning of the National Transonic Facility (NTF), the suspension of further work on the Douglas 4-WT blowdown tunnel, the conversion of ONERA T2 for cryogenic operation, the steady progress with the DF-LP KKK, and the slow but positive progress with the ETW project, including installation of the pilot tunnel PETW.

  12. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.; Casagrande, F.

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  13. SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hatfield; F. Casagrande; I. Campisi; P. Gurd; M. Howell; D. Stout; H. Strong; D. Arenius; J. Creel; K. Dixon; V. Ganni; and P. Knudsen

    2005-08-29

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

  14. SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Hatfield, D.; Casagrande, F.; Campisi, I.; Gurd, P.; Howell, M.; Stout, D.; Strong, H.; Arenius, D.; Creel, J.; Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2006-04-27

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

  15. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailor-able array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given. KEYWORDS: Cryogenic tanks, thermal insulation, composite materials, aerogel, thermal conductivity, liquid nitrogen boil-off

  16. A Supra-Thermal Energetic Particle detector (STEP) for composition measurements in the range approximately 20 keV/nucleon to 1 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    A detector system is described, employing a time-of-flight versus residual energy technique which allows measurement of particle composition (H-Fe), energy spectral and anisotropies in an energy range unaccessible with previously flown sensors. Applications of this method to measurements of the solar wind ion composition are discussed.

  17. A supra-thermal energetic particle detector /STEP/ for composition measurements in the range of about 20 keV/nucleon to 1 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    A novel detector system is described, employing a time-of-flight versus residual energy technique which allows measurement of particle composition (H-Fe), energy spectra and anisotropies in an energy range unaccessible with previously flown sensors. Applications of this method to measurements of the solar wind ion composition are also discussed.

  18. Settled Cryogenic Propellant Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank; Sakla, Steve; Wall, John; Hopkins, Josh; Saks, Greg; Duffey, Jack; Chato, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant transfer can significantly benefit NASA s space exploration initiative. LMSSC parametric studies indicate that "Topping off" the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) in LEO with approx.20 mT of additional propellant using cryogenic propellant transfer increases the lunar delivered payload by 5 mT. Filling the EDS to capacity in LEO with 78 mT of propellants increases the delivered payload by 20 mT. Cryogenic propellant transfer is directly extensible to Mars exploration in that it provides propellant for the Mars Earth Departure stage and in-situ propellant utilization at Mars. To enable the significant performance increase provided by cryogenic propellant transfer, the reliability and robustness of the transfer process must be guaranteed. By utilizing low vehicle acceleration during the cryogenic transfer the operation is significantly simplified and enables the maximum use of existing, reliable, mature upper stage cryogenic-fluid-management (CFM) techniques. Due to settling, large-scale propellant transfer becomes an engineering effort, and not the technology development endeavor required with zero-gravity propellant transfer. The following key CFM technologies are all currently implemented by settling on both the Centaur and Delta IV upper stages: propellant acquisition, hardware chilldown, pressure control, and mass gauging. The key remaining technology, autonomous rendezvous and docking, is already in use by the Russians, and must be perfected for NASA whether the use of propellant transfer is utilized or not.

  19. Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Smith, Trent; Breakfield, Robert; Baughner, Kevin; Heckle, Kenneth; Meneghelli, Barry

    2010-01-01

    The Cryogenic Moisture Apparatus (CMA) is designed for quantifying the amount of moisture from the surrounding air that is taken up by cryogenic-tank-insulating material specimens while under typical conditions of use. More specifically, the CMA holds one face of the specimen at a desired low temperature (e.g., the typical liquid-nitrogen temperature of 77 K) while the opposite face remains exposed to humid air at ambient or near-ambient temperature. The specimen is weighed before and after exposure in the CMA. The difference between the "after" and "before" weights is determined to be the weight of moisture absorbed by the specimen. Notwithstanding the term "cryogenic," the CMA is not limited to cryogenic applications: the low test temperature can be any temperature below ambient, and the specimen can be made of any material affected by moisture in air. The CMA is especially well suited for testing a variety of foam insulating materials, including those on the space-shuttle external cryogenic tanks, on other cryogenic vessels, and in refrigerators used for transporting foods, medicines, and other perishables. Testing is important because absorbed moisture not only adds weight but also, in combination with thermal cycling, can contribute to damage that degrades insulating performance. Materials are changed internally when subjected to large sub-ambient temperature gradients.

  20. The influence of composition, annealing treatment, and texture on the fracture toughness of Ti-5Al-2.5Sn plate at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanstone, R. H.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.; Pierce, W. S.; Low, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The plane strain fracture toughness K sub Ic and conventional tensile properties of two commercially produced one-inch thick Ti-5Al-2.5Sn plates were determined at cryogenic temperatures. One plate was extra-low interstitial (ELI) grade, the other normal interstitial. Portions of each plate were mill annealed at 1088 K (1500 F) followed by either air cooling or furnace cooling. The tensile properties, flow curves, and K sub Ic of these plates were determined at 295 K (room temperature), 77 K (liquid nitrogen temperature), and 20 K (liquid hydrogen temperature).

  1. Reflectance Spectra of Titan Tholins at Cryogenic Temperatures and Implications for Compositional Interpretation of Red Objects in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, T. L.; Dalton, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    We report the visual and near-infrared (0.4-2.5 micron) laboratory bi-directional reflectance of Titan tholin at cryogenic temperatures (approx. 100-300 K). When compared with room temperature measurements, the visual and near-infrared color of Titan tholin becomes slightly redder by approx. 5% at low temperatures in the 0.4-1.3 micron region. We estimate the influence of these colr changes on the interpretation of the Centaur Pholus and find that the modest color changes will not significantly alter existing interpretations.

  2. Cryogenic thermal control technology summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, J. A.; Leonhard, K. E.; Bennett, F. O., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A summarization and categorization is presented of the pertinent literature associated with cryogenic thermal control technology having potential application to in-orbit fluid transfer systems and/or associated space storage. Initially, a literature search was conducted to obtain pertinent documents for review. Reports determined to be of primary significance were summarized in detail. Each summary, where applicable, consists of; (1) report identification, (2) objective(s) of the work, (3) description of pertinent work performed, (4)major results, and (5) comments of the reviewer (GD/C). Specific areas covered are; (1) multilayer insulation of storage tanks with and without vacuum jacketing, (2) other insulation such as foams, shadow shields, microspheres, honeycomb, vent cooling and composites, (3) vacuum jacketed and composite fluid lines, and (4) low conductive tank supports and insulation penetrations. Reports which were reviewed and not summarized, along with reasons for not summarizing, are also listed.

  3. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  4. Overview of RICOR tactical cryogenic refrigerators for space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riabzev, Sergey; Filis, Avishai; Livni, Dorit; Regev, Itai; Segal, Victor; Gover, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Cryogenic refrigerators represent a significant enabling technology for Earth and Space science enterprises. Many of the space instruments require cryogenic refrigeration to enable the use of advanced detectors to explore a wide range of phenomena from space. RICOR refrigerators involved in various space missions are overviewed in this paper, starting in 1994 with "Clementine" Moon mission, till the latest ExoMars mission launched in 2016. RICOR tactical rotary refrigerators have been incorporated in many space instruments, after passing qualification, life time, thermal management testing and flight acceptance. The tactical to space customization framework includes an extensive characterization and qualification test program to validate reliability, the design of thermal interfacing with a detector, vibration export control, efficient heat dissipation in a vacuum environment, robustness, mounting design, compliance with outgassing requirements and strict performance screening. Current RICOR development is focused on dedicated ultra-long-life, highly reliable, space cryogenic refrigerator based on a Pulse Tube design

  5. CRYOGENICS FOR FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Dauguet, P.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F.; Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Boissin, J. C.

    2008-03-16

    Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to 'fusion for energy' will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

  6. Cryogenic process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Panek, J.; Johnson, S.

    1994-01-01

    Combining accurate fluid property databases with a commercial equation-solving software package running on a desktop computer allows simulation of cryogenic processes without extensive computer programming. Computer simulation can be a powerful tool for process development or optimization. Most engineering simulations to date have required extensive programming skills in languages such as Fortran, Pascal, etc. Authors of simulation code have also usually been responsible for choosing and writing the particular solution algorithm. This paper describes a method of simulating cryogenic processes with a commercial software package on a desktop personal computer that does not require these traditional programming tasks. Applications include modeling of cryogenic refrigerators, heat exchangers, vapor-cooled power leads, vapor pressure thermometers, and various other engineering problems.

  7. Hybrid Cryogenic Tank Construction and Method of Manufacture Therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A lightweight, high-pressure cryogenic tank construction includes an inner layer comprising a matrix of fiber and resin suitable for cryogenic use. An outer layer in intimate contact with the inner layer provides support of the inner layer, and is made of resin composite. The tank is made by placing a fiber preform on a mandrel and infusing the preform with the resin. The infused preform is then encapsulated within the outer layer.

  8. Cryogenic Propellant Densification Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewart, R. O.; Dergance, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Ground and vehicle system requirements are evaluated for the use of densified cryogenic propellants in advanced space transportation systems. Propellants studied were slush and triple point liquid hydrogen, triple point liquid oxygen, and slush and triple point liquid methane. Areas of study included propellant production, storage, transfer, vehicle loading and system requirements definition. A savings of approximately 8.2 x 100,000 Kg can be achieved in single stage to orbit gross liftoff weight for a payload of 29,484 Kg by utilizing densified cryogens in place of normal boiling point propellants.

  9. Cryogenic generator cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckels, P. W.; Fagan, T. J.; Parker, J. H., Jr.; Long, L. J.; Shestak, E. J.; Calfo, R. M.; Hannon, W. F.; Brown, D. B.; Barkell, J. W.; Patterson, A.

    The concept for a hydrogen cooled aluminum cryogenic generator was presented by Schlicher and Oberly in 1985. Following their lead, this paper describes the thermal design of a high voltage dc, multimegawatt generator of high power density. The rotor and stator are cooled by saturated liquid and supercritical hydrogen, respectively. The brushless exciter on the same shaft is also cooled by liquid hydrogen. Component development testing is well under way and some of the test results concerning the thermohydraulic performance of the conductors are reported. The aluminum cryogenic generator's characteristics are attractive for hydrogen economy applications.

  10. Unique Cryogenic Welded Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushchenko, K. A.; Monko, G. G.

    2004-06-01

    For the last few decades, the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute has been active in the field of cryogenic materials science. Integrated research on development of new grades of steels and alloys for cryogenic engineering was carried out in collaboration with the leading institutions of Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Commercially applied welding technologies and consumables were developed. They include large, spherical tanks for storage of liquefied gases (from oxygen to helium) under high pressures; space simulators with a capacity of 10 000 m3 and more; and load-carrying elements of superconducting fusion magnetic systems for the TOKAMAK, MGD, and ITER series.

  11. Unique Cryogenic Welded Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Yushchenko, K.A.; Monko, G.G.

    2004-06-28

    For the last few decades, the E. O. Paton Electric Welding Institute has been active in the field of cryogenic materials science. Integrated research on development of new grades of steels and alloys for cryogenic engineering was carried out in collaboration with the leading institutions of Russia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Commercially applied welding technologies and consumables were developed. They include large, spherical tanks for storage of liquefied gases (from oxygen to helium) under high pressures; space simulators with a capacity of 10 000 m3 and more; and load-carrying elements of superconducting fusion magnetic systems for the TOKAMAK, MGD, and ITER series.

  12. Cryogenic Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, Crawford R.; Dirusso, Eliseo; Brown, Gerald V.

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic hybrid magnetic bearing is example of class of magnetic bearings in which permanent magnets and electromagnets used to suspend shafts. Electromagnets provide active control of position of shaft. Bearing operates at temperatures from -320 degrees F (-196 degrees C) to 650 degrees F (343 degrees C); designed for possible use in rocket-engine turbopumps, where effects of cryogenic environment and fluid severely limit lubrication of conventional ball bearings. This and similar bearings also suitable for terrestrial rotating machinery; for example, gas-turbine engines, high-vacuum pumps, canned pumps, precise gimbals that suspend sensors, and pumps that handle corrosive or gritty fluids.

  13. Cryogenic engineering and superconductor technology; Proceedings of the 14th International Cryogenic Engineering Conference and International Cryogenic Materials Conference, Kiev, Ukraine, June 8-12, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarek, P.; Rizzuto, C.

    Consideration is given to application concepts of small regenerative cryocoolers in superconducting magnet systems, thermoelectric materials for Peltier cryogenic coolers, closed-cycle liquid helium refrigerators, built-in cryogenic control fixtures with electric drive, large cryogenic helium systems for superconducting magnets, low temperature adsorptive hydrogen isotope separation, cryogenic thermometry for space testing systems, performance of parallel flow He-II heat exchangers, and transient heat transfer to liquid helium at a 100 Hz pulsed heat load. Also discussed are He II cooling of a large superconducting magnet system, a computer code for simulation of thermal processes during quench in superconducting magnet windings, quench energies of multistable composite superconductors, a superconducting hydrogen-cooled switch on Nb-Sn tape, a gravity radiometer with coupled superconducting suspensions, new design of RSFQ logic family, and high-temperature Josephson junctions and their applications.

  14. Polyaniline/poly acid acrylic thin film composites: a new gamma radiation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lima Pacheco, Ana P.; Araujo, Elmo S.; Azevedo, Walter M. de

    2003-03-15

    In this paper, we present a new and straightforward route to prepare polyaniline/poly acid acrylic (PAA) thin film composites in large areas and on almost any surface. This method was developed to improve the mechanical and adherence properties of polyaniline devices used as ionization radiation sensors. The route consists of the combination of the metal oxidant with polymer acid to form a highly homogeneous and viscous paste, which can be easily spread over any surface. In the second step, an aniline acid solution is brought in contact with the dried paste where polymerization occurs, yielding a high homogeneous and conducting polymer composite. The UV-visible absorption and infrared analysis confirm that a polyaniline/PAA complex is obtained. The four-point conductivity measurements show that the composite conductivity {rho} is the order of 5 {omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}. Preliminary gamma radiation interaction with the composite shows that the doped composite exhibits a linear response that can be used in the development of real-time radiation sensors for the dose range from 0 to 5000 Gy.

  15. Improved epoxy resin for constructing cryogenic filament-wound pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molho, R.; Soffer, L. M.

    1971-01-01

    Mechanical properties of new resin at cryogenic temperatures are substantially improved over similar composite structures utilizing conventional resins, while properties at ambient temperature are identical to conventional resin composites.

  16. Development of ultrathin, dimensionally stable composites for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) elementary particle detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.C.; Miller, W.O. ); Gieske, J.H. )

    1992-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Mechanical Engineering and Electronics Division, in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories and Programmed Composites, is advancing the development of thin-walled, high modulus short-fiber compression-molded composite materials fabrication. In this paper, we investigate component uniformity, structural integrity, thermal conductivity, and radiation resistance; discuss the scanning-electron microscopic inspection of the graphite fiber distribution and orientation, and describe the process used in selecting the reinforcement fiber length and modulus and for choosing the hydrophobic, cyanate-ester resin.

  17. Understanding the composition of nucleon spin with the PHENIX detector at RHIC

    DOE PAGES

    Deshpande, Abhay

    2015-01-12

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has just finished 14 years of operation. A significant fraction of these operating years were with polarized proton collisions at 62.4, 200, and 500 GeV center of mass, investigating various aspects of nucleon spin through longitudinal and transversely polarized collisions. These data have helped to address some of the most puzzling and fundamental questions in quantum chromodynamics including: what fraction of the nucleon’s spin originates in the gluon’s helicity contribution?, how polarized are the sea quarks?, and what if any, is the evidence for transverse motion of quarks inmore » polarized protons? These questions have been addressed by the PHENIX detector collaboration. We present in this review highlights of the PHENIX results and discuss their impact.« less

  18. Understanding the composition of nucleon spin with the PHENIX detector at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Abhay

    2015-01-12

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has just finished 14 years of operation. A significant fraction of these operating years were with polarized proton collisions at 62.4, 200, and 500 GeV center of mass, investigating various aspects of nucleon spin through longitudinal and transversely polarized collisions. These data have helped to address some of the most puzzling and fundamental questions in quantum chromodynamics including: what fraction of the nucleon’s spin originates in the gluon’s helicity contribution?, how polarized are the sea quarks?, and what if any, is the evidence for transverse motion of quarks in polarized protons? These questions have been addressed by the PHENIX detector collaboration. We present in this review highlights of the PHENIX results and discuss their impact.

  19. Cryogenics Research and Engineering Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toro Medina, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficient storage, transfer and use of cryogens and cryogenic propellants on Earth and in space have a direct impact on NASA, government and commercial programs. Research and development on thermal insulation, propellant servicing, cryogenic components, material properties and sensing technologies provides industry, government and research institutions with the cross-cutting technologies to manage low-temperature applications. Under the direction of the Cryogenic Testing Lab at Kennedy Space Center, the work experience acquired allowed me to perform research, testing, design and analysis of current and future cryogenic technologies to be applied in several projects.

  20. Impact energy measurement in time-of-flight mass spectrometry with cryogenic microcalorimeters.

    PubMed

    Hilton, G C; Martinis, J M; Wollman, D A; Irwin, K D; Dulcie, L L; Gerber, D; Gillevet, P M; Twerenbold, D

    1998-02-12

    Time-of-flight mass spectrometry-most notably matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) spectrometry-is an important class of techniques for the study of proteins and other biomolecules. Although these techniques provide excellent performance for masses up to about 20,000 daltons, there has been limited success in achieving good mass resolution at higher masses. This is because the sensitivity of the microchannel plate (MCP) detectors used in most systems decreases rapidly with increasing particle mass, limiting the utility of MCP detectors for very large masses. It has recently been proposed that cryogenic particle detectors may provide a solution to these difficulties. Cryogenic detectors measure the thermal energy deposited by the particle impact, and thus have a sensitivity that is largely independent of particle mass. Recent experiments have demonstrated the sensitivity of cryogenic particle detectors to single biomolecules, a quantum efficiency several orders of magnitude larger than the MCP detectors, and sensitivity to masses as large as 750,000 daltons. Here we present results demonstrating an order of magnitude better energy resolution than previous measurements, allowing direct determination of particle charge state during acceleration. Although application of these detectors to practical mass spectrometry will require further development of the detectors and cryogenics, these detectors can be used to elucidate the performance-limiting processes that occur in such systems.

  1. Robust Multilayer Insulation for Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Scholtens, B. F.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    New requirements for thermal insulation include robust Multilayer insulation (MU) systems that work for a range of environments from high vacuum to no vacuum. Improved MLI systems must be simple to install and maintain while meeting the life-cycle cost and thermal performance objectives. Performance of actual MLI systems has been previously shown to be much worse than ideal MLI. Spacecraft that must contain cryogens for both lunar service (high vacuum) and ground launch operations (no vacuum) are planned. Future cryogenic spacecraft for the soft vacuum environment of Mars are also envisioned. Industry products using robust MLI can benefit from improved cost-efficiency and system safety. Novel materials have been developed to operate as excellent thermal insulators at vacuum levels that are much less stringent than the absolute high vacuum requirement of current MLI systems. One such robust system, Layered Composite Insulation (LCI), has been developed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center. The experimental testing and development of LCI is the focus of this paper. LCI thermal performance under cryogenic conditions is shown to be six times better than MLI at soft vacuum and similar to MLI at high vacuum. The experimental apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux data for LCI systems are compared with other MLI systems.

  2. An introduction to closed cycle cryogenic coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellis, F. F.

    1980-01-01

    Closed cycle cryogenic coolers are used extensively for cooling infrared detectors and other specialized electronic devices. Because of the special requirements of each electro-optical system it is generally necessary to custom design the cryocooler to fit the requirements. Early and close cooperation between the electro-optical systems designer and the cryocooler manufacturer is important to the successful marriage of the cryocooler with the total electro-optical system. Limitations of various cryocooling techniques are presented, and consideration for cryocooling integration are addressed.

  3. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  4. Compact cryogenic inductors

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Carr, W.J. Jr.; Fagan, T.J. Jr.; Hordubay, T.D.; Chuboy, H.L. . Science and Technology Center)

    1994-07-01

    Power systems requiring power levels as high as a few megawatts to a few gigawatts for periods of several microseconds to several milliseconds with repetitive frequencies of a few hertz to a few kilohertz are being considered for potential space applications. The impulsive nature of the power presents the opportunity to use inductive energy storage techniques for pulse duty to enhance economic and practical considerations. An inductors must be efficient, lightweight, and reliable, and it must have high energy density if it is to be used in space based power systems. Cryogenic inductors are best studied for such an application. Parametric analyses of the two potential types of cryogenic inductors (superconducting and hyperconducting reveal that the hyperconducting (high purity aluminum)) inductor would be significantly lighter and achieve higher energy densities without the added penalty of a helium refrigeration system, thus resulting in improved overall system reliability. The lightweight hyperconducting cryogenic inductor technology is, however, in its infancy. This paper describes the required technology base which would allow the eventual application of the lightweight cryogenic inductor in space power systems, and also conclusively demonstrates the underlying principles.

  5. Valve for cryogenic service

    DOEpatents

    Worwetz, H.A.

    1975-09-02

    This patent relates to a valve for use with a liquefied gas at cryogenic temperatures in which a pair of joined knife edges are bellows controlled to contact an indium alloy seat in an annular slot when flow is to be stopped. The sealing alloy may be renewed by heating in situ. (auth)

  6. Effect of cryogenic treatment on nickel-titanium endodontic instruments

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J. W.; Griggs, J. A.; Regan, J. D.; Ellis, R. A.; Cai, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Aim To investigate the effects of cryogenic treatment on nickel-titanium endodontic instruments. The null hypothesis was that cryogenic treatment would result in no changes in composition, microhardness or cutting efficiency of nickel-titanium instruments. Methodology Microhardness was measured on 30 nickel-titanium K-files (ISO size 25) using a Vicker’s indenter. Elemental composition was measured on two instruments using X-ray spectroscopy. A nickel-titanium bulk specimen was analysed for crystalline phase composition using X-ray diffraction. Half of the specimens to be used for each analysis were subjected to a cryogenic treatment in liquid nitrogen (−196 °C) for either 3 s (microhardness specimens) or 10 min (other specimens). Cutting efficiency was assessed by recording operator choice using 80 nickel-titanium rotary instruments (ProFile® 20, .06) half of which had been cryogenically treated and had been distributed amongst 14 clinicians. After conditioning by preparing four corresponding canals, each pair of instruments were evaluated for cutting efficiency by a clinician during preparation of one canal system in vitro. A Student’s t-test was used to analyse the microhardness data, and a binomial test was used to analyse the observer choice data. Composition data were analysed qualitatively. Results Cryogenically treated specimens had a significantly higher microhardness than the controls (P < 0.001; β > 0.999). Observers showed a preference for cryogenically treated instruments (61%), but this was not significant (P = 0.21). Both treated and control specimens were composed of 56% Ni, 44% Ti, 0% N (by weight) with a majority in the austenite phase. Conclusions Cryogenic treatment resulted in increased microhardness, but this increase was not detected clinically. There was no measurable change in elemental or crystalline phase composition. PMID:15910471

  7. Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Arctic and Atmospheric CH4 Determined by a Portable Near-Infrared Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer with a Cryogenic Pre-Concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Lehmann, Kevin K.; Peng, Y.; Pratt, L. M.; White, J. R.; Cadieux, S. B.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, near-infrared continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy was applied to the measurement of the δ2H of methane (CH4). The cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) system consisted of multiple DFB laser diodes to optimize selection of spectral line pairs. By rapidly switching measurements between spectral line peaks and the baseline regions, the long-term instrumental drift was minimized, substantially increasing measurement precision. The CRDS system coupled with a cryogenic pre-concentrator measured the δ2H of terrestrial atmospheric CH4 from 3 standard liters of air with a precision of ±1.7‰. The rapidity with which both C and H isotopic measurements of CH4 can be made with the CRDS will enable hourly monitoring of diurnal variations in terrestrial atmospheric CH4 signatures that can be used to increase the resolution of global climate models for the CH4 cycle. Although the current instrument is not capable of measuring the δ2H of 10 ppbv of martian CH4, current technology does exist that could make this feasible for future spaceflight missions. As biological and abiotic CH4 sources have overlapping carbon isotope signatures, dual-element (C and H) analysis is key to reliable differentiation of these sources. Such an instrument package would therefore offer improved ability to determine whether or not the CH4 recently detected in the martian atmosphere is biogenic in origin.

  8. Effects of cryogenic temperatures on materials properties. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures. Cryogenic effects on mechanical, magnetic, electrical, and other physical properties of materials are described. Titanium, aluminum, copper, nickel, steels, ice, carbides, cermets, ceramics, composites, alloys, and polymers are among the materials discussed. Strength of materials at low temperatures, with particular regard to fatigue and shear cracking, is included. Cryogenic cooling systems are discussed in separate bibliographies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Cryogenically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  10. ERTS-C (Landsat 3) cryogenic heat pipe experiment definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, P. J.; Kroliczek, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    A flight experiment designed to demonstrate current cryogenic heat pipe technology was defined and evaluated. The experiment package developed is specifically configured for flight aboard an ERTS type spacecraft. Two types of heat pipes were included as part of the experiment package: a transporter heat pipe and a thermal diode heat pipe. Each was tested in various operating modes. Performance data obtained from the experiment are applicable to the design of cryogenic systems for detector cooling, including applications where periodic high cooler temperatures are experienced as a result of cyclic energy inputs.

  11. Aerospace Coolers: A 50-Year Quest for Long-Life Cryogenic Cooling in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, R. G.

    Cryogenic temperatures are critical to allow infrared, gamma-ray and X-ray detectors to operate with low background noise and high sensitivity. As a result, the world's aerospace industry has long dreamed of having the means for multiyear cryogenic cooling in space to enable long-life sensors of various forms for scientific, missile defense, and reconnaissance observations. Not long after the first Sputnik was launched into space in October 1957, engineers and scientists were actively seeking means of providing cryogenic cooling for evermore sophisticated and sensitive detectors in a variety of spectral regions. Although both passive cryoradiators and stored cryogens have provided a source of cryogenic cooling for many missions, the consistent dream of scientists and mission planners was always for a mechanical refrigerator that could achieve the temperatures of the coldest cryogens (vastly colder than possible with passive radiators) and have multiyear life without the finite life limitations of stored cryogens. The first cryocoolers in space were short-life Joule-Thomson and Stirling cryocoolers flown on both US and USSR missions around 1970. Since that time, extensive research and development of evermore sophisticated cryocoolers (Stirling, Vuilleumier, Brayton, magnetic, sorption, and pulse tube) has taken place in the world's aerospace industry. This chapter examines the enormous progress made by the aerospace industry over the past 50 years in developing both cryostats and cryocoolers to enable the widespread use of cryogenic temperatures in space.

  12. Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

  13. The state-of-the-art of cryogenic thermometry and signal conditioners and their potential for standardized space hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of standard low temperature detector(s) for use in upcoming cryogenically cooled satellite and Space Shuttle payloads were investigated. These payloads operate from .3 kelvin to 300 kelvin. Standard detectors were selected and matching signal conditioning equipment compatible with the selected detector, typical spacecraft voltages, typical spacecraft telemetry systems, and the radiation encountered by a typical Earth orbiting spacecraft. Work statements to better define and advance detector performance were presented.

  14. Modular, Rapid Propellant Loading System/Cryogenic Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Walter, Sr.; Jumper, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Cryogenic Test Laboratory (CTL) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has designed, fabricated, and installed a modular, rapid propellant-loading system to simulate rapid loading of a launch-vehicle composite or standard cryogenic tank. The system will also function as a cryogenic testbed for testing and validating cryogenic innovations and ground support equipment (GSE) components. The modular skid-mounted system is capable of flow rates of liquid nitrogen from 1 to 900 gpm (approx equals 3.8 to 3,400 L/min), of pressures from ambient to 225 psig (approx equals 1.5 MPa), and of temperatures to -320 F (approx equals -195 C). The system can be easily validated to flow liquid oxygen at a different location, and could be easily scaled to any particular vehicle interface requirements

  15. Superconducting THz Camera with GaAs-JFET Cryogenic Readout Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Hibi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Naruse, Masato; Noguchi, Takashi; Sekimoto, Yutaro; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Nagata, Hirohisa; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ariyoshi, Seiichiro; Otani, Chiko; Nitta, Tom; Qi-jun, Yao, Fujiwara, Mikio

    2009-12-01

    We describe the development of large format array of superconducting tunnel junction detectors that is readout by SONY GaAs-JFET cryogenic integrated circuits. High quality SIS photon detectors have high dynamic impedance that can be readout by low gate leakage GaAs-JFET circuits. Our imaging array design, with niobium SIS photon detectors and GaAs-JFET cryogenics electronics, uses integrating amplifiers, multiplexers and shift-registers to readout large number of pixels that is similar to CMOS digital cameras. We have designed and fabricated GaAs-JFET cryogenic integrated circuits, such as AC-coupled capacitive trans-impedance amplifier, multiplexers with sample-and-holds and shift-registers, for 32-channel readout module. The Advanced Technology Center of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan have started extensive development program for large format array of SIS photon detectors.

  16. Flexible cryogenic conduit

    DOEpatents

    Brindza, Paul Daniel; Wines, Robin Renee; Takacs, James Joseph

    1999-01-01

    A flexible and relatively low cost cryogenic conduit is described. The flexible cryogenic conduit of the present invention comprises a first inner corrugated tube with single braided serving, a second outer corrugated tube with single braided serving concentric with the inner corrugated tube, and arranged outwardly about the periphery of the inner corrugated tube and between the inner and outer corrugated tubes: a superinsulation layer; a one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a spirally wound refrigeration tube; a second one half lap layer of copper ribbon; a second one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; a second superinsulation layer; a third one half lap layer of polyester ribbon; and a spirally wound stretchable and compressible filament.

  17. Oxygen chemisorption cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a chemisorption compressor cryogenic refrigerator which employs oxygen to provide cooling at 60 to 100 K. The invention includes dual vessels containing an oxygen absorbent material, alternately heated and cooled to provide a continuous flow of high pressure oxygen, multiple heat exchangers for precooling the oxygen, a Joule-Thomson expansion valve system for expanding the oxygen to partially liquefy it and a liquid oxygen pressure vessel. The primary novelty is that, while it was believed that once oxygen combined with an element or compound the reaction could not reverse to release gaseous oxygen, in this case oxygen will indeed react in a reversible fashion with certain materials and will do so at temperatures and pressures which make it practical for incorporation into a cryogenic refrigeration system.

  18. Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, M. G.; Sherman, A.; Studer, P. A.; Daniels, A.; Goldowsky, M. P.

    1983-06-01

    A long lifetime Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler particularly adapted for space applications is described. It consists of a compressor section centrally aligned end to end with an expansion section, and respectively includes a reciprocating compressor piston and displacer radially suspended in interconnecting cylindrical housings by active magnetic bearings and has adjacent reduced clearance regions so as to be in noncontacting relationship therewith and wherein one or more of these regions operate as clearance seals. The piston and displacer are reciprocated in their housings by linear drive motors to vary the volume of respectively adjacent compression and expansion spaces which contain a gaseous working fluid and a thermal regenerator to effect Stirling cycle cryogenic cooling.

  19. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, Thomas H.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.

    1988-01-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

  20. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, Jose Luis; Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-04-03

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  1. Cryogenic Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Goloborod'ko, S.; /Fermilab

    1989-02-27

    The control system (CS) for the cryogenic arrangement of the DO Liquid Argon Calorimeter consists of a Texas instruments 560/565 Programmable Logical Controller (PLC), two remote bases with Remote Base Controllers and a corresponding set of input/output (I/O) modules, and a PC AST Premium 286 (IBM AT Compatible). The PLC scans a set of inputs and provides a set of outputs based on a ladder logic program and PID control loops. The inputs are logic or analog (current, voltage) signals from equipment status switches or transducers. The outputs are logic or analog (current or voltage) signals for switching solenoids and positioning pneumatic actuators. Programming of the PLC is preformed by using the TISOFT2/560/565 package, which is installed in the PC. The PC communicates to the PLC through a serial RS232 port and provides operator interface to the cryogenic process using Xpresslink software.

  2. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.

  3. Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, Jonathan A; Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2008-01-01

    Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed. The approach is to apply thermal analysis to standard shapes (plane walls, cylinders, spheres) that are relatively simple to characterize with a one-dimensional analytical or numerical model. The user describes the system hot and cold boundary geometry and the operating environment. Basic outputs such as heat load and temperature profiles are determined. The user can select from a built-in insulation material database or input user defined materials. Existing information has been combined with the new experimental thermal conductivity data produced by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory for cryogenic and vacuum environments, including high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum. Materials in the design tool include multilayer insulation, aerogel blankets, aerogel bulk-fill, foams, powders, composites, and other insulation system constructions. A comparison of the design tool to a specific composite thermal insulation system is given.

  4. Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, J. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2008-03-01

    Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed. The approach is to apply thermal analysis to standard shapes (plane walls, cylinders, spheres) that are relatively simple to characterize with a one-dimensional analytical or numerical model. The user describes the system hot and cold boundary geometry and the operating environment. Basic outputs such as heat load and temperature profiles are determined. The user can select from a built-in insulation material database or input user defined materials. Existing information has been combined with the new experimental thermal conductivity data produced by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory for cryogenic and vacuum environments, including high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum. Materials in the design tool include multilayer insulation, aerogel blankets, aerogel bulk-fill, foams, powders, composites, and other insulation system constructions. A comparison of the design tool to a specific composite thermal insulation system is given.

  5. Electrical Model of a Carbon-Polymer Composite (CPC) Collision Detector

    PubMed Central

    Kruusamäe, Karl; Punning, Andres; Aabloo, Alvo

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of an electrical model of electromechanically active carbon-polymer composite (CPC) with carbide-derived carbon (CDC) electrodes. The major focus is on investigation of surface electrode behavior upon external bending of the material. We show that electrical impedance measured from the surface of the CDC-based CPC can be used to determine the curvature of the material and, hence, the tip displacement of a CPC laminate in a cantilever configuration. It is also shown that by measuring surface signals in the process of an actuator’s work-cycle, we obtain a self-sensing collision-detecting CPC actuator that can be considered as a counterpart of biomimetic vibrissae. PMID:22438747

  6. Single layered flexible photo-detector based on perylene/graphene composite through printed technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shawkat; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a single layered passive photo sensor based on perylene/graphene composite is proposed, which is deposited in comb type silver electrodes separated as 50 μm spacing. To increase an electrical conductivity of the proposed sensor, perylene and graphene are blended. Photo sensing layer (120nm thick) and Silver electrodes (50 μm width, 350 nm thick) are deposited on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate through electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) system. The proposed photo sensor detects a terminal resistance inversely varied by an incident light in the range between 78 GΩ in dark and 25 GΩ at light intensity of 400lux. The device response is maximum at 465 nm ~ 535 nm wavelength range at blue light. The device exhibited bendability up to 4mm diameter for 1000 endurance cycles. The surface morphology analysis is carried out with FE-SEM and microscope.

  7. Cryogenic Selective Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Nurge, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Under our NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) project we have theoretically demonstrated a novel selective surface that reflects roughly 100 times more solar radiation than any other known coating. If this prediction holds up under experimental tests it will allow cryogenic temperatures to be reached in deep space even in the presence of the sun. It may allow LOX to be carried to the Moon and Mars. It may allow superconductors to be used in deep space without a refrigeration system.

  8. SRF Test Areas Cryogenic System Controls Graphical User Interface

    SciTech Connect

    DeGraff, B.D.; Ganster, G.; Klebaner, A.; Petrov, A.D.; Soyars, W.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-09

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has constructed a superconducting 1.3 GHz cavity test facility at Meson Detector Building (MDB) and a superconducting 1.3 GHz cryomodule test facility located at the New Muon Lab Building (NML). The control of these 2K cryogenic systems is accomplished by using a Synoptic graphical user interface (GUI) to interact with the underlying Fermilab Accelerator Control System. The design, testing and operational experience of employing the Synoptic client-server system for graphical representation will be discussed. Details on the Synoptic deployment to the MDB and NML cryogenic sub-systems will also be discussed. The implementation of the Synoptic as the GUI for both NML and MDB has been a success. Both facilities are currently fulfilling their individual roles in SCRF testing as a result of successful availability of the cryogenic systems. The tools available for creating Synoptic pages will continue to be developed to serve the evolving needs of users.

  9. Advances in Helium Cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciver, S. W. Van

    This review provides a survey of major advances that have occurred in recent years in the area of helium cryogenics. Helium-temperature cryogenics is the enabling technology for a substantial and growing number of low-temperature systems from superconducting magnets to space-based experimental facilities. In recent years there have been many advances in the technology of low-temperature helium, driven mostly by new applications. However, to keep the review from being too broad, this presentation focuses mainly on three of the most significant advances. These are: (1) the development of large-scale recuperative refrigeration systems mainly for superconducting magnet applications in accelerators and other research facilities; (2) the use of stored superfluid helium (He II) as a coolant for spacebased astrophysics experiments; and (3) the application of regenerative cryocoolers operating at liquid helium temperatures primarily for cooling superconducting devices. In each case, the reader should observe that critical technologies were developed to facilitate these applications. In addition to these three primary advances, other significant helium cryogenic technologies are briefly reviewed at the end of this chapter, along with some vision for future developments in these areas.

  10. Cryogenic Treatment of Metal Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Chillar, Rahul; Agrawal, S. C.

    2006-03-31

    Cryogenic treatment and its variables have been described. Results of eight engineering tests carried out on cryotreated parts have been presented. Cryogenic treatment of metal parts enhances useful properties which in turn, improves various strengths. Our tests viz. Abrasion, Torsion, Fatigue, Tensile, Shear, Hardness and Impact on Mild steel, Cast Iron, Brass and Copper show that the cryogenic treatment improved useful properties of mild steel parts appreciably but did not show promise with brass and copper parts.

  11. Surface Tension Confines Cryogenic Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castles, Stephen H.; Schein, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    New type of Dewar provides passive, constant-temperature cryogenic cooling for scientific instruments under normal-to low-gravity conditions. Known as Surface-Tension-Contained Liquid Cryogen Cooler (STCLCC), keeps liquid cryogen in known location inside the Dewar by trapping liquid inside spongelike material. Unique sponge material fills most of volume of inner tank. Sponge is all-silica, open-cell material similar to that used for Space Shuttle thermal-protection tiles.

  12. Proceedings of the Second Infrared Detector Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The workshop focused on infrared detector, detector array, and cryogenic electronic technologies relevant to low-background space astronomy. Papers are organized into the following categories: discrete infrared detectors and readout electronics; advanced bolometers; intrinsic integrated infrared arrays; and extrinsic integrated infrared arrays. Status reports on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) programs are also included.

  13. Effects of cryogenic temperatures on materials properties. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures. Cryogenic effects on mechanical, magnetic, electrical, and other physical properties of materials are described. Titanium, aluminum, copper, nickel, steels, ice, carbides, cermets, ceramics, composites, alloys, and polymers are among the materials discussed. Strength of materials at low temperatures, with particular regard to fatigue and shear cracking, is included.

  14. Low thermal flux glass-fiber tubing for cryogenic service.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, C. A.; Pharo, T. J., Jr.; Phillips, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Study of thin metallic liners which provide leak-free service in cryogenic propulsion plumbing systems and are overwrapped with a glass-fiber composite that provides strength and protection from handling damage. The composite tube is lightweight, strong, and has a very low thermal flux. The resultant reduced boiloff of stored cryogenic propellants yields a substantial weight savings for long-term missions (seven days or greater). Twelve styles of tubing ranging from 1/2 to 5 in. in diameter were fabricated and tested with excellent results for most of the concepts at operating temperatures from +70 to -423 F and operating pressures up to 3000 psi.

  15. Vapor cooled current lead for cryogenic electrical equipment

    DOEpatents

    Vansant, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method are provided for conducting electric current to cryogenic electrical equipment devices. A combination of inner and outer tubes together form a plurality of hollow composite tubes housed in a sheath. Top and bottom block mounting means are fitted to hold the composite tubes and are affixed to the ends of the sheath. This combination forms a current lead. The current lead is attached to a cryogenic device housing a fluid coolant which moves through the current lead, cooling the current lead as the fluid travels.

  16. Gastric emptying of indigestible tablets in relation to composition and time of ingestion of meals studied by metal detector.

    PubMed

    Ewe, K; Press, A G; Bollen, S; Schuhn, I

    1991-02-01

    Enteric-coated tablets leave the stomach mainly during the interdigestive phase. Composition as well as time of ingestion of meals may influence their gastric emptying considerably. In 12 normal volunteers gastric emptying of a plastic tablet with a metal core was followed by a metal detector in relation to different compositions and various times of ingestion of meals. With an empty stomach and after ingestion of 250 ml water, the mean time for gastric emptying of the tablet was 38 +/- 11 min (mean +/- SEM) and 38 +/- 8 min. Two hundred fifty milliliters of milk (652 kJ) and a formula diet (1000 kJ) delayed gastric emptying time to 128 +/- 14 and 152 +/- 6 min, respectively (P less than 0.05). Breakfast (2200 kJ) further retarded gastric emptying compared with both liquids to 249 +/- 24 min (P less than 0.05). There was a close correlation between nutritive density and gastric emptying of the tablet (r = 0.92; P less than 0.001). Main meals also delayed gastric emptying of tablets when compared to empty stomach (P less than 0.05). A snack after breakfast further delayed gastric emptying from 201 +/- 10 to 278 +/- 19 min (P less than 0.05). The largest delay was observed following ingestion of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and additional snacks (509 +/- 220 min). We conclude that the delay of gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets by food is related to its nutritive density and eating habits. The gastric emptying of an enteric coated tablet that is ingested early in the morning may be delayed until late at night when several meals and snacks are ingested during the day, leading to unwanted alterations in bioavailability and to possible adverse effects.

  17. A versatile detector system to measure the change states, mass compositions and energy spectra of interplanetary and magnetosphere ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1977-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring the mass and charge state composition as well as the energy spectra and angular distributions of 0.5 to 350 kev/charge ions in interplanetary space and in magnetospheres of planets such as Jupiter and earth. Electrostatic deflection combined with a time-of-flight and energy measurement allows three-parameter analysis of output signals from which the mass, charge states, and energy are determined. Post-acceleration by 30 kV extends the energy range of the detector system into the solar wind and magnetosphere plasma regime. Isotopes of H and He are easily resolved as are individual elements up to Ne and the dominant elements up to and including Fe. This instrument has an extremely large dynamic range in intensity and is sensitive to rare elements even in the presence of high intensity radiation, and is adapted for interplanetary, deep-space, and out-of-the-ecliptic missions, as well as for flights on spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and earth.

  18. The {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction studied with a composite germanium detector

    SciTech Connect

    Marta, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Formicola, A.; Gustavino, C.; Junker, M.; Broggini, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Caciolli, A.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Lemut, A.; Prati, P.; Elekes, Z.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Somorjai, E.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Mazzocchi, C.

    2011-04-15

    The rate of the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle of hydrogen burning is controlled by the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction. The reaction proceeds by capture to the ground states and several excited states in {sup 15}O. In order to obtain a reliable extrapolation of the excitation curve to astrophysical energy, fits in the R-matrix framework are needed. In an energy range that sensitively tests such fits, new cross-section data are reported here for the four major transitions in the {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O reaction. The experiment has been performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 400-kV accelerator placed deep underground in the Gran Sasso facility in Italy. Using a composite germanium detector, summing corrections have been considerably reduced with respect to previous studies. The cross sections for capture to the ground state and to the 5181, 6172, and 6792 keV excited states in {sup 15}O have been determined at 359, 380, and 399 keV beam energy. In addition, the branching ratios for the decay of the 278-keV resonance have been remeasured.

  19. Cryogenic Cooling for Myriad Applications-A STAR Is Born

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Cryogenics, the science of generating extremely low temperatures, has wide applicability throughout NASA. The Agency employs cryogenics for rocket propulsion, high-pressure gas supply, breathable air in space, life support equipment, electricity, water, food preservation and packaging, medicine, imaging devices, and electronics. Cryogenic liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen systems are also replacing solid rocket motor propulsion systems in most of the proposed launch systems, a reversion to old-style liquid propellants. In the late 1980s, NASA wanted a compact linear alternator/motor with reduced size and mass, as well as high efficiency, that had unlimited service life for use in a thermally driven power generator for space power applications. Prior development work with free-piston Stirling converters (a Stirling engine integrated with a linear actuator that produces electrical power output) had shown the promise of that technology for high-power space applications. A dual use for terrestrial applications exists for compact Stirling converters for onsite combined heat and power units. The Stirling cycle is also usable in reverse as a refrigeration cycle suitable for cryogenic cooling, so this Stirling converter work promised double benefits as well as dual uses. The uses for cryogenic coolers within NASA abound; commercial applications are similarly wide-ranging, from cooling liquid oxygen and nitrogen, to cryobiology and bio-storage, cryosurgery, instrument and detector cooling, semiconductor manufacturing, and support service for cooled superconducting power systems.

  20. An FPGA-based instrumentation platform for use at deep cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Conway Lamb, I D; Colless, J I; Hornibrook, J M; Pauka, S J; Waddy, S J; Frechtling, M K; Reilly, D J

    2016-01-01

    We describe the operation of a cryogenic instrumentation platform incorporating commercially available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The functionality of the FPGAs at temperatures approaching 4 K enables signal routing, multiplexing, and complex digital signal processing in close proximity to cooled devices or detectors within the cryostat. The performance of the FPGAs in a cryogenic environment is evaluated, including clock speed, error rates, and power consumption. Although constructed for the purpose of controlling and reading out quantum computing devices with low latency, the instrument is generic enough to be of broad use in a range of cryogenic applications.

  1. An FPGA-based instrumentation platform for use at deep cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Conway Lamb, I D; Colless, J I; Hornibrook, J M; Pauka, S J; Waddy, S J; Frechtling, M K; Reilly, D J

    2016-01-01

    We describe the operation of a cryogenic instrumentation platform incorporating commercially available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The functionality of the FPGAs at temperatures approaching 4 K enables signal routing, multiplexing, and complex digital signal processing in close proximity to cooled devices or detectors within the cryostat. The performance of the FPGAs in a cryogenic environment is evaluated, including clock speed, error rates, and power consumption. Although constructed for the purpose of controlling and reading out quantum computing devices with low latency, the instrument is generic enough to be of broad use in a range of cryogenic applications. PMID:26827335

  2. An FPGA-based instrumentation platform for use at deep cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway Lamb, I. D.; Colless, J. I.; Hornibrook, J. M.; Pauka, S. J.; Waddy, S. J.; Frechtling, M. K.; Reilly, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the operation of a cryogenic instrumentation platform incorporating commercially available field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The functionality of the FPGAs at temperatures approaching 4 K enables signal routing, multiplexing, and complex digital signal processing in close proximity to cooled devices or detectors within the cryostat. The performance of the FPGAs in a cryogenic environment is evaluated, including clock speed, error rates, and power consumption. Although constructed for the purpose of controlling and reading out quantum computing devices with low latency, the instrument is generic enough to be of broad use in a range of cryogenic applications.

  3. CERN experience and strategy for the maintenance of cryogenic plants and distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serio, L.; Bremer, J.; Claudet, S.; Delikaris, D.; Ferlin, G.; Pezzetti, M.; Pirotte, O.; Tavian, L.; Wagner, U.

    2015-12-01

    CERN operates and maintains the world largest cryogenic infrastructure ranging from ageing installations feeding detectors, test facilities and general services, to the state-of-the-art cryogenic system serving the flagship LHC machine complex. After several years of exploitation of a wide range of cryogenic installations and in particular following the last two years major shutdown to maintain and consolidate the LHC machine, we have analysed and reviewed the maintenance activities to implement an efficient and reliable exploitation of the installations. We report the results, statistics and lessons learned on the maintenance activities performed and in particular the required consolidations and major overhauling, the organization, management and methodologies implemented.

  4. Cryogenic Flow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justak, John

    2010-01-01

    An acousto-optic cryogenic flow sensor (CFS) determines mass flow of cryogens for spacecraft propellant management. The CFS operates unobtrusively in a high-pressure, high-flowrate cryogenic environment to provide measurements for fluid quality as well as mass flow rate. Experimental hardware uses an optical plane-of-light (POL) to detect the onset of two-phase flow, and the presence of particles in the flow of water. Acousto-optic devices are used in laser equipment for electronic control of the intensity and position of the laser beam. Acousto-optic interaction occurs in all optical media when an acoustic wave and a laser beam are present. When an acoustic wave is launched into the optical medium, it generates a refractive index wave that behaves like a sinusoidal grating. An incident laser beam passing through this grating will diffract the laser beam into several orders. Its angular position is linearly proportional to the acoustic frequency, so that the higher the frequency, the larger the diffracted angle. If the acoustic wave is traveling in a moving fluid, the fluid velocity will affect the frequency of the traveling wave, relative to a stationary sensor. This frequency shift changes the angle of diffraction, hence, fluid velocity can be determined from the diffraction angle. The CFS acoustic Bragg grating data test indicates that it is capable of accurately determining flow from 0 to 10 meters per second. The same sensor can be used in flow velocities exceeding 100 m/s. The POL module has successfully determined the onset of two-phase flow, and can distinguish vapor bubbles from debris.

  5. Characterization of SiPM for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervi, T.; Bonesini, M.; Falcone, A.; Menegolli, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Rossella, M.; Simonetta, M.; Torti, M.

    2016-07-01

    The development of detectors based on liquefied noble gas (LAr, LXe) is mandatory for experiments dedicated to study physics beyond the Standard Model. For this purpose, it is fundamental to detect the Vacuum Ultra Violet (VUV) scintillation light, produced after the passage of ionizing particles inside the detector sensitive volume, to be used for trigger, timing and calorimetric purposes. Besides the traditional cryogenic Photo-Multiplier Tubes (PMTs), one possibility is to adopt Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPMs). We present a comparison of the performance of a SiPM (mod. ASD-NUV3S-P Low Afterpulse) at various cryogenic temperatures, from 60 K up to room temperature, with particular emphasis on the LAr and LXe temperatures. SiPM were characterized in terms of breakdown voltage, gain, pulse shape response, dark count rate and correlated noise.

  6. Vibration dampers for cryogenic turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazzolo, Alan B.; Olan, Emmanuel; Ibrahim, Azman Syed; Kascak, Albert F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the development of effective and reliable minimum-weight and minimum-envelope vibration dampers for cryogenic turbines. To meet this objective, a high speed test rig was designed and fabricated, which is currently used to test a curved beam type damper. The operation, capacity, structural characteristics, measurement system, and safety features of the cryogenic damper test rig are discussed.

  7. Cryogenic insulation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonhard, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Multilayer insulations for long term cryogenic storage are described. The development effort resulted in an insulation concept using lightweight radiation shields, separated by low conductive Dacron fiber tufts. The insulation is usually referred to as Superfloc. The fiber tufts are arranged in a triangular pattern and stand about .040 in. above the radiation shield base. Thermal and structural evaluation of Superfloc indicated that this material is a strong candidate for the development of high performance thermal protection systems because of its high strength, purge gas evacuation capability during boost, its density control and easy application to a tank.

  8. Refrigerated cryogenic envelope

    DOEpatents

    Loudon, John D.

    1976-11-16

    An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

  9. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  10. Cryogenic support member

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.; Nicol, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    A cryogenic support member is comprised of a non-metallic rod having a depression in at least one end and a metallic end connection assembled to the rod. The metallic end connection comprises a metallic plug which conforms to the shape and is disposed in the depression and a metallic sleeve is disposed over the rod and plug. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod to form a connection good in compression, tension and bending.

  11. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Knudsen, Peter N.; Arenius, Dana M.; Barrios, Matthew N.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  12. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D.; Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F.

    2014-01-29

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  13. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  14. Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, D. G.; Howell, E. J.; Ju, L.; Zhao, C.

    2012-02-01

    Part I. An Introduction to Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Detectors: 1. Gravitational waves D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao and E. J. Howell; 2. Sources of gravitational waves D. G. Blair and E. J. Howell; 3. Gravitational wave detectors D. G. Blair, L. Ju, C. Zhao, H. Miao, E. J. Howell, and P. Barriga; 4. Gravitational wave data analysis B. S. Sathyaprakash and B. F. Schutz; 5. Network analysis L. Wen and B. F. Schutz; Part II. Current Laser Interferometer Detectors: Three Case Studies: 6. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory P. Fritschel; 7. The VIRGO detector S. Braccini; 8. GEO 600 H. Lück and H. Grote; Part III. Technology for Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors: 9. Lasers for high optical power interferometers B. Willke and M. Frede; 10. Thermal noise, suspensions and test masses L. Ju, G. Harry and B. Lee; 11. Vibration isolation: Part 1. Seismic isolation for advanced LIGO B. Lantz; Part 2. Passive isolation J-C. Dumas; 12. Interferometer sensing and control P. Barriga; 13. Stabilizing interferometers against high optical power effects C. Zhao, L. Ju, S. Gras and D. G. Blair; Part IV. Technology for Third Generation Gravitational Wave Detectors: 14. Cryogenic interferometers J. Degallaix; 15. Quantum theory of laser-interferometer GW detectors H. Miao and Y. Chen; 16. ET. A third generation observatory M. Punturo and H. Lück; Index.

  15. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  16. Cryogenic magnet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sarwinski, R.E.; Purcell, J.R.; Parker, J.W.; Burnett, S.C.

    1987-07-21

    This patent describes a cryogenic superconducting magnet system for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices, the system comprising: an evacuated container, a first tank mounted within the evacuated container and thermally insulated; boiling liquid helium disposed in the first tank and exhausted to the outside of the container; a cryogenic superconducting magnet disposed in the first tank, a metallic heat radiation shield disposed in the evacuated container and substantially surrounding the first tank, the shield being thermally insulated from both the container and the first tank; and a neon refrigeration system external to the shield for cooling the shield, the neon refrigeration system including neon refrigerant. A second tank contains the neon refrigerant in its liquid state, at least one thermal siphon for circulating the neon refrigerant by convection from the second tank to the shield. The boiling of the neon refrigerant at the shield acts to circulate the neon refrigerant in the thermal siphon and cool the shield. A mechanical cryoccooler is remote from the container for condensing the neon refrigerant from the gaseous to the liquid state, and thermally insulated transfer means for transferring the neon refrigerant in its gaseous state from the second tank to the cryocooler. The neon refrigerant is in its liquid state from the cryocooler to the second tank.

  17. Cryogenic Piezoelectric Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Xiaoning; Cook, William B.; Hackenberger, Wesley S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, PMN-PT single crystal piezoelectric stack actuators and flextensional actuators were designed, prototyped and characterized for space optics applications. Single crystal stack actuators with footprint of 10 mm x10 mm and the height of 50 mm were assembled using 10 mm x10mm x0.15mm PMN-PT plates. These actuators showed stroke > 65 - 85 microns at 150 V at room temperature, and > 30 microns stroke at 77 K. Flextensional actuators with dimension of 10mm x 5 mm x 7.6 mm showed stroke of >50 microns at room temperature at driving voltage of 150 V. A flextensional stack actuator with dimension of 10 mm x 5 mm x 47 mm showed stroke of approx. 285 microns at 150 V at room temperature and > 100 microns at 77K under driving of 150 V should be expected. The large cryogenic stroke and high precision of these actuators are promising for cryogenic optics applications.

  18. Cryogenics maintenance strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzat, Fabiola

    2012-09-01

    ALMA is an interferometer composed of 66 independent systems, with specific maintenance requirements for each subsystem. To optimize the observation time and reduce downtime maintenance, requirements are very demanding. One subsystem with high maintenance efforts is cryogenics and vacuum. To organize the maintenance, the Cryogenic and Vacuum department is using and implementing different tools. These are monitoring and problem reporting systems and CMMS. This leads to different maintenance approaches: Preventive Maintenance, Corrective Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance. In order to coordinate activities with other departments the preventive maintenance schedule is kept as flexible as systems allow. To cope with unavoidable failures, the team has to be prepared to work under any condition with the spares on time. Computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) will help to manage inventory control for reliable spare part handling, the correct record of work orders and traceability of maintenance activities. For an optimized approach the department is currently evaluating where preventive or condition based maintenance applies to comply with the individual system demand. Considering the change from maintenance contracts to in-house maintenance will help to minimize costs and increase availability of parts. Due to increased number of system and tasks the cryo team needs to grow. Training of all staff members is mandatory, in depth knowledge must be built up by doing complex maintenance activities in the Cryo group, use of advanced computerized metrology systems.

  19. Ferritic Fe-Mn alloy for cryogenic applications

    DOEpatents

    Hwang, Sun-Keun; Morris, Jr., John W.

    1979-01-01

    A ferritic, nickel-free alloy steel composition, suitable for cryogenic applications, which consists essentially of about 10-13% manganese, 0.002-0.01% boron, 0.1-0.5% titanium, 0-0.05% aluminum, and the remainder iron and incidental impurities normally associated therewith.

  20. Cryogenic Vacuum Insulation for Vessels and Piping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, A.; Fesmire, J.; Johnson, W.; Minnick, J.

    2010-01-01

    Cryogenic vacuum insulation systems, with proper materials selection and execution, can offer the highest levels of thermal performance. Three areas of consideration are vital to achieve the optimum result: materials, representative test conditions, and engineering approach for the particular application. Deficiency in one of these three areas can prevent optimum performance and lead to severe inefficiency. Materials of interest include micro-fiberglass, multilayer insulation, and composite arrangements. Cylindrical liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimetry methods were used. The need for standard thermal conductivity data is addressed through baseline testing. Engineering analysis and design factors such as layer thickness, density, and practicality are also considered.

  1. New black paint for cryogenic infrared applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A black paint has been developed and tested for cryogenic applications involving wavelengths beyond 10 microns. The paint has been used extensively for liquid helium cooled applications in a variety of instruments operating between 10 and 120 microns. The material is applied by brush over a spray or brush applied primer coat. A final covering is applied by either brush or spray. The composition and preparation of the paint are described, as are data about its outgassing properties. Infrared reflection and scattering data obtained by other groups which compare this material to other commercially available surface preparations are presented.

  2. Cryogenic Insulation System for Soft Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a cryogenic insulation system for operation under soft vacuum is presented in this paper. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications can be divided into three levels of thermal performance, in terms of apparent thermal conductivity [k-value in milliwatt per meter-kelvin (mW/m-K)]. System k-values below 0.1 can be achieved for multilayer insulation operating at a vacuum level below 1 x 10(exp -4) torr. For fiberglass or powder operating below 1 x 10(exp -3) torr, k-values of about 2 are obtained. For foam and other materials at ambient pressure, k-values around 30 are typical. New industry and aerospace applications require a versatile, robust, low-cost thermal insulation with performance in the intermediate range. The target for the new composite insulation system is a k-value below 4.8 mW/m-K (R-30) at a soft vacuum level (from 1 to 10 torr) and boundary temperatures of approximately 77 and 293 kelvin (K). Many combinations of radiation shields, spacers, and composite materials were tested from high vacuum to ambient pressure using cryostat boiloff methods. Significant improvement over conventional systems in the soft vacuum range was demonstrated. The new layered composite insulation system was also shown to provide key benefits for high vacuum applications as well.

  3. Ultrastable Cryogenic Microwave Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Anthony G.

    Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are secondary frequency standards in the microwave domain. The best of these oscillators have demonstrated a short term frequency stability in the range 10-14 to a few times 10-16. The main application for these oscillators is as flywheel oscillators for the next generation of passive atomic frequency standards, and as local oscillators in space telemetry ground stations to clean up the transmitter close in phase noise. Fractional frequency stabilities of passive atomic frequency standards are now approaching 3 x10^-14 /τ where τ is the measurement time, limited only by the number of atoms that are being interrogated. This requires an interrogation oscillator whose short-term stability is of the order of 10-14 or better, which cannot be provided by present-day quartz technology. Ultrastable cryogenic microwave oscillators are based on resonators which have very high electrical Q-factors. The resolution of the resonator's linewidth is typically limited by electronics noise to about 1ppm and hence Q-factors in excess of 108 are required. As these are only attained in superconducting cavities or sapphire resonators at low temperatures, use of liquid helium cooling is mandatory, which has so far restricted these oscillators to the research or metrology laboratory. Recently, there has been an effort to dispense with the need for liquid helium and make compact flywheel oscillators for the new generation of primary frequency standards. Work is under way to achieve this goal in space-borne and mobile liquid-nitrogen-cooled systems. The best cryogenic oscillators developed to date are the ``whispering gallery'' (WG) mode sapphire resonator-oscillators of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of Western Australia (UWA), as well as Stanford University's superconducting cavity stabilized oscillator (SCSO). All of these oscillators have demonstrated frequency

  4. Cryogenic system for COMET experiment at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki, Taekyung; Yoshida, Makoto; Yang, Ye; Ogitsu, Toru; Iio, Masami; Makida, Yasuhiro; Okamura, Takahiro; Mihara, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sugano, Michinaka; Sasaki, Ken-ichi

    2016-07-01

    Superconducting conductors and cryogenic refrigeration are key factors in the accelerator science because they enable the production of magnets needed to control and detect the particles under study. In Japan, a system for COMET (Coherent Muon to Electron Transition), which will produce muon beam lines, is under the construction at J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). The system consists of three superconducting magnets; the first is a pion-capture solenoid, the second is a muon-transport solenoid, and the third is a detector solenoid. It is necessary to cool down the magnets efficiently using two-phase helium and maintain them securely at 4.5 K. For stable cryogenic refrigeration of the magnets, a suitable cooling method, structures, and the irradiation effect on materials should be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the development of an overall cryogenic system for cooling the capture and transport solenoids. A conduction-cooling method is considered for cooling the capture and transport solenoids because of the advantages such as the reduction of total heat load, fewer components, and simplified structure. To supply cryogenic fluids (4.5 K liquid helium and 58 K gas helium) and currents to the conduction-cooled magnets subjected to high irradiation, cryogenic components (cooling paths in the magnets, transfer tubes, and a current lead box) are developed. Based on the environment of high irradiation, the conditions (temperature and pressure) of helium in cooling paths are estimated, as well as the temperature of the capture magnet. We develop a dynamic model for quench simulation and estimate the maximum pressure in the cooling pipe when the capture magnet quenches. We conclude with a discussion of the next steps and estimated challenges for the cryogenic system.

  5. Cryogenic Chamber for Servo-Hydraulic Materials Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, John J.; Tuttle, James

    2009-01-01

    A compact cryogenic test chamber can be cooled to approximately 5 to 6 Kelvin for materials testing. The system includes a temperature controller and multiple sensors to measure specimen temperature at different locations. The testing chamber provides a fast and easy method to perform materials testing at lower than liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The purpose of the chamber is to cool a composite lap shear specimen to approximately 20 K so that tensile test force and displacement data may be acquired at this cryogenic temperature range.

  6. Study of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray composition using Telescope Array's Middle Drum detector and surface array in hybrid mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R. U.; Abe, M.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Chae, M. J.; Cheon, B. G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, W. R.; Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M.; Goto, T.; Hanlon, W.; Hayashi, Y.; Hayashida, N.; Hibino, K.; Honda, K.; Ikeda, D.; Inoue, N.; Ishii, T.; Ishimori, R.; Ito, H.; Ivanov, D.; Jui, C. C. H.; Kadota, K.; Kakimoto, F.; Kalashev, O.; Kasahara, K.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, S.; Kawana, S.; Kawata, K.; Kido, E.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Kitamura, S.; Kitamura, Y.; Kuzmin, V.; Kwon, Y. J.; Lan, J.; Lim, S. I.; Lundquist, J. P.; Machida, K.; Martens, K.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Matthews, J. N.; Minamino, M.; Mukai, Y.; Myers, I.; Nagasawa, K.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Nonaka, T.; Nozato, A.; Ogio, S.; Ogura, J.; Ohnishi, M.; Ohoka, H.; Oki, K.; Okuda, T.; Ono, M.; Oshima, A.; Ozawa, S.; Park, I. H.; Pshirkov, M. S.; Rodriguez, D. C.; Rubtsov, G.; Ryu, D.; Sagawa, H.; Sakurai, N.; Sampson, A. L.; Scott, L. M.; Shah, P. D.; Shibata, F.; Shibata, T.; Shimodaira, H.; Shin, B. K.; Shin, H. S.; Smith, J. D.; Sokolsky, P.; Springer, R. W.; Stokes, B. T.; Stratton, S. R.; Stroman, T.; Suzawa, T.; Takamura, M.; Takeda, M.; Takeishi, R.; Taketa, A.; Takita, M.; Tameda, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Tanaka, K.; Tanaka, M.; Thomas, S. B.; Thomson, G. B.; Tinyakov, P.; Tkachev, I.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Troitsky, S.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsutsumi, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Udo, S.; Urban, F.; Vasiloff, G.; Wong, T.; Yamane, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Yang, J.; Yashiro, K.; Yoneda, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Yoshii, H.; Zollinger, R.; Zundel, Z.

    2015-04-01

    Previous measurements of the composition of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) made by the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) and Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) are seemingly contradictory, but utilize different detection methods, as HiRes was a stereo detector and PAO is a hybrid detector. The five year Telescope Array (TA) Middle Drum hybrid composition measurement is similar in some, but not all, respects in methodology to PAO, and good agreement is evident between data and a light, largely protonic, composition when comparing the measurements to predictions obtained with the QGSJetII-03 and QGSJet-01c models. These models are also in agreement with previous HiRes stereo measurements, confirming the equivalence of the stereo and hybrid methods. The data is incompatible with a pure iron composition, for all models examined, over the available range of energies. The elongation rate and mean values of Xmax are in good agreement with Pierre Auger Observatory data. This analysis is presented using two methods: data cuts using simple geometrical variables and a new pattern recognition technique.

  7. Cryogenic expansion machine

    DOEpatents

    Pallaver, Carl B.; Morgan, Michael W.

    1978-01-01

    A cryogenic expansion engine includes intake and exhaust poppet valves each controlled by a cam having adjustable dwell, the valve seats for the valves being threaded inserts in the valve block. Each cam includes a cam base and a ring-shaped cam insert disposed at an exterior corner of the cam base, the cam base and cam insert being generally circular but including an enlarged cam dwell, the circumferential configuration of the cam base and cam dwell being identical, the cam insert being rotatable with respect to the cam base. GI CONTRACTUAL ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the UNITED STATES ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION.

  8. Cryogenic nuclear gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Gallop, J.C.; Potts, S.P.

    1980-09-30

    A cryogenic nuclear gyroscope is described that is comprised of a cylinder of niobium cooled within a helium cryostat so as to be superconducting and to provide a trapped, substantially homogeneous magnetic field, a helium-3 sample contained within a spherical pyrex cell having nuclei possessing a net magnetic moment, coils provided to polarize the sample to provide that net magnetic moment, and a SQUID magnetometer coupled to the sample by a pick-up coil of a transformer and frequency sensitive means coupled to the SQUID to detect changes in the precession of the nuclear moments of the sample caused by rotation of the gyroscope about an axis parallel to the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. A superconducting lead shield isolates the helium-3 sample from external magnetic fields.

  9. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

    1983-01-04

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

  10. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, John C.; Paulson, Douglas N.; Allen, Paul C.

    1983-01-01

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

  11. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  12. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-11-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  13. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  14. Improved cryogenic aluminum mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukobratovich, Daniel; Don, Ken; Sumner, Richard E.

    1998-09-01

    Optical surface deformation of metal mirrors used at cryogenic temperatures is reduced through the use of a new process of plating amorphous aluminum on aluminum. The AlumiPlateTM process (produced by AlumiPlate, Inc. in Minneapolis, MN) plates a layer of 99.9+% high purity aluminum about 125 micrometers thick atop the substrate. Very good surface finishes are produced by direct diamond turning of the plating, with some samples below 40 angstroms RMS. Optical testing of a 175-mm diameter, 550-mm optical radius of curvature 6061-T651/AlumiPlateTM aluminum sphere was performed at 65 K to determine cryogenic optical surface figure stability. In five cycles from 300 to 65 K, an average optical surface change of 0.047 wave RMS (1 wave equals 633 nm) was observed. A total optical figure change of 0.03 wave RMS at 65 K was observed from the first to last cycle. The cause of this relatively small long-term change is not yet determined. The test mirror is bi-concave, with a semi- kinematic toroidal mount, and is machined from the axis of a billet. An `uphill quench' heat treatment consisting of five cycles from liquid nitrogen to boiling water temperatures is used to minimize residual stress in the test mirror. Initial diamond turning of the mirror by the Optical Filter Corp., Keene, NH, produced a 300 K unmounted optical surface figure of 0.380 wave peak-to-valley and 0.059 wave RMS. A second effort at diamond turning by II-VI, Inc., Saxonburg, PA produced a 300 K optical figure of 0.443 wave peak-to-valley and 0.066 wave RMS, with a surface roughness varying from 29 to 42 angstroms.

  15. Detection and classification characteristics of arrays of carbon black/organic polymer composite chemiresistive vapor detectors for the nerve agent simulants dimethylmethylphosphonate and diisopropylmethylphosponate.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, A R; Lewis, N S

    2001-03-01

    Arrays of conducting polymer composite vapor detectors have been evaluated for performance in the presence of the nerve agent simulants dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) and diisopropylmethylphosponate (DIMP). Limits of detection for DMMP on unoptimized carbon black/ organic polymer composite vapor detectors in laboratory air were estimated to be 0.047-0.24 mg m(-3). These values are lower than the EC50 value (where EC50 is the airborne concentration sufficient to induce severe effects in 50% of those exposed for 30 min) for the nerve agents sarin (methylphosphonofluoridic acid, 1-methylethyl ester) and soman (methylphosphonofluoridic acid, 1,2,2-trimethylpropyl ester), which has been established as approximately 0.8 mg m(-3). Arrays of these vapor detectors were easily able to resolve signatures due to exposures to DMMP from those due to DIMP or due to a variety of other test analytes (including water, methanol, benzene, toluene, diesel fuel, lighter fluid, vinegar, and tetrahydrofuran) in a laboratory air background. In addition, DMMP at 27 mg m(-3) could be detected and differentiated from the signatures of the other test analytes in the presence of backgrounds of potential interferences, including water, methanol, benzene, toluene, diesel fuel, lighter fluid, vinegar, and tetrahydrofuran, even when these interferents were present in much higher concentrations than that of the DMMP or DIMP being detected.

  16. Detection and classification characteristics of arrays of carbon black/organic polymer composite chemiresistive vapor detectors for the nerve agent simulants dimethylmethylphosphonate and diisopropylmethylphosponate.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, A R; Lewis, N S

    2001-03-01

    Arrays of conducting polymer composite vapor detectors have been evaluated for performance in the presence of the nerve agent simulants dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) and diisopropylmethylphosponate (DIMP). Limits of detection for DMMP on unoptimized carbon black/ organic polymer composite vapor detectors in laboratory air were estimated to be 0.047-0.24 mg m(-3). These values are lower than the EC50 value (where EC50 is the airborne concentration sufficient to induce severe effects in 50% of those exposed for 30 min) for the nerve agents sarin (methylphosphonofluoridic acid, 1-methylethyl ester) and soman (methylphosphonofluoridic acid, 1,2,2-trimethylpropyl ester), which has been established as approximately 0.8 mg m(-3). Arrays of these vapor detectors were easily able to resolve signatures due to exposures to DMMP from those due to DIMP or due to a variety of other test analytes (including water, methanol, benzene, toluene, diesel fuel, lighter fluid, vinegar, and tetrahydrofuran) in a laboratory air background. In addition, DMMP at 27 mg m(-3) could be detected and differentiated from the signatures of the other test analytes in the presence of backgrounds of potential interferences, including water, methanol, benzene, toluene, diesel fuel, lighter fluid, vinegar, and tetrahydrofuran, even when these interferents were present in much higher concentrations than that of the DMMP or DIMP being detected. PMID:11289432

  17. Detection and classification characteristics of arrays of carbon black/organic polymer composite chemiresistive vapor detectors for the nerve agent simulants Dimethylmethylphosphonate and Diisopropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Alan R.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2002-06-01

    Arrays of conducting polymer composite vapor detectors have been evaluated for performance in the presence of the nerve agent simulants dimethylmethylphosphonate (DMMP) and diisopropylmethylphosponate (DIMP). Limits of detection for DMMP on unoptimized carbon black-organic polymer composite vapor detectors in laboratory air were estimated to be 0.047-0.24 mg m-3. These values are lower than the EC50 value for the nerve agents sarin (methylphosphonofluoridic acid, (1-methylethyl) ester) and soman, which have been established as equals 0.8 mg m-3. Arrays of these vapor detectors were easily able to resolve signatures due to exposures to DMMP from those due to DIMP or due to a variety of other test analytes in a laboratory air background. In addition, DMMP at 27 mg m-3 could be detected and differentiated from the signatures of the other test analytes in the presence of backgrounds of potential interferents in the background ambient, including water, methanol, benzene, toluene, diesel fuel, lighter fluid, vinegar and tetrahydrofuran, even when these interferents were present in much higher concentrations than that of the DMMP or DIMP being detected.

  18. Photon detector system

    DOEpatents

    Ekstrom, Philip A.

    1981-01-01

    A photon detector includes a semiconductor device, such as a Schottky barrier diode, which has an avalanche breakdown characteristic. The diode is cooled to cryogenic temperatures to eliminate thermally generated charge carriers from the device. The diode is then biased to a voltage level exceeding the avalanche breakdown threshold level such that, upon receipt of a photon, avalanche breakdown occurs. This breakdown is detected by appropriate circuitry which thereafter reduces the diode bias potential to a level below the avalanche breakdown threshold level to terminate the avalanche condition. Subsequently, the bias potential is reapplied to the diode in preparation for detection of a subsequently received photon.

  19. Introduction to cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The background to the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel is outlined, with particular reference to the late 60's/early 70's when efforts were begun to re-equip with larger wind tunnels. The problems of providing full scale Reynolds numbers in transonic testing were proving particularly intractible, when the notion of satisfying the needs with the cryogenic tunnel was proposed, and then adopted. The principles and advantages of the cryogenic tunnel are outlined, along with guidance on the coolant needs when this is liquid nitrogen, and with a note on energy recovery. Operational features of the tunnels are introduced with reference to a small low speed tunnel. Finally the outstanding contributions are highlighted of the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) at NASA Langley Research Center, and its personnel, to the furtherance of knowledge and confidence in the concept.

  20. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  1. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  2. First concept for the E-ELT cryogenic infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizon, J. L.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Monroe, C.; Bryson, I.; Montgomery, D.

    2010-07-01

    The start of the new generation of giant telescopes opens a good opportunity to re-assess the cryogenic cooling of the instruments and detectors. An analysis has been carried out comparing three different technologies: Mechanical cryocoolers, helium forced flow and open liquid nitrogen cooling. The most different aspects from the running cost to the reliability and technology readiness have been compared in order to establish a fair ranking. The first part of the paper will present in detail the result of this analysis. Based on this study and the various experiences collected over more than 25 years and a large number of cryogenic instruments, a strategy is elaborated for the cryogenic cooling of the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope) instrument suite. The challenge consists in providing various cryogenic temperatures (from 10 K to 240 K) at various locations. This should be done in the most efficient way with the minimum of disturbances (low vibration, low thermal dissipation...). A discussion presents the advantages of the selected solution.

  3. Cryogenic controls for Fermilab's SRF cavities and test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, B.; Bossert, R.; Klebaner, A.; Lackey, S.; Martinez, A.; Pei, L.; Soyars, W.; Sirotenko, V.; /Fermilab

    2007-07-01

    A new superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities test facility is now operational at Fermilab's Meson Detector Building (MDB). The facility is supplied cryogens from the Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) located in a separate building 500-m away. The design incorporates ambient temperature pumping for super-fluid helium production, as well as three 0.6-kW at 4.5-K refrigerators, five screw compressors, a helium purifier, helium and nitrogen inventory, cryogenic distribution system, and a variety of test cryostats. To control and monitor the vastly distributed cryogenic system, a flexible scheme has been developed. Both commercial and experimental physics tools are used. APACS+{trademark}, a process automation control system from Siemens-Moore, is at the heart of the design. APACS+{trademark} allows engineers to configure an ever evolving test facility while maintaining control over the plant and distribution system. APACS+{trademark} nodes at CTF and MDB are coupled by a fiber optic network. DirectLogic205 PLC's by KOYO{reg_sign} are used as the field level interface to most I/O. The top layer of this system uses EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) as a SCADA/HMI. Utilities for graphical display, control loop setting, real time/historical plotting and alarming have been implemented by using the world-wide library of applications for EPICS. OPC client/server technology is used to bridge across each different platform. This paper presents this design and its successful implementation.

  4. Latest developments in cryogenic safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of cryogenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

  5. Latest developments in cryogenic safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, T. J.

    1983-03-01

    The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of cryogenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

  6. Statistical Analysis of Yarn Feature Parameters in C/Epoxy Plain-Weave Composite Using Micro CT with High-Resolution Lens-Coupled Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Zhong-wei

    2016-08-01

    C/Epoxy plain-weave composite is difficult to clear imaging in Micro CT with flat panel detector due to the similar atomic numbers of component materials. To solve this problem, a new Micro CT equipment with high-resolution lens-coupled detector is used to reconstruct 3D images of C/Epoxy. Slice data correction with ellipse projection is used to acquire real yarn normal cross-section information. A reference period method suitable for plain-weave composite is then detailed to evaluate statistical properties of yarn feature parameters. In the process of determination of real extreme slices, dislocation phenomenon existed in the laminated composite is discovered. Several possible reasons caused this phenomenon are discussed. Systematic trends, standard deviations and correlation lengths of stochastic deviations with original and corrected data are evaluated respectively by the application of reference period method. The statistical results show that mean out-of-plane yarn waviness, semi-axes, cross-section area and aspect ratio exhibit periodic characteristics, and the maximum effect of slice data correction on all statistical properties of feature parameters is twist angle.

  7. The CLAS Cherenkov detector

    SciTech Connect

    G. Adams; V. Burkert; R. Carl; T. Carstens; V. Frolov; L. Houghtlin; G. Jacobs; M. Kossov; M. Klusman; B. Kross; M. Onuk; J. Napolitano; J. W. Price; C. Riggs; Y. Sharabian; A. Stavinsky; L. C. Smith; W. A. Stephens; P. Stoler; W. Tuzel; K. Ullrich; A. Vlassovc; A. Weisenberger; M. Witkowski; B. Wojtekhowski; P. F. Yergin; C. Zorn

    2001-06-01

    The design, construction, and performance of the CLAS Cerenkov threshold gas detector at Jefferson Lab is described. The detector consists of 216 optical modules. Each module consists of 3 adjustable mirrors, of lightweight composite construction, a Winston light collecting cone, a 5-inch photomultiplier tube, and specially designed magnetic shielding.

  8. Cryogenic Electric Motor Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2004-01-01

    Technology for pollution-free "electric flight" is being evaluated in a number of NASA Glenn Research Center programs. One approach is to drive propulsive fans or propellers with electric motors powered by fuel cells running on hydrogen. For large transport aircraft, conventional electric motors are far too heavy to be feasible. However, since hydrogen fuel would almost surely be carried as liquid, a propulsive electric motor could be cooled to near liquid hydrogen temperature (-423 F) by using the fuel for cooling before it goes to the fuel cells. Motor windings could be either superconducting or high purity normal copper or aluminum. The electrical resistance of pure metals can drop to 1/100th or less of their room-temperature resistance at liquid hydrogen temperature. In either case, super or normal, much higher current density is possible in motor windings. This leads to more compact motors that are projected to produce 20 hp/lb or more in large sizes, in comparison to on the order of 2 hp/lb for large conventional motors. High power density is the major goal. To support cryogenic motor development, we have designed and built in-house a small motor (7-in. outside diameter) for operation in liquid nitrogen.

  9. Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulators

    SciTech Connect

    Chavanne, J.; Lebec, G.; Penel, C.; Revol, F.; Kitegi, C.

    2010-06-23

    For an in-vacuum undulator operated at small gaps the permanent magnet material needs to be highly resistant to possible electron beam exposure. At room temperature, one generally uses Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} or high coercivity NdFeB magnets at the expense of a limited field performance. In a cryogenic permanent magnet undulator (CPMU), at a temperature of around 150 K, any NdFeB grade reveals a coercivity large enough to be radiation resistant. In particular, very high remanence NdFeB material can be used to build undulators with enhanced field and X-ray brilliance at high photon energy provided that the pre-baking of the undulator above 100 deg. C can be eliminated. The ESRF has developed a full scale 2 m long CPMU with a period of 18 mm. This prototype has been in operation on the ID6 test beamline since January 2008. A significant effort was put into the characterization of NdFeB material at low temperature, the development of dedicated magnetic measurement systems and cooling methods. The measured heat budget with beam is found to be larger than expected without compromising the smooth operation of the device. Leading on from this first experience, new CPMUs are currently being considered for the upgrade of the ESRF.

  10. Dual Cryogenic Capacitive Density Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Cox, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A dual cryogenic capacitive density sensor has been developed. The device contains capacitive sensors that monitor two-phase cryogenic flow density to within 1% accuracy, which, if temperature were known, could be used to determine the ratio of liquid to gas in the line. Two of these density sensors, located a known distance apart, comprise the sensor, providing some information on the velocity of the flow. This sensor was constructed as a proposed mass flowmeter with high data acquisition rates. Without moving parts, this device is capable of detecting the density change within a two-phase cryogenic flow more than 100 times a second. Detection is enabled by a series of two sets of five parallel plates with stainless steel, cryogenically rated tubing. The parallel plates form the two capacitive sensors, which are measured by electrically isolated digital electronics. These capacitors monitor the dielectric of the flow essentially the density of the flow and can be used to determine (along with temperature) the ratio of cryogenic liquid to gas. Combining this information with the velocity of the flow can, with care, be used to approximate the total two-phase mass flow. The sensor can be operated at moderately high pressures and can be lowered into a cryogenic bath. The electronics have been substantially improved over the older sensors, incorporating a better microprocessor, elaborate ground loop protection and noise limiting circuitry, and reduced temperature sensitivity. At the time of this writing, this design has been bench tested at room temperature, but actual cryogenic tests are pending

  11. Cryogenic spectral performance of bandpass filters for the NIRCam instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yalan; Harrison, David; Richardson, Todd; Schulz, Bailey; Taylor, Dale; Huff, Lynn W.; Horner, Scott; Kelly, Douglas; Rieke, Marcia J.

    2009-08-01

    The Bandpass Filters in the NIRCam instrument are required to have high throughput in bandpass spectral region and excellent out-of-band blocking over the entire region of detector spectral response. The high throughput is needed for the instrument to have high sensitivity for detecting distant galaxies, and the out-of-band blocking is needed for accurate calibration on James Webb Space Telescope. The operating temperature of the instrument is at cryogenic temperature from 32 Kelvin to 39.5 Kelvin. We have performed spectral measurement of NIRCam bandpass filters at cryogenic temperature after three cryo-to-ambient cycles. We will report the experiment and results in this paper. This work was performed and funded by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center under Prime Contract NAS5-02105.

  12. CRISTA, a cryogenic IR telescope with high spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Barthol, P.; Grossmann, K.U.; Offermann, D.

    1994-12-31

    A limb sounding cryogenic IR telescope named CRISTA (CRyogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere) has been developed to study dynamic disturbances in the middle atmosphere with high spatial (horizontal and vertical) resolution. For this purpose, it measures mid and far IR emissions of several trace constituents at earth`s limb using three independent telescopes with high off-axis rejection performance. Height profiles are derived from simultaneous scans of the three telescope LOS. The radiation received is spectrally analyzed by gating spectrometers followed by Si:Ga and Ge:Ga detectors. High sensitivity together with improved spatial resolution leads to a spacing of only 500 km to 600 km between two adjacent measurement points and thus to a far more detailed picture of the atmosphere compared to present day satellite experiments. CRISTA, integrated in the free-flyer ASTROSPAS, will be launched 1994 by the Space Shuttle for a short duration mission and will be part of ATLAS 3.

  13. Latest developments in cryogenic safety

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, T.J.

    1983-03-01

    The Cryogenic Safety Manual, sponsored by the British Cryogenics Council, was published over 10 years ago. A new updated version is now available. Some general aspects of cryogenic safety are highlighted, and attention is drawn to some of the more unusual hazardous situations. An awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise. Because of this, the more important properties of the cryogenic fluids are given, such as molecular weight, boiling point and freezing point. From these properties, hazardous situations can be deduced. There are hidden dangers that are not always easy to spot. Some of the unexpected hazards, most of which have led to deaths, are: asphyxiation (anoxia), frost bites and hypothermia, explosions, and combustion. The aim of this publication is to help bring about increased safety in the production and use of crygenic products through a deeper appreciation of the scientific, technological and administrative steps which must be made if accidents, some fatal, are to be voided in the future.

  14. Effects of cryogenic temperatures on materials properties. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures. Cryogenic effects on mechanical, magnetic, electrical, and other physical properties of materials are described. Titanium, aluminum, copper, nickel, steels, ice, carbides, cermets, ceramics, composites, alloys, and polymers are among the materials discussed. Strength of materials at low temperatures, with particular regard to fatigue and shear cracking, is included. Cryogenic cooling systems are discussed in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Effects of cryogenic temperatures on materials properties. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning properties of materials at cryogenic temperatures. Cryogenic effects on mechanical, magnetic, electrical, and other physical properties of materials are described. Titanium, aluminum, copper, nickel, steels, ice, carbides, cermets, ceramics, composites, alloys, and polymers are among the materials discussed. Strength of materials at low temperatures, with particular regard to fatigue and shear cracking, is included. Cryogenic cooling systems are discussed in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Experimental Observations on Material Damping at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Chia-Yen; Levine, Marie; Shido, Lillian; Leland, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a unique experimental facility designed to measure damping of materials at cryogenic temperatures for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The test facility removes other sources of damping in the measurement by avoiding frictional interfaces, decoupling the test specimen from the support system, and by using a non-contacting measurement device. Damping data reported herein are obtained for materials (Aluminum, Aluminum/Terbium/Dysprosium, Titanium, Composites) vibrating in free-free bending modes with low strain levels (< 10(exp -6) ppm). The fundamental frequencies of material samples are ranged from 14 to 202 Hz. To provide the most beneficial data relevant to TPF-like precision optical space missions, the damping data are collected from room temperatures (around 293 K) to cryogenic temperatures (below 40 K) at unevenly-spaced intervals. More data points are collected over any region of interest. The test data shows a significant decrease in viscous damping at cryogenic temperatures. The cryogenic damping can be as low as 10(exp -4) %, but the amount of the damping decrease is a function of frequency and material. However, Titanium 15-3-3-3 shows a remarkable increase in damping at cryogenic temperatures. It demonstrates over one order of magnitude increase in damping in comparison to Aluminum 6061-T6. Given its other properties (e.g., good stiffness and low conductivity) this may prove itself to be a good candidate for the application on TPF. At room temperatures, the test data are correlated well with the damping predicted by the Zener theory. However, large discrepancies at cryogenic temperatures between the Zener theory and the test data are observed.

  17. Latest developments in cryogenic safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, T.

    1982-05-01

    The Cryogenic Safety Manual, published under the auspices of the British Cryogenics Council, is summarized. Since an awareness of the physical properties of the cryogenic fluids being dealt with is considered important in directing attention to hazardous situations which may arise, the manual lists the more important properties, such as molecular weight, boiling point, and freezing point. Since hydrogen and helium are very light, the possibility arises of explosive mixtures being formed at high points in buildings. Since argon is unexpectedly heavy, its removal requires suction rather than blowing. It is also pointed out that the use of inert liquid nitrogen can lead to the creation of a noninert atmosphere which supports combustion because it contains oxygen. Attention is also given to the danger of asphyxiation posed by the growing use of inert gases.

  18. Other cryogenic wind tunnel projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    The first cryogenic tunnel was built in 1972. Since then, many cryogenic wind-tunnel projects were started at aeronautical research centers around the world. Some of the more significant of these projects are described which are not covered by other lecturers at this Special Course. Described are cryogenic wind-tunnel projects in five countries: China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center); England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, and Royal Aerospace Establishment-Bedford); Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy); United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and NASA Langley); and U.S.S.R. (Central Aero-Hydronamics Institute (TsAGI), Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ITAM), and Physical-Mechanical Institute at Kharkov (PMI-K).

  19. Other Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    The first cryogenic tunnel was built at the NASA Langley Research Center in 1972. Since then, many cryogenic wind-tunnels have been built at aeronautical research centers around the world. In this lecture some of the more interesting and significant of these projects that have not been covered by other lecturers at this Special Course are described. In this lecture authors describe cryogenic wind-tunnel projects at research centers in four countries: China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center); England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, and Defence Research Agency - Bedford); Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy); and United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and NASA Langley).

  20. Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Rocket fuel needs to stay cool - super cool, in fact. The ability to store gas propellants like liquid hydrogen and oxygen at cryogenic temperatures (below -243 F) is crucial for space missions in order to reduce their volumes and allow their storage in smaller (and therefore, less costly) tanks. The Agency has used these cryogenic fluids for vehicle propellants, reactants, and life support systems since 1962 with the Centaur upper stage rocket, which was powered with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During proposed long-duration missions, super-cooled fluids will also be used in space power systems, spaceports, and lunar habitation systems. In the next generation of launch vehicles, gaseous propellants will be cooled to and stored for extended periods at even colder temperatures than currently employed via a process called densification. Densification sub-cools liquids to temperatures even closer to absolute zero (-459 F), increasing the fluid s density and shrinking its volume beyond common cryogenics. Sub-cooling cryogenic liquid hydrogen, for instance, from 20 K (-423 F) to 15 K (-432.4 F) reduces its mass by 10 percent. These densified liquid gases can provide more cost savings from reduced payload volume. In order to benefit from this cost savings, the Agency is working with private industry to prevent evaporation, leakage, and other inadvertent loss of liquids and gases in payloads - requiring new cryogenic systems to prevent 98 percent (or more) of boil-off loss. Boil-off occurs when cryogenic or densified liquids evaporate, and is a concern during launch pad holds. Accurate sensing of propellants aboard space vehicles is also critical for proper engine shutdown and re-ignition after launch, and zero boil-off fuel systems are also in development for the Altair lunar lander.

  1. Cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.

    1979-01-01

    The development of spiral artery cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes was continued. Ethane was the working fluid and stainless steel the heat pipe material in all cases. The major tasks included: (1) building a liquid blockage (blocking orifice) thermal diode suitable for the HEPP space flight experiment; (2) building a liquid trap thermal diode engineering model; (3) retesting the original liquid blockage engineering model, and (4) investigating the startup dynamics of artery cryogenic thermal diodes. An experimental investigation was also conducted into the wetting characteristics of ethane/stainless steel systems using a specially constructed chamber that permitted in situ observations.

  2. Optical Cryogenic Tank Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffell, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Cryogenic fluids play an important role in space transportation. Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are vital fuel components for liquid rocket engines. It is also difficult to accurately measure the liquid level in the cryogenic tanks containing the liquids. The current methods use thermocouple rakes, floats, or sonic meters to measure tank level. Thermocouples have problems examining the boundary between the boiling liquid and the gas inside the tanks. They are also slow to respond to temperature changes. Sonic meters need to be mounted inside the tank, but still above the liquid level. This causes problems for full tanks, or tanks that are being rotated to lie on their side.

  3. ACCESS: Detector Control and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Matthew J.; Kaiser, M.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Mott, D. B.; Wen, Y.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments that will enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 to 1.7 micron bandpass (companion poster, Kaiser et al.). The flight detector and detector spare have been selected and integrated with their electronics and flight mount. The controller electronics have been flight qualified. Vibration testing to launch loads and thermal vacuum testing of the detector, mount, and housing have been successfully performed. Further improvements to the flight controller housing have been made. A cryogenic ground test system has been built. Dark current and read noise tests have been performed, yielding results consistent with the initial characterization tests of the detector performed by Goddard Space Flight Center’s Detector Characterization Lab (DCL). Detector control software has been developed and implemented for ground testing. Performance and integration of the detector and controller with the flight software will be presented. NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  4. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Belvin, Anthony D.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) development efforts in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability and performance potential of NTP systems. For example, Project Rover (1955 - 1973) completed 22 high power rocket reactor tests. Peak performances included operating at an average hydrogen exhaust temperature of 2550 K and a peak fuel power density of 5200 MW/m3 (Pewee test), operating at a thrust of 930 kN (Phoebus-2A test), and operating for 62.7 minutes in a single burn (NRX-A6 test). Results from Project Rover indicated that an NTP system with a high thrust-to-weight ratio and a specific impulse greater than 900 s would be feasible. Excellent results were also obtained by the former Soviet Union. Although historical programs had promising results, many factors would affect the development of a 21st century nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Test facilities built in the US during Project Rover no longer exist. However, advances in analytical techniques, the ability to utilize or adapt existing facilities and infrastructure, and the ability to develop a limited number of new test facilities may enable affordable development, qualification, and utilization of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS). Bead-loaded graphite fuel was utilized throughout the Rover/NERVA program, and coated graphite composite fuel (tested in the Nuclear Furnace) and cermet fuel both show potential for even higher performance than that demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA engine tests.. NASA's NCPS project was initiated in October, 2011, with the goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS. FY 2014 activities are focused on fabrication and test (non-nuclear) of both coated graphite composite fuel elements and cermet fuel elements. Additional activities include developing a pre-conceptual design of the NCPS stage and evaluating affordable strategies for NCPS development, qualification, and utilization. NCPS stage designs are focused on supporting human Mars

  5. Ultra fast UV-photo detector based on single-walled carbon nanotube/PEDOT-PSS composites.

    PubMed

    Najeeb, Choolakadavil Khalid; Lee, Jae-Hyoek; Chang, Jingbo; Kang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2009-12-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS), composites (SWNT/PEDOT-PSS) have been prepared using SWNTs surface modified with a natural gum, 'gum arabic' by simple mixing process. Thin films of SWNTs, PEDOT-PSS and the composites were prepared by vacuum filtration technique and were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiations for photoconductivity measurements. The surface resistivity of pristine SWNTs film increased from initial value of 50 omega to 92 omega and that of the polymer film decreased from 6.7 Komega to 3.1 Komega while the resistivity of the composite film decreased from 267 omega to 232 omega upon UV illumination. When the lamp was switched off, the initial resistivities of PEDOT: PSS and SWNTs films were recovered very slowly. Interestingly, on the other hand the composite films demonstrated a very fast relaxation within a few minutes. An on-off cycle ruled out the possibility of local heating effect and revealed that the switching property was originated from the fast transport of charge and heat in the composite films. This property of composite film might open up optoelectronic applications involving photoconductivity, such as photo sensors, organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic solar cells. Here in, we demonstrate the application of the SWNT/PEDOT-PSS composite film based device as a UV sensor.

  6. Cryogenic switched MOSFET characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Both p channel and n channel enhancement mode MOSFETs can be readily switched on and off at temperatures as low as 2.8 K so that switch sampled readout of a VLWIR Ge:Ga focal plane is electronically possible. Noise levels as low as 100 rms electrons per sample (independent of sample rate) can be achieved using existing p channel MOSFETs, at overall rates up to 30,000 samples/second per multiplexed channel (e.g., 32 detectors at a rate of almost 1,000 frames/second). Run of the mill devices, including very low power dissipation n channel FETs would still permit noise levels of the order of 500 electrons/sample.

  7. Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.; Scholtens, Brekke E.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient methods for characterizing thermal performance of materials under cryogenic and vacuum conditions have been developed. These methods provide thermal conductivity data on materials under actual-use conditions and are complementary to established methods. The actual-use environment of full temperature difference in combination with vacuum-pressure is essential for understanding insulation system performance. Test articles include solids, foams, powders, layered blankets, composite panels, and other materials. Test methodology and apparatus design for several insulation test cryostats are discussed. The measurement principle is liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimetry. Heat flux capability ranges from approximately 0.5 to 500 watts per square meter; corresponding apparent thermal conductivity values range from below 0.01 up to about 60 mW/m- K. Example data for different insulation materials are also presented. Upon further standardization work, these patented insulation test cryostats can be available to industry for a wide range of practical applications.

  8. Cryogenic glass-filament-wound tank evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, E. E.; Landes, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    High-pressure glass-filament-wound fluid storage vessels with thin aluminum liners were designed, fabricated, and tested at ambient and cryogenic temperatures which demonstrated the feasibility of producing such vessels as well as high performance and light weight. Significant developments and advancements were made in solving problems associated with the thin metal liners in the tanks, including liner bonding to the overwrap and high strain magnification at the vessel polar bosses. The vessels had very high burst strengths, and failed in cyclic fatigue tests by local liner fracture and leakage without structural failure of the composite tank wall. The weight of the tanks was only 40 to 55% of comparable 2219-T87 aluminum and Inconel 718 tanks.

  9. Basic cryogenics and materials. Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of cryogenic temperatures on the mechanical and physical properties of materials are summarized. Heat capacity and thermal conductivity are considered in the context of conservation of liquid nitrogen, thermal stability of the gas stream, and the response time for changes in operating temperature. Particular attention is given to the effects of differential expansion and failure due to thermal fatigue. Factors affecting safety are discussed, including hazards created due to the inadvertent production of liquid oxygen and the physiological effects of exposure to liquid and gaseous nitrogen, such as cold burns and asphyxiation. The preference for using f.c.c. metals at low temperatures is explained in terms of their superior toughness. The limitations on the use of ferritic steels is also considered. Nonmetallic materials are discussed, mainly in the context of their LOX compatibility and their use in the form of foams and fibers as insultants, seals, and fiber reinforced composites.

  10. Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases

    DOEpatents

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1980-05-02

    A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

  11. Filling an Unvented Cryogenic Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Phillip; Willen, Gary S.

    1987-01-01

    Slow-cooling technique enables tank lacking top vent to be filled with cryogenic liquid. New technique: pressure buildup prevented through condensation of accumulating gas resulting in condensate being added to bulk liquid. Filling method developed for vibration test on vacuum-insulated spherical tank containing liquid hydrogen.

  12. Survey of cryogenic semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Talarico, L.J.; McKeever, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Improved reliability and electronic performance can be achieved in a system operated at cryogenic temperatures because of the reduction in mechanical insult and in disruptive effects of thermal energy on electronic devices. Continuing discoveries of new superconductors with ever increasing values of T{sub c} above that of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) have provided incentive for developing semiconductor electronic systems that may also operate in the superconductor`s liquid nitrogen bath. Because of the interest in high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice and LNT is the temperature on which this review is focused. The purpose of this survey is to locate and assemble published information comparing the room temperature (298 K), performance of commercially available conventional and hybrid semiconductor device with their performance at LNT (77K), to help establish their candidacy as cryogenic electronic devices specifically for use at LNT. The approach to gathering information for this survey included the following activities. Periodicals and proceedings were searched for information on the behavior of semiconductor devices at LNT. Telephone calls were made to representatives of semiconductor industries, to semiconductor subcontractors, to university faculty members prominent for their research in the area of cryogenic semiconductors, and to representatives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and NASA subcontractors. The sources and contacts are listed with their responses in the introduction, and a list of references appears at the end of the survey.

  13. Cryogenics Testbed Technology Focus Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Our mission is to bring together the mutual elements of research, industry, and training in the field of cryogenics to advance technology development for the spaceports of the future. Successful technology and productive collaboration comes from these three ingredients working together in a triangle of interaction.

  14. Foam shell cryogenic ICF target

    DOEpatents

    Darling, Dale H.

    1987-01-01

    A uniform cryogenic layer of DT fuel is maintained in a fusion target having a low density, small pore size, low Z rigid foam shell saturated with liquid DT fuel. Capillary action prevents gravitational slumping of the fuel layer. The saturated shell may be cooled to produce a solid fuel layer.

  15. Dust Charge in Cryogenic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, J.; Kojima, C.; Sekine, W.; Ishihara, O.

    2008-09-07

    Dust charges in a complex helium gas plasma, surrounded by cryogenic liquid, are studied experimentally. The charge is determined by frequency and equilibrium position of damped dust oscillation proposed by Tomme et al.(2000) and is found to decrease with ion temperature of the complex plasma.

  16. Operation of large cryogenic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rode, C.H.; Ferry, B.; Fowler, W.B.; Makara, J.; Peterson, T.; Theilacker, J.; Walker, R.

    1985-06-01

    This report is based on the past 12 years of experiments on R and D and operation of the 27 kW Fermilab Tevatron Cryogenic System. In general the comments are applicable for all helium plants larger than 1000W (400 l/hr) and non mass-produced nitrogen plants larger than 50 tons per day. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Sources of Cryogenic Data and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohling, R. A.; Hufferd, W. L.; Marquardt, E. D.

    It is commonly known that cryogenic data, technology, and information are applied across many military, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and civilian product lines. Before 1950, however, there was no centralized US source of cryogenic technology data. The Cryogenic Data Center of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) maintained a database of cryogenic technical documents that served the national need well from the mid 1950s to the early 1980s. The database, maintained on a mainframe computer, was a highly specific bibliography of cryogenic literature and thermophysical properties that covered over 100 years of data. In 1983, however, the Cryogenic Data Center was discontinued when NBS's mission and scope were redefined. In 1998, NASA contracted with the Chemical Propulsion Information Agency (CPIA) and Technology Applications, Inc. (TAI) to reconstitute and update Cryogenic Data Center information and establish a self-sufficient entity to provide technical services for the cryogenic community. The Cryogenic Information Center (CIC) provided this service until 2004, when it was discontinued due to a lack of market interest. The CIC technical assets were distributed to NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Plans are under way in 2006 for CPIA to launch an e-commerce cryogenic website to offer bibliography data with capability to download cryogenic documents.

  18. A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into

  19. Effects of Co and Al Contents on Cryogenic Mechanical Properties and Hydrogen Embrittlement for Austenitic Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. Y.; Ma, L. M.; Li, Y. Y.

    2004-06-01

    The effects of Co and Al content on ambient and cryogenic mechanical properties, microstructure and hydrogen embrittlement of a high strength precipitate-strengthened austenitic alloy (Fe-Ni-Cr-Mo system) had been investigated with temperature range from 293K to 77 K. Hydrogen embrittlement tests were conducted using the method of high pressure thermal hydrogen charging. It was found that increasing Co content can cause increasing in ambient and cryogenic ductility, but has less effect on ultimate tensile strength. When Co content is 9.8%, obvious decrease was found in cryogenic yield strength. Increasing Al content can result in decreasing ambient and cryogenic ductility and severe hydrogen embrittlement, but slight increase in cryogenic yield strength. Increasing Co content, reducing Al content, and decreasing test temperature tend to decrease the hydrogen embrittlement tendency for the alloys. This work showed that the alloy with composition of Fe-31%Ni-15%Cr-5%Co-4.5%Mo-2.4%Ti-0.3%Al-0.3%Nb-0.2%V has the superior cryogenic mechanical properties and lower hydrogen embrittlement tendency, is a good high strength cryogenic hydrogen-resistant material.

  20. The cryogenic readout system with GaAs JFETs for multi-pixel cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibi, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Nagata, H.; Ikeda, H.; Fujiwara, M.

    2010-11-01

    Our purpose is to realize a multi-pixel sub-millimeter/terahertz camera with the superconductor - insulator - superconductor photon detectors. These detectors must be cooled below 1 K. Since these detectors have high impedance, signal amplifiers of each pixel must be setting aside of them for precise signal readout. Therefore, it is desirable that the readout system work well even in cryogenic temperature. We selected the n-type GaAs JFETs as cryogenic circuit elements. From our previous studies, the n-type GaAs JFETs have good cryogenic properties even when those power dissipations are low. We have designed several kinds of integration circuits (ICs) and demonstrated their performance at cryogenic temperature. Contents of ICs are following; AC coupled trans-impedance amplifiers, voltage distributors for suppressing input offset voltage of AC coupled CTIAs, multiplexers with sample-and holds, and shift-registers for controlling multiplex timing. The power dissipation of each circuit is 0.5 to 3 micro watts per channel. We also have designed and manufactured 32-channel multi-chip-modules with these ICs. These modules can make 32- channel input photo current signals into one or two serial output voltage signal(s). Size of these is 40mm x 30mm x 2mm and estimated total power dissipation is around 400 micro watts.

  1. CUORE: Cryogenic challenges and prospects for a future upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vivek; Cuore Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale bolometric experiment searching for the 0 νββ decay in 130Te. It consists of a closely packed array of 988 TeO2 crystals (5 × 5 × 5 cm3 each) and will be hosted in one of the largest cryostats ever constructed to reach a base temperature of ~10 mK. With a background goal of 10 c/keV/ton/y and an expected energy resolution of ~5 keV in the region of interest, CUORE has the potential to probe the effective Majorana neutrino mass down to 50-130 meV (90 % C.L). A natural follow-up to CUORE would be a ton-scale bolometric experiment which can be sensitive to the effective mass of ~10 meV, covering the entire inverted hierarchy region of the mass spectrum. CUPID (CUORE Upgrade with Particle ID) is a proposed next-generation bolometric experiment which aims to use the CUORE cryogenic infrastructure in conjunction with new detector technologies and novel background mitigation techniques. After briefly outlining the design of CUORE with a focus on its novel cryogenic system, an overview of the current status of CUORE commissioning effort would be presented. The talk will then delve on some of the R&D activities which are being actively pursued under the CUPID framework.

  2. High Performance COPVs for In-Space Storage of High Pressure Cryogenic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Judy; Dyess, Mark; Hastings, Chad; Wang, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Polymeric composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) provide an attractive material system to support developing commercial launch business and alternate fuel ventures. However to be able to design with these materials, the mechanical behavior of the materials must be understood with regards to processing, performance, damage tolerance, and environment. For the storage of cryogenic propellants, it is important to evaluate the materials performance and impact damage resistance at cryogenic temperatures in order to minimize weight and to ensure safety and reliability. As part of this study, material tests of candidate fiber and resin systems were used as the basis for the selection of the material combinations for evaluation in a COPV at cryogenic conditions. This comprehensive approach has also been expanded to address issues with impact damage tolerance and material degradation due to environmental factors. KEY WORDS: Cryogenic testing, evaluation and applications for pressure vessels, COPVs, tanks, or storage vessels.

  3. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search: First 5-Tower Data and Improved Understanding of Ionization Collection

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Catherine N.

    2010-01-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is searching for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) with cryogenic particle detectors. These detectors have the ability to discriminate between nuclear recoil candidate and electron recoil background events by collecting both phonon and ionization energy from recoils in the detector crystals. The CDMS-II experiment has completed analysis of the first data runs with 30 semiconductor detectors at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, resulting in a world leading WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section limit for WIMP masses above 44 GeV/c2. As CDMS aims to achieve greater WIMP sensitivity, it is necessary to increase the detector mass and discrimination between signal and background events. Incomplete ionization collection results in the largest background in the CDMS detectors as this causes electron recoil background interactions to appear as false candidate events. Two primary causes of incomplete ionization collection are surface and bulk trapping. Recent work has been focused on reducing surface trapping through the modification of fabrication methods for future detectors. Analyzing data taken with test devices has shown that hydrogen passivation of the amorphous silicon blocking layer worsens surface trapping. Additional data has shown that the iron-ion implantation used to lower the critical temperature of the tungsten transition-edge sensors causes a degradation of the ionization collection. Using selective implantation on future detectors may improve ionization collection for events near the phonon side detector surface. Bulk trapping is minimized by neutralizing ionized lattice impurities. Detector investigations at testing facilities and in situ at the experimental site have provided methods to optimize the neutralization process and monitor running conditions to maintain full ionization collection. This work details my contribution to the 5-tower data taking, monitoring, and analysis effort as

  4. Cryogenics and the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current plans within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars presently planned in 2011. Integral to all hum Mars mission phases is cryogenic fluid management. Cryogenic fluids will be required both as propellant and for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Without safe and efficient cryogen storage human Mars missions will not be possible. Effective control and handling of cryogenic fluids is the key to affordable Mars missions, and advancing active thermal control technology is synergistic with all of NASA's exploration initiatives and with existing and future instrument cooling programs, including MTPE and Origins. Present mission scenarios for human exploration require cryogenic propellant storage for up to 1700 days and for up to 60 metric tons. These requirements represent increases of an order of magnitude over previous storage masses and lifetimes. The key cryogenic terminology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Long-term storage for the thermal control of cryogenic propellants is best accomplished with a mix of passive and active technologies. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer insulation (MLI) concepts will be combined with the development of active coolers (cryogenic refrigerators). Candidates for long-life active cooling applications include Reverse Turbo-Brayton, Stirling, and Pulse-Tube coolers. The integration of passive and active technologies will form a hybrid system optimized to minimize the launch mass while preserving the cryogenic propellants. Since cryogenic propellants are the largest mass that Mars missions must launch from earth, even a modest reduction in the percentage of propellant carried results in a significant weight saving. This paper will present a brief overview of cryogenic fluid management

  5. Proceedings of the Third Infrared Detector Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, Craig R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    This volume consists of 37 papers which summarize results presented at the Third Infrared Detector Technology Workshop, held February 7-9, 1989, at Ames Research Center. The workshop focused on infrared (IR) detector, detector array, and cryogenic electronic technologies relevant to low-background space astronomy. Papers on discrete IR detectors, cryogenic readouts, extrinsic and intrinsic IR arrays, and recent results from ground-based observations with integrated arrays were given. Recent developments in the second-generation Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared spectrometer and in detectors and arrays for the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) are also included, as are status reports on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) projects.

  6. Design and performance of a cryogenic iris aperture mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jonge, C.; Laauwen, W. M.; de Vries, E. A.; Smit, H. P.; Detrain, A.; Eggens, M. J.; Ferrari, L.; Dieleman, P.

    2014-07-01

    A cryogenic iris mechanism is under development as part of the ground calibration source for the SAFARI instrument. The iris mechanism is a variable aperture used as an optical shutter to fine-tune and modulate the absolute power output of the calibration source. It has 4 stainless steel blades that create a near-circular aperture in every position. The operating temperature is 4.5 Kelvin to provide a negligible background to the SAFARI detectors, and `hot spots' above 9K should be prevented. Cryogenic testing proved that the iris works at 4K. It can be used in a broad range of cryogenic optical instruments where optical throughput needs to be controlled. Challenges in the design include the low cooling power available (5mW) and low friction at cryogenic temperatures. The actuator is an `arc-type' rotary voice-coil motor. The use of flexural pivots creates a mono-stable mechanism with a resonance frequency at 26Hz. Accurate and fast position control with disturbance rejection is managed by a PID servo loop using a hall-sensor as input. At 4 Kelvin, the frequency is limited to 4Hz to avoid excess dissipation and heating. In this paper, the design and performance of the iris are discussed. The design was optimized using a thermal, magnetic and mechanical model made with COMSOL Finite Element Analysis software. The dynamical and state-space modeling of the mechanism and the concept of the electrical control are presented. The performance of the iris show good agreement to the analytical and COMSOL modeling.

  7. Cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, John H.; Weber, Theodore T.

    1993-01-01

    The spectral noise characteristics of Aerojet gallium arsenide (GaAs) junction field effect transistors (JFET's) have been investigated down to liquid-helium temperatures. Noise characterization was performed with the field effect transistor (FET) in the floating-gate mode, in the grounded-gate mode to determine the lowest noise readings possible, and with an extrinsic silicon photodetector at various detector bias voltages to determine optimum operating conditions. The measurements indicate that the Aerojet GaAs JFET is a quiet and stable device at liquid helium temperatures. Hence, it can be considered a readout line driver or infrared detector preamplifier as well as a host of other cryogenic applications. Its noise performance is superior to silicon (Si) metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET's) operating at liquid helium temperatures, and is equal to the best Si n channel junction field effect transistor (n-JFET's) operating at 300 K.

  8. Liquid Hydrogen: Target, Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; Harigel, G.G.

    2004-06-23

    In 1952 D. Glaser demonstrated that a radioactive source's radiation could boil 135 deg. C superheated-diethyl ether in a 3-mm O glass vessel and recorded bubble track growth on high-speed film in a 2-cm3 chamber. This Bubble Chamber (BC) promised improved particle track time and spatial resolution and cycling rate. Hildebrand and Nagle, U of Chicago, reported Liquid Hydrogen minimum ionizing particle boiling in August 1953. John Wood created the 3.7-cm O Liquid Hydrogen BC at LBL in January 1954. By 1959 the Lawrence Berkley Laboratory (LBL) Alvarez group's '72-inch' BC had tracks in liquid hydrogen. Within 10 years bubble chamber volumes increased by a factor of a million and spread to every laboratory with a substantial high-energy physics program. The BC, particle accelerators and special separated particle beams created a new era of High Energy Physics (HEP) experimentation. The BC became the largest most complex cryogenic installation at the world's HEP laboratories for decades. The invention and worldwide development, deployment and characteristics of these cryogenic dynamic target/detectors and related hydrogen targets are described.

  9. Cryogenic High-Sensitivity Magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Peter; Chui, Talso; Goodstein, David

    2005-01-01

    A proposed magnetometer for use in a cryogenic environment would be sensitive enough to measure a magnetic-flux density as small as a picogauss (10(exp -16) Tesla). In contrast, a typical conventional flux-gate magnetometer cannot measure a magnetic-flux density smaller that about 1 microgauss (10(exp -10) Tesla). One version of this device, for operation near the low end of the cryogenic temperature range, would include a piece of a paramagnetic material on a platform, the temperature of which would be controlled with a periodic variation. The variation in temperature would be measured by use of a conventional germanium resistance thermometer. A superconducting coil would be wound around the paramagnetic material and coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer.

  10. A cryogenic receiver for EPR.

    PubMed

    Narkowicz, R; Ogata, H; Reijerse, E; Suter, D

    2013-12-01

    Cryogenic probes have significantly increased the sensitivity of NMR. Here, we present a compact EPR receiver design capable of cryogenic operation. Compared to room temperature operation, it reduces the noise by a factor of ≈2.5. We discuss in detail the design and analyze the resulting noise performance. At low microwave power, the input noise density closely follows the emission of a cooled 50Ω resistor over the whole measurement range from 20K up to room temperature. To minimize the influence of the microwave source noise, we use high microwave efficiency (≈1.1-1.7mTW(-1/2)) planar microresonators. Their efficient conversion of microwave power to magnetic field permits EPR measurements with very low power levels, typically ranging from a few μW down to fractions of nW.

  11. Advanced cryogenic tank development status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, G. F.; Tack, W. T.; Scholz, E. F.

    1993-06-01

    Significant advances have been made in the development of materials, structures, and manufacturing technologies for the next generation of cryogenic propellant tanks under the auspices of a joint U.S. Air Force/NASA sponsored advanced development program. This paper summarizes the achievements of this three-year program, particularly in the evolution and properties of Weldalite 049, net shape component technology, Al-Li welding technology, and efficient manufacturing concepts. Results of a recent mechanical property characterization of a full-scale integrally stiffened barrel panel extrusion are presented, as well as plans for an additional weld process optimization program using response surface design of experiment techniques. A further discussion is given to the status of hardware completed for the Advanced Manufacturing Development Center and Martin Marietta's commitment to the integration of these technologies into the production of low-cost, light-weight cryogenic propellant tanks.

  12. Cryogenic VPH grisms for MOIRCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Ichiyama, Kotaro; Ebizuka, Noboru; Murata, Chihiro; Taniguchi, Yuichiro; Okura, Tsutomu; Harashima, Masakazu; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Maruyama, Miyoko; Iye, Masanori; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2008-07-01

    We present the development and first astronomical applications of VPH grisms which are now operated at cryogenic temperature in MOIRCS, a Cassegrain near-infrared instrument of the Subaru Telescope. We designed and fabricated the VPH grisms with a resolving power ~3000 for the use in near-infrared bands. The VPH grating, encapsulated in BK7 glass, is glued between two ZnSe prisms with vertex angle of 20 deg. After repeating several thermal cycles down to ~100 K carefully enough not to cause irreparable damage on the grism during cooling, we evaluated the performance at cryogenic temperature in the laboratory and found no deterioration and no large difference in the performance from that measured in room temperature. Based on commissioning observations with MOIRCS, we have confirmed the high efficiency (~0.8) and the resolving power of the original design. Common use of the grisms is due to start in the second semester of 2008.

  13. Electromagnetic dampers for cryogenic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Dirusso, Eliseo

    1988-01-01

    Cryogenic turbomachinery of the type used to pump high-pressure liquid hydrogen at -423 F and liquid oxygen at -297 F to the main engines of the Space Shuttle are subjected to lateral rotor vibrations from unbalance forces and transient loads. Conventional dampers which utilize viscous fluids such as lubricating oil cannot be used in turbopumps because the bearing components are filled with either liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen, which have viscosity comparable to air and, therefore, are not effective in viscous dampers. Electromagentic dampers are currently being explored as a means of providing damping in cryogenic turbopumps because their damping effectiveness increases as temperature decreases and because they are compatible with the liquid hydrogen or liquid oxygen in the turbopumps.

  14. Cryogenic Flange and Seal Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The assembly of flanges, seals, and pipes are used to carry cryogenic fluid from a storage tank to the vehicle at launch sites. However, after a certain amount of cycles these raised face flanges with glass-filled Teflon gaskets have been found to have torque relaxation and are as a result susceptible to cryogenic fluid leakage if not re-torqued. The intent of this project is to identify alternate combinations of flanges and seals which may improve thermal cycle performance and decrease re-torque requirements. The general approach is to design a test fixture to evaluate leak characteristics between spiral and concentric serrations and to test alternate flange and seal combinations. Due to insufficient time, it was not possible to evaluate these different types of combinations for the combination that improved thermal cycle performance the most. However, the necessary drawings for the test fixture were designed and assembled along with the collection of the necessary parts.

  15. Cryogenic moderator simulations : confronting reality.

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, E. B.

    1999-01-06

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory is a spallation neutron source dedicated to materials research. Its three cryogenic methane moderators provide twelve neutron beams to fourteen instruments and test facilities. This report concerns ongoing activities for benchmarking our Monte Carlo model of the IPNS neutron generation system. This paper concentrates on the techniques (both experimental and calculational) used in such benchmarking activities.

  16. Insulating Cryogenic Pipes With Frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, J. G.; Bova, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Crystallized water vapor fills voids in pipe insulation. Small, carefully controlled amount of water vapor introduced into dry nitrogen gas before it enters aft fuselage. Vapor freezes on pipes, filling cracks in insulation. Ice prevents gaseous nitrogen from condensing on pipes and dripping on structure, in addition to helping to insulate all parts. Industrial applications include large refrigeration plants or facilities that use cryogenic liquids.

  17. Investigation of mechanical properties of cryogenically treated music wire.

    PubMed

    Heptonstall, A; Waller, M; Robertson, N A

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article, we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For the samples we studied, we conclude that there is no significant difference in the properties of interest for application in gravitational wave detectors. PMID:26329213

  18. CALISTO: A Cryogenic Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, P. F.; Bradford, C. M.; Dragovan, M.; Khayatian, B.; Huffenberger, K.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Gorski, K.; Yorke, H. W.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Paine, C.; Satter, C.; Lee, R.

    2007-01-01

    We present a design for a cryogenically cooled large aperture telescope for far-infrared astronomy in the wavelength range 30 micrometers to 300 micrometers. The Cryogenic Aperture Large Infrared Space Telescope Observatory, or CALISTO, is based on an off-axis Gregorian telescope having a 4 m by 6 m primary reflector. This can be launched using an Atlas V 511, with the only optical deployment required being a simple hinged rotation of the secondary reflector. The off-axis design, which includes a cold stop, offers exceptionally good performance in terms of high efficiency and minimum coupling of radiation incident from angles far off the direction of maximum response. This means that strong astronomical sources, such as the Milky Way and zodiacal dust in the plane of the solar system, add very little to the background. The entire optical system is cooled to 4 K to make its emission less than even this low level of astronomical emission. Assuming that detector technology can be improved to the point where detector noise is less than that of the astronomical background, we anticipate unprecedented low values of system noise equivalent power, in the vicinity of 10(exp -19) WHz(exp -0.5), through CALISTO's operating range. This will enable a variety of new astronomical investigations ranging from studies of objects in the outer solar system to tracing the evolution of galaxies in the universe throughout cosmic time.

  19. Investigation of mechanical properties of cryogenically treated music wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heptonstall, A.; Waller, M.; Robertson, N. A.

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported that treating music wire (high carbon steel wire) by cooling to cryogenic temperatures can enhance its mechanical properties with particular reference to those properties important for musical performance. We use such wire for suspending many of the optics in Advanced LIGO, the upgrade to LIGO—the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory. Two properties that particularly interest us are mechanical loss and breaking strength. A decrease in mechanical loss would directly reduce the thermal noise associated with the suspension, thus enhancing the noise performance of mirror suspensions within the detector. An increase in strength could allow thinner wire to be safely used, which would enhance the dilution factor of the suspension, again leading to lower suspension thermal noise. In this article, we describe the results of an investigation into some of the mechanical properties of music wire, comparing untreated wire with the same wire which has been cryogenically treated. For the samples we studied, we conclude that there is no significant difference in the properties of interest for application in gravitational wave detectors.

  20. Positronium production in cryogenic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, B. S.; Alonso, A. M.; Deller, A.; Liszkay, L.; Cassidy, D. B.

    2016-03-01

    We report measurements of positronium (Ps) formation following positron irradiation of mesoporous SiO2 films and Ge(100) single crystals at temperatures ranging from 12-700 K. As both of these materials generate Ps atoms via nonthermal processes, they are able to function as positron-positronium converters at cryogenic temperatures. Our data show that such Ps formation is possibly provided the targets are not compromised by adsorption of residual gas. In the case of SiO2 films, we observe a strong reduction in the Ps formation efficiency following irradiation with UV laser light (λ =243.01 nm) below 250 K, in accordance with previous observations of radiation-induced surface paramagnetic centers. Conversely, Ps emission from Ge is enhanced by irradiation with visible laser light (λ =532 nm) via a photoemission process that persists at cryogenic temperatures. Both mesoporous SiO2 films and Ge crystals were found to produce Ps efficiently in cryogenic environments. Accordingly, these materials are likely to prove useful in several areas of research, including Ps mediated antihydrogen formation conducted in the cold bore of a superconducting magnet, the production of Rydberg Ps for experiments in which the effects of black-body radiation must be minimized, and the utilization of mesoporous structures that have been modified to produce cold Ps atoms.

  1. Cryogenic fluid management in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1988-01-01

    Many future space based vehicles and satellites will require on orbit refuelling procedures. Cryogenic fluid management technology is being developed to assess the requirements of such procedures as well as to aid in the design and development of these vehicles. Cryogenic fluid management technology for this application could be divided into two areas of study, one is concerned with fluid transfer process and the other with cryogenic liquid storage. This division is based upon the needed technology for the development of each area. In the first, the interaction of fluid dynamics with thermodynamics is essential, while in the second only thermodynamic analyses are sufficient to define the problem. The following specific process related to the liquid transfer area are discussed: tank chilldown and fill; tank pressurization; liquid positioning; and slosh dynamics and control. These specific issues are discussed in relation with the required technology for their development in the low gravity application area. In each process the relevant physics controlling the technology is identified and methods for resolving some of the basic questions are discussed.

  2. Cryogenic microwave anisotropic artificial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trang, Frank

    This thesis addresses analysis and design of a cryogenic microwave anisotropic wave guiding structure that isolates an antenna from external incident fields from specific directions. The focus of this research is to design and optimize the radome's constituent material parameters for maximizing the isolation between an interior receiver antenna and an exterior transmitter without significantly disturbing the transmitter antenna far field characteristics. The design, characterization, and optimization of high-temperature superconducting metamaterials constitutive parameters are developed in this work at X-band frequencies. A calibrated characterization method for testing arrays of split-ring resonators at cryogenic temperature inside a TE10 waveguide was developed and used to back-out anisotropic equivalent material parameters. The artificial material elements (YBCO split-ring resonators on MgO substrate) are optimized to improve the narrowband performance of the metamaterial radome with respect to maximizing isolation and minimizing shadowing, defined as a reduction of the transmitted power external to the radome. The optimized radome is fabricated and characterized in a parallel plate waveguide in a cryogenic environment to demonstrate the degree of isolation and shadowing resulting from its presence. At 11.12 GHz, measurements show that the HTS metamaterial radome achieved an isolation of 10.5 dB and the external power at 100 mm behind the radome is reduced by 1.9 dB. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating a structure that provides good isolation between two antennas and low disturbance of the transmitter's fields.

  3. ZERODUR TAILORED for cryogenic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, R.; Westerhoff, T.

    2014-07-01

    ZERODUR® glass ceramic from SCHOTT is known for its very low thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) at room temperature and its excellent CTE homogeneity. It is widely used for ground-based astronomical mirrors but also for satellite applications. Many reference application demonstrate the excellent and long lasting performance of ZERODUR® components in orbit. For space application a low CTE of the mirror material is required at cryogenic temperatures together with a good match of the thermal expansion to the supporting structure material. It is possible to optimize the coefficient of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® for cryogenic applications. This paper reports on measurements of thermal expansion of ZERODUR® down to cryogenic temperatures of 10 K performed by the PTB (Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstallt, Braunschweig, Germany, the national metrology laboratory). The ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO presented in this paper has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion down to 70 K. The maximum absolute integrated thermal expansion down to 10 K is only about 20 ppm. Mirror blanks made from ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO can be light weighted to almost 90% with our modern processing technologies. With ZERODUR® TAILORED CRYO, SCHOTT offers the mirror blank material for the next generation of space telescope applications.

  4. Transmutation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodová, Z.; Klupák, V.; Sus, F.; Kučera, J.; Kůs, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-03-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  5. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 4: Cryogenic cooling in environmental control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of cryogenic fluid cooling in the environmental control system of the space shuttle was conducted. The technique for treating the cryogenic fluid storage and supply tanks and subsystems as integrated systems was developed. It was concluded that a basic incompatibility exists between the heat generated and the cryogen usage rate and cryogens cannot be used to absorb the generated heat. The use of radiators and accumulators to provide additional cooling capability is recommended.

  6. Properties of cryogenically worked metals. [stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzberg, F. R.; Kiefer, T. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine whether the mechanical properties of cryogenically worked 17-7PH stainless steel are suitable for service from ambient to cryogenic temperatures. It was determined that the stress corrosion resistance of the cryo-worked material is quite adequate for structural service. The tensile properties and fracture toughness at room temperature were comparable to titanium alloy 6Al-4V. However, at cryogenic temperatures, the properties were not sufficient to recommend consideration for structural service.

  7. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  8. Cryogenics at the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisend, J. G., II; Arnold, P.; Hees, J. Fydrych. W.; Jurns, J. M.; Wang, X. L.

    Cryogenics plays an important role at the European Spallation Source, a world class neutron science center, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden. Three principal applications of cryogenics are found at ESS. The SRF cryomodules of the ESS proton linac require cooling at 2 K, 4.5 K and 40 K; the hydrogenmoderator surrounding the target that produces neutrons, requires cooling via 16.5 K helium and LHe is required for many of the scientific instruments. These needs will be met by a set of three cryogenic refrigeration/liquefaction plants and an extensive cryogenic distribution system. Significant progress has been made on the ESS cryogenic system in preparation for the expected first beam on target in 2019. This work includes: funding of industry studies for the accelerator cryoplant, preliminary design of the cryogenic distribution system, investigation of possible in kind contributors and release of the invitation to tender for the accelerator cryoplant.This paper describes the requirements, design solutions and current status of the ESS cryogenic system. The planned recovery of waste heat from the cryogenic plants, a unique aspect of ESS, is described. The procurement of the cryogenic system, expected to be done via a combination of purchase via competitive bids and in kind contributions is also discussed.

  9. Cryogenic Technology Development for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the status and findings of different cryogenic technology research projects in support of the President s Vision for Space Exploration. The exploration systems architecture study is reviewed for cryogenic fluid management needs. It is shown that the exploration architecture is reliant on the cryogenic propellants of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and liquid methane. Needs identified include: the key technologies of liquid acquisition devices, passive thermal and pressure control, low gravity mass gauging, prototype pressure vessel demonstration, active thermal control; as well as feed system testing, and Cryogenic Fluid Management integrated system demonstration. Then five NASA technology projects are reviewed to show how these needs are being addressed by technology research. Projects reviewed include: In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot; Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technology; Cryogenic Propellant Operations Demonstrator; Zero Boil-Off Technology Experiment; and Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development. Advances are found in the areas of liquid acquisition of liquid oxygen, mass gauging of liquid oxygen via radio frequency techniques, computational modeling of thermal and pressure control, broad area cooling thermal control strategies, flight experiments for resolving low gravity issues of cryogenic fluid management. Promising results are also seen for Joule-Thomson pressure control devices in liquid oxygen and liquid methane and liquid acquisition of methane, although these findings are still preliminary.

  10. Design/Analysis of the JWST ISIM Bonded Joints for Survivability at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszyk, Andrew; Johnston, John; Kaprielian, Charles; Kuhn, Jonathan; Kunt, Cengiz; Rodini,Benjamin; Young, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    A major design and analysis challenge for the JWST ISIM structure is thermal survivability of metal/composite bonded joints below the cryogenic temperature of 30K (-405 F). Current bonded joint concepts include internal invar plug fittings, external saddle titanium/invar fittings and composite gusset/clip joints all bonded to M55J/954-6 and T300/954-6 hybrid composite tubes (75mm square). Analytical experience and design work done on metal/composite bonded joints at temperatures below that of liquid nitrogen are limited and important analysis tools, material properties, and failure criteria for composites at cryogenic temperatures are sparse in the literature. Increasing this challenge is the difficulty in testing for these required tools and properties at cryogenic temperatures. To gain confidence in analyzing and designing the ISIM joints, a comprehensive joint development test program has been planned and is currently running. The test program is designed to produce required analytical tools and develop a composite failure criterion for bonded joint strengths at cryogenic temperatures. Finite element analysis is used to design simple test coupons that simulate anticipated stress states in the flight joints; subsequently the test results are used to correlate the analysis technique for the final design of the bonded joints. In this work, we present an overview of the analysis and test methodology, current results, and working joint designs based on developed techniques and properties.

  11. Cryogenic Phase-Locking Loop System Based on SIS Tunnel Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudchenko, A. V.; Koshelets, V. P.; Kalashnikov, K. V.

    An ultra-wideband cryogenic phase-locking loop (CPLL) system is a new cryogenic device. The CPLL is intended for phase-locking of a Flux-Flow Oscillator (FFO) in a Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) but can be used for any cryogenic terahertz oscillator. The key element of the CPLL is Cryogenic Phase Detector (CPD), a recently proposed new superconducting element. The CPD is an innovative implementation of superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction. All components of the CPLL reside inside a cryostat at 4.2 K, with the loop length of about 50 cm and the total loop delay 5.5 ns. Such a small delay results in CPLL synchronization bandwidth as wide as 40 MHz and allows phase-locking of more than 60% of the power emitted by the FFO even for FFO linewidth of about 10 MHz. This percentage of phase-locked power three times exceeds that achieved with conventional room-temperature PLLs. Such an improvement enables reducing the FFO phase noise and extending the SIR operation range.Another new approach to the FFO phase-locking has been proposed and experimentally verified. The FFO has been synchronized by a cryogenic harmonic phase detector (CHPD) based on the SIS junction. The CHPD operates simultaneously as the harmonic mixer (HM) and phase detector. We have studied the HM based on the SIS junction theoretically; in particular we calculated 3D dependences of the HM output signal power versus the bias voltage and the LO power. Results of the calculations have been compared with experimental measurements. Good qualitative and quantitative correspondence has been achieved. The FFO phase-locking by the CHPD has been demonstrated. Such a PLL system is expected to be extra wideband. This concept is very promising for building of the multi-pixel SIR array.

  12. Intermittent cryogen spray cooling for optimal heat extraction during dermatologic laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majaron, Boris; Svaasand, Lars O.; Aguilar, Guillermo; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2002-09-01

    Fast heat extraction is critically important to obtain the maximal benefit of cryogen spray cooling (CSC) during laser therapy of shallow skin lesions, such as port wine stain birthmarks. However, a film of liquid cryogen can build up on the skin surface, impairing heat transfer due to the relatively low thermal conductivity and higher temperature of the film as compared to the impinging spray droplets. In an attempt to optimize the cryogen mass flux, while minimally affecting other spray characteristics, we apply a series of 10 ms spurts with variable duty cycles. Heat extraction dynamics during such intermittent cryogen sprays were measured using a custom-made metal-disc detector. The highest cooling rates were observed at moderate duty cycle levels. This confirms the presence, and offers a practical way to eliminate the adverse effect of liquid cryogen build-up on the sprayed surface. On the other hand, lower duty cycles allow a substantial reduction in the average rate of heat extraction, enabling less aggressive and more efficient CSC for treatment of deeper targets, such as hair follicles.

  13. Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly-Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toplosky, V. J.; Walsh, R. P.

    2006-03-01

    Poly-diCylopentadiene (poly-DCPD) resins are widely used because of their excellent physical and mechanical properties and their compatibility with various molding techniques. Poly-DCPD's ability to be rotationally molded has generated the potential for this crosslinked thermoset polymer to be used for cryogenic tanks. In turn, this has generated the need for cryogenic materials property data on these resins. In a collaborative research agreement between the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) and Cymetech LLC, five different variations of poly-DCPD have been thermally and mechanically characterized. Specifically, the tensile, compressive, shear and flexural properties have been measured at 77 K, as well as thermal contraction to 77 and 4 K. There are subtle differences in the properties between each formulation and larger discrepancies when compared to cryogenic data for other polymers. The thermal contraction to 77 K and elastic modulus are typical compared to other epoxies and polyester while the 77 K strength and elongation to failure are superior. The high strengths and elongations are good indicators that poly-DCPD also has good toughness — an important property in many low temperature applications. This initial cryogenic properties database for poly-DCPD allows it to be considered as a neat polymer in cryogenic applications, as well as an excellent matrix material for fiber reinforced composites in cryogenic applications.

  14. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha; Smith, Trent; Tate, LaNetra; Raissi, Ali; Mohajeri, Nahid; Muradov, Nazim; Bokerman, Gary

    2009-01-01

    At NASA, hydrogen safety is a key concern for space shuttle processing. Leaks of any level must be quickly recognized and addressed due to hydrogen s lower explosion limit. Chemo - chromic devices have been developed to detect hydrogen gas in several embodiments. Because hydrogen is odorless and colorless and poses an explosion hazard, there is an emerging need for sensors to quickly and accurately detect low levels of leaking hydrogen in fuel cells and other advanced energy- generating systems in which hydrogen is used as fuel. The device incorporates a chemo - chromic pigment into a base polymer. The article can reversibly or irreversibly change color upon exposure to hydrogen. The irreversible pigment changes color from a light beige to a dark gray. The sensitivity of the pigment can be tailored to its application by altering its exposure to gas through the incorporation of one or more additives or polymer matrix. Furthermore, through the incorporation of insulating additives, the chemochromic sensor can operate at cryogenic temperatures as low as 78 K. A chemochromic detector of this type can be manufactured into any feasible polymer part including injection molded plastic parts, fiber-spun textiles, or extruded tapes. The detectors are simple, inexpensive, portable, and do not require an external power source. The chemochromic detectors were installed and removed easily at the KSC launch pad without need for special expertise. These detectors may require an external monitor such as the human eye, camera, or electronic detector; however, they could be left in place, unmonitored, and examined later for color change to determine whether there had been exposure to hydrogen. In one type of envisioned application, chemochromic detectors would be fabricated as outer layers (e.g., casings or coatings) on high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks and other components of hydrogen-handling systems to provide visible indications of hydrogen leaks caused by fatigue failures or

  15. Cryogenic 160-GHz MMIC Heterodyne Receiver Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene A.; Soria, Mary M.; Owen, Heather R.; Dawson, Douglas E.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Gaier, Todd C.; Voll, Patricia; Lau, Judy; Sieth, Matt; Church, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    . Additionally, the use of a W-band isolator between the receiver module and the local oscillator source also improved the noise temperature substantially. This may be because the mixer was presented with a better impedance match with the use of the isolator. Cryogenic testing indicates a system noise temperature of 100 K or less at 166 GHz. Prior tests of the MMIC amplifiers alone have resulted in a system noise temperature of 65.70 K in the same frequency range (.160 GHz) when cooled to an ambient temperature of 20 K. While other detector systems may be slightly more sensitive (such as SIS mixers), they require more cooling (to 4 K ambient) and are not as easily scalable to build a large array, due to the need for large magnets and other equipment. When cooled to 20 K, this receiver module achieves approximately 100 K system noise temperature, which is slightly higher than single-amplifier module results obtained at JPL (65.70 K when an amplifier is corrected for back-end noise contributions). If this performance can be realized in practice, and a scalable array can be produced, the impact on cosmic microwave background experiments, astronomical and Earth spectroscopy, interferometry, and radio astronomy in general will be dramatic.

  16. Study Acoustic Emissions from Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James; Workman,Gary

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work will be to develop techniques for monitoring the acoustic emissions from carbon epoxy composite structures at cryogenic temperatures. Performance of transducers at temperatures ranging from ambient to cryogenic and the characteristics of acoustic emission from composite structures will be studied and documented. This entire effort is directed towards characterization of structures used in NASA propulsion programs such as the X-33.

  17. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroeger, Erich

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  18. Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    The Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System was tested with LH2 and LOX in a vacuum chamber to simulate space vacuum and the temperatures of low Earth orbit. Testing was successful and results validated the scaling study model that predicts active cooling reduces upper stage cryogenic propulsion mass for loiter periods greater than 2 weeks.

  19. Neutron Detection with Cryogenics and Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    bell, Z.W.; Carpenter, D.A.; Cristy, S.S.; Lamberti, V.E.

    2005-03-10

    The common methods of neutron detection are reviewed with special attention paid to the application of cryogenics and semiconductors to the problem. The authors' work with LiF- and boron-based cryogenic instruments is described as well as the use of CdTe and HgI{sub 2} for direct detection of neutrons.

  20. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOEpatents

    Spear, Jonathan D

    2011-07-05

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  1. Low Mn alloy steel for cryogenic service

    DOEpatents

    Morris, J.W. Jr.; Niikura, M.

    A ferritic cryogenic steel which has a relatively low (about 4 to 6%) manganese content and which has been made suitable for use at cryogenic temperatures by a thermal cycling treatment followed by a final tempering. The steel includes 4 to 6% manganese, 0.02 to 0.06% carbon, 0.1 to 0.4% molybdenum and 0 to 3% nickel.

  2. Preliminary Results From The Neowise Post-cryogenic Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Cutri, R. M.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Dailey, J.; Nugent, C. R.; Conrow, T.; Wright, E.

    2012-10-01

    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission surveyed the entire sky in four infrared wavelengths: 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 um (denoted W1, W2, W3, and W4 respectively). Images were collected in all four bands simultaneously using beamsplitters; cooling for all four detectors was provided by dual solid hydrogen tanks. Survey operations began on 14 January, 2010, and the first pass on the entire sky was completed six months later. However, coverage of the solar system was incomplete owing to the long synodic periods of near-Earth objects (NEOs) and many Main Belt asteroids. The hydrogen tank that provided cooling to the W3 and W4 Si:As detectors was exhausted on 5 August, 2010, resulting in the near-immediate loss of the 22 um channel that same day. As the remaining hydrogen in the second tank sublimed away, both the detectors and the telescope temperature rose. During this period, the 12 um channel continued to operate (albeit with reduced sensitivity) until 29 September, 2010. On that day, the secondary tank's hydrogen supply was finally exhausted, and the telescope temperature rose. Immediately thereafter, NASA's Planetary Science Directorate funded a four month extension of the mission, the NEOWISE Post-Cryogenic Mission, to search for new asteroids and to fill in the gap in coverage of the solar system. The telescope temperature stabilized at 73.5 K, cold enough to allow observations in the two shortest wavelengths. The W1 and W2 arrays operated with minimal performance degradation. Survey operations concluded on 1 February, 2011. We present the preliminary results from the NEOWISE Post-Cryogenic Mission on NEOs.

  3. Self-Sealing Cryogenic Fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jia, Lin Xiang; Chow, Wen Lung; Moslemian, Davood; Lin, Gary; Melton, Greg

    1994-01-01

    Self-sealing fitting for cryogenic tubes remains free of leakage from room temperature to liquid-helium temperature even at internal pressure as high as 2.7 MPa. Fitting comprises parts made of materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion to prevent leakage gaps from forming as temperature decreases. Consists of coupling nut, two flared tube ends, and flared O-ring spacer. Spacer contracts more than tube ends do as temperature decreases. This greater contraction seals tube ends more tightly, preventing leakage.

  4. Fiberglass supports for cryogenic tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Analysis, design, fabrication, and test activities were conducted to develop additional technology needed for application of filament-wound fiberglass struts to cryogenic flight tankage. It was conclusively verified that monocoque cylinder or ogive struts are optimum or near-optimum for the range of lengths and loads studied, that a higher strength-to-weight ratio can be achieved for fiberglass struts than for any metallic struts, and that integrally-wrapped metallic end fittings can be used to achieve axial load transfer without reliance on bond strength or mechanical fasteners.

  5. Residual contact restraints in cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretegny, J. F.; Demonicault, J. M.

    The use of residual stress measurements to evaluate the state of cryogenic turbomachines, whose surfaces are worn by the working conductions in dry contact, is addressed. Their contribution to the understanding of the reasons of possible ruptures is considered. It is stated that residual stress measurements should be used as a complementary tool rather than as input data for models. It is shown, thanks to two examples concerning the ball bearings and splines of the liquid hydrogen turbopump of the Vulcain engine, what can be expected from such techniques. Total exploitation of the results has still to be done, but preliminary results are quite encouraging.

  6. ISOCAM experiment cryogenic test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sa, L.; Collaudin, B.

    The thermal requirements for ISOCAM, an IR camera to be mounted aboard the ISO satellite, are reviewed, and model predictions are matched with test results. The degree of model validation suggested by analytical prediction vs test results is described. Predictions of thermal conduction through mounting screws, from ball bearings, and of the heat distribution in the rotor and stator of a cryogenic stepper motor correlate well with actual test results. It is shown that ISOCAM meets the thermal requirements necessary for successful on-orbit operation. The model predicted such phenomena as 'chopped' motor function and the twofold increase in temperature resulting from continuous motor operation.

  7. Polymer-Reinforced, Non-Brittle, Lightweight Cryogenic Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary application for cryogenic insulating foams will be fuel tank applications for fueling systems. It is crucial for this insulation to be incorporated into systems that survive vacuum and terrestrial environments. It is hypothesized that by forming an open-cell silica-reinforced polymer structure, the foam structures will exhibit the necessary strength to maintain shape. This will, in turn, maintain the insulating capabilities of the foam insulation. Besides mechanical stability in the form of crush resistance, it is important for these insulating materials to exhibit water penetration resistance. Hydrocarbon-terminated foam surfaces were implemented to impart hydrophobic functionality that apparently limits moisture penetration through the foam. During the freezing process, water accumulates on the surfaces of the foams. However, when hydrocarbon-terminated surfaces are present, water apparently beads and forms crystals, leading to less apparent accumulation. The object of this work is to develop inexpensive structural cryogenic insulation foam that has increased impact resistance for launch and ground-based cryogenic systems. Two parallel approaches will be pursued: a silica-polymer co-foaming technique and a post foam coating technique. Insulation characteristics, flexibility, and water uptake can be fine-tuned through the manipulation of the polyurethane foam scaffold. Silicate coatings for polyurethane foams and aerogel-impregnated polyurethane foams have been developed and tested. A highly porous aerogel-like material may be fabricated using a co-foam and coated foam techniques, and can insulate at liquid temperatures using the composite foam

  8. Thermal Performance Testing of Glass Microspheres under Cryogenic Vacuum Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2004-06-01

    A key element of space launch vehicles and systems is thermal insulation for cryogenic tanks and piping. Glass microspheres, or glass bubbles, represent an alternative insulation material for a number of applications. Composite materials and engineered thermal insulation systems are also being developed based on the use of glass bubbles as the main constituent material. Commonly used materials, such as spray-on foam insulation, or SOFI, for vehicle tanks and perlite powder for ground storage tanks, are targeted for replacement with the new-technology systems that use glass bubbles. Complete thermal characterization of the glass bubbles is the first step toward producing the engineering solutions required for the energy-efficient, low-maintenance cryogenic systems of the future. Thermal performance testing of the glass microsphere material was successfully completed at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. The test measurements were made at the full temperature difference (typical boundary temperatures of 78 kelvin [K] and 293 K) and included the full cold-vacuum pressure range. The results are reported in apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) and mean heat flux.

  9. Analysis and Design of Cryogenic Pressure Vessels for Automotive Hydrogen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa-Loza, Francisco Javier

    Cryogenic pressure vessels maximize hydrogen storage density by combining the high pressure (350-700 bar) typical of today's composite pressure vessels with the cryogenic temperature (as low as 25 K) typical of low pressure liquid hydrogen vessels. Cryogenic pressure vessels comprise a high-pressure inner vessel made of carbon fiber-coated metal (similar to those used for storage of compressed gas), a vacuum space filled with numerous sheets of highly reflective metalized plastic (for high performance thermal insulation), and a metallic outer jacket. High density of hydrogen storage is key to practical hydrogen-fueled transportation by enabling (1) long-range (500+ km) transportation with high capacity vessels that fit within available spaces in the vehicle, and (2) reduced cost per kilogram of hydrogen stored through reduced need for expensive structural material (carbon fiber composite) necessary to make the vessel. Low temperature of storage also leads to reduced expansion energy (by an order of magnitude or more vs. ambient temperature compressed gas storage), potentially providing important safety advantages. All this is accomplished while simultaneously avoiding fuel venting typical of cryogenic vessels for all practical use scenarios. This dissertation describes the work necessary for developing and demonstrating successive generations of cryogenic pressure vessels demonstrated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The work included (1) conceptual design, (2) detailed system design (3) structural analysis of cryogenic pressure vessels, (4) thermal analysis of heat transfer through cryogenic supports and vacuum multilayer insulation, and (5) experimental demonstration. Aside from succeeding in demonstrating a hydrogen storage approach that has established all the world records for hydrogen storage on vehicles (longest driving range, maximum hydrogen storage density, and maximum containment of cryogenic hydrogen without venting), the work also

  10. Techniques for on-orbit cryogenic servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLee, C. H.; Barfknecht, P.; Breon, S.; Boyle, R.; DiPirro, M.; Francis, J.; Huynh, J.; Li, X.; McGuire, J.; Mustafi, S.; Tuttle, J.; Wegel, D.

    2014-11-01

    NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) has a renewed interest in on-orbit cryogen storage and transfer to support its mission to explore near-earth objects such as asteroids and comets. The Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission (CPST-TDM), managed by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and scheduled for launch in 2018, will demonstrate numerous key technologies applicable to a cryopropellant fuel depot. As an adjunct to the CPST-TDM work, experiments at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) will support the development of techniques to manage and transfer cryogens on-orbit and expand these techniques as they may be applicable to servicing science missions using solid cryogens such as the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The results of several ground experiments are described, including autogenous pressurization used for transfer of liquid nitrogen and argon, characterization of the transfer and solidification of argon, and development of robotic tools for cryogen transfer.

  11. Numerical simulations of cryogenic cavitating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Hyeongjun; Min, Daeho; Kim, Chongam

    2015-12-01

    The present study deals with a numerical method for cryogenic cavitating flows. Recently, we have developed an accurate and efficient baseline numerical scheme for all-speed water-gas two-phase flows. By extending such progress, we modify the numerical dissipations to be properly scaled so that it does not show any deficiencies in low Mach number regions. For dealing with cryogenic two-phase flows, previous EOS-dependent shock discontinuity sensing term is replaced with a newly designed EOS-free one. To validate the proposed numerical method, cryogenic cavitating flows around hydrofoil are computed and the pressure and temperature depression effect in cryogenic cavitation are demonstrated. Compared with Hord's experimental data, computed results are turned out to be satisfactory. Afterwards, numerical simulations of flow around KARI turbopump inducer in liquid rocket are carried out under various flow conditions with water and cryogenic fluids, and the difference in inducer flow physics depending on the working fluids are examined.

  12. Evaluation of Drying Process on the Composition of Black Pepper Ethanolic Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography With Diode Array Detector

    PubMed Central

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Hejazi, Hoda; Ramezani, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the well-known spices extensively used worldwide especially in India, and Southeast Asia. The presence of alkaloids in the pepper, namely, piperine and its three stereoisomers, isopiperine, chavicine and isochavicine are well noticed. Objectives The current study evaluated the effect of lyophilization and oven drying on the stability and decomposition of constituents of black pepper ethanolic extract. Materials and Methods In the current study ethanolic extract of black pepper obtained by maceration method was dried using two methods. The effect of freeze and oven drying on the chemical composition of the extract especially piperine and its three isomers were evaluated by HPLC analysis of the ethanolic extract before and after drying processes using diode array detector. The UV Vis spectra of the peaks at piperine retention time before and after each drying methods indicated maximum absorbance at 341.2 nm corresponding to standard piperine. Results The results indicated a decrease in intensity of the chromatogram peaks at approximately all retention times after freeze drying, indicating a few percent loss of piperine and its isomers upon lyophilization. Two impurity peaks were completely removed from the extract. Conclusions In oven dried samples two of the piperine stereoisomers were completely removed from the extract and the intensity of piperine peak was increased. PMID:24624176

  13. Cryogenic cooling of x-ray crystals using porous matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzay, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is well established that Si and SiC have very desirable thermophysical properties at cryogenic temperatures. This feature makes cryo-cooled optics potentially a good candidate for the first optical crystal of the presently built third generation synchrotron machines with very high heat flux levels. Currently, there is a great deal of interest in such cryo-cooled crystals pursued both experimentally and analytically. The analytical studies involve cut micro or capillary channel crystals. As opposed to the machined channels, porous matrices provide significant advantages. They operate very quietly. Such matrices are known to affect superior heat transfer enhancement. Data available in open literature suggest that surface heat flux levels up to {approximately}8 kW/cm{sup 2} are possible. For cryogens for which the boiling heat transfer heat flux is rather a low value in conventional geometries, the enhancement available with such matrices is a very significant characteristic. Cryogens are poor thermal conductors themselves. The fact that at the cryogenic temperatures the Si and/or SiC matrix itself becomes highly conductive, the matrix distributes the surface heat flux into the full volume effectively offsetting the poor conductivity of the coolant. In addition the tortuous path of the coolant through the matrix increases the dwell time for better heat transfer, however, at the expense of increased pressure drop. In this study, thermal conductivity of such composite matrices and the effective heat transfer coefficient obtainable using them are investigated. A first optics crystal model of Si with Si and/or Sic porous matrix as its heat exchanger and subject to prototype synchrotron level heat flux is analyzed and limits of the cooling possible with liquid nitrogen in single phase and subcooled boiling heat transfer modes are delineated.

  14. The SuperCDMS SNOLAB Detector Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aramaki, Tsuguo

    2016-08-01

    The SuperCDMS collaboration is moving forward with the design and construction of SuperCDMS SNOLAB, where the initial deployment will include ˜ 30 kg of Ge and ˜ 5 kg of Si detectors. Here, we will discuss the associated cryogenic cold hardware required for the detector readout. The phonon signals will be read out with superconducting quantum interference device arrays and the ionization signals will use high electron mobility transistor amplifiers operating at 4 K. A number of design challenges exist regarding the required wiring complex impedance, noise pickup, vibration, and thermal isolation. Our progress to date will be presented.

  15. Simulations of Cavitating Cryogenic Inducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Dan (Technical Monitor); Hosangadi, Ashvin; Ahuja, Vineet; Ungewitter, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    Simulations of cavitating turbopump inducers at their design flow rate are presented. Results over a broad range of Nss, numbers extending from single-phase flow conditions through the critical head break down point are discussed. The flow characteristics and performance of a subscale geometry designed for water testing are compared with the fullscale configuration that employs LOX. In particular, thermal depression effects arising from cavitation in cryogenic fluids are identified and their impact on the suction performance of the inducer quantified. The simulations have been performed using the CRUNCH CFD[R] code that has a generalized multi-element unstructured framework suitable for turbomachinery applications. An advanced multi-phase formulation for cryogenic fluids that models temperature depression and real fluid property variations is employed. The formulation has been extensively validated for both liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen by simulating the experiments of Hord on hydrofoils; excellent estimates of the leading edge temperature and pressure depression were obtained while the comparisons in the cavity closure region were reasonable.

  16. CRYOTE (Cryogenic Orbital Testbed) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gravlee, Mari; Kutter, Bernard; Wollen, Mark; Rhys, Noah; Walls, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Demonstrating cryo-fluid management (CFM) technologies in space is critical for advances in long duration space missions. Current space-based cryogenic propulsion is viable for hours, not the weeks to years needed by space exploration and space science. CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed (CRYOTE) provides an affordable low-risk environment to demonstrate a broad array of critical CFM technologies that cannot be tested in Earth's gravity. These technologies include system chilldown, transfer, handling, health management, mixing, pressure control, active cooling, and long-term storage. United Launch Alliance is partnering with Innovative Engineering Solutions, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and others to develop CRYOTE to fly as an auxiliary payload between the primary payload and the Centaur upper stage on an Atlas V rocket. Because satellites are expensive, the space industry is largely risk averse to incorporating unproven systems or conducting experiments using flight hardware that is supporting a primary mission. To minimize launch risk, the CRYOTE system will only activate after the primary payload is separated from the rocket. Flying the testbed as an auxiliary payload utilizes Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle performance excess to cost-effectively demonstrate enhanced CFM.

  17. Cryogenic Capillary Screen Heat Entrapment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshinskiy, L.G.; Hastings, L.J.; Stathman, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cryogenic liquid acquisition devices (LADs) for space-based propulsion interface directly with the feed system, which can be a significant heat leak source. Further, the accumulation of thermal energy within LAD channels can lead to the loss of sub-cooled propellant conditions and result in feed system cavitation during propellant outflow. Therefore, the fundamental question addressed by this program was: "To what degree is natural convection in a cryogenic liquid constrained by the capillary screen meshes envisioned for LADs.?"Testing was first conducted with water as the test fluid, followed by LN2 tests. In either case, the basic experimental approach was to heat the bottom of a cylindrical column of test fluid to establish stratification patterns measured by temperature sensors located above and below a horizontal screen barrier position. Experimentation was performed without barriers, with screens, and with a solid barrier. The two screen meshes tested were those typically used by LAD designers, "200x1400" and "325x2300", both with Twill Dutch Weave. Upon consideration of both the water and LN2 data it was concluded that heat transfer across the screen meshes was dependent upon barrier thermal conductivity and that the capillary screen meshes were impervious to natural convection currents.

  18. Models for cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, Pierce L.

    1989-01-01

    Model requirements, types of model construction methods, and research in new ways to build models are discussed. The 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel was in operation for 16 years and many 2-D airfoil pressure models were tested. In addition there were airfoil models dedicated to transition detection techniques and other specialized research. There were also a number of small 3-D models tested. A chronological development in model building technique is described which led to the construction of many successful models. The difficulties of construction are illustrated by discussing several unsuccessful model fabrication attempts. The National Transonic Facility, a newer and much larger tunnel, was used to test a variety of models including a submarine, transport and fighter configurations, and the Shuttle Orbiter. A new method of building pressure models was developed and is described. The method is centered on the concept of bonding together plates with pressure channels etched into the bond planes, which provides high density pressure instrumentation with minimum demand on parent model material. With care in the choice of materials and technique, vacuum brazing can be used to produce strong bonds without blocking pressure channels and with no bonding voids between channels. Using multiple plates, a 5 percent wing with 96 orifices was constructed and tested in a transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Samples of test data are presented and future applications of the technology are suggested.

  19. Shadowgraphy of transcritical cryogenic fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. D.; Talley, D. G.; Anderson, T. J.; Winter, M.

    1994-01-01

    The future of liquid-rocket propulsion depends heavily on continued development of high pressure liquid oxygen/hydrogen systems that operate near or above the propellant critical states; however, current understanding of transcritical/supercritical injection and combustion is yet lacking. The Phillips Laboratory and the United Technologies Research Center are involved in a collaborative effort to develop diagnostics for and make detailed measurements of transcritical droplet vaporization and combustion. The present shadowgraph study of transcritical cryogenic fluids is aimed at providing insight into the behavior of liquid oxygen or cryogenic stimulants as they are injected into a supercritical environment of the same or other fluids. A detailed history of transcritical injection of liquid nitrogen into gaseous nitrogen at reduced pressures of 0.63 (subcritical) to 1.05 (supercritical) is provided. Also, critical point enhancement due to gas phase solubility and mixture effects is investigated by adding helium to the nitrogen system, which causes a distinct liquid phase to re-appear at supercritical nitrogen pressures. Liquid oxygen injection into supercritical argon or nitrogen, however, does not indicate an increase in the effective critical pressure of the system.

  20. The cryogenic storage ring CSR.

    PubMed

    von Hahn, R; Becker, A; Berg, F; Blaum, K; Breitenfeldt, C; Fadil, H; Fellenberger, F; Froese, M; George, S; Göck, J; Grieser, M; Grussie, F; Guerin, E A; Heber, O; Herwig, P; Karthein, J; Krantz, C; Kreckel, H; Lange, M; Laux, F; Lohmann, S; Menk, S; Meyer, C; Mishra, P M; Novotný, O; O'Connor, A P; Orlov, D A; Rappaport, M L; Repnow, R; Saurabh, S; Schippers, S; Schröter, C D; Schwalm, D; Schweikhard, L; Sieber, T; Shornikov, A; Spruck, K; Sunil Kumar, S; Ullrich, J; Urbain, X; Vogel, S; Wilhelm, P; Wolf, A; Zajfman, D

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm(-3) is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10(-14) mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams.

  1. The cryogenic storage ring CSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hahn, R.; Becker, A.; Berg, F.; Blaum, K.; Breitenfeldt, C.; Fadil, H.; Fellenberger, F.; Froese, M.; George, S.; Göck, J.; Grieser, M.; Grussie, F.; Guerin, E. A.; Heber, O.; Herwig, P.; Karthein, J.; Krantz, C.; Kreckel, H.; Lange, M.; Laux, F.; Lohmann, S.; Menk, S.; Meyer, C.; Mishra, P. M.; Novotný, O.; O'Connor, A. P.; Orlov, D. A.; Rappaport, M. L.; Repnow, R.; Saurabh, S.; Schippers, S.; Schröter, C. D.; Schwalm, D.; Schweikhard, L.; Sieber, T.; Shornikov, A.; Spruck, K.; Sunil Kumar, S.; Ullrich, J.; Urbain, X.; Vogel, S.; Wilhelm, P.; Wolf, A.; Zajfman, D.

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm-3 is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10-14 mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams.

  2. The cryogenic storage ring CSR.

    PubMed

    von Hahn, R; Becker, A; Berg, F; Blaum, K; Breitenfeldt, C; Fadil, H; Fellenberger, F; Froese, M; George, S; Göck, J; Grieser, M; Grussie, F; Guerin, E A; Heber, O; Herwig, P; Karthein, J; Krantz, C; Kreckel, H; Lange, M; Laux, F; Lohmann, S; Menk, S; Meyer, C; Mishra, P M; Novotný, O; O'Connor, A P; Orlov, D A; Rappaport, M L; Repnow, R; Saurabh, S; Schippers, S; Schröter, C D; Schwalm, D; Schweikhard, L; Sieber, T; Shornikov, A; Spruck, K; Sunil Kumar, S; Ullrich, J; Urbain, X; Vogel, S; Wilhelm, P; Wolf, A; Zajfman, D

    2016-06-01

    An electrostatic cryogenic storage ring, CSR, for beams of anions and cations with up to 300 keV kinetic energy per unit charge has been designed, constructed, and put into operation. With a circumference of 35 m, the ion-beam vacuum chambers and all beam optics are in a cryostat and cooled by a closed-cycle liquid helium system. At temperatures as low as (5.5 ± 1) K inside the ring, storage time constants of several minutes up to almost an hour were observed for atomic and molecular, anion and cation beams at an energy of 60 keV. The ion-beam intensity, energy-dependent closed-orbit shifts (dispersion), and the focusing properties of the machine were studied by a system of capacitive pickups. The Schottky-noise spectrum of the stored ions revealed a broadening of the momentum distribution on a time scale of 1000 s. Photodetachment of stored anions was used in the beam lifetime measurements. The detachment rate by anion collisions with residual-gas molecules was found to be extremely low. A residual-gas density below 140 cm(-3) is derived, equivalent to a room-temperature pressure below 10(-14) mbar. Fast atomic, molecular, and cluster ion beams stored for long periods of time in a cryogenic environment will allow experiments on collision- and radiation-induced fragmentation processes of ions in known internal quantum states with merged and crossed photon and particle beams. PMID:27370434

  3. Survey report on the state-of-the-art of cryogenic thermometry and signal conditioners and their potential for standardized space hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of standard low temperature detector(s) for use in upcoming cryogenically cooled satellite and Space Shuttle Payloads was investigated. These payloads operate from .3 Kelvin to 300 Kelvin. Standard detectors were selected and matching signal conditioning equipment were specified. This equipment will operate in a spacecraft environment and be compatible with the selected detector, typical spacecraft voltages, typical spacecraft telemetry systems, and the radiation encountered by a typical earth orbiting spacecraft. Work statements to better define and advance detector performance are presented.

  4. Noise analysis in bolometer detector for microwave power measurements.

    PubMed

    Mario, Petrizzelli; Brunetti, Luciano

    2003-01-01

    A study of noise related with a thermal detector used as power standard on the 26.5-40GHz frequency band, is presented. This study starts with electromagnetic and thermal analysis, and is based on a cryogenic resistive thermometer functioning at liquid-He temperatures. In addition, the study fixes the theoretical limit of sensitivity.

  5. The 100 micron detector development program. [gallium doped germanium photoconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    An effort to optimize gallium-doped germanium photoconductors (Ge:Ga) for use in space for sensitive detection of far infrared radiation in the 100 micron region is described as well as the development of cryogenic apparatus capable of calibrating detectors under low background conditions.

  6. Space Engineering Model Cryogen Free ADR for Future ESA Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepburn, I. D.; Brockley-Blatt, C.; Coker, P.; Crofts, E.; Winter, B.; Milward, S.; Stafford-Allen, R.; Hunt, R.; Brownhill, M.; Rando, N.; Linder, M.

    2004-06-01

    The design of an engineering model ADR system to cool cryogenic detectors to 50-30 mK is presented which is designed to be cooled via a 4-5 K space cryocooler. The system will be subjected to vibration qualification suitable for an Ariane 5 launch. The ADR is of a double ADR form comprising a chromic potassium alum (CPA) low temperature stage and dysprosium gallium garnet (DGG) high temperature stage. Details of the 3 Tesla (< 2.5 Amp) magnet system and the magnetic shielding for the detector focal plane and potential spacecraft are given with modelled results.

  7. Nanodielectric system for cryogenic applications: Barium titanate filled polyvinyl alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Duckworth, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    In the current study the focus is on dielectric properties (as a function of frequency and temperature) of a polymeric composite system composed of polyvinyl alcohol and barium titanate nano powder. In the investigations, the temperature range is between 50-295 K, and the frequency range is between $20\\ \\hertz-1\\ \\mega\\hertz$. Polarization and conduction processes are investigated in the linear regime. Dielectric breakdown strengths of samples are also reported. The materials presented have potential to be implemented in cryogenic capacitor or field grading applications.

  8. Antenna-coupled microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, P. K.; Leduc, H. G.; Goldin, A.; Vayonakis, T.; Mazin, B. A.; Kumar, S.; Gao, J.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2006-04-01

    We report on the development of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) coupled to planar antennas for millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths. The MKID is a relatively new type of superconducting photon detector which is applicable from millimeter-wave frequencies to X-rays. Photons are absorbed in a superconductor, producing quasiparticle excitations, which change the surface reactance (kinetic inductance) of the superconductor. The changes in kinetic inductance are monitored using microwave high-Q thin-film superconducting resonators. Because the MKID is particularly amenable to frequency-domain multiplexing, with likely detector multiplexing factors of ˜103 or more per cryogenic amplifier, these detectors are well suited for use in large arrays. We have fabricated MKIDs coupled to submillimeter slot-array antennas using microstrip lines and have detected power from a thermal radiation source. We discuss the potential of antenna-coupled MKID arrays for ground and space-based millimeter/submillimeter imaging.

  9. 49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... not be installed on any cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid unless the parts are... installed on any cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid or any flammable cryogenic liquid. (6) A cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid must be provided with a manhole (see §...

  10. 49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... not be installed on any cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid unless the parts are... installed on any cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid or any flammable cryogenic liquid. (6) A cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid must be provided with a manhole (see §...

  11. 49 CFR 173.318 - Cryogenic liquids in cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... not be installed on any cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid unless the parts are... installed on any cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid or any flammable cryogenic liquid. (6) A cargo tank used to transport oxygen, cryogenic liquid must be provided with a manhole (see §...

  12. Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) trunnion verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) was designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-g space environment. The CFME has now become the storage and supply tank for the Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility, which includes transfer line and receiver tanks, as well. The liquid hydrogen storage and supply vessel is supported within a vacuum jacket to two fiberglass/epoxy composite trunnions which were analyzed and designed. Analysis using the limited available data indicated the trunnion was the most fatigue critical component in the storage vessel. Before committing the complete storage tank assembly to environmental testing, an experimental assessment was performed to verify the capability of the trunnion design to withstand expected vibration and loading conditions. Three tasks were conducted to evaluate trunnion integrity. The first determined the fatigue properties of the trunnion composite laminate materials. Tests at both ambient and liquid hydrogen temperatures showed composite material fatigue properties far in excess of those expected. Next, an assessment of the adequacy of the trunnion designs was performed (based on the tested material properties).

  13. Smoke Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo, Fire Chief Jay Stout of Safety Harbor, Florida, is explaining to young Richard Davis the workings of the Honeywell smoke and fire detector which probably saved Richard's life and that of his teen-age brother. Alerted by the detector's warning, the pair were able to escape their burning home. The detector in the Davis home was one of 1,500 installed in Safety Harbor residences in a cooperative program conducted by the city and Honeywell Inc.

  14. Throttling Cryogen Boiloff To Control Cryostat Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    An improved design has been proposed for a cryostat of a type that maintains a desired low temperature mainly through boiloff of a liquid cryogen (e.g., liquid nitrogen) at atmospheric pressure. (A cryostat that maintains a low temperature mainly through boiloff of a cryogen at atmospheric pressure is said to be of the pour/fill Dewar-flask type because its main component is a Dewar flask, the top of which is kept open to the atmosphere so that the liquid cryogen can boil at atmospheric pressure and cryogenic liquid can be added by simply pouring it in.) The major distinguishing feature of the proposed design is control of temperature and cooling rate through control of the flow of cryogen vapor from a heat exchanger. At a cost of a modest increase in complexity, a cryostat according to the proposal would retain most of the compactness of prior, simpler pour/fill Dewar-flask cryostats, but would utilize cryogen more efficiently (intervals between cryogen refills could be longer).

  15. Cryogenic THGEM-GPM for the readout of scintillation light from liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wenqing; Fu, Yidong; Li, Yulan; Li, Jin; Li, Yuanjing; Yue, Qian

    2015-02-01

    A GPM (Gaseous Photo Multiplier) based on GEMs (Gas Electron Multipliers) and THGEMs (Thick Gas Electron Multipliers) is a promising detector for VUV (Vacuum Ultra Violet) photon readouts in rare event experiments which use cryogenic two-phase detectors with detection media of Ar and Xe. A GPM based on THGEM made of PTFE (herein named PTFE-THGEM) was developed inspired by the wide use of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethene) boards as low radioactive background PCB in rare event experiments. The efficiencies of the THGEM, a CsI photocathode, and finally a GPM are presented here. At low temperature (113 K) and 1.1 atm, the quantum efficiency of the GPM for VUV photons from liquid Ar in a two-phase detector is estimated to be 8.1% and the low threshold of the detector system for initial electrons prior to multiplication is 12 using 5 N purity Ar (0.99999).

  16. Cryogenic techniques for large superconducting magnets in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    A large superconducting magnet is proposed for use in a particle astrophysics experiment, ASTROMAG, which is to be mounted on the United States Space Station. This experiment will have a two-coil superconducting magnet with coils which are 1.3 to 1.7 meters in diameter. The two-coil magnet will have zero net magnetic dipole moment. The field 15 meters from the magnet will approach earth's field in low earth orbit. The issue of high Tc superconductor will be discussed in the paper. The reasons for using conventional niobium-titanium superconductor cooled with superfluid helium will be presented. Since the purpose of the magnet is to do particle astrophysics, the superconducting coils must be located close to the charged particle detectors. The trade off between the particle physics possible and the cryogenic insulation around the coils is discussed. As a result, the ASTROMAG magnet coils will be operated outside of the superfluid helium storage tank. The fountain effect pumping system which will be used to cool the coil is described in the report. Two methods for extending the operating life of the superfluid helium dewar are discussed. These include: operation with a third shield cooled to 90 K with a sterling cycle cryocooler, and a hybrid cryogenic system where there are three hydrogen-cooled shields and cryostat support heat intercept points.

  17. Structural damping studies at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Buehrle, Ralph D.

    1994-01-01

    Results of an engineering study to measure changes in structural damping properties of two cryogenic wind tunnel model systems and two metallic test specimens at cryogenic temperatures are presented. Data are presented which indicate overall, a trend toward reduced structural damping at cryogenic temperatures (-250 degrees F) when compared with room temperature damping properties. The study was focused on structures and materials used for model systems tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The study suggests that the significant reductions in damping at extremely cold temperatures are most likely associated with changes in mechanical joint compliance damping rather than changes in material (solid) damping.

  18. Cryogenic denervation of the intermetatarsal space neuroma.

    PubMed

    Hodor, L; Barkal, K; Hatch-Fox, L D

    1997-01-01

    Cryoanalgesia is commonly used by pain management specialists to alleviate painful nerve disorders of the back, face, and thoracic region. While cryogenic denervation results in pain relief, there is little to no incidence of neuritis or amputation-neuroma formation. The authors have used the Neurostat unit (Westco Medical Corporation), which was designed for cryogenic denervation of sensory and motor nerves, in the treatment of the intermetatarsal space neuroma. The authors present an overview of cryoanalgesic therapy, including a discussion of history, mechanism of action, indications, and description of the apparatus. The authors submit a case study of cryogenic denervation of the third intermetatarsal space.

  19. Nanosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser

    SciTech Connect

    Perevezentsev, E A; Mukhin, I B; Kuznetsov, I I; Vadimova, O L; Palashov, O V

    2014-05-30

    A cryogenic Yb:YAG disk laser is modernised to increase its average and peak power. The master oscillator unit of the laser is considerably modified so that the pulse duration decreases to several nanoseconds with the same pulse energy. A cryogenic disk laser head with a flow-through cooling system is developed. Based on two such laser heads, a new main amplifier is assembled according to an active multipass cell scheme. The total small-signal gain of cryogenic cascades is ∼10{sup 8}. (lasers)

  20. Other cryogenic wind-tunnel projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Following the development of the cryogenic wind tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center in 1972, a large number of cryogenic wind-tunnel projects have been undertaken at various research establishments around the world. Described in this lecture are cryogenic wind-tunnel projects in China (Chinese Aeronautical Research and Development Center), England (College of Aeronautics at Cranfield, Royal Aircraft Establishment - Bedford, and University of Southampton), Japan (National Aerospace Laboratory, University of Tsukuba, and National Defense Academy), Sweden (Rollab), and the United States (Douglas Aircraft Co., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and NASA Langley).

  1. Cryogenic denervation of the intermetatarsal space neuroma.

    PubMed

    Hodor, L; Barkal, K; Hatch-Fox, L D

    1997-01-01

    Cryoanalgesia is commonly used by pain management specialists to alleviate painful nerve disorders of the back, face, and thoracic region. While cryogenic denervation results in pain relief, there is little to no incidence of neuritis or amputation-neuroma formation. The authors have used the Neurostat unit (Westco Medical Corporation), which was designed for cryogenic denervation of sensory and motor nerves, in the treatment of the intermetatarsal space neuroma. The authors present an overview of cryoanalgesic therapy, including a discussion of history, mechanism of action, indications, and description of the apparatus. The authors submit a case study of cryogenic denervation of the third intermetatarsal space. PMID:9298449

  2. Apollo cryogenic integrated systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seto, R. K. M.; Cunningham, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    The integrated systems program is capable of simulating both nominal and anomalous operation of the Apollo cryogenics storage system (CSS). Two versions of the program exist; one for the Apollo 14 configuration and the other for J Type Mission configurations. The program consists of two mathematical models which are dynamically coupled. A model of the CSS components and lines determines the oxygen and hydrogen flowrate from each storage tank given the tank pressures and temperatures, and the electrical power subsystem and environmental control subsystem flow demands. Temperatures and pressures throughout the components and lines are also determined. A model of the CSS tankage determines the pressure and temperatures in the tanks given the flowrate from each tank and the thermal environment. The model accounts for tank stretch and includes simplified oxygen tank heater and stratification routines. The program is currently operational on the Univac 1108 computer.

  3. ESS Cryogenic System Process Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, P.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Su, X. T.; Wang, X. L.; Weisend, J. G., II

    2015-12-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron-scattering facility funded and supported in collaboration with 17 European countries in Lund, Sweden. Cryogenic cooling at ESS is vital particularly for the linear accelerator, the hydrogen target moderators, a test stand for cryomodules, the neutron instruments and their sample environments. The paper will focus on specific process design criteria, design decisions and their motivations for the helium cryoplants and auxiliary equipment. Key issues for all plants and their process concepts are energy efficiency, reliability, smooth turn-down behaviour and flexibility. The accelerator cryoplant (ACCP) and the target moderator cryoplant (TMCP) in particular need to be prepared for a range of refrigeration capacities due to the intrinsic uncertainties regarding heat load definitions. Furthermore the paper addresses questions regarding process arrangement, 2 K cooling methodology, LN2 precooling, helium storage, helium purification and heat recovery.

  4. Cryogenic Magnetostrictive Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, C. H.; Mavanur, A.; Tai, C.-Y.; Han, Z.-X.; Rodenbush, A. J.; Wong, Y.

    2004-06-01

    Energen has patented KelvinAll™, the first material, to exhibit magnetostrictive properties from elevated temperatures to near absolute zero, opening up a new range of applications for magnetostrictive devices. Magnetostrictive materials change their shape in the presence of a magnetic field. This elongation is precise, predictable, reversible and repeatable thereby enabling practical electromechanical devices. KelvinAll has magnetostriction comparable to Terfenol-D at room temperature and its magnetostriction increases at cryogenic temperatures. Energen has developed and prototyped practical electromechanical devices using KelvinAll. These devices include tuners for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, components for magnetic refrigerators, flow control valves and precision translation stages some of which will be discussed in greater detail. Energen's KelvinAll products enhance performance, increase reliability and reduce development costs.

  5. Cryogenic vacuumm RF feedthrough device

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Genfa; Phillips, Harry Lawrence

    2008-12-30

    A cryogenic vacuum rf feedthrough device comprising: 1) a probe for insertion into a particle beam; 2) a coaxial cable comprising an inner conductor and an outer conductor, a dielectric/insulating layer surrounding the inner conductor, the latter being connected to the probe for the transmission of higher mode rf energy from the probe; and 3) a high thermal conductivity stub attached to the coaxial dielectric about and in thermal contact with the inner conductor which high thermal conductivity stub transmits heat generated in the vicinity of the probe efficiently and radially from the area of the probe and inner conductor all while maintaining useful rf transmission line characteristics between the inner and outer coaxial conductors.

  6. A Cryogenic Infrared Calibration Target

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E., Jr.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R < or = 0.003, from 800 to 4800/cm (12 - 2 microns ). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10,000/ cm-1 (25 - 1 microns) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R < or = 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to approx.4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented

  7. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  8. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  9. Computed tomography of cryogenic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Gerd; Anderson, E.; Vogt, S.; Knochel, C.; Weiss, D.; LeGros, M.; Larabell, C.

    2001-08-30

    Due to the short wavelengths of X-rays and low numerical aperture of the Fresnel zone plates used as X-ray objectives, the depth of field is several microns. Within the focal depth, imaging a thick specimen is to a good approximation equivalent to projecting the specimen absorption. Therefore, computed tomography based on a tilt series of X-ray microscopic images can be used to reconstruct the local linear absorption coefficient and image the three-dimensional specimen structure. To preserve the structural integrity of biological objects during image acquisition, microscopy is performed at cryogenic temperatures. Tomography based on X-ray microscopic images was applied to study the distribution of male specific lethal 1 (MSL-1), a nuclear protein involved in dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster, which ensures that males with single X chromosome have the same amount of most X-linked gene products as females with two X chromosomes. Tomographic reconstructions of X-ray microscopic images were used to compute the local three-dimensional linear absorption coefficient revealing the arrangement of internal structures of Drosophila melanogaster cells. Combined with labelling techniques, nanotomography is a new technique to study the 3D distribution of selected proteins inside whole cells. We want to improve this technique with respect to resolution and specimen preparation. The resolution in the reconstruction can be significantly improved by reducing the angular step size to collect more viewing angles, which requires an automated data acquisition. In addition, fast-freezing with liquid ethane instead of cryogenic He gas will be applied to improve the vitrification of the hydrated samples. We also plan to apply cryo X-ray nanotomography in order to study different types of cells and their nuclear protein distributions.

  10. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%–0.68% (k  =  2).

  11. Mid-infrared absolute spectral responsivity scale based on an absolute cryogenic radiometer and an optical parametric oscillator laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Shi, Xueshun; Chen, Haidong; Liu, Yulong; Liu, Changming; Chen, Kunfeng; Li, Ligong; Gan, Haiyong; Ma, Chong

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting on a laser-based absolute spectral responsivity scale in the mid-infrared spectral range. By using a mid-infrared tunable optical parametric oscillator as the laser source, the absolute responsivity scale has been established by calibrating thin-film thermopile detectors against an absolute cryogenic radiometer. The thin-film thermopile detectors can be then used as transfer standard detectors. The extended uncertainty of the absolute spectral responsivity measurement has been analyzed to be 0.58%-0.68% (k  =  2).

  12. Design, production, and testing of field effect transistors. [cryogenic MOSFETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sclar, N.

    1982-01-01

    Cryogenic MOSFETS (CRYOFETS), specifically designed for low temperature preamplifier application with infrared extrinsic detectors were produced and comparatively tested with p-channel MOSFETs under matched conditions. The CRYOFETs exhibit lower voltage thresholds, high source-follower gains at lower bias voltage, and lower dc offset source voltage. The noise of the CRYOFET is found to be 2 to 4 times greater than the MOSFET with a correspondingly lower figure of merit (which is established for source-follower amplifiers). The device power dissipation at a gain of 0.98 is some two orders of magnitude lower than for the MOSFET. Further, CRYOFETs are free of low temperature I vs V character hysteresis and balky conduction turn-on effects and operate effectively in the 2.4 to 20 K range. These devices have promise for use on long term duration sensor missions and for on-focal-plane signal processing at low temperatures.

  13. Cryogenic electron microscopy and single-particle analysis.

    PubMed

    Elmlund, Dominika; Elmlund, Hans

    2015-01-01

    About 20 years ago, the first three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions at subnanometer (<10-Å) resolution of an icosahedral virus assembly were obtained by cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single-particle analysis. Since then, thousands of structures have been determined to resolutions ranging from 30 Å to near atomic (<4 Å). Almost overnight, the recent development of direct electron detectors and the attendant improvement in analysis software have advanced the technology considerably. Near-atomic-resolution reconstructions can now be obtained, not only for megadalton macromolecular complexes or highly symmetrical assemblies but also for proteins of only a few hundred kilodaltons. We discuss the developments that led to this breakthrough in high-resolution structure determination by cryo-EM and point to challenges that lie ahead.

  14. Miniature cryocooler developments for high operating temperatures at Thales Cryogenics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arts, R.; Martin, J.-Y.; Willems, D.; Seguineau, C.; Van Acker, S.; Mullié, J. C.; Göbel, A.; Tops, M.; Le Bordays, J.; Etchanchu, T.; Benschop, A. A. J.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years there has been a drive towards miniaturized cooled IDCA solutions for low-power, low-mass, low-size products (SWaP). To support this drive, coolers are developed optimized for high-temperature, low heat load dewar-detector assemblies. In this paper, Thales Cryogenics development activities supporting SWaP are presented. Design choices are discussed and compared to various key requirements. Trade-off analysis results are presented on drive voltage, cold finger definition (length, material, diameter and sealing concept), and other interface considerations, including cold finger definition. In parallel with linear and rotary cooler options, designs for small-size high-efficiency drive electronics based on state-of-the-art architectures are presented.

  15. Pulse Tube Interference in Cryogenic Sensors - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Tyler

    2015-08-24

    Transition edge sensors (TES) are extremely sensitive superconducting sensors, operating at 100 mK, which can be used to detect X-rays and Cosmic Microwave Background. The goal of our project is to design the electronics to read out an array of 10000 of these sensors by using microwave signals. However, we noticed the pulse tube used to maintain cryogenic temperatures caused interference in our readout. To determine the cause of the signal distortions, we used a detector with a 370 MHz sampling rate to collect and analyze sensor data. Although this data provided little information towards the nature of the noise, it was determined through a maintenance procedure than the 0.3 mm stainless steel wires were being vibrated due to acoustic waves, which distorted the signal. Replacing this wire appeared to cease the interference from the sensor data.

  16. Pulse Tube Interference in Cryogenic Sensor Resonant Circuits - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Tyler

    2015-08-27

    Transition edge sensors (TES) are extremely sensitive superconducting sensors, operating at 100 mK, which can be used to detect X-rays and Cosmic Microwave Background. The goal of our project is to design the electronics to read out an array of 10000 of these sensors by using microwave signals. However, we noticed the pulse tube used to maintain cryogenic temperatures caused interference in our readout. To determine the cause of the signal distortions, we used a detector with a 370 MHz sampling rate to collect and analyze sensor data. Although this data provided little information towards the nature of the noise, it was determined through a maintenance procedure than the 0.3 mm stainless steel wires were being vibrated due to acoustic waves, which distorted the signal. Replacing this wire appeared to cease the interference from the sensor data.

  17. Thermal detection of X-rays. [cryogenic calorimeters for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Edwards, B.; Juda, M.; Plucinsky, P.; Zhang, J.; Kelley, R.; Holt, S.; Madejski, G.; Moseley, S.; Szymkowiak, A.

    1990-01-01

    The development of calorimeters is described in terms of their proposed application to sounding-rocket investigations of cosmic X-ray sources. The fundamental theory of the energy resolution of the devices is given, and general discussions are presented regarding the limitations associated with the materials used and available thermometer types. Also given are data describing electrical nonlinearity as a function of temperature, thermistor sensitivity, and heat capacity, as well as data regarding the excess noise that aids in the conduction process. Cryogenic calorimeters based on doped semiconductor thermistors are found to be limited, although thermal detectors have important applications to high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy. Electrical nonlinearity and the excess noise are found to be important for obtaining optimum heat capacity in the thermistor.

  18. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerator for ACTPOL polarization- sensitive receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvarts, V.; Zhao, Z.; Devlin, M. J.; Klein, J.; Lungu, M.; Schmitt, B.; Thornton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new cryogenic receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), a six-meter diameter off-axis Gregorian telescope located at an altitude of 5,200 meters (17,000 ft.) on Cerro Toco, in Northern Chile. The focal plane contains 3000 polarization-sensitive transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers, and is cooled to below 100 mK with a removable pulse-tube based customised JDry-100 dilution refrigerator insert. The optical tubes and the rest of the receiver are cooled with a dedicated pulse tube to below 3 K. Details of the receiver- to-telescope integration and first season on-site operation are described, including detector base temperature stability in vertical and tilted position as well as remote operation via Ethernet link.

  19. Optical Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goushcha, Alexander; Tabbert, Bernd

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities - from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  20. Optical Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  1. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 33 - Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Saint Charles, IL, June 14-18, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, R. W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on superconductivity applications including magnets, electronics, rectifiers, magnet stability, coil protection, and cryogenic techniques. Also considered are insulation, heat transfer to liquid helium and nitrogen, heat and mass transfer in He II, superfluid pumps, and refrigeration for superconducting systems. Other topics include cold compressors, refrigeration and liquefaction, magnetic refrigeration, and refrigeration for space applications. Papers are also presented on cryogenic applications, commercial cryogenic plants, the properties of cryogenic fluids, and cryogenic instrumentation and data acquisition.

  2. Evaluation of Aluminum Alloy 2050-T84 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafley, Robert A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hales, Stephen J.; Shenoy, Ravi N.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 2050 is being considered for the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks to reduce the mass of future heavy-lift launch vehicles. The alloy is available in section thicknesses greater than that of the incumbent aluminum alloy, 2195, which will enable designs with greater structural efficiency. While ambient temperature design allowable properties are available for alloy 2050, cryogenic properties are not available. To determine its suitability for use in cryogenic propellant tanks, tensile, compression and fracture tests were conducted on 4 inch thick 2050-T84 plate at ambient temperature and at -320degF. Various metallurgical analyses were also performed in order to provide an understanding of the compositional homogeneity and microstructure of 2050.

  3. Evaluation of Aluminum Alloy 2050-T84 Microstructure Mechanical Properties at Ambient and Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hafley, Robert A.; Domack, Marcia S.; Hales, Stephen J.; Shenoy, Ravi N.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 2050 is being considered for the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks to reduce the mass of future heavy-lift launch vehicles. The alloy is available in section thicknesses greater than that of the incumbent aluminum alloy, 2195, which will enable the designs with greater structural efficiency. While ambient temperature design allowable properties are available for alloy 2050, cryogenic properties are not available. To determine its suitability for use in cryogenic propellant tanks, tensile, compression and fracture tests were conducted on 4 inch thick 2050-T84 plate at ambient temperature and at -320 F. Various metallurgical analyses were also performed in order to provide an understanding of the compositional homogeneity and microstructure of 2050.

  4. Mechanical behaviors of hyberbranched epoxy toughened bisphenol F epoxy resin for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingwen; Wu, Zhixiong; Huang, Chuanjun; Huang, Rongjin; Li, Laifeng

    2014-01-01

    Epoxy resins have been widely employed in cryogenic engineering fields. In this work, bisphenol F epoxy resin was modified by an aromatic polyester hyperbranched epoxy resin (HTDE-2). Mechanical behaviors of the modified epoxy resins in terms of tensile properties and impact property were studied at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Moreover, the toughening mechanism was discussed by fracture surface morphology analysis. The results demonstrated that, the mechanical properties of composites initially increased until reaches the maximum value with increasing the mass content of the HTDE-2, and then decreased at both room temperature (RT) and 77K. Especially, the impact strength at 77 K was improved 40.7% compared with the pure epoxy matrix when 10 wt% HTDE-2 was introduced. The findings suggest that the HTDE-2 will be an effective toughener for the brittle bisphenol F epoxy resin for cryogenic applications.

  5. A Low-threshold Analysis of Data from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunker, Raymond A., III

    Although dark matter appears to constitute over 80% of the matter in the Universe, its composition is a mystery. Astrophysical observations suggest that the luminous portions of the Galaxy are embedded in a halo of darkmatter particles. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are the most studied class of dark-matter candidates and arise naturally within the context of many weak-scale supersymmetric theories. Direct-detection experiments like the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) strive to discern the kinetic energy of recoiling nuclei resulting from WIMP interactions with terrestrial matter. This is a considerable challenge in which the low (expected) rate of WIMP interactions must be distinguished from an overwhelming rate due to known types of radiation. An incontrovertible positive detection has remained elusive. However, a few experiments have recorded data that appear consistent with a low-mass WIMP. This thesis describes an attempt to probe the favored parameter space. To increase sensitivity to low-mass WIMPs, a low-threshold technique with improved sensitivity to small energy depositions is applied to CDMS shallow-site data. Four germanium and two silicon detectors were operated between December 2001 and June 2002, yielding 118 days of exposure. By sacrificing some of the CDMS detectors' ability to discriminate signal from background, energy thresholds of ˜1 and ˜2 keV were achieved for three of the germanium and both silicon detectors, respectively. A large number of WIMP candidate events are observed, most of which can be accounted for by misidentification of background sources. No conclusive evidence for a low-mass WIMP signal is found. The observed event rates are used to set upper limits on the WIMPnucleon scattering cross section as a function of WIMP mass. Interesting parameter space is excluded for WIMPs with masses below ˜9GeV/c 2. Under standard assumptions, the parameter space favored by interpretations of other experiments' data as

  6. Focal Plane Array Shutter Mechanism of the JWST NIRSpec Detector System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Kathleen; Sharma, Rajeev

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the requirements, chamber location, shutter system design, stepper motor specifications, dry lubrication, control system, the environmental cryogenic function testing and the test results of the Focal Plane Array Shutter mechanism for the James Webb Space Telescope Near Infrared Spectrum Detector system. Included are design views of the location for the Shutter Mechanism, lubricant (lubricated with Molybdenum Di Sulfide) thickness, and information gained from the cryogenic testing.

  7. Flight Testing of a Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Kobel, Mark; Bugby, David; Kroliczek, Edward; Baumann, Jane; Cullimore, Brent

    1999-01-01

    Future space-based cryogenic systems will require enhanced integration flexibility, lower weight reduced parasitic penalties, better vibration isolation, and a variety of other improvements to meet performance goals. Additionally, there is an increasing need to locate cooling sources remotely from cooled components. In the past flexible conductive links were used and worked well in most cases. However, as the transport lengths increase, conductive couplings become heavier and less effective, and must be replaced by higher performance systems. One available option, which can meet many of these future requirements, is the cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL). The development of the CCPL technology started in 1992, following the success of the room temperature CPLS. The extrapolation of CCPL technology to cryogenic temperatures offers many performance benefits, which are not currently within the reach of traditional heat pipes or conductive links. Specific advantages of the CCPL technology pertaining to cryocooler integration include: (1) greater capillary pumping pressure for improved ground testability; (2) improved mechanical isolation; (3) faster diode shutdown and lower reverse heat leaks; (4) tighter control of detector temperature; (5) variable or fixed conductance operation; and (6) ease of integration due to their flexibility. The applications of CCPL technology are numerous. Military and commercial applications include surveillance satellites, earth observing satellites, deep space observation systems, medical devices, and many other cryogenic systems. Over the past few years, several breadboard and prototype CCPLs have been built and ground tested. A prototype CCPL has demonstrated successful operation between 80K and 110K with heat loads between O.5W and 12W using nitrogen as the working fluid, and 35K and 40K with head loads of 0.25W to 3.5W using neon. In order to verify CCPL performance in a microgravity environment, a flight unit, CCPL-5, was tested

  8. Internal strain gage balances for cryogenic windtunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, K.; Ewald, B.; Graewe, E.

    The five cryogenic wind-tunnel balances which were built and calibrated as part of the cryogenic balance program initiated in 1979 by the German Ministry of Research and Technology are described. Particular attention is given to factors affecting the calibration of cryogenic balances, such as the changes in the temperature and temperature gradients in the balance body caused by changes in the tunnel temperature. It is shown that it is possible to have a cryogenic wind-tunnel balance with the same accuracy and repeatability as a conventional balance. The effect of temperature gradients can be minimized by a new design of the axial-force element and an advanced calibration, and the zero shift can be reduced by matching procedures and calibration.

  9. Aerogel Blanket Insulation Materials for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffman, B. E.; Fesmire, J. E.; White, S.; Gould, G.; Augustynowicz, S.

    2010-04-01

    Aerogel blanket materials for use in thermal insulation systems are now commercially available and implemented by industry. Prototype aerogel blanket materials were presented at the Cryogenic Engineering Conference in 1997 and by 2004 had progressed to full commercial production by Aspen Aerogels. Today, this new technology material is providing superior energy efficiencies and enabling new design approaches for more cost-effective cryogenic systems. Aerogel processing technology and methods are continuing to improve, offering a tailorable array of product formulations for many different thermal and environmental requirements. Many different varieties and combinations of aerogel blankets have been characterized using insulation test cryostats at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Detailed thermal conductivity data for a select group of materials are presented for engineering use. Heat transfer evaluations for the entire vacuum pressure range, including ambient conditions, are given. Examples of current cryogenic applications of aerogel blanket insulation are also given.

  10. The cryogenic control system of BEPCII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Ke-Xiang; Zhao, Ji-Jiu; Yue, Ke-Juan; Dai, Ming-Hui; Huang, Yi-Ling; Jiang, Bo

    2008-04-01

    A superconducting cryogenic system has been designed and deployed in the Beijing Electron- Positron Collider Upgrade Project (BEPCII). The system consists of a Siemens PLC (S7-PLC, Programmable Logic Controller) for the compressor control, an Allen Bradley (AB) PLC for the cryogenic equipments, and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) that integrates the PLCs. The system fully automates the superconducting cryogenic control with process control, PID (Proportional-Integral-Differential) control loops, real-time data access and data storage, alarm handler and human machine interface. It is capable of automatic recovery as well. This paper describes the BEPCII cryogenic control system, data communication between S7-PLC and EPICS Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), and the integration of the flow control, the low level interlock, the AB-PLC, and EPICS.

  11. Evaluation of two designs for cryogenic insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Shingle-type, crinkled, aluminized polyethylene ester is thermally and structurally tested for cryogenic insulation. Insulation systems require thermal efficiency with minimum weight, and the ability to withstand vibration, acceleration, and rapid pressure drops.

  12. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets are disclosed. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member. 4 figs.

  13. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  14. Cryogenic target formation using cold gas jets

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D. [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-26

    A method and apparatus using cold gas jets for producing a substantially uniform layer of cryogenic materials on the inner surface of hollow spherical members having one or more layers, such as inertially imploded targets. By vaporizing and quickly refreezing cryogenic materials contained within a hollow spherical member, a uniform layer of the materials is formed on an inner surface of the spherical member. Basically the method involves directing cold gas jets onto a spherical member having one or more layers or shells and containing the cryogenic material, such as a deuterium-tritium (DT) mixture, to freeze the contained material, momentarily heating the spherical member so as to vaporize the contained material, and quickly refreezing the thus vaporized material forming a uniform layer of cryogenic material on an inner surface of the spherical member.

  15. Magnetic Microcalorimeter Gamma Detectors for High-Precision Non-Destructive Analysis, FY14 Extended Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S.

    2015-02-06

    Cryogenic gamma (γ) detectors with operating temperatures of ~0.1 K or below offer 10× better energy resolution than conventional high-purity germanium detectors that are currently used for non-destructive analysis (NDA) of nuclear materials. This can greatly increase the accuracy of NDA, especially at low-energies where gamma rays often have similar energies and cannot be resolved by Ge detectors. We are developing cryogenic γ–detectors based on metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs), which have the potential of higher resolution, faster count rates and better linearity than other cryogenic detector technologies. High linearity is essential to add spectra from different pixels in detector arrays that are needed for high sensitivity. Here we discuss the fabrication of a new generation of MMC γ–detectors in FY2014, and the resulting improvements in energy resolution and linearity of the new design. As an example of the type of NDA that cryogenic detectors enable, we demonstrate the direct detection of Pu-242 emissions with our MMC γ–detectors in the presence of Pu-240, and show that a quantitative NDA analysis agrees with the mass spectrometry

  16. Cryogenic Fatigue and Stress-strain Behavior of a Fibre Metal Laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, W. van de; Dhallé, M. M. J.; Wessel, W. A. J.; Warnet, L.; Atli-Veltin, B.; Putten, S. van der; Dam, J. A. M.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    This paper reports on the cryogenic fatigue life of Al 2024 / Stycast 2850 FT composite sandwiches loaded under cyclic strain, as well as on the strength of their constituent materials at 77 K. These Fibre Metal Laminate (FML) specimen serve as a model for an alternative class of cryogenic structural materials that might be used e.g. in downstream LNG applications. FMLs, such as the GLARE ™, are already used in the aeronautic industry, where they provide better damage tolerance, corrosion resistance and lower specific weight. Their cryogenic performance, however, is yet to be understood. Preliminary results show that the metal/filled- epoxy combination presented here withstands repeated cool-down to 77 K. Moreover, its cryogenic fatigue life is at least 20 times longer than at room temperature. These observations are consistent with the measured stress-strain behaviour of the metal and the epoxy, as well as with the shear strength of the bond between them. The Youngs modulus, yield strength and tensile strength of the Stycast 2850 FT roughly double when cooled down to 77 K. In addition to this, the bond strength with the GLARE-type coated Al increases significantly. These preliminary experiments indicate that cryogenic FML are technically feasible.

  17. Construction of the CDF silicon vertex detector

    SciTech Connect

    Skarha, J.; Barnett, B.; Boswell, C.; Snider, F.; Spies, A.; Tseng, J.; Vejcik, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B.; Gonzales, B.; Hrycyk, M.; Nelson, C.; Segler, S.; Shaw, T.; Tkaczyk, S.; Turner, K.; Wesson, T.; Carithers, W.; Ely, R.; Haber, C.; Holland, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Merrick, T.; Schneider, O.; Wester, W.; Wong, M.; Amidei, D.; Derwent, P.; Gold, M.; Matthews, J.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Busetto, G.; Castro, A.; Loreti, M.; Pescara, L.; Bedeschi, F.; Bolognesi, V.; Dell`Agnello, S.; Galeotti, S.; Mariotti, M.; Menzione, A.; Punzi, G.; Raffaelli, F.; Risotri, L.; Tartarelli, F.; Turini, N.; Wenzel, H.; Zetti, F. |; Bailey, M.; Garfinkel, A.; Shaw, N.; Tipton, P.; Watts, G.

    1992-04-01

    Technical details and methods used in constructing the CDF silicon vertex detector are presented. This description includes a discussion of the foam-carbon fiber composite structure used to silicon microstrip detectors and the procedure for achievement of 5 {mu}m detector alignment. The construction of the beryllium barrel structure, which houses the detector assemblies, is also described. In addition, the 10 {mu}m placement accuracy of the detectors in the barrel structure is discussed and the detector cooling and mounting systems are described. 12 refs.

  18. Below-Ambient and Cryogenic Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal insulation systems operating in below-ambient temperature conditions are inherently susceptible to moisture intrusion and vapor drive toward the cold side. The subsequent effects may include condensation, icing, cracking, corrosion, and other problems. Methods and apparatus for real-world thermal performance testing of below-ambient systems have been developed based on cryogenic boiloff calorimetry. New ASTM International standards on cryogenic testing and their extension to future standards for below-ambient testing of pipe insulation are reviewed.

  19. Filament-wound, fiberglass cryogenic tank supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. S.; Timberlake, T. E.

    1971-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of filament-wound, fiberglass cryogenic tank supports for a LH2 tank, a LF2/FLOX tank and a CH4 tank. These supports consist of filament-wound fiberglass tubes with titanium end fittings. These units were satisfactorily tested at cryogenic temperatures, thereby offering a design that can be reliably and economically produced in large or small quantities. The basic design concept is applicable to any situation where strong, lightweight axial load members are desired.

  20. Progress in Cryogenic Target Implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T. R.; Craxton, R. S.; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Glebov, V. Yu; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Hu, S. X.; Knauer, J. P.; Marshall, F. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Radha, P. B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Short, R. W.; Shvarts, D.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Soures, J. M.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Yaakobi, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Séguin, F. H.; Casey, D. T.

    2016-10-01

    Cryogenic deuterium-tritium targets are imploded on the OMEGA Laser System in a direct-drive configuration. Areal densities of approximately 200 mg/cm2 have been measured with implosion velocities of 3 × 107 cm/s. These implosions are used to study the dynamics of cryogenic target compression and to develop areal-density diagnostics that will be used as part of the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility.

  1. The Evolution of the Cryogenic System of the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hees, W.; Arnold, Ph; Fydrych, J.; Jurns, J.; Wang, X. L.; Weisend, J. G., II

    2015-12-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is an intergovernmental project building a multidisciplinary research laboratory based upon the world's most powerful neutron source to be built in Lund, Sweden. The ESS will use a superconducting linear accelerator which will deliver protons with 5 MW of power to the target at 2.0 GeV with a nominal current of 62.5 mA. A cryomodule test stand will be supplied with helium for the site acceptance tests. The target will have two moderators using supercritical hydrogen to cool down the neutrons. The neutron instruments and the experiments’ sample environment will use liquid helium and liquid nitrogen to cool detectors and samples. The ESS cryogenic system is designed to deliver cryogenic cooling capacity to all three client system. A first concept of the ESS cryogenic system was developed in 2010 and 2011 with a limited amount of input from the clients as well as from site infrastructure (i.e. buildings and utilities). The design had to be flexible enough to accommodate future changes in scope, schedule and available infrastructure. Over the following years the design has evolved together with these parameters to achieve a maturity today which allowed us to order the accelerator cryoplant and to start procurement of many of the other parts of the ESS cryogenic system. This paper presents the evolution of the design throughout the years and the factors influencing certain design choices.

  2. Split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler for high-temperature infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, A.; Zehter, S.; Vilenchik, H.; Pundak, N.

    2009-05-01

    Infrared imagers play a vital role in the modern tactics of carrying out surveillance, reconnaissance, targeting and navigation operations. The cooled systems are known to be superior to their uncooled competitors in terms of working ranges, resolution and ability to distinguish/track fast moving objects in dynamic infrared scenes. These advantages are primarily due to maintaining the infrared focal plane arrays at cryogenic temperatures using mechanical closed cycle Stirling cryogenic coolers. Recent technological advances in industrial application of high-temperature (up to 200K) infrared detectors has spurred the development of linearly driven microminiature split Stirling cryogenic coolers having inherently longer life spans, lower vibration export and better aural stealth as compared to their rotary driven rivals. Moreover, recent progress in designing highly efficient "moving magnet" resonant linear actuators and dedicated smart electronics have enabled further improvements to the cooler size, weight, power consumption, cooldown time and ownership costs. The authors report on the development and project status of a novel microminiature split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler having a shortened to 19mm cold finger and a high driving frequency (90Hz). The cooler has been specifically designed for cooling 130K infrared sensors of future portable infrared imagers, where compactness, low steady-state power consumption and fast cool-down time are of primary concern.

  3. A cryogenic phase locking loop system for a superconducting integrated receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudchenko, A. V.; Koshelets, V. P.; Dmitriev, P. N.; Ermakov, A. B.; Yagoubov, P. A.; Pylypenko, O. M.

    2009-08-01

    The authors present a new cryogenic device, an ultrawideband cryogenic phase locking loop system (CPLL). The CPLL was developed for phase locking of a flux-flow oscillator (FFO) in a superconducting integrated receiver (SIR) but can be used for any cryogenic terahertz oscillator. The key element of the CPLL is the cryogenic phase detector (CPD), a recently proposed new superconducting element. The CPD is an innovative implementation of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction. All components of the CPLL reside inside a cryostat at 4.2 K, with the loop length of cables 50 cm and the total loop delay 4.5 ns. So small a delay results in a CPLL synchronization bandwidth as wide as 40 MHz and allows phase locking of more than 60% of the power emitted by the FFO, even for FFO linewidths of about 11 MHz. This percentage of phase locked power is three times that achieved with conventional room temperature PLLs. Such an improvement enables reducing the FFO phase noise and extending the SIR operation range.

  4. Gaseous Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Maxim

    Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high-energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volumes with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photolithography and microprocessing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell-size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolution make them an invaluable tool to confront future detector challenges at the next generation of colliders. The design of the new micro-pattern devices appears suitable for industrial production. Novel structures where MPGDs are directly coupled to the CMOS pixel readout represent an exciting field allowing timing and charge measurements as well as precise spatial information in 3D. Originally developed for the high-energy physics, MPGD applications have expanded to nuclear physics, photon detection, astroparticle and neutrino physics, neutron detection, and medical imaging.

  5. Study Acoustic Emissions from Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.; Workman, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    The nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of future propulsion systems utilizing advanced composite structures for the storage of cryogenic fuels, such as liquid hydrogen or oxygen, presents many challenges. Economic justification for these structures requires, light weight, reusable components with an infrastructure allowing periodic evaluation of structural integrity after enduring demanding stresses during operation. A major focus has been placed on the use of acoustic emission NDE to detect propagating defects, in service, necessitating an extensive study into characterizing the nature of acoustic signal propagation at very low temperatures and developing the methodology of applying AE sensors to monitor cryogenic components. This work addresses the question of sensor performance in the cryogenic environment. Problems involving sensor mounting, spectral response and durability are addressed. The results of this work provides a common point of measure from which sensor selection can be made when testing composite components at cryogenic temperatures.

  6. Growing Crystals for Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    Unidirectional solidification yields bulk crystals with compositional homogeneity. Unidirectionaly crystal-growth furnace assembly travels vertically so crystal grows upward from bottom tapered end of ampoule. Separately controlled furnaces used for hot (upper) and cold (lower) zones. New process produces ingots with radial compositional homogeneity suitable for fabricating infrared detectors.

  7. Cryogenic ion chemistry and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wolk, Arron B; Leavitt, Christopher M; Garand, Etienne; Johnson, Mark A

    2014-01-21

    The use of mass spectrometry in macromolecular analysis is an incredibly important technique and has allowed efficient identification of secondary and tertiary protein structures. Over 20 years ago, Chemistry Nobelist John Fenn and co-workers revolutionized mass spectrometry by developing ways to non-destructively extract large molecules directly from solution into the gas phase. This advance, in turn, enabled rapid sequencing of biopolymers through tandem mass spectrometry at the heart of the burgeoning field of proteomics. In this Account, we discuss how cryogenic cooling, mass selection, and reactive processing together provide a powerful way to characterize ion structures as well as rationally synthesize labile reaction intermediates. This is accomplished by first cooling the ions close to 10 K and condensing onto them weakly bound, chemically inert small molecules or rare gas atoms. This assembly can then be used as a medium in which to quench reactive encounters by rapid evaporation of the adducts, as well as provide a universal means for acquiring highly resolved vibrational action spectra of the embedded species by photoinduced mass loss. Moreover, the spectroscopic measurements can be obtained with readily available, broadly tunable pulsed infrared lasers because absorption of a single photon is sufficient to induce evaporation. We discuss the implementation of these methods with a new type of hybrid photofragmentation mass spectrometer involving two stages of mass selection with two laser excitation regions interfaced to the cryogenic ion source. We illustrate several capabilities of the cryogenic ion spectrometer by presenting recent applications to peptides, a biomimetic catalyst, a large antibiotic molecule (vancomycin), and reaction intermediates pertinent to the chemistry of the ionosphere. First, we demonstrate how site-specific isotopic substitution can be used to identify bands due to local functional groups in a protonated tripeptide designed to

  8. Split Stirling linear cryogenic cooler for a new generation of high temperature infrared imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, A.; Zechtzer, S.; Pundak, N.

    2010-04-01

    Split linear cryocoolers find use in a variety of infrared equipment installed in airborne, heliborne, marine and vehicular platforms along with hand held and ground fixed applications. An upcoming generation of portable, high-definition night vision imagers will rely on the high-temperature infrared detectors, operating at elevated temperatures, ranging from 95K to 200K, while being able to show the performance indices comparable with these of their traditional 77K competitors. Recent technological advances in industrial development of such high-temperature detectors initialized attempts for developing compact split Stirling linear cryogenic coolers. Their known advantages, as compared to the rotary integral coolers, are superior flexibility in the system packaging, constant and relatively high driving frequency, lower wideband vibration export, unsurpassed reliability and aural stealth. Unfortunately, such off-the-shelf available linear cryogenic coolers still cannot compete with rotary integral rivals in terms of size, weight and power consumption. Ricor developed the smallest in the range, 1W@95K, linear split Stirling cryogenic cooler for demanding infrared applications, where power consumption, compactness, vibration, aural noise and ownership costs are of concern.

  9. MS Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenaal, David W.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Denton, M Bonner B.; Sperline, Roger P.; Hieftje, Gary M.; Schilling, G. D.; Andrade, Francisco J.; Barnes IV., James H.

    2005-11-01

    Good eyesight is often taken for granted, a situation that everyone appreciates once vision begins to fade with age. New eyeglasses or contact lenses are traditional ways to improve vision, but recent new technology, i.e. LASIK laser eye surgery, provides a new and exciting means for marked vision restoration and improvement. In mass spectrometry, detectors are the 'eyes' of the MS instrument. These 'eyes' have also been taken for granted. New detectors and new technologies are likewise needed to correct, improve, and extend ion detection and hence, our 'chemical vision'. The purpose of this report is to review and assess current MS detector technology and to provide a glimpse towards future detector technologies. It is hoped that the report will also serve to motivate interest, prompt ideas, and inspire new visions for ion detection research.

  10. Nuclear Electronics: Superconducting Detectors and Processing Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polushkin, Vladimir

    2004-06-01

    With the commercialisation of superconducting particles and radiation detectors set to occur in the very near future, nuclear analytical instrumentation is taking a big step forward. These new detectors have a high degree of accuracy, stability and speed and are suitable for high-density multiplex integration in nuclear research laboratories and astrophysics. Furthermore, superconducting detectors can also be successfully applied to food safety, airport security systems, medical examinations, doping tests & forensic investigations. This book is the first to address a new generation of analytical tools based on new superconductor detectors demonstrating outstanding performance unsurpassed by any other conventional devices. Presenting the latest research and development in nanometer technologies and biochemistry this book: * Discusses the development of nuclear sensing techniques. * Provides guidance on the design and use of the next generation of detectors. * Describes cryogenic detectors for nuclear measurements and spectrometry. * Covers primary detectors, front-end readout electronics and digital signal processing. * Presents applications in nanotechnology and modern biochemistry including DNA sequencing, proteinomics, microorganisms. * Features examples of two applications in X-ray electron probe nanoanalysis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This comprehensive treatment is the ideal reference for researchers, industrial engineers and graduate students involved in the development of high precision nuclear measurements, nuclear analytical instrumentation and advanced superconductor primary sensors. This book will also appeal to physicists, electrical and electronic engineers in the nuclear industry.

  11. The future of cryogenic propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palerm, S.; Bonhomme, C.; Guelou, Y.; Chopinet, J. N.; Danous, P.

    2015-07-01

    As the French Space Agency, CNES is funding an ambitious program to identify, develop and evaluate the technologies and skills that will enable to design cost efficient future launchers. This program deals together with, researches for mastering complex physical phenomena, set ups of robust and efficient numerical tools for design and justification, and identification of innovative manufacturing processes and hardware. It starts from low Technical Readiness Level (TRL 2) up to a maturation of TRL 6 with the use of demonstrators, level that allows to be ready for a development. This paper focuses on cryogenic propulsion activities conducted with SNECMA and French laboratories to prepare next generation engines. The physics in that type of hardware addresses a large range of highly complex phenomena, among them subcritical and supercritical combustion and possible associated High Frequency oscillations in combustion devices, tribology in bearings and seals, cavitation and rotordynamics in turbopump. The research activities conducted to master those physical phenomena are presented. Moreover, the operating conditions of these engines are very challenging, both thermally and mechanically. The innovative manufacturing processes and designs developed to cope with these conditions while filling cost reduction requirements are described. Finally, the associated demonstrators put in place to prepare the implementation of these new technologies on future engines are presented.

  12. A cryogenic infrared calibration target.

    PubMed

    Wollack, E J; Kinzer, R E; Rinehart, S A

    2014-04-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R ⩽ 0.003, from 800 to 4800 cm(-1) (12 - 2 μm). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10,000 cm(-1) (25 - 1 μm) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R ⩽ 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to ∼4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials-Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder-are characterized and presented.

  13. A cryogenic infrared calibration target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Kinzer, R. E.; Rinehart, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    A compact cryogenic calibration target is presented that has a peak diffuse reflectance, R ⩽ 0.003, from 800 to 4800 cm-1 (12 - 2 μm). Upon expanding the spectral range under consideration to 400-10 000 cm-1 (25 - 1 μm) the observed performance gracefully degrades to R ⩽ 0.02 at the band edges. In the implementation described, a high-thermal-conductivity metallic substrate is textured with a pyramidal tiling and subsequently coated with a thin lossy dielectric coating that enables high absorption and thermal uniformity across the target. The resulting target assembly is lightweight, has a low-geometric profile, and has survived repeated thermal cycling from room temperature to ˜4 K. Basic design considerations, governing equations, and test data for realizing the structure described are provided. The optical properties of selected absorptive materials—Acktar Fractal Black, Aeroglaze Z306, and Stycast 2850 FT epoxy loaded with stainless steel powder—are characterized and presented.

  14. Proton irradiation of a swept charge device at cryogenic temperature and the subsequent annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gow, J. P. D.; Smith, P. H.; Pool, P.; Hall, D. J.; Holland, A. D.; Murray, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that a room temperature proton irradiation may not be sufficient to provide an accurate estimation of the impact of the space radiation environment on detector performance. This is a result of the relationship between defect mobility and temperature, causing the performance to vary subject to the temperature history of the device from the point at which it was irradiated. Results measured using Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) irradiated at room temperature therefore tend to differ from those taken when the device was irradiated at a cryogenic temperature, more appropriate considering the operating conditions in space, impacting the prediction of in-flight performance. This paper describes the cryogenic irradiation, and subsequent annealing of an e2v technologies Swept Charge Device (SCD) CCD236 irradiated at -35.4°C with a 10 MeV equivalent proton fluence of 5.0 × 108 protons · cm-2. The CCD236 is a large area (4.4 cm2) X-ray detector that will be flown on-board the Chandrayaan-2 and Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope spacecraft, in the Chandrayaan-2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer and the Soft X-ray Detector respectively. The SCD is readout continually in order to benefit from intrinsic dither mode clocking, leading to suppression of the surface component of the dark current and allowing the detector to be operated at warmer temperatures than a conventional CCD. The SCD is therefore an excellent choice to test and demonstrate the variation in the impact of irradiation at cryogenic temperatures in comparison to a more typical room temperature irradiation.

  15. Active Costorage of Cryogenic Propellants for Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canavan, E. R.; Boyle, R. F.; Mustafi, S.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term storage of cryogenic propellants is a critical requirement for NASA's effort to return to the moon. Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen provide the highest specific impulse of any practical chemical propulsion system, and thus provides the greatest payload mass per unit of launch mass. Future manned missions will require vehicles with the flexibility to remain in orbit for months, necessitating long-term storage of these cryogenic liquids. For decades cryogenic scientific satellites have used cryogens to cool instruments. In many cases, the lifetime of the primary cryogen tank has been extended by intercepting much of the heat incident on the tank at an intermediate-temperature shield cooled either by a second cryogen tank or a mechanical cryocooler. For an LH2/LO2 propellant system, a combination of these ideas can be used, in which the shield around the LO2 tank is attached to, and at the same temperature as, the LO2 tank, but is actively cooled so as to remove all heat impinging on the tank and shield. This configuration eliminates liquid oxygen boil-off and cuts the liquid hydrogen boil-off to a small fraction of the unshielded rate. This paper studies the concept of active costorage as a means of long-term cryogenic propellant storage. The paper describes the design impact of an active costorage system for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). This paper also compares the spacecraft level impact of the active costorage concept with a passive storage option in relation to two different scales of spacecraft that will be used for the lunar exploration effort, the CEV and the Earth Departure Stage (EDS). Spacecraft level studies are performed to investigate the impact of scaling of the costorage technologies for the different components of the Lunar Architecture and for different mission durations.

  16. Adjustable mount for electro-optic transducers in an evacuated cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (Inventor); Haynes, David P. (Inventor); Jones, Howard C. (Inventor); Jones, Irby W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention is an adjustable mount for positioning an electro-optic transducer in an evacuated cryogenic environment. Electro-optic transducers are used in this manner as high sensitivity detectors of gas emission lines of spectroscopic analysis. The mount is made up of an adjusting mechanism and a transducer mount. The adjusting mechanism provided five degrees of freedom, linear adjustments and angular adjustments. The mount allows the use of an internal lens to focus energy on the transducer element thereby improving the efficiency of the detection device. Further, the transducer mount, although attached to the adjusting mechanism, is isolated thermally such that a cryogenic environment can be maintained at the transducer while the adjusting mechanism remains at room temperature. Radiation shields also are incorporated to further reduce heat flow to the transducer location.

  17. Photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Va`vra, J.

    1995-10-01

    J. Seguinot and T. Ypsilantis have recently described the theory and history of Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. In this paper, I will expand on these excellent review papers, by covering the various photon detector designs in greater detail, and by including discussion of mistakes made, and detector problems encountered, along the way. Photon detectors are among the most difficult devices used in physics experiments, because they must achieve high efficiency for photon transport and for the detection of single photo-electrons. For gaseous devices, this requires the correct choice of gas gain in order to prevent breakdown and wire aging, together with the use of low noise electronics having the maximum possible amplification. In addition, the detector must be constructed of materials which resist corrosion due to photosensitive materials such as, the detector enclosure must be tightly sealed in order to prevent oxygen leaks, etc. The most critical step is the selection of the photocathode material. Typically, a choice must be made between a solid (CsI) or gaseous photocathode (TMAE, TEA). A conservative approach favors a gaseous photocathode, since it is continuously being replaced by flushing, and permits the photon detectors to be easily serviced (the air sensitive photocathode can be removed at any time). In addition, it can be argued that we now know how to handle TMAE, which, as is generally accepted, is the best photocathode material available as far as quantum efficiency is concerned. However, it is a very fragile molecule, and therefore its use may result in relatively fast wire aging. A possible alternative is TEA, which, in the early days, was rejected because it requires expensive CaF{sub 2} windows, which could be contaminated easily in the region of 8.3 eV and thus lose their UV transmission.

  18. The Future with Cryogenic Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scurlock, R. G.

    The applications of cryogenic systems have expanded over the past 50 years into many areas of our lives. During this time, the impact of the common features of Cryogenic Fluid Dynamics, CryoFD, on the economic design of these cryogenic systems, has grown out of a long series of experimental studies carried out by teams of postgraduate students at Southampton University.These studies have sought to understand the heat transfer and convective behavior of cryogenic liquids and vapors, but they have only skimmed over the many findings made, on the strong convective motions of fluids at low temperatures. The convection takes place in temperature gradients up to 10,000 K per meter, and density gradients of 1000% per meter and more, with rapid temperature and spatially dependent changes in physical properties like viscosity and surface tension, making software development and empirical correlations almost impossible to achieve. These temperature and density gradients are far larger than those met in other convecting systems at ambient temperatures, and there is little similarity. The paper will discuss the likely impact of CryoFD on future cryogenic systems, and hopefully inspire further research to support and expand the use of existing findings, and to improve the economy of present-day systems even more effectively. Particular examples to be mentioned include the following. Doubling the cooling power of cryo-coolers by a simple use of CryoFD. Reducing the boil-off rate of liquid helium stored at the South Pole, such that liquid helium availability is now all-the-year-round. Helping to develop the 15 kA current leads for the LHC superconducting magnets at CERN, with much reduced refrigeration loads. Improving the heat transfer capability of boiling heat transfer surfaces by 10 to 100 fold. This paper is an edited text of an invited plenary presentation at ICEC25/ICMC2014 by Professor Scurlock on the occasion of his being presented with the ICEC Mendelssohn Award for his

  19. Development of Advanced Tools for Cryogenic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugby, D. C.; Marland, B. C.; Stouffer, C. J.; Kroliczek, E. J.

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes four advanced devices (or tools) that were developed to help solve problems in cryogenic integration. The four devices are: (1) an across-gimbal nitrogen cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP); (2) a miniaturized neon CLHP; (3) a differential thermal expansion (DTE) cryogenic thermal switch (CTSW); and (4) a dual-volume nitrogen cryogenic thermal storage unit (CTSU). The across-gimbal CLHP provides a low torque, high conductance solution for gimbaled cryogenic systems wishing to position their cryocoolers off-gimbal. The miniaturized CLHP combines thermal transport, flexibility, and thermal switching (at 35 K) into one device that can be directly mounted to both the cooler cold head and the cooled component. The DTE-CTSW, designed and successfully tested in a previous program using a stainless steel tube and beryllium (Be) end-pieces, was redesigned with a polymer rod and high-purity aluminum (Al) end-pieces to improve performance and manufacturability while still providing a miniaturized design. Lastly, the CTSU was designed with a 6063 Al heat exchanger and integrally welded, segmented, high purity Al thermal straps for direct attachment to both a cooler cold head and a Be component whose peak heat load exceeds its average load by 2.5 times. For each device, the paper will describe its development objective, operating principles, heritage, requirements, design, test data and lessons learned.

  20. NASA's Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.; Motil, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) Project's primary objective is to develop storage, transfer, and handling technologies for cryogens that will support the enabling of high performance cryogenic propulsion systems, lunar surface systems and economical ground operations. Such technologies can significantly reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, reduce or even eliminate propellant tank fluid boil-off losses for long term missions, and simplify vehicle operations. This paper will present the status of the specific technologies that the CFM Project is developing. The two main areas of concentration are analysis models development and CFM hardware development. The project develops analysis tools and models based on thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, and existing flight/test data. These tools assist in the development of pressure/thermal control devices (such as the Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS), and Multi-layer insulation); with the ultimate goal being to develop a mature set of tools and models that can characterize the performance of the pressure/thermal control devices incorporated in the design of an entire CFM system with minimal cryogen loss. The project does hardware development and testing to verify our understanding of the physical principles involved, and to validate the performance of CFM components, subsystems and systems. This database provides information to anchor our analytical models. This paper describes some of the current activities of the NASA's Cryogenic Fluid Management Project.