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Sample records for cryogenic system commissioning

  1. SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hatfield; F. Casagrande; I. Campisi; P. Gurd; M. Howell; D. Stout; H. Strong; D. Arenius; J. Creel; K. Dixon; V. Ganni; and P. Knudsen

    2005-08-29

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

  2. SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, D.; Casagrande, F.; Campisi, I.; Gurd, P.; Howell, M.; Stout, D.; Strong, H.; Arenius, D.; Creel, J.; Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2006-04-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

  3. Commissioning the cryogenic system of the first LHC sector

    SciTech Connect

    Millet, F.; Claudet, S.; Ferlin, G.; Perin, A.; Riddone, G.; Serio, L.; Soubiran, M.; Tavian, L.; Ronayette, L.; Rabehl, R.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The LHC machine, composed of eight sectors with superconducting magnets and accelerating cavities, requires a complex cryogenic system providing high cooling capacities (18 kW equivalent at 4.5 K and 2.4 W at 1.8 K per sector produced in large cold boxes and distributed via 3.3-km cryogenic transfer lines). After individual reception tests of the cryogenic subsystems (cryogen storages, refrigerators, cryogenic transfer lines and distribution boxes) performed since 2000, the commissioning of the cryogenic system of the first LHC sector has been under way since November 2006. After a brief introduction to the LHC cryogenic system and its specificities, the commissioning is reported detailing the preparation phase (pressure and leak tests, circuit conditioning and flushing), the cool-down sequences including the handling of cryogenic fluids, the magnet powering phase and finally the warm-up. Preliminary conclusions on the commissioning of the first LHC sector will be drawn with the review of the critical points already solved or still pending. The last part of the paper reports on the first operational experience of the LHC cryogenic system in the perspective of the commissioning of the remaining LHC sectors and the beam injection test.

  4. Installation and commissioning of a cryogen distribution system for the TPS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, H. H.; Hsiao, F. Z.; Li, H. C.; Lin, M. C.; Wang, C.; Liao, W. R.; Lin, T. F.; Chiou, W. S.; Chang, S. H.; Chuang, P. S. D.

    2016-07-01

    A cryogen distribution system was installed and commissioned to transfer liquid nitrogen (LN2) and liquid helium (LHe) from storage dewars to superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities for the 3-GeV Taiwan Photon Source (TPS) project. The cryogen distribution system comprises one distribution valve box (DVB), four control valve boxes (CVB) and seven sections of multichannel transfer line (MCL). The DVB distributes the LHe and LN2 to the CVB, and then to the SRF cavities through independent vacuum-jacketed transfer lines. The vaporized GHe and GN2 from the cryomodules are collected via the MCL. The cryogen distribution system was installed and commissioned from October 2014 to the end of March 2015. This paper presents the installation, pre-commissioning and commissioning of the cryogen distribution system, and describes the heat load test. Thermal acoustic oscillation (TAO) was found in the GHe process line; this phenomenon and its solution are also presented and discussed.

  5. Installation and pre-commissioning of the cryogenic system of JT-60SA tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoa, C.; Michel, F.; Roussel, P.; Fejoz, P.; Girard, S.; Goncalves, R.; Lamaison, V.; Natsume, K.; Kizu, K.; Koide, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Cardella, A.; Portone, A.; Verrecchia, M.; Wanner, M.; Beauvisage, J.; Bertholat, F.; Gaillard, G.; Heloin, V.; Langevin, B.; Legrand, J.; Maire, S.; Perrier, J. M.; Pudys, V.

    2017-02-01

    The cryogenic system for the superconducting tokamak JT-60SA is currently being commissioned in Naka, Japan and shall be ready for operation in summer 2016. This contribution is part of the Broader Approach agreement between Japan and Europe. With an equivalent refrigeration capacity of about 9.5 kW at 4.5 K the cryogenic system will supply cryo-pump panels at 3.7 K, superconducting magnets and their structures at 4.4 K, high temperature superconducting current leads at 50 K and thermal shields between 80 K and 100 K. The system has been specifically designed to handle large pulse loads at 4.4 K during plasma operation. The mechanical and electrical assembly of the cryogenic system has been achieved within six months by October 2015. The main contractor Air Liquide Advanced Technology (AL-aT) have supplied eight parallel working screw compressors with a common oil removal and dryer system, a Refrigeration Cold Box and an Auxiliary Cold box with cold rotating machines. F4E has provided six GHe storage vessels and QST has provided the complete infrastructure and the facilities for the utilities. The paper gives an overview of the main design features, the infrastructure and the status of installation and pre-commissioning.

  6. Commissioning results of CERN HIE-ISOLDE and INFN ALPI cryogenic control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglese, V.; Pezzetti, M.; Calore, A.; Modanese, P.; Pengo, R.

    2017-02-01

    The cryogenic systems of both accelerators, namely HIE ISOLDE (High Intensity and Energy Isotope Separator On Line DEvice) at CERN and ALPI (Acceleratore Lineare Per Ioni) at LNL, have been refurbished. HIE ISOLDE is a major upgrade of the existing ISOLDE facilities, which required the construction of a superconducting linear accelerator consisting of six cryomodules, each containing five superconductive RF cavities and superconducting solenoids. The ALPI linear accelerator, similar to HIE ISOLDE, is located at Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) and became operational in the early 90’s. It is composed of 74 superconducting RF cavities, assembled inside 22 cryostats. The new control systems are equipped with PLC, developed on the CERN UNICOS framework, which include Schneider and Siemens PLCs and various fieldbuses (Profibus DP and PA, WorldFIP). The control systems were developed in synergy between CERN and LNL in order to build, effectively and with an optimized use of resources, control systems allowing to enhance ease of operation, maintainability, and long-term availability. This paper describes (i) the cryogenic systems, with special focus on the design of the control systems hardware and software, (ii) the strategy adopted in order to achieve a synergic approach, and (iii) the commissioning results after the cool-down to 4.5 K of the cryomodules.

  7. Commissioning of the helium cryogenic system for the HIE- ISOLDE accelerator upgrade at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delruelle, N.; Inglese, V.; Leclercq, Y.; Pirotte, O.; Williams, L.

    2015-12-01

    The High Intensity and Energy ISOLDE (HIE-ISOLDE) project is a major upgrade of the existing ISOLDE and REX-ISOLDE facilities at CERN. The most significant improvement will come from replacing the existing REX accelerating structure by a superconducting linear accelerator (SC linac) composed ultimately of six cryo-modules installed in series, each containing superconducting RF cavities and solenoids operated at 4.5 K. In order to provide the cooling capacity at all temperature levels between 300 K and 4.5 K for the six cryo-modules, an existing helium refrigerator, manufactured in 1986 and previously used to cool the ALEPH magnet during LEP operation from 1989 to 2000, has been refurbished, reinstalled and recommissioned in a dedicated building located next to the HIE-ISOLDE experimental hall. This helium refrigerator has been connected to a new cryogenic distribution line, consisting of a 30-meter long vacuum-insulated transfer line, a 2000-liter storage dewar and six interconnecting valve boxes, one for each cryo-module. This paper describes the whole cryogenic system and presents the commissioning results including the preliminary operation at 4.5 K of the first cryo- module in the experimental hall.

  8. Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoyama, Kenji

    2002-02-01

    In this lecture we discuss the principle of method of cooling to a very low temperature, i.e. cryogenic. The "gas molecular model" will be introduced to explain the mechanism cooling by the expansion engine and the Joule-Thomson expansion valve. These two expansion processes are normally used in helium refrigeration systems to cool the process gas to cryogenic temperature. The reverse Carnot cycle will be discussed in detail as an ideal refrigeration cycle. First the fundamental process of liquefaction and refrigeration cycles will be discussed, and then the practical helium refrigeration system. The process flow of the system and the key components; -compressor, expander, and heat exchanger- will be discussed. As an example of an actual refrigeration system, we will use the cryogenic system for the KEKB superconducting RF cavity. We will also discuss the liquid helium distribution system, which is very important, especially for the cryogenic systems used in accelerator applications. 1 Principles of Cooling and Fundamental Cooling Cycle 2 Expansion engine, Joule-Thomson expansion, kinetic molecular theory, and enthalpy 3 Liquefaction Systems 4 Refrigeration Systems 5 Practical helium liquefier/refrigeration system 6 Cryogenic System for TRISTAN Superconducting RF Cavity

  9. Cryogenic system for the 43 T Hybrid Magnet at LNCMI Grenoble: from the needs to the commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronayette, L.; Crispel, S.; Berriaud, C.; Berthier, R.; Caplanne, G.; Gorski, M.; Graffin, P.; Hanoux, P.; Hergat, T.; Hervieu, B.; Juster, FP; Pfister, R.; Pissard, M.; Pugnat, P.; Vincent, B.

    2017-02-01

    LNCMI is one of the unique worldwide laboratories offering the scientific community access to various experimental conditions with continuous magnetic fields well above 20 T. LNCMI is currently developing a large field flexible experimental platform. One configuration will produce a continuous magnetic field of 43 T in a 34 mm warm bore aperture from the combination of homemade resistive electromagnet inserts and a large bore outer superconducting magnet (1.1 m internal cold dia.), the latter being built in close collaboration with CEA-IRFU Saclay. The superconducting magnet with its mechanical structure and its helium vessel will represent a mass of 22 tons to cool down to 1.8 K and maintain at this temperature 10 months per year. An overview of the project will be given focusing on the cryogenics and particularly on the helium liquefier designed and manufactured by Air Liquide Advanced Technologies. This system - the most powerful even produced in the Helial ML range - and its ancillaries has been integrated and commissioned as a turnkey system in the existing site of LNCMI.

  10. Commissioning of the cryogenics of the LHC long straight sections

    SciTech Connect

    Perin, A.; Casas-Cubillos, J.; Claudet, S.; Darve, C.; Ferlin, G.; Millet, F.; Parente, C.; Rabehl, R.; Soubiran, M.; van Weelderen, R.; Wagner, U.; /CERN

    2010-01-01

    The LHC is made of eight circular arcs interspaced with eight Long Straight Sections (LSS). Most powering interfaces to the LHC are located in these sections where the particle beams are focused and shaped for collision, cleaning and acceleration. The LSSs are constituted of several unique cryogenic devices and systems like electrical feed-boxes, standalone superconducting magnets, superconducting links, RF cavities and final focusing superconducting magnets. This paper presents the cryogenic commissioning and the main results obtained during the first operation of the LHC Long Straight Sections.

  11. Cryogenic Insulation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.; Wikstrom, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a comparative study of cryogenic insulation systems performed are presented. The key aspects of thermal insulation relative to cryogenic system design, testing, manufacturing, and maintenance are discussed. An overview of insulation development from an energy conservation perspective is given. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications provide three levels of thermal conductivity. Actual thermal performance of standard multilayer insulation (MLI) is several times less than laboratory performance and often 10 times worse than ideal performance. The cost-effectiveness of the insulation system depends on thermal performance; flexibility and durability; ease of use in handling, installation, and maintenance; and overall cost including operations, maintenance, and life cycle. Results of comprehensive testing of both conventional and novel materials such as aerogel composites using cryostat boil-off methods are given. The development of efficient, robust cryogenic insulation systems that operate at a soft vacuum level is the primary focus of this paper.

  12. TPC magnet cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Burns, W.A.; Taylor, J.D.; Van Slyke, H.W.

    1980-03-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) magnet at LBL and its compensation solenoids are adiabatically stable superconducting solenoid magnets. The cryogenic system developed for the TPC magnet is discussed. This system uses forced two-phase tubular cooling with the two cryogens in the system. The liquid helium and liquid nitrogen are delivered through the cooled load by forced tubular flow. The only reservoirs of liquid cryogen exist in the control dewar (for liquid helium) and the conditioner dewar (for liquid nitrogen). The operation o these systems during virtually all phases of system operation are described. Photographs and diagrams of various system components are shown, and cryogenic system data are presented in the following sections: (1) heat leaks into the TPC coil package and the compensation solenoids; (2) heat leaks to various components of the TPC magnet cryogenics system besides the magnets and control dewar; (3) the control dewar and its relationship to the rest of the system; (4) the conditioner system and its role in cooling down the TPC magnet; (5) gas-cooled electrical leads and charging losses; and (6) a summation of the liquid helium and liquid nitrogen requirements for the TPC superconducting magnet system.

  13. Commissioning results of the U14 cryogenic undulator at SLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvi, M.; Schmidt, Th; Anghel, A.; Cervellino, A.; Leake, S. J.; Willmott, P. R.; Tanaka, T.

    2013-03-01

    After 10 years of operation the wiggler-source Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source was the first beamline to undergo a significant upgrade. The replacement of the W61 wiggler by the cryogenic undulator U14 makes the SLS the first wiggler free third generation light source. With the help of the cryogenic technology [1], the period length could be reduced from 19 mm to 14 mm. With a minimum gap of 3.8 mm and the x-ray energy range could be extended to nearly 40 keV. The undulator has been built in cooperation with SPring-8 and Hitachi. PSI designed the liquid-nitrogen-based cryogenic system and made the magnetic measurements under cryogenic conditions before installation. To be cost efficient, the undulator shares the cryogenic refrigeration system with the monochromator. Operational aspects like stability or temporal response to gap changes will be discussed as well as the spectral performance.

  14. Spacecraft cryogenic gas storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rysavy, G.

    1971-01-01

    Cryogenic gas storage systems were developed for the liquid storage of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium. Cryogenic storage is attractive because of the high liquid density and low storage pressure of cryogens. This situation results in smaller container sizes, reduced container-strength levels, and lower tankage weights. The Gemini and Apollo spacecraft used cryogenic gas storage systems as standard spacecraft equipment. In addition to the Gemini and Apollo cryogenic gas storage systems, other systems were developed and tested in the course of advancing the state of the art. All of the cryogenic storage systems used, developed, and tested to date for manned-spacecraft applications are described.

  15. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.

    1988-11-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member. 7 figs.

  16. Cryogenic support system

    DOEpatents

    Nicol, Thomas H.; Niemann, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.

    1988-01-01

    A support system is disclosed for restraining large masses at very low or cryogenic temperatures. The support system employs a tie bar that is pivotally connected at opposite ends to an anchoring support member and a sliding support member. The tie bar extends substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the cold mass assembly, and comprises a rod that lengthens when cooled and a pair of end attachments that contract when cooled. The rod and end attachments are sized so that when the tie bar is cooled to cryogenic temperature, the net change in tie bar length is approximately zero. Longitudinal force directed against the cold mass assembly is distributed by the tie bar between the anchoring support member and the sliding support member.

  17. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Knudsen, Peter N.; Arenius, Dana M.; Barrios, Matthew N.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  18. Cryogenic Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Goloborod'ko, S.; /Fermilab

    1989-02-27

    The control system (CS) for the cryogenic arrangement of the DO Liquid Argon Calorimeter consists of a Texas instruments 560/565 Programmable Logical Controller (PLC), two remote bases with Remote Base Controllers and a corresponding set of input/output (I/O) modules, and a PC AST Premium 286 (IBM AT Compatible). The PLC scans a set of inputs and provides a set of outputs based on a ladder logic program and PID control loops. The inputs are logic or analog (current, voltage) signals from equipment status switches or transducers. The outputs are logic or analog (current or voltage) signals for switching solenoids and positioning pneumatic actuators. Programming of the PLC is preformed by using the TISOFT2/560/565 package, which is installed in the PC. The PC communicates to the PLC through a serial RS232 port and provides operator interface to the cryogenic process using Xpresslink software.

  19. Commissioning of the cryogenic safety test facility PICARD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, C.; Schön, H.; Stamm, M.; Grohmann, S.

    2015-12-01

    The sizing of cryogenic safety relief devices requires detailed knowledge on the evolution of the pressure increase in cryostats following hazardous incidents such as the venting of the insulating vacuum with atmospheric air. Based on typical design and operating conditions in liquid helium cryostats, the new test facility PICARD, which stands for Pressure Increase in Cryostats and Analysis of Relief Devices, has been constructed. The vacuum-insulated test stand has a cryogenic liquid volume of 100 liters and a nominal design pressure of 16 bar(g). This allows a broad range of experimental conditions with cryogenic fluids. In case of helium, mass flow rates through safety valves and rupture disks up to about 4kg/s can be measured. Beside flow rate measurements under various conditions (venting diameter, insulation, working fluid, liquid level, set pressure), the test stand will be used for studies on the impact of two-phase flow and for the measurement of flow coefficients of safety devices at low temperature. This paper describes the operating range, layout and instrumentation of the test stand and presents the status of the commissioning phase.

  20. Cryogenic commissioning, cool down and first magnet operation of Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, M.; Dhard, C. P.; Bau, H.; Bosch, H.-S.; Meyer, U.; Raatz, S.; Risse, K.; Rummel, T.

    2017-02-01

    The construction of the stellarator fusion experiment Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) was accomplished in 2014. Commissioning of cryogenic system, first cool down of W7-X cryostat and operation of the magnet system was achieved. First plasma operation was accomplished 10th of December 2015. W7-X consists of a magnet system with 70 superconducting coils inside a cryostat. The cold mass of 456 tons is cooled with a helium plant with an equivalent refrigeration power of 7 kW at 4.5 K. The paper presents the commissioning of the cryogenic system, the cool down of the cryostat and first steady state operation with currents up to 12.8 kA. Helium temperatures, mass flow rates and pressure drops inside W7-X cooling circuits are as expected allowing safe magnet operation. Heat loads on the thermal shield and on the superconducting coils are lower than specified for the cryostat design.

  1. Cryogenic System for the Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenius, D.; Chronis, W.; Creel, J.; Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2004-06-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a neutron-scattering facility being built at Oak Ridge, TN for the US Department of Energy. The SNS accelerator linac consists of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities in cryostats (cryomodules). The linac cryomodules are cooled to 2.1 K by a 2300 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. As an SNS partner laboratory, Jefferson Lab is responsible for the installed integrated cryogenic system design for the SNS linac accelerator consisting of major subsystem equipment engineered and procured from industry. Jefferson Lab's work included developing the major vendor subsystem equipment procurement specifications, equipment procurement, and the integrated system engineering support of the field installation and commissioning. The major cryogenic system components include liquid nitrogen storage, gaseous helium storage, cryogen distribution transfer line system, 2.1-K cold box consisting of four stages of cold compressors, 4.5-K cold box, warm helium compressors with its associated oil removal, gas management, helium purification, gas impurity monitoring systems, and the supportive utilities of electrical power, cooling water and instrument air. The system overview, project organization, the important aspects, and the capabilities of the cryogenic system are described.

  2. Commissioning HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schiess, K.

    1995-12-01

    In recent years, commissioning has been viewed as a separate process that had to be specified and implemented by a specialized entity. This article discusses commissioning in the HVAC field and looks at it from an international perspective. The author has worked in Europe, South Africa (British system) and the USA. The differences between the British and the American methods of commissioning are discussed, with examples given where the American way was unsuccessful. It is the design engineer`s job to test and accept (commission) an installation after the contractor has demonstrated the performance to the satisfaction of the design engineer. Once the plant is commissioned, it is put into service.

  3. The RHIC cryogenic control system

    SciTech Connect

    Farah, Y.; Sondericker, J.

    1993-08-01

    A cryogenic process control system for the RHIC Project is discussed. It is independent of the main RHIC Control System, consisting of an upgrade of the existing 24.8 Kw helium refrigerator control section with the addition of a ring control section that regulates and monitors all cryogenic signals in the RHIC tunnel. The system is fully automated, which can run without the continuous presence of operators.

  4. Cryogenic Systems and Superconductive Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    subsystem suitable for providing reliable long-lived cryogenic refrigeration for a superconductive ship propulsion system; and, Provide a sound...technical basis for subsequent applications of superconductive power in the area of ship propulsion .

  5. Cryogenic Systems and Superconductive Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report defines, investigates, and experimentally evaluates the key elements of a representative crogenic turborefrigerator subsystem suitable for providing reliable long-lived cryogenic refrigeration for a superconductive ship propulsion system.

  6. Commissioning of HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schiess, K.

    1995-06-01

    In recent years various presentation and discussions have taken place which looked at commissioning as a separate process that had to be specified and implemented by a specialized entity in a project. This presentation discusses commissioning in the HVAC field and looks at it from an international perspective. The author has worked in Europe, South Africa (British system) and in the USA. The differences are discussed between the British and the American methods with some examples where the American way of commissioning was unsuccessful. The conclusion is that it is the design engineer`s job to test and accept (commission) an installation after the contractor has demonstrated the performance to the satisfaction of the design engineer. Once the plant is commissioned, it is put into service.

  7. Gauging Systems Monitor Cryogenic Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Rocket fuel needs to stay cool - super cool, in fact. The ability to store gas propellants like liquid hydrogen and oxygen at cryogenic temperatures (below -243 F) is crucial for space missions in order to reduce their volumes and allow their storage in smaller (and therefore, less costly) tanks. The Agency has used these cryogenic fluids for vehicle propellants, reactants, and life support systems since 1962 with the Centaur upper stage rocket, which was powered with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. During proposed long-duration missions, super-cooled fluids will also be used in space power systems, spaceports, and lunar habitation systems. In the next generation of launch vehicles, gaseous propellants will be cooled to and stored for extended periods at even colder temperatures than currently employed via a process called densification. Densification sub-cools liquids to temperatures even closer to absolute zero (-459 F), increasing the fluid s density and shrinking its volume beyond common cryogenics. Sub-cooling cryogenic liquid hydrogen, for instance, from 20 K (-423 F) to 15 K (-432.4 F) reduces its mass by 10 percent. These densified liquid gases can provide more cost savings from reduced payload volume. In order to benefit from this cost savings, the Agency is working with private industry to prevent evaporation, leakage, and other inadvertent loss of liquids and gases in payloads - requiring new cryogenic systems to prevent 98 percent (or more) of boil-off loss. Boil-off occurs when cryogenic or densified liquids evaporate, and is a concern during launch pad holds. Accurate sensing of propellants aboard space vehicles is also critical for proper engine shutdown and re-ignition after launch, and zero boil-off fuel systems are also in development for the Altair lunar lander.

  8. ILC cryogenic systems reference design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

    2008-01-01

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  9. Improved cryogenic refrigeration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higa, W. H.

    1967-01-01

    Two-position shuttle valve simplifies valving arrangement and crank-shaft configuration in gas-balancing and Stirling-cycle refrigeration systems used to produce temperatures below 173 degrees K. It connects the displacer and regenerator alternately to the supply line or the return line of the compressor, and establishes constant pressure on the drive piston.

  10. The DIII-D cryogenic system upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Schaubel, K.M.; Laughon, G.J.; Campbell, G.L.; Langhorn, A.R.; Stevens, N.C.; Tupper, M.L.

    1993-10-01

    The original DIII-D cryogenic system was commissioned in 1981 and was used to cool the cryopanel arrays for three hydrogen neutral beam injectors. Since then, new demands for liquid helium have arisen including: a fourth neutral beam injector, ten superconducting magnets for the electron cyclotron heating gyrotrons, and more recently, the advanced diverter cryopump which resides inside the tokamak vacuum vessel. The original cryosystem could not meet these demands. Consequently, the cryosystem was upgraded in several phases to increase capacity, improve reliability, and reduce maintenance. The majority of the original system has been replaced with superior equipment. The capacity now exists to support present as well as future demands for liquid helium at DIII-D including a hydrogen pellet injector, which is being constructed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Upgrades to the cryosystem include: a recently commissioned 150 {ell}/hr helium liquefier, two 55 g/sec helium screw compressors, a fully automated 20-valve cryogen distribution box, a high efficiency helium wet expander, and the conversion of equipment from manual or pneumatic to programmable logic controller (PLC) control. The distribution box was designed and constructed for compactness due to limited space availability. Overall system efficiency was significantly improved by replacing the existing neutral beam reliquefier Joule-Thomson valve with a reciprocating wet expander. The implementation of a PLC-based automatic control system has resulted in increased efficiency and reliability. This paper will describe the cryosystem design with emphasis on newly added equipment. In addition, performance and operational experience will be discussed.

  11. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 4: Cryogenic cooling in environmental control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of cryogenic fluid cooling in the environmental control system of the space shuttle was conducted. The technique for treating the cryogenic fluid storage and supply tanks and subsystems as integrated systems was developed. It was concluded that a basic incompatibility exists between the heat generated and the cryogen usage rate and cryogens cannot be used to absorb the generated heat. The use of radiators and accumulators to provide additional cooling capability is recommended.

  12. Modeling and Commissioning of a Cold Compressor String for the Superfluid Cryogenic Plant at Fermilab's Cryo-module Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueresin, C.; Decker, L.; Treite, P.

    In 2011, Linde Cryogenics, a division of Linde Process Plants, Tulsa, Oklahoma, was awarded the contract to deliver a 500 W at 2 K superfluid cryogenic plant to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Batavia, Illinois, USA. This system includes a cold compressor string with three centrifugal compressors and a vacuum pump skid with five volumetric pumps in parallel used to pump down helium to its saturation pressure corresponding to 2 K. Linde Kryotechnik AG, Pfungen Switzerland engineered and supplied the cold compressor system and commissioned it with its control logic to cover the complete range of system operation. The paper outlines issues regarding compressor design, compressor string modeling, control algorithms, controller performance, and surge protection.

  13. Cryogenic Systems: Recent Trends and New Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisend, John

    2011-03-01

    The production of reliable cryogenic temperatures is vital for the use of superconductivity in accelerators. Cryogenics is found in the accelerating structures and magnets of the accelerator as well as in the magnets and calorimeters of the detectors in the experimental areas. In the century since the discovery of superconductivity, cryogenic systems have gone from small laboratory devices to very large industrial scale systems involving multiple refrigeration plants, containing over 100 tonnes of liquid helium. These systems, while specialized, represent a mature, well understood technology. This paper will survey the current status of cryogenic systems in accelerators and describe recent trends including: the large scale use of He II (superfluid helium) and the development of higher reliability and higher efficiency systems. It will also discuss future directions including the increased use of HiTc current leads, possible applications for small cryocoolers and the potential impact of the world helium supply on accelerator cryogenics.

  14. Apollo cryogenic integrated systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seto, R. K. M.; Cunningham, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    The integrated systems program is capable of simulating both nominal and anomalous operation of the Apollo cryogenics storage system (CSS). Two versions of the program exist; one for the Apollo 14 configuration and the other for J Type Mission configurations. The program consists of two mathematical models which are dynamically coupled. A model of the CSS components and lines determines the oxygen and hydrogen flowrate from each storage tank given the tank pressures and temperatures, and the electrical power subsystem and environmental control subsystem flow demands. Temperatures and pressures throughout the components and lines are also determined. A model of the CSS tankage determines the pressure and temperatures in the tanks given the flowrate from each tank and the thermal environment. The model accounts for tank stretch and includes simplified oxygen tank heater and stratification routines. The program is currently operational on the Univac 1108 computer.

  15. Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    The Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System was tested with LH2 and LOX in a vacuum chamber to simulate space vacuum and the temperatures of low Earth orbit. Testing was successful and results validated the scaling study model that predicts active cooling reduces upper stage cryogenic propulsion mass for loiter periods greater than 2 weeks.

  16. FRIB Cryogenic Distribution System and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Yang, Shuo; Nellis, Timothy; Jones, S.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    The MSU-FRIB cryogenic distribution system supports the 2 K primary, 4 K primary, and 35 - 55 K shield operation of more than 70 loads in the accelerator and the experimental areas. It is based on JLab and SNS experience with bayonet-type disconnects between the loads and the distribution system for phased commissioning and maintenance. The linac transfer line, which features three separate transfer line segments for additional independence during phased commissioning at 4 K and 2 K, connects the folded arrangement of 49 cryomodules and 4 superconducting dipole magnets and a fourth transfer line supports the separator area cryo loads. The pressure reliefs for the transfer line process lines, located in the refrigeration room outside the tunnel/accelerator area, are piped to be vented outdoors. The transfer line designs integrate supply and return flow paths into a combined vacuum space. The main linac distribution segments are produced in a small number of standard configurations; a prototype of one such configuration has been fabricated at Jefferson Lab and has been installed at MSU to support testing of a prototype FRIB cryomodule.

  17. Commissioning and Operation of a Cryogenic Target at HI γS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendellen, David; Compton@HIγS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a cryogenic target for use at the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HI γS). The target system is able to liquefy helium-4 (LHe) at 4 K, hydrogen (LH2) at 20 K, or deuterium (LD2) at 23 K to fill a 0.3 L Kapton cell. Liquid temperatures and condenser pressures are recorded throughout each run in order to ensure that the target's areal density is known to 1%. A low-temperature valve enables cycling between full and empty modes in less than 15 minutes. The target is being utilized in a series of experiments which probe the electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon by Compton scattering high-energy photons from the liquid and detecting them with the HI γS NaI Detector Array (HINDA). During a 50-hour-long commissioning run, the target held LHe at 3.17 K, followed by 600 hours of production running with LD2 at 23.9 K. The design of the target will be presented and its performance during these runs will be discussed. Work supported by US Department of Energy contracts DE-FG02-97ER41033, DE-FG02-06ER41422, and DE-SCOO0536

  18. The cryogenic control system of BEPCII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Ke-Xiang; Zhao, Ji-Jiu; Yue, Ke-Juan; Dai, Ming-Hui; Huang, Yi-Ling; Jiang, Bo

    2008-04-01

    A superconducting cryogenic system has been designed and deployed in the Beijing Electron- Positron Collider Upgrade Project (BEPCII). The system consists of a Siemens PLC (S7-PLC, Programmable Logic Controller) for the compressor control, an Allen Bradley (AB) PLC for the cryogenic equipments, and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) that integrates the PLCs. The system fully automates the superconducting cryogenic control with process control, PID (Proportional-Integral-Differential) control loops, real-time data access and data storage, alarm handler and human machine interface. It is capable of automatic recovery as well. This paper describes the BEPCII cryogenic control system, data communication between S7-PLC and EPICS Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), and the integration of the flow control, the low level interlock, the AB-PLC, and EPICS.

  19. Progress on the CUORE Cryogenic System

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.; Arnaboldi, C.; Nucciotti, A.; Schaeffer, D.; Sisti, M.; Barucci, M.; Bucci, C.; Frossati, G.; De Waard, A.; Woodcraft, A.

    2009-12-16

    We give here an update on the CUORE cryogenic system. It consists of a large cryogen-free cryostat cooled by five pulse tubes and one high-power specially designed dilution refrigerator built by Leiden Cryogenics. The cryostat design has been completed and it is presently under construction. The site at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory is ready for the installation of the cryostat which is expected to begin by the end of 2009. We discuss here the preliminary results obtained on the performance of the mechanical cryorefrigerators. We also present a measurement of the residual heat leak of the copper which has been selected for the cryostat fabrication.

  20. Spiral 2 Cryogenic System for The Superconducting LINAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghribi, A.; Bernaudin, P.-E.; Bert, Y.; Commeaux, C.; Houeto, M.; Lescalié, G.

    2017-02-01

    SPIRAL 21 is a rare isotope accelerator dedicated to the production of high intensity beams (E = 40 MeV, I = 5 mA). The driver is a linear accelerator (LINAC) that uses bulk Niobium made quarter wave RF cavities. 19 cryomodules inclose one or two cavities respectively for the low and the high energy sections. To supply the 1300 W at 4.2 K required to cool down the LINAC, a cryogenic system has been set up. The heart of the latter is a 3 turbines geared HELIAL®LF (ALAT2) cold box that delivers both the liquid helium for the cavities and the 60 K Helium gaz for the thermal screens. 19 valve-boxes insure cryogenic fluid distribution and management. Key issues like cool down speed or cavity RF frequency stability are closely linked to the cryogenic system management. To overcome these issues, modelling and simulation efforts are being undertaken prior to the first cool down trials. In this paper, we present a status update of the Spiral 2 cryogenic system and the cool down strategy considered for its commissioning.

  1. Conceptual design of the FRIB cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Weisend II, J G; Bull, Brad; Burns, Chris; Fila, Adam; Kelley, Patrick; Laumer, Helmut; Mann, Thomas; McCartney, Allyn; Jones, S; Zeller, A

    2012-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a new nuclear science facility funded by the DOE Office of Science and Michigan State University (MSU). FRIB is currently under design and will be located on the MSU campus. The centerpiece of FRIB is a heavy ion linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities and magnets which in turn requires a large cryogenic system. The cryogenic system consists of a commercially produced helium refrigeration plant and an extensive distribution system. Superconducting components will operate at both 4.5 K and 2 K. This paper describes the conceptual design of the system including the expected heat loads and operating modes. The strategy for procuring a custom turnkey helium refrigeration plant from industry, an overview of the distribution system, the interface of the cryogenic system to the conventional facilities and the project schedule are also described.

  2. Spacelab 2 infrared telescope cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E. W.; Katz, L.; Hendricks, J. B.; Karr, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the development of a cryogenic helium system to provide cooling to a scanning infrared telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission. The infrared optical/detector system and related electronics are being developed by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Arizona. A superfluid helium dewar and porous plug phase separator permit gas cooling of the infrared focal plane assembly to about 2.5 K, and of the two telescope sections to 8 K and 60 K. The design of the cryogenic system,including a commandable vacuum cover, and the prelaunch liquid helium servicing and maintenance approach were discussed. It is concluded that the system will satisfy the Infrared Telescope requirements, and the superfluid helium system shall be capable of satisfying cryogenic helium cooled requirements for the next several years.

  3. Status of the ESS cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Weisend II, J. G.; Darve, C.; Gallimore, S.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Köttig, T.; Ladd, P.; Molloy, S.; Parker, T.; Wang, X. L.

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron science facility funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries currently under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. The centerpiece of ESS is a 2.5 GeV proton linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities operating at 2 K. In addition to cooling the SRF cavities, cryogenics is also used at ESS in the liquid hydrogen moderators surrounding the target. ESS also uses both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen in a number of the planned neutron instruments. There is also a significant cryogenic installation associated with the site acceptance testing of the ESS cryomodules. The ESS cryogenic system consists of 3 separate helium refrigeration/liquefaction plants supplying the accelerator, target moderators and instruments. An extensive cryogenic distribution system connects the accelerator cryoplant with the cryomodules. This paper describes the preliminary design of the ESS cryogenic system including the expected heat loads. Challenges associated with the required high reliability and turn-down capability will also be discussed. A unique feature of ESS is its commitment to sustainability and energy recovery. A conceptual design for recovering waste heat from the helium compressors for use in the Lund district heating system will also be described.

  4. Status of the ESS cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisend, J. G., II; Darve, C.; Gallimore, S.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Köttig, T.; Ladd, P.; Molloy, S.; Parker, T.; Wang, X. L.

    2014-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron science facility funded by a collaboration of 17 European countries currently under design and construction in Lund, Sweden. The centerpiece of ESS is a 2.5 GeV proton linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities operating at 2 K. In addition to cooling the SRF cavities, cryogenics is also used at ESS in the liquid hydrogen moderators surrounding the target. ESS also uses both liquid helium and liquid nitrogen in a number of the planned neutron instruments. There is also a significant cryogenic installation associated with the site acceptance testing of the ESS cryomodules. The ESS cryogenic system consists of 3 separate helium refrigeration/liquefaction plants supplying the accelerator, target moderators and instruments. An extensive cryogenic distribution system connects the accelerator cryoplant with the cryomodules. This paper describes the preliminary design of the ESS cryogenic system including the expected heat loads. Challenges associated with the required high reliability and turn-down capability will also be discussed. A unique feature of ESS is its commitment to sustainability and energy recovery. A conceptual design for recovering waste heat from the helium compressors for use in the Lund district heating system will also be described.

  5. Advanced long term cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman S.

    1987-01-01

    Long term, cryogenic fluid storage facilities will be required to support future space programs such as the space-based Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), Telescopes, and Laser Systems. An orbital liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen storage system with an initial capacity of approximately 200,000 lb will be required. The storage facility tank design must have the capability of fluid acquisition in microgravity and limit cryogen boiloff due to environmental heating. Cryogenic boiloff management features, minimizing Earth-to-orbit transportation costs, will include advanced thick multilayer insulation/integrated vapor cooled shield concepts, low conductance support structures, and refrigeration/reliquefaction systems. Contracted study efforts are under way to develop storage system designs, technology plans, test article hardware designs, and develop plans for ground/flight testing.

  6. Robust Multilayer Insulation for Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Scholtens, B. F.; Augustynowicz, S. D.

    2007-01-01

    New requirements for thermal insulation include robust Multilayer insulation (MU) systems that work for a range of environments from high vacuum to no vacuum. Improved MLI systems must be simple to install and maintain while meeting the life-cycle cost and thermal performance objectives. Performance of actual MLI systems has been previously shown to be much worse than ideal MLI. Spacecraft that must contain cryogens for both lunar service (high vacuum) and ground launch operations (no vacuum) are planned. Future cryogenic spacecraft for the soft vacuum environment of Mars are also envisioned. Industry products using robust MLI can benefit from improved cost-efficiency and system safety. Novel materials have been developed to operate as excellent thermal insulators at vacuum levels that are much less stringent than the absolute high vacuum requirement of current MLI systems. One such robust system, Layered Composite Insulation (LCI), has been developed by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory at NASA Kennedy Space Center. The experimental testing and development of LCI is the focus of this paper. LCI thermal performance under cryogenic conditions is shown to be six times better than MLI at soft vacuum and similar to MLI at high vacuum. The experimental apparent thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux data for LCI systems are compared with other MLI systems.

  7. Cryogenic systems for the large deployable reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Peter V.

    1988-01-01

    There are five technologies which may have application for Large Deployable Reflector (LDR), one passive and four active. In order of maturity, they are passive stored cryogen systems, and mechanical, sorption, magnetic, and pulse-tube refrigerators. In addition, deep space radiators will be required to reject the heat of the active systems, and may be useful as auxiliary coolers for the stored cryogen systems. Hybrid combinations of these technologies may well be more efficient than any one alone, and extensive system studies will be required to determine the best trade-offs. Stored cryogen systems were flown on a number of missions. The systems are capable of meeting the temperature requirements of LDR. The size and weight of stored cryogen systems are proportional to heat load and, as a result, are applicable only if the low-temperature heat load can be kept small. Systems using chemisorption and physical adsorption for compressors and pumps have received considerable attention in the past few years. Systems based on adiabatic demagnetization of paramagnetic salts were used for refrigeration for many years. Pulse-tube refrigerators were recently proposed which show relatively high efficiency for temperatures in the 60 to 80 K range. The instrument heat loads and operating temperatures are critical to the selection and design of the cryogenic system. Every effort should be made to minimize heat loads, raise operating temperatures, and to define these precisely. No one technology is now ready for application to LDR. Substantial development efforts are underway in all of the technologies and should be monitored and advocated. Magnetic and pulse-tube refrigerators have high potential.

  8. Conceptual design of the JT-60SA cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamaison, V.; Beauvisage, J.; Fejoz, P.; Girard, S.; Gonvalves, R.; Gondé, R.; Heloin, V.; Michel, F.; Hoa, C.; Kamiya, K.; Roussel, P.; Vallet, J.-C.; Wanner, M.; Yoshida, K.

    2014-01-01

    The superconducting tokamak JT-60 Super Advanced (JT-60SA) is part of the Broader Approach Programme agreed between Europe and Japan. Among other in kind contributions, CEA is in charge of supplying the Cryogenic System which includes a Warm Compression Station, the Refrigerator Cold Box, the Auxiliary Cold Box, a compressed air station and the vacuum systems. The cryogenic system requires a refrigeration capacity of about 8 kW equivalent at 4.5 K. It will supply cryopump panels at 3.7 K, superconducting magnets and cold structures at 4.4 K, HTS current leads at 50 K, and thermal shields between 80 K and 100 K. The contract for design, manufacture, installation and commissioning was signed between CEA and Air Liquide Advanced Technologies (AL-AT) in November 2012. The Cryogenic System shall be operational in 2016. The paper presents the main technical requirements and the limit of supply, the description of the process proposed by AL-AT, the main components, the preliminary layout and the interfaces at the JT-60SA Naka site.

  9. Redesign of the Apollo cryogenic storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouman, C. P.

    1971-01-01

    An assessment of the Apollo 13 mission resulted in establishing new and revised requirements for the design of the oxygen tanks and the associated spacecraft system. Areas discussed include new system requirements, system changes to Apollo 14, revised operational requirements, instrumentation, operational redlines, component isolation modes, and return enhancement capabilities. In order to show the relationship of the cryogenic system to the spacecraft, a short description of the system is presented.

  10. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, Ralph C.; Zelipsky, Steven A.; Rezmer, Ronald R.; Smelser, Peter

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  11. ESS Cryogenic System Process Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, P.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Su, X. T.; Wang, X. L.; Weisend, J. G., II

    2015-12-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron-scattering facility funded and supported in collaboration with 17 European countries in Lund, Sweden. Cryogenic cooling at ESS is vital particularly for the linear accelerator, the hydrogen target moderators, a test stand for cryomodules, the neutron instruments and their sample environments. The paper will focus on specific process design criteria, design decisions and their motivations for the helium cryoplants and auxiliary equipment. Key issues for all plants and their process concepts are energy efficiency, reliability, smooth turn-down behaviour and flexibility. The accelerator cryoplant (ACCP) and the target moderator cryoplant (TMCP) in particular need to be prepared for a range of refrigeration capacities due to the intrinsic uncertainties regarding heat load definitions. Furthermore the paper addresses questions regarding process arrangement, 2 K cooling methodology, LN2 precooling, helium storage, helium purification and heat recovery.

  12. Cryogenic Propellant Boil-Off Reduction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachta, D. W.; Christie, R. J.; Carlberg, E.; Feller, J. R.

    2008-03-01

    Lunar missions under consideration would benefit from incorporation of high specific impulse propellants such as LH2 and LO2, even with their accompanying boil-off losses necessary to maintain a steady tank pressure. This paper addresses a cryogenic propellant boil-off reduction system to minimize or eliminate boil-off. Concepts to do so were considered under the In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot Project. Specific to that was an investigation of cryocooler integration concepts for relatively large depot sized propellant tanks. One concept proved promising—it served to efficiently move heat to the cryocooler even over long distances via a compressed helium loop. The analyses and designs for this were incorporated into NASA Glenn Research Center's Cryogenic Analysis Tool. That design approach is explained and shown herein. Analysis shows that, when compared to passive only cryogenic storage, the boil-off reduction system begins to reduce system mass if durations are as low as 40 days for LH2, and 14 days for LO2. In addition, a method of cooling LH2 tanks is presented that precludes development issues associated with LH2 temperature cryocoolers.

  13. NSLS-II RF Cryogenic System

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Dilgen, T.; Gash, B.; Gosman, J.; Mortazavi, P.; Papu, J.; Ravindranath, V.; Sikora, R.; Sitnikov, A.; Wilhelm, H.; Jia, Y.; Monroe, C.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a 3 GeV X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. A new helium refrigerator system has been installed and commissioned to support the superconducting RF cavities in the storage ring. Special care was taken to provide very stable helium and LN2 pressures and flow rates to minimize microphonics and thermal effects at the cavities. Details of the system design along with commissioning and early operations data will be presented.

  14. Cryogenic hydrogen circulation system of neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Y. N.; Hu, Z. J.; Wu, J. H.; Li, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, P.; Wang, G. P.

    2014-01-29

    Cold neutron sources of reactors and spallation neutron sources are classic high flux neutron sources in operation all over the world. Cryogenic fluids such as supercritical or supercooled hydrogen are commonly selected as a moderator to absorb the nuclear heating from proton beams. By comparing supercritical hydrogen circulation systems and supercooled hydrogen circulation systems, the merits and drawbacks in both systems are summarized. When supercritical hydrogen circulates as the moderator, severe pressure fluctuations caused by temperature changes will occur. The pressure control system used to balance the system pressure, which consists of a heater as an active controller for thermal compensation and an accumulator as a passive volume controller, is preliminarily studied. The results may provide guidelines for design and operation of other cryogenic hydrogen system for neutron sources under construction.

  15. The development of radiant cooler and cryogenic heat pipes for 200K cryogenic optical system cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Enguang; Wu, Yinong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Mu, Yongbin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a heat transfer system, in which a radiant cooler, cryogenic heat pipes and flexible thermal links were developed for heat transfer, by which a cryogenic system was cooled down to 200K from room temperature. A scrolling mechanism was designed for the radiant cooler to anti-contamination and block sunlight in the initial orbit phase. The cryogenic heat pipe is a type of grooved heat pipe with the working fluid of ethane and working temperature ranging from 160K to 210K. Some experimental and simulation results of the radiant cooler, cryogenic heat pipes will be discussed in this paper.

  16. Commissioning and operation of the CEBAF end station refrigeration system

    SciTech Connect

    Arenius, D.; Bevins, B.; Chronis, W.C.; Ganni, V.; Kashy, D.; Keesee, M.; Wilson, J. Jr.

    1996-08-01

    The CEBAF End Station Helium Refrigerator (ESR) System provides refrigeration at 80 K, 20 K and 4.5 K to three End Station experimental halls. The facility consists of a two stage helium screw compressor system, 4.5 K refrigerator, cryogen distribution valve box, and transfer lines to the individual experimental halls. The 4.5 K cold box and compressors were originally part of the ESCAR 1,500 W, 4 K refrigeration system at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory which was first commissioned fin 1977. The compressors, 4.5 K cold box, and control system design were modified to adapt the plant for the requirements of the CEBAF experimental halls. Additional subsystems of cryogen distribution, transfer lines, warm gas management, and computer control interface were added. This paper describes the major plant subsystems, modifications, operational experiences and performance.

  17. Cryogenic helium 2 systems for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E.; Katz, L.; Hendricks, J.; Karr, G.

    1978-01-01

    Two cryogenic systems are described which will provide cooling for experiments to be flown on Spacelab 2 in the early 1980's. The first system cools a scanning infrared telescope by the transfer of cold helium gas from a separate superfluid helium storage dewar. The flexible design permits the helium storage dewar and transfer assembly to be designed independent of the infrared experiment. Where possible, modified commerical apparatus is used. The second cryogenic system utilizes a specially designed superfluid dewar in which a superfluid helium experiment chamber is immersed. Each dewar system employs a porous plug as a phase separator to hold the liquid helium within the dewar and provide cold gas to a vent line. To maintain the low vapor pressure of the superfluid, each system requires nearly continuous prelaunch vacuum pump service, and each will vent to space during the Spacelab 2 flight.

  18. IRAS cryogenic system flight performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbach, A. R.; Mason, P. V.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is the first telescope to perform observations in the far infrared from orbit. IRAS was launched on January 25, 1983 into a 900 km orbit. The use of the first large superfluid helium dewar in space makes it possible to provide a 2 K telescope environment for an anticipated period of one year. A description of the cryogenic system of IRAS is presented, taking into account the superfluid helium tank, the insulation system, the vacuum shell, the aperture cover, and the fluid management system. The dynamic performance of the cryogenic system is considered along with aspects of prelaunch preparations. Details of flight performance are also discussed, giving attention to transient performance, and steady state performance.

  19. Safety Aspects of Big Cryogenic Systems Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Fydrych, J.; Poliński, J.

    2010-04-01

    Superconductivity and helium cryogenics are key technologies in the construction of large scientific instruments, like accelerators, fusion reactors or free electron lasers. Such cryogenic systems may contain more than hundred tons of helium, mostly in cold and high-density phases. In spite of the high reliability of the systems, accidental loss of the insulation vacuum, pipe rupture or rapid energy dissipation in the cold helium can not be overlooked. To avoid the danger of over-design pressure rise in the cryostats, they need to be equipped with a helium relief system. Such a system is comprised of safety valves, bursting disks and optionally cold or warm quench lines, collectors and storage tanks. Proper design of the helium safety relief system requires a good understanding of worst case scenarios. Such scenarios will be discussed, taking into account different possible failures of the cryogenic system. In any case it is necessary to estimate heat transfer through degraded vacuum superinsulation and mass flow through the valves and safety disks. Even if the design of the helium relief system does not foresee direct helium venting into the environment, an occasional emergency helium spill may happen. Helium propagation in the atmosphere and the origins of oxygen-deficiency hazards will be discussed.

  20. Long term cryogenic storage facility systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The Long Term Cryogenic Storage Facility Systems Study (LTCSFSS) is a Phase A study of a large capacity propellant depot for the space based, cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. The study is being performed for Marshall Space Flight Center by General Dynamics Space Systems Division and has five principal objectives: (1) Definition of preliminary concept designs for four storage facility concepts; (2) Selection of preferred concepts through the application of trade studies to candidate propellant management system components; (3) Preparation of a conceptual design for an orbital storage facility; (4) Development of supporting research and technology requirements; and (5) Development of a test program to demonstrate facility performance. The initial study has been completed, and continuation activities are just getting under way to provide greater detail in key areas and accommodate changes in study guidelines and assumptions.

  1. Progress of the FAIR Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauschke, M.; Kollmus, H.; Martinez-Lopez, M.

    2017-02-01

    The planning revision of the cryogenic system for the Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany) resulted in the choice of a single universal plant, which should provide a wide range of cryogenic operation modes, as refrigeration capacity at 4.4K, liquefaction or intermediate temperature levels. The adaptation to the FAIR specific requirements will be done later by adding a second plant. One major demand for the plant is the short term adaptation to variations in the load requirements in the system. An exemplary integration into the overall FAIR system will be shown with the experiments in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) cave. The CBM cave will house an already existing magnet, HADES, and a new magnet for the CBM experiment, which is still under design. The scheduling of the different operation modes related to the operation of the main consumers as SIS100 or SuperFRS is shown.

  2. Large scale cryogenic fluid systems testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Cryogenic Fluid Systems Branch (CFSB) within the Space Propulsion Technology Division (SPTD) has the ultimate goal of enabling the long term storage and in-space fueling/resupply operations for spacecraft and reusable vehicles in support of space exploration. Using analytical modeling, ground based testing, and on-orbit experimentation, the CFSB is studying three primary categories of fluid technology: storage, supply, and transfer. The CFSB is also investigating fluid handling, advanced instrumentation, and tank structures and materials. Ground based testing of large-scale systems is done using liquid hydrogen as a test fluid at the Cryogenic Propellant Tank Facility (K-site) at Lewis' Plum Brook Station in Sandusky, Ohio. A general overview of tests involving liquid transfer, thermal control, pressure control, and pressurization is given.

  3. A Rapid Turnaround Cryogenic Detector Characterization System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic j.; Dipirro, Michael J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Jackson, Clifton E.; Jackson, Michael L.; Kogut, Al; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shirron, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Upcoming major NASA missions such as the Einstein Inflation Probe and the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory require arrays of detectors with thousands of elements, operating at temperatures near l00 mK and sensitive to wavelengths from approx. 100 microns to approx. 3 mm. Such detectors represent a substantial enabling technology for these missions, and must be demonstrated soon in order for them to proceed. In order to make rapid progress on detector development, the cryogenic testing cycle must be made convenient and quick. We have developed a cryogenic detector characterization system capable of testing superconducting detector arrays in formats up to 8 x 32, read out by SQUID multiplexers. The system relies on the cooling of a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator immersed in a liquid helium bath. This approach permits a detector to be cooled from 300K to 50 mK in about 4 hours, so that a test cycle begun in the morning will be over by the end of the day. Tine system is modular, with two identical immersible units, so that while one unit is cooling, the second can be reconfigured for the next battery of tests. We describe the design, construction, and performance of this cryogenic detector testing facility.

  4. Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachta, David W.; Guzik, Monica C.

    2014-03-01

    A computational model of the cryogenic boil-off reduction system being developed by NASA as part of the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer technology maturation project has been applied to a range of propellant storage tanks sizes for high-performing in-space cryogenic propulsion applications. This effort focuses on the scaling of multi-layer insulation (MLI), cryocoolers, broad area cooling shields, radiators, solar arrays, and tanks for liquid hydrogen propellant storage tanks ranging from 2 to 10 m in diameter. Component scaling equations were incorporated into the Cryogenic Analysis Tool, a spreadsheet-based tool used to perform system-level parametric studies. The primary addition to the evolution of this updated tool is the integration of a scaling method for reverse turbo-Brayton cycle cryocoolers, as well as the development and inclusion of Self-Supporting Multi-Layer Insulation. Mass, power, and sizing relationships are traded parametrically to establish the appropriate loiter period beyond which this boil-off reduction system application reduces mass. The projected benefit compares passive thermal control to active thermal control, where active thermal control is evaluated for reduced boil-off with a 90 K shield, zero boil-off with a single heat interception stage at the tank wall, and zero boil-off with a second interception stage at a 90 K shield. Parametric studies show a benefit over passive storage at loiter durations under one month, in addition to showing a benefit for two-stage zero boil-off in terms of reducing power and mass as compared to single stage zero boil-off. Furthermore, active cooling reduces the effect of varied multi-layer insulation performance, which, historically, has been shown to be significant.

  5. Cryogenic target system for hydrogen layering

    SciTech Connect

    Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Atkinson, D.; Baisden, P.; Bertolini, L.; Boehm, K; Chernov, A.; Coffee, K.; Coffield, F.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edwards, O.; Fair, J.; Fedorov, M.; Fry, J.; Gibson, C.; Haid, B.; Holunga, D.; Kohut, T.; Lewis, T.; Malsbury, T.; Mapoles, E.; Sater, J.; Skulina, K.; Trummer, D.; Walters, C.

    2015-11-24

    Here, a cryogenic target positioning system was designed and installed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber. This instrument incorporates the ability to fill, form, and characterize the NIF targets with hydrogen isotopes needed for ignition experiments inside the NIF target bay then transport and position them in the target chamber. This effort brought to fruition years of research in growing and metrologizing high-quality hydrogen fuel layers and landed it in an especially demanding operations environment in the NIF facility. D-T (deuterium-tritium) layers for NIF ignition experiments have extremely tight specifications and must be grown in a very highly constrained environment: a NIF ignition target inside a cryogenic target positioner inside the NIF target bay. Exquisite control of temperature, pressure, contaminant level, and thermal uniformity are necessary throughout seed formation and layer growth to create an essentially-groove-free single crystal layer.

  6. Design of the NIF Cryogenic Target System

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, C; Baltz, J; Malsbury, T; Atkinson, D; Brugmann, V; Coffield, F; Edwards, O; Haid, B; Locke, S; Shiromizu, S; Skulina, K

    2008-06-10

    The United States Department of Energy has embarked on a campaign to conduct credible fusion ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 2010. The target assembly specified for this campaign requires the formation of a deuterium/tritium (DT) fuel ice layer in a 2 mm diameter capsule at the center of a 9 mm long by 5 mm diameter cylinder, called a hohlraum. The ice layer must be formed and maintained at temperatures below 20 K. At laser shot time, the target is positioned at the center of the NIF target chamber, aligned to the laser beams and held stable to less than 7 {micro}m rms. We have completed the final design of the Cryogenic Target System and are integrating the devices necessary to create, characterize and position the cryogenic target for ignition experiments. These designs, with supporting analysis and prototype test results, will be presented.

  7. Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.; Castles, S.

    1988-01-01

    Described is a proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil be cooled using superfluid helium pumped by the thermomechanical effect. It is also proposed that the storage tank be resupplied with helium in orbit. A method for charging and discharging the magnet with minimum helium loss using split gas-cooled leads is discussed. A proposal to use a Stirling cycle cryocooler to extend the storage life of the cryostat will also be presented.

  8. Design concepts for the ASTROMAG cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, M. A.; Castles, S.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a proposed cryogenic system used to cool the superconducting magnet for the Space Station based ASTROMAG Particle Astrophysics Facility. This 2-meter diameter superconducting magnet will be cooled using stored helium II. The paper presents a liquid helium storage concept which would permit cryogenic lifetimes of up to 3 years between refills. It is proposed that the superconducting coil be cooled using superfluid helium pumped by the thermomechanical effect. It is also proposed that the storage tank be resupplied with helium in orbit. A method for charging and discharging the magnet with minimum helium loss using split gas-cooled leads is discussed. A proposal to use a Stirling cycle cryocooler to extend the storage life of the cryostat will also be presented.

  9. Cryogenic target system for hydrogen layering

    DOE PAGES

    Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Atkinson, D.; ...

    2015-11-24

    Here, a cryogenic target positioning system was designed and installed on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber. This instrument incorporates the ability to fill, form, and characterize the NIF targets with hydrogen isotopes needed for ignition experiments inside the NIF target bay then transport and position them in the target chamber. This effort brought to fruition years of research in growing and metrologizing high-quality hydrogen fuel layers and landed it in an especially demanding operations environment in the NIF facility. D-T (deuterium-tritium) layers for NIF ignition experiments have extremely tight specifications and must be grown in a very highlymore » constrained environment: a NIF ignition target inside a cryogenic target positioner inside the NIF target bay. Exquisite control of temperature, pressure, contaminant level, and thermal uniformity are necessary throughout seed formation and layer growth to create an essentially-groove-free single crystal layer.« less

  10. Thermal Performance Testing Of Cryogenic Piping Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Nagy, Z. F.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal performance measurement of piping systems under actual field conditions is important for space launch development and commercial industry. Knowledge of the true insulating effectiveness is needed in system design, development, and research activities. A new 18-meter-long test apparatus for cryogenic pipelines has been developed. Three different pipelines, rigid or flexible, can be tested simultaneously. Critical factors in heat leak measurements include eliminating heat transfer at end connections and obtaining proper liquid saturation condition. Effects due to variations in the external ambient conditions like wind, humidity, and solar radiation must be minimized. The static method of liquid nitrogen evaporation has been demonstrated, but the apparatus can be adapted for dynamic testing with cryogens, chilled water, or other working fluids. This technology is suited for the development of an industry standard test apparatus and method. Examples of the heat transfer data from testing commercially available pipelines are given. Prototype pipelines are currently being tested and evaluated at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center.

  11. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  12. Conceptual design report for the University of Rochester cryogenic target delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Fagaly, R.L.; Alexander, N.B.; Bourque, R.F.; Dahms, C.F.; Lindgren, J.R.; Miller, W.J. ); Bittner, D.N.; Hendricks, C.D. )

    1993-05-01

    The upgrade of the Omega laser at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) will result in a need for large targets filled with D[sub 2] or Dt and maintained at cryogenic temperatures. This mandates a cryogenic target delivery system capable of filling, layering, characterizing and delivering cryogenic targets to the Omega Upgrade target chamber. The program goal is to design, construct, and test the entire target delivery system by June 1996. When completed (including an operational demonstration), the system will be shipped to Rochester for reassembly and commissioning in time for the Omega Upgrade cryogenic campaign, scheduled to start in 1998. General Atomics has been assigned the task of developing the conceptual design for the cryogenic target delivery system. Design and fabrication activities will be closely coordinated with the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), drawing upon their knowledge base in fuel layering and cryogenic characterization. The development of a target delivery system for Omega could also benefit experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the other ICF Laboratories in that the same technologies could be applied to NOVA, the National Ignition Facility or the future Laboratory Microfusion Facility.

  13. Conceptual design report for the University of Rochester cryogenic target delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Fagaly, R.L.; Alexander, N.B.; Bourque, R.F.; Dahms, C.F.; Lindgren, J.R.; Miller, W.J.; Bittner, D.N.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1993-05-01

    The upgrade of the Omega laser at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics (UR/LLE) will result in a need for large targets filled with D{sub 2} or Dt and maintained at cryogenic temperatures. This mandates a cryogenic target delivery system capable of filling, layering, characterizing and delivering cryogenic targets to the Omega Upgrade target chamber. The program goal is to design, construct, and test the entire target delivery system by June 1996. When completed (including an operational demonstration), the system will be shipped to Rochester for reassembly and commissioning in time for the Omega Upgrade cryogenic campaign, scheduled to start in 1998. General Atomics has been assigned the task of developing the conceptual design for the cryogenic target delivery system. Design and fabrication activities will be closely coordinated with the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), drawing upon their knowledge base in fuel layering and cryogenic characterization. The development of a target delivery system for Omega could also benefit experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the other ICF Laboratories in that the same technologies could be applied to NOVA, the National Ignition Facility or the future Laboratory Microfusion Facility.

  14. R&D ERL: Cryogenic System

    SciTech Connect

    Than, R.

    2010-01-01

    The ERL cryogenic system will supply cooling to a super-conducting RF (SCRF) gun and the 5-cell super-conducting RF cavity system that need to be held cold at 2K. The engineering of the cavity cryomodules were carried out by AES in collaboration with BNL. The 2K superfluid bath is produced by pumping on the bath using a sub-atmospheric warm compression system. The cryogenic system makes use of mainly existing equipment relocated from other facilities: a 300W 4.5K coldbox, an 45 g/s screw compressor, a 3800 liter liquid helium storage dewar, a 170 m{sup 3} warm gas storage tank, and a 40,000 liter vertical low pressure liquid nitrogen storage dewar. An existing wet expander obtained from another facility has been added to increase the plant capacity. In order to deliver the required 3 to 4 bar helium to the cryomodules while using up stored liquid capacity at low pressure, a new subcooler will be installed to function as the capacity transfer device. A 2K to 4K recovery heat exchanger is also implemented for each cryomodule to recover refrigeration below 4K, thus maximizing 2K cooling capacity with the given sub-atmospheric pump. No 4K-300K refrigeration recovery is implemented at this time of the returning sub-atmospheric cold vapor, hence the 2K load appears as a liquefaction1 load on the cryogenic plant. A separate LN2 cooling loop supplies liquid nitrogen to the superconducting gun's cathode tip.

  15. Cryogenic Insulation System for Soft Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a cryogenic insulation system for operation under soft vacuum is presented in this paper. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications can be divided into three levels of thermal performance, in terms of apparent thermal conductivity [k-value in milliwatt per meter-kelvin (mW/m-K)]. System k-values below 0.1 can be achieved for multilayer insulation operating at a vacuum level below 1 x 10(exp -4) torr. For fiberglass or powder operating below 1 x 10(exp -3) torr, k-values of about 2 are obtained. For foam and other materials at ambient pressure, k-values around 30 are typical. New industry and aerospace applications require a versatile, robust, low-cost thermal insulation with performance in the intermediate range. The target for the new composite insulation system is a k-value below 4.8 mW/m-K (R-30) at a soft vacuum level (from 1 to 10 torr) and boundary temperatures of approximately 77 and 293 kelvin (K). Many combinations of radiation shields, spacers, and composite materials were tested from high vacuum to ambient pressure using cryostat boiloff methods. Significant improvement over conventional systems in the soft vacuum range was demonstrated. The new layered composite insulation system was also shown to provide key benefits for high vacuum applications as well.

  16. The detector calibration system for the CUORE cryogenic bolometer array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, Jeremy S.; Dally, Adam; Davis, Christopher J.; Ejzak, Larissa; Lenz, Daniel; Lim, Kyungeun E.; Heeger, Karsten M.; Maruyama, Reina H.; Nucciotti, Angelo; Sangiorgio, Samuele; Wise, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is a ton-scale cryogenic experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te and other rare events. The CUORE detector consists of 988 TeO2 bolometers operated underground at 10 mK in a dilution refrigerator at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Candidate events are identified through a precise measurement of their energy. The absolute energy response of the detectors is established by the regular calibration of each individual bolometer using gamma sources. The close-packed configuration of the CUORE bolometer array combined with the extensive shielding surrounding the detectors requires the placement of calibration sources within the array itself. The CUORE Detector Calibration System is designed to insert radioactive sources into and remove them from the cryostat while respecting the stringent heat load, radiopurity, and operational requirements of the experiment. This paper describes the design, commissioning, and performance of this novel source calibration deployment system for ultra-low-temperature environments.

  17. Linac cryogenic distribution system maintenance and upgrades at JLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, K.; Wright, M.; Ganni, V.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) distribution system to the CEBAF and FEL linacs at Jefferson Lab (JLab) experienced a planned warm up during the late summer and fall of 2012 for the first time after its commissioning in 1991. Various maintenance and modifications were performed to support high beam availability to the experimental users, meet 10 CFR 851 requirements for pressure systems, address operational issues, and prepare the cryogenic interfaces for the high-gradient cryomodules needed for the 12 GeV upgrade. Cryogenic maintenance and installation work had to be coordinated with other activities in the linacs and compete for manpower from other department installation activities. With less than a quarter of the gas storage capacity available to handle the boil-off from the more than 40 cryomodules, 35,000 Nm3 of helium was re-liquefied and shipped to a vendor via a liquid tanker trailer. Nearly 200 u-tubes had to be removed and stored while seals were replaced on related equipment such as vacuum pump outs, bayonet isolation and process valves.

  18. Linac cryogenic distribution system maintenance and upgrades at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Kelly D.; Wright, Mathew C.; Ganni, Venkatarao

    2014-01-01

    The Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) distribution system to the CEBAF and FEL linacs at Jefferson Lab (JLab) experienced a planned warm up during the late summer and fall of 2012 for the first time after its commissioning in 1991. Various maintenance and modifications were performed to support high beam availability to the experimental users, meet 10 CFR 851 requirements for pressure systems, address operational issues, and prepare the cryogenic interfaces for the high-gradient cryomodules needed for the 12 GeV upgrade. Cryogenic maintenance and installation work had to be coordinated with other activities in the linacs and compete for manpower from other department installation activities. With less than a quarter of the gas storage capacity available to handle the boil-off from the more than 40 cryomodules, 35,000 Nm{sup 3} of helium was re-liquefied and shipped to a vendor via a liquid tanker trailer. Nearly 200 u-tubes had to be removed and stored while seals were replaced on related equipment such as vacuum pump outs, bayonet isolation and process valves.

  19. Linac cryogenic distribution system maintenance and upgrades at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.; Wright, M.; Ganni, V.

    2014-01-29

    The Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) distribution system to the CEBAF and FEL linacs at Jefferson Lab (JLab) experienced a planned warm up during the late summer and fall of 2012 for the first time after its commissioning in 1991. Various maintenance and modifications were performed to support high beam availability to the experimental users, meet 10 CFR 851 requirements for pressure systems, address operational issues, and prepare the cryogenic interfaces for the high-gradient cryomodules needed for the 12 GeV upgrade. Cryogenic maintenance and installation work had to be coordinated with other activities in the linacs and compete for manpower from other department installation activities. With less than a quarter of the gas storage capacity available to handle the boil-off from the more than 40 cryomodules, 35,000 Nm{sup 3} of helium was re-liquefied and shipped to a vendor via a liquid tanker trailer. Nearly 200 u-tubes had to be removed and stored while seals were replaced on related equipment such as vacuum pump outs, bayonet isolation and process valves.

  20. Initial performance of upgraded Tevatron cryogenic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, B.L.

    1996-09-01

    Fermilab began operating a re-designed satellite refrigerator systems in November 1993. Upgrades were installed to operate the Tevatron at a magnet temperature of 3.5 K, approximately 1K lower than the original design. Refrigerator upgrades included new valve boxes, larger reciprocating expanders, the installation of cold vapor compressors, new sub-atmospheric instrumentation and an entirely new distributed controls system. Cryogenic system reliability data for Colliding Physics Run 1B is presented emphasizing a failure analysis for each aspect of the upgrade. Comparison to data for Colliding Physics Run 1A (previous to upgrade) is presented to show the impact of a major system overhaul. New operational problems and their solutions are presented in detail.

  1. Cryogenic Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lusby, Brian S.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Collins, Jacob A.

    2011-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Branch at NASA s Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has developed a parametric analytical tool to address the need to rapidly predict heat leak into propellant distribution lines based on insulation type, installation technique, line supports, penetrations, and instrumentation. The Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool (PFSAT) will also determine the optimum orifice diameter for an optional thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to counteract heat leak into the feed line and ensure temperature constraints at the end of the feed line are met. PFSAT was developed primarily using Fortran 90 code because of its number crunching power and the capability to directly access real fluid property subroutines in the Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Database developed by NIST. A Microsoft Excel front end user interface was implemented to provide convenient portability of PFSAT among a wide variety of potential users and its ability to utilize a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The focus of PFSAT is on-orbit reaction control systems and orbital maneuvering systems, but it may be used to predict heat leak into ground-based transfer lines as well. PFSAT is expected to be used for rapid initial design of cryogenic propellant distribution lines and thermodynamic vent systems. Once validated, PFSAT will support concept trades for a variety of cryogenic fluid transfer systems on spacecraft, including planetary landers, transfer vehicles, and propellant depots, as well as surface-based transfer systems. The details of the development of PFSAT, its user interface, and the program structure will be presented.

  2. Progress update on cryogenic system for ARIEL E-linac at TRIUMF

    SciTech Connect

    Koveshnikov, A.; Bylinskii, I.; Hodgson, G.; Yosifov, D.

    2014-01-29

    TRIUMF is involved in a major upgrade. The Advanced Rare IsotopeE Laboratory (ARIEL) has become a fully funded project in July 2010. A 10 mA 50 MeV SRF electron linac (e-linac) operating CW at 1.3 GHz is the key component of this initiative. This machine will serve as a second independent photo-fission driver for Rare Isotope Beams (RIB) production at TRIUMF's Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility. The cryogens delivery system requirements are driven by the electron accelerator cryomodule design [1, 2]. Since commencement of the project in 2010 the cryogenic system of e-linac has moved from the conceptual design phase into engineering design and procurement stage. The present document summarizes the progress in cryogenic system development and construction. Current status of e-linac cryogenic system including details of LN{sub 2} storage and delivery systems, and helium subatmospheric (SA) system is presented. The first phase of e-linac consisting of two cryomodules, cryogens storage, delivery, and distribution systems, and a 600 W class liquid helium cryoplant is scheduled for installation and commissioning by year 2014.

  3. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.

    1983-08-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. This paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy. The system normally operates with a 4K heat load of 150 watts; the LN/sub 2/ circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations.

  4. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, J.

    1983-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. This paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy. The system normally operates with a 4 K heat load of 150 watts; the LN/sub 2/ circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations.

  5. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J.

    1983-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. The cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy are described. The system normally operates with a 4 K heat load of 150 watts; the LN2 circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. The 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations.

  6. Aerogel Beads as Cryogenic Thermal Insulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Rouanet, S.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of the use of aerogel beads as thermal insulation for cryogenic applications was conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. Steady-state liquid nitrogen boiloff methods were used to characterize the thermal performance of aerogel beads in comparison with conventional insulation products such as perlite powder and multilayer insulation (MLI). Aerogel beads produced by Cabot Corporation have a bulk density below 100 kilograms per cubic meter (kg/cubic m) and a mean particle diameter of 1 millimeter (mm). The apparent thermal conductivity values of the bulk material have been determined under steady-state conditions at boundary temperatures of approximately 293 and 77 kelvin (K) and at various cold vacuum pressures (CVP). Vacuum levels ranged from 10(exp -5) torr to 760 torr. All test articles were made in a cylindrical configuration with a typical insulation thickness of 25 mm. Temperature profiles through the thickness of the test specimens were also measured. The results showed the performance of the aerogel beads was significantly better than the conventional materials in both soft-vacuum (1 to 10 torr) and no-vacuum (760 torr) ranges. Opacified aerogel beads performed better than perlite powder under high-vacuum conditions. Further studies for material optimization and system application are in progress.

  7. Cryogenic system options for a superconducting aircraft propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, F.; Palmer, J.; Bertola, L.; Miller, Paul; Dodds, Graham

    2015-12-01

    There is a perceived need in the future for a move away from traditional aircraft designs in order to meet ambitious emissions and fuel burn targets. High temperature superconducting distributed propulsion may be an enabler for aircraft designs that have better propulsive efficiency and lower drag. There has been significant work considering the electrical systems required, but less on the cryogenics to enable it. This paper discusses some of the major choices to be faced in cryocooling for aircraft. The likely need for a disposable cryogen to reduce power demand is explained. A set of cryocooling methods are considered in a sensitivity study, which shows that the feasibility of the cryogenic system will depend strongly on the superconducting technology and the aircraft platform. It is argued that all three aspects must be researched and designed in close collaboration to reach a viable solution.

  8. Fluid management system for a zero gravity cryogenic storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lak, Tibor I. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The fluid management system comprises a mixing/recirculation system including an external recirculation pump for receiving fluid from a zero gravity storage system and returning an output flow of the fluid to the storage system. An internal axial spray injection system is provided for receiving a portion of the output flow from the recirculation pump. The spray injection system thermally de-stratifies liquid and gaseous cryogenic fluid stored in the storage system.

  9. Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Insulation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, Stan D.; Scholtens, Brekke E.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient methods for characterizing thermal performance of materials under cryogenic and vacuum conditions have been developed. These methods provide thermal conductivity data on materials under actual-use conditions and are complementary to established methods. The actual-use environment of full temperature difference in combination with vacuum-pressure is essential for understanding insulation system performance. Test articles include solids, foams, powders, layered blankets, composite panels, and other materials. Test methodology and apparatus design for several insulation test cryostats are discussed. The measurement principle is liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimetry. Heat flux capability ranges from approximately 0.5 to 500 watts per square meter; corresponding apparent thermal conductivity values range from below 0.01 up to about 60 mW/m- K. Example data for different insulation materials are also presented. Upon further standardization work, these patented insulation test cryostats can be available to industry for a wide range of practical applications.

  10. CCRIS: Carnegie Commission Reports Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavin, Mary Jo

    The Carnegie Commission Reports Information System (CCRIS) attempts to make the findings of the 22 Commission reports (published by McGraw Hill Book Company) more readily available to the academic community. CCRIS consists of an explanatory text of 16 pages introducing the reader to a set of 1500 edge-notched McBee cards. Each card contains a…

  11. Cryogenic system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a review of cryogenic system operating experiences, from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, space research, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of cryogenic component failure rates and accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with cryogenic systems are discussed, including ozone formation, effects of spills, and modeling spill behavior. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design.

  12. Postflight Analysis of the Apollo 14 Cryogenic Oxygen System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rule, D. D.

    1972-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 14 cryogenic oxygen system is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) methods of analysis, (2) stratification and heat transfer, (3) flight analysis, (4) postflight analysis, and (5) determination of model parameters.

  13. Large-Scale Cryogen Systems and Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. G.; Sass, J. P.; Hatfield, W. H.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has completed initial construction and verification testing of the Integrated Systems Test Facility (ISTF) Cryogenic Testbed. The ISTF is located at Complex 20 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. The remote and secure location is ideally suited for the following functions: (1) development testing of advanced cryogenic component technologies, (2) development testing of concepts and processes for entire ground support systems designed for servicing large launch vehicles, and (3) commercial sector testing of cryogenic- and energy-related products and systems. The ISTF Cryogenic Testbed consists of modular fluid distribution piping and storage tanks for liquid oxygen/nitrogen (56,000 gal) and liquid hydrogen (66,000 gal). Storage tanks for liquid methane (41,000 gal) and Rocket Propellant 1 (37,000 gal) are also specified for the facility. A state-of-the-art blast proof test command and control center provides capability for remote operation, video surveillance, and data recording for all test areas.

  14. Design and testing of the New Muon Lab cryogenic system at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Theilacker, J.C.; DeGraff, B.D.; Leibfritz, J.; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is constructing a superconducting 1.3 GHz cryomodule test facility located at the New Muon Lab building. The facility will be used for testing and validating cryomodule designs as well as support systems. For the initial phase of the project, a single Type III plus 1.3 GHz cryomodule will be cooled and tested using a single Tevatron style standalone refrigerator. Subsequent phases involve testing as many as two full RF units consisting of up to six 1.3 GHz cryomodules with the addition of a new cryogenic plant. The cryogenic infrastructure consists of the refrigerator system, cryogenic distribution system as well as an ambient temperature pumping system to achieve 2 K operations with supporting purification systems. A discussion of the available capacity for the various phases versus the proposed heat loads is included as well as commissioning results and testing schedule. This paper describes the plans, status and challenges of this initial phase of the New Muon Lab cryogenic system.

  15. Design of the PIXIE cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPirro, M.; Fixsen, D.; Kogut, A.; Li, X.; Marquardt, J.; Shirron, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a proposed mission to study the polarization of the remnant cosmic microwave background with the goal of finding and understanding primordial gravity waves. The instrument has been designed to capture this information across the entire sky by rejecting foreground signals and suppressing systematic error by multiple differencing methods. The instrument operates at a temperature very close to the cosmic microwave background of 2.7 K, while the detectors operate at 0.1 K. The PIXIE cryogenic system provides this in low Earth orbit by making use of three subsystems. Lightweight, simply deployed shields provide protection against the Earth and Sun while passively cooling wiring and instrument supports at 150 K. A mechanical cryocooler precools wires and supports at 68, 17, and 4.5 K while its compressors operate at room temperature. And finally two adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators cool the instrument from 4.5 to 2.7 K and cool the detectors to 0.1 K. Staged cooling in this manner allows a thermodynamically efficient use of relatively mature technologies that can be fully demonstrated before flight.

  16. Cold Helium Gas Pressurization For Spacecraft Cryogenic Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morehead, Robert L.; Atwell. Matthew J.; Hurlbert, Eric A.; Melcher, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the dry mass of a spacecraft pressurization system, helium pressurant may be stored at low temperature and high pressure to increase mass in a given tank volume. Warming this gas through an engine heat exchanger prior to tank pressurization both increases the system efficiency and simplifies the designs of intermediate hardware such as regulators, valves, etc. since the gas is no longer cryogenic. If this type of cold helium pressurization system is used in conjunction with a cryogenic propellant, though, a loss in overall system efficiency can be expected due to heat transfer from the warm ullage gas to the cryogenic propellant which results in a specific volume loss for the pressurant, interpreted as the Collapse Factor. Future spacecraft with cryogenic propellants will likely have a cold helium system, with increasing collapse factor effects as vehicle sizes decrease. To determine the collapse factor effects and overall implementation strategies for a representative design point, a cold helium system was hotfire tested on the Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article (ICPTA) in a thermal vacuum environment at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station. The ICPTA vehicle is a small lander-sized spacecraft prototype built at NASA Johnson Space Center utilizing cryogenic liquid oxygen/liquid methane propellants and cryogenic helium gas as a pressurant to operate one 2,800lbf 5:1 throttling main engine, two 28lbf Reaction Control Engines (RCE), and two 7lbf RCEs (Figure 1). This vehicle was hotfire tested at a variety of environmental conditions at NASA Plum Brook, ranging from ambient temperature/simulated high altitude, deep thermal/high altitude, and deep thermal/high vacuum conditions. A detailed summary of the vehicle design and testing campaign may be found in Integrated Cryogenic Propulsion Test Article Thermal Vacuum Hotfire Testing, AIAA JPC 2017.

  17. Commissioning and Early Operation Experience of the NSLS-II Storage Ring RF System

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F.; Rose, J.; Cupolo, J.; Dilgen, T.; Rose, B.; Gash, W.; Ravindranath, V.; Yeddulla, M.; Papu, J.; Davila, P.; Holub, B.; Tagger, J.; Sikora, R.; Ramirez, G.; Kulpin, J.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a 3 GeV electron X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The storage ring RF system, essential for replenishing energy loss per turn of the electrons, consists of digital low level RF controllers, 310 kW CW klystron transmitters, CESR-B type superconducting cavities, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system for beam current up to 200mA.

  18. Miniature Cryogenic Valves for a Titan Lake Sampling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Zimmerman, Wayne; Takano, Nobuyuki; Avellar, Louisa

    2014-01-01

    The Cassini mission has revealed Titan to be one of the most Earthlike worlds in the Solar System complete with many of the same surface features including lakes, river channels, basins, and dunes. But unlike Earth, the materials and fluids on Titan are composed of cryogenic organic compounds with lakes of liquid methane and ethane. One of the potential mission concepts to explore Titan is to land a floating platform on one of the Titan Lakes and determine the local lake chemistry. In order to accomplish this within the expected mass volume and power budgets there is a need to pursue the development for a low power lightweight cryogenic valves which can be used along with vacuum lines to sample lake liquid and to distribute to various instruments aboard the Lander. To meet this need we have initiated the development of low power cryogenic valves and actuators based on a single crystal piezoelectric flextensional stacks produced by TRS Ceramics Inc. Since the origin of such high electromechanical properties of Relaxor-PT single crystals is due to the polarization rotation effect, (i.e., intrinsic contributions), the strain per volt decrease at cryogenic temperatures is much lower than in standard Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramics. This makes them promising candidates for cryogenic actuators with regards to the stroke for a given voltage. This paper will present our Titan Lake Sampling and Sample Handling system design and the development of small cryogenic piezoelectric valves developed to meet the system specifications.

  19. History, status and future applications of spaceborne cryogenic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, A.

    1982-01-01

    Cryogenic cooling is employed for an increasing number of space instruments. Cryogenic cooling is needed to provide the required detector response, reduce preamplifier noise, and/or reduce background radiation. Cryogenic cooling is required by instruments employed for applications missions, gamma-ray and X-ray astronomy, cosmic ray measurements, space surveillance, IR astronomy, relativity measurements, superconductivity devices, and basic research experiments. The cooling is provided with the aid of radiant coolers, stored solid cryogen coolers, stored liquid-helium coolers, mechanical coolers, He-3 coolers, adiabatic demagnetization, refrigeration, and higher temperature adsorption and magnetic systems. Radiant coolers will continue to find widespread application for low cooling-load/high-temperature situation. It is pointed out that a long-lifetime closed-cycle, mechanical cooler is one of the most critical space technological needs.

  20. Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic propellants such as liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LO2) are a part of NASA's future space exploration due to the high specific impulse that can be achieved using engines suitable for moving 10's to 100's of metric tons of payload mass to destinations outside of low earth orbit. However, the low storage temperatures of LH2 and LO2 cause substantial boil-off losses for missions with durations greater than several days. The losses can be greatly reduced by incorporating high performance cryocooler technology to intercept heat load to the propellant tanks and by the integration of self-supporting multi-layer insulation. The active thermal control technology under development is the integration of the reverse turbo- Brayton cycle cryocooler to the propellant tank through a distributed cooling network of tubes coupled to a shield in the tank insulation and to the tank wall itself. Also, the self-supporting insulation technology was utilized under the shield to obtain needed tank applied LH2 performance. These elements were recently tested at NASA Glenn Research Center in a series of three tests, two that reduced LH2 boil-off and one to eliminate LO2 boil-off. This test series was conducted in a vacuum chamber that replicated the vacuum of space and the temperatures of low Earth orbit. The test results show that LH2 boil-off was reduced 60% by the cryocooler system operating at 90K and that robust LO2 zero boil-off storage, including full tank pressure control was achieved.

  1. The cryogenic system for ITER CC superconducting conductor test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jinqing; Wu, Yu; Liu, Huajun; Shi, Yi; Chen, Jinglin; Ren, Zhibin

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the cryogenic system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Correction Coils (CC) test facility, which consists of a 500 W/4.5 K helium refrigerator, a 50 kA superconducting transformer cryostat (STC) and a background field magnet cryostat (BFMC). The 500 W/4.5 K helium refrigerator synchronously produces both the liquid helium (LHe) and supercritical helium (SHe). The background field magnet and the primary coil of the superconducting transformer (PCST) are cooled down by immersing into 4.2 K LHe. The secondary Cable-In-Conduit Conductor (CICC) coil of the superconducting transformer (SCST), superconducting joints and the testing sample of ITER CC are cooled down by forced-flow supercritical helium. During the commissioning experiment, all the superconducting coils were successfully translated into superconducting state. The background field magnet was fully cooled by immersing it into 4.2 K LHe and generated a maximal background magnetic field of 6.96 T; the temperature of transformer coils and current leads was reduced to 4.3 K; the inlet temperature of SHe loop was 5.6 K, which can meet the cooling requirements of CIC-Conductor and joint boxes. It is noted that a novel heat cut-off device for High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) binary current leads was introduced to reduce the heat losses of transformer cryostat.

  2. Cryogenic fluid management (base R/T): Cryogenic fluid systems, Cryogenic Orbital Nitrogen Experiment (CONE), Cryogenic Orbital Hydrogen Experiment (COHE). (Transportation focused technology)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symons, Pat

    1991-01-01

    The topics presented are covered in viewgraph form. The concluded remarks are: (1) advanced cryogenic fluid systems technology is enhancing or enabling to all known transportation scenarios for space exploration; (2) an integrated/coordinated program involving LeRC/MSFC has been formulated to address all known CFM needs - new needs should they develop, can be accommodated within available skills/facilities; (3) all required/experienced personnel and facilities are finally in place - data from initial ground-based experiments is being collected and analyzed - small scale STS experiments are nearing flight - program is beginning to yield significant results; (4) future proposed funding to primarily come from two sources; and (5) cryogenic fluid experimentation is essential to provide required technology and assure implementation in future NASA missions.

  3. SRF Test Areas Cryogenic System Controls Graphical User Interface

    SciTech Connect

    DeGraff, B.D.; Ganster, G.; Klebaner, A.; Petrov, A.D.; Soyars, W.M.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-09

    Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has constructed a superconducting 1.3 GHz cavity test facility at Meson Detector Building (MDB) and a superconducting 1.3 GHz cryomodule test facility located at the New Muon Lab Building (NML). The control of these 2K cryogenic systems is accomplished by using a Synoptic graphical user interface (GUI) to interact with the underlying Fermilab Accelerator Control System. The design, testing and operational experience of employing the Synoptic client-server system for graphical representation will be discussed. Details on the Synoptic deployment to the MDB and NML cryogenic sub-systems will also be discussed. The implementation of the Synoptic as the GUI for both NML and MDB has been a success. Both facilities are currently fulfilling their individual roles in SCRF testing as a result of successful availability of the cryogenic systems. The tools available for creating Synoptic pages will continue to be developed to serve the evolving needs of users.

  4. PRESSURE OSCILLATION IN RHIC CRYOGENIC SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,L.MONTAG,C.TALLERICO,T.HIRZEL,W.NICOLETTI,A.

    2003-09-22

    HORIZONTAL BEAM VIBRATION AROUND 10HZ IN THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER (RHIC) HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED AND THE POSSIBLE SOURCES TO CAUSE THIS VIBRATION HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED. TO DETERMINE THE HETIUM PRESSURE OSCILLATIONS AS A POSSIBLE PRIMARY VIBRATION SOURCE, HELIUM PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS WERE CARRIED OUT IN THE FIVE CRYOGENIC TRANSFER LINES AT 2 VALVE BOXES AND 6 LEAD PORTS AT 2 TRIPLET CRYOSTAT FOR BOTH MAGNET RINGS. ADDITIONALLY, COLD MA...

  5. Cryogenic compressive properties of basic epoxy resin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, F.W.; Hoffman, J.A.; Muniz, D.P.

    1985-09-01

    The compressive properties of short cylindrical samples of many different epoxy resin systems have been measured at ambient temperature and at 77/sup 0/K. These are pure resin systems of known chemistry, without the inorganic fillers or fibrous reinforcements needed in final cryogenic systems. Of course, chemically incorporated modifiers such as flexibilizing resins have been included. This data should make possible inferences about cryogenic properties from molecular structures and provide specific data useful to formulators and end users. Measurements on some other plastics such as PTFE, Polyimides, and UHMWPE have been made for comparison purposes.

  6. Low-Heat-Leak Electrical Leads For Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Hooker, Matthew W.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical leads offering high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity developed for use in connecting electronic devices inside cryogenic systems to power supplies, signal-processing circuits, and other circuitry located in nearby warmer surroundings. Strip of superconductive leads on ceramic substrate, similar to ribbon cable, connects infrared detectors at temperature of liquid helium with warmer circuitry. Electrical leads bridging thermal gradient at boundary of cryogenic system designed both to minimize conduction of heat from surroundings through leads into system and to minimize resistive heating caused by electrical currents flowing in leads.

  7. Cryogenic Liquid Sample Acquisition System for Remote Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Trainer, Melissa; Wegel, Don; Hawk, Douglas; Melek, Tony; Johnson, Christopher; Amato, Michael; Galloway, John

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to acquire autonomously cryogenic hydrocarbon liquid sample from remote planetary locations such as the lakes of Titan for instruments such as mass spectrometers. There are several problems that had to be solved relative to collecting the right amount of cryogenic liquid sample into a warmer spacecraft, such as not allowing the sample to boil off or fractionate too early; controlling the intermediate and final pressures within carefully designed volumes; designing for various particulates and viscosities; designing to thermal, mass, and power-limited spacecraft interfaces; and reducing risk. Prior art inlets for similar instruments in spaceflight were designed primarily for atmospheric gas sampling and are not useful for this front-end application. These cryogenic liquid sample acquisition system designs for remote space applications allow for remote, autonomous, controlled sample collections of a range of challenging cryogenic sample types. The design can control the size of the sample, prevent fractionation, control pressures at various stages, and allow for various liquid sample levels. It is capable of collecting repeated samples autonomously in difficult lowtemperature conditions often found in planetary missions. It is capable of collecting samples for use by instruments from difficult sample types such as cryogenic hydrocarbon (methane, ethane, and propane) mixtures with solid particulates such as found on Titan. The design with a warm actuated valve is compatible with various spacecraft thermal and structural interfaces. The design uses controlled volumes, heaters, inlet and vent tubes, a cryogenic valve seat, inlet screens, temperature and cryogenic liquid sensors, seals, and vents to accomplish its task.

  8. Thermodynamic Analyses of the LCLS-II Cryogenic Distribution System

    SciTech Connect

    Dalesandro, Andrew; Kaluzny, Joshua; Klebaner, Arkadiy

    2016-12-29

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is in the process of being upgraded to a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator and renamed LCLS-II. This upgrade requires thirty-five 1.3 GHz SRF cryomodules (CM) and two 3.9 GHz CM. A cryogenic distribution system (CDS) is in development by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to interconnect the CM Linac with the cryogenic plant (CP). The CDS design utilizes cryogenic helium to support the CM operations with a high temperature thermal shield around 55 K, a low temperature thermal intercepts around 5 K, and a SRF cavity liquid helium supply and sub-atmospheric vapor return both around 2 K. Additionally the design must accommodate a Linac consisting of two parallel cryogenic strings, supported by two independent CP utilizing CDS components such as distribution boxes, transfer lines, feed caps and endcaps. In this paper, we describe the overall layout of the cryogenic distribution system and the major thermodynamic factors which influence the CDS design including heat loads, pressure drops, temperature profiles, and pressure relieving requirements. In addition the paper describes how the models are created to perform the analyses.

  9. Thermodynamic Analyses of the LCLS-II Cryogenic Distribution System

    DOE PAGES

    Dalesandro, Andrew; Kaluzny, Joshua; Klebaner, Arkadiy

    2016-12-29

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is in the process of being upgraded to a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerator and renamed LCLS-II. This upgrade requires thirty-five 1.3 GHz SRF cryomodules (CM) and two 3.9 GHz CM. A cryogenic distribution system (CDS) is in development by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory to interconnect the CM Linac with the cryogenic plant (CP). The CDS design utilizes cryogenic helium to support the CM operations with a high temperature thermal shield around 55 K, a low temperature thermal intercepts around 5 K, and a SRF cavity liquid heliummore » supply and sub-atmospheric vapor return both around 2 K. Additionally the design must accommodate a Linac consisting of two parallel cryogenic strings, supported by two independent CP utilizing CDS components such as distribution boxes, transfer lines, feed caps and endcaps. In this paper, we describe the overall layout of the cryogenic distribution system and the major thermodynamic factors which influence the CDS design including heat loads, pressure drops, temperature profiles, and pressure relieving requirements. In addition the paper describes how the models are created to perform the analyses.« less

  10. Vacuum and cryogenic system for the MUSE detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizon, J. L.; Accardo, M.; Gojak, Domingo; Reiss, Roland; Kern, Lothar

    2012-09-01

    MUSE with its 24 detectors distributed over an eight square meter vertical area was requiring a well engineered and extremely reliable cryogenic system. The solution should also use a technology proven to be compatible with the very high sensitivity of the VLT interferometer. A short introduction reviews the various available technologies to cool these 24 chips down to 160 K. The first part of the paper presents the selected concept insisting on the various advantages offered by LN2. In addition to the purely vacuum and cryogenic aspects we highlight some of the most interesting features given by the control system based on a PLC.

  11. Designing of epoxy resin systems for cryogenic use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueki, T.; Nishijima, S.; Izumi, Y.

    2005-02-01

    The mechanical and thermal properties of several types of epoxy systems were designed based on the chemical structure, network structure and morphology aiming at cryogenic application. In this research di-epoxies or multifunctional epoxies were cured by several kinds of hardeners such as anhydride, amine or phenol and were blended with polycarbonate, carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer or phenoxy. The mechanical properties and thermal properties of these cured epoxies were measured at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. It was found that the two-dimensional network structured linear polymer shows high performance even at cryogenic temperature. It was concluded that the controls of the structures are very important to optimize epoxy systems for cryogenic application.

  12. Front-end system for Yb : YAG cryogenic disk laser

    SciTech Connect

    Perevezentsev, E A; Mukhin, I B; Kuznetsov, I I; Vadimova, O L; Palashov, O V

    2015-05-31

    A new front-end system for a cryogenic Yb : YAG laser is designed. The system consists of a femtosecond source, a stretcher and a regenerative amplifier with an output energy of 25 μJ at a pulse repetition rate of 49 kHz, a pulse duration of ∼2 ns and a bandwidth of ∼1.5 nm. After increasing the pump power of the regenerative amplifier, it is expected to achieve a pulse energy of ∼1 mJ at the input to cryogenic amplification stages, which will allow one to obtain laser pulses with a duration of several picoseconds at the output of the cryogenic laser after compression. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  13. Progress report on the infrared astronomical satellite cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbach, A. R.; Mason, P. V.; Brooks, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    The main cryogen tank is sized to hold 70 kg of superfluid helium with 12 percent ullage at a temperature of 1.8 K. The insulation system surrounds the main cryogen tank with four blankets of multilayer insulation spaced by means of three vapor-cooled shields. It is noted that the multilayer insulation is 6.4 micron double-aluminized Mylar separated by polyester net. The main shell provides the primary structural integrity of the system. In orbit the main shell is cooled to 170 K using insulation blankets on one side and second surface paint on the opposite side. The aperture cover subassembly is the vacuum seal for the main shell during operation on the ground. It is also a gas condensation trap before and during cooldown of the main cryogen tank during launch hold. It contains 6 kg of supercritical helium, which permits 14 days on orbit with a 48-hour launch pad hold.

  14. Means of protecting cryogenic systems from the geyser effect

    SciTech Connect

    Filina, N.N.

    1986-03-01

    New means of protection, which permit a low fluid boil in the pipeline without proceeding into an avalanchelike process, have been developed on the basis of theoretical and experimental investigations of the geyser effect in cryogenic systems with an end thermal influx from a regulating fitting. An equation is presented for computing the time allowed for the low fluid boil. Pressure increase in the overhead reservoir is discussed and a cryogenic reservoir with concentric pipeline equipped with a hood for vapor elimination is illustrated. Vapor removal from a vertical pipeline is examined. A structural method of protecting cryogenic systems from the geyser effect is discussed; the value of this method consists in its high reliability.

  15. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 6: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The optimization of the cryogenic supply system for space shuttles is discussed. The subjects considered are: (1) auxiliary power unit parametric data, (2) propellant acquisition, (3) thermal protection and thermodynamic properties, (4) instrumentation and controls, and (5) initial component redundancy evaluations. Diagrams of the systems are provided. Graphs of the performance capabilities are included.

  16. Pressure transducer and system for cryogenic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A silicon pressure die is bonded to a borosilicate substrate above the pneumatic port. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is formed on the silicon pressure die and has bridge elements of silicon doped with boron to a deposit density level of approximately 1 x 10(exp 19)-10(exp 21) boron/cc. A current source is provided to excite the Wheatstone bridge circuit. In addition, a temperature sensor is provided to provide temperature readings. An array may be formed of the resulting pressure transducers. This unique solution of materials permits operation of a pressure transducer in cryogenic environments.

  17. Cryogenic system for COMET experiment at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki, Taekyung; Yoshida, Makoto; Yang, Ye; Ogitsu, Toru; Iio, Masami; Makida, Yasuhiro; Okamura, Takahiro; Mihara, Satoshi; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Sugano, Michinaka; Sasaki, Ken-ichi

    2016-07-01

    Superconducting conductors and cryogenic refrigeration are key factors in the accelerator science because they enable the production of magnets needed to control and detect the particles under study. In Japan, a system for COMET (Coherent Muon to Electron Transition), which will produce muon beam lines, is under the construction at J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex). The system consists of three superconducting magnets; the first is a pion-capture solenoid, the second is a muon-transport solenoid, and the third is a detector solenoid. It is necessary to cool down the magnets efficiently using two-phase helium and maintain them securely at 4.5 K. For stable cryogenic refrigeration of the magnets, a suitable cooling method, structures, and the irradiation effect on materials should be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the development of an overall cryogenic system for cooling the capture and transport solenoids. A conduction-cooling method is considered for cooling the capture and transport solenoids because of the advantages such as the reduction of total heat load, fewer components, and simplified structure. To supply cryogenic fluids (4.5 K liquid helium and 58 K gas helium) and currents to the conduction-cooled magnets subjected to high irradiation, cryogenic components (cooling paths in the magnets, transfer tubes, and a current lead box) are developed. Based on the environment of high irradiation, the conditions (temperature and pressure) of helium in cooling paths are estimated, as well as the temperature of the capture magnet. We develop a dynamic model for quench simulation and estimate the maximum pressure in the cooling pipe when the capture magnet quenches. We conclude with a discussion of the next steps and estimated challenges for the cryogenic system.

  18. Standardization in Cryogenic Insulation Systems Testing and Performance Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    The close relationship between industrial energy use and cryogenics drives the need for optimized thermal insulation systems. Emerging cryofuels usage is enabled by adequate isolation of the liquid hydrogen or liquefied natural gas from the ambient environment. Thermal performance data for the total insulation system, as rendered, are essential for both engineering designs and cost-benefit decisions involving comparisons among alternatives. These data are obtained through rigorous testing with suitable apparatus and repeatable methods. Properly defined terminology, analysis, and reporting are also vital. Advances in cryogenic insulation test apparatus and methods have led to the recent addition of two new technical standards of ASTM International: C1774 - Standard Guide for Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic InsulationSystems and C740 - Standard Guide for Evacuated Reflective Cryogenic Insulation. Among the different techniques described in the new standards is the cylindrical boiloff calorimeter for absolute heat measurement over the full range of vacuum pressure conditions. The details of this apparatus, test method, and data analysis are given. Benchmark thermal performance data, including effective thermal conductivity (ke) and heat flux (q) for the boundary temperatures of 293 K and 77 K, are given for a number of different multilayer insulation (MLI) systems in comparison with data for other commonly-used insulation systems including perlite powder, fiberglass, polyurethane foam, and aerogels.

  19. Superfluid helium cryogenic systems for superconducting RF cavities at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, H.; Hara, K.; Honma, T.; Hosoyama, K.; Kojima, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Kanekiyo, T.; Morita, S.

    2014-01-29

    Recent accelerator projects at KEK, such as the Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) for R and D of the International Linear Collider (ILC) project and the compact Energy Recovery Linac (cERL), employ superconducting RF cavities made of pure niobium, which can generate high gradient acceleration field. Since the operation temperature of these cavities is selected to be 2 K, we have developed two 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems for stable operation of superconducting RF cavities for each of STF and cERL. These two 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems are identical in principle. Since the operation mode of the cavities is different for STF and cERL, i.e. the pulse mode for STF and the continuous wave mode for cERL, the heat loads from the cavities are quite different. The 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems mainly consists of ordinary helium liquefiers/refrigerators, 2 K refrigerator cold boxes, helium gas pumping systems and high-performance transfer lines. The 2 K refrigerators and the high-performance transfer lines are designed by KEK. Some superconducting RF cavity cryomodules have been already connected to the 2 K superfluid helium cryogenic systems for STF and cERL respectively, and cooled down to 2 K successfully.

  20. Low heat-gain cryogenic-liquid transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hows, G. E.; Wright, B. J.

    1970-01-01

    Cryogenic-liquid transfer system, containing a ring structure with tensioned small diameter, high strength wires, provides adequate physical support for the piping, minimizes the conductive heat paths between the piping and jacket, and allows for thermal expansion and contraction of the piping.

  1. Operational Experience of the Upgraded Cryogenic Systems at the Nscl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCartney, A. H.; Laumer, H. L.; Jones, S. A.

    2010-04-01

    The National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) is a NSF-supported facility, with additional support from Michigan State University (MSU) for conducting research in nuclear and accelerator science. The facility consists of two superconducting cyclotrons and over fifty individual cryostats, each containing several superconducting magnets that are used in the beam transport system. Beginning in 1999 a major facility upgrade was started. New, larger magnets were added, increasing the total 4.5 K loads, necessitating an increase of the cryogenic capacity. A helium plant (nominal 1750-Watt at 4.5 K) was acquired from the United States Bureau of Mines where it had been operating as a pure liquefier since the early 1980's. It was refurbished for the NSCL with extensive support from the cryogenics group at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory. The new cryogenic system came online early in 2001. The cold-mass is relatively high in relation to the installed capacity, presenting challenges during cool downs. Reliability over the last five years has been greater than 99%. An overview of the last seven years of operations of our cryogenic systems is presented that includes normal operations, testing of new equipment, noteworthy breakdowns, routine maintenance, and system reliability.

  2. G2 Autonomous Control for Cryogenic Delivery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dito, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    The Independent System Health Management-Autonomous Control (ISHM-AC) application development for cryogenic delivery systems is intended to create an expert system that will require minimal operator involvement and ultimately allow for complete autonomy when fueling a space vehicle in the time prior to launch. The G2-Autonomous Control project is the development of a model, simulation, and ultimately a working application that will control and monitor the cryogenic fluid delivery to a rocket for testing purposes. To develop this application, the project is using the programming language/environment Gensym G2. The environment is an all-inclusive application that allows development, testing, modeling, and finally operation of the unique application through graphical and programmatic methods. We have learned G2 through training classes and subsequent application development, and are now in the process of building the application that will soon be used to test on cryogenic loading equipment here at the Kennedy Space Center Cryogenics Test Laboratory (CTL). The G2 ISHM-AC application will bring with it a safer and more efficient propellant loading system for the future launches at Kennedy Space Center and eventually mobile launches from all over the world.

  3. Cryogenic system design for a hydrogen sorption cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirbi, A.; Bowman, R. C.; Wade, L. A.; Barber, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    For several future space applications, long life vibration free collers are needed to cover the temperature range from 60K to about 4K. We describe the development of a novel cryogenic system capable of reaching 18K in coupled resevoirs that provide distributed cooling with small temperature fluctuations.

  4. Method of measuring heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Niemann, R.C.; Zelipsky, S.A.; Rezmer, R.R.; Smelser, P.

    1980-10-29

    A method is provided for measuring the heat influx of a cryogenic transfer system. A gaseous phase of the cryogen used during normal operation of the system is passed through the system. The gaseous cryogen at the inlet to the system is tempered to duplicate the normal operating temperature of the system inlet. The temperature and mass flow rate of the gaseous cryogen is measured at the outlet of the system, and the heat capacity of the cryogen is determined. The heat influx of the system is then determined from known thermodynamic relationships.

  5. Commissioning of the Liquid Nitrogen Thermo-Siphon System for NASA-JSC Chamber-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, J.; Montz, M.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Garcia, S.; Garza, J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory's (SESL) Chamber A, located at the Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas has recently implemented major enhancements of its cryogenic and vacuum systems. The new liquid nitrogen (LN2) thermo-siphon system was successfully commissioned in August of 2012. Chamber A, which has 20 K helium cryo-panels (or shrouds ) which are shielded by 80 K nitrogen shrouds, is capable of simulating a deep space environment necessary to perform ground testing of NASA s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Chamber A s previous system used forced flow LN2 cooling with centrifugal pumps, requiring 200,000 liters of LN2 to cool-down and consuming 180,000 liters per day of LN2 in steady operation. The LN2 system did not have the reliability required to meet the long duration test of the JWST, and the cost estimate provided in the initial approach to NASA-JSC by the sub-contractor for refurbishment of the system to meet the reliability goals was prohibitive. At NASA-JSC's request, the JLab Cryogenics Group provided alternative options in 2007, including a thermo-siphon, or natural flow system. This system, eliminated the need for pumps and used one tenth of the original control valves, relief valves, and burst disks. After the thermo-siphon approach was selected, JLab provided technical assistance in the process design, mechanical design, component specification development and commissioning oversight, while the installation and commissioning operations of the system was overseen by the Jacobs Technology/ESC group at JSC. The preliminary commissioning data indicate lower shroud temperatures, 70,000 liters to cool-down and less than 90,000 liters per day consumed in steady operation. All of the performance capabilities have exceeded the design goals. This paper will outline the comparison between the original system and the predicted results of the selected design option, and the commissioning results of thermo-siphon system.

  6. Commissioning of the liquid nitrogen thermo-siphon system for NASA-JSC Chamber-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, J.; Montz, M.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Garcia, S.; Garza, J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory's (SESL) Chamber A, located at the Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas has recently implemented major enhancements of its cryogenic and vacuum systems. The new liquid nitrogen (LN) thermo-siphon system was successfully commissioned in August of 2012. Chamber A, which has 20 K helium cryo-panels (or "shrouds") which are shielded by 80 K nitrogen shrouds, is capable of simulating a deep space environment necessary to perform ground testing of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Chamber A's previous system used forced flow LN cooling with centrifugal pumps, requiring 220,000 liters of LN to cool-down and consuming 180,000 liters per day of LN in steady operation. The LN system did not have the reliability required to meet the long duration test of the JWST, and the cost estimate provided in the initial approach to NASA-JSC by the sub-contractor for refurbishment of the system to meet the reliability goals was prohibitive. At NASA-JSC's request, the JLab Cryogenics Group provided alternative options in 2007, including a thermo-siphon, or natural flow system. This system, eliminated the need for pumps and used one tenth of the original control valves, relief valves, and burst disks. After the thermo-siphon approach was selected, JLab provided technical assistance in the process design, mechanical design, component specification development and commissioning oversight, while the installation and commissioning operations of the system was overseen by the Jacobs Technology/ESC group at JSC. The preliminary commissioning data indicate lower shroud temperatures, 68,000 liters to cool-down and less than 91,000 liters per day consumed in steady operation. All of the performance capabilities have exceeded the design goals. This paper will outline the comparison between the original system and the predicted results of the selected design option, and the commissioning results of thermo-siphon system.

  7. Commissioning of the Liquid Nitrogen Thermo-Siphon System for NASA-JSC Chamber A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, J.; Montz, M.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Garcia, S.; Garza, J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Space Environment Simulation Laboratory s (SESL) Chamber A, located at the Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas has recently implemented major enhancements of its cryogenic and vacuum systems. The new liquid nitrogen (LN) thermo-siphon system was successfully commissioned in August of 2012. Chamber A, which has 20 K helium cryo-panels (or shrouds ) which are shielded by 80 K nitrogen shrouds, is capable of simulating a deep space environment necessary to perform ground testing of NASA s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Chamber A s previous system used forced flow LN cooling with centrifugal pumps, requiring 220,000 liters of LN to cool-down and consuming 180,000 liters per day of LN in steady operation. The LN system did not have the reliability required to meet the long duration test of the JWST, and the cost estimate provided in the initial approach to NASA-JSC by the subcontractor for refurbishment of the system to meet the reliability goals was prohibitive. At NASA-JSC s request, the JLab Cryogenics Group provided alternative options in 2007, including a thermo-siphon, or natural flow system. This system, eliminated the need for pumps and used one tenth of the original control valves, relief valves, and burst disks. After the thermo-siphon approach was selected, JLab provided technical assistance in the process design, mechanical design, component specification development and commissioning oversight, while the installation and commissioning operations of the system was overseen by the Jacobs Technology/ESC group at JSC. The preliminary commissioning data indicate lower shroud temperatures, 68,000 liters to cool-down and less than 91,000 liters per day consumed in steady operation. All of the performance capabilities have exceeded the design goals. This paper will outline the comparison between the original system and the predicted results of the selected design option, and the commissioning results of thermo-siphon system.

  8. Nanogel Aerogel as Load Bearing Insulation for Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koravos, J. J.; Miller, T. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Coffman, B. E.

    2010-04-01

    Load support structures in cryogenic storage, transport and processing systems are large contributors to the total heat leak of the system. Conventional insulation systems require the use of these support members in order to stabilize the process fluid enclosure and prevent degradation of insulation performance due to compression. Removal of these support structures would substantially improve system efficiency. Nanogel aerogel insulation performance is tested at vacuum pressures ranging from high vacuum to atmospheric pressure and under loads from loosely packed to greater than 10,000 Pa. Insulation performance is determined using boil-off calorimetry with liquid nitrogen as the latent heat recipient. Two properties of the aerogel insulation material suit it to act as a load bearing "structure" in a process vessel: (1) Ability to maintain thermal performance under load; (2) Elasticity when subjected to load. Results of testing provide positive preliminary indication that these properties allow Nanogel aerogel to effectively be used as a load bearing insulation in cryogenic systems.

  9. Cryogenic system development for LOX/ hydrocarbon propulsion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Francisco

    A propulsion research facility is being developed at the Center for Space Exploration Technology Research (cSETR) at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). These facilities were developed in order to meet new research demand for Liquid Oxygen (LOX)/Liquid methane (LCH4) experiments. The main goal of this system is to produce in-house liquid methane and supply propellants to their respective test set up in a cryogenic state. The work presented describes the design, development, and operation of a liquid methane condensation system and a cryogenic delivery feed system. The condensation system design will allow for a production of methane of up to 25 L. The predicted performance is 71 N LOX/ LCH4 thruster with a 368 Isp and a line pressure of 1310kPa.

  10. The integrated cryogenic system for the atmospheric vertical interferometric detector on FY-4 satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yinong; Liu, EnGuang; Jiang, Zhenhua; Yang, Baoyu; Mu, Yongbin

    2016-05-01

    The cryogenic system for the atmospheric vertical interferometric detector on FY-4 satellite includes a Stirling cryocooler, a radiant cooler, a cryogenic heat pipe and some flexible thermal links as well. These cryogenic elements were integrated together in order to decrease the background radiation and maximize the sensitivity with high efficiency and high reliability. This paper summarizes the cryogenic integration design, technical challenges, and the results of thermal and performance testing.

  11. A pressure control analysis of cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C.-S.; Vandresar, N. T.; Hasan, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    Self-pressurization of cryogenic storage tanks due to heat leak through the thermal protection system is examined along with the performance of various pressure control technologies for application in microgravity environments. Methods of pressure control such as fluid mixing, passive thermodynamic venting, and active thermodynamic venting are analyzed using the homogeneous thermodynamic model. Simplified equations suggested may be used to characterize the performance of various pressure control systems and to design space experiments.

  12. The Fermilab CMTF cryogenic distribution remote control system

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Bossert, R.

    2014-01-29

    The Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) is able to provide the necessary test bed for measuring the performance of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities in a cryomodule (CM). The CMTF have seven 300 KW screw compressors, two liquid helium refrigerators, and two Cryomodule Test Stands (CMTS). CMTS1 is designed for 1.3 GHz cryomodule operating in a pulsed mode (PM) and CMTS2 is for cryomodule operating in Half-Wave (HW) and Continuous Wave (CW) mode. Based on the design requirement, each subsystem has to be far away from each other and be placed in distant locations. Therefore choosing Siemens Process Control System 7-400, DL205 PLC, Synoptic and Fermilab ACNET are the ideal choices for CMTF cryogenic distribution real-time remote control system. This paper presents a method which has been successfully used by many Fermilab distribution cryogenic real-time remote control systems.

  13. Test results after refurbish of cryogenic system for smiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Kiyomi; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Okabayashi, Akinobu; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; Satoh, Ryota

    2010-09-01

    Superconducting Sub-millimeter-wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) is to be operated aboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009. SMILES uses two superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixers for sub-millimeter-wave atmospheric observation and they are cooled to 4 K levels by a cryogenic system with a two-stage Stirling cooler, a Joule-Thomson (JT) cycle cooler and a cryostat composed of three stages. Two-stage Stirling cooler precools the JT circuit and also cools radiation shields in the cryostat. JT circuit has three tube-in-tube type heat exchangers and an orifice for JT expansion in the cryostat. The cryogenic system is built, tested and delivered.

  14. Cryogenic cooling system for the Ground Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F.; Spulgis, I.

    1994-12-31

    A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH{sub 2} run tank containing an LH{sub 2}/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

  15. Cryogenic cooling system for the ground test accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F. ); Spulgis, I. )

    1993-01-01

    A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH[sub 2]) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH[sub 2] run tank containing an LH[sub 2]/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

  16. Cryogenic cooling system for the ground test accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.; Moeller, J.; Durham, F.; Spulgis, I.

    1993-06-01

    A cryogenic cooling system has been designed, built and tested for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Major components of the GTA require cooling to less than 50 K to reduce rf-heating and to increase thermal stability. The cooling system is capable of cooling (at an acceptable rate for thermal stresses) the cryogenically cooled components and then maintaining them at their operating temperature during accelerator testing for all modes and power levels of operation. The accelerator components are cooled by circulating cold, dense helium gas (about 21 K and 2.1 MPa) through the components. The circulating helium is refrigerated in a heat exchanger that uses boiling liquid hydrogen as a source of refrigeration. The cryogenic cooling system consists of the following major components: a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage Dewar with a transfer line to an LH{sub 2} run tank containing an LH{sub 2}/gaseous helium (GHe) heat exchanger, circulation lines, and a circulation pump. The system, sized to cool a load of approximately 40 kW at temperatures as low as 20 K, is operational, but has not yet been operated in conjunction with the accelerator.

  17. Dynamic simulations of the cryogenic system of a tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, R.; Hoa, C.; Michel, F.; Poncet, J. M.; Rousset, B.

    2015-12-01

    Power generation in the next decades could be provided by thermo-nuclear fusion reactors like tokamaks. There inside, the fusion reaction takes place thanks to the generation of plasmas at hundreds of millions of degrees that must be confined magnetically with superconductive coils, cooled down to 4.4K. The plasma works cyclically and the coil system is subjected to pulsed heat load which has to be handled by the refrigerator. By smoothing the variable loads, the refrigerator capacity can be set close to the average power; optimizing investment and operational costs. Within the “Broader Approach agreement” related to ITER project, CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives) is in charge of providing the cryogenic system for the Japanese tokamak (JT-60SA), that is currently under construction in Naka. The system has been designed to handle the pulsed heat loads. To prepare the acceptance tests of the cryogenic system foreseen in 2016, both dynamic modelling and experimental tests on a scaled down mock-up are of high interest for assessing pulsed load smoothing control. After explaining HELIOS (HElium Loop for hIgh lOad Smoothing) operating modes, a dynamic model is presented, with results on the pulsed heat load scenarios. All the simulations have been performed with EcosimPro® and the associated cryogenic library CRYOLIB.

  18. Design of the cryogenic system for the SAFIRE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Payne, D. A.; Averill, R. D.

    One of the primary goals of the NASA Mission to Planet Earth is to improve understanding of the ozone chemistry of the atmosphere over an extended period of time. The Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument is being developed to conduct, for the first time, global measurements of the key ozone chemistry constituents in both the mid- and far-infrared spectral regions. Such remote, long-term observations are made possible by the recent development of compact long-life hybrid cryogenic dewars which are necessary to cool the sensitive detectors to the 3-4 K range. The success of this hybrid concept is based on the use of long-life Stirling cycle cryocoolers to intercept parasitic heat from the internal radiation shields of the superfluid helium dewar. Extensive system trade studies are required to optimize the mass, power, and lifetime of these space-borne cryogenic systems. The SAFIRE Cryogenic Subsystem is described, including the thermal performance trades leading to the chosen system configuration and the important dewar/cryocooler interface issues.

  19. Design of the cryogenic system for the SAFIRE instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Payne, D. A.; Averill, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the NASA Mission to Planet Earth is to improve understanding of the ozone chemistry of the atmosphere over an extended period of time. The Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument is being developed to conduct, for the first time, global measurements of the key ozone chemistry constituents in both the mid- and far-infrared spectral regions. Such remote, long-term observations are made possible by the recent development of compact long-life hybrid cryogenic dewars which are necessary to cool the sensitive detectors to the 3-4 K range. The success of this hybrid concept is based on the use of long-life Stirling cycle cryocoolers to intercept parasitic heat from the internal radiation shields of the superfluid helium dewar. Extensive system trade studies are required to optimize the mass, power, and lifetime of these space-borne cryogenic systems. The SAFIRE Cryogenic Subsystem is described, including the thermal performance trades leading to the chosen system configuration and the important dewar/cryocooler interface issues.

  20. Array controller system with cryogenic pre-amplifiers for MIMIZUKU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, K.; Sako, S.; Miyata, T.; Kamizuka, T.; Ohsawa, R.; Uchiyama, M. S.; Mori, K.; Yamaguchi, J.; Asano, K.; Uchiyama, M.

    2016-07-01

    MIMIZUKU is a mid-infrared imager and spectrograph being developed for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 6.5-m telescope (PI: Y. Yoshii). To fully utilize a high atmospheric transmission of the Chajnantor site, MIMIZUKU covers a wide wavelength range from 2 to 38 μm with three array detectors: a HAWAII-1RG HgCdTe 1024 × 1024 array with a 5 μm cutoff manufactured by Teledyne, an Aquarius Si:As IBC 1024 × 1024 array by Raytheon, and a MF-128 Si:Sb BIB 128 × 128 array by DRS. We have newly developed an array controller system to operate these multiple arrays. A sampling rate higher than 0.5 MHz is required to prevent from saturation of their wells in broad-band imaging observations with MIMIZUKU due to high thermal background flux. Such high speed signals are dulled when passing through lines from the arrays to readout circuits. To overcome this problem, we have developed high-speed cryogenic buffer pre-amplifier circuits with commercial GaAs MESFETs, instead of Si JFETs, which are generally used in buffer amplifiers at cryogenic temperatures. The cryogenic buffer circuits are installed on an outer wall of the optical bench of MIMIZUKU at 20 K. We have measured readout noises of the array controller system including the cryogenic buffers in a test cryostat and room temperature circuits and confirmed that input referred noises of the system are lower than the specification value of the readout noise of the Aquarius array.

  1. Cryogenic Transport of High-Pressure-System Recharge Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K,; Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bohannon, Carl

    2010-01-01

    A method of relatively safe, compact, efficient recharging of a high-pressure room-temperature gas supply has been proposed. In this method, the gas would be liquefied at the source for transport as a cryogenic fluid at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Upon reaching the destination, a simple heating/expansion process would be used to (1) convert the transported cryogenic fluid to the room-temperature, high-pressure gaseous form in which it is intended to be utilized and (2) transfer the resulting gas to the storage tank of the system to be recharged. In conventional practice for recharging high-pressure-gas systems, gases are transported at room temperature in high-pressure tanks. For recharging a given system to a specified pressure, a transport tank must contain the recharge gas at a much higher pressure. At the destination, the transport tank is connected to the system storage tank to be recharged, and the pressures in the transport tank and the system storage tank are allowed to equalize. One major disadvantage of the conventional approach is that the high transport pressure poses a hazard. Another disadvantage is the waste of a significant amount of recharge gas. Because the transport tank is disconnected from the system storage tank when it is at the specified system recharge pressure, the transport tank still contains a significant amount of recharge gas (typically on the order of half of the amount transported) that cannot be used. In the proposed method, the cryogenic fluid would be transported in a suitably thermally insulated tank that would be capable of withstanding the recharge pressure of the destination tank. The tank would be equipped with quick-disconnect fluid-transfer fittings and with a low-power electric heater (which would not be used during transport). In preparation for transport, a relief valve would be attached via one of the quick-disconnect fittings (see figure). During transport, the interior of the tank would be kept at a near

  2. Reducing boiloff losses in cryogenic storage systems to the minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunnington, R.

    The results of an analysis to minimize the boil-off due to insulation heat leak in cryogenic storage vessels are presented for a nonisothermal vapor-cooled shield (VCS) and a multi-layer model with improved realism. Inclusion of the second law of thermodynamics in the thermal design process reduces the boil-off losses to the minimum possible. The optimum ratio of heat exchanger area to VCS area is about 25. The results of an internal tank heat exchange optimization analysis are reported. The minimum boil-off rate occurred near a liquid Reynolds number of about 250, for a tube diameter of about 2.8 cm, and a 2.8 K temperature drop. The results of a sensitivity study of off-nominal operation of a cryogenic storage thermal control system are also given.

  3. Preliminary description of the ground test accelerator cryogenic cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) under construction at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is part of the Neutral Particle Beam Program supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office. The GTA is a full-sized test facility to evaluate the feasibility of using a negative ion accelerator to produce a neutral particle beam (NPB). The NPB would ultimately be used outside the earth's atmosphere as a target discriminator or as a directed energy weapon. The operation of the GTA at cryogenic temperature is advantageous for two reasons: first, the decrease of temperature caused a corresponding decrease in the rf heating of the copper in the various units of the accelerator, and second, at the lower temperature the decrease in the thermal expansion coefficient also provides greater thermal stability and consequently, better operating stability for the accelerator. This paper discusses the cryogenic cooling system needed to achieve these advantages. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Cryogenic system for the MYRRHA superconducting linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Chevalier, Nicolas R.; Junquera, Tomas; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre; Romão, Luis Medeiros; Vandeplassche, Dirk

    2014-01-29

    SCK⋅CEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, is designing MYRRHA, a flexible fast spectrum research reactor (80 MW{sub th}), conceived as an accelerator driven system (ADS), able to operate in sub-critical and critical modes. It contains a continuous-wave (CW) superconducting (SC) proton accelerator of 600 MeV, a spallation target and a multiplying core with MOX fuel, cooled by liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi). From 17 MeV onward, the SC accelerator will consist of 48 β=0.36 spoke-loaded cavities (352 MHz), 34 β=0.47 elliptical cavities (704 MHz) and 60 β=0.65 elliptical cavities (704 MHz). We present an analysis of the thermal loads and of the optimal operating temperature of the cryogenic system. In particular, the low operating frequency of spoke cavities makes their operation in CW mode possible both at 4.2 K or at 2 K. Our analysis outlines the main factors that determine at what temperature the spoke cavities should be operated. We then present different cryogenic fluid distribution schemes, important characteristics (storage, transfer line, etc.) and the main challenges offered by MYRRHA in terms of cryogenics.

  5. Cryogenic system for the MYRRHA superconducting linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Nicolas R.; Junquera, Tomas; Thermeau, Jean-Pierre; Romão, Luis Medeiros; Vandeplassche, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    SCKṡCEN, the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, is designing MYRRHA, a flexible fast spectrum research reactor (80 MWth), conceived as an accelerator driven system (ADS), able to operate in sub-critical and critical modes. It contains a continuous-wave (CW) superconducting (SC) proton accelerator of 600 MeV, a spallation target and a multiplying core with MOX fuel, cooled by liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi). From 17 MeV onward, the SC accelerator will consist of 48 β=0.36 spoke-loaded cavities (352 MHz), 34 β=0.47 elliptical cavities (704 MHz) and 60 β=0.65 elliptical cavities (704 MHz). We present an analysis of the thermal loads and of the optimal operating temperature of the cryogenic system. In particular, the low operating frequency of spoke cavities makes their operation in CW mode possible both at 4.2 K or at 2 K. Our analysis outlines the main factors that determine at what temperature the spoke cavities should be operated. We then present different cryogenic fluid distribution schemes, important characteristics (storage, transfer line, etc.) and the main challenges offered by MYRRHA in terms of cryogenics.

  6. Molecular absorption cryogenic cooler for liquid hydrogen propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, G. A.; Jones, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    A light weight, long life molecular absorption cryogenic cooler (MACC) system is described which can use low temperature waste heat to provide cooling for liquid hydrogen propellant tanks for interplanetary spacecraft. Detailed tradeoff studies were made to evaluate the refrigeration system component interactions in order to minimize the mass of the spacecraft cooler system. Based on this analysis a refrigerator system mass of 31 kg is required to provide the .48 watts of cooling required by a 2.3 meter diameter liquid hydrogen tank.

  7. The integration of cryogenic cooling systems with superconducting electronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-07-01

    The need for cryogenic cooling has been critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of the superconducting circuit is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a disadvantage. This report will talk about the various methods for refrigerating superconducting devices. Cryocooler types will be compared for vibration, efficiency, and cost. Some solutions to specific problems of integrating cryocoolers to superconducting devices are presented.

  8. Cryogenic optical systems and instruments IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 10-12, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melugin, Ramsey K. (Editor); Pruitt, Gerald R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to cryogenic system design and optical technology; cryogenic instruments, sensors, and detectors; space cryogenic dewars and coolers; and cryogenic mechanisms, testing, and structures. Particular attention is given to mission optimization of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), alternative aperture stop position designs for SIRTF, scaling laws for lightweight optics, evaluation of a far-infrared Ge:Ga multiplexed detector array, cryogenic limb array etalon spectrometer calibration, reliability growth of coolers for advanced optical systems and instruments, flight-qualified solid argon cooler for the BBXRT instrument, precision mechanisms for optical alignments at cryogenic temperatures, versatile cryogenic rotary-positioning systems, and optical alignments of the Cosmic Background Explorer observatory.

  9. IMPROVEMENTS TO THE CRYOGENIC CONTROL SYSTEM ON DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    HOLTROP,K.L; ANDERSON,P.M; MAUZEY,P.S

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The cryogenic facility that is part of the DIII-D tokamak system supplies liquid nitrogen and liquid helium to the superconducting magnets used for electron cyclotron heating, the D{sub 2} pellet injection system, cryopumps in the DIII-D vessel, and cryopanels in the neutral beam injection system. The liquid helium is liquefied on site using a Sulzer liquefier that has a 150 l/h liquefaction rate. Control of the cryogenic facility at DIII-D was initially accomplished through the use of three different programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Recently, two of those three PLCs, a Sattcon PLC controlling the Sulzer liquefier and a Westinghouse PLC, were removed and all their control logic was merged into the remaining PLC, a Siemens T1555. This replacement was originally undertaken because the removed PLCs were obsolete and unsupported. However, there have been additional benefits from the replacement. The replacement of the RS-232 serial links between the graphical user interface and the PLCs with a high speed Ethernet link allows for real-time display and historical trending of nearly all the cryosystem's data. this has greatly increased the ability to troubleshoot problems with the system, and has permitted optimization of the cryogenic system's performance because of the increased system integration. To move the control logic of the Sattcon control loops into the T1555, an extensive modification of the basic PID control was required. These modifications allow for better control of the control loops and are now being incorporated in other control loops in the system.

  10. Automatic software for controlling cryogenic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A technical discussion of the lessons learned during the seven years of software development/testing which occurred on the Liquid Oxygen System for the Space Shuttle at the Kennedy Space Center is given. Problems which were solved during these years came into four distinct phases: design/debug before simulation runs, verification using simulation with models up through Space Transportation System-1 launch, hardware usage from first launch to Space Transportation System-5 launch, and future use. Each problem/solution describes the apparent problem requirements/constraints, usable alternatives, selected action, and results.

  11. Design theory and performance of cryogenic molecular adsorption refrigeration systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, W. H.; Woltman, A. W.; Masson, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Closed-cycle operation of molecular adsorption refrigeration systems (MARS) has been demonstrated by using thermally cycled zeolites to adsorb and desorb various gases under pressures of 20-60 atm. This paper develops three aspects of the design theory: the physical theory of molecular adsorption of small molecules such as A, N2, N2O and NH3, the design relations for closed-cycle flow for three or more compressors, and the coefficient of performance. This work is intended to demonstrate nonmechanical gas compression for various cryogenic gases than can compete with mechanical systems with a different mix of advantages and disadvantages.

  12. Closed cycle cryogenic fiber extrusion system

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, H.U.; Ruden, E.L.; Strohmaier, K.D.; Wessel, F.J.; Yur, G.

    1996-10-01

    A fiber extrusion system is described that produces frozen fibers of almost any condensible gas. This extruder has the advantage of employing a closed-refrigeration system. To date, this system has produced fibers of H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and Ne of a diameter ranging from 100 to 130 {mu}m. The extrusion occurs at a specific temperature which is several degrees below the triple point of these gases. Once the fiber is extruded it can survive in vacuum for 20 min if the nozzle (extrusion) temperature is lowered to 8 K. The length of these fibers can be of the order of 1 m. D{sub 2} fibers will be used in a staged {ital Z}-pinch experiment as a fuel for thermonuclear fusion. For this application a guiding structure is needed to position the fiber between the electrodes with millimeter precision, without significantly affecting its quality. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Cryogenic system for BERLinPro

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, W.; Hellwig, A.; Knobloch, J.; Pflückhahn, D.; Rotterdam, S.

    2014-01-29

    In 2010 Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) received funding to design and build the Berlin Energy Recovery Linac Project BERLinPro. The goal of this compact Energy recovery linac (ERL) is to develop the accelerator physics and technology required to generate and accelerate a 100-mA, 1-mm mrad emittance electron beam. The BERLinPro know-how can then be transferred to various ERL-based applications. All accelerating RF cavities including the electron source are based on superconducting technology operated at 1.8 K. A Linde L700 helium liquefier is supplying 4.5 K helium. The subatmospheric pressure of 16 mbar of the helium bath of the cavities will be achieved by pumping with a set of cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps. While the L700 is already in operating, the 1.8 K system and the helium transfer system are in design phase.

  14. Design, Project Execution, and Commissioning of the 1.8 K Superfluid Helium Refrigeration System for SRF Cryomodule Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Treite, P.; Nuesslein, U.; Jia, Yi; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.

    2015-07-15

    The Fermilab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) provides a test bed to measure the performance of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CM). These SRF components form the basic building blocks of future high intensity accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and a Muon Collider. Linde Kryotechnik AG and Linde Cryogenics have designed, constructed and commissioned the superfluid helium refrigerator needed to support SRF component testing at the CMTF Facility. The hybrid refrigerator is designed to operate in a variety of modes and under a wide range of boundary conditions down to 1.8 Kelvin set by CM design. Special features of the refrigerator include the use of warm and cold compression and high efficiency turbo expanders.This paper gives an overview on the wide range of the challenging cooling requirements, the design, fabrication and the commissioning of the installed cryogenic system.

  15. Design, Project Execution, and Commissioning of the 1.8 K Superfluid Helium Refrigeration System for SRF Cryomodule Testing

    DOE PAGES

    Treite, P.; Nuesslein, U.; Jia, Yi; ...

    2015-07-15

    The Fermilab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) provides a test bed to measure the performance of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cryomodules (CM). These SRF components form the basic building blocks of future high intensity accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and a Muon Collider. Linde Kryotechnik AG and Linde Cryogenics have designed, constructed and commissioned the superfluid helium refrigerator needed to support SRF component testing at the CMTF Facility. The hybrid refrigerator is designed to operate in a variety of modes and under a wide range of boundary conditions down to 1.8 Kelvin set by CM design. Special features ofmore » the refrigerator include the use of warm and cold compression and high efficiency turbo expanders.This paper gives an overview on the wide range of the challenging cooling requirements, the design, fabrication and the commissioning of the installed cryogenic system.« less

  16. Operational and troubleshooting experiences in the SST-1 cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesuria, G.; Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.; Sonara, D.; Gupta, N. C.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Christian, D.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Patel, K.; Shah, P.; Nimavat, H.; Sharma, R.; Patel, J. C.; Tank, J.; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the cooldown and current charging campaign have been carried out towards the demonstration of the first successful plasma discharge in the steady state superconducting Tokomak (SST-1). The SST-1 machine consists of cable-in-conduit wound superconducting toroidal as well as poloidal coils, cooled using 1.3 kW at 4.5 K helium refrigerator -cum- liquefier (HRL) system. The cryo system provides the two-phase helium at 0.13 MPa at 4.5 K as well as forced-flow pressurized helium at 0.4 MPa and in addition to 7 g-s-1 liquefaction capacity required for the current leads and other cold mass at 4.5 K. The entire integrated cold masses having different thermo hydraulic resistances cooled with the SST-1 HRL in optimised process parameters. In order to maintain different levels of temperatures and to facilitate smooth and reliable cooldown, warm-up, normal operations as well as to handle abnormal events such as, quench or utilities failures etc., exergy efficient process are adopted for the helium refrigerator-cum-liquefier (HRL) with an installed equivalent capacity of 1.3 kW at 4.5 K. Using the HRL, the cold mass of about 40 tons is being routinely cooled down from ambient temperature to 4.5 K with an average cooldown rate of 0.75 - 1 K-h-1. Long-term cryogenic stable conditions were obtained within 15 days in the superconducting coils and their connecting feeders. Afterwards, all of the cold mass is warmed-up in a controlled manner to ambient temperature. In this paper, we report the recent operational results of the cryogenic system during the first plasma discharge in SST-1 as well as the troubleshooting experiences of the cryogenic plant related hardware.

  17. The refrigeration and cryogenic distribution system for the shortpulse x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.; Corlett, John N.

    2002-10-20

    This report describes the essential elements of the cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system starts at the level of the linac superconducting RF cavities [1] and moves out through the cryogenic piping to the liquid helium refrigeration plant that will be used to cool the RF cavities and the undulator magnets. For this report, the cryogenic distribution system and cryogenic refrigerator includes the following elements: (1) The piping within the linac cryogenic modules will influence the heat transfer through the super-fluid helium from the outer surface of the TESLA niobium cavity and the liquid to gas interface within the horizontal header pipe where the superfluid helium boils. This piping determines the final design of the linac cryogenic module. (2) The acceptable pressure drops determine the supply and return piping dimensions. (3) The helium distribution system is determined by the need to cool down and warm up the various elements in the light source. (4) The size of the cryogenic plant is determined by the heat loads and the probable margin of error on those heat loads. Since the final heat loads are determined by the acceleration gradient in the cavities, a linac with five cryogenic modules will be compared to a linac with only four cryogenic modules. The design assumes that all cryogenic elements in the facility will be cooled using a common cryogenic plant. To minimize vibration effects on the beam lines, this plant is assumed to be located some distance from the synchrotron light beam lines. All of the cryogenic elements in the facility will be attached to the helium refrigeration system through cryogenic transfer lines. The largest single cryogenic load is the main linac, which consists of four or five cryogenic modules depending on the design gradient for the cavities in the linac section. The second largest heat load comes from the cryogenic modules that contain the transverse deflecting RF cavities. The injector linac is the third largest

  18. Efficient two-level cryogenic power distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, O. M.; Mueller, E. K.

    2002-05-01

    The availability of new technologies such as high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cables, high-voltage, high-speed semiconductor switches, and cryogenic power conversion suggests that one considers how these technologies can be combined and applied effectively to provide a more efficient energy distribution system. The present-day 60 Hz concept is, after all, a century old. Advantages can be obtained by combining DC and high-frequency AC technologies. DC transmission solves the problem of AC losses in HTS cables and high-frequency switching techniques reduce size, weight and cost. This paper proposes and discusses a distribution system based on two DC voltage levels (˜4 kVDC/650 VDC) interconnected with DC/DC converters using high-voltage insulated-gate bipolar transistors (HV-IGBT's), integrated gate-commutated thyristors (IGCT's), or MOS-controlled turn-off thyristors (MTO's) operated at cryogenic temperatures. Cryo-MOSFET DC/AC inverters provide the 60 Hz, 240/120 VAC user voltages. HTS cables supply power as well as the cooling fluid liquid nitrogen (LN2). The load shedding properties of such a system based on the use of LN2 are evaluated. The proposed concept is suitable for city blocks with many high-rise buildings. It provides an increase in efficiency and therefore contributes to the reduction of global warming.

  19. Fermilab Muon Campus g-2 Cryogenic Distribution Remote Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.

    2015-11-05

    The Muon Campus (MC) is able to measure Muon g-2 with high precision and comparing its value to the theoretical prediction. The MC has four 300 KW screw compressors and four liquid helium refrigerators. The centerpiece of the Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab is a large, 50-foot-diameter superconducting muon storage ring. This one-of-a-kind ring, made of steel, aluminum and superconducting wire, was built for the previous g-2 experiment at Brookhaven. Due to each subsystem has to be far away from each other and be placed in the distant location, therefore, Siemens Process Control System PCS7-400, Automation Direct DL205 & DL05 PLC, Synoptic and Fermilab ACNET HMI are the ideal choices as the MC g-2 cryogenic distribution real-time and on-Line remote control system. This paper presents a method which has been successfully used by many Fermilab distribution cryogenic real-time and On-Line remote control systems.

  20. Fermilab Muon Campus g-2 Cryogenic Distribution Remote Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Muon Campus (MC) is able to measure Muon g-2 with high precision and comparing its value to the theoretical prediction. The MC has four 300 KW screw compressors and four liquid helium refrigerators. The centerpiece of the Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab is a large, 50-foot-diameter superconducting muon storage ring. This one-of-a-kind ring, made of steel, aluminum and superconducting wire, was built for the previous g-2 experiment at Brookhaven. Because each subsystem has to be far away from each other and be placed in the distant location, Siemens Process Control System PCS7-400, Automation Direct DL205 & DL05 PLC, Synoptic and Fermilab ACNET HMI are the ideal choices as the MC g-2 cryogenic distribution real-time and on-Line remote control system. This paper presents a method which has been successfully used by many Fermilab distribution cryogenic real-time and On-Line remote control systems.

  1. Layered composite thermal insulation system for nonvacuum cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.

    2016-03-01

    A problem common to both space launch applications and cryogenic propulsion test facilities is providing suitable thermal insulation for complex cryogenic piping, tanks, and components that cannot be vacuum-jacketed or otherwise be broad-area-covered. To meet such requirements and provide a practical solution to the problem, a layered composite insulation system has been developed for nonvacuum applications and extreme environmental exposure conditions. Layered composite insulation system for extreme conditions (or LCX) is particularly suited for complex piping or tank systems that are difficult or practically impossible to insulate by conventional means. Consisting of several functional layers, the aerogel blanket-based system can be tailored to specific thermal and mechanical performance requirements. The operational principle of the system is layer-pairs working in combination. Each layer pair is comprised of a primary insulation layer and a compressible radiant barrier layer. Vacuum-jacketed piping systems, whether part of the ground equipment or the flight vehicle, typically include numerous terminations, disconnects, umbilical connections, or branches that must be insulated by nonvacuum means. Broad-area insulation systems, such as spray foam or rigid foam panels, are often the lightweight materials of choice for vehicle tanks, but the plumbing elements, feedthroughs, appurtenances, and structural supports all create ;hot spot; areas that are not readily insulated by similar means. Finally, the design layouts of valve control skids used for launch pads and test stands can be nearly impossible to insulate because of their complexity and high density of components and instrumentation. Primary requirements for such nonvacuum thermal insulation systems include the combination of harsh conditions, including full weather exposure, vibration, and structural loads. Further requirements include reliability and the right level of system breathability for thermal

  2. Search for 0 νββ with CUORE: experiment and cryogenic systems overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobizhev, Alexey; Cuore Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    CUORE--the Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events--is a search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te based at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories in Italy. The experiment, currently in its final stages of commissioning, is expected to begin data taking in 2016 and eventually be sensitive to a ~1026 y half life after a 5 y live time. The detector consists of an array of 988 5 ×5 ×5 cm3 TeO2 crystals (204 kg isotope mass) operated as bolometers at ~10 mK temperatures with Ge NTD readout. Running a ~1 t, ~1 m3 detector at such temperatures necessitated the design and construction of the world's largest and most powerful dilution refrigerator, capable of reaching temperatures <10 mK and producing ~ 2 mW of cooling power at 100 mK. The cryostat is optimized for noise and vibration isolation, as well as radiopurity. We report the expected and observed performance of the CUORE experiment and, in particular, its cryogenic systems. This work is supported by the INFN, DOE, NSF, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the University of Wisconsin Foundation, and Yale University.

  3. Cryogenic optical systems and instruments V; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melugin, Ramsey K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Topics discussed in this volume include cryogenic system design and optical technology; cryogenic instruments; cryogenic/IR mechanisms, testing, and performance; and space cryogenic dewars and coolers. Papers included are on the SIRTF cryooptics technology plan, the development of the SPIRIT III sensor, the design of a rapidly cooled cryogenic mirror, the cryogenic Michelson interferometer on the Space Shuttle, a reflective optical system for a hemispherical field radiometer, and infrared filters for cryogenic radiometers. Attention is also given to the development of a variable-profile scan mirror mechanism, a direct-drive digitally commutated filter wheel positioning system for cryogenic optical applications, a high-performance chopping secondary mirror for infrared astronomy, recent developments in compressor-based Joule-Thomson cooling, a radiative cryogenic cooler for the pressure modulator IR radiometer, and SIRTF thermal design modifications to increase lifetime.

  4. Installation and Commissioning Automated Demand Response Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Global Energy Partners; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Kiliccote, Sila; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Wikler, Greg; Prijyanonda, Joe; Chiu, Albert

    2008-04-21

    strategies if convenient to the facility. From 2003 through 2006 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) developed and tested a series of demand response automation communications technologies known as Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR). In 2007, LBNL worked with three investor-owned utilities to commercialize and implement Auto-DR programs in their territories. This paper summarizes the history of technology development for Auto-DR, and describes the DR technologies and control strategies utilized at many of the facilities. It outlines early experience in commercializing Auto-DR systems within PG&E DR programs, including the steps to configure the automation technology. The paper also describes the DR sheds derived using three different baseline methodologies. Emphasis is given to the lessons learned from installation and commissioning of Auto-DR systems, with a detailed description of the technical coordination roles and responsibilities, and costs.

  5. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 1: Management supply, sections 1 - 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the cryogenic supply system for use on space shuttle vehicles was conducted. The major outputs of the analysis are: (1) evaluations of subsystem and integrated system concepts, (2) selection of representative designs, (3) parametric data and sensitivity studies, (4) evaluation of cryogenic cooling in environmental control subsystems, and (5) development of mathematical model.

  6. The XRS Low Temperature Cryogenic System: Ground Performance Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breon, Susan; Sirron, Peter; Boyle, Robert; Canavan, Ed; DiPirro, Michael; Serlemitsos, Aristides; Tuttle, James; Whitehouse, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is part of the Astro-E mission scheduled to launch early in 2000. Its cryogenic system is required to cool a 32-element square array of x-ray microcalorimeters to 60-65 mK over a mission lifetime of at least 2 years. This is accomplished using an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) contained within a two-stage superfluid helium/solid neon cooler. Goddard Space Flight Center is providing the ADR and helium dewar. The flight system was assembled in Sept. 1997 and subjected to extensive thermal performance tests. This paper presents test results at both the system and component levels. In addition, results of the low temperature topoff performed in Japan with the engineering unit neon and helium dewars are discussed.

  7. Integration and characterization of the cryogenic system of MEGARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrusca R., D.; Cisneros G., M. E.; Velázquez, M.; Zenteno H., J. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Carrasco, E.; Sánchez-Moreno, F. C.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.

    2016-08-01

    MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is an optical Integral-Field Unit and Multi-Object Spectrograph designed for the GTC (Gran Telescopio de Canarias) 10.4m telescope in La Palma, it is expected that the spectrograph will be delivered to GTC towards the end of 2016. MEGARA includes an open cycle cryostat which harbors the scientific CCD of the instrument at an operating temperature of 153 K, this cryogenic system has been designed and integrated by the "Astronomical Instrumentation Lab for Millimeter Wavelengths" at the Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) in Mexico. Early this year the cryostat has finished its fabrication and now it is on AIV phases, in this paper we report the cryostat CCD-head and dewar back integration, vacuum and cryogenic test results are also reported. The final integration of the cryostat with the other components of the instrument is taking place at LICA lab at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

  8. D0 Cryogenic System Superconducting Solenoid Platform I/O

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, D.; /Fermilab

    1997-10-09

    The Dzero detector is scheduled for a major upgrade between 1996 and 1999. This note describes the specifications and configuration of the physical Input/Output devices and instrumentation of the 2 Tesla Superconducting Solenoid. The Solenoid and the VLPC cryostats both reside on the detector platform and are cooled by the Dzero Helium Refrigerator. The cryogenic process control s for these two components will be an extension of the TI565 programmable logic controller system used for other Dzero cryogenic controls. Two Input/Output Bases will be installed on the Dzero detector platform near the cryo corner. These I/O bases will handle all the sensor input and process control output devices from the Solenoid and VLPC cryostats. Having the I/O bases installed on the detector platform makes the connecting cabl ing to the platform much easier . All the instruments are wired directly to the I/O base. The bases have only one communications network cabl e that must be routed off the platform to the South side of the Dzero building.

  9. Spiral 2 cryogenic system overview: Design, construction and performance test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschildre, C.; Bernhardt, J.; Flavien, G.; Crispel, S.; Souli, M.; Commeaux, C.

    2014-01-01

    The new particle accelerator project Spiral 2 at GANIL ("Grand Accélérateur d'Ions Lourds, i.e. National Large Heavy Ion Accelerator) in Caen (France) is a very large installation, intended to serve fundamental research in nuclear physics. The heart of the future machine features a superconductor linear accelerator, delivering a beam until 20Mev/A, which are then used to bombard a matter target. The resulting reactions, such as fission, transfer, fusion, etc. will generate billions of exotic nuclei. To achieve acceleration of the beam, 26 cavities which are placed inside cryomodules at helium cryogenic temperature will be used. AL-AT (Air Liquide Advanced Technologies) takes part to the project by supplying cryogenic plant. The plant includes the liquefier associated to its compressor station, a large dewar, a storage tank for helium gas and transfer lines. In addition, a helium recovery system composed of recovery compressor, high pressure storage and external purifier has been supplied. Customized HELIAL LF has been designed, manufactured and tested by AL-AT to match the refrigeration power need for the Spiral 2 project which is around 1300 W equivalent at 4.5 K.

  10. Spiral 2 cryogenic system overview: Design, construction and performance test

    SciTech Connect

    Deschildre, C.; Bernhardt, J.; Flavien, G.; Crispel, S.; Souli, M.; Commeaux, C.

    2014-01-29

    The new particle accelerator project Spiral 2 at GANIL (“Grand Accélérateur d’Ions Lourds, i.e. National Large Heavy Ion Accelerator) in Caen (France) is a very large installation, intended to serve fundamental research in nuclear physics. The heart of the future machine features a superconductor linear accelerator, delivering a beam until 20Mev/A, which are then used to bombard a matter target. The resulting reactions, such as fission, transfer, fusion, etc. will generate billions of exotic nuclei. To achieve acceleration of the beam, 26 cavities which are placed inside cryomodules at helium cryogenic temperature will be used. AL-AT (Air Liquide Advanced Technologies) takes part to the project by supplying cryogenic plant. The plant includes the liquefier associated to its compressor station, a large dewar, a storage tank for helium gas and transfer lines. In addition, a helium recovery system composed of recovery compressor, high pressure storage and external purifier has been supplied. Customized HELIAL LF has been designed, manufactured and tested by AL-AT to match the refrigeration power need for the Spiral 2 project which is around 1300 W equivalent at 4.5 K.

  11. Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium of Multicomponent Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Calado, Jorge C. G.; Zollweg, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid-vapor and solid-vapor equilibria at low to moderate pressures and low temperatures are important in many solar system environments, including the surface and clouds of Titan, the clouds of Uranus and Neptune, and the surfaces of Mars and Triton. The familiar cases of ideal behavior are limiting cases of a general thermodynamic representation for the vapor pressure of each component in a homogeneous multicomponent system. The fundamental connections of laboratory measurements to thermodynamic models are through the Gibbs-Duhem relation and the Gibbs-Helmholtz relation. Using laboratory measurements of the total pressure, temperature, and compositions of the liquid and vapor phases at equilibrium, the values of these parameters can be determined. The resulting model for vapor-liquid equilibrium can then conveniently and accurately be used to calculate pressures, compositions, condensation altitudes, and their dependencies on changing climatic conditions. A specific system being investigated is CH4-C2H6-N2, at conditions relevant to Titan's surface and atmosphere. Discussed are: the modeling of existing data on CH4-N2, with applications to the composition of Titan's condensate clouds; some new measurements on the CH4-C2H6 binary, using a high-precision static/volumetric system, and on the C2H6-N2 binary, using the volumetric system and a sensitive cryogenic flow calorimeter; and describe a new cryogenic phase-equilibrium vessel with which we are beginning a detailed, systematic study of the three constituent binaries and the ternary CH4-C2H6-N2 system at temperatures ranging from 80 to 105 K and pressures from 0.1 to 7 bar.

  12. Test system accurately determines tensile properties of irradiated metals at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, P. J.; Skalka, R. J.; Vandergrift, E. F.

    1967-01-01

    Modified testing system determines tensile properties of irradiated brittle-type metals at cryogenic temperatures. The system includes a lightweight cryostat, split-screw grips, a universal joint, and a special temperature control system.

  13. Baseline Configuration of the Cryogenic System for the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Casas-Cubillos, J.; Claudet, S.; Parma, V.; Riddone, G.; Serio, L.; Tavian, L.; Vullierme, B.; van Weelderen, R.; Chorowski, M.; Ganni, R.; Rode, C.; Klebaner, A.; Peterson, T.; Theilacker, J.; Rousset, B.; Weisend, J.; /SLAC

    2007-06-18

    The paper discusses the main constraints and boundary conditions and describes the baseline configuration of the International Linear Collider (ILC) cryogenic system. The cryogenic layout, architecture and the cooling principle are presented. The paper addresses a plan for study and development required to demonstrate and improve the performance, to reduce cost and to attain the desired reliability.

  14. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Cryogenics Test Lab Control System Upgrade Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harp, Janice Leshay

    2014-01-01

    This project will outfit the Simulated Propellant Loading System (SPLS) at KSC's Cryogenics Test Laboratory with a new programmable logic control system. The control system upgrade enables the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenace Element Integration Team and other users of the SPLS to conduct testing in a controls environment similar to that used at the launch pad.

  15. Analysis of the cryogenic system behavior for pulsed heat load in EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, L. B.; Zhuang, M.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H.

    2014-01-29

    EAST is the first full superconducting fusion device. The plasma is confined by the magnetic fields generated from a large set of superconducting magnets which are made of cable in-conduit conductor (CICC). In operation, these magnets suffer heat loads from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as the eddy currents and the AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and the resistive heat generated at the current lead transiting to room temperature. The cryogenic system of our EAST consists of a 2kW/4K helium refrigerator and a distribution system for the cooling of poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) coils, structures, thermal shields, buslines and current leads. Pulsed heat load is the main difference between the cryogenic system of a full superconducting Tokamak system and other large scale cryogenic systems. The cryogenic system operates in a pulsed heat loads mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time. At the same time, the cryogenic system parameters such as helium cooling superconducting magnets, helium refrigerator and helium distribution system are changing. In this paper, the variation range of the parameters of superconducting magnets and refrigerator has been analyzed in the typical plasma discharge mode. The control scheme for the pulsed loads characteristics of the cryogenic system has been proposed, the implementation of which helps to smooth the pulse loads and to improve the stability of the operation of the cryogenic system.

  16. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

    2001-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space, and would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray-bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray-bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube heat exchanger, and a spray-bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses.

  17. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachbart, Robin H.; Holt, James B.; Hastings, Leon J.

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy is required. a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point. the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating, boil-off losses.

  18. General purpose multiplexing device for cryogenic microwave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Benjamin J.; Moores, Bradley A.; Rosenthal, Eric I.; Kerckhoff, Joseph; Lehnert, K. W.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and experimentally characterize a general purpose device for signal processing in circuit quantum electrodynamics systems. The device is a broadband two-port microwave circuit element with three modes of operation: it can transmit, reflect, or invert incident signals between 4 and 8 GHz. This property makes it a versatile tool for lossless signal processing at cryogenic temperatures. In particular, rapid switching (≤ 15 ns ) between these operation modes enables several multiplexing readout protocols for superconducting qubits. We report the device's performance in a two-channel code domain multiplexing demonstration. The multiplexed data are recovered with fast readout times (up to 400 ns ) and infidelities ≤ 10-2 for probe powers ≥ 7 fW , in agreement with the expectation for binary signaling with Gaussian noise.

  19. CHARMS: The Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Bradley; Leviton, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The success of numerous upcoming NASA infrared (IR) missions will rely critically on accurate knowledge of the IR refractive indices of their constituent optical components at design operating temperatures. To satisfy the demand for such data, we have built a Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS), which, for typical 1R materials. can measure the index of refraction accurate to (+ or -) 5 x 10sup -3 . This versatile, one-of-a-kind facility can also measure refractive index over a wide range of wavelengths, from 0.105 um in the far-ultraviolet to 6 um in the IR, and over a wide range of temperatures, from 10 K to 100 degrees C, all with comparable accuracies. We first summarize the technical challenges we faced and engineering solutions we developed during the construction of CHARMS. Next we present our "first light," index of refraction data for fused silica and compare our data to previously published results.

  20. An overview of Ball Aerospace cryogen storage and delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, J.; Keller, J.; Mills, G.; Schmidt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Starting on the Gemini program in the 1960s, Beech Aircraft (now Ball Aerospace) has been designing and manufacturing dewars for a variety of cryogens including liquid hydrogen and oxygen. These dewars flew on the Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle spacecraft providing fuel cell reactants resulting in over 150 manned spaceflights. Since Space Shuttle, Ball has also built the liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for the Boeing Phantom Eye unmanned aerial vehicle. Returning back to its fuel cell days, Ball has designed, built and tested a volume-constrained liquid hydrogen and oxygen tank system for reactant delivery to fuel cells on unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs). Herein past history of Ball technology is described. Testing has been completed on the UUV specific design, which will be described.

  1. Compact cryogenic system with mechanical cryocoolers for antihydrogen synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shibata, M; Mohri, A; Kanai, Y; Enomoto, Y; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a compact cryogenic system which cools a vacuum chamber housing multi-ring trap electrodes (MRTs) of an antihydrogen synthesis trap using mechanical cryocoolers to achieve background pressure less than 10(-12) Torr. The vacuum chamber and the cryocoolers are thermally connected by copper strips of 99.9999% in purity. All components are installed within a diametric gap between the MRT of phi108 mm and a magnet bore of phi160 mm. An adjusting mechanism is prepared to align the MRT axis to the magnet axis. The vacuum chamber was successfully cooled down to 4.0 K after 14 h of cooling with heat load of 0.8 W.

  2. Design of Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer Cryogenic System for Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Lemoine, F. G.; Paik, H. J.; Zagarola, M.; Shirron, P. J.; Griggs, C. E.; Moody, M. V.; Han, S.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of a planet's gravity field provides fundamental information about the planet's mass properties. The static gravity field reveals information about the internal structure of the planet, including crustal density variations that provide information on the planet's geological history and evolution. The time variations of gravity result from the movement of mass inside the planet, on the surface, and in the atmosphere. NASA is interested in a Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer (SGG) with which to measure the gravity field of a planet from orbit. An SGG instrument is under development with the NASA PICASSO program, which will be able to resolve the Mars static gravity field to degree 200 in spherical harmonics, and the time-varying field on a monthly basis to degree 20 from a 255 x 320 km orbit. The SGG has a precision two orders of magnitude better than the electrostatic gravity gradiometer that was used on the ESA's GOCE mission. The SGG operates at the superconducting temperature lower than 6 K. This study developed a cryogenic thermal system to maintain the SGG at the design temperature in Mars orbit. The system includes fixed radiation shields, a low thermal conductivity support structure and a two-stage cryocooler. The fixed radiation shields use double aluminized polyimide to emit heat from the warm spacecraft into the deep space. The support structure uses carbon fiber reinforced plastic, which has low thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperature and very high stress. The low vibration cryocooler has two stages, of which the high temperature stage operates at 65 K and the low temperature stage works at 6 K, and the heat rejection radiator works at 300 K. The study also designed a second option with a 4-K adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) and two-stage 10-K turbo-Brayton cooler.

  3. Design of Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer Cryogenic System for Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Lemoine, F. G.; Shirron, P. J.; Paik, H. J.; Griggs, C. E.; Moody, M. V.; Han, S. C.; Zagarola, M.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of a planets gravity field provides fundamental information about the planets mass properties. The static gravity field reveals information about the internal structure of the planet, including crustal density variations that provide information on the planets geological history and evolution. The time variations of gravity result from the movement of mass inside the planet, on the surface, and in the atmosphere. NASA is interested in a Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer (SGG) with which to measure the gravity field of a planet from orbit. An SGG instrument is under development with the NASA PICASSO program, which will be able to resolve the Mars static gravity field to degree 200 in spherical harmonics, and the time-varying field on a monthly basis to degree 20 from a 255 x 320 km orbit. The SGG has a precision two orders of magnitude better than the electrostatic gravity gradiometer that was used on the ESAs GOCE mission. The SGG operates at the superconducting temperature lower than 6 K. This study developed a cryogenic thermal system to maintain the SGG at the design temperature in Mars orbit. The system includes fixed radiation shields, a low thermal conductivity support structure and a two-stage cryocooler. The fixed radiation shields use double aluminized polyimide to emit heat from the warm spacecraft into the deep space. The support structure uses carbon fiber reinforced plastic, which has low thermal conductivity at cryogenic temperature and very high stress. The low vibration cryocooler has two stages, of which the high temperature stage operates at 65 K and the low temperature stage works at 6 K, and the heat rejection radiator works at 300 K. The study also designed a second option with a 4-K adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) and two-stage 10-K turbo-Brayton cooler.

  4. CRYOGENIC SYSTEM FOR BEPCII SRF CAVITY, IR QUADRUPOLE AND DETECTOR SOLENOID MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect

    JIA,J.X.; WANG.L.

    2004-05-11

    Beijing Electron-Positron Collider Upgrade (BEPCII) requires three types of superconducting facilities, including one pair of SRF cavities, one pair of interaction region quadrupole magnets, and one detector solenoid magnet. The cryo-plant for BEPCII has a total cooling capacity of 1kW at 4.5K, which is composed of two separate helium refrigerators of 500W each. Two refrigerators share the same gas storage and recovery system. The engineering design for the cryogenic systems, including power leads, control dewars, subcooler, cryogenic valve boxes, cryogenic transfer-lines and cryogenic controls, is completed. The production of its subsystem is under way. This paper summarizes the progress in cryogenics of the BEPCII project.

  5. COMMISSIONING OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE ACCELERATOR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator complex consists of a 2.5 MeV H- front-end injector system, a 186 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and associated beam transport lines. The linac was commissioned in five discrete runs, starting in 2002 and completed in 2005. The accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines were commissioned in two runs from January to April 2006. With the completed commissioning of the SNS accelerator, the facility has begun initial low-power operations. In the course of beam commissioning, most beam performance parameters and beam intensity goals have been achieved at low duty factor. A number of beam dynamics measurements have been performed, including emittance evolution, transverse coupling in the ring, beam instability thresholds, and beam distributions on the target. The commissioning results, achieved beam performance and initial operating experience of the SNS will be discussed

  6. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 2: Technical report, sections 4 through 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and development of cryogenic supply systems for space shuttle vehicles are discussed. The weights, component counts, and statements of advantages and disadvantages of the systems considered are presented. Performance characteristics of the systems are analyzed in the form of graphs. Block diagrams and engineering drawings of the candidate systems are provided. Special consideration is given to flow rates and thermodynamic properties of the cryogenic systems.

  7. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 3: Technical report, section 10, 11 and 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The evaluation of candidate cryogenic fuel systems for space shuttle vehicles is discussed. A set of guidelines was used to establish a matrix of possible combinations for the integration of potential cryogenic systems. The various concepts and combinations which resulted from the integration efforts are described. The parameters which were considered in developing the matrix are: (1) storage of cryogenic materials, (2) fuel lines, (3) tank pressure control, (4) thermal control, (5) fluid control, and (6) fluid conditioning. Block diagrams and drawings of the candidate systems are provided. Performance predictions for the systems are outlined in tables of data.

  8. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 5A-1: Users manual for math models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Integrated Math Model for Cryogenic Systems is a flexible, broadly applicable systems parametric analysis tool. The program will effectively accommodate systems of considerable complexity involving large numbers of performance dependent variables such as are found in the individual and integrated cryogen systems. Basically, the program logic structure pursues an orderly progression path through any given system in much the same fashion as is employed for manual systems analysis. The system configuration schematic is converted to an alpha-numeric formatted configuration data table input starting with the cryogen consumer and identifying all components, such as lines, fittings, and valves, each in its proper order and ending with the cryogen supply source assembly. Then, for each of the constituent component assemblies, such as gas generators, turbo machinery, heat exchangers, and accumulators, the performance requirements are assembled in input data tabulations. Systems operating constraints and duty cycle definitions are further added as input data coded to the configuration operating sequence.

  9. Performance and Cost Evaluation of Cryogenic Solid Propulsion Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirim, Harry; Lo, Roger; Knecht, Thomas; Reinbold, Georg-Friedrich; Poller, Sascha

    2002-01-01

    cooling equipment and its operation during fabrication and launch, neither were there problems with thrust to weight ratio of un-cooled but insulated Cryogenic Solid Motors which ascend into their trajectory while leaving the cooling equipment at the launch pad. In performance calculations for new launchers with CSP-replacements of boosters or existing stages, ARIANE 5 and a 3-stage launcher with CSP - 1st stage into GTO serve as examples. For keeping payload-capacity in the reference orbit constant, the modeling of a rocket system essentially requires a process of iteration, in which the propellant mass is varied as central parameter and - with the help of a CSP mass-model - all other dimensions of the booster are derived from mass models etc. accordingly. The process is repeated until the payload resulting from GTO track-optimization corresponds with that of the model ARIANE 5 in sufficient approximation. Under the assumptions made, the application of cryogenic motors lead to a clear reduction of the launch mass. This is essentially caused by the lower propellant mass and secondary by the reduced structure mass. Finally cost calculations have been made by ASTRIUM and demonstrated the cost saving potential of CSP propulsion. For estimating development, production, ground facilities, and operating cost, the parametric cost modeling tool has been used in combination with Cost Estimating Relationships (CER). Parametric cost models only allow comparative analyses, therefore ARIANE 5 in its current (P1) configuration has been estimated using the same mission model as for the CSP launcher. As conclusion of these cost assessment can be stated, that the utilization of cryogenic solid propulsion could offer a considerable cost savings potential. Academic and industrial cooperation is crucial for the challenging R&D work required. It will take the combined capacities of all experts involved to unlock the promises of clean, high Isp CSP propulsion for chemical Earth

  10. The Redundant Compressor System for the Helium Cryogenic Plant at TPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. C.; Tsai, H. H.; Lin, T. F.; Chiou, W. S.; Chang, S. H.; Hsiao, F. Z.; Liao, W. R.; Chuang, P. S. D.

    2017-02-01

    Recommissioning the 700-W helium cryogenic system was completed in 2014 and it entered service in 2015. The main target of this system is a stable supply of liquid helium to the superconducting RF cavities at Taiwan Photo Source. The annual maintenance of the compressor of the plant causes operation of the system to be suspended at least two weeks. To avoid such a long suspension for the cryogenic plant, we installed a redundant compressor system for the cryogenic plant in 2015. We can switch to this redundant compressor system and restart the cryogenic system in a few minutes. In this paper we present the configuration, local testing and long-term operation of this redundant compressor system.

  11. Conceptual design of pressure relief systems for cryogenic application

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, S.; Süßer, M.

    2014-01-29

    The conceptual design of pressure relief systems is an important aspect in the early phase of any cryogenic system design, because a prudent and responsible evaluation of relief systems involves much more than just relief devices. The conceptual design consists of various steps: At first, hazard scenarios must be considered and the worst-case scenario identified. Next, a staged interaction against pressure increase is to be defined. This is followed by the selection of the general type of pressure relief device for each stage, such as safety valve and rupture disc, respectively. Then, a decision concerning their locations, their capacities and specific features must be taken. Furthermore, it is mandatory to consider the inlet pressure drop and the back pressure in the exhaust line for sizing the safety devices. And last but not least, economic and environmental considerations must be made in case of releasing the medium to the atmosphere. The development of the system's safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification and analysis of hazards, and consequent risk mitigation using a system-based approach in compliance with the standards.

  12. Conceptual design of pressure relief systems for cryogenic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, S.; Süßer, M.

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design of pressure relief systems is an important aspect in the early phase of any cryogenic system design, because a prudent and responsible evaluation of relief systems involves much more than just relief devices. The conceptual design consists of various steps: At first, hazard scenarios must be considered and the worst-case scenario identified. Next, a staged interaction against pressure increase is to be defined. This is followed by the selection of the general type of pressure relief device for each stage, such as safety valve and rupture disc, respectively. Then, a decision concerning their locations, their capacities and specific features must be taken. Furthermore, it is mandatory to consider the inlet pressure drop and the back pressure in the exhaust line for sizing the safety devices. And last but not least, economic and environmental considerations must be made in case of releasing the medium to the atmosphere. The development of the system's safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification and analysis of hazards, and consequent risk mitigation using a system-based approach in compliance with the standards.

  13. Thermal Stabilization in a High Vacuum Cryogenic Optical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Rosa; Cripe, Jonathan; Corbitt, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The existing technology for gravitational wave detection is limited in part by quantum noise. In our tabletop experiments, we are attempting to lower the noise floor to the quantum limit through the use of a seismically isolated cryogenic high vacuum environment, with the intention of exploring different methods to reduce quantum noise. In the development phase of this environment, we have implemented a customized strategy of ultraviolet irradiation combined with cryogenically cooled radiation shielding to reduce the impact of water vapor and blackbody radiation on the thermal stability of the cryogenic micro-components. Supported by National Science Foundation REU Site #1262890 and CAREER Award #1150531.

  14. Cryogenics Vision Workshop for High-Temperature Superconducting Electric Power Systems Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Energetics, Inc.

    2000-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Superconductivity Program for Electric Systems sponsored the Cryogenics Vision Workshop, which was held on July 27, 1999 in Washington, D.C. This workshop was held in conjunction with the Program's Annual Peer Review meeting. Of the 175 people attending the peer review meeting, 31 were selected in advance to participate in the Cryogenics Vision Workshops discussions. The participants represented cryogenic equipment manufactures, industrial gas manufacturers and distributors, component suppliers, electric power equipment manufacturers (Superconductivity Partnership Initiative participants), electric utilities, federal agencies, national laboratories, and consulting firms. Critical factors were discussed that need to be considered in describing the successful future commercialization of cryogenic systems. Such systems will enable the widespread deployment of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) electric power equipment. Potential research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities and partnership opportunities for advancing suitable cryogenic systems were also discussed. The workshop agenda can be found in the following section of this report. Facilitated sessions were held to discuss the following specific focus topics: identifying Critical Factors that need to be included in a Cryogenics Vision for HTS Electric Power Systems (From the HTS equipment end-user perspective) identifying R and D Needs and Partnership Roles (From the cryogenic industry perspective) The findings of the facilitated Cryogenics Vision Workshop were then presented in a plenary session of the Annual Peer Review Meeting. Approximately 120 attendees participated in the afternoon plenary session. This large group heard summary reports from the workshop session leaders and then held a wrap-up session to discuss the findings, cross-cutting themes, and next steps. These summary reports are presented in this document. The ideas and suggestions raised during

  15. Cryogenic molecular separation system for radioactive (11)C ion acceleration.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, K; Noda, A; Suzuki, K; Nagatsu, K; Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Nakao, M; Hojo, S; Wakui, T; Noda, K

    2015-12-01

    A (11)C molecular production/separation system (CMPS) has been developed as part of an isotope separation on line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive (11)C ion beams. In the ISOL system, (11)CH4 molecules will be produced by proton irradiation and separated from residual air impurities and impurities produced during the irradiation. The CMPS includes two cryogenic traps to separate specific molecules selectively from impurities by using vapor pressure differences among the molecular species. To investigate the fundamental performance of the CMPS, we performed separation experiments with non-radioactive (12)CH4 gases, which can simulate the chemical characteristics of (11)CH4 gases. We investigated the separation of CH4 molecules from impurities, which will be present as residual gases and are expected to be difficult to separate because the vapor pressure of air molecules is close to that of CH4. We determined the collection/separation efficiencies of the CMPS for various amounts of air impurities and found desirable operating conditions for the CMPS to be used as a molecular separation device in our ISOL system.

  16. Results of KEPCO HTS cable system tests and design of hybrid cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J. H.; Sohn, S. H.; Yang, H. S.; Hwang, S. D.; Kim, D. L.; Ryoo, H. S.; Choi, H. O.

    2010-11-01

    In order to investigate the compatibility as a power utility facility, Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) had installed a 22.9 kV, 1250 A, 100 m long high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable system. Using the HTS cable, various tests have been performed to investigate electrical and thermo-mechanical properties. Since 2005, a series of thermal cycle tests between liquid nitrogen (LN2) and ambient temperatures have been conducted using a vacuum-pump driven open-loop cryogenic system with a capacity of 3 kW. In the tests, although the open-loop cryogenic system was reliable to operate the HTS cable system, it was not effective in economic view point because LN2 consumption was larger than expected. In order to secure against unexpected emergencies and solve the problem of LN2 consumption, a hybrid cryogenic system was designed and installed. A stirling cryocooler was employed and combined with the open-loop cryogenic system. Considering the average heat load at rated condition, the cooling capacity of the cryocooler was determined to 4 kW at 77 K. In this paper, results of performance tests and the design of the hybrid cooling system are presented.

  17. Elmo Bumpy Torus proof of principle, Phase II: Title 1 report. Volume VII. Cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Poteat, T.J.

    1982-02-26

    This document, Volume VII EBT-P Cryogenic System Title I Design Report, describes the system that resulted from the Title I Preliminary Design effort. It is a self-contained document that can be read apart from the other Volumes comprising the EBT-P Title I Report. This document is a contract deliverable item and provides the detail necessary to support the Cryogenic System design contained in the EBT-P Baseline Design Data Book (BDDB).

  18. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technologies for Advanced Green Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Susan M.; Meyer, Michael L.; Tucker, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    In support of the Exploration Vision for returning to the Moon and beyond, NASA and its partners are developing and testing critical cryogenic fluid propellant technologies that will meet the need for high performance propellants on long-term missions. Reliable knowledge of low-gravity cryogenic fluid management behavior is lacking and yet is critical in the areas of tank thermal and pressure control, fluid acquisition, mass gauging, and fluid transfer. Such knowledge can significantly reduce or even eliminate tank fluid boil-off losses for long term missions, reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, and simplify vehicle operations. The Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) Project is performing experimental and analytical evaluation of several areas within Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) to enable NASA's Exploration Vision. This paper discusses the status of the PCAD CFM technology focus areas relative to the anticipated CFM requirements to enable execution of the Vision for Space Exploration.

  19. Progress and status of cryogenic refrigeration system for project Hydra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J.; Catseman, F.; Tilleman, H.; Henderson, N.

    2015-12-01

    In the last two decades, HTS cables have been successfully demonstrated around the world, preparing HTS power cables for a full commercial introduction. Among the demonstration projects, circulating subcooled liquid nitrogen to maintain the HTS cable at operating temperature is a widely adopted approach. In this approach, the cooling systems are absolutely critical to the successful operation of the HTS cables. This paper describes the progress and status of the cryogenic refrigeration system designed and manufactured for project Hydra, which is a project jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate, American Superconductor and Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. American Superconductor is leading the team supported by Con Edison, Ultera, Altran Solutions, and DH Industries. The cable is an inherently fault current limiting HTS cable, approximately 200 m long and designed to carry 96 MVA at a distribution level voltage of 13.8 kV. The cable will be installed and energized near New York City. The refrigeration system was designed and manufactured by DH Industries. This paper provides details on the successful factory acceptance testing completed in November 2014.

  20. Vibration isolation system for cryogenic phonon-scintillation calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Jo, H. S.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, G. B.; Kim, I.; Kim, S. R.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, H. J.; So, J. H.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2017-02-01

    Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators are getting popular for rare event searches underground due to their advantages. However, the application of a pulse tube refrigerator introduces mechanical vibration that can translate into temperature fluctuation for calorimeters. The effect is significant in particular when the sensor is attached to a large absorber. A mechanical filter is installed to isolate the calorimeters from the vibration inside a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator while meeting thermal requirements.

  1. Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-08-01

    This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  2. Cryogenic system for the Cryomodule Test Facility at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Michael; Martinez, Alex; Bossert, Rick; Dalesandro, Andrew; Geynisman, Michael; Hansen, Benjamin; Klebaner, Arkadiy; Makara, Jerry; Pei, Liujin; Richardson, Dave; Soyars, William; Theilacker, Jay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current progress and near-future plans for the cryogenic system at the new Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) at Fermilab, which includes the helium compressors, refrigerators, warm vacuum compressors, gas and liquid storage, and a distribution system. CMTF will house the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE), which is the front end of the proposed Project X. PXIE includes one 162.5 MHz half wave resonator (HWR) cryomodule and one 325 MHz single spoke resonator (SSR) cryomodule. Both cryomodules contain superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities and superconducting magnets operated at 2.0 K. CMTF will also support the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA), which is located in the adjacent New Muon Lab (NML) building. A cryomodule test stand (CMTS1) located at CMTF will be used to test 1.3 GHz cryomodules before they are installed in the ASTA cryomodule string. A liquid helium pump and transfer line will be used to provide supplemental liquid helium to ASTA.

  3. Cryogenic Testing of Different Seam Concepts for Multilayer Insulation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent testing in a cylindrical, comparative cryostat at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory has focused on various seam concepts for multilayer insulation systems. Three main types of seams were investigated: straight overlap, fold-over, and roll wrapped. Each blanket was comprised of 40 layer pairs of reflector and spacer materials. The total thickness was approximately 12.5-mm, giving an average layer density of 32 layers per centimeter. The blankets were tested at high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum using liquid nitrogen to maintain the cold boundary temperature at 77 K. Test results show that all three seam concepts are all close in thermal performance; however the fold-over method provides the lowest heat flux. For the first series of tests, seams were located 120 degrees around the circumference of the cryostat from the previous seam. This technique appears to have lessened the degradation of the blanket due to the seams. In a follow-on test, a 20 layer blanket was tested in a roll wrapped configuration and then cut down the side of the cylinder, taped together, and re-tested. This test result shows the thermal performance impact of having the seams all in one location versus having the seams clocked around the vessel. This experimental investigation indicates that the method of joining the seams in multilayer insulation systems is not as critical as the quality of the installation process.

  4. Design, fabrication, commissioning, and testing of a 250 g/s, 2-K helium cold compressor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganni, V.; Arenius, D. M.; Bevins, B. S.; Chronis, W. C.; Creel, J. D.; Wilson, J. D.

    2002-05-01

    In June 1999 the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) Cryogenic Systems Group had completed the design, fabrication, and commissioning of a cold compressor system capable of pumping 250 g/s of 2-K helium vapor to a pressure above 1 bar. The 2-K cold box consists of five stages of centrifugal variable speed compressors with LN2 cooled drive motors and magnetic bearings, a plate fin heat exchanger, and an LN2 shield system. The new 2-K cold box (referred to as the SCN) was built as a redundant system to an existing four stage cold compressor SCM cold box that was commissioned in May 1994. The SCN has been in continuous service supporting the facility experiments since commissioning. This system has achieved a significant improvement in the total 2-K refrigeration system capacity and stability and has substantially increased the operating envelope both in cold compressor flow and operating pressure range. This paper describes the cold box configuration and the experiences in the design, fabrication, commissioning and performance evaluation. The capacity of the system for various operating pressures (0.040 to 0.025 bar at the load corresponding to a total compressor pressure ratio of 28 to 54) is presented. An effort is made to characterize the components and their operating data over the tested range. This includes the return side pressure drop in the distribution system, the heat exchanger, and the cold compressor characteristics. The system design parameters and their effects on performance are outlined.

  5. Design, fabrication, commissioning, and testing of a 250 g/s, 2-K helium cold compressor system

    SciTech Connect

    V. Ganni; D. M. Arenius; B. S. Bevins; W. C. Chronis; J. D. Creel; J. D. Wilson Jr.

    2002-05-10

    In June 1999 the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF) Cryogenic Systems Group had completed the design, fabrication, and commissioning of a cold compressor system capable of pumping 250 g/s of 2-K helium vapor to a pressure above 1 bar. The 2-K cold box consists of five stages of centrifugal variable speed compressors with LN2 cooled drive motors and magnetic bearings, a plate fin heat exchanger, and an LN2 shield system. The new 2-K cold box (referred to as the SCN) was built as a redundant system to an existing four stage cold compressor SCM cold box that was commissioned in May 1994. The SCN has been in continuous service supporting the facility experiments since commissioning. This system has achieved a significant improvement in the total 2-K refrigeration system capacity and stability and has substantially increased the operating envelope both in cold compressor flow and operating pressure range. This paper describes the cold box configuration and the experience s in the design, fabrication, commissioning and performance evaluation. The capacity of the system for various operating pressures (0.040 to 0.025 bar at the load corresponding to a total compressor pressure ratio of 28 to 54) is presented. An effort is made to characterize the components and their operating data over the tested range. This includes the return side pressure drop in the distribution system, the heat exchanger, and the cold compressor characteristics. The system design parameters and their effects on performance are outlined.

  6. Commissioning of a 20 K Helium Refrigeration System for NASA-JSC Chamber A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, J.; Redman, R.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Norton, R.; Lauterbach, J.; Linza, R.; Vargas, G.

    2013-01-01

    A new 20 K helium refrigerator installed at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Environment Simulation Laboratory (SESL) was successfully commissioned and tested in 2012. The refrigerator is used to create a deep space environment within SESL s Chamber A to perform ground testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The chamber previously and currently still has helium cryo-pumping panels (CPP) and liquid nitrogen shrouds used to create low earth orbit environments. Now with the new refrigerator and new helium shrouds the chamber can create a deep space environment. The process design, system analysis, specification development, and commissioning oversight were performed by the cryogenics department at Jefferson Lab, while the contracts and system installation was performed by the ESC group at JSC. Commissioning data indicate an inverse coefficient of performance better than 70 W/W for a 18 kW load at 20 K (accounting for liquid nitrogen pre-cooling power) that remains essentially constant down to one third of this load. Even at 10 percent of the maximum capacity, the performance is better than 150 W/W at 20 K. The refrigerator exceeded all design goals and demonstrated the ability to support a wide load range from 10 kW at 15 K to 100 kW at 100 K. The refrigerator is capable of operating at any load temperature from 15 K to ambient with tight temperature stability. The new shroud (36 tons of aluminum) can be cooled from room temperature to 20 K in 24 hours. This paper will outline the process design and commissioning results.

  7. Cryogenic thermometry for refrigerant distribution system of JT-60SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsume, K.; Murakami, H.; Kizu, K.; Yoshida, K.; Koide, Y.

    2015-12-01

    JT-60SA is a fully superconducting fusion experimental device involving Japan and Europe. The cryogenic system supplies supercritical or gaseous helium to superconducting coils through valve boxes or coil terminal boxes and in-cryostat pipes. There are 86 temperature measurement points at 4 K along the distribution line. Resistance temperature sensors will be installed on cooling pipes in vacuum. In this work, two sensor attachment methods, two types of sensor, two thermal anchoring methods, and two sensor fixation materials have been experimentally evaluated in terms of accuracy and mass productivity. Finally, the verification test of thermometry has been conducted using the sample pipe fabricated in the same way to the production version, which has been decided by the comparison experiments. The TVO sensor is attached by the saddle method with Apiezon N grease and the measurement wires made of phosphor bronze are wound on the pipe with Stycast 2850FT as the thermal anchoring. A Cernox sensor is directly immersed in liquid helium as a reference thermometer during the experiment. The measured temperature difference between the attached one and reference one has been within ±15 mK in the range of 3.40-4.73 K. It has satisfies the accuracy requirement of 0.1 K.

  8. Cryogenic thermal system analysis for orbital propellant depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2014-09-01

    In any manned mission architecture, upwards of seventy percent of all payload delivered to orbit is propellant, and propellant mass fraction dominates almost all transportation segments of any mission requiring a heavy lift launch system like the Saturn V. To mitigate this, the use of an orbital propellant depot has been extensively studied. In this paper, a thermal model of an orbital propellant depot is used to examine the effects of passive and active thermal management strategies. Results show that an all passive thermal management strategy results in significant boil-off for both hydrogen and oxygen. At current launch vehicle prices, these boil-offs equate to millions of dollars lost per month. Zero boil-off of propellant is achievable with the use of active cryocoolers; however, the cooling power required to produce zero-boil-off is an order of magnitude higher than current state-of-the-art cryocoolers. This study shows a zero-boil-off cryocooler minimum power requirement of 80-100 W at 80 K for liquid oxygen, and 100-120 W at 20 K for liquid hydrogen for a representative Near-Earth Object mission. Research and development effort is required to improve the state-of-the-arts in-space cryogenic thermal management.

  9. Real-Time Model-Based Leak-Through Detection within Cryogenic Flow Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, M.; Figueroa, F.

    2015-01-01

    The timely detection of leaks within cryogenic fuel replenishment systems is of significant importance to operators on account of the safety and economic impacts associated with material loss and operational inefficiencies. Associated loss in control of pressure also effects the stability and ability to control the phase of cryogenic fluids during replenishment operations. Current research dedicated to providing Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) coverage of such cryogenic replenishment systems has focused on the detection of leaks to atmosphere involving relatively simple model-based diagnostic approaches that, while effective, are unable to isolate the fault to specific piping system components. The authors have extended this research to focus on the detection of leaks through closed valves that are intended to isolate sections of the piping system from the flow and pressurization of cryogenic fluids. The described approach employs model-based detection of leak-through conditions based on correlations of pressure changes across isolation valves and attempts to isolate the faults to specific valves. Implementation of this capability is enabled by knowledge and information embedded in the domain model of the system. The approach has been used effectively to detect such leak-through faults during cryogenic operational testing at the Cryogenic Testbed at NASA's Kennedy Space Center.

  10. Safety issues of space liquid-helium and solid-cryogen systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Peter V.

    2002-05-01

    Safety of hardware and personnel is a major concern in space programs. Space cryogenic systems are particularly prone to risk because of their complexity and because of the potential for overpressurization resulting from blockage of vent paths during the integration and test process. A number of space flight programs with liquid-helium and solid-cryogen systems have had incidents which resulted in risk or actual damage to flight hardware, or in risk to personnel. Since such incidents typically occur late in the development cycle, costs due to delays are extremely high. A second major of area of risk is the use of cooling loops in solid cryogen systems. When cooling is performed, the cryogen contracts and cryogen from warmer locations vaporizes and is deposited in the voids. This can lead to rupture of tankage and plumbing. Risk reduction measures include two-fault tolerant design, systematic use of burst disks and relief valves, careful analysis of possible risks, detailed and well-reviewed procedures and redundancy of critical systems, such as valves and valve drive circuitry. We will discuss the design and operation of space cryogenics systems from a safety point of view. We will also describe a number of incidents, their causes, the corrective steps taken and lessons learned.

  11. Methods for Automated and Continuous Commissioning of Building Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Luskay; Michael Brambley; Srinivas Katipamula

    2003-04-30

    Avoidance of poorly installed HVAC systems is best accomplished at the close of construction by having a building and its systems put ''through their paces'' with a well conducted commissioning process. This research project focused on developing key components to enable the development of tools that will automatically detect and correct equipment operating problems, thus providing continuous and automatic commissioning of the HVAC systems throughout the life of a facility. A study of pervasive operating problems reveled the following would most benefit from an automated and continuous commissioning process: (1) faulty economizer operation; (2) malfunctioning sensors; (3) malfunctioning valves and dampers, and (4) access to project design data. Methodologies for detecting system operation faults in these areas were developed and validated in ''bare-bones'' forms within standard software such as spreadsheets, databases, statistical or mathematical packages. Demonstrations included flow diagrams and simplified mock-up applications. Techniques to manage data were demonstrated by illustrating how test forms could be populated with original design information and the recommended sequence of operation for equipment systems. Proposed tools would use measured data, design data, and equipment operating parameters to diagnosis system problems. Steps for future research are suggested to help more toward practical application of automated commissioning and its high potential to improve equipment availability, increase occupant comfort, and extend the life of system equipment.

  12. Proposal for a cryogenic magnetic field measurement system for SSC dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.I.; Hansen, L.

    1991-03-01

    This proposal describes the research and development required, and the subsequent fabrication of, a system capable of making integrated magnetic multipole measurements of cryogenic 40-mm-bore SSC dipole magnets utilizing a cryogenic probe. Our experience and some preliminary studies indicate that it is highly unlikely that a 16-meter-long probe can be fabricated that will have a twist below several milliradians at cryogenic temperatures. We would anticipate a twist of several milliradians just as a result of cooldown stresses. Consequently, this proposal describes a segmented 16-meter-long probe, for which we intend to calibrate the phase of each segment to within 0.1 milliradians. The data for all segments will be acquired simultaneously, and integrated data will be generated from the vector sums of the individual segments. The calibration techniques and instrumentation required to implement this system will be described. The duration of an integral measurement at one current is expected to be under 10 seconds. The system is based on an extrapolation of the techniques used at LBL to measure cryogenic 1-meter models of SSC magnets with a cryogenic probe. It should be noted that the expansion of the dipole bore from 40 to 50 mm may make a warm-finger device practical at a cost of approximately one quarter of the cryogenic probe. A warm quadrupole measurement system can be based upon the same principles. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6

  14. Renewal of the Control System and Reliable Long Term Operation of the LHD Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mito, T.; Iwamoto, A.; Oba, K.; Takami, S.; Moriuchi, S.; Imagawa, S.; Takahata, K.; Yamada, S.; Yanagi, N.; Hamaguchi, S.; Kishida, F.; Nakashima, T.

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) is a heliotron-type fusion plasma experimental machine which consists of a fully superconducting magnet system cooled by a helium refrigerator having a total equivalent cooling capacity of 9.2 kW@4.4 K. Seventeenplasma experimental campaigns have been performed successfully since1997 with high reliability of 99%. However, sixteen years have passed from the beginning of the system operation. Improvements are being implementedto prevent serious failures and to pursue further reliability.The LHD cryogenic control system was designed and developed as an open system utilizing latest control equipment of VME controllers and UNIX workstations at the construction time. Howeverthe generation change of control equipment has been advanced. Down-sizing of control deviceshas beenplanned from VME controllers to compact PCI controllers in order to simplify the system configuration and to improve the system reliability. The new system is composed of compact PCI controller and remote I/O connected with EtherNet/IP. Making the system redundant becomes possible by doubling CPU, LAN, and remote I/O respectively. The smooth renewal of the LHD cryogenic controlsystem and the further improvement of the cryogenic system reliability are reported.

  15. Concept of a Cryogenic System for a Cryogen-Free 25 T Superconducting Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Sadanori; Takahashi, Masahiko; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Tosaka, Taizo; Tasaki, Kenji; Hanai, Satoshi; Ioka, Shigeru; Watanabe, Kazuo; Awaji, Satoshi; Oguro, Hidetoshi

    A cryogen-free 25 T superconducting magnet using a ReBCO insert coil that generates 11.5 T in a 14 T background field of outer low-temperature superconducting (LTS) coils is currently under development. The AC loss of the insert coil during field ramping is approximately 8.8 W, which is difficult to dissipate at the operating temperature of the LTS coils (4 K). However, since a ReBCO coil can operate at a temperature above 4 K, the ReBCO insert coil is cooled to about 10 K by two GM cryocoolers, and the LTS coils are independently cooled by two GM/JT cryocoolers. Two GM cryocoolers cool a circulating helium gas through heat exchangers, and the gas is transported over a long distance to the cold stage located on the ReBCO insert coil, in order to protect the cryocoolers from the leakage field of high magnetic fields. The temperature difference of the 2nd cold stage of the GM cryocoolers and the insert coil can be reduced by increasing the gas flow rate. However, at the same time, the heat loss of the heat exchangers increases, and the temperature of the second cold stage is raised. Therefore, the gas flow rate is optimized to minimize the operating temperature of the ReBCO insert coil by using a flow controller and a bypass circuit connected to a buffer tank.

  16. Structural Design and Analysis of a 150 kJ HTS SMES Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Peng; Wu, Yu; Liu, Huajun; Li, Laifeng; Yang, Huihui

    A 150 kJ high temperature superconducting magnetic energy storage (HTS-SMES) system is under manufacturing in China. This paper focuses on the structural design and analysis of the SMES cryogenic system. The cryogenic system is designed and fabricated to maintain the working temperature. The system includes a vacuum vessel, its thermal radiation shield, its supporting devices, conduction plates, and current leads. Two G-M cryocoolers are used for the system cooling, the main one is connected to the HTS coils and the other is connected to the thermal shield and the lower ends of the current leads. In this study, the 3D models of the SMES cryogenic system were created with CATIA, a 3D model design software, and the analysis of the SMES cryogenic system was done by ANSYS. The mechanical analysis results on the vacuum vessel, suspension devices and supporting devices are presented, particularly the analyses on suspenders and shelf supports are of vital importance since the finished SMES system should meet vehicle-mounted requirements in long time transport. The heat load and the temperature distribution of the thermal shield were analyzed. A cooling experiment of the cryogenic system was made and the thermal shield was cooled down to about 50 K.

  17. Commissioning and performance of the BNL EBIS LLRF system

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, S.; Smith, K.S.; Hayes, T.; Severino, F.; Harvey, M.; Narayan, G.; Zaltsman, A.

    2011-03-28

    The Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) LLRF system utilizes the RHIC LLRF upgrade platform to achieve the required functionality and flexibility. The LLRF system provides drive to the EBIS high-level RF system, employs I-Q feedback to provide required amplitude and phase stability, and implements a cavity resonance control scheme. The embedded system provides the interface to the existing Controls System, making remote system control and diagnostics possible. The flexibility of the system allows us to reuse VHDL codes, develop new functionalities, improve current designs, and implement new features with relative ease. In this paper, we will discuss the commissioning process, issues encountered, and performance of the system.

  18. Performance of the new cryogenic vacuum system at the Bevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.T.; Alonso, J.R.; Henderson, T.F.; Kennedy, K.D.; Meneghetti, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    A cryogenically cooled liner has been installed within the Bevatron to achieve 10/sup -10/ Torr vacuum. Features and performance of this liner are described including achieved pressures, residual gas composition, cryo heat loads, leak rates through moving and static seals, and cool-down and warm-up times.

  19. Performance of the new cryogenic vacuum system at the Bevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.T.; Henderson, T.F.; Kennedy, K.D.; Meneghetti, J.R.; Alonso, J.R.

    1983-03-01

    A cryogenically cooled liner has been installed within the Bevatron to achieve 10/sup -10/ torr vacuum. Features and performance of this liner are described including achieved pressures, residual gas composition, cryo heat loads, leak rates through moving and static seals, and cool-down and warm-up times.

  20. Preparing accelerator systems for the RHIC sextant commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Trbojevic, D.; Pilat, F.; Ahrens, L.

    1997-07-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction is progressing steadily towards completion in 1999 when beams will circulate in both collider rings. One of the major tests of the RHIC project was the commissioning of the first sextant with gold ion beams in early 1997. This is a report on preparation of the RHIC accelerator systems for the first sextant test. It includes beam position monitors, timing, injection correction through the magnetic septum and kickers, current transformers, flags and the ionization beam profile monitors, beam loss monitors, beam and quench permit link system, power supply controls, and the configuration database system. The software and hardware development and coordination of the different systems before commissioning were regularly checked during bi-weekly, and (later) weekly, progress report meetings.

  1. Preparing Accelerator Systems for the RHIC Sextant Commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trbojevic, D.; Pilat, F.; Ahrens, L.; Barton, D.; Clifford, T.; Connoly, R.; Fischer, W.; Harrison, M.; Mackay, W.; Olsen, B.; Peggs, S.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Thompson, P.; Trahern, C.; Witkover, R.

    1997-05-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) construction is progressing steadily towards the beginning of the 1999 when beams will first be circulated in both collider rings. One of the major tests of the RHIC project is the commissioning of the first sextant with gold ion beams. This is a report on the preparation of the RHIC accelerator systems during the first sextant test, including beam position monitors, timing, injection correction through the magnetic septum and kickers, current transformers, ``flags'' and the ionization beam profile monitors, beam loss monitors, beam and quench permit link system, power supply controls, and the CYBASE data base system. The software and hardware development and coordination of the different systems before commissioning were regularly checked during bi-weekly, and (later) weekly, progress report meetings.

  2. Concept, implementation and commissioning of the automation system for the accelerator module test facility AMTF

    SciTech Connect

    Böckmann, Torsten A.; Korth, Olaf; Clausen, Matthias; Schoeneburg, Bernd

    2014-01-29

    The European XFEL project launched on June 5, 2007 will require about 103 accelerator modules as a main part of the XFEL linear accelerator. All superconducting components constituting the accelerator module like cavities and magnets have to be tested before the assembly. For the tests of the individual cavities and the complete modules an XFEL Accelerator Module Test Facility (AMTF) has been erected at DESY. The process control system EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is used to control and operate the cryogenic plant and all its subcomponents. A complementary component of EPICS is the Open Source software suit CSS (Control System Studio). CSS is an integrated engineering, maintenance and operating tool for EPICS. CSS enables local and remote operating and monitoring of the complete system and thus represents the human machine interface. More than 250 PROFIBUS nodes work at the accelerator module test facility. DESY installed an extensive diagnostic and condition monitoring system. With these diagnostic tools it is possible to examine the correct installation and configuration of all PROFIBUS nodes in real time. The condition monitoring system based on FDT/DTM technology shows the state of the PROFIBUS devices at a glance. This information can be used for preventive maintenance which is mandatory for continuous operation of the AMTF facility. The poster will describe all steps form engineering to implementation and commissioning.

  3. Cryogenic system for the Energy Recovery Linac and vertical test facility at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Than, R.; Soria, V.; Lederle, D.; Orfin, P.; Porqueddu, R.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.; Tallerico, T.; Masi, L.

    2011-03-28

    A small cryogenic system and warm helium vacuum pumping system provides cooling to either the Energy Recovery Linac's (ERL) cryomodules that consist of a 5-cell cavity and an SRF gun or a large Vertical Test Dewar (VTD) at any given time. The cryogenic system consists of a model 1660S PSI piston plant, a 3800 liter storage dewar, subcooler, a wet expander, a 50 g/s main helium compressor, and a 170 m{sup 3} storage tank. A system description and operating plan of the cryogenic plant and cryomodules is given. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar has a plant that can produce the equivalent of 300W at 4.5K with the addition of a wet expander 350 W at 4.5K. Along with this system, a sub-atmospheric, warm compression system provides pumping to produce 2K at the ERL cryomodules or the Vertical Test Dewar. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar makes use of existing equipment for putting a system together. It can supply either the ERL side or the Vertical Test Dewar side, but not both at the same time. Double valve isolation on the liquid helium supply line allows one side to be warmed to room temperature and worked on while the other side is being held at operating temperature. The cryogenic system maintain the end loads from 4.4K to 2K or colder depending on capacity. Liquid helium storage dewar capacity allows ERL or the VTD to operate above the plant's capacity when required and ERL cryomodules ballast reservoirs and VTD reservoir allows the end loads to operate on full vacuum pump capacity when required.

  4. Design progress of cryogenic hydrogen system for China Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G. P.; Zhang, Y.; Xiao, J.; He, C. C.; Ding, M. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, N.; He, K.

    2014-01-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a large proton accelerator research facility with 100 kW beam power. Construction started in October 2011 and is expected to last 6.5 years. The cryogenic hydrogen circulation is cooled by a helium refrigerator with cooling capacity of 2200 W at 20 K and provides supercritical hydrogen to neutron moderating system. Important progresses of CSNS cryogenic system were concluded as follows. Firstly, process design of cryogenic system has been completed including helium refrigerator, hydrogen loop, gas distribution, and safety interlock. Secondly, an accumulator prototype was designed to mitigate pressure fluctuation caused by dynamic heat load from neutron moderation. Performance test of the accumulator has been carried out at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. Results show the accumulator with welding bellows regulates hydrogen pressure well. Parameters of key equipment have been identified. The contract for the helium refrigerator has been signed. Mechanical design of the hydrogen cold box has been completed, and the hydrogen pump, ortho-para hydrogen convertor, helium-hydrogen heat exchanger, hydrogen heater, and cryogenic valves are in procurement. Finally, Hydrogen safety interlock has been finished as well, including the logic of gas distribution, vacuum, hydrogen leakage and ventilation. Generally, design and construction of CSNS cryogenic system is conducted as expected.

  5. Design progress of cryogenic hydrogen system for China Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G. P.; Zhang, Y.; Xiao, J.; He, C. C.; Ding, M. Y.; Wang, Y. Q.; Li, N.; He, K.

    2014-01-29

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a large proton accelerator research facility with 100 kW beam power. Construction started in October 2011 and is expected to last 6.5 years. The cryogenic hydrogen circulation is cooled by a helium refrigerator with cooling capacity of 2200 W at 20 K and provides supercritical hydrogen to neutron moderating system. Important progresses of CSNS cryogenic system were concluded as follows. Firstly, process design of cryogenic system has been completed including helium refrigerator, hydrogen loop, gas distribution, and safety interlock. Secondly, an accumulator prototype was designed to mitigate pressure fluctuation caused by dynamic heat load from neutron moderation. Performance test of the accumulator has been carried out at room and liquid nitrogen temperature. Results show the accumulator with welding bellows regulates hydrogen pressure well. Parameters of key equipment have been identified. The contract for the helium refrigerator has been signed. Mechanical design of the hydrogen cold box has been completed, and the hydrogen pump, ortho-para hydrogen convertor, helium-hydrogen heat exchanger, hydrogen heater, and cryogenic valves are in procurement. Finally, Hydrogen safety interlock has been finished as well, including the logic of gas distribution, vacuum, hydrogen leakage and ventilation. Generally, design and construction of CSNS cryogenic system is conducted as expected.

  6. Use of thermal sieve to allow optical testing of cryogenic optical systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Wook; Cai, Wenrui; Burge, James H

    2012-05-21

    Full aperture testing of large cryogenic optical systems has been impractical due to the difficulty of operating a large collimator at cryogenic temperatures. The Thermal Sieve solves this problem by acting as a thermal barrier between an ambient temperature collimator and the cryogenic system under test. The Thermal Sieve uses a set of thermally controlled baffles with array of holes that are lined up to pass the light from the collimator without degrading the wavefront, while attenuating the thermal background by nearly 4 orders of magnitude. This paper provides the theory behind the Thermal Sieve system, evaluates the optimization for its optical and thermal performance, and presents the design and analysis for a specific system.

  7. Commissioning results from the recently upgraded RHIC LLRF system

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.S.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Narayan, G.; Severino, F.; Yuan, S.; Zaltsman, A.

    2011-03-28

    During RHIC Run 10, the first phase of the LLRF Upgrade was successfully completed. This involved replacing the aging VME based system with a modern digital system based on the recently developed RHIC LLRF Upgrade Platform, and commissioning the system as part of the normal RHIC start up process. At the start of Run 11, the second phase of the upgrade is underway, involving a significant expansion of both hardware and functionality. This paper will review the commissioning effort and provide examples of improvements in system performance, flexibility and scalability afforded by the new platform. The RHIC LLRF upgrade is based on the recently developed RHIC LLRF Upgrade Platform. The major design goals of the platform are: (1) Design a stand alone, generic, digital, modular control architecture which can be configured to satisfy all of the application demands we currently have, and which will be supportable and upgradeable into the foreseeable future; and (2) It should integrate seamlessly into existing controls infrastructure, be easy to deploy, provide access to all relevant control parameters (eliminate knobs), provide vastly improved diagnostic data capabilities, and permit remote reconfiguration. Although the system is still in its infancy, we think the initial commissioning results from RHIC indicate that these goals have been achieved, and that we've only begun to realize the benefits the platform provides.

  8. Apparatus for supporting a cryogenic fluid containment system within an enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, B.X.; Ganni, V.; Stifle, K.E.

    1995-01-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for supporting at least one inner cryogenic fluid containment system within an outer isolating enclosure to retard heat transfer into the inner containment system comprising a plurality of supports serially interconnected and laterally spaced by lateral connections to extend the heat conduction path into the inner containment system. 8 figs.

  9. Apparatus for supporting a cryogenic fluid containment system within an enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Burt X.; Ganni, Venkatarao; Stifle, Kirk E.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus for supporting at least one inner cryogenic fluid containment system within an outer isolating enclosure to retard heat transfer into the inner containment system comprising a plurality of supports serially interconnected and laterally spaced by lateral connections to extend the heat conduction path into the inner containment system.

  10. Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 1: Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    An in-depth study and selection of practical propellant surface tension acquisition system designs for two specific future cryogenic space vehicles, an advanced cryogenic space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system and an advanced space propulsion module is reported. A supporting laboratory scale experimental program was also conducted to provide design information critical to concept finalization and selection. Designs using localized pressure isolated surface tension screen devices were selected for each application and preliminary designs were generated. Based on these designs, large scale acquisition prototype hardware was designed and fabricated to be compatible with available NASA-MSFC feed system hardware.

  11. Shuttle cryogenic supply system. Optimization study. Volume 5 B-1: Programmers manual for math models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A computer program for rapid parametric evaluation of various types of cryogenics spacecraft systems is presented. The mathematical techniques of the program provide the capability for in-depth analysis combined with rapid problem solution for the production of a large quantity of soundly based trade-study data. The program requires a large data bank capable of providing characteristics performance data for a wide variety of component assemblies used in cryogenic systems. The program data requirements are divided into: (1) the semipermanent data tables and source data for performance characteristics and (2) the variable input data which contains input parameters which may be perturbated for parametric system studies.

  12. Lessons learned: design, start-up, and operation of cryogenic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, W. M.; Bagley, R. E.; Motew, S.; Young, P.-W.

    2014-11-01

    Cryogenic systems involving a pumped cryogenic fluid, such as liquid nitrogen (LN2), require careful design since the cryogen is close to its boiling point and cold. At 1 atmosphere, LN2 boils at 77.4 K (-320.4 F). These systems, typically, are designed to transport the cryogen, use it for process heat removal, or for generation of gas (GN2) for process use. As the design progresses, it is important to consider all aspects of the design including, cryogen storage, pressure control and safety relief systems, thermodynamic conditions, equipment and instrument selection, materials, insulation, cooldown, pump start-up, maximum design and minimum flow rates, two phase flow conditions, heat flow, process control to meet and maintain operating conditions, piping integrity, piping loads on served equipment, warm-up, venting, and shut-down. "Cutting corners" in the design process can result in stalled start-ups, field rework, schedule hits, or operational restrictions. Some of these "lessoned learned" are described in this paper.

  13. Commissioning of the IGp Feedback System at DAFNE

    SciTech Connect

    Drago, A.; Fox, J.D.; Teytelman, D.; Tobiyama, M.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-11-01

    The iGp (Integrated Gigasample Processor) is an innovative digital bunch-by-bunch feedback system developed by a KEK / SLAC / INFN-LNF joint collaboration. The processing unit can sample at 500 MHz and compute the bunch-by-bunch output signal for up to {approx}5000 bunches. The feedback gateware code is implemented inside just one FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chip, a Xilinx Virtex-II. The FPGA implements two banks of 16-tap FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters. Each filter is realtime programmable through the operator interface. At DA{Phi}NE, the Frascati {Phi}-Factory, two iGp units have been commissioned in the April 2007. The iGp systems have substituted the previous betatron feedback systems. This insertion has been very fast and has shown no problems involving just a substitution of the old, less flexible, digital systems, letting unchanged the baseband analog frontend and backend. The commissioning has been very simple, due to the complete and powerful EPICS operator interface, working well in local and remote operations. The software includes also tools for analyzing post processor data. A description of the commissioning with the operations done is reported.

  14. New cryogenic system of the next-generation infrared astronomy mission SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Shinozaki, K.; Goto, K.; Isobe, N.; Kawada, M.; Mizutani, T.; Sato, Y.; Sugita, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Yamawaki, T.; Shibai, H.

    2016-07-01

    We present the new design of the cryogenic system of the next-generation infrared astronomy mission SPICA under the new framework. The new design employs the V-groove design for radiators, making the best use of the Planck heritage. The new design is based on the ESA-JAXA CDF study (NG-CryoIRTel, CDF-152(A)) with a 2 m telescope, and we modified the CDF design to accommodate the 2.5 m telescope to meet the science requirements of SPICA. The basic design concept of the SPICA cryogenic system is to cool the Science Instrument Assembly (SIA, which is the combination of the telescope and focal-plane instruments) below 8K by the combination of the radiative cooling system and mechanical cryocoolers without any cryogen.

  15. Operational Experiences of J-PARC cryogenic hydrogen system for a spallation neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Kawakami, Y.; Aoyagi, K.; Muto, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) cryogenic hydrogen system was completed in April 2008. The proton beam power was gradually increased to 500 kW. A trial 600-kW proton beam operation was successfully completed in April 2015. We achieved long-lasting operation for more than three months. However, thus far, we encountered several problems such as unstable operation of the helium refrigerator because of some impurities, failure of a welded bellows of an accumulator, and hydrogen pump issues. Furthermore, the Great East Japan Earthquake was experienced during the cryogenic hydrogen system operation in March 2011. In this study, we describe the operation characteristics and our experiences with the J-PARC cryogenic hydrogen system.

  16. Fermilab Main Injector Collimation Systems: Design, Commissioning and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Bruce; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Drozhdin, A.I.; Johnson, David E.; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Morris, Denton K.; Rakhno, Igor; Seiya, Kiyomi; Sidorov, Vladimir; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is moving toward providing 400 kW of 120 GeV proton beams using slip stacking injection of eleven Booster batches. Loss of 5% of the beam at or near injection energy results in 1.5 kW of beam loss. A collimation system has been implemented to localize this loss with the design emphasis on beam not captured in the accelerating RF buckets. More than 95% of these losses are captured in the collimation region. We will report on the construction, commissioning and operation of this collimation system. Commissioning studies and loss measurement tools will be discussed. Residual radiation monitoring of the Main Injector machine components will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of these efforts.

  17. A Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS)-based Cryogenic Deformable Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enya, K.; Kataza, H.; Bierden, P.

    2009-03-01

    We present our first results on the development and evaluation of a cryogenic deformable mirror (DM) based on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. A MEMS silicon-based DM chip with 32 channels, in which each channel is 300 μm × 300 μm in size, was mounted on a silicon substrate in order to minimize distortion and prevent it from being permanently damaged by thermal stresses introduced by cooling. The silicon substrate was oxidized to obtain electric insulation and had a metal fan-out pattern on the surface. For cryogenic tests, we constructed a measurement system consisting of a Fizeau interferometer, a cryostat cooled by liquid N2, zooming optics, electric drivers. The surface of the mirror at 95 K deformed in response to the application of a voltage, and no significant difference was found between the deformation at 95 K and that at room temperature. The power dissipation by the cryogenic DM was also measured, and we suggest that this is small enough for it to be used in a space cryogenic telescope. The properties of the DM remained unchanged after five cycles of vacuum pumping, cooling, warming, and venting. We conclude that fabricating cryogenic DMs employing MEMS technology is a promising approach. Therefore, we intend to develop a more sophisticated device for actual use, and to look for potential applications including the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology & Astrophysics (SPICA), and other missions.

  18. Study of an all SFHE SIRTF cryogenic system. [SuperFluid HElium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbach, A. R.; Kelly, T. K.; Poley, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a superfluid helium cooled, 85-cm telescope with three infrared instruments at the focal plane. SIRTF will establish in space a long-term-maintainable infrared observatory for the region of 2-700 microns. The cryogenic system can be designed to last up to six years with 1280 kg of superfluid, and can function in either a 28.5 deg or 98 deg inclination orbit by exchanging the sunshade. The lifetime is primarily a function of instrument heat load rather than parasitic heat to the cryogen system.

  19. Residential commissioning to assess envelope and HVAC system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Sherman, Max H.

    2001-08-31

    Houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict. For example, Walker et al. (1998a) found large variations in thermal distribution system efficiency, as much as a factor of two even between side-by-side houses with the same system design and installation crew. This and other studies (e.g., Jump et al. 1996) indicate that duct leakage testing and sealing can readily achieve a 25 to 30% reduction in installed cooling capacity and energy consumption. As another example, consider that the building industry has recognized for at least 20 years the substantial impact that envelope airtightness has on thermal loads, energy use, comfort, and indoor air quality. However, Walker et al. (1998a) found 50% variances in airtightness for houses with the same design and construction crews, within the same subdivision. A substantial reason for these problems is that few houses are now built or retrofitted using formal design procedures, most are field assembled from a large number of components, and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Solving the problems requires field performance evaluations of houses using appropriate and agreed upon procedures. Many procedural elements already exist in a fragmented environment; some are ready now to be integrated into a new process called residential commissioning (Wray et al. 2000). For example, California's Title 24 energy code already provides some commissioning elements for evaluating the energy performance of new houses. A house consists of components and systems that need to be commissioned, such as building envelopes, air distribution systems, cooling equipment, heat pumps, combustion appliances, controls, and other electrical appliances. For simplicity and practicality, these components and systems are usually evaluated individually, but we need to bear in mind that many of them interact. Therefore, commissioning must not only identify the energy and non-energy benefits

  20. Mobilization of cryogenic ice in outer solar system satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Lunine, J. I.

    1986-01-01

    Mechanisms to explain the mobilization of ice on the Uranian satellites Miranda and Ariel at the very low temperatures prevailing on those bodies are considered. A form of pressure solution creep is proposed in which very fine-grained water ice or clathrate hydrate is mobilized by a small amount of intergranular cryogenic fluid (CH4, CO, or N2). Viscosities as low as 10 to the 12th P are possible for a limited time, sufficient to allow flooding of rift valleys and perhaps even substantial lateral flows (glaciers).

  1. Vent System Analysis for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage Transfer Ground Test Article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedayat, A

    2013-01-01

    To test and validate key capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements such as large cryogenic propulsion stages and propellant depots, NASA is leading the efforts to develop and design the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) payload. The primary objectives of CPST payload are to demonstrate: 1) in-space storage of cryogenic propellants for long duration applications; and 2) in-space transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Ground Test Article (GTA) is a technology development version of the CPST payload. The GTA consists of flight-sized and flight-like storage and transfer tanks, liquid acquisition devices, transfer, and pressurization systems with all of the CPST functionality. The GTA is designed to perform integrated passive and active thermal storage and transfer performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a vacuum environment. The GTA storage tank is designed to store liquid hydrogen and the transfer tank is designed to be 5% of the storage tank volume. The LH2 transfer subsystem is designed to transfer propellant from one tank to the other utilizing pressure or a pump. The LH2 vent subsystem is designed to prevent over-pressurization of the storage and transfer tanks. An in-house general-purpose computer program was utilized to model and simulate the vent subsystem operation. The modeling, analysis, and the results will be presented in the final paper.

  2. A method to measure internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; Li, Zhou; He, Fengyun; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-03-01

    The suppression level of internal stray radiation is a key criterion for infrared imaging systems, especially for high-precision cryogenic infrared imaging systems. To achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures, a measurement method, which is based on radiometric calibration, is presented in this paper. First of all, the calibration formula is deduced considering the integration time, and the effect of ambient temperature on internal stray radiation is further analyzed in detail. Then, an approach is proposed to measure the internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures. By calibrating the system under two ambient temperatures, the quantitative relation between the internal stray radiation and the ambient temperature can be acquired, and then the internal stray radiation of the cryogenic infrared imaging system under various ambient temperatures can be calculated. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can be used to measure internal stray radiation with high accuracy at various ambient temperatures and integration times. The proposed method has some advantages, such as simple implementation and the capability of high-precision measurement. The measurement results can be used to guide the stray radiation suppression and to test whether the internal stray radiation suppression performance meets the requirement or not.

  3. PERFORMANCE OF A LIQUID XENON CALORIMETER CRYOGENIC SYSTEM FOR THE MEG EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K.; Hisamitsu, Y.; Iwamoto, T.; Mihara, S.; Mori, T.; Nishiguchi, H.; Otani, W.; Sawada, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; Nishitani, T.

    2008-03-16

    The {mu}-particle rare decay physics experiment, the MU-E-GAMMA (MEG) experiment, will soon be operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Zurich. To achieve the extremely high sensitivity required to detect gamma rays, 800 L of liquid xenon is used as the medium in the calorimeter, viewed by 830 photomultiplier tubes (PMT) immersed in it. The required liquid xenon purity is of the order of ppb of water, and is obtained by using a cryogenic centrifugal pump and cold molecular sieves. The heat load of the calorimeter at 165 K is to be approximately 120 W, which is removed by a pulse-tube cryocooler developed at KEK and built by Iwatani Industrial Gas Corp., with a cooling power of about 200 W at 165 K. The cryogenic system is also equipped with a 1000-L dewar. This paper describes the results of an initial performance test of each cryogenic component.

  4. Design of the CRISM cryogenic system and focal plane assembly isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, Jeffrey; Schaefer, Ed; Fasold, Melisa

    2005-08-01

    This Paper will discuss the design of a triple redundant cryogenically cooled and isolated Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) for the Compact Remote Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument. The FPA is required to operate in the temperature range of 90 - 100K. The CRISM FPA isolation system was constructed from a ceramic fiber composite. The FPA was cooled by one of three cryocoolers individually connected to one of three diode heat pipes that were all connected to the FPA. The total heat load imposed by the isolation system was about 250 milliwatts at operating temperature. CRISM is expected to launch in August of 2005.

  5. The Cryogenic, High-Accuracy, Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS): A New Facility for Cryogenic Infrared through Vacuum Far-Ultraviolet Refractive Index Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Bradley J.; Leviton, Douglas B.

    2004-01-01

    The optical designs of future NASA infrared (IR) missions and instruments, such as the James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) Near-Mixed Camera (NIRCam), will rely on accurate knowledge of the index of refraction of various IR optical materials at cryogenic temperatures. To meet this need, we have developed a Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS). In this paper we discuss the completion of the design and construction of CHARMS as well as the engineering details that constrained the final design and hardware implementation. In addition, we will present our first light, cryogenic, IR index of refraction data for LiF, BaF2, and CaF2, and compare our results to previously published data for these materials.

  6. Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X. X.; Zhang, M. M.; Zhang, D. X.; Xu, D.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H2 from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H2 in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

  7. Cryogenic system with GM cryocooler for krypton, xenon separation from hydrogen-helium purge gas

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, X. X.; Zhang, D. X.; Qian, Y.; Liu, W.; Zhang, M. M.; Xu, D.

    2014-01-29

    In the thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR), fission products such as krypton, xenon and tritium will be produced continuously in the process of nuclear fission reaction. A cryogenic system with a two stage GM cryocooler was designed to separate Kr, Xe, and H{sub 2} from helium purge gas. The temperatures of two stage heat exchanger condensation tanks were maintained at about 38 K and 4.5 K, respectively. The main fluid parameters of heat transfer were confirmed, and the structural heat exchanger equipment and cold box were designed. Designed concentrations after cryogenic separation of Kr, Xe and H{sub 2} in helium recycle gas are less than 1 ppb.

  8. Thermodynamic Vent System for an On-Orbit Cryogenic Reaction Control Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Romig, Kris A.; Jimenez, Rafael; Flores, Sam

    2012-01-01

    A report discusses a cryogenic reaction control system (RCS) that integrates a Joule-Thompson (JT) device (expansion valve) and thermodynamic vent system (TVS) with a cryogenic distribution system to allow fine control of the propellant quality (subcooled liquid) during operation of the device. It enables zero-venting when coupled with an RCS engine. The proper attachment locations and sizing of the orifice are required with the propellant distribution line to facilitate line conditioning. During operations, system instrumentation was strategically installed along the distribution/TVS line assembly, and temperature control bands were identified. A sub-scale run tank, full-scale distribution line, open-loop TVS, and a combination of procured and custom-fabricated cryogenic components were used in the cryogenic RCS build-up. Simulated on-orbit activation and thruster firing profiles were performed to quantify system heat gain and evaluate the TVS s capability to maintain the required propellant conditions at the inlet to the engine valves. Test data determined that a small control valve, such as a piezoelectric, is optimal to provide continuously the required thermal control. The data obtained from testing has also assisted with the development of fluid and thermal models of an RCS to refine integrated cryogenic propulsion system designs. This system allows a liquid oxygenbased main propulsion and reaction control system for a spacecraft, which improves performance, safety, and cost over conventional hypergolic systems due to higher performance, use of nontoxic propellants, potential for integration with life support and power subsystems, and compatibility with in-situ produced propellants.

  9. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; Barrett, J. P.; Bauer, S.; Beck, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behrens, J.; Bergmann, T.; Besserer, U.; Blümer, J.; Bodine, L. I.; Bokeloh, K.; Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Büsch, S.; Burritt, T. H.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; De Viveiros, L.; Doe, P. J.; Dragoun, O.; Drexlin, G.; Dyba, S.; Ebenhöch, S.; Eitel, K.; Ellinger, E.; Enomoto, S.; Erhard, M.; Eversheim, D.; Fedkevych, M.; Felden, A.; Fischer, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F.; Furse, D.; Ghilea, M.; Gil, W.; Glück, F.; Gonzalez Ureña, A.; Görhardt, S.; Groh, S.; Grohmann, S.; Grössle, R.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Hackenjos, M.; Hannen, V.; Harms, F.; Haußmann, N.; Heizmann, F.; Helbing, K.; Herz, W.; Hickford, S.; Hilk, D.; Hillen, B.; Höhn, T.; Holzapfel, B.; Hötzel, M.; Howe, M. A.; Huber, A.; Jansen, A.; Kernert, N.; Kippenbrock, L.; Kleesiek, M.; Klein, M.; Kopmann, A.; Kosmider, A.; Kovalík, A.; Krasch, B.; Kraus, M.; Krause, H.; Krause, M.; Kuckert, L.; Kuffner, B.; La Cascio, L.; Lebeda, O.; Leiber, B.; Letnev, J.; Lobashev, V. M.; Lokhov, A.; Malcherek, E.; Mark, M.; Martin, E. L.; Mertens, S.; Mirz, S.; Monreal, B.; Müller, K.; Neuberger, M.; Neumann, H.; Niemes, S.; Noe, M.; Oblath, N. S.; Off, A.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Osipowicz, A.; Otten, E.; Parno, D. S.; Plischke, P.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prall, M.; Priester, F.; Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Reich, J.; Rest, O.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Röllig, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, S.; Ryšavý, M.; Schlösser, K.; Schlösser, M.; Schönung, K.; Schrank, M.; Schwarz, J.; Seiler, W.; Seitz-Moskaliuk, H.; Sentkerestiová, J.; Skasyrskaya, A.; Slezák, M.; Špalek, A.; Steidl, M.; Steinbrink, N.; Sturm, M.; Suesser, M.; Telle, H. H.; Thümmler, T.; Titov, N.; Tkachev, I.; Trost, N.; Unru, A.; Valerius, K.; Vénos, D.; Vianden, R.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Weiss, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Winzen, D.; Wolf, J.; Wüstling, S.; Zacher, M.; Zadoroghny, S.; Zbořil, M.

    2016-04-01

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. An integral energy analysis will be performed by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. A system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3 km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10-11 mbar range. It is demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.

  10. ORION OPTICAL DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEMS Construction and commissioning progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, J. B. A.; Drew, D.; Fyrth, J.; Hill, M. P.; Kemshall, P.; Oades, K.; Harvey, E.; Gumbrell, E. T.

    2012-10-01

    The Orion facility provides a unique combined long- and short-pulse laser capability. We report on the progress in constructing a comprehensive plasma optical diagnostic suite for the facility, developed for a range of warm dense matter and other materials' properties experiments. The first VISAR imaging line for the suite is due to be commissioned in 2012 and its progress will be reported. The system consists of configurable optical elements mounted on a TIM, relay optics to an optical table, optics to direct the light through a VISAR bed onto an optical streak camera and the infrastructure systems to provide remote control and services. Due to the operational model of Orion the diagnostic must have comprehensive remote control for its set up and alignment. This makes the system design more complicated than otherwise. The sub-systems required to give the degree of remote control required will be described. A modified version of the suite's ASBO imaging line was used in 2011 to support the commissioning of Orion's long- and short-pulse laser beam lines by imaging optical emission from laser targets. The set up of this system and the data it recorded with an optical streak camera during a short pulse experiment will be presented.

  11. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; ...

    2016-04-07

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. We performed an integral energy analysis by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. Furthermore, a system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3more » km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10-11 mbar range. We demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.« less

  12. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; Barrett, J. P.; Bauer, S.; Beck, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behrens, J.; Bergmann, T.; Besserer, U.; Blümer, J.; Bodine, L. I.; Bokeloh, K.; Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Bornschein, L.; Büsch, S.; Burritt, T. H.; Chilingaryan, S.; Corona, T. J.; Viveiros, L. De; Doe, P. J.; Dragoun, O.; Drexlin, G.; Dyba, S.; Ebenhöch, S.; Eitel, K.; Ellinger, E.; Enomoto, S.; Erhard, M.; Eversheim, D.; Fedkevych, M.; Felden, A.; Fischer, S.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fränkle, F.; Furse, D.; Ghilea, M.; Gil, W.; Glück, F.; Ureña, A. Gonzalez; Görhardt, S.; Groh, S.; Grohmann, S.; Grössle, R.; Gumbsheimer, R.; Hackenjos, M.; Hannen, V.; Harms, F.; Haußmann, N.; Heizmann, F.; Helbing, K.; Herz, W.; Hickford, S.; Hilk, D.; Hillen, B.; Höhn, T.; Holzapfel, B.; Hötzel, M.; Howe, M. A.; Huber, A.; Jansen, A.; Kernert, N.; Kippenbrock, L.; Kleesiek, M.; Klein, M.; Kopmann, A.; Kosmider, A.; Kovalík, A.; Krasch, B.; Kraus, M.; Krause, H.; Krause, M.; Kuckert, L.; Kuffner, B.; Cascio, L. La; Lebeda, O.; Leiber, B.; Letnev, J.; Lobashev, V. M.; Lokhov, A.; Malcherek, E.; Mark, M.; Martin, E. L.; Mertens, S.; Mirz, S.; Monreal, B.; Müller, K.; Neuberger, M.; Neumann, H.; Niemes, S.; Noe, M.; Oblath, N. S.; Off, A.; Ortjohann, H. -W.; Osipowicz, A.; Otten, E.; Parno, D. S.; Plischke, P.; Poon, A. W. P.; Prall, M.; Priester, F.; Ranitzsch, P. C. -O.; Reich, J.; Rest, O.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Röllig, M.; Rosendahl, S.; Rupp, S.; Ryšavý, M.; Schlösser, K.; Schlösser, M.; Schönung, K.; Schrank, M.; Schwarz, J.; Seiler, W.; Seitz-Moskaliuk, H.; Sentkerestiová, J.; Skasyrskaya, A.; Slezák, M.; Špalek, A.; Steidl, M.; Steinbrink, N.; Sturm, M.; Suesser, M.; Telle, H. H.; Thümmler, T.; Titov, N.; Tkachev, I.; Trost, N.; Unru, A.; Valerius, K.; Vénos, D.; Vianden, R.; Vöcking, S.; Wall, B. L.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weber, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Weiss, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.; Wierman, K. L.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Winzen, D.; Wolf, J.; Wüstling, S.; Zacher, M.; Zadoroghny, S.; Zbořil, M.

    2016-04-07

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. We performed an integral energy analysis by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. Furthermore, a system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps and 3 km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10-11 mbar range. We demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.

  13. Conceptual design of the cryogenic system and estimation of the recirculated power for CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaogang; Qiu, Lilong; Li, Junjun; Wang, Zhaoliang; Ren, Yong; Wang, Xianwei; Li, Guoqiang; Gao, Xiang; Bi, Yanfang

    2017-01-01

    The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is the next tokamak in China’s roadmap for realizing commercial fusion energy. The CFETR cryogenic system is crucial to creating and maintaining operational conditions for its superconducting magnet system and thermal shields. The preliminary conceptual design of the CFETR cryogenic system has been carried out with reference to that of ITER. It will provide an average capacity of 75 to 80 kW at 4.5 K and a peak capacity of 1300 kW at 80 K. The electric power consumption of the cryogenic system is estimated to be 24 MW, and the gross building area is about 7000 m2. The relationships among the auxiliary power consumed by the cryogenic system, the fusion power gain and the recirculated power of CFETR are discussed, with the suggestion that about 52% of the electric power produced by CFETR in phase II must be recirculated to run the fusion test reactor.

  14. The NEON Science Commissioning Plan: Strategies for Confirming System Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, G. D.; Thorpe, A.; Buur, H.

    2015-12-01

    A transformation is underway in the field of ecological monitoring as compelling science questions motivate us to build ever-larger networks aiming to acquire uniform datasets over wide geographical ranges and long timescales. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), currently under construction across the U.S., represents the most ambitious such effort to characterize ecology at the continental scale. When completed in 2017, NEON will begin a 30-year program to monitor the state of North American ecosystems at scores of independent sites by employing a combination of terrestrial and aquatic sensors, organismal, biogeochemical, and hydrological sampling conducted by field staff, and airborne remote-sensing imaging and spectroscopy. Simply building and bringing such complex, long-term monitoring networks online is, however, insufficient to produce a useful result: the science team must also confirm that the system fulfills its essential mission to generate accurate and uniform data from all sites over time. This is the role of Science Commissioning, the process which completes the construction stage by confirming that the system operates as designed before entering full operations. Ideally, Science Commissioning involves simply testing the completed system against all applicable science requirements. In the real world of large, complex networks, planners of Science Commissioning must grapple with several key questions: How can we verify that the measurements from a given subsystem reflect "truth"? How can we ensure that similar subsystems at different sites return equivalent results? How can we confirm that data from the same site remain comparable over long periods of time? How can we conduct meaningful tests on a large system in a reasonable amount of time and effort? We describe the specific strategies NEON is developing to meet these challenges and the implications for other large ecological monitoring networks.

  15. Development of the cryogenic system of AEgIS at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Derking, J. H.; Bremer, J.; Burghart, G.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Haider, S.

    2014-01-29

    The AEgIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) experiment is located at the antiproton decelerator complex of CERN. The main goal of the experiment is to perform the first direct measurement of the Earth’s gravitational acceleration on antihydrogen atoms within 1% precision. The antihydrogen is produced in a cylindrical Penning trap by combining antiprotons with positrons. To reach the precision of 1%, the antihydrogen has to be cooled to 100 mK to reduce its random velocity. A dilution refrigerator is selected to deliver the necessary cooling capacity of 100 μW at 50 mK. The AEgIS cryogenic system basically consists of cryostats for a 1-T and for a 5-T superconducting magnet, a central region cryostat, a dilution refrigerator cryostat and a measurement cryostat with a Moiré deflectometer to measure the gravitational acceleration. In autumn 2012, the 1-T cryostat, 5-T cryostat and central region cryostat were assembled and commissioned. The apparatus is cooled down in eight days using 2500 L of liquid helium and liquid nitrogen. During operation, the average consumption of liquid helium is 150 L⋅day{sup −1} and of liquid nitrogen 5 L⋅day{sup −1}. The temperature sensors at the Penning traps measured 12 K to 18 K, which is higher than expected. Simulations show that this is caused by a bad thermalization of the trap wiring. The implementation of the sub-kelvin region is foreseen for mid-2015. The antihydrogen will be cooled down to 100 mK in an ultra-cold trap consisting of multiple high-voltage electrodes made of sapphire with gold plated electrode sectors.

  16. Development of the cryogenic system of AEgIS at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derking, J. H.; Bremer, J.; Burghart, G.; Doser, M.; Dudarev, A.; Haider, S.

    2014-01-01

    The AEgIS (Antimatter Experiment: Gravity, Interferometry, Spectroscopy) experiment is located at the antiproton decelerator complex of CERN. The main goal of the experiment is to perform the first direct measurement of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on antihydrogen atoms within 1% precision. The antihydrogen is produced in a cylindrical Penning trap by combining antiprotons with positrons. To reach the precision of 1%, the antihydrogen has to be cooled to 100 mK to reduce its random velocity. A dilution refrigerator is selected to deliver the necessary cooling capacity of 100 μW at 50 mK. The AEgIS cryogenic system basically consists of cryostats for a 1-T and for a 5-T superconducting magnet, a central region cryostat, a dilution refrigerator cryostat and a measurement cryostat with a Moiré deflectometer to measure the gravitational acceleration. In autumn 2012, the 1-T cryostat, 5-T cryostat and central region cryostat were assembled and commissioned. The apparatus is cooled down in eight days using 2500 L of liquid helium and liquid nitrogen. During operation, the average consumption of liquid helium is 150 Lṡday-1 and of liquid nitrogen 5 Lṡday-1. The temperature sensors at the Penning traps measured 12 K to 18 K, which is higher than expected. Simulations show that this is caused by a bad thermalization of the trap wiring. The implementation of the sub-kelvin region is foreseen for mid-2015. The antihydrogen will be cooled down to 100 mK in an ultra-cold trap consisting of multiple high-voltage electrodes made of sapphire with gold plated electrode sectors.

  17. The Evolution of the Cryogenic System of the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hees, W.; Arnold, Ph; Fydrych, J.; Jurns, J.; Wang, X. L.; Weisend, J. G., II

    2015-12-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is an intergovernmental project building a multidisciplinary research laboratory based upon the world's most powerful neutron source to be built in Lund, Sweden. The ESS will use a superconducting linear accelerator which will deliver protons with 5 MW of power to the target at 2.0 GeV with a nominal current of 62.5 mA. A cryomodule test stand will be supplied with helium for the site acceptance tests. The target will have two moderators using supercritical hydrogen to cool down the neutrons. The neutron instruments and the experiments’ sample environment will use liquid helium and liquid nitrogen to cool detectors and samples. The ESS cryogenic system is designed to deliver cryogenic cooling capacity to all three client system. A first concept of the ESS cryogenic system was developed in 2010 and 2011 with a limited amount of input from the clients as well as from site infrastructure (i.e. buildings and utilities). The design had to be flexible enough to accommodate future changes in scope, schedule and available infrastructure. Over the following years the design has evolved together with these parameters to achieve a maturity today which allowed us to order the accelerator cryoplant and to start procurement of many of the other parts of the ESS cryogenic system. This paper presents the evolution of the design throughout the years and the factors influencing certain design choices.

  18. Micromechanics, fracture mechanics and gas permeability of composite laminates for cryogenic storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sukjoo

    A micromechanics method is developed to investigate microcrack propagation in a liquid hydrogen composite tank at cryogenic temperature. The unit cell is modeled using square and hexagonal shapes depends on fiber and matrix layout from microscopic images of composite laminates. Periodic boundary conditions are applied to the unit cell. The temperature dependent properties are taken into account in the analysis. The laminate properties estimated by the micromechanics method are compared with empirical solutions using constituent properties. The micro stresses in the fiber and matrix phases based on boundary conditions in laminate level are calculated to predict the formation of microcracks in the matrix. The method is applied to an actual liquid hydrogen storage system. The analysis predicts micro stresses in the matrix phase are large enough to cause microcracks in the composite. Stress singularity of a transverse crack normal to a ply-interface is investigated to predict the fracture behavior at cryogenic conditions using analytical and finite element analysis. When a transverse crack touches a ply-interface of a composite layer with same fiber orientation, the stress singularity is equal to ½. When the transverse crack propagates to a stiffer layer normal to a ply-direction, the singularity becomes less than ½ and vice versa. Finite element analysis is performed to evaluate fracture toughness of a laminated beam subjected to the fracture load measured by the fracture experiment at room and cryogenic temperatures. As results, the fracture load at cryogenic temperature is significantly lower than that at room temperature. However, when thermal stresses are taken into consideration, for both cases of room and cryogenic temperatures, the variation of fracture toughness becomes insignificant. The result indicates fracture toughness is a characteristic property which is independent to temperature changes. The experimental analysis is performed to investigate the

  19. Micromechanics, Fracture Mechanics and Gas Permeability of Composite Laminates for Cryogenic Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sukjoo; Sankar, Bhavani; Ebaugh, Newton C.

    2005-01-01

    A micromechanics method is developed to investigate microcrack propagation in a liquid hydrogen composite tank at cryogenic temperature. The unit cell is modeled using square and hexagonal shapes depends on fiber and matrix layout from microscopic images of composite laminates. Periodic boundary conditions are applied to the unit cell. The temperature dependent properties are taken into account in the analysis. The laminate properties estimated by the micromechanics method are compared with empirical solutions using constituent properties. The micro stresses in the fiber and matrix phases based on boundary conditions in laminate level are calculated to predict the formation of microcracks in the matrix. The method is applied to an actual liquid hydrogen storage system. The analysis predicts micro stresses in the matrix phase are large enough to cause microcracks in the composite. Stress singularity of a transverse crack normal to a ply-interface is investigated to predict the fracture behavior at cryogenic conditions using analytical and finite element analysis. When a transverse crack touches a ply-interface of a composite layer with same fiber orientation, the stress singularity is equal to 1/2. When the transverse crack propagates to a stiffer layer normal to the ply-direction, the singularity becomes less than 1/2 and vice versa. Finite element analysis is performed to predict the fracture toughness of a laminated beam subjected to fracture loads measured by four-point bending tests at room and cryogenic temperatures. As results, the fracture load at cryogenic temperature is significantly lower than that at room temperature. However, when thermal stresses are taken into consideration, for both cases of room and cryogenic temperatures, the difference of the fracture toughness becomes insignificant. The result indicates fracture toughness is a characteristic property, which is independent to temperature changes. The experimental analysis is performed to

  20. 75 FR 4418 - In the Matter of: Certain Course Management System Software Products; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Course Management System Software Products; Notice of Commission... importation of certain course management system software products that infringe certain claims of...

  1. 78 FR 49763 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Commission... importation of certain sleep- disordered breathing treatment systems and components thereof by reason...

  2. Performance updates of HAWK-I and preparation for the commissioning of the system GRAAL+HAWK-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibon, Pascale; Paufique, Jerome; Kuntschner, Harald; Dobrzycka, Danuta; Le Louarn, Miska; Valenti, Elena; Neeser, Mark; Pompei, Emanuela; Arsenault, Robin; Siebenmorgen, Ralf; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Petr-Gotzens, Monika; La Fuente, Carlos; Urrutia, Josefina; Valenzuela, Javier; Castillo, Roberto; Baksai, Pedro; Garcia Dabo, Cesar Enrique; Jost, Andreas; Argomedo, Javier; Kolb, Johann; Kiekebusch, Mario; Hubin, Norbert; Duhoux, Philippe; Conzelmann, Ralf Dieter; Donaldson, Robert; Tordo, Sebastien; Huber, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    The High Acuity Wide field K-band Imager (HAWK-I) instrument is a cryogenic wide field imager operating in the wavelength range 0.9 to 2.5 microns. It has been in operations since 2007 on the UT4 at the Very Large Telescope Observatory in seeing-limited mode. In 2017-2018, GRound Layer Adaptive optics Assisted by Lasers module (GRAAL) will be in operation and the system GRAAL+HAWK-I will be commissioned. It will allow: deeper exposures for nearly point-source objects, or shorter exposure times for reaching the same magnitude, and/or deeper detection limiting magnitude. With GRAAL, HAWK-I will operate more than 80% of the time with an equivalent K-band seeing of 0.55" (instead of 0.7" without GRAAL). GRAAL is already installed and the operations without adaptive optics were commissioned in 2015. We discuss here the latest updates on performance from HAWK-I without Adaptive Optics (AO) and the preparation for the commissioning of the system GRAAL+HAWK-I.

  3. Cryogenic shutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Richard D. (Inventor); Magner, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetically operated shutter mechanism is provided that will function in cryogenic or cryogenic zero gravity environments to selectively block radiation such as light from passing through a window to a target object such as a mirror or detector located inside a cryogenic container such as a dewar. The mechanism includes a shutter paddle blade that is moved by an electromagnetically actuated torquing device between an open position where the target object is exposed to ambient radiation or light and a closed position where the shutter paddle blade shields the ambient radiation or light from the target object. The purpose of the shuttering device is to prevent the mirror or other target object from being directly exposed to radiation passing through the window located on the side wall of the dewar, thereby decreasing or eliminating any temperature gradient that would occur within the target object due to exposure to the radiation. A special nylon bearing system is utilized to prevent the device from binding during operation and the paddle blade is also termally connected to a reservoir containing the cryogen to further reduce the internal temperature.

  4. Cryogenic shutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barney, Richard D. (Inventor); Magner, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A magnetically operated shutter mechanism is provided that will function in cryogenic or cryogenic zero gravity environments to selectively block radiation such as light from passing through a window to a target object such as a mirror or detector located inside a cryogenic container such as a dewar. The mechanism includes a shutter paddle blade that is moved by an electromagnetically actuated torquing device between an open position where the target object is exposed to ambient radiation or light and a closed position where the shutter paddle blade shields the ambient radiation or light from the target object. The purpose of the shuttering device is to prevent the mirror or other target object from being directly exposed to radiation passing through the window located on the side wall of the dewar, thereby decreasing or eliminating any temperature gradient that would occur within the target object due to exposure to the radiation. A special nylon bearing system is utilized to prevent the device from binding during operation and the paddle blade is also thermally connected to a reservoir containing cryogen to further reduce the internal temperature.

  5. A Cryogenic Fluid System Simulation in Support of Integrated Systems Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, John P.; Johnston, Kyle B.; Daigle, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Simulations serve as important tools throughout the design and operation of engineering systems. In the context of sys-tems health management, simulations serve many uses. For one, the underlying physical models can be used by model-based health management tools to develop diagnostic and prognostic models. These simulations should incorporate both nominal and faulty behavior with the ability to inject various faults into the system. Such simulations can there-fore be used for operator training, for both nominal and faulty situations, as well as for developing and prototyping health management algorithms. In this paper, we describe a methodology for building such simulations. We discuss the design decisions and tools used to build a simulation of a cryogenic fluid test bed, and how it serves as a core technology for systems health management development and maturation.

  6. Cryogenic adsorber design in a helium refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhongjun; Zhang, Ning; Li, Zhengyu; Li, Q.

    2012-06-01

    The cryogenic adsorber is specially designed to eliminate impurities in gaseous helium such as O2, and N2 which is normally difficult to remove, based on the reversible cryotrapping of impurities on an activated carbon bed. The coconut shell activated carbon is adopted because of its developed micropore structure and specific surface area. This activated carbon adsorption is mostly determined by the micropore structure, and the adsorption rate of impurities is inversely proportional to the square of the particle sizes. The active carbon absorber's maximum permissible flow velocity is 0.25 m/s. When the gas flow velocity increases, the adsorption diffusion rate of the adsorbent is reduced, because an increase in the magnitude of the velocity resulted in a reduced amount of heat transfer to a unit volume of impure gas. According to the numerical simulation of N2 adsorption dynamics, the appropriate void tower link speed and the saturated adsorption capacity are determined. Then the diameter and height of the adsorber are designed. The mass transfer length should be taken into account in the adsorber height design. The pressure decrease is also calculated. The important factors that influence the adsorber pressure decrease are the void tower speed, the adsorbed layer height, and the active carbon particle shape and size.

  7. Upgrade to the Cryogenic Hydrogen Gas Target Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Michael; Tribble, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The cryogenic hydrogen gas target at Texas A&M is a vital component for creating a secondary radioactive beam that is then used in experiments in the Momentum Achromat Recoil Spectrometer (MARS). A stable beam from the K500 superconducting cyclotron enters the gas cell and some incident particles are transmuted by a nuclear reaction into a radioactive beam, which are separated from the primary beam and used in MARS experiments. The pressure in the target chamber is monitored so that a predictable isotope production rate can be assured. A ``black box'' received the analog pressure data and sent RS232 serial data through an outdated serial connection to an outdated Visual Basic 6 (VB6) program, which plotted the chamber pressure continuously. The black box has been upgraded to an Arduino UNO microcontroller [Atmel Inc.], which can receive the pressure data and output via USB to a computer. It has been programmed to also accept temperature data for future upgrade. A new computer program, with updated capabilities, has been written in Python. The software can send email alerts, create audible alarms through the Arduino, and plot pressure and temperature. The program has been designed to better fit the needs of the users. Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program.

  8. Flight Performance of Gravity Probe B Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, D. O.; Taber, M. A.; Burns, K. M.

    2006-04-01

    Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is a cryogenic and space-based test of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by means of precision gyroscopes, The GP-B spacecraft was launched into a polar orbit from Vandenberg AFB on April 20, 2004. The launch and operation of GP-B represented the culmination of forty years of planning, technology development, hardware fabrication, and testing. The superfluid liquid helium became depleted on September 29, 2005, giving a lifetime of 17.3 months compared to the requirement of 16.5 months and a thermal model prediction of 16.6 months. The flight dewar contained 2320 liters of ~1.8 K superfluid helium at launch and housed the science instrument consisting of four precision gyroscopes and a telescope. A porous plug phase separator effected the venting of the helium boiloff gas. This venting helium was used to operate 16 thrusters, which are the actuators that effect precision pointing on a fixed star and adjust the orbit to be drag free or close to true zero-g.

  9. Cryogenic Phase-Locking Loop System Based on SIS Tunnel Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudchenko, A. V.; Koshelets, V. P.; Kalashnikov, K. V.

    An ultra-wideband cryogenic phase-locking loop (CPLL) system is a new cryogenic device. The CPLL is intended for phase-locking of a Flux-Flow Oscillator (FFO) in a Superconducting Integrated Receiver (SIR) but can be used for any cryogenic terahertz oscillator. The key element of the CPLL is Cryogenic Phase Detector (CPD), a recently proposed new superconducting element. The CPD is an innovative implementation of superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junction. All components of the CPLL reside inside a cryostat at 4.2 K, with the loop length of about 50 cm and the total loop delay 5.5 ns. Such a small delay results in CPLL synchronization bandwidth as wide as 40 MHz and allows phase-locking of more than 60% of the power emitted by the FFO even for FFO linewidth of about 10 MHz. This percentage of phase-locked power three times exceeds that achieved with conventional room-temperature PLLs. Such an improvement enables reducing the FFO phase noise and extending the SIR operation range.Another new approach to the FFO phase-locking has been proposed and experimentally verified. The FFO has been synchronized by a cryogenic harmonic phase detector (CHPD) based on the SIS junction. The CHPD operates simultaneously as the harmonic mixer (HM) and phase detector. We have studied the HM based on the SIS junction theoretically; in particular we calculated 3D dependences of the HM output signal power versus the bias voltage and the LO power. Results of the calculations have been compared with experimental measurements. Good qualitative and quantitative correspondence has been achieved. The FFO phase-locking by the CHPD has been demonstrated. Such a PLL system is expected to be extra wideband. This concept is very promising for building of the multi-pixel SIR array.

  10. 78 FR 41950 - Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Commission Determination To Review-In-Part a Remand Initial Determination; Schedule for Filing Written Submissions...

  11. Large-Scale Cryogenic Testing of Launch Vehicle Ground Systems at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, E. W.; Sass, J. P.; Lobemeyer, D. A.; Sojourner, S. J.; Hatfield, W. H.; Rewinkel, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new launch vehicle to support NASA's future exploration plans requires significant redesign and upgrade of Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) launch pad and ground support equipment systems. In many cases, specialized test equipment and systems will be required to certify the function of the new system designs under simulated operational conditions, including propellant loading. This paper provides an overview of the cryogenic test infrastructure that is in place at KSC to conduct development and qualification testing that ranges from the component level to the integrated-system level. An overview of the major cryogenic test facilities will be provided, along with a detailed explanation of the technology focus area for each facility

  12. An ultralightweight, evacuated, load-bearing, high-performance insulation system. [for cryogenic propellant tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmley, R. T.; Cunnington, G. R., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A new hollow-glass microsphere insulation and a flexible stainless-steel vacuum jacket were demonstrated on a flight-weight cryogenic test tank, 1.17 m in diameter. The weight of the system is three times lighter than the most advanced vacuum-jacketed design demonstrated to date, a free-standing honeycomb hard shell with a multilayer insulation system (for a Space Tug application). Design characteristics of the flexible vacuum jacket are presented along with a model describing the insulation thermal performance as a function of boundary temperatures and emittance, compressive load on the insulation and insulation gas pressure. Test data are compared with model predictions and with prior flat-plate calorimeter test results. Potential applications for this insulation system or a derivative of this system include the cryogenic Space Tug, the Single-Stage-to-Orbit Space Shuttle, LH2 fueled subsonic and hypersonic aircraft, and LNG applications.

  13. Cryogenic sub-system for the 56 MHz SRF storage cavity for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Than, R.; Orfin, P.; Lederle, D.; Tallerico, T.; Masi L.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-03-28

    A 56 MHz Superconducting RF Storage Cavity is being constructed for the RHIC collider. This cavity is a quarter wave resonator that will be operated in a liquid helium bath at 4.4 K. The cavity requires an extremely quiet environment to maintain its operating frequency. The cavity, besides being engineered for a mechanically quiet system, also requires a quiet cryogenic system. The helium is taken from RHIC's main helium supply header at 3.5 atm, 5.3K at a phase separator tank. The boil-off is sent back to the RHIC refrigeration system to recover the cooling. To acoustically separate the RHIC helium supply and return lines, a condenser/boiler heat exchanger condenses the helium vapor generated in the RF cavity bath. A system description and operating parameters are given about the cryogen delivery system. The 56 MHz superconducting storage RF cavity project is making progress. The cryogenic system design is in its final stage. The helium supply lines have been tapped into the RHIC helium distribution lines. The plate-and-fin heat exchanger design is near completion and specification will be sent out for bid soon. The cold helium vapor heating system design will start soon as well. A booster compressor specification is underway. The first phase separator and transfer line design work is near completion and will be sent out for bid soon.

  14. Operation of graphene quantum Hall resistance standard in a cryogen-free table-top system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, T. J. B. M.; Rozhko, S.; Antonov, I.; Tzalenchuk, A.; Williams, J. M.; Melhem, Z.; He, H.; Lara-Avila, S.; Kubatkin, S.; Yakimova, R.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate quantum Hall resistance measurements with metrological accuracy in a small cryogen-free system operating at a temperature of around 3.8 K and magnetic fields below 5 T. Operating this system requires little experimental knowledge or laboratory infrastructure, thereby greatly advancing the proliferation of primary quantum standards for precision electrical metrology. This significant advance in technology has come about as a result of the unique properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC.

  15. Cryogenic systems for the SSC and the status of their development

    SciTech Connect

    Fietz, W.A.; Ganni, V.; Abramovich, S.; Niehaus, T.

    1993-07-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of two parallel magnet rings, each 87,120 m in circumference, constructed in a tunnel 25 to 74 m underground. Protons are injected into these ring from the high energy booster (HEB), which contains a separate magnet ring 10,800 m in circumference constructed in a tunnel 14 m above the collider tunnel. The magnets will be operated at a controlled low temperature in order to maintain the windings in the superconducting state. Therefore the magnet cryostat is designed with a high vacuum insulating chamber, multilayer insulation (MLI), and thermal shields at 84 K and 20 K nominal temperatures. The major portion of the heat load is from thermal radiation and conduction through the supports, and is intercepted and absorbed by the shields. The cryogenic system for the machine is divided into sectors of nominally equal length: ten for the collider and two for the HEB. Each sector has a dedicated cryogenic system (SCS) as well as some level of redundancy from the neighboring SCS. The helium refrigeration plants will be installed at the midpoint of each sector. Each cryogenic sector in the collider is divided into four strings, two upper and two lower, about 4000 m long. Each string is subdivided into sections of about 1080 m, the smallest modules that can be isolated for maintenance, or for warmup and cooldown. Each section is subdivided into cells and half cells. The half cell, containing six main magnets and a spool piece is 90 m long. The SSC cryogenic system for each sector consists of a sector refrigerator surface system (SRS) and a sector refrigerator tunnel system (SRT). Proposals for the SRS systems` are presently in review for vendor selection. In this paper the SRT subsystems requirements and their status will be reviewed.

  16. Development of a cryogenic FTIR system for measuring very small attenuation coefficients of infrared materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, Sayumi; Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kondo, Sohei; Arasaki, Takayuki; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2016-07-01

    We have been working on a long-term project for developing a variety of infrared immersion gratings for near- to mid-infrared wavelengths. The transmittance of material is essential to realize high-efficiency immersion gratings for astronomical applications. For a typical grating, the attenuation coefficient αatt must be <0.01 cm-1 for the absolute diffraction efficiency of >70%. However, as there are few reports of αatt < 0.01 cm-1 for infrared optical materials in the literatures, we performed high-accuracy measurements of αatt for a variety of infrared materials applicable to immersion gratings. We have already reported αatt at room temperature for single-crystal Si, single-crystal Ge, CVD-ZnS, CVDZnSe, and high-resistivity single-crystal CdZnTe (Ikeda et al. 2009[7], Kaji et al. 2014[10], and Sarugaku et al. 2016[9]). Next, we proceeded with the measurements of αatt at cryogenic temperatures of 20-80 K range, which is the typical operational temperatures of infrared instruments, and for which the shifts of the band gap and/or the sharpness of the lattice absorption lines from the corresponding room temperature values are expected. Thus, we developed a new cryogenic FTIR system that enables high-accuracy measurements at cryogenic temperatures. The system has a mechanism with which two sample cells and a reference cell can be easily and quickly switched without any vacuum leak or temperature change. Our preliminary measurement of Ge using this cryogenic FTIR system found that both the cut-on and cut-off wavelengths shift to the shorter (from 2.0 to 1.7 μm) and longer (from 10.6 to 10.9 μm) wavelengths, respectively, when the temperature is decreased from room temperature to the cryogenic temperature (<28 K). We plan to complete cryogenic measurements for a variety of infrared materials by the end of 2016.

  17. Exergy Analysis of the Cryogenic Helium Distribution System for the Large Hadron Collider (lhc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudet, S.; Lebrun, Ph.; Tavian, L.; Wagner, U.

    2010-04-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN features the world's largest helium cryogenic system, spreading over the 26.7 km circumference of the superconducting accelerator. With a total equivalent capacity of 145 kW at 4.5 K including 18 kW at 1.8 K, the LHC refrigerators produce an unprecedented exergetic load, which must be distributed efficiently to the magnets in the tunnel over the 3.3 km length of each of the eight independent sectors of the machine. We recall the main features of the LHC cryogenic helium distribution system at different temperature levels and present its exergy analysis, thus enabling to qualify second-principle efficiency and identify main remaining sources of irreversibility.

  18. Cryogenic gas target system for intense RI beam productions in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Amadio, G.; Fujikawa, H.; Binh, D. N.; He, J. J.; Kim, A.; Kubono, S.

    2008-05-01

    A cryogenic gas target system was newly developed to produce intense RI beams at the low-energy in-flight radio-isotope beam separator (CRIB) of the University of Tokyo. The main features of the cryogenic gas target system are the direct cooling of the target cell by a liquid N2 finger and the circulation of the target gas that goes through the liquid N2 tank. Hydrogen gas was cooled down to 85-90 K by liquid nitrogen and used as a secondary beam production target which has a thickness of 2.3 mg/cm2 at the gas pressure of 760 Torr. Intense RI beams, such as a 7Be beam of 2×108 particles per second, were successfully produced using the target.

  19. Cryogenic gas target system for intense RI beam productions in nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Kurihara, Y.; Amadio, G.; Fujikawa, H.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; He, J. J.; Kim, A.

    2008-05-21

    A cryogenic gas target system was newly developed to produce intense RI beams at the low-energy in-flight radio-isotope beam separator (CRIB) of the University of Tokyo. The main features of the cryogenic gas target system are the direct cooling of the target cell by a liquid N{sub 2} finger and the circulation of the target gas that goes through the liquid N{sub 2} tank. Hydrogen gas was cooled down to 85-90 K by liquid nitrogen and used as a secondary beam production target which has a thickness of 2.3 mg/cm{sup 2} at the gas pressure of 760 Torr. Intense RI beams, such as a {sup 7}Be beam of 2x10{sup 8} particles per second, were successfully produced using the target.

  20. 78 FR 57414 - Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof, Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof, Commission Determination Finding No Violation of the Tariff Act of 1930 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission....

  1. Shuttle cryogenics supply system optimization study. Volume 5, B-3, part 2: Appendix to programmers manual for math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A computer programmer's manual for a digital computer which will permit rapid and accurate parametric analysis of current and advanced attitude control propulsion systems is presented. The concept is for a cold helium pressurized, subcritical cryogen fluid supplied, bipropellant gas-fed attitude control propulsion system. The cryogen fluids are stored as liquids under low pressure and temperature conditions. The mathematical model provides a generalized form for the procedural technique employed in setting up the analysis program.

  2. Soft x-ray backlighting of cryogenic implosions using a narrowband crystal imaging system (invited).

    PubMed

    Stoeckl, C; Bedzyk, M; Brent, G; Epstein, R; Fiksel, G; Guy, D; Goncharov, V N; Hu, S X; Ingraham, S; Jacobs-Perkins, D W; Jungquist, R K; Marshall, F J; Mileham, C; Nilson, P M; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M J; Theobald, W

    2014-11-01

    A high-performance cryogenic DT inertial confinement fusion implosion experiment is an especially challenging backlighting configuration because of the high self-emission of the core at stagnation and the low opacity of the DT shell. High-energy petawatt lasers such as OMEGA EP promise significantly improved backlighting capabilities by generating high x-ray intensities and short emission times. A narrowband x-ray imager with an astigmatism-corrected bent quartz crystal for the Si Heα line at ∼1.86 keV was developed to record backlit images of cryogenic direct-drive implosions. A time-gated recording system minimized the self-emission of the imploding target. A fast target-insertion system capable of moving the backlighter target ∼7 cm in ∼100 ms was developed to avoid interference with the cryogenic shroud system. With backlighter laser energies of ∼1.25 kJ at a 10-ps pulse duration, the radiographic images show a high signal-to-background ratio of >100:1 and a spatial resolution of the order of 10 μm. The backlit images can be used to assess the symmetry of the implosions close to stagnation and the mix of ablator material into the dense shell.

  3. Soft x-ray backlighting of cryogenic implosions using a narrowband crystal imaging system (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckl, C. Bedzyk, M.; Brent, G.; Epstein, R.; Fiksel, G.; Guy, D.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hu, S. X.; Ingraham, S.; Jacobs-Perkins, D. W.; Jungquist, R. K.; Marshall, F. J.; Mileham, C.; Nilson, P. M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J.; Theobald, W.

    2014-11-15

    A high-performance cryogenic DT inertial confinement fusion implosion experiment is an especially challenging backlighting configuration because of the high self-emission of the core at stagnation and the low opacity of the DT shell. High-energy petawatt lasers such as OMEGA EP promise significantly improved backlighting capabilities by generating high x-ray intensities and short emission times. A narrowband x-ray imager with an astigmatism-corrected bent quartz crystal for the Si He{sub α} line at ∼1.86 keV was developed to record backlit images of cryogenic direct-drive implosions. A time-gated recording system minimized the self-emission of the imploding target. A fast target-insertion system capable of moving the backlighter target ∼7 cm in ∼100 ms was developed to avoid interference with the cryogenic shroud system. With backlighter laser energies of ∼1.25 kJ at a 10-ps pulse duration, the radiographic images show a high signal-to-background ratio of >100:1 and a spatial resolution of the order of 10 μm. The backlit images can be used to assess the symmetry of the implosions close to stagnation and the mix of ablator material into the dense shell.

  4. Cryogenic liquid O2/H2 reaction control systems for Space Shuttle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, P. J.; Mckee, H. B.; Patten, T. C.

    1972-01-01

    A Space Shuttle liquid oxygen/hydrogen reaction control system design analysis has been performed. The system concept considered eliminates propellant conditioning equipment and delivers the propellants to the engines in a liquid rather than a gaseous state. This paper provides system design analyses results and compares various means of implementing the concept on the basis of weight, technology requirements, and operational considerations. Additionally, weight comparisons are made between cryogenic oxygen/hydrogen system requirements. These comparisons show that the liquid oxygen/hydrogen system concept could effect marked weight reductions in the Space Shuttle orbiter total impulse range.

  5. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 3: Cryogenic test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A ground test program was conducted to verify several of the design methods and techniques that were used in designing cryogenic acquisition/expulsion systems. The testing of a 63.5-cm diameter DSL subscale model was particularly significant. Under these tests, the operational characteristics of the DSL concept were verified using LH2 and LN2. Demonstration of the gas free liquid expulsion characteristics was accomplished by expelling LH2 under -1 g using both GH2 and GHe pressurization. Loading of the acquisition/expulsion device was successfully accomplished using LH2 and LN2. The liquid free vapor venting performance of the model was limited because of the thermal stratification under the -1 g test conditions.

  6. Commissioning of Peacock System for intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Saw, C B; Ayyangar, K M; Thompson, R B; Zhen, W; Enke, C A

    2001-01-01

    The Peacock System was introduced to perform tomographic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Commissioning of the Peacock System included the alignment of the multileaf intensity-modulating collimator (MIMiC) to the beam axis, the alignment of the RTA device for immobilization, and checking the integrity of the CRANE for indexing the treatment couch. In addition, the secondary jaw settings, couch step size, and transmission through the leaves were determined. The dosimetric data required for the CORVUS planning system were divided into linear accelerator-specific and MIMiC-specific. The linear accelerator-specific dosimetric data were relative output in air, relative output in phantom, percent depth dose for a range of field sizes, and diagonal dose profiles for a large field size. The MIMiC-specific dosimetric data were the in-plane and cross-plane dose profiles of a small and a large field size to derive the penumbra fit. For each treatment unit, the Beam Utility software requires the data be entered into the CORVUS planning system in modular forms. These modules were treatment unit information, angle definition, configuration, gantry and couch angles range, dosimetry, results, and verification plans. After the appropriate machine data were entered, CORVUS created a dose model. The dose model was used to create known simple dose distribution for evaluation using the verification tools of the CORVUS. The planned doses for phantoms were confirmed using an ion chamber for point dose measurement and film for relative dose measurement. The planning system calibration factor was initially set at 1.0 and will be changed after data on clinical cases are acquired. The treatment unit was released for clinical use after the approval icon was checked in the verification plans module.

  7. Fundamentals of Cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wesley; Tomsik, Thomas; Moder, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the extreme conditions that are encountered in cryogenic systems requires the most effort out of analysts and engineers. Due to the costs and complexity associated with the extremely cold temperatures involved, testing is sometimes minimized and extra analysis is often relied upon. This short course is designed as an introduction to cryogenic engineering and analysis, and it is intended to introduce the basic concepts related to cryogenic analysis and testing as well as help the analyst understand the impacts of various requests on a test facility. Discussion will revolve around operational functions often found in cryogenic systems, hardware for both tests and facilities, and what design or modelling tools are available for performing the analysis. Emphasis will be placed on what scenarios to use what hardware or the analysis tools to get the desired results. The class will provide a review of first principles, engineering practices, and those relations directly applicable to this subject including such topics as cryogenic fluids, thermodynamics and heat transfer, material properties at low temperature, insulation, cryogenic equipment, instrumentation, refrigeration, testing of cryogenic systems, cryogenics safety and typical thermal and fluid analysis used by the engineer. The class will provide references for further learning on various topics in cryogenics for those who want to dive deeper into the subject or have encountered specific problems.

  8. AC Breakdown Properties of Bamboo-Ice Composite System at Cryogenic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiji, Yuhei; Muramoto, Yuji; Shimizu, Noriyuki

    In recent years biomaterials attract attention in various fields to solve environmental problems. Bamboo is naturally decomposed and characterized by its excellent elasticity, split and water absorption property. We consider that bamboo-ice composite system can be used as a substitute of GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics), which is not decomposed, in electrical insulation system at cryogenic region. In this paper we will report the effect of water absorption on ac breakdown of bamboo-ice composite system in liquid nitrogen. Ac breakdown properties of bamboo-ice composite system depend on water absorption and structure of bamboo.

  9. Characteristics and performance of the ESTEC large space simulator cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amlinger, H.; Bosma, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The final concept and performance characteristics of the Large Space Simulator (LSS) at ESTEC, The Netherlands are discussed. The LSS cryogenics system has proven its operational capabilities under simulated heat load conditions and provides sufficient margin for future elevated requirements. The acceptance test proved that nominal operating pressures can be lower than the design parameters, providing increased system safety and reliability. The ease of access for repair and the incorporated redundancy will limit system downtime. Finally, the system design resulted in a low consumption of LN sub 2, which is an important factor in keeping the operational costs at a low level.

  10. 47 CFR 0.552 - Notice identifying Commission systems of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATION Privacy Act Regulations § 0.552 Notice identifying Commission systems of records. The Commission... the system of records, including for each system of records: (a) The name and location of the system... should be addressed and the addresses of locations at which the individual may inquire whether a...

  11. Evaluation of cryogenic system test options for the OTV on-orbit propellant depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, John R.; Alton, T. James; Brown, Norman S.; Hueter, Uwe

    1987-01-01

    Future space missions to geosynchronous, lunar, and planetary orbits will require an orbital depot for stockpiling propellants. This depot will provide long-term storage of cryogens, requiring new technologies for fluid management in microgravity and further development of thermal management technologies for minimization of cryogen boiloff. Preliminary evaluations have been made to define a test program approach for reducing technical risk through verifying performance models and building a base of engineering data for depot design. A number of testing options were defined and evaluated, leading to selection of ground testing combined with an orbital systems test. Ground testing is inadequate because of critical microgravity concerns; extending testing aboard the Space Station was eliminated because the data would not be available soon enough to benefit the propellant depot design. The orbital test would either be a short-term test carried out in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter using a nonhazardous cryogen or a longer term test carried out with hydrogen aboard a free-flying experiment orbited with an expendable launch vehicle.

  12. Design of 24. 8-kw, 3. 8-K cryogenic system for Isabelle

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.; Afrashteh, M.; Bamberger, J.A.; Fresco, A.; Schlafke, A.P.; Schneider, W.J.; Sondericker, J.H.; Werner, A.; Wu, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    The ISABELLE Helium refrigerator is described in terms of performance requirements. Overall design is presented in discussion of the main refrigerator, subcooler/circulation system, distribution and load matching, design heat load, ratio of refrigeration capactity to heat load, system design pressure, physical plant, reliability and redundancy, and process control. The primary and shield circuits for one accelerator ring is diagramed. Isabelle's heat load allowance is given in a table showing primary (W at 4K) and secondary (W at 55K) loads. The redundant components in Isabelle's cryogenic system are illustrated.

  13. Numerical Modeling of Fluid Transient in Cryogenic Fluid Network of Rocket Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Flachbart, Robin

    2003-01-01

    Fluid transients, also known as water hammer, can have a significant impact on the design and operation of both spacecraft and launch vehicles propulsion systems. These transients often occur at system activation and shut down. For ground safety reasons, many spacecrafts are launched with the propellant lines dry. These lines are often evacuated by the time the spacecraft reaches orbit. When the propellant isolation valve opens during propulsion system activation, propellant rushes into lines creating a pressure surge. During propellant system shutdown, a pressure surge is created due to sudden closure of a valve. During both activation and shutdown, pressure surges must be predicted accurately to ensure structural integrity of the propulsion system fluid network. The method of characteristics is the most widely used method of calculating fluid transients in pipeline [ 1,2]. The method of characteristics, however, has limited applications in calculating flow distribution in complex flow circuits with phase change, heat transfer and rotational effects. A robust cryogenic propulsion system analyzer must have the capability to handle phase change, heat transfer, chemical reaction, rotational effects and fluid transients in conjunction with subsystem flow model for pumps, valves and various pipe fittings. In recent years, such a task has been undertaken at Marshall Space Flight Center with the development of the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), which is based on finite volume method in fluid network [3]. GFSSP has been extensively verified and validated by comparing its predictions with test data and other numerical methods for various applications such as internal flow of turbo-pump [4], propellant tank pressurization [5,6], chilldown of cryogenic transfer line [7] and squeeze film damper rotordynamics [8]. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the applicability of the finite volume method to predict fluid transient in cryogenic flow

  14. Solar Thermal Upper Stage Cryogen System Engineering Checkout Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, A. D; Cady, E. C.; Jenkins, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Solar Thermal Upper Stage technology (STUSTD) program is a solar thermal propulsion technology program cooperatively sponsored by a Boeing led team and by NASA MSFC. A key element of its technology program is development of a liquid hydrogen (LH2) storage and supply system which employs multi-layer insulation, liquid acquisition devices, active and passive thermodynamic vent systems, and variable 40W tank heaters to reliably provide near constant pressure H2 to a solar thermal engine in the low-gravity of space operation. The LH2 storage and supply system is designed to operate as a passive, pressure fed supply system at a constant pressure of about 45 psia. During operation of the solar thermal engine over a small portion of the orbit the LH2 storage and supply system propulsively vents through the enjoy at a controlled flowrate. During the long coast portion of the orbit, the LH2 tank is locked up (unvented). Thus, all of the vented H2 flow is used in the engine for thrust and none is wastefully vented overboard. The key to managing the tank pressure and therefore the H2 flow to the engine is to manage and balance the energy flow into the LH2 tank with the MLI and tank heaters with the energy flow out of the LH2 tank through the vented H2 flow. A moderate scale (71 cu ft) LH2 storage and supply system was installed and insulated at the NASA MSFC Test Area 300. The operation of the system is described in this paper. The test program for the LH2 system consisted of two parts: 1) a series of engineering tests to characterize the performance of the various components in the system: and 2) a 30-day simulation of a complete LEO and GEO transfer mission. This paper describes the results of the engineering tests, and correlates these results with analytical models used to design future advanced Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicles.

  15. LaNi5 Hydrogen-Absorption Cryogenic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen-absorption refrigerating system provides about 650 mW of cooling at 20 to 29 K in continuous, closed-cycle operation. Three thermally cycled absorbers/desorbers act as compressors. System successfully tested below 29 K for over 1,000 h, while separate room-temperature hydride compressor operated continuously for 6,000 h. Due to lack of moving parts, lifetimes of 10 years or more eventually expected.

  16. Automation, Operation, and Data Analysis in the Cryogenic, High Accuracy, Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Bradley; Leviton, Duoglas

    2005-01-01

    The Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center has been enhanced in a number of ways in the last year to allow the system to accurately collect refracted beam deviation readings automatically over a range of temperatures from 15 K to well beyond room temperature with high sampling density in both wavelength and temperature. The engineering details which make this possible are presented. The methods by which the most accurate angular measurements are made and the corresponding data reduction methods used to reduce thousands of observed angles to a handful of refractive index values are also discussed.

  17. Automation, Operation, and Data Analysis in the Cryogenic, High Accuracy, Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Bradley J.; Leviton, Douglas B.

    2005-01-01

    The Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has been enhanced in a number of ways in the last year to allow the system to accurately collect refracted beam deviation readings automatically over a range of temperatures from 15 K to well beyond room temperature with high sampling density in both wavelength and temperature. The engineering details which make this possible are presented. The methods by which the most accurate angular measurements are made and the corresponding data reduction methods used to reduce thousands of observed angles to a handful of refractive index values are also discussed.

  18. Hot-film system for transition detection in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles B.; Carraway, Debra L.; Stainback, P. Calvin; Fancher, M. F.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that the determination of the location of boundary-layer transition is necessary for the correct interpretation of aerodynamic data in transonic wind tunnels. In the late 1970s the Douglas Aircraft Company developed a vapor deposition hot-film system for transition detection in cryogenic wind tunnels. Tests of the hot-films in a low-speed tunnel demonstrated the ability to obtain on-line transition data with an enhanced simultaneous hot-film data acquisition system. The equipment design and specifications are described.

  19. Two-Phase Cryogenic Heat Exchanger for the Thermodynamic Vent System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A two-phase cryogenic heat exchanger for a thermodynamic vent system was designed and analyzed, and the predicted performance was compared with test results. A method for determining the required size of the Joule-Thomson device was also developed. Numerous sensitivity studies were performed to show that the design was robust and possessed a comfortable capacity margin. The comparison with the test results showed very similar heat extraction performance for similar inlet conditions. It was also shown that estimates for Joule- Thomson device flow rates and exit quality can vary significantly and these need to be accommodated for with a robust system design.

  20. Managing the cryogenic systems of SCUBA-2 for long term operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cookson, Jamie L.; Bintley, Dan

    2016-07-01

    SCUBA-2 has been operational on JCMT producing excellent science for almost 5 years. We describe the strategy and methods that we have evolved to keep one of the world's first "dry dilution refrigerators" and the other cryogenic systems working effectively at the summit of Mauna Kea, keeping the instrument functioning at peak efficiency for extended periods (over 12 months at a time), with minimum downtime. We discuss new plans to reduce day-to-day operational costs and to add remote management of the gas handling systems, as we look to the future and envisage another ten years of SCUBA-2 science.

  1. Cryogenic cooling with cryocooler on a rotating system.

    PubMed

    Oguri, S; Choi, J; Kawai, M; Tajima, O

    2013-05-01

    We developed a system that continuously maintains a cryocooler for long periods on a rotating table. A cryostat that holds the cryocooler is set on the table. A compressor is located on the ground and supplies high-purity (>99.999%) and high-pressure (1.7 MPa) helium gas and electricity to the cryocooler. The operation of the cryocooler and other instruments requires the development of interface components between the ground and rotating table. A combination of access holes at the center of the table and two rotary joints allows simultaneous circulation of electricity and helium gas. The developed system provides two innovative functions under the rotating condition, cooling from room temperature and the maintenance of a cold condition for long periods. We have confirmed these abilities as well as temperature stability under a condition of continuous rotation at 20 rpm. The developed system can be applied in various fields, e.g., in tests of Lorentz invariance, searches for axion, radio astronomy, and cosmology, and application of radar systems. In particular, there is a plan to use this system for a radio telescope observing cosmic microwave background radiation.

  2. SU-E-T-630: Commissioning for SRS Planning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pella, S; Smith, C; Leventouri, T; Bacala, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This study will try to find optimal procedures to collect small fields beam data for commissioning in treatment planning systems (TPS), and to provide a protocol to collect output factors for very small field sizes: 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm to 4.0 cm × 4.0 cm.This will help in determining the correct beam configuration methods in TPS planning intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and stereotactic radiosurgery SRS using mini multileaf collimation (mMLC). Methods: Data has been collected for a mMLC linear accelerator (linac) Novalis from 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm to 10 cm × 10 cm (its maximum field size). The TPS chosen is BrainLab, Eclipse and Cyberknife. The beam data collected was modeled and imported in the TPS. Verification plans were generated in solid water to confirm the goodness of the data. 3D and IMRT plans on regular CT scans were generated and verified using Mapcheck. All 3D plans with field sizes above 4 cm × 4 cm verified excellent using a distance to agreement of 2 mm and a 2% tolerance. IMRT plans gave an error of -8%. New scans with new detectors have been taken, new field sizes were introduced, and focus has been applied on determining the dosimetric leaf gap. Results: Although this is still a work in progress, this study brings several issues to light: the importance of the correct technique in beam data collection from the correct watertank to the correct detectors. Readings for rectangular fields have to be taken especially for fields which one side is under 4 cm. Conclusion: The use of equivalent square fields will not provide correct readings for the fields with large differences between the length and the width.

  3. Study of cryogenic propellant systems for loading the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voth, R. O.; Steward, W. G.; Hall, W. J.

    1974-01-01

    Computer programs were written to model the liquid oxygen loading system for the space shuttle. The programs allow selection of input data through graphic displays which schematically depict the part of the system being modeled. The computed output is also displayed in the form of graphs and printed messages. Any one of six computation options may be selected. The first four of these pertain to thermal stresses, pressure surges, cooldown times, flow rates and pressures during cooldown. Options five and six deal with possible water hammer effects due to closing of valves, steady flow and transient response to changes in operating conditions after cooldown. Procedures are given for operation of the graphic display unit and minicomputer.

  4. An Integrated Cryogenic System for Spacecraft Power, Thrust, and Cooling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-11-14

    LIBRARY COpy J. L. MUON JUN , 1961 "Al hief Engineer, AiResearch Manufacturing Division, The GarrettCorporation, Los Angeles, Calif.I hsdocument has...chemical APU tions less than 1 hr, battery , solid-propellant, and heat sink (in addition to a solar or nuclear and monopropellant systems will be used...Durations 0.2 lb average (coatinuous) pander and fuel cell) High Thrust, Short Durations 1000 lb see Batteries for 12 kwhr output (solar power unit) 2

  5. Conceptual design of a cryogenic system for the next-generation infrared space telescope SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Y.; Sugita, H.; Shinozaki, K.; Okamoto, A.; Yamawaki, T.; Komatsu, K.; Nakagawa, T.; Murakami, H.; Matsuhara, H.; Murakami, M.; Takada, M.; Takai, S.; Okabayashi, A.; Kanao, K.; Tsunematsu, S.; Otsuka, K.; Narasaki, K.

    2010-07-01

    The conceptual design of the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) has been studied as a pre-project of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in collaboration with ESA to be launched in 2018. The SPICA is transferred into a halo orbit around the second Lagrangian point in the Sun-Earth system, where radiant cooling is available effectively. The SPICA has a large IR telescope 3 m in diameter, which is cooled without cryogen to below 6 K by the radiant and mechanical cooling system. Therefore, the SPICA mission will cover mid- and far-IR astronomy with high sensitivity and spatial resolution during a long period of over 5 years for goal. Most heat radiation from the sun and spacecraft is blocked by the Sun Shield and thermal radiation shields covered with Multi-Layer Insulator (MLI) to limit heat radiation to the Scientific Instrument Assembly (SIA). The SIA, which is composed of the primary mirrors and optical benches equipped with Focal Plane Instruments (FPIs), is refrigerated to below 6 K by two sets of 4K-class Joule-Thomson (JT) cooler with a cooling power of 40 mW at 4.5 K. The Far-IR detector is refrigerated to 1.7 K by two sets of 1K-class JT coolers with a cooling power of 10 mW at 1.7 K. Improvements for the higher reliability and sufficient cooling performance are required in the development of SPICA mechanical cryocoolers. Thermal analysis indicates that the SPICA cryogenic system works effectively to limit the total heat load on the SIA to 41.2 mW. This paper describes the conceptual design of the SPICA cryogenic system, which was established with thermal feasibility for nominal operation mode.

  6. Description of the insulation system for the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Dress, D. A.; Kilgore, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal insulation system of the Langley 0.3 Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel is described. The insulation system is designed to operate from room temperature down to about 77.4 K, the temperature of liquid nitrogen at 1 atmosphere. A detailed description is given of the primary insulation sytem consists of glass fiber mats, a three part vapor barrier, and a dry positive pressure purge system. Also described are several secondary insulation systems required for the test section, actuators, and tunnel supports. An appendix briefly describes the original insulation system which is considered inferior to the one presently in place. The time required for opening and closing portions of the insulation system for modification or repair to the tunnel has been reduced, typically, from a few days for the original thermal insulating system to a few hours for the present system.

  7. Six movements measurement system employed for GAIA secondary mirror positioning system vacuum tests at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Garranzo García-Ibarrola, Daniel; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás

    2008-07-01

    In this work, the optical measurement system employed to evaluate the performance of a 6 degrees of freedom (dof) positioning mechanism under cryogenic conditions is explored. The mechanism, the flight model of three translations and three rotations positioning mechanism, was developed by the Spanish company SENER (for ASTRIUM) to fulfil the high performance requirements from ESA technology preparatory program for the positioning of a secondary mirror within the GAIA Astrometric Mission. Its performance has been evaluated under vacuum and temperature controlled conditions (up to a 10-6mbar and 100K) at the facilities of the Space Instrumentation Laboratory (LINES) of the Aerospace Technical Nacional Institute of Spain (INTA). After the description of the 'alignment tool' developed to compare a fixed reference with the optical signal corresponding to the movement under evaluation, the optical system that allows measuring the displacements and the rotations in the three space directions is reported on. Two similar bread-boards were defined and mounted for the measurements purpose, one containing two distancemeters, in order to measure the displacements through the corresponding axis, and an autocollimator in order to obtain the rotations on the plane whose normal vector is the axis mentioned before, and other one containing one distancemeter and one autocollimator. Both distancemeter and autocollimator measurements have been combined in order to extract the information about the accuracy of the mechanism movements as well as their repeatability under adverse environmental conditions.

  8. Experimental study of cryogenic liquid turbine expander with closed-loop liquefied nitrogen system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Sun, Jinju; Song, Peng

    2015-04-01

    A cryogenic liquid turbine expander is developed as a replacement for traditional Joule-Thomson valves used in the cryogenic systems for the purpose of energy saving. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the turbine expander and is the subject of this paper. The test rig comprises a closed-loop liquefied nitrogen system, cryogenic liquid turbine expander unit, and its auxiliary and measuring systems. The test operating parameters of the turbine expander are determined on the basis of flow similarity rules. Pre-cooling of the liquid nitrogen system is first performed, and then the tests are conducted at different flow rates and speed ratios. The turbine expander flow rate, inlet and outlet pressure and temperature, rotational speed and shaft torque were measured. Experimental results and their uncertainties were analyzed and discussed. The following are demonstrated: (1) For both test cases, turbine expander peak isentropic efficiency is respectively 78.8% and 68.4% obtained at 89.6% and 92% of the design flow rate. The large uncertainties in isentropic efficiency are caused by the large enthalpy variations subjected to small measurement uncertainties in temperature and pressure. (2) Total efficiency and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine expander are obtained. They are essentially the same, since both include flow-related effects and also bearing losses. Comparisons of total efficiency and hydraulic efficiency were used to justify measurement uncertainties of different quantities, since the former involves the measured mass flow rate and enthalpy drop (being dependant on inlet and outlet temperature and pressure), while the latter involves the actual shaft power, volume flow rate, and inlet and outlet pressure. (3) Losses in flow passages and the shaft-bearing system have been inferred based on the measured turbine expander total efficiency, isentropic efficiency, and mechanical efficiency, which are respectively 57.6-74.8%, 62

  9. Developments with the Commission's Longitudinal Student Data System. Working Paper WP/06-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the many uses of the California Postsecondary Education Commission's data system and describes work in progress on adding additional data elements. It describes how the Commission is using its Longitudinal Student Data System (LSDS) to examine the movement of students through California's public colleges and universities. The…

  10. [Development of a cryogenic system and tools for surgery and therapy].

    PubMed

    Danichenko, M Iu

    2007-01-01

    The design principles of the Elamed KRIO-01 multipurpose cryogenic apparatus for surgery and therapy are described. Original engineering solutions involved in the apparatus design provide local cryogenic effects of different types: contact and penetration cryodestruction, cryoablution, cooling and freezing with a dry low-temperature jet of cryogenic gas.

  11. Numerical Modeling of Pressurization of Cryogenic Propellant Tank for Integrated Vehicle Fluid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok K.; LeClair, Andre C.; Hedayat, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of pressurization of a cryogenic propellant tank for the Integrated Vehicle Fluid (IVF) system using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The IVF propulsion system, being developed by United Launch Alliance, uses boiloff propellants to drive thrusters for the reaction control system as well as to run internal combustion engines to develop power and drive compressors to pressurize propellant tanks. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been running tests to verify the functioning of the IVF system using a flight tank. GFSSP, a finite volume based flow network analysis software developed at MSFC, has been used to develop an integrated model of the tank and the pressurization system. This paper presents an iterative algorithm for converging the interface boundary conditions between different component models of a large system model. The model results have been compared with test data.

  12. Physics Based Model for Online Fault Detection in Autonomous Cryogenic Loading System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashani, Ali; Devine, Ekaterina Viktorovna P; Luchinsky, Dmitry Georgievich; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Sass, Jared P.; Brown, Barbara L.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2013-01-01

    We report the progress in the development of the chilldown model for rapid cryogenic loading system developed at KSC. The nontrivial characteristic feature of the analyzed chilldown regime is its active control by dump valves. The two-phase flow model of the chilldown is approximated as one-dimensional homogeneous fluid flow with no slip condition for the interphase velocity. The model is built using commercial SINDAFLUINT software. The results of numerical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental time traces. The obtained results pave the way to the application of the SINDAFLUINT model as a verification tool for the design and algorithm development required for autonomous loading operation.

  13. Evaluation of supercritical cryogen storage and transfer systems for future NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arif, Hugh; Aydelott, John C.; Chato, David J.

    1989-01-01

    Conceptual designs of Space Transportation Vehicles (STV), and their orbital servicing facilities, that utilize supercritical, single phase, cryogenic propellants were established and compared with conventional subcritical, two phase, STV concepts. The analytical study was motivated by the desire to avoid fluid management problems associated with the storage, acquisition and transfer of subcritical liquid oxygen and hydrogen propellants in the low gravity environment of space. Although feasible, the supercritical concepts suffer from STV weight penalties and propellant resupply system power requirements which make the concepts impractical.

  14. Thermostabilization System Based on Two-phase Closed Cryogenic Thermosyphon for RED100 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolozdynya, A. I.; Efremenko, Yu. V.; Khromov, V. A.; Shafigullin, R. R.; Shakirov, A. V.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Tolstukhin, I. A.

    The RED 100 emission detector requires thermostabilization at about 100K. The heat transfer characteristics of a two-phase closed cryogenic thermosyphon made of copper pipe and bellow flex hoses with nitrogen fluid have been investigated. The thermosyphon consists of sealed pipe enclosed in a vacuum jacket and uses a free-boiling liquid nitrogen pool as a cooling machine. The system is very flexible and can provide heat transfer rate up to 100 W in the temperature range of 80-100 K.

  15. Status of the cryogenic inertial reference system for the Gravity Probe B mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J. A.; Gwo, D.-H.; Kirschman, R. K.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the status of the development and testing program for the inertial reference system for the Gravity Probe B gyroscopes. The gyroscope housings are attached to a cryogenic telescope with a 14 cm aperture that continuously points at a guide star. The star image is split to provide quadrant pointing information which is used to steer the spacecraft. This data is also combined with the gyro readout data to provide an absolute precession measurement. Motion of the guide star is independently checked by reference to background galaxies. Room temperature testing of a prototype telescope has been completed and preparations are being made for low temperature tests.

  16. Cryogenic Optical Systems and Instrumentation IX (AM 116) Newly Modified Cryogenic Optical Test Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Ronnie; Kegley, Jeff; Keidel, John

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has maintained and operated a world-class x-ray optics and detector testing facility known as the X-ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) since the mid 1970's. The ground test and calibration of the Chandra X-ray Observatory optics and detectors were successfully completed at the XRCF in 1997. The beginning of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) development programs (NMSD, SBMD, AMSD, etc.) and the establishment of the Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center at MSFC have led to an XRCF modification. In 1999 the facility was upgraded to perform cryogenic testing of lightweight visible optics (without compromising the existing x-ray testing capability). A thermal enclosure capable of 20 degrees Kelvin and vibration isolated instrumentation mount were added. A vacuum-compatible five-axis motion table was modified to operate under cryogenic conditions. Optics up to two meters in diameter with radii of curvature of up to twenty meters can be accommodated. Facility characterization tests and one NGST program mirror test have been completed to date. By July 2000, two other mirrors will be tested. Optical wavefront measurements were made at < 35 degrees Kelvin with several instruments located at the test mirror's radius of curvature. The current wavefront measuring instruments include a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor, a point diffraction interferometer, a point spread function-measuring device, and a radius of curvature measuring instrument. A vibration insensitive phase shifting interferometer is planned for future optical testing. This paper will present a brief history of the facility, a discussion of its current x-ray optic testing capabilities, and a complete description of the new capabilities in the visible optical testing regime.

  17. The cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Based on theoretical studies and experience with a low speed cryogenic tunnel and with a 1/3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, the cryogenic wind tunnel concept was shown to offer many advantages with respect to the attainment of full scale Reynolds number at reasonable levels of dynamic pressure in a ground based facility. The unique modes of operation available in a pressurized cryogenic tunnel make possible for the first time the separation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and aeroelastic effects. By reducing the drive-power requirements to a level where a conventional fan drive system may be used, the cryogenic concept makes possible a tunnel with high productivity and run times sufficiently long to allow for all types of tests at reduced capital costs and, for equal amounts of testing, reduced total energy consumption in comparison with other tunnel concepts.

  18. First commissioning of the SuperKEKB vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suetsugu, Y.; Shibata, K.; Ishibashi, T.; Kanazawa, K.; Shirai, M.; Terui, S.; Hisamatsu, H.

    2016-12-01

    The first (Phase-1) commissioning of SuperKEKB, an asymmetric-energy electron-positron collider at KEK, began in February 2016, after more than five years of upgradation work on KEKB and successfully ended in June 2016. A major task of the Phase-1 commissioning was the vacuum scrubbing of new beam pipes in anticipation of a sufficiently long beam lifetime and low background noise in the next commissioning, prior to which a new particle detector will be installed. The pressure rise per unit beam current decreased steadily with increasing beam dose, as expected. Another important task was to check the stabilities of various new vacuum components at high beam currents of approximately 1 A. The temperature increases of the bellows chambers, gate valves, connection flanges, and so on were less than several degrees at 1 A, and no serious problems were found. The effectiveness of the antechambers and TiN coating in suppressing the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in the positron ring was also confirmed. However, the ECE in the Al-alloy bellows chambers was observed where TiN had not been coated. The use of permanent magnets to create an axial magnetic field of approximately 100 G successfully suppressed this effect. Pressure bursts accompanying beam losses were also frequently observed in the positron ring. This phenomenon is still under investigation, but it is likely caused by collisions between the circulating beams and dust particles, especially in the dipole magnet beam pipes.

  19. Study and development of a cryogenic heat exchanger for life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A prototype cryogenic heat exchanger for removal of waste heat from a spacecraft environmental control life support system was developed. The heat exchanger uses the heat sink capabilities of the cryogenic propellants and, hence, can operate over all mission phases from prelaunch to orbit, to post landing, with quiescent periods during orbit. A survey of candidate warm fluids resulted in the selection of E-2, a fluorocarbon compound, because of its low freezing point and high boiling point. The final design and testing of the heat exchanger was carried out, however, using Freon-21, which is similar to E-2 except for its low boiling point. This change was motivated by the desire for cost effectiveness of the experimental program. The transient performance of the heat exchanger was demonstrated by an analog simulation of the heat sink system. Under the realistic transient heat load conditions (20 sec ramp from minimum to maximum Freon-21 inlet temperature), the control system was able to maintain the warm fluid outlet temperature within + or - 3 F. For a 20-sec ramp from 0 F to -400 F in the hydrogen inlet temperature, at maximum heat load, the warm fluid outlet temperature was maintained within + or - 7 F.

  20. Development of a Calibration System for Cryogenic Light Detectors in CUPID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Meng; Kolomensky, Yury; O'Donnell, Thomas; Schmidt, Benjamin; Cupid Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    If neutrino is a Majorana particle, it is possible to observe neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ), whose signature is a monochromatic line at the Q-value of the decay in the energy spectrum of the two electrons. Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is an experiment which aims to search for 0 νββ in 130Te with TeO2 bolometers, whose background is dominated by α particles from natural radioactivity in the detector material. CUPID (CUORE Upgrade with Particle IDentification) is the next generation experiment proposed to distinguish 0 νββ events from those of α particles with Cherenkov radiation. An important part of CUPID R&D is to design, build and characterize a calibration system that can generate a known amount of light and transport that light to the dilution refrigerator at mK temperatures. We describe the design, implementation and performance of a calibration system developed for bolometric light detectors. Preparation work includes researching and selecting a light source (LED). A transport system (optical fiber) was developed to direct the light to the coldest part of the dilution refrigerator. Additionally, the light yield attenuation of optical fiber at cryogenic temperatures was measured. This project is supported by National Science Foundation and UC-Berkeley.

  1. Thermodynamic Control System for cryogenic propellant storage : experimental and analytical performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mer, Samuel; Thibault, Jean-Paul; Corre, Christophe

    2016-11-01

    Future operations in space exploration require to store cryogens for long duration. Residual heat loads induce cryogenic propellant vaporization and tank self-pressurization (SP), eventually leading to storage failure for large enough mission duration. The present study focuses on the Thermodynamic Venting System (TVS) control strategy : liquid propellant is pumped from the tank, cooled down by a heat exchanger and re-injected, as a jet, inside the tank. The injection is followed by vapor condensation and liquid bath destratification due to mixing. The system cold source is created thanks to a Vented Branch where a liquid fraction is withdrawn from the tank and expanded through a Joule-Thomson valve. The vented branch vaporization permits to cool down the injection loop. Quantitative analyses of SP and TVS control have been experimentally performed using a 110 L tank and a simulant fluid. A database of accurate temperature and pressure dynamics has been gathered and used to validate a homogeneous thermodynamic model which provides a fast prediction of the tank dynamics. The analytical model has been coupled with a multi-objective optimizer to identify system components and regulation strategies that maximize the tank storage duration for various mission types. The authors acknowledge the joint support of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales and Air Liquide Advanced Technologies.

  2. Cryogenic Property Measurements on Icy Compositions with Application to Solar System Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, C.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Barmatz, M.; Mitchell, K.

    2007-08-01

    grains). Post-synthesis microstructural characterization will be performed using Cryogenic Optical Microscopy integrating a cross-polarizer to analyze thin sections, and a Cryogenic Scanning Electron Microscope. Mechanical property measurements on solid specimens will be performed between 80 and 270 K with a cryogenically cooled Instron measurement system. Compression measurements will be conducted as a function of temperature, strain-rate, microstructural length scale and orientation. The time dependent viscous response will be measured by performing creep measurements over the same range of temperatures. Using low-frequency cyclic loading, the dissipation factor will be measured at frequencies approaching satellite orbital frequencies. We will report preliminary mechanical property measurements of Antarctic glacial specimens at cryogenic temperatures. Fluids. In order to improve our understanding of effusive cryovolcanism, the rheological properties of liquid and mixed (slurry) materials will be measured between 80 and 300 K using a cryogenically cooled Brookfield rotational rheometer. We will report preliminary measurements of the temperature dependence of the viscous response for several compositions in the Methanol-Water System. Also, we will describe an experiment designed to measure methane wetting on water ice. These experiments will be carried out in order to explore the effects of the presence of methane lakes on Titan's surface. We are developing the capability to investigate more complex materials relevant to surface processes on Titan, including methane-ethane phase studies, hydrocarbons such as acetylene and benzene, as well as tholins and clathrates, which should exhibit a range of rheological and mechanical properties from fast-moving fluids to glacial creep. Acknowledgements: Most of the research described in this presentation was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National

  3. Cryogenic Control System Migration and Developments towards the UNICOS CERN Standard at INFN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modanese, Paolo; Calore, Andrea; Contran, Tiziano; Friso, Alessandro; Pengo, Marco; Canella, Stefania; Burioli, Sergio; Gallese, Benedetto; Inglese, Vitaliano; Pezzetti, Marco; Pengo, Ruggero

    The cryogenic control systems at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) are undergoing an important and radical modernization, allowing all the plants controls and supervision systems to be renewed in a homogeneous way towards the CERN-UNICOS standard. Before the UNICOS migration project started there were as many as 7 different types of PLC and 7 different types of SCADA, each one requiring its own particular programming language. In these conditions, even a simple modification and/or integration on the program or on the supervision, required the intervention of a system integrator company, specialized in its specific control system. Furthermore it implied that the operators have to be trained to learn the different types of control systems. The CERN-UNICOS invented for LHC [1] has been chosen due to its reliability and planned to run and be maintained for decades on. The complete migration is part of an agreement between CERN and INFN.

  4. 75 FR 74025 - Procedural Manual for the Election Assistance Commission's Voting System Testing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Program, Version 2.0 AGENCY: United States Election Assistance Commission (EAC). ACTION: Notice; publication of Voting System Testing and Certification Manual, Version 2.0, for 60 day public comment period on EAC Web site. SUMMARY: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) is publishing a...

  5. Optimal design of a Thermodynamic Vent System for cryogenic propellant storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mer, Samuel; Fernandez, David; Thibault, Jean-Paul; Corre, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Future operations in space exploration require to store cryogenic liquids for long duration. Residual heat loads, due to heat conduction in the launcher structure or solar radiation, induce cryogenic propellant vaporization and tank self-pressurization. The Thermodynamic Vent System (TVS) permits to control self-pressurization using the following procedure: a fraction of liquid propellant is removed from the tank by a pump, cooled down by a heat exchanger and re-injected inside the tank as a jet or a spray. As no natural heat sink is available in space, the cold source is created by removing another fraction of liquid propellant which is expanded in a Joule-Thomson valve and vented to space. The sub-cooled injection is followed by vapor condensation and liquid bath destratification due to mixing. In this work, an optimization method is applied to an extended homogeneous thermodynamic model to design a TVS system maximizing the storage duration under various heat load and tank size assumptions.

  6. Lessons Learned During Cryogenic Optical Testing of the Advanced Mirror System Demonstrators (AMSDs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James; Reardon, Patrick; Geary, Joseph; Robinson, Brian; Stahl, Philip; Eng, Ron; Kegley, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Optical testing in a cryogenic environment presents a host of challenges above and beyond those encountered during room temperature testing. The Advanced Mirror System Demonstrators (AMSDs) are 1.4 m diameter, ultra light-weight (<20 kg/mA2), off-axis parabolic segments. They are required to have 250 nm PV & 50 nm RMS surface figure error or less at 35 K. An optical testing system, consisting of an Instantaneous Phase Interferometer (PI), a diffractive null corrector (DNC), and an Absolute Distance Meter (ADM), was used to measure the surface figure & radius-of-curvature of these mirrors at the operational temperature within the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Ah4SD program was designed to improve the technology related to the design, fabrication, & testing of such mirrors in support of NASA s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). This paper will describe the lessons learned during preparation & cryogenic testing of the AMSDs.

  7. Vertically configured collimator for cryogenic vacuum testing of meter scale optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatke, Derek; Meyer, Steve; Siegel, Noah; Byrd, Don; Spuhler, Peter; Atcheson, Paul; Martella, Mark; Penniman, Edwin

    2007-09-01

    Ball Aerospace has constructed a new collimator for interferometric and image quality testing of meter scale optical systems under cryogenic, vacuum conditions. Termed the Vertical Collimator Assembly (VCA), it features 1.5 m diameter off-axis parabolic and calibration flat mirrors. In order to preserve as large a volume as possible for the unit under test, the main platform is suspended inside its vacuum chamber by a hexapod, with the parabolic mirror mounted overhead. A simultaneous interferometer facilitates collimator alignment and monitoring, as well as wavefront quality measurements for the test unit. Diffusely illuminated targets may be employed for through-focus image quality measurements with pinholes and bar targets. Mechanical alignment errors induced by thermal and structural perturbations are monitored with a three-beam distance measuring interferometer to enable mid-test compensation. Sources for both interferometer systems are maintained at atmospheric pressure while still directly mounted to the main platform, reducing vibration and stability problems associated with thermal vacuum testing. Because path lengths inside the ambient pressure vessels are extremely short, problems related to air turbulence and layering are also mitigated. In-chamber support equipment is insulated and temperature controlled, allowing testing while the chamber shrouds and test unit are brought to cryogenic temperatures.

  8. Design of hydrogen vent line for the cryogenic hydrogen system in J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumoto, Hideki; Aso, Tomokazu; Kato, Takashi; Ohtsu, Kiichi; Hasegawa, Shoichi; Maekawa, Fujio; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2009-02-01

    As one of the main experimental facilities in J-PARC, an intense spallation neutron source (JSNS) driven by a 1-MW proton beam selected supercritical hydrogen at a temperature of 20 K and a pressure of 1.5 MPa as a moderator material. Moderators are controlled by a cryogenic hydrogen system that has a hydrogen relief system, which consists of high and low pressure stage of manifolds, a hydrogen vent line and a stack, in order to release hydrogen to the outside safely. The design of the hydrogen vent line should be considered to prevent purge nitrogen gas in the vent line from freezing when releasing the cryogenic hydrogen, to prevent moisture in the stack placed in an outdoor location from freezing, and to inhibit large piping temperature reduction at a building wall penetration. In this work, temperature change behaviors in the hydrogen vent line were analyzed by using a CFD code, STAR-CD. We determined required sizes of the vent line based on the analytical results and its layout in the building.

  9. Thermal performance of a modularized replaceable multilayer insulation system for a cryogenic stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A rugged modularized MLI system for a 2.23-meter-diameter (87.6-in.-diam) liquid hydrogen tank was designed, fabricated, and tested under simulated near-earth and deep-space environments. The two blankets of the system were each composed of 17 double-aluminized Mylar radiation shields separated by silk net. The unit area weight of the installed system was 1.54 kg/sqm (0.32 lb/sq ft). The overall average heat transferred into the insulated tank was 22.7 and 0.98 watts (77.4 and 3.3 Btu/hr) during simulated near-earth and deep-space testing, respectively. The near-earth result was only 2.6 times that predicted for an undisturbed insulation system (i.e., no seams or penetrations). Tests indicate that this insulation concept could be useful for a cryogenic space tug or orbit transfer vehicle application.

  10. Cryogenic Viscous Compressor Development and Modeling for the ITER Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, Larry R; Meitner, Steven J; Barbier, Charlotte N; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Duckworth, Robert C; Edgemon, Timothy D; Rasmussen, David A; Hechler, Michael P; Kersevan, R.; Dremel, M.; Pearce, R.J.H.; Boissin, Jean Claude

    2011-01-01

    The ITER vacuum system requires a roughing pump system that can pump the exhaust gas from the torus cryopumps to the tritium exhaust processing plant. The gas will have a high tritium content and therefore conventional vacuum pumps are not suitable. A pump called a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed for the roughing system to pump from ~500 Pa to 10 Pa at flow rates of 200 Pa-m3/ s. A unique feature of this pump is that is allows any helium in the gas to flow through the pump where it is sent to the detritiation system before exhausting to atmosphere. A small scale prototype of the CVC is being tested for heat transfer characteristics and compared to modeling results to ensure reliable operation of the full scale CVC. Keywords- ITER; vacuum; fuel cycle

  11. Performance of the Primary Mirror Center-of-Curvature Optical Metrology System during Cryogenic Testing of the JWST Pathfinder Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Wells, Conrad; Olczak, Gene; Waldman, Mark; Whitman, Tony; Cosentino, Joseph; Connolly, Mark; Chaney, David; Telfer, Randal

    2016-01-01

    The JWST primary mirror consists of 18 1.5 m hexagonal segments, each with 6-DoF and RoC adjustment. The telescope will be tested at its cryogenic operating temperature at Johnson Space Center. The testing will include center-of-curvature measurements of the PM, using the Center-of-Curvature Optical Assembly (COCOA) and the Absolute Distance Meter Assembly (ADMA). The performance of these metrology systems, including hardware, software, procedures, was assessed during two cryogenic tests at JSC, using the JWST Pathfinder telescope. This paper describes the test setup, the testing performed, and the resulting metrology system performance.

  12. Cryogenic fluid management technologies for space transportation. Zero G thermodynamic vent system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Long term storage of subcritical cryogens in space must address the problem of thermal stratification in the storage tanks, liquid acquisition devices, and associated feed systems. Due to the absence of gravity induced body forces, thermal stratification in zero-g is more severe than commonly experienced in a one-g environment. If left uncontrolled, the thermal gradients result in excessive tank pressure rise and the formation of undesirable liquid/vapor mixtures within the liquid bulk, liquid acquisition system, and propellant transfer lines. Since external heat leakage cannot be eliminated, a means of minimizing the thermal stratification in the ullage gas, liquid, and feed system is required. A subsystem which minimizes the thermal stratification and rejects the environmental heat leakage in an efficient manner is therefore needed for zero-g subcritical cryogenic systems. In ground based storage systems the ullage gas location is always known (top of the tank) and therefore direct venting of gases as a means of heat rejection is easily accomplished. In contrast, because the ullage location in a zero-g environment is not easily predictable, heat rejection through direct gaseous venting is difficult in space (requires liquid settling, or surface tension devices). A means of indirect venting through the use of a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) is therefore required. A thermodynamic vent system allows indirect venting of vapor through heat exchange between the vented fluid and the stored fluid. The objective is to ensure that only gas and not liquid is vented, in order to minimize the propellant losses. Consequently, the design of a TVS is a critical enabling technology for future applications such as solar thermal and electric propulsion, single-stage-to-orbit vertical landers and upper stages, and any space based operations involving subcritical cryogenics. To bridge this technology gap NASA MSFC initiated an effort to build and verify through ground tests a zero

  13. Cryogenic system design of 11 GEV/C super high momentum spectrometer superconducting magnets at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Eric; Brindza, Paul; Lassister, Steven; Fowler, Mike

    2012-06-01

    The design of the cryogenic system for the 11 GeV/c Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) is presented. A description of the cryogenic control reservoir and the cryogenic transfer line is given. Details of the cryogenic control reservoirs, cryogenic transfer lines, and pressure piping are summarized. Code compliance is ensured through following the requirements of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code and Pressure Piping Code. An elastic-plastic-analysis-based combined safety factor approach is proposed to meet the low stress requirement of ASME 2007 Section VIII, Division 2 so that Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact testing can be avoided through analysis. Material toughness requirements in ASME 2007 Section VIII, Division 2 are adopted as CVN impact testing rules of stainless steel 304 piping at 4.2 K and 77 K. A formula-based combined safety factor approach for pressure piping is also proposed to check whether the impact testing can be avoided due to low stress. Analysis and calculation have shown that no CVN impact testing of base metal and heat affected zones is required for the helium reservoir, nitrogen reservoir, and their relevant piping. Total heat loads to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen are studied also. The total heat load to LHe for SHMS is estimated to be 137 W, and the total load to LN2 is calculated to be 420 W.

  14. Cryogenic system design of 11 GEV/C super high momentum spectrometer superconducting magnets at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Sun, Paul Brindza, Steven Lassister, Mike Fowler

    2012-07-01

    The design of the cryogenic system for the 11 GeV/c Super High Momentum Spectrometer (SHMS) is presented. A description of the cryogenic control reservoir and the cryogenic transfer line is given. Details of the cryogenic control reservoirs, cryogenic transfer lines, and pressure piping are summarized. Code compliance is ensured through following the requirements of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code and Pressure Piping Code. An elastic-plastic-analysis-based combined safety factor approach is proposed to meet the low stress requirement of ASME 2007 Section VIII, Division 2 so that Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact testing can be avoided through analysis. Material toughness requirements in ASME 2007 Section VIII, Division 2 are adopted as CVN impact testing rules of stainless steel 304 piping at 4.2 K and 77 K. A formula-based combined safety factor approach for pressure piping is also proposed to check whether the impact testing can be avoided due to low stress. Analysis and calculation have shown that no CVN impact testing of base metal and heat affected zones is required for the helium reservoir, nitrogen reservoir, and their relevant piping. Total heat loads to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen are studied also. The total heat load to LHe for SHMS is estimated to be 137 W, and the total load to LN2 is calculated to be 420 W.

  15. Model predictions and observed performance of JWST's cryogenic position metrology system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunt, Sharon R.; Rhodes, David; DiAntonio, Andrew; Boland, John; Wells, Conrad; Gigliotti, Trevis; Johanning, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) cryogenic testing requires measurement systems that both obtain a very high degree of accuracy and can function in that environment. Close-range photogrammetry was identified as meeting those criteria. Testing the capability of a close-range photogrammetric system prior to its existence is a challenging problem. Computer simulation was chosen over building a scaled mock-up to allow for increased flexibility in testing various configurations. Extensive validation work was done to ensure that the actual as-built system meets accuracy and repeatability requirements. The simulated image data predicted the uncertainty in measurement to be within specification and this prediction was borne out experimentally. Uncertainty at all levels was verified experimentally to be <0.1 mm.

  16. Model Predictions and Observed Performance of JWST's Cryogenic Position Metrology System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunt, Sharon R.; Rhodes, David; DiAntonio, Andrew; Boland, John; Wells, Conrad; Gigliotti, Trevis; Johanning, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope cryogenic testing requires measurement systems that both obtain a very high degree of accuracy and can function in that environment. Close-range photogrammetry was identified as meeting those criteria. Testing the capability of a close-range photogrammetric system prior to its existence is a challenging problem. Computer simulation was chosen over building a scaled mock-up to allow for increased flexibility in testing various configurations. Extensive validation work was done to ensure that the actual as-built system meet accuracy and repeatability requirements. The simulated image data predicted the uncertainty in measurement to be within specification and this prediction was borne out experimentally. Uncertainty at all levels was verified experimentally to be less than 0.1 millimeters.

  17. A cryogen-free ultralow-field superconducting quantum interference device magnetic resonance imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2014-09-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microtesla fields using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection has previously been demonstrated, and advantages have been noted. Although the ultralow-field SQUID MRI technique would not need the heavy superconducting magnet of conventional MRI systems, liquid helium required to cool the low-temperature detector still places a significant burden on its operation. We have built a prototype cryocooler-based SQUID MRI system that does not require a cryogen. The SQUID detector and the superconducting gradiometer were cooled down to 3.7 K and 4.3 K, respectively. We describe the prototype design, characterization, a phantom image, and areas of further improvements needed to bring the imaging performance to parity with conventional MRI systems.

  18. A cryogen-free ultralow-field superconducting quantum interference device magnetic resonance imaging system.

    PubMed

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microtesla fields using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) detection has previously been demonstrated, and advantages have been noted. Although the ultralow-field SQUID MRI technique would not need the heavy superconducting magnet of conventional MRI systems, liquid helium required to cool the low-temperature detector still places a significant burden on its operation. We have built a prototype cryocooler-based SQUID MRI system that does not require a cryogen. The SQUID detector and the superconducting gradiometer were cooled down to 3.7 K and 4.3 K, respectively. We describe the prototype design, characterization, a phantom image, and areas of further improvements needed to bring the imaging performance to parity with conventional MRI systems.

  19. Conceptual design and analysis of orbital cryogenic liquid storage and supply systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Cunnington, G. R.; Johns, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    A wide variety of orbital cryogenic liquid storage and supply systems are defined in NASA and DOD long-range plans. These systems include small cooling applications, large chemical and electrical orbit transfer vehicles and supply tankers. All have the common requirements of low-g fluid management to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and efficient thermal control to manage heat leak and tank pressure. A preliminary design study was performed to evaluate tanks ranging from 0.6 to 37.4 cu m (22 to 1320 cu ft). Liquids of interest were hydrogen, oxygen, methane, argon and helium. Conceptual designs were generated for each tank system and fluid dynamic, thermal and structural analyses were performed for Shuttle compatible operations. Design trades considered the paradox of conservative support structure and minimum thermal input. Orbital performance and weight data were developed, and a technology evaluation was completed.

  20. Optimization of cryogenic and heat removal system of space borne magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musicki, Z.; Hilal, M. A.; McIntosh, G. E.

    Space-based superconducting magnets require a refrigerator system to maintain operating temperature at the design value. The magnets use helium gas cooled shields and multilayer insulation. Refrigerator power is determined based on the heat leak to the shields and to the magnet winding, as well as current leads and charging losses. Electric power is supplied by a power source such as an SP-100-type reactor or solar panels. Cryogenic and heat removal system masses included in the optimization are: the insulation and shields, the refrigerator, the power supply and the heat removal panel. The system is optimized to determine the optimum radiator temperature, superinsulation thickness, helium mass flow rate and helium inlet temperature to the shields.

  1. Comparison of reusable insulation systems for cryogenically-tanked earth-based space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.; Barber, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Three reusable insulation systems concepts were developed for use with cryogenic tanks of earth-based space vehicles. Two concepts utilized double-goldized Kapton (DGK) or double-aluminized Mylar (DAM) multilayer insulation (MLI), while the third utilized a hollow-glass-microsphere, loadbearing insulation (LBI). Thermal performance measurements were made under space-hold (vacuum) conditions for insulating warm boundary temperatures of approximately 291 K. The resulting effective thermal conductivity was approximately 0.00008 W/m-K (W = weight,Kg; m = measured; K = temperature) for the MLI systems (liquid hydrogen test results) and 0.00054 W/m-K for the LBI system (liquid nitrogen test results corrected to liquid hydrogen temperature).

  2. The Development and Implementation of a Cryogenic Pressure Sensitive Paint System in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; Goad, William K.; Goad, Linda R.; Massey, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    The Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) method was used to measure global surface pressures on a model at full-scale flight Reynolds numbers. In order to achieve these conditions, the test was carried out at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) operating under cryogenic conditions in a nitrogen environment. The upper surface of a wing on a full-span 0.027 scale commercial transport was painted with a porous PSP formulation and tested at 120K. Data was acquired at Mach 0.8 with a total pressure of 200 kPa, resulting in a Reynolds number of 65 x 106/m. Oxygen, which is required for PSP operation, was injected using dry air so that the oxygen concentration in the flow was approximately 1535 ppm. Results show qualitative agreement with expected results. This preliminary test is the first time that PSP has been successfully deployed to measure global surface pressures at cryogenic condition in the NTF. This paper will describe the system as installed, the results obtained from the test, as well as proposed upgrades and future tests.

  3. Development and test of a cryogenic pulsating heat pipe and a pre-cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Fabien; Gully, Philippe; Nikolayev, Vadim

    2012-06-01

    The needs of thermal links in cryogenic applications are increasing, especially because of the use of cryocoolers which offer a reduced size cold finger. The Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) is a passive two-phase high performance thermal link. Like the conventional heat pipe, it features a closed tube filled with a two-phase fluid able to transfer heat from its hot part (evaporator) to the cold part (condenser). A general problem for any two-phase cryogenic thermal link is the pre-cooling of the evaporator to ensure the presence of liquid inside the evaporator to start the flow motion. In conventional heat pipes, this problem is by passed by the wick but in the case of PHPs it has to be specially addressed. We have designed, manufactured and tested a helium PHP associated to a novel pre-cooling system. The cool down time of the PHP evaporator is reduced significantly. The maximum transferred power of the PHP is 145 mW with a cold source at 4.2 K.

  4. Design, construction and cooling system performance of a prototype cryogenic stopping cell for the Super-FRS at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, M.; Dendooven, P.; Purushothaman, S.; Dickel, T.; Reiter, M. P.; Ayet, S.; Haettner, E.; Moore, I. D.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Geissel, H.; Plaß, W. R.; Schäfer, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schreuder, F.; Timersma, H.; Van de Walle, J.; Weick, H.

    2015-01-01

    A cryogenic stopping cell for stopping energetic radioactive ions and extracting them as a low energy beam was developed. This first ever cryogenically operated stopping cell serves as prototype device for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS at FAIR. The cell has a stopping volume that is 1 m long and 25 cm in diameter. Ions are guided by a DC field along the length of the stopping cell and by a combined RF and DC fields provided by an RF carpet at the exit-hole side. The ultra-high purity of the stopping gas required for optimum ion survival is reached by cryogenic operation. The design considerations and construction of the cryogenic stopping cell, as well as some performance characteristics, are described in detail. Special attention is given to the cryogenic aspects in the design and construction of the stopping cell and the cryocooler-based cooling system. The cooling system allows the operation of the stopping cell at any desired temperature between about 70 K and room temperature. The cooling system performance in realistic on-line conditions at the FRS Ion Catcher Facility at GSI is discussed. A temperature of 110 K at which efficient ion survival was observed is obtained after 10 h of cooling. A minimum temperature of the stopping gas of 72 K was reached. The expertise gained from the design, construction and performance of the prototype cryogenic stopping cell has allowed the development of a final version for the Low-Energy Branch of the Super-FRS to proceed.

  5. Development of Rene' 41 honeycomb structure as an integral cryogenic tankage/fuselage concept for future space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shideler, J. J.; Swegle, A. R.; Fields, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the structural development of an integral cryogenic-tankage/hot-fuselage concept for future space transportation systems (STS) is discussed. The concept consists of a honeycomb sandwich structure which serves the combined functions of containment of cryogenic fuel, support of vehicle loads, and thermal protection from an entry heating environment. The inner face sheet is exposed to a cryogenic (LH2) temperature of -423 F during boost; and the outer face sheet, which is slotted to reduce thermal stress, is exposed to a maximum temperature of 1400 F during a high altitude, gliding entry. A fabrication process for a Rene' 41 honeycomb sandwich panel with a core density less than 1 percent was developed which is consistent with desirable heat treatment processes for high strength.

  6. Development of Rene 41 honeycomb structure as an integral cryogenic tankage/fuselage concept for future space transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shideler, J. L.; Swegle, A. R.; Fields, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the structural development of an integral cryogenic-tankage/hot-fuselage concept for future space transportation systems is reviewed. The concept comprises a honeycomb sandwich structure that serves the combined functions of containing the cryogenic fuel, supporting the vehicle loads, and protecting the spacecraft from entry heating. The inner face sheet is exposed to cryogenic temperature of -423 F during boost; the outer face sheet, which is slotted to reduce thermal stress, is exposed to a maximum temperature of 1400 F during a high-altitude gliding entry. Attention is given to the development of a fabrication process for a Rene 41 honeycomb sandwich panel with a core density of less than 1 percent that is consistent with desirable heat treatment processes for high strength.

  7. The high Beta cryo-modules and the associated cryogenic system for the HIE-ISOLDE upgrade at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Delruelle, N.; Leclercq, Y.; Pirotte, O.; Ramos, D.; Tibaron, P.; Vandoni, G.; Williams, L.

    2014-01-29

    The major upgrade of the energy and intensity of the existing ISOLDE and REX-ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facilities at CERN requires the replacement of most of the existing ISOLDE post-acceleration equipment by a superconducting linac based on quarter-wave resonators housed together with superconducting solenoids in a series of four high-β and two low-β cryo-modules. As well as providing optimum conditions for physics, the cryo-modules need to function under stringent vacuum and cryogenic conditions. We present the detail design and expected cryogenic performance of the high- β cryo-module together with the cryogenic supply and distribution system destined to service the complete superconducting linac.

  8. Cryogenic exciter

    DOEpatents

    Bray, James William [Niskayuna, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  9. Test techniques: A survey paper on cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, Robert A.; Dress, David A.; Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Britcher, Colin P.

    1989-01-01

    The ability to get good experimental data in wind tunnels is often compromised by things seemingly beyond our control. Inadequate Reynolds number, wall interference, and support interference are three of the major problems in wind tunnel testing. Techniques for solving these problems are available. Cryogenic wind tunnels solve the problem of low Reynolds number. Adaptive wall test sections can go a long way toward eliminating wall interference. A magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS) completely eliminates support interference. Cryogenic tunnels, adaptive wall test sections, and MSBS are surveyed. A brief historical overview is given and the present state of development and application in each area is described.

  10. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Kelly D.; Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter N.; Casagranda, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  11. Advances in Cryogenic Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, R. F.

    During the past 50 years, the use of digital computers has significantly influenced the design and analysis of cryogenic systems. At the time when the first Cryogenic Engineering Conference was held, thermodynamic data were presented in graphical or tabular form (the "steam table" format), whereas thermodynamic data for cryogenic system design is computer generated today. The thermal analysis of cryogenic systems in the 1950s involved analytical solutions, graphical solutions, and relatively simple finite-difference approaches. These approaches have been supplanted by finite-element numerical programs which readily solve complicated thermal problems that could not be solved easily using the methods of the 1950s. In distillation column design, the use of the McCabe-Thiele graphical method for determination of the number of theoretical plates has been replaced by numerical methods that allow consideration of several different components in the feed and product streams.

  12. Procedures and Standards for Residential Ventilation System Commissioning: An Annotated Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, J. Chris; Wray, Craig P.

    2013-04-01

    Beginning with the 2008 version of Title 24, new homes in California must comply with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2007 requirements for residential ventilation. Where installed, the limited data available indicate that mechanical ventilation systems do not always perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict. Commissioning such systems when they are installed or during subsequent building retrofits is a step towards eliminating deficiencies and optimizing the tradeoff between energy use and acceptable IAQ. Work funded by the California Energy Commission about a decade ago at Berkeley Lab documented procedures for residential commissioning, but did not focus on ventilation systems. Since then, standards and approaches for commissioning ventilation systems have been an active area of work in Europe. This report describes our efforts to collect new literature on commissioning procedures and to identify information that can be used to support the future development of residential-ventilation-specific procedures and standards. We recommend that a standardized commissioning process and a commissioning guide for practitioners be developed, along with a combined energy and IAQ benefit assessment standard and tool, and a diagnostic guide for estimating continuous pollutant emission rates of concern in residences (including a database that lists emission test data for commercially-available labeled products).

  13. Study and design of cryogenic propellant acquisition systems. Volume 2: Supporting experimental program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burge, G. W.; Blackmon, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Areas of cryogenic fuel systems were identified where critical experimental information was needed either to define a design criteria or to establish the feasibility of a design concept or a critical aspect of a particular design. Such data requirements fell into three broad categories: (1) basic surface tension screen characteristics; (2) screen acquisition device fabrication problems; and (3) screen surface tension device operational failure modes. To explore these problems and to establish design criteria where possible, extensive laboratory or bench test scale experiments were conducted. In general, these proved to be quite successful and, in many instances, the test results were directly used in the system design analyses and development. In some cases, particularly those relating to operational-type problems, areas requiring future research were identified, especially screen heat transfer and vibrational effects.

  14. Integrated Cryogenic System for CO2 Separation and Lng Production from Landfill Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H. M.; Chung, M. J.; Park, S. B.

    2010-04-01

    An integrated cryogenic system to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) and produce LNG from landfill gas is investigated and designed. The main objective of this design is to eliminate the requirement of a standard CO2 removal process in the liquefaction system such distillation or (temperature or pressure) swing adsorption, and to directly separate carbon dioxide as frost at the liquefying channel of methane. Two identical sets of heat exchangers are installed in parallel and switched alternatively with a time period so that one is in separation-liquefaction mode while the other is in CO2 clean-up mode. A thermal regeneration scheme is presented for the purpose of saving energy and avoiding the stoppage of LNG production followed by the flow switching. The switching period is determined from results of a combined heat and mass transfer analysis on the CO2 freeze-out process.

  15. Three-stage sorption type cryogenic refrigeration systems and methods employing heat regeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bard, Steven (Inventor); Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A three-stage sorption type cryogenic refrigeration system, each stage containing a fluid having a respectively different boiling point, is presented. Each stage includes a compressor in which a respective fluid is heated to be placed in a high pressure gaseous state. The compressor for that fluid which is heated to the highest temperature is enclosed by the other two compressors to permit heat to be transferred from the inner compressor to the surrounding compressors. The system may include two sets of compressors, each having the structure described above, with the interior compressors of the two sets coupled together to permit selective heat transfer therebetween, resulting in more efficient utilization of input power.

  16. 75 FR 65509 - In the Matter of Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of Commission... within the United States after importation of certain collaborative system products and...

  17. Cryogenic Cooling System for 5 kA, 200 μH Class HTS DC Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Heecheol; Kim, Seokho; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Park, Taejun; Kim, A.-rong; Lee, Sangjin

    DC reactors, made by aluminum busbar, are used to stabilize the arc of an electric furnace. In the conventional arc furnace, the transport current is several tens of kilo-amperes and enormous resistive loss is generated. To reduce the resistive loss at the DC reactor, a HTS DC reactor can be considered. It can dramatically improve the electric efficiency as well as reduce the installation space. Similar with other superconducting devices, the HTS DC reactor requires current leads from a power source in room temperature to the HTS coil in cryogenic environment. The heat loss at the metal current leads can be minimized through optimization process considering the geometry and the transport current. However, the transport current of the HTS DC reactor for the arc furnace is much larger than most of HTS magnets and the enormous heat penetration through the current lead should be effectively removed to keep the temperature around 70∼77 K. Current leads are cooled down by circulation of liquid nitrogen from the cooling system with a stirling cryocooler. The operating temperature of HTS coil is 30∼40 K and circulation of gaseous helium is used to remove the heat generation at the HTS coil. Gaseous helium is transported through the cryogenic helium blower and a single stage GM cryocooler. This paper describes design and experimental results on the cooling system for current leads and the HTS coil of 5 kA, 200 μH class DC reactor as a prototype. The results are used to verify the design values of the cooling systems and it will be applied to the design of scale-up cooling system for 50 kA, 200 μH class DC reactor.

  18. Commissioning of Fermilab's electron cooling system for 8-GeV antiprotons

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Burov, A.; Carlson, K.; Gattuso, C.; Hu, M.; Kramper, B.; Kroc, T.; Leibfritz, J.; Prost, L.; Pruss, S.; Saewert, G.; Schmidt, C.W.; Shemyakin, A.; Sutherland, M.; Tupikov, V.; Warner, A.; Seletsky, S.; Gai, W.; Kazakevich, Grigory M.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

    2005-05-01

    A 4.3-MeV electron cooling system [1] has been installed at Fermilab in the Recycler antiproton storage ring and is currently being commissioned. The cooling system is designed to assist accumulation of 8.9-GeV/c antiprotons for the Tevatron collider operations. This paper reports on the progress of the electron beam commissioning effort as well as on detailed plans of demonstrating the cooling of antiprotons.

  19. Cryogenic & Gas System Piping Pressure Tests (A Collection of PT Permits)

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russell A.; /Fermilab

    2002-08-22

    This engineering note is a collection of pipe pressure testing documents for various sections of piping for the D-Zero cryogenic and gas systems. High pressure piping must conform with FESHM chapter 5031.1. Piping lines with ratings greater than 150 psig have a pressure test done before the line is put into service. These tests require the use of pressure testing permits. It is my intent that all pressure piping over which my group has responsibility conforms to the chapter. This includes the liquid argon and liquid helium and liquid nitrogen cryogenic systems. It also includes the high pressure air system, and the high pressure gas piping of the WAMUS and MDT gas systems. This is not an all inclusive compilation of test documentation. Some piping tests have their own engineering note. Other piping section test permits are included in separate safety review documents. So if it isn't here, that doesn't mean that it wasn't tested. D-Zero has a back up air supply system to add reliability to air compressor systems. The system includes high pressure piping which requires a review per FESHM 5031.1. The core system consists of a pressurized tube trailer, supply piping into the building and a pressure reducing regulator tied into the air compressor system discharge piping. Air flows from the trailer if the air compressor discharge pressure drops below the regulator setting. The tube trailer is periodically pumped back up to approximately 2000 psig. A high pressure compressor housed in one of the exterior buildings is used for that purpose. The system was previously documented, tested and reviewed for Run I, except for the recent addition of piping to and from the high pressure compressor. The following documents are provided for review of the system: (1) Instrument air flow schematic, drg. 3740.000-ME-273995 rev. H; (2) Component list for air system; (3) Pressure testing permit for high pressure piping; (4) Documentation from Run I contained in D-Zero Engineering note

  20. Cryogenic system configuration for the International Linear Collider (ILC) at mountainous site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, H.; Okamura, T.; Delikaris, D.; Peterson, T.; Yamamoto, A.

    2017-02-01

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) plans to make use of ten cryoplants for its main linacs, each providing 19 kW at 4.5 K equivalent and among of it 3.6 kW at 2 K. Each cryoplant will consist of various cryogenic components such as a 4.5 K refrigerator cold box, a 2 K refrigerator cold box, and helium compressors and so on. In the technical design report (TDR) of the ILC, due to the mountainous topology, almost all cryogenic components would be installed in underground cryogenic caverns next to the main linac tunnels and only cooling towers on surface area. However, we would like to find a more effective and sophisticated configuration of the cryoplant components (cryogenic configuration). Under several constraints of technical, geographical, and environmental points of view, the cryogenic configuration should be considered carefully to satisfy such various conditions. After discussions on this topic conducted at various workshops and conferences, an updated cryogenic configuration is suggested. The proposed updated configuration may affect the total construction cost of the ILC and the entire structure of the ILC conventional facilities. The updated cryogenic configuration is presented and the on-going discussions with the conventional facilities and siting (CFS) colleagues for further improvement of the cryogenic configuration is introduced.

  1. Comparison of reusable insulation systems for cryogenically-tanked earth-based space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, I. E.; Barber, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Three reusable insulation systems concepts have been developed for use with cryogenic tanks of earth-based space vehicles. Two concepts utilized double-goldized Kapton (DGK) or double-aluminized Mylar (DAM) multilayer insulation (MLI), while the third utilized a hollow-glass-microsphere, load-bearing insulation (LBI). All three insulation systems have recently undergone experimental testing and evaluation under NASA-sponsored programs. Thermal performance measurements were made under space-hold (vacuum) conditions for insulation warm boundary temperatures of approximately 291 K. The resulting effective thermal conductivity was approximately .00008 W/m-K for the MLI systems (liquid hydrogen test results) and .00054 W/m-K for the LBI system (liquid nitrogen test results corrected to liquid hydrogen temperature). The DGK MLI system experienced a maximum thermal degradation of 38 percent, the DAM MLI system 14 percent, and the LBI system 6.7 percent due to repeated thermal cycling representing typical space flight conditions. Repeated exposure of the DAM MLI system to a high humidity environment for periods as long as 8 weeks provided a maximum degradation of only 24 percent.

  2. Security Systems Commissioning: An Old Trick for Your New Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Sophisticated, software-based security systems can provide powerful tools to support campus security. By nature, such systems are flexible, with many capabilities that can help manage the process of physical protection. However, the full potential of these systems can be overlooked because of unfamiliarity with the products, weaknesses in security…

  3. Cryogenic system for the ArTeMiS large sub millimeter camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolani, E.; Relland, J.; Clerc, L.; Duband, L.; Jourdan, T.; Talvard, M.; Le Pennec, J.; Martignac, J.; Visticot, F.

    2014-07-01

    A new photonic camera has been developed in the framework of the ArTéMis project (Bolometers architecture for large field of view ground based telescopes in the sub-millimeter). This camera scans the sky in the sub-millimeter range at simultaneously three different wavelengths, namely 200 μm, 350 μm, 450 μm, and is installed inside the APEX telescope located at 5100m above sea level in Chile. Bolometric detectors cooled to 300 mK are used in the camera, which is integrated in an original cryostat developed at the low temperature laboratory (SBT) of the INAC institut. This cryostat contains filters, optics, mirrors and detectors which have to be implemented according to mass, size and stiffness requirements. As a result the cryostat exhibits an unusual geometry. The inner structure of the cryostat is a 40 K plate which acts as an optical bench and is bound to the external vessel through two hexapods, one fixed and the other one mobile thanks to a ball bearing. Once the cryostat is cold, this characteristic enabled all the different elements to be aligned with the optical axis. The cryogenic chain is built around a pulse tube cooler (40 K and 4 K) coupled to a double stage helium sorption cooler (300 mK). The cryogenic and vacuum processes are managed by a Siemens PLC and all the data are showed and stored on a CEA SCADA system. This paper describes the mechanical and thermal design of the cryostat, its command control, and the first thermal laboratory tests. This work was carried out in collaboration with the Astrophysics laboratory SAp of the IRFU institut. SAp and SBT have installed the camera in July 2013 inside the Cassegrain cabin of APEX.

  4. Thermal System Verification and Model Validation for NASA's Cryogenic Passively Cooled James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, Paul E.; Parrish, Keith A.

    2005-01-01

    A thorough and unique thermal verification and model validation plan has been developed for NASA s James Webb Space Telescope. The JWST observatory consists of a large deployed aperture optical telescope passively cooled to below 50 Kelvin along with a suite of several instruments passively and actively cooled to below 37 Kelvin and 7 Kelvin, respectively. Passive cooling to these extremely low temperatures is made feasible by the use of a large deployed high efficiency sunshield and an orbit location at the L2 Lagrange point. Another enabling feature is the scale or size of the observatory that allows for large radiator sizes that are compatible with the expected power dissipation of the instruments and large format Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays. This passive cooling concept is simple, reliable, and mission enabling when compared to the alternatives of mechanical coolers and stored cryogens. However, these same large scale observatory features, which make passive cooling viable, also prevent the typical flight configuration fully-deployed thermal balance test that is the keystone to most space missions thermal verification plan. JWST is simply too large in its deployed configuration to be properly thermal balance tested in the facilities that currently exist. This reality, when combined with a mission thermal concept with little to no flight heritage, has necessitated the need for a unique and alternative approach to thermal system verification and model validation. This paper describes the thermal verification and model validation plan that has been developed for JWST. The plan relies on judicious use of cryogenic and thermal design margin, a completely independent thermal modeling cross check utilizing different analysis teams and software packages, and finally, a comprehensive set of thermal tests that occur at different levels of JWST assembly. After a brief description of the JWST mission and thermal architecture, a detailed description

  5. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 1: Summary report. [cryogenic storage and fuel flow regulation system for space shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Design, construction, and quality control tests on a dual screen liner device for the space shuttle orbiter cryogenic fuel tank and feedliner system are summarized. The dual stainless steel mesh of the device encloses eight liquid fuel channels and provides the liquid/vapor interface stability required for low gravity orbits.

  6. The 5.8 T Cryogen-Free Gyrotron Superconducting Magnet System on HL-2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Donghui; Huang, Mei; Zhou, Jun; Bai, Xingyu; Zheng, Tieliu; Rao, Jun; Zhuang, Ge

    2014-04-01

    A 5.8 T cryogen-free superconducting magnet (SCM) system with a warm bore hole of 160 mm in diameter, used for gyrotrons operating in the frequency range from 68 GHz to 140 GHz, is installed on the site of the HL-2A tokamak. The SCM consists of two separate solenoidal magnetic coils connected in series, a 4.2 K Gifford-McMahon (GM) refrigerator, a compressor, a coil power supply and two temperature monitors. The performance, test and preliminary experimental results of this SCM system are described in this paper. The magnetic field distribution was measured along the axis, and a dummy tube was used for adjusting the magnet system. Finally, the magnet was used for the operation of a 68 GHz/500 kW gyrotron, which is part of an electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system. With an additional auxiliary coil and after adjusting the magnet system, a maximum output power for the ECRH system of up to 400 kW was achieved.

  7. Field Commissioning of a Daylight-Dimming Lighting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, David B.; Parker, Danny S.

    A Florida elementary school cafeteria, retrofitted with a fluorescent lighting system that dims in response to available daylight, was evaluated through real time measurement of lighting and air conditioning power, work plane illumination, and interior/exterior site conditions. The new system produced a 27 percent reduction in lighting power due…

  8. Laser heated pedestal growth system commissioning and fiber processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buric, Michael; Yip, M. J.; Chorpening, Ben; Ohodnicki, Paul

    2016-05-01

    A new Laser Heated Pedestal Growth system was designed and fabricated using various aspects of effective legacy designs for the growth of single-crystal high-temperature-compatible optical fibers. The system is heated by a 100-watt, DC driven, CO2 laser with PID power control. Fiber diameter measurements are performed using a telecentric video system which identifies the molten zone and utilizes edge detection algorithms to report fiber-diameter. Beam shaping components include a beam telescope; along with gold-coated reflaxicon, turning, and parabolic focusing mirrors consistent with similar previous systems. The optical system permits melting of sapphire-feedstock up to 1.5mm in diameter for growth. Details regarding operational characteristics are reviewed and properties of single-crystal sapphire fibers produced by the system are evaluated. Aspects of the control algorithm efficacy will be discussed, along with relevant alternatives. Finally, some new techniques for in-situ processing making use of the laser-heating system are discussed. Ex-situ fiber modification and processing are also examined for improvements in fiber properties.

  9. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    SciTech Connect

    Jurns, John M.; Bäck, Harald; Gierow, Martin

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  10. Fiber-Optic Strain-Gage Tank Level Measurement System for Cryogenic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Mitchell, Mark; Langford, Lester

    2004-01-01

    Measurement of tank level, particularly for cryogenic propellants, has proven to be a difficult problem. Current methods based on differential pressure, capacitance sensors, temperature sensors, etc.; do not provide sufficiently accurate or robust measurements, especially at run time. These methods are designed to measure tank-level, but when the fluids are in supercritical state, the liquid-gas interface disappears. Furthermore, there is a need for a non-intrusive measurement system; that is, the sensors should not require tank modifications and/or disturb the fluids. This paper describes a simple, but effective method to determine propellant mass by measuring very small deformations of the structure supporting the tank. Results of a laboratory study to validate the method, and experimental data from a deployed system are presented. A comparison with an existing differential pressure sensor shows that the strain gage system provides a much better quality signal across all regimes during an engine test. Experimental results also show that the use of fiber optic strain gages (FOSG) over classic foil strain gages extends the operation time (before the system becomes uncalibrated), and increases accuracy. Finally, a procedure is defined whereby measurements from the FOSG mounted on the tank supporting structure are compensated using measurements of a FOSG mounted on a reference plate and temperature measurements of the structure. Results describing the performance of a deployed system that measures tank level during propulsion tests are included.

  11. Thermal Integration of a Liquid Acquisition Device into a Cryogenic Feed System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Schunk, R. G.; Martin, A. K.; Eskridge, R. H.; Frenkel, A.; Grayson, G.; Pendleton, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Primary objectives of this effort were to define the following: (1) Approaches for quantification of the accumulation of thermal energy within a capillary screen liquid acquisition device (LAD) for a lunar lander upper stage during periods of up to 210 days on the lunar surface, (2) techniques for mitigating heat entrapment, and (3) perform initial testing, data evaluation. The technical effort was divided into the following categories: (1) Detailed thermal modeling of the LAD/feed system interactions using both COMSOL computational fluid device and standard codes, (2) FLOW-3D modeling of bulk liquid to provide interfacing conditions for the LAD thermal modeling, (3) condensation conditioning of capillary screens to stabilize surface tension retention capability, and (4) subscale testing of an integrated LAD/feed system. Substantial progress was achieved in the following technical areas: (1) Thermal modeling and experimental approaches for evaluating integrated cryogen LAD/feed systems, at both the system and component levels, (2) reduced gravity pressure control analyses, (3) analytical modeling and testing for capillary screen conditioning using condensation and wicking, and (4) development of rapid turnaround testing techniques for evaluating LAD/feed system thermal and fluid integration. A comprehensive effort, participants included a diverse cross section of representatives from academia, contractors, and multiple Marshall Space Flight Center organizations.

  12. Commissioning of the APS real-time orbit feedback system

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.; Decker, G.; Evans, K. Jr.; Hillman, A.; Lenkszus, F.; Merl, R.; Pietryla, A.

    1997-08-01

    A unified global and local closed-orbit feedback system has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source in order to stabilize both particle and photon beams. Beam stability requirements in the band up to 50 Hz are 17 {micro}m in the horizontal plane and 4.4 {micro}m vertically. Orbit feedback algorithms are implemented digitally using multiple digital signal processors, with computing power distributed in 20 VME crates around the storage ring. Each crate communicates with all others via a fast reflective memory network. The system has access to 320 rf beam position monitors together with x-ray beam position monitors in both insertion device and bending magnet beamlines. Up to 317 corrector magnets are available to the system. The global system reduces horizontal rms beam motion at the x-ray source points by more than a factor of two in the frequency band from 10 mHz to 50 Hz.

  13. Ambient and Cryogenic, Decade Bandwidth, Low Noise Receiving System for Radio Astronomy Using Sinuous Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawande, Rohit Sudhir

    of the composite structure resulting in frequency dependent impedance variations. We demonstrate, using simulations and measurements, how the return loss can be improved by modifying the sinuous geometry. The feed-LNA combination is characterized for important properties such as return loss, system noise, far field beam patterns including cross-polarization over a wide frequency range. The system is developed as a feed for a parabolic reflector. The overall system performance is calculated in terms of the A/Tsys ratio. A cryogenic version would have a direct impact on specialized observing applications requiring large instantaneous bandwidths with high sensitivity. A novel cryogenic implementation of this system is demonstrated using a Stirling cycle, one-stage refrigerator. The cryocooler offers advantages like low cost, light weight, small size, low power consumption, and does not require routine maintenance. The higher antenna input impedance and a balanced feeding method for the sinuous antenna offers a unique set of challenges when developing a cryogenic system.

  14. Testing of a Spray-Bar Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System for Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lak, Tibor; Flachbart, Robin; Nguyen, Han; Martin, James

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a fundamental technology need that involves practically all uses of subcritical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule- Thomson (J-T) valve to extract then-nal energy from the propellant. In a cooperative effort, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (N4HTB) was used to test a unique "spray bar" TVS system developed by Boeing. A schematic of this system is included in Figure 1. The system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it radially into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the spray bar heat exchanger element, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. Figure 2 is a plot of ullage pressure (P4) and liquid vapor pressure (PSAI) versus time. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. The primary advantage of the

  15. Solid cryogen: a cooling system for future MgB2 MRI magnet.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dipak; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Qiu, Wenbin; Jie, Hyunseock; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Maeda, Minoru; Tomsic, Mike; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Jung Ho

    2017-03-02

    An efficient cooling system and the superconducting magnet are essential components of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. Herein, we report a solid nitrogen (SN2) cooling system as a valuable cryogenic feature, which is targeted for easy usability and stable operation under unreliable power source conditions, in conjunction with a magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting magnet. The rationally designed MgB2/SN2 cooling system was first considered by conducting a finite element analysis simulation, and then a demonstrator coil was empirically tested under the same conditions. In the SN2 cooling system design, a wide temperature distribution on the SN2 chamber was observed due to the low thermal conductivity of the stainless steel components. To overcome this temperature distribution, a copper flange was introduced to enhance the temperature uniformity of the SN2 chamber. In the coil testing, an operating current as high as 200 A was applied at 28 K (below the critical current) without any operating or thermal issues. This work was performed to further the development of SN2 cooled MgB2 superconducting coils for MRI applications.

  16. In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot (ISCPD) Architecture Definitions and Systems Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Henley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the ISCPD Architecture Definitions and Systems Studies were to determine high leverage propellant depot architecture concepts, system configuration trades, and related technologies to enable more ambitious and affordable human and robotic exploration of the Earth Neighborhood and beyond. This activity identified architectures and concepts that preposition and store propellants in space for exploration and commercial space activities, consistent with Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) objectives. Commonalities across mission scenarios for these architecture definitions, depot concepts, technologies, and operations were identified that also best satisfy the Vision of Space Exploration. Trade studies were conducted, technology development needs identified and assessments performed to drive out the roadmap for obtaining an in-space cryogenic propellant depot capability. The Boeing Company supported the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by conducting this Depot System Architecture Development Study. The primary objectives of this depot architecture study were: (1) determine high leverage propellant depot concepts and related technologies; (2) identify commonalities across mission scenarios of depot concepts, technologies, and operations; (3) determine the best depot concepts and key technology requirements and (4) identify technology development needs including definition of ground and space test article requirements.

  17. Solid cryogen: a cooling system for future MgB2 MRI magnet

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dipak; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Qiu, Wenbin; Jie, Hyunseock; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Maeda, Minoru; Tomsic, Mike; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Jung Ho

    2017-01-01

    An efficient cooling system and the superconducting magnet are essential components of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. Herein, we report a solid nitrogen (SN2) cooling system as a valuable cryogenic feature, which is targeted for easy usability and stable operation under unreliable power source conditions, in conjunction with a magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting magnet. The rationally designed MgB2/SN2 cooling system was first considered by conducting a finite element analysis simulation, and then a demonstrator coil was empirically tested under the same conditions. In the SN2 cooling system design, a wide temperature distribution on the SN2 chamber was observed due to the low thermal conductivity of the stainless steel components. To overcome this temperature distribution, a copper flange was introduced to enhance the temperature uniformity of the SN2 chamber. In the coil testing, an operating current as high as 200 A was applied at 28 K (below the critical current) without any operating or thermal issues. This work was performed to further the development of SN2 cooled MgB2 superconducting coils for MRI applications. PMID:28251984

  18. Cryogenic molecular separation system for radioactive {sup 11}C ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, K.; Noda, A.; Suzuki, K.; Nagatsu, K.; Nakao, M.; Hojo, S.; Wakui, T.; Noda, K.; Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.

    2015-12-15

    A {sup 11}C molecular production/separation system (CMPS) has been developed as part of an isotope separation on line system for simultaneous positron emission tomography imaging and heavy-ion cancer therapy using radioactive {sup 11}C ion beams. In the ISOL system, {sup 11}CH{sub 4} molecules will be produced by proton irradiation and separated from residual air impurities and impurities produced during the irradiation. The CMPS includes two cryogenic traps to separate specific molecules selectively from impurities by using vapor pressure differences among the molecular species. To investigate the fundamental performance of the CMPS, we performed separation experiments with non-radioactive {sup 12}CH{sub 4} gases, which can simulate the chemical characteristics of {sup 11}CH{sub 4} gases. We investigated the separation of CH{sub 4} molecules from impurities, which will be present as residual gases and are expected to be difficult to separate because the vapor pressure of air molecules is close to that of CH{sub 4}. We determined the collection/separation efficiencies of the CMPS for various amounts of air impurities and found desirable operating conditions for the CMPS to be used as a molecular separation device in our ISOL system.

  19. Solid cryogen: a cooling system for future MgB2 MRI magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dipak; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al; Qiu, Wenbin; Jie, Hyunseock; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Maeda, Minoru; Tomsic, Mike; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Jung Ho

    2017-03-01

    An efficient cooling system and the superconducting magnet are essential components of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. Herein, we report a solid nitrogen (SN2) cooling system as a valuable cryogenic feature, which is targeted for easy usability and stable operation under unreliable power source conditions, in conjunction with a magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting magnet. The rationally designed MgB2/SN2 cooling system was first considered by conducting a finite element analysis simulation, and then a demonstrator coil was empirically tested under the same conditions. In the SN2 cooling system design, a wide temperature distribution on the SN2 chamber was observed due to the low thermal conductivity of the stainless steel components. To overcome this temperature distribution, a copper flange was introduced to enhance the temperature uniformity of the SN2 chamber. In the coil testing, an operating current as high as 200 A was applied at 28 K (below the critical current) without any operating or thermal issues. This work was performed to further the development of SN2 cooled MgB2 superconducting coils for MRI applications.

  20. Performance test of the cryogenic cooling system for the superconducting fault current limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong-Ju; In, Sehwan; Yeom, Han-Kil; Kim, Heesun; Kim, Hye-Rim

    2015-12-01

    A Superconducting Fault Current Limiter is an electric power device which limits the fault current immediately in a power grid. The SFCL must be cooled to below the critical temperature of high temperature superconductor modules. In general, they are submerged in sub-cooled liquid nitrogen for their stable thermal characteristics. To cool and maintain the target temperature and pressure of the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen, the cryogenic cooling system should be designed well with a cryocooler and coolant circulation devices. The pressure of the cryostat for the SFCL should be pressurized to suppress the generation of nitrogen bubbles in quench mode of the SFCL. In this study, we tested the performance of the cooling system for the prototype 154 kV SFCL, which consist of a Stirling cryocooler, a subcooling cryostat, a pressure builder and a main cryostat for the SFCL module, to verify the design of the cooling system and the electric performance of the SFCL. The normal operation condition of the main cryostat is 71 K and 500 kPa. This paper presents tests results of the overall cooling system.

  1. Commissioning a Vibrating Wire System for Quadrupole Fiducialization

    SciTech Connect

    Levashov, Michael Y

    2010-12-03

    Quadrupoles will be placed between the undulator segments in LCLS to keep the electron beam focused as it passes through. The quadrupoles will be assembled with their respective undulator segments prior to being placed into the tunnel. Beam alignment will be used to center the quadrupoles, along with the corresponding undulators, on the beam. If there is any displacement between the undulator and the quadrupole axes in the assemblies, the beam will deviate from the undulator axis. If it deviates by more than 80{micro}m in vertical or 140{micro}m in horizontal directions, the undulator will not perform as required by LCLS. This error is divided between three sources: undulator axis fiducialization, quadrupole magnetic axis fiducialization, and assembly of the two parts. In particular, it was calculated that the quadrupole needs to be fiducialized to within 25{micro}m in both vertical and horizontal directions. A previous study suggested using a vibrating wire system for finding the magnetic axis of the quadrupoles. The study showed that the method has high sensitivity (up to 1{micro}m) and laid out guidelines for constructing such a system. There are 3 steps in fiducializing the quadrupole with the vibrating wire system. They are positioning the wire at the magnet center (step 1), finding the wire with position detectors (step 2), and finding the quadrupole tooling ball positions relative to the position detector tooling balls (step 3). A previous study investigated the error associated with each step by using a permanent quadrupole magnet on an optical mover system. The study reported an error of 11{micro}m for step 1 and a repeatability of 4{micro}m for step 2. However, the set up used a FARO arm to measure tooling balls and didn't allow to accurately check step 2 for errors; an uncertainty of 100{micro}m was reported. Therefore, even though the repeatability was good, there was no way to check that the error in step 2 was small. Following the recommendations of

  2. Cryogenic System for J-Parc Neutrino Superconducting Magnet Beam LINE—DESIGN, Construction and Performance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makida, Y.; Ohhata, H.; Okamura, T.; Suzuki, S.; Araoka, O.; Ogitsu, T.; Kimura, N.; Nakamoto, T.; Sasaki, K.; Kaneda, S.; Takahashi, T.; Ito, A.; Nagami, M.; Kumaki, T.; Nakashima, T.

    2010-04-01

    A helium cryogenic plant has been constructed in the proton accelerator research complex, J-PARC, to cool a string of superconducting magnets in the neutrino beam line since 2005. It consists of a screw compressor with a capacity of 160 g/s at 1.4 MPa, a 1.5 kW refrigerator, a centrifugal SHE pump with a flow rate of 300 g/s and peripherals. After system integration, performance tests have been carried out. In a preliminary cooling test without magnets, the cryogenic system attained a cooling capacity of 522 W by circulating supercritical helium flow of 300 g/s at 0.4 MPa and at 4.5 K. Afterwards a full system test with the magnets was carried out. The magnets were successfully charged up to an ultimate current of 5000 A beyond a nominal current of 4400 A. This paper describes the plant design and the result of performance measurements.

  3. Cryogenic propellant thermal control system design considerations, analyses, and concepts applied to a Mars human exploration mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David W.; Tucker, Stephen; Hoffman, David J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes, defines, and sizes cryogenic storage thermal control systems that meet the requirements of future NASA Mars human exploration missions. The design issues of this system include the projection of the existing Multilayer Insulation data base for cryogenic storage to much thicker (10 cm or more) insulation systems, the unknown heat leak from mechanical interfaces, and the thermal and structural performance effects of the large tank sizes required for a Mars mission. Acknowledging these unknown effects, heat loss projections are made based on extrapolation of the existing data base. The results indicate that hydrogen, methane, and oxygen are feasible propellants, and that the best suited thermal control sytems are 'thick' MLI, thermodynamic vent sytems, cryocoolers, and vacuum jackets.

  4. Cryogenic-Compatible Winchester Connector Mount and Retaining System for Composite Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, James; McGuffey, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    A connector retainer and mounting system has been designed to replace screw-mounting of Winchester connectors. Countersunk screws are normally used to secure connectors to structures, and to keep them from coming apart. These screws are normally put into threaded or through-holes in metallic structures. This unique retainer is designed such that integral posts keep the connector halves retained, and a groove permits a cable tie to be fastened around the retainer and composite tube, thus securing the connector to the structure. The system is compatible for use on cryogenic (and conventional) bonded composite tube assemblies. Screws and tapped/through-holes needed to retain and mount Winchester connectors cannot be used on blind-access composite tubes. This system allows for rapid installation, removal, low-molecular-outgassing materials, and particulate-free installation and removal. Installation and/or changes late in the integration, and test flow with limited access in a cleanroom environment are possible. No sanding or bonding is needed.

  5. Commissioning of 84 GHz Kstar Ech Transmission Line System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Y. S.; Han, W.-S.; Yang, H.-L.; Park, S.; Jeong, J.-H.; Namkung, W.; Cho, M.-H.

    2009-04-01

    The installation of 84 GHz Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) system has been completed in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The 84 GHz EC-wave is transmitted from the gyrotron to the antenna system through evacuated HE11-mode circular corrugated waveguides with inner diameter of 31.75 mm and miter bends with flat mirror. The L-box chamber is designed and installed to match the output beam of TEM00 mode from the gyrotron into the 31.75-mm circular corrugated waveguide by a large ellipsoidal mirror inside the chamber. The ellipsoidal mirror can be adjusted in two perpendicular axes and moved in or out for the minor misalignment. The elliptical polarization of EC-wave required for the specific mode coupling at the plasma edge is obtained by means of subsequent two grooved mirrors inside the miter bend. The torus vacuum window, which is half-wavelength thick diamond disk, is installed for the vacuum isolation of the transmission line vacuum from the KSTAR vacuum vessel. For the RF power measurement, two dummy loads are installed near the gyrotron and near the KSTAR tokamak, respectively. The dummy load near the KSTAR tokamak will be used for the transmission efficiency measurement of the transmission line system. This paper describes the evacuation test result of the transmission line from the L-box to the torus diamond window, the transmission efficiency measurement of 84-GHz millimeter wave, and the measurement of elliptical polarization parameters as a function of the grooved mirror angles. Also, the requirement of the polarization control for the EC-wave injection and mode coupling is discussed.

  6. Missouri Commission on Higher Education; Specifications for a Higher Education Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresap, McCormick, and Paget, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The purpose of this study was to design an information system for the Missouri Commission on Higher Education that would provide timely information for planning to meet the higher education needs in the state. The system provides planning and information reports, divided into the following subsystems: student information; program information;…

  7. Division H Commission 33: Structure & Dynamics of the Galactic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordström, Birgitta; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Wyse, Rosemary; Athanassoula, Lia; Feltzing, Sofia; Jog, Chanda; Lockman, Jay; Minniti, Dante; Robin, Annie

    2016-04-01

    Research on the structure and dynamics of the Galactic System covers a large field of research, from formation scenarios to long-term evolution and secular processes. Today we speak of near-field cosmology where the oldest parts of the Galaxy are used to probe back to early times, e.g. studying the chemical signatures of the oldest star clusters and dwarf galaxies to learn about the byproducts of the first stars. Some of the most detailed work relates to the structure of the dark matter and baryons in order to compare with expectation from N-body models. Secular processes have been identified (e.g. stellar migration) where material within the Galaxy is being reorganized by dynamical resonances and feedback processes.

  8. Helium exchange gas based variable temperature insert for cryogen-free magnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadaf, A.; Kar, S.; Kumar, M.; Dutt, R. N.; Das, A.; Singh, F.; Posa, L.; Datta, T. S.; Sarangi, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    A cryocooler based variable temperature inserts (VTI) has been designed and developed for measurement of physical properties at low temperature and high magnetic field. The VTI, designed using the helium exchange gas principle, needs to be integrated in the warm bore of an existing 6 T cryogen free magnet system. The lowest temperature achieved at the sample is 5 K at 34.5 kPa (∼5 psi) gaseous helium environment in the sample space. The equilibrium temperature of the sample, at the vacuum condition, is 8.7 K. The cool-down time of the sample at vacuum environment is 9 hrs whereas it takes 7 hrs in presence of helium exchange gas. The temperature of the sample was varied up to 325 K. The stability of the temperature achieved is less than 50 mK. The cooling and heating curves has been studied to estimate time required for a complete cycle of experiment. This paper will briefly present the design and performance of VTI system in temperature range of 5-325 K.

  9. Cryogenic Thermoelectric Properties of the Bismuth-Magnesium and Bismuth-Antimony-Magnesium Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orovets, Christine; Jin, Hyungyu; Wiendlocha, Bartlomiej; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2012-02-01

    There is a need to increase the Figure of Merit of thermoelectric materials used in low temperature cooling applications. Band structure calculations show that substitutional magnesium in bismuth can form sharp density of states peaks, suggesting the presence of a resonant level. Single crystal samples of (Bi1-xSbx)1-yMgy (0 <= x <= 12% and 0 <= y <= 0.7% nominally) were synthesized in evacuated ampoules. The composition of each ingot was analyzed using x-ray diffraction, and transport properties were measured using a Thermal Transport Option (TTO) in a Physical Properties Measurement System (PPMS) from 300K to 2K. It is apparent that the addition of magnesium strongly influences thermopower; the data for Bi90Sb10Mg0.7 shows a second minimum in thermopower at 20K, in addition to the expected minimum at approximately 50-60K. This could be due to the resonant scattering at the cryogenic temperatures which arises from the excess density of states. The addition of magnesium also appears to decrease thermal conductivity below 30K. We present systematic experimental approaches and the results to elucidate the role of magnesium in bismuth and bismuth-antimony systems.

  10. Dynamic simulations for preparing the acceptance test of JT-60SA cryogenic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, R.; Hoa, C.; Michel, F.; Poncet, J. M.; Rousset, B.

    2016-12-01

    Power generation in the future could be provided by thermo-nuclear fusion reactors like tokamaks. There inside, the fusion reaction takes place thanks to the generation of plasmas at hundreds of millions of degrees that must be confined magnetically with superconductive coils, cooled down to around 4.5 K. Within this frame, an experimental tokamak device, JT-60SA is currently under construction in Naka (Japan). The plasma works cyclically and the coil system is subject to pulsed heat loads. In order to size the refrigerator close to the average power and hence optimizing investment and operational costs, measures have to be taken to smooth the heat load. Here we present a dynamic model of the JT-60SA's Auxiliary Cold box (ACB) for preparing the acceptance tests of the refrigeration system planned in 2016 in Naka. The aim of this study is to simulate the pulsed load scenarios using different process controls. All the simulations have been performed with EcosimPro® and the associated cryogenic library: CRYOLIB.

  11. Analytical Verifications in Cryogenic Testing of NGST Advanced Mirror System Demonstrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Ramona; Levine, Marie; VanBuren, Dave; Kegley, Jeff; Green, Joseph; Hadaway, James; Presson, Joan; Cline, Todd; Stahl, H. Philip (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ground based testing is a critical and costly part of component, assembly, and system verifications of large space telescopes. At such tests, however, with integral teamwork by planners, analysts, and test personnel, segments can be included to validate specific analytical parameters and algorithms at relatively low additional cost. This paper opens with strategy of analytical verification segments added to vacuum cryogenic testing of Advanced Mirror System Demonstrator (AMSD) assemblies. These AMSD assemblies incorporate material and architecture concepts being considered in the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) design. The test segments for workmanship testing, cold survivability, and cold operation optical throughput are supplemented by segments for analytical verifications of specific structural, thermal, and optical parameters. Utilizing integrated modeling and separate materials testing, the paper continues with support plan for analyses, data, and observation requirements during the AMSD testing, currently slated for late calendar year 2002 to mid calendar year 2003. The paper includes anomaly resolution as gleaned by authors from similar analytical verification support of a previous large space telescope, then closes with draft of plans for parameter extrapolations, to form a well-verified portion of the integrated modeling being done for NGST performance predictions.

  12. Development of a magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance probe with a cryogenic detection system for sensitivity enhancement.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Takashi; Hioka, Katsuya; Fujioka, Koji; Takegoshi, K

    2008-04-01

    A novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe for high-resolution solid-state NMR has been developed. In this probe, temperature of the detection coil is kept at cryogenic temperature (approximately 12 K) for sensitivity enhancement, which is achieved not only by suppression of thermal noise but also by increment of a Q factor of the coil. A marked feature of this probe is that a sample rotating at magic angle is thermally isolated from the cryogenic system in order to realize high-resolution solid-state NMR measurement at various sample temperatures. We call this system as cryocoil magic-angle spinning (cryocoil MAS). (1)H MAS NMR with the coil temperature of approximately 20 K was successfully observed for solid adamantane rotating at room temperature, and signal-to-noise increment due to this cryocoil approach was confirmed.

  13. Control and materials characterization System for 6T Superconducting Cryogen Free Magnet Facility at IUAC, New Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutt, R. N.; Meena, D. K.; Kar, S.; Soni, V.; Nadaf, A.; Das, A.; Singh, F.; Datta, T. S.

    2017-02-01

    A system for carrying out automatic experimental measurements of various electrical transport characteristics and their relation to magnetic fields for samples mounted on the sample holder on a Variable Temperature Insert (VTI) of the Cryogen Free Superconducting Magnet System (CFMS) has been developed. The control and characterization system is capable of monitoring, online plotting and history logging in real-time of cryogenic temperatures with the Silicon (Si) Diode and Zirconium Oxy-Nitride sensors installed inside the magnet facility. Electrical transport property measurements have been automated with implementation of current reversal resistance measurements and automatic temperature set-point ramping with the parameters of interest available in real-time as well as for later analysis. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) based system is user friendly to facilitate operations. An ingenious electronics for reading Zirconium Oxy-Nitride temperature sensors has been used. Price to performance ratio has been optimized by using in house developed measurement techniques mixed with specialized commercial cryogenic measurement / control equipment.

  14. Cryogenic Propellant Densification Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewart, R. O.; Dergance, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Ground and vehicle system requirements are evaluated for the use of densified cryogenic propellants in advanced space transportation systems. Propellants studied were slush and triple point liquid hydrogen, triple point liquid oxygen, and slush and triple point liquid methane. Areas of study included propellant production, storage, transfer, vehicle loading and system requirements definition. A savings of approximately 8.2 x 100,000 Kg can be achieved in single stage to orbit gross liftoff weight for a payload of 29,484 Kg by utilizing densified cryogens in place of normal boiling point propellants.

  15. The analysis of the transient pressure response of the shuttle EPS-ECS cryogenic tanks with external pressurization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. E.; Patterson, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of transient pressures in externally pressurized cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen tanks was conducted and the effects of design variables on pressure response determined. The analysis was conducted with a computer program which solves the compressible viscous flow equations in two-dimensional regions representing the tank and external loop. The external loop volume, thermal mass, and heat leak were the dominant design variables affecting the system pressure response. No significant temperature stratification occurred in the fluid contained in the tank.

  16. Shuttle cryogenics supply system. Optimization study. Volume 5 B-2, part 1: Appendix programmers manual for math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An appendix to the programmers manual for the mathematical model pertaining to the design of cryogenic supply systems for spacecraft is presented. The program listing was produced using the EXEC-8 LISTALL processor which lists a file in alphabetical order. Since the processor does not differentiate between subroutines, functions, and procedure definition processors, each subprogram has been relabeled to clearly identify the type of symbolic listing.

  17. Comparative study of differential flow and cryogenic modulators comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography systems for the detailed analysis of light cycle oil.

    PubMed

    Semard, G; Gouin, C; Bourdet, J; Bord, N; Livadaris, V

    2011-05-27

    The modulator is the key point of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). This interface ensures the sampling and transfer of the sample from the first to the second dimension. Many systems based on different principles have been developed. However, to our knowledge, almost only cryogenic modulators are used in the petroleum industry. Nevertheless cryogenic fluids represent some disadvantages in term of safety, cost and time consuming. This paper reports a comparative study between differential flow and cryogenic liquid modulators for the detailed analysis of hydrocarbons in middle distillates type light cycle oil (LCO). Optimization of geometrical dimensions of a set of columns was carried out on the differential flow modulator system in order to reproduce the quality of separation of cryogenic modulation. Then a comparative study was investigated on sensibility and resolution (separation space and peak capacity) between the two systems.

  18. Optical Detection Of Cryogenic Leaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyett, Lynn M.

    1988-01-01

    Conceptual system identifies leakage without requiring shutdown for testing. Proposed device detects and indicates leaks of cryogenic liquids automatically. Detector makes it unnecessary to shut equipment down so it can be checked for leakage by soap-bubble or helium-detection methods. Not necessary to mix special gases or other materials with cryogenic liquid flowing through equipment.

  19. Thermal System Verification and Model Validation for NASA's Cryogenic Passively Cooled James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Keith; Cleveland, Paul E.; Glazer, Stu; Thompson, Shaun

    2005-01-01

    A thorough and unique thermal verification and model validation plan has been developed for NASA s James Webb Space Telescope. The JWST observatory consists of a large deployed aperture optical telescope passively cooled to below 50 Kelvin along with a suite of several instruments passively and actively cooled to below 37 Kelvin and 7 Kelvin, respectively. Passive cooling to these extremely low temperatures is made feasible by the use of a large deployed high efficiency sunshield and an orbit location a! !he L2 Lagrange pin!. Another enabling feature is the scale or size of the observatory that allows for large radiator sizes that are compatible with the expected power dissipation of the instruments and large format Mercury Cadmium Telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays. This passive cooling concept is simple, reliable, and mission enabling when compared to the alternatives of mechanical coolers and stored cryogens. However, these same large scale observatory features, which make passive cooling viable, also prevent the typical flight configuration fully-deployed thermal balance test that is the keystone to most space missions thermal verification plan. JWST is simply too large in its deployed configuration to be properly thermal balance tested in the facilities that currently exist. This reality, when combined with a mission thermal concept with little to no flight heritage, has necessitated the need for a unique and alternative approach to thermal system verification and model validation. This paper describes the thermal verification and model validation plan that has been developed for JWST.

  20. Design, life testing, and future designs of cryogenic hydride refrigeration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. A.; Golben, P. M.

    At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory a complete hydride refrigerator system has accumulated > 1000 h at 29 K or below (14 K minimum). At ERGENICS, a metal hydride compressor, without an attached cryogenic section, operated successfully for 35 000 cycles (5800 h). Component testing on check valves, hydride particle size, and JT expansion valves has shown negligible degradation after years of service or accelerated life. With electrical or solar heating, a combined charcoal and hydride refrigerator required power of ≈ 400 W to produce 1 W of liquid hydrogen cooling or 600 W to produce 1 W of 10 K cooling. Possible long-life additional stages to reach 4 K include adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration, helium desorption, or helium compressors with JT refrigeration. The efficiency for 10 K refrigeration is considerably better than any other mechanical refrigerator and the design is by far the simplest. Due to the lack of moving parts, its lifetime is projected to be many years, possibly decades, and there is virtually no associated magnetic field or vibration.

  1. Ion-beam sputtered amorphous silicon films for cryogenic precision measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Peter G.; Martin, Iain W.; Craig, Kieran; Hough, James; Robie, Raymond; Rowan, Sheila; Abernathy, Matt R.; Pershing, Teal; Penn, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Thermal noise resulting from the mechanical loss of multilayer dielectric coatings is expected to impose a limit to the sensitivities of precision measurement systems used in fundamental and applied science. In the case of gravitational wave astronomy, future interferometric gravitational wave detectors are likely to operate at cryogenic temperatures to reduce such thermal noise and ameliorate thermal loading effects, with the desirable thermomechanical properties of silicon making it an attractive mirror substrate choice for this purpose. For use in such a precision instrument, appropriate coatings of low thermal noise are essential. Amorphous silicon (a -Si ) deposited by e-beam and other techniques has been shown to have low mechanical loss. However, to date, the levels of mechanical and optical loss for a -Si when deposited by ion-beam sputtering (the technique required to produce amorphous mirrors of the specification for gravitational wave detector mirrors) are unknown. In this paper results from measurements of the mechanical loss of a series of IBS a -Si films are presented which show that reductions are possible in coating thermal noise of a factor of 1.5 at 120 K and 2.1 at 20 K over the current best IBS coatings (alternating stacks of silica and titania-doped tantala), with further reductions feasible under appropriate heat treatments.

  2. Integrated system modeling analysis of a cryogenic multi-cell deflecting-mode cavity resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Young-Min; Church, Michael

    2013-09-01

    A deflecting mode cavity is the integral element for six-dimensional phase-space beam control in bunch compressors and emittance transformers at high energy beam test facilities. RF performance of a high-Q device is, however, highly sensitive to operational conditions, in particular in a cryo-cooling environment. Using analytic calculations and RF simulations, we examined cavity parameters and deflecting characteristics of TM110,π mode of a 5 cell resonator in a liquid nitrogen cryostat, which has long been used at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector (A0PI). The sensitivity analysis indicated that the cavity could lose 30%-40% of deflecting force due to defective input power coupling accompanying non-uniform field distribution across the cells with 40 ˜ 50 MeV electron beam and 70-80 kW klystron power. Vacuum-cryomodules of the 5 cell cavity are planned to be installed at the Fermilab Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator facility. Comprehensive modeling analysis integrated with multi-physics simulation tools showed that RF loading of 1 ms can cause a ˜5 K maximum temperature increase, corresponding to a ˜4.3 μm/ms deformation and a 1.32 MHz/K maximum frequency shift. The integrated system modeling analysis will improve design process of a high-Q cavity with more accurate prediction of cryogenic RF performance under a high power pulse operation.

  3. Operational characteristics of the J-PARC cryogenic hydrogen system for a spallation neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Tatsumoto, Hideki; Ohtsu, Kiichi; Aso, Tomokazu; Kawakami, Yoshihiko; Teshigawara, Makoto

    2014-01-29

    The J-PARC cryogenic hydrogen system provides supercritical hydrogen with the para-hydrogen concentration of more than 99 % and the temperature of less than 20 K to three moderators so as to provide cold pulsed neutron beams of a higher neutronic performance. Furthermore, the temperature fluctuation of the feed hydrogen stream is required to be within ± 0.25 K. A stable 300-kW proton beam operation has been carried out since November 2012. The para-hydrogen concentrations were measured during the cool-down process. It is confirmed that para-hydrogen always exists in the equilibrium concentration because of the installation of an ortho-para hydrogen convertor. Propagation characteristics of temperature fluctuation were measured by temporarily changing the heater power under off-beam condition to clarify the effects of a heater control for thermal compensation on the feed temperature fluctuation. The experimental data gave an allowable temperature fluctuation of ± 1.05 K. It is clarified through a 286-kW and a 524-kW proton beam operations that the heater control would be applicable for the 1-MW proton beam operation by extrapolating from the experimental data.

  4. Dynamic Control System Performance during Commissioning of the Space Technology 7-Disturbance Reduction System Experiment of LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Oscar; Maghami, Peiman; O’Donnell, James R., Jr.; Ziemer, John; Romero-Wolf, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) launched aboard the European Space Agencys LISA Pathfinder spacecraft on December 3, 2015, after more than a decade in development. DRS consists of three prima-ry components: an Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU), Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters, and Dynamic Control System (DCS) algorithms implemented on the IAU. During the portions of the mission in which the DRS was under control, the DCS was responsible for controlling the spacecraft and the free-floating test masses that were part of the LISA Test Package. The commissioning period was originally divided into two periods: before propulsion separation and after pro-pulsion separation. A recommissioning period was added after an anomaly oc-curred in the thruster system. The paper will describe the activities used to com-mission DRS, present results from the commissioning of the DCS and the re-commissioning activities performed after the thruster anomaly.

  5. Design of a scanning gate microscope for mesoscopic electron systems in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator.

    PubMed

    Pelliccione, M; Sciambi, A; Bartel, J; Keller, A J; Goldhaber-Gordon, D

    2013-03-01

    We report on our design of a scanning gate microscope housed in a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator with a base temperature of 15 mK. The recent increase in efficiency of pulse tube cryocoolers has made cryogen-free systems popular in recent years. However, this new style of cryostat presents challenges for performing scanning probe measurements, mainly as a result of the vibrations introduced by the cryocooler. We demonstrate scanning with root-mean-square vibrations of 0.8 nm at 3 K and 2.1 nm at 15 mK in a 1 kHz bandwidth with our design. Using Coulomb blockade thermometry on a GaAs/AlGaAs gate-defined quantum dot, we demonstrate an electron temperature of 45 mK.

  6. Testing the performance of a cryogenic visualization system on thermal counterflow by using hydrogen and deuterium solid tracers.

    PubMed

    La Mantia, M; Chagovets, T V; Rotter, M; Skrbek, L

    2012-05-01

    An experimental apparatus has been designed to analyze by visualization cryogenic flows of liquid (4)He and consequently address unresolved problems of quantum turbulence. The newly implemented flow visualization setup is described and its specific features discussed. Thermal counterflow experiments have been performed and the motion of solid hydrogen and deuterium tracers studied by using the particle tracking velocimetry technique in order to probe the system capabilities. It is shown that the obtained results are consistent with the two-fluid model describing the behavior of superfluid (4)He. A number of technical and fundamental issues, such as particles' aggregation, role of rotating particles in counterflow and evidence of non-Gaussian distribution of tracers' velocities, are also discussed. The apparatus appears to be well-suited to the task of analyzing cryogenic flows and potentially capable of obtaining new results stimulating further understanding of the underlying physics.

  7. Cryogenically cooled low-noise amplifier for radio-astronomical observations and centimeter-wave deep-space communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdovin, V. F.; Grachev, V. G.; Dryagin, S. Yu.; Eliseev, A. I.; Kamaletdinov, R. K.; Korotaev, D. V.; Lesnov, I. V.; Mansfeld, M. A.; Pevzner, E. L.; Perminov, V. G.; Pilipenko, A. M.; Sapozhnikov, B. D.; Saurin, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    We report a design solution for a highly reliable, low-noise and extremely efficient cryogenically cooled transmit/receive unit for a large antenna system meant for radio-astronomical observations and deep-space communications in the X band. We describe our design solution and the results of a series of laboratory and antenna tests carried out in order to investigate the properties of the cryogenically cooled low-noise amplifier developed. The transmit/receive unit designed for deep-space communications (Mars missions, radio observatories located at Lagrangian point L2, etc.) was used in practice for communication with live satellites including "Radioastron" observatory, which moves in a highly elliptical orbit.

  8. Cryogenic safety aspect of the low -$\\beta$ magnest systems at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    SciTech Connect

    Darve, C.; /Fermilab

    2010-07-01

    The low-{beta} magnet systems are located in the LHC insertion regions around the four interaction points. They are the key elements in the beams focusing/defocusing process and will allow proton collisions at a luminosity of up to 10{sup 34}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. Large radiation dose deposited at the proximity of the beam collisions dictate stringent requirements for the design and operation of the systems. The hardware commissioning phase of the LHC was completed in the winter of 2010 and permitted to validate this system safe operation. This paper presents the analysis used to qualify and quantify the safe operation of the low-{beta} magnet systems in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the first years of operation.

  9. The Trading Post System on the Navajo Reservation. Staff Report to the Federal Trade Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Trade Commission, Los Angeles, CA.

    Since the late 19th century, trading posts have been a prominant feature in Navajo economic life. Today, due to geographic isolation and an absence of economic alternatives, many Navajos are still dependent upon trading posts. This report of a Federal Trade Commission (FTC) investigation details the system on the Navajo Reservation, including the…

  10. The Ownership and Control of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission's EDGAR System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, James Packard

    1993-01-01

    Describes the EDGAR (Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval) system developed for the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for SEC disclosure filings. Ownership and control of the database, hardware, and software is considered; the Information Industry Association position is described; and the need for greater public access to…

  11. The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers with superconducting electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-12-01

    The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issue that has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the market place. Even though the performance of many of the superconducting circuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement for cryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a serious disadvantage. This paper discusses the process of refrigerating superconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers. Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency and reliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. A comparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load and using heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed for monitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

  12. Commission Review of New Academic Programs Proposed by the Public Higher Education Systems, 2002 to 2004. Commission Report 04-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The California Postsecondary Education Commission is statutorily responsible for reviewing and commenting on the need for new degree and certificate programs proposed by the public higher education systems. This report summarizes the results of approximately 100 independent reviews conducted between 2002 and 2004. The long-range academic plans of…

  13. The integration of liquid cryogen cooling and cryocoolers withsuperconducting electronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-07-09

    The need for cryogenic cooling has been a critical issuethat has kept superconducting electronic devices from reaching the marketplace. Even though the performance of many of the superconductingcircuits is superior to silicon electronics, the requirement forcryogenic cooling has put the superconducting devices at a seriousdisadvantage. This report discusses the process of refrigeratingsuperconducting devices with cryogenic liquids and small cryocoolers.Three types of cryocoolers are compared for vibration, efficiency, andreliability. The connection of a cryocooler to the load is discussed. Acomparison of using flexible copper straps to carry the heat load andusing heat pipe is shown. The type of instrumentation needed formonitoring and controlling the cooling is discussed.

  14. Automated sample exchange and tracking system for neutron research at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rix, J E; Weber, J K R; Santodonato, L J; Hill, B; Walker, L M; McPherson, R; Wenzel, J; Hammons, S E; Hodges, J; Rennich, M; Volin, K J

    2007-01-01

    An automated system for sample exchange and tracking in a cryogenic environment and under remote computer control was developed. Up to 24 sample "cans" per cycle can be inserted and retrieved in a programed sequence. A video camera acquires a unique identification marked on the sample can to provide a record of the sequence. All operations are coordinated via a LABVIEW program that can be operated locally or over a network. The samples are contained in vanadium cans of 6-10 mm in diameter and equipped with a hermetically sealed lid that interfaces with the sample handler. The system uses a closed-cycle refrigerator (CCR) for cooling. The sample was delivered to a precooling location that was at a temperature of approximately 25 K, after several minutes, it was moved onto a "landing pad" at approximately 10 K that locates the sample in the probe beam. After the sample was released onto the landing pad, the sample handler was retracted. Reading the sample identification and the exchange operation takes approximately 2 min. The time to cool the sample from ambient temperature to approximately 10 K was approximately 7 min including precooling time. The cooling time increases to approximately 12 min if precooling is not used. Small differences in cooling rate were observed between sample materials and for different sample can sizes. Filling the sample well and the sample can with low pressure helium is essential to provide heat transfer and to achieve useful cooling rates. A resistive heating coil can be used to offset the refrigeration so that temperatures up to approximately 350 K can be accessed and controlled using a proportional-integral-derivative control loop. The time for the landing pad to cool to approximately 10 K after it has been heated to approximately 240 K was approximately 20 min.

  15. Suitability of commercially available laboratory cryogenic refrigerators to support shipboard electro-optical systems in the 10 - 77 Kelvin region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, R. G.; Byrd, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    The primary development of cryogenically cooled infrared systems was accomplished by FLIR systems designed for airborne, passive night vision. Essential to the development of these FLIR systems was a family of closed cycle refrigerators which had to meet a limited envelope requirement, utilize a nonlubricated compressor module, and be light in weight. Closed cycle refrigerators accomplished the same cooling function, they use modified oil lubricated reciprocating compressors which are limited in their axis of orientation to an angle of approximately 15-20 degrees maximum from horizon.

  16. Suitability of commercially available laboratory cryogenic refrigerators to support shipboard electro-optical systems in the 10 - 77 Kelvin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, R. G.; Byrd, E. A.

    1983-12-01

    The primary development of cryogenically cooled infrared systems was accomplished by FLIR systems designed for airborne, passive night vision. Essential to the development of these FLIR systems was a family of closed cycle refrigerators which had to meet a limited envelope requirement, utilize a nonlubricated compressor module, and be light in weight. Closed cycle refrigerators accomplished the same cooling function, they use modified oil lubricated reciprocating compressors which are limited in their axis of orientation to an angle of approximately 15-20 degrees maximum from horizon.

  17. Cool Down Experiences with the SST-1 Helium Cryogenics System before and after Current Feeders System Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R.; Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Tank, J.; Mahesuriya, G.; Sonara, D.; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Garg, A.; Bairagi, N.; Christian, D.; Patel, K.; Shah, P.; Nimavat, H.; Sharma, R.; Patel, J. C.; Gupta, N. C.; Prasad, U.; Sharma, A. N.; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    The SST-1 machine comprises a superconducting magnet system (SCMS), which includes TF and PF magnets. In order to charge the SCMS, we need superconducting current feeders consisting of SC feeders and vapor cooled current leads (VCCLs). We have installed all 10 (+/-) pairs of VCCLs for the TF and PF systems. While conducting initial engineering validation of the SST-1 machine, our prime objective was to produce circular plasma using only the TF system. During the SST-1 campaign I to VI, we have to stop the PF magnets cooling in order to get the cryo- stable conditions for current charging of the TF magnets system. In that case, the cooling of the PF current leads is not essential. It has been also observed that after aborting the PF system cooling, there was a limited experimental window of TF operation. Therefore, in the recent SST-1 campaign-VII, we removed the PF current leads (9 pairs) and kept only single (+/-) pair of the 10,000 A rated VCCLs to realize the charging of the TF system for the extended window of operation. We have observed a better cryogenic stability in the TF magnets after modifications in the CFS. In this paper, we report the comparison of the cool down performance for the SST-1 machine operation before and after modifications of the current feeders system.

  18. Performance of the primary mirror center-of-curvature optical metrology system during cryogenic testing of the JWST Pathfinder telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Wells, Conrad; Olczak, Gene; Waldman, Mark; Whitman, Tony; Cosentino, Joseph; Connolly, Mark; Chaney, David; Telfer, Randal

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) primary mirror (PM) is 6.6 m in diameter and consists of 18 hexagonal segments, each 1.5 m point-to-point. Each segment has a six degree-of-freedom hexapod actuation system and a radius of-curvature (RoC) actuation system. The full telescope will be tested at its cryogenic operating temperature at Johnson Space Center. This testing will include center-of-curvature measurements of the PM, using the Center-of-Curvature Optical Assembly (COCOA) and the Absolute Distance Meter Assembly (ADMA). The COCOA includes an interferometer, a reflective null, an interferometer-null calibration system, coarse and fine alignment systems, and two displacement measuring interferometer systems. A multiple-wavelength interferometer (MWIF) is used for alignment and phasing of the PM segments. The ADMA is used to measure, and set, the spacing between the PM and the focus of the COCOA null (i.e. the PM center-of-curvature) for determination of the ROC. The performance of these metrology systems was assessed during two cryogenic tests at JSC. This testing was performed using the JWST Pathfinder telescope, consisting mostly of engineering development and spare hardware. The Pathfinder PM consists of two spare segments. These tests provided the opportunity to assess how well the center-of-curvature optical metrology hardware, along with the software and procedures, performed using real JWST telescope hardware. This paper will describe the test setup, the testing performed, and the resulting metrology system performance. The knowledge gained and the lessons learned during this testing will be of great benefit to the accurate and efficient cryogenic testing of the JWST flight telescope.

  19. Performance of the Primary Mirror Center-of-curvature Optical Metrology System During Cryogenic Testing of the JWST Pathfinder Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Wells, Conrad; Olczak, Gene; Waldman, Mark; Whitman, Tony; Cosentino, Joseph; Connolly, Mark; Chaney, David; Telfer, Randal

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) primary mirror (PM) is 6.6 m in diameter and consists of 18 hexagonal segments, each 1.5 m point-to-point. Each segment has a six degree-of-freedom hexapod actuation system and a radius-of-curvature (RoC) actuation system. The full telescope will be tested at its cryogenic operating temperature at Johnson Space Center. This testing will include center-of-curvature measurements of the PM, using the Center-of-Curvature Optical Assembly (COCOA) and the Absolute Distance Meter Assembly (ADMA). The COCOA includes an interferometer, a reflective null, an interferometer-null calibration system, coarse & fine alignment systems, and two displacement measuring interferometer systems. A multiple-wavelength interferometer (MWIF) is used for alignment & phasing of the PM segments. The ADMA is used to measure, and set, the spacing between the PM and the focus of the COCOA null (i.e. the PM center-of-curvature) for determination of the ROC. The performance of these metrology systems was assessed during two cryogenic tests at JSC. This testing was performed using the JWST Pathfinder telescope, consisting mostly of engineering development & spare hardware. The Pathfinder PM consists of two spare segments. These tests provided the opportunity to assess how well the center-of-curvature optical metrology hardware, along with the software & procedures, performed using real JWST telescope hardware. This paper will describe the test setup, the testing performed, and the resulting metrology system performance. The knowledge gained and the lessons learned during this testing will be of great benefit to the accurate & efficient cryogenic testing of the JWST flight telescope.

  20. WE-AB-201-00: Treatment Planning System Commissioning and QA

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    Treatment planning systems (TPS) are a cornerstone of modern radiation therapy. Errors in their commissioning or use can have a devastating impact on many patients. To support safe and high quality care, medical physicists must conduct efficient and proper commissioning, good clinical integration, and ongoing quality assurance (QA) of the TPS. AAPM Task Group 53 and related publications have served as seminal benchmarks for TPS commissioning and QA over the past two decades. Over the same time, continuing innovations have made the TPS even more complex and more central to the clinical process. Medical goals are now expressed in terms of the dose and margins around organs and tissues that are delineated from multiple imaging modalities (CT, MR and PET); and even temporally resolved (i.e., 4D) imaging. This information is passed on to optimization algorithms to establish accelerator movements that are programmed directly for IMRT, VMAT and stereotactic treatments. These advances have made commissioning and QA of the TPS much more challenging. This education session reviews up-to-date experience and guidance on this subject; including the recently published AAPM Medical Physics Practice Guideline (MPPG) #5 “Commissioning and QA of Treatment Planning Dose Calculations: Megavoltage Photon and Electron Beams”. Treatment Planning System Commissioning and QA: Challenges and Opportunities (Greg Salomons) This session will provide some key background and review publications describing prominent incidents relating to TPS commissioning and QA. Traditional approaches have been hardware and feature oriented. They aim to establish a functional configuration and establish specifications for regular testing of features (like dose calculation) to assure stable operation and detect failures. With the advent of more complex systems, more patient-specific testing has also been adopted. A number of actual TPS defects will be presented along with heuristics for identifying similar

  1. WE-AB-201-01: Treatment Planning System Commissioning and QA: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Salomons, G.

    2015-06-15

    Treatment planning systems (TPS) are a cornerstone of modern radiation therapy. Errors in their commissioning or use can have a devastating impact on many patients. To support safe and high quality care, medical physicists must conduct efficient and proper commissioning, good clinical integration, and ongoing quality assurance (QA) of the TPS. AAPM Task Group 53 and related publications have served as seminal benchmarks for TPS commissioning and QA over the past two decades. Over the same time, continuing innovations have made the TPS even more complex and more central to the clinical process. Medical goals are now expressed in terms of the dose and margins around organs and tissues that are delineated from multiple imaging modalities (CT, MR and PET); and even temporally resolved (i.e., 4D) imaging. This information is passed on to optimization algorithms to establish accelerator movements that are programmed directly for IMRT, VMAT and stereotactic treatments. These advances have made commissioning and QA of the TPS much more challenging. This education session reviews up-to-date experience and guidance on this subject; including the recently published AAPM Medical Physics Practice Guideline (MPPG) #5 “Commissioning and QA of Treatment Planning Dose Calculations: Megavoltage Photon and Electron Beams”. Treatment Planning System Commissioning and QA: Challenges and Opportunities (Greg Salomons) This session will provide some key background and review publications describing prominent incidents relating to TPS commissioning and QA. Traditional approaches have been hardware and feature oriented. They aim to establish a functional configuration and establish specifications for regular testing of features (like dose calculation) to assure stable operation and detect failures. With the advent of more complex systems, more patient-specific testing has also been adopted. A number of actual TPS defects will be presented along with heuristics for identifying similar

  2. Biological Applications of Cryogenic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S

    2003-12-03

    High energy resolution and broadband efficiency are enabling the use of cryogenic detectors in biological research. Two areas where they have found initial application are X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). In synchrotron-based fluorescence-detected XAS cryogenic detectors are used to examine the role of metals in biological systems by measuring their oxidation states and ligand symmetries. In time-of-flight mass spectrometry cryogenic detectors increase the sensitivity for biomolecule detection and identification for masses above {approx}50 kDa, and thus enable TOF-MS on large protein complexes or even entire viruses. More recently, cryogenic detectors have been proposed as optical sensors for fluorescence signals from biomarkers. We discuss the potential for cryogenic detectors in biological research, as well as the challenges the technology faces.

  3. Commissioning and initial experience with the first clinical gantry-mounted proton therapy system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tianyu; Sun, Baozhou; Grantham, Kevin; Rankine, Leith; Cai, Bin; Goddu, Sreekrishna M; Santanam, Lakshmi; Knutson, Nels; Zhang, Tiezhi; Reilly, Michael; Bottani, Beth; Bradley, Jeffrey; Mutic, Sasa; Klein, Eric E

    2016-03-08

    The purpose of this study is to describe the comprehensive commissioning process and initial clinical experience of the Mevion S250 proton therapy system, a gantry-mounted, single-room proton therapy platform clinically implemented in the S. Lee Kling Proton Therapy Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, MO, USA. The Mevion S250 system integrates a compact synchrocyclotron with a C-inner gantry, an image guidance system and a 6D robotic couch into a beam delivery platform. We present our commissioning process and initial clinical experience, including i) CT calibration; ii) beam data acquisition and machine characteristics; iii) dosimetric commissioning of the treatment planning system; iv) validation through the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core credentialing process, including irradiations on the spine, prostate, brain, and lung phantoms; v) evaluation of localization accuracy of the image guidance system; and vi) initial clinical experience. Clinically, the system operates well and has provided an excellent platform for the treatment of diseases with protons.

  4. Computer controlled vent and pressurization system. [of launch vehicle cryogenic propellant tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cieslewicz, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper illustrates how the Centaur space launch vehicle airborne computer, which was primarily used to perform guidance, navigation, and sequencing tasks, was further used to monitor and control inflight pressurization and venting of the cryogenic propellant tanks. Computer software flexibility also provided a failure detection and correction capability necessary to adopt and operate redundant hardware techniques and enhance the overall vehicle reliability.

  5. Evaluation of Static Mixer Flow Enhancements for Cryogenic Viscous Compressor Prototype for ITER Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Robert C; Baylor, Larry R; Meitner, Steven J; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Ha, Tam T; Morrow, Michael; Biewer, Theodore M; Rasmussen, David A; Hechler, Michael P; Pearce, R.J.H.; Dremel, M.; Boissin, Jean Claude

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (50 to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype

  6. Evaluation of static mixer flow enhancements for cryogenic viscous compressor prototype for ITER vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duckworth, Robert C.; Baylor, Larry R.; Meitner, Steven J.; Combs, Stephen K.; Ha, Tam; Morrow, Michael; Biewer, T.; Rasmussen, David A.; Hechler, Michael P.; Pearce, Robert J. H.; Dremel, Mattias; Boissin, J.-C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (up to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype.

  7. Evaluation of static mixer flow enhancements for cryogenic viscous compressor prototype for ITER vacuum system

    SciTech Connect

    Duckworth, Robert C.; Baylor, Larry R.; Meitner, Steven J.; Combs, Stephen K.; Ha, Tam; Morrow, Michael; Biewer, T.; Rasmussen, David A.; Hechler, Michael P.; Pearce, Robert J. H.; Dremel, Mattias; Boissin, J.-C.

    2014-01-29

    As part of the U.S. ITER contribution to the vacuum systems for the ITER fusion project, a cryogenic viscous compressor (CVC) is being designed and fabricated to cryopump hydrogenic gases in the torus and neutral beam exhaust streams and to regenerate the collected gases to controlled pressures such that they can be mechanically pumped with controlled flows to the tritium reprocessing facility. One critical element of the CVC design that required additional investigation was the determination of flow rates of the low pressure (up to 1000 Pa) exhaust stream that would allow for complete pumping of hydrogenic gases while permitting trace levels of helium to pass through the CVC to be pumped by conventional vacuum pumps. A sub-scale prototype test facility was utilized to determine the effectiveness of a static mixer pump tube concept, which consisted of a series of rotated twisted elements brazed into a 2-mm thick, 5-cm diameter stainless steel tube. Cold helium gas flow provided by a dewar and helium transfer line was used to cool the exterior of the static mixer pump tube. Deuterium gas was mixed with helium gas through flow controllers at different concentrations while the composition of the exhaust gas was monitored with a Penning gauge and optical spectrometer to determine the effectiveness of the static mixer. It was found that with tube wall temperatures between 6 K and 9 K, the deuterium gas was completely cryopumped and only helium passed through the tube. These results have been used to design the cooling geometry and the static mixer pump tubes in the full-scale CVC prototype.

  8. Remote, PCM-controlled, multi-channel radio frequency FM telemetry system for cryogenic wind tunnel application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamond, John K.

    1989-01-01

    A telemetry system used in the NASA-Langley cryogenic transonic wind tunnel to obtain rotational strain and temperature data is described. The system consists of four FM transmitters allowing for a remotely controlled PCM combination. A rotating four-contact mercury slip-ring is used as an interface between the fixed and rotating mechnical structures. Over 60 channels of data on the main fan disk and blade structures have been obtained. These data are studied to verify computer predictions and mechanical life. A series of block diagrams are included.

  9. 76 FR 11277 - In the Matter of Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Collaborative System Products and Components Thereof (II); Notice of Commission..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain collaborative system products...

  10. Dynamic Control System Performance during Commissioning of the Space Technology 7-Disturbance Reduction System Experiment of LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Oscar; Maghami, Peiman; O’Donnell, James R., Jr.; Ziemer, John; Romero-Wolf, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) launched aboard the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder spacecraft on December 3, 2015, after more than a decade in development. DRS consists of three primary components: an Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU), Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters, and Dynamic Control System (DCS) algorithms implemented on the IAU. During the portions of the mission in which the DRS was under control, the DCS was responsible for controlling the spacecraft and the free-floating test masses that were part of the LISA Test Package. The commissioning period was originally divided into two periods: before propulsion separation and after propulsion separation. A recommissioning period was added after an anomaly occurred in the thruster system. The paper will describe the activities used to commission DRS, present results from the commissioning of the DCS and the recommissioning activities per-formed after the thruster anomaly.

  11. The LNS computer control system for the commissioning of the superconducting cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, A.; Cuttone, G.; Giove, D.; Amato, A.; Cavallaro, S.; Pulvirenti, S.

    1996-02-01

    The K = 800 CSC (Catania Superconducting Cyclotron) is now under commissioning at LNS [1]. The accelerator was computer controlled since its first test. The control system has been realized according to a three level architecture. At field level, field-bus networks have been used as interface between the control stations and each device to be controlled. The process level has been implemented using {386}/{486 PCs} as control stations, each one dedicated to an accelerator sub-system according to functional criteria for the intelligence distribution. The control stations communicate with the upper level by means of a local area network. The supervisor level consists of a Vax-Stations Cluster and a modular code, based on Dec Window Motif, has been developed as man-machine interface. Experience and improvements for an efficient commissioning of a fully computer controlled accelerator will be reported together with the performance obtained.

  12. Commissioning and operational results of the 12 GeV helium compression system at Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, Peter N.; Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Norton, Robert O.; Creel, Jonathan D.

    2015-12-01

    The new compressor system at Jefferson Lab (JLab) for the 12 GeV upgrade was commissioned in the spring of 2013 and incorporates many design changes, discussed in previous publications, to improve the operational range, efficiency, reliability and maintainability as compared to previous compressor skids used for this application. The 12 GeV helium compression system has five compressors configured with four pressure levels supporting three pressure levels in the new cold box. During compressor commissioning the compressors were operated independent of the cold box over a wide range of process conditions to verify proper performance including adequate cooling and oil removal. Isothermal and volumetric efficiencies over these process conditions for several built-involume ratios were obtained. This paper will discuss the operational envelope results and the modifications/improvements incorporated into the skids.

  13. Commissioning and operational results of the 12 GeV helium compression system at JLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Norton, R.; Creel, J.

    2015-12-01

    The new compressor system at Jefferson Lab (JLab) for the 12 GeV upgrade was commissioned in the spring of 2013 and incorporates many design changes, discussed in previous publications, to improve the operational range, efficiency, reliability and maintainability as compared to previous compressor skids used for this application. The 12 GeV helium compression system has five compressors configured with four pressure levels supporting three pressure levels in the new cold box. During compressor commissioning the compressors were operated independent of the cold box over a wide range of process conditions to verify proper performance including adequate cooling and oil removal. Isothermal and volumetric efficiencies over these process conditions for several built-involume ratios were obtained. This paper will discuss the operational envelope results and the modifications/improvements incorporated into the skids.

  14. Clinical implementation and rapid commissioning of an EPID based in-vivo dosimetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Ian M.; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; van Herk, Marcel

    2014-10-01

    Using an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) to perform in-vivo dosimetry is one of the most effective and efficient methods of verifying the safe delivery of complex radiotherapy treatments. Previous work has detailed the development of an EPID based in-vivo dosimetry system that was subsequently used to replace pre-treatment dose verification of IMRT and VMAT plans. Here we show that this system can be readily implemented on a commercial megavoltage imaging platform without modification to EPID hardware and without impacting standard imaging procedures. The accuracy and practicality of the EPID in-vivo dosimetry system was confirmed through a comparison with traditional TLD in-vivo measurements performed on five prostate patients. The commissioning time required for the EPID in-vivo dosimetry system was initially prohibitive at approximately 10 h per linac. Here we present a method of calculating linac specific EPID dosimetry correction factors that allow a single energy specific commissioning model to be applied to EPID data from multiple linacs. Using this method reduced the required per linac commissioning time to approximately 30 min. The validity of this commissioning method has been tested by analysing in-vivo dosimetry results of 1220 patients acquired on seven linacs over a period of 5 years. The average deviation between EPID based isocentre dose and expected isocentre dose for these patients was (-0.7  ±  3.2)%. EPID based in-vivo dosimetry is now the primary in-vivo dosimetry tool used at our centre and has replaced nearly all pre-treatment dose verification of IMRT treatments.

  15. PRESSURE FLUCTUATION BEHAVIOR IN THE CRYOGENIC HYDROGEN SYSTEM CAUSED BY A 100 kW PROTON BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Uehara, T.; Sakurayama, H.; Kawakami, Y.; Kato, T.; Hasegawa, S.; Futakawa, M.

    2010-04-09

    Supercritical hydrogen (1.5 MPa and around 20 K) has been selected as a moderator material for the intense spallation neutron source (JSNS) in J-PARC. The cryogenic hydrogen system provides the supercritical hydrogen for the moderators and removes the nuclear heating at the moderators, which is estimated to be 3.8 kW for a proton beam power of 1 MW. The pressure control system was designed to mitigate pressure fluctuation caused by suddenly turning a proton beam on and off, which is composed of a heater as an active controller for thermal compensation and an accumulator as a passive volume controller. A 109 kW proton beam was injected to the JSNS in December 2007. The pressure fluctuation behaviors were studied for the 109 kW proton beam operation. As soon as the proton beam was injected, the accumulator spontaneously started to constrict. The heater control succeeded in maintaining a constant heat load applied to the cryogenic hydrogen system. The pressure control system successfully reduced the pressure fluctuation within 6 kPa. It was confirmed that the pressure control system was effective.

  16. CRYOGENIC MAGNETS

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.; Taylor, C.E.

    1963-05-21

    A cryogenic magnet coil is described for generating magnetic fields of the order of 100,000 gauss with a minimum expenditure of energy lost in resistive heating of the coil inductors and energy lost irreversibly in running the coil refrigeration plant. The cryogenic coil comprises a coil conductor for generating a magnetic field upon energization with electrical current, and refrigeration means disposed in heat conductive relation to the coil conductor for cooling to a low temperature. A substantial reduction in the power requirements for generating these magnetic fields is attained by scaling the field generating coil to large size and particular dimensions for a particular conductor, and operating the coil at a particular optimum temperature commensurate with minimum overall power requirements. (AEC)

  17. Thermal performance of an integrated thermal protection system for long-term storage of cryogenic propellants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, R. L.; Boyle, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    It was demonstrated that cryogenic propellants can be stored unvented in space long enough to accomplish a Saturn orbiter mission after 1,200-day coast. The thermal design of a hydrogen-fluorine rocket stage was carried out, and the hydrogen tank, its support structure, and thermal protection system were tested in a vacuum chamber. Heat transfer rates of approximately 23 W were measured in tests to simulate the near-Earth portion of the mission. Tests to simulate the majority of the time the vehicle would be in deep space and sun-oriented resulted in a heat transfer rate of 0.11 W.

  18. Commissioning and benchmarking a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Andrew; Newton, Joseph; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: A 3D dosimetry system is described which consists of two parts: a radiochromic plastic dosimeter PRESAGE (which responds to absorbed dose with a linear change in optical-density) and the Duke large-field-of-view optical-CT scanner (DLOS). The DLOS/PRESAGE system has recently been commissioned and benchmarked for clinical use and, in particular, for verification and commissioning of complex radiation treatments. Methods: DLOS commissioning involved determining the dynamic range, spatial resolution, noise, temporal, and other characteristics of the light source and imaging components. Benchmarking tests were performed on the combined DLOS/PRESAGE system to establish baseline dosimetric performance. The tests consisted of delivering simple radiation treatments to PRESAGE dosimeters, and comparing the measured 3D relative dose distributions with the known gold standard. The gold standard distribution was obtained from machine beam-data or the treatment planning system (TPS). All studies used standardized procedures to ensure consistency. Results: For commissioning, isotropic spatial resolution was submillimeter (MTF > 0.5 for frequencies of 1.5 lp/mm) and the dynamic range was {approx}60 dB. Flood field uniformity was within 10% and stable after 45 min of warm-up. Stray-light is small, due to telecentricity, but even the residual can be removed through deconvolution by a point-spread-function. For benchmarking, the mean 3D passing NDD (normalized dose distribution) rate (3%, 3mm, 5% dose threshold) over the benchmark data sets was 97.3% {+-} 0.6% (range 96%-98%), which is on par with other planar dosimeters used in external beam radiation therapy indicating excellent agreement. Noise was low at <2% of maximum dose (4-12 Gy) for 2 mm reconstructions. The telecentric design was critical to enabling fast imaging with minimal stray-light artifacts. Conclusions: This work presents the first comprehensive benchmarking of a 3D dosimetry system for clinical use. The

  19. Mechanical and Thermal Characteristics of Insulation Materials for the KSTAR Magnet System at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Wooho; Lim, Bungsu; Kim, Myungkyu; Park, Hyunki; Kim, Keeman; Chu, Yong; Lee, Sangil

    2004-06-01

    The KSTAR(Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) superconducting magnet is electrically insulated by the composite material of epoxy resin and glass fiber (2.5 kV/mm) and Kapton (8 kV/mm). The insulation composite material of epoxy resin and glass fiber is prepared using a VPI (Vacuum Pressure Impregnation) process. The superconducting magnet is under mechanical stress caused by the large temperature difference between the operation temperature of the magnet and room temperature. The large electro-magnetic force during the operation of the magnet is also exerted on the magnet. Therefore, the characteristics of the insulation material at cryogenic temperatures are very important and the tensile stress and thermal expansion coefficient for the insulation materials of the KSTAR superconducting magnet are measured. This paper presents results on mechanical properties of the insulation material for KSTAR magnets, such as density, ultimate tensile stress and thermal contraction between room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.

  20. Adjustable mount for electro-optic transducers in an evacuated cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, Edward A., Jr. (Inventor); Haynes, David P. (Inventor); Jones, Howard C. (Inventor); Jones, Irby W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention is an adjustable mount for positioning an electro-optic transducer in an evacuated cryogenic environment. Electro-optic transducers are used in this manner as high sensitivity detectors of gas emission lines of spectroscopic analysis. The mount is made up of an adjusting mechanism and a transducer mount. The adjusting mechanism provided five degrees of freedom, linear adjustments and angular adjustments. The mount allows the use of an internal lens to focus energy on the transducer element thereby improving the efficiency of the detection device. Further, the transducer mount, although attached to the adjusting mechanism, is isolated thermally such that a cryogenic environment can be maintained at the transducer while the adjusting mechanism remains at room temperature. Radiation shields also are incorporated to further reduce heat flow to the transducer location.

  1. NASA Cryogenic Propellant Systems Technology Development and Potential Opportunities for Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the eCryo Team are traveling to France to meet with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) on the benchmarking of CFM (Cryogenic Fluids Management) analytical models the week of January 26th, 2015. Mike Meyer is representing the Agency and eCryo Project and will conduct a conversation to explore future work. This slide package (28 charts and 3 movies) requires approval via a 1676. ISS data in this chart set has been copied from public websites.

  2. Commissions of audit in Australia: health system privatisation directives and civil conscription protections.

    PubMed

    Colton, Caroline; Faunce, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The use of commissions of audit as vehicles to drive privatisation policy agendas in areas such as health service delivery has become popular with conservative federal and State governments. Such commissions have characteristically been established early in the terms of such governments with carefully planned terms of reference and membership. The policy directions they advocate, unlike election policies, have not come under the intense scrutiny, wide public debate or the opportunities for (dis)endorsement afforded by the electoral process. Governments do, however, anticipate and often accept recommendations from these reviews, and use them as justification to implement policy based on their findings. This highlights the power entrusted to review bodies and the risks to the public interest arising from limited public consultation. An example can be seen in the proposed privatisation of important aspects of Australia's public sector, particularly including those related to health systems delivery, currently entering a new iteration through the work of the National Commission of Audit appointed in October 2013. The NCA follows on from various State audit commissions which in recent years have directed the divestment of government responsibilities to the private and not-for-profit sectors. Through a discussion on the formation of policy frameworks by the NCA and the Queensland Commission of Audit, this column examines the ideological thrust of the commissions and how they synergise to produce a national directive on the future of public sector health services. The practical impacts on health service procurement and delivery in critical areas are examined, using the case of the federally contracted out medical service for asylum seekers and two hospitals in Western Australia, a State which is well advanced in the privatisation of public hospitals. The column then examines the release to the media early in the NCA's process of the submission to introduce a $6 general

  3. COMMISSIONING OF THE DIGITAL TRANSVERSE BUNCH-BY-BUNCH FEEDBACK SYSTEM FOR THE TLS.

    SciTech Connect

    HU, K.H.; KUO, C.H.; CHOU, P.J.; LEE, D.; HSU, S.Y.; CHEN, J.; WANG, C.J.; HSU, K.T.; KOBAYASHI, K.; NAKAMURA, T.; CHAO, A.W.; WENG, W.T.

    2006-06-26

    Multi-bunch instabilities degrade beam quality through increased beam emittance, energy spread and even beam loss. Feedback systems are used to suppress multi-bunch instabilities associated with the resistive wall of the beam ducts, cavity-like structures, and trapped ions. A new digital transverse bunch-by-bunch feedback system has recently been commissioned at the Taiwan Light Source, and has replaced the previous analog system. The new system has the advantages that it enlarges the tune acceptance and improves damping for transverse instability at high currents, such that top-up operation is achieved. After a coupled-bunch transverse instability was suppressed, more than 350 mA was successfully stored during preliminary commissioning. In this new system, a single feedback loop simultaneously suppresses both horizontal and vertical multi-bunch instabilities. Investigating the characteristics of the feedback loop and further improving the system performances are the next short-term goals. The feedback system employs the latest generation of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) processor to process bunch signals. Memory has been installed to capture up to 250 msec of bunch oscillation signal, considering system diagnostics suitable to support various beam physics studies.

  4. Commissioning of the LHC Low Level RF System Remote Configuration Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Van Winkle, Daniel; Fox, John; Mastorides, Themis; Rivetta, Claudio; Baudrenghien, Philippe; Butterworth, Andrew; Molendijk, John; /CERN

    2010-08-26

    The LHC Low Level RF system (LLRF) is a complex multi-loop system used to regulate the superconductive cavity gap voltage as well as to reduce the impedance presented by RF stations to the beam. The RF system can have a profound impact on the stability of the beam; a mis-configured RF system has the potential of causing longitudinal instabilities, beam diffusion and beam loss. To configure the RF station for operation, a set of parameters in the LLRF multi-loop system have to be defined. Initial system commissioning as well as ongoing operation requires a consistent method of computer based remote measurement and model-based design of each RF station feedback system. This paper describes the suite of Matlab tools used for configuring the LHC RF system during the start up in Nov2009-Feb2010. We present a brief overview of the tool, examples of commissioning results, and basics of the model-based design algorithms. This work complements our previous presentation, where the algorithms and methodology followed in the tools were described.

  5. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 33 - Proceedings of the Cryogenic Engineering Conference, Saint Charles, IL, June 14-18, 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, R. W. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Papers are presented on superconductivity applications including magnets, electronics, rectifiers, magnet stability, coil protection, and cryogenic techniques. Also considered are insulation, heat transfer to liquid helium and nitrogen, heat and mass transfer in He II, superfluid pumps, and refrigeration for superconducting systems. Other topics include cold compressors, refrigeration and liquefaction, magnetic refrigeration, and refrigeration for space applications. Papers are also presented on cryogenic applications, commercial cryogenic plants, the properties of cryogenic fluids, and cryogenic instrumentation and data acquisition.

  6. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost-effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  7. Cryogenic Fluid Transfer for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses current plans and issues for exploration that involve the use of cryogenic transfer. The benefits of cryogenic transfer to exploration missions are examined. The current state of the art of transfer technology is reviewed. Mission concepts of operation for exploration are presented, and used to qualitatively discuss the performance benefits of transfer. The paper looks at the challenges faced to implement a cryogenic transfer system and suggest approaches to address them with advanced development research. Transfer rates required for exploration are shown to have already been achieved in ground test. Cost effective approaches to the required on-orbit demonstration are suggested.

  8. LARP LHC 4.8 GHZ Schottky System Initial Commissioning with Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquinelli, Ralph J.; Jansson, Andreas; Jones, O.Rhodri; Caspers, Fritz; /CERN

    2011-03-18

    The LHC Schottky system consists for four independent 4.8 GHz triple down conversion receivers with associated data acquisition systems. Each system is capable of measuring tune, chromaticity, momentum spread in either horizontal or vertical planes; two systems per beam. The hardware commissioning has taken place from spring through fall of 2010. With nominal bunch beam currents of 10{sup 11} protons, the first incoherent Schottky signals were detected and analyzed. This paper will report on these initial commissioning results. A companion paper will report on the data analysis curve fitting and remote control user interface of the system. The Schottky system for the LHC was proposed in 2004 under the auspices of the LARP collaboration. Similar systems were commissioned in 2003 in the Fermilab Tevatron and Recycler accelerators as a means of measuring tunes noninvasively. The Schottky detector is based on the stochastic cooling pickups that were developed for the Fermilab Antiproton Source Debuncher cooling upgrade completed in 2002. These slotted line waveguide pickups have the advantage of large aperture coupled with high beam coupling characteristics. For stochastic cooling, wide bandwidths are integral to cooling performance. The bandwidth of slotted waveguide pickups can be tailored by choosing the length of the pickup and slot spacing. The Debuncher project covered the 4-8 GHz band with eight bands of pickups, each with approximately 500 MHz of bandwidth. For use as a Schottky detector, bandwidths of 100-200 MHz are required for gating, resulting in higher transfer impedance than those used for stochastic cooling. Details of hardware functionality are reported previously.

  9. Commissioning and quality assurance for a respiratory training system based on audiovisual biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guoqiang; Gopalan, Siddharth; Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Berger, Jonathan; Maxim, Peter G; Keall, Paul J

    2010-07-12

    A respiratory training system based on audiovisual biofeedback has been implemented at our institution. It is intended to improve patients' respiratory regularity during four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) image acquisition. The purpose is to help eliminate the artifacts in 4D-CT images caused by irregular breathing, as well as improve delivery efficiency during treatment, where respiratory irregularity is a concern. This article describes the commissioning and quality assurance (QA) procedures developed for this peripheral respiratory training system, the Stanford Respiratory Training (START) system. Using the Varian real-time position management system for the respiratory signal input, the START software was commissioned and able to acquire sample respiratory traces, create a patient-specific guiding waveform, and generate audiovisual signals for improving respiratory regularity. Routine QA tests that include hardware maintenance, visual guiding-waveform creation, auditory sounds synchronization, and feedback assessment, have been developed for the START system. The QA procedures developed here for the START system could be easily adapted to other respiratory training systems based on audiovisual biofeedback.

  10. Large Scale Testing of a Foam/Multilayer Insulation Thermal Control System (TCS) for Cryogenic Upper Stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Leon; Martin, James

    1998-01-01

    The development of high energy cryogenic upper stages is essential for the efficient delivery of large payloads to various destinations envisioned in future programs. A key element in such upper stages is cryogenic fluid management (CFM) advanced development/technology. Due to the cost of and limited opportunities for orbital experiments, ground testing must be employed to the fullest extent possible. Therefore, a system level test bed termed the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB), which is representative in size and shape (3 meter diameter by 3 meter long with a volume of 18 cubic meters) of a fully integrated space transportation vehicle liquid hydrogen propellant tank has been established. To date, upper stage studies have often baselined the foam/multilayer insulation (FMLI) combination concept; however, hardware experience with the concept is minimal and was therefore selected for the MHTB. The foam element (isofoam SS-1 171 with an average thickness of 3.5 centimeters) is designed to protect against ground hold/ascent flight environments, and allows for the use of a dry nitrogen purge as opposed to the more complex/heavy helium purge subsystem normally required with MLI in cryogenic applications. The MLI (45 layers of Double Aluminized Mylar with Dacron spacers) provides protection in the vacuum environment of space and is designed for an on-orbit storage period of 45 days. Several unique features were incorporated in the MLI concept and included: variable density MLI (reduces weight and radiation losses by changing the layer density), larger but fewer DAM perforations for venting during ascent to orbit (reduces radiation losses), and roll wrap installation of the MLI with a commercially established process to lower assembly man-hours and reduce seam heat leak. Thermal performance testing of the MHTB TCS was conducted during three test series conducted between September 1995 and May 1996. Results for the ground hold portion of the tests were as expected

  11. Neutron Yield Study of Direct-Drive, Low-Adiabat Cryogenic D2 Implosions on OMEGA Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S.X.; Radha, P.B.; Marozas, J.A.; Betti, R.; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R.S.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.H.; Epstein, R.; Goncharov, V.N.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Marshall, F.J.; McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.; Skupsky, S.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Elbaz, Y.; Shvarts, D.

    2009-11-17

    Neutron yields of direct-drive, low-adiabat (alpha ~~ 2 to 3) cryogenic D2 target implosions on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] have been systematically investigated using the two-dimensional (2D) radiation hydrodynamics code DRACO [P. B. Radha et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 056307 (2005)]. Low-mode (ell <- 12) perturbations, including initial target offset, ice-layer roughness, and laser-beam power imbalance, were found to be the primary source of yield reduction for thin-shell (5 um), low-alpha, cryogenic targets. The 2D simulations of thin-shell implosions track experimental measurements for different target conditions and peak laser intensities ranging from 2.5 x 10^14–6 x 10^14 W/cm^2. Simulations indicate that the fusion yield is sensitive to the relative phases between the target offset and the ice-layer perturbations. The results provide a reasonable good guide to understanding the yield degradation in direct-drive, low-adiabat, cryogenic, thin-shell-target implosions. Thick-shell (10 um) implosions generally give lower yield over clean than low-ell-mode DRACO simulation predictions. Simulations including the effect of laser-beam nonuniformities indicate that high-ell-mode perturbations caused by laser imprinting further degrade the neutron yield of thick-shell implosions. To study ICF compression physics, these results suggest a target specification with a <-30 um offset and ice-roughness of sigma_rms < 3 um are required.

  12. Modelling and Model-Based-Designed PID Control of the JT-60SA Cryogenic System Using the Simcryogenics Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, F.; Bonnay, P.; Hoa, C.; Mahoudeau, G.; Rousset, B.

    2017-02-01

    This papers deals with the Japan Torus-60 Super Advanced fusion experiment JT-60SA cryogenic system. A presentation of the JT-60SA cryogenic system model, from 300K to 4.4K -using the Matlab/Simulink/Simscape Simcryogenics library- will be given. As a first validation of our modelling strategy, the obtained operating point will be compared with the one obtained from HYSYS simulations. In the JT60-SA tokamak, pulsed heat loads are expected to be coming from the plasma and must be handled properly, using both appropriate refrigerator architecture and appropriate control model, to smooth the heat load. This paper presents model-based designed PID control schemes to control the helium mass inside the phase separator. The helium mass inside the phase separator as been chosen to be the variable of interest in the phase separator since it is independent of the pressure which can vary from 1 bar to 1.8 bar during load smoothing. Dynamics simulations will be shown to assess the legitimacy of the proposed strategy. This work is partially supported through the French National Research Agency (ANR), task agreement ANR-13-SEED-0005.

  13. Pressure Rise Analysis When Hydrogen Leak from a Cracked Pipe in the Cryogenic Hydrogen System in J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Hasegawa, S.; Ushijima, I.; Kato, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Ikeda, Y.

    2006-04-01

    As one of the main experimental facilities in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), an intense spallation neutron source (JSNS) driven by a 1 MW proton beam is being constructed. Cryogenic hydrogen at supercritical pressure is selected as a moderator. The total nuclear heating at the moderators is estimated to be a 3.7 kW. A hydrogen system to cool the moderators has been designed. The most severe off-normal event for the cryogenic hydrogen system is considered to be a hydrogen leak when a pipe cracks. In such a case, the hydrogen must be discharged to atmosphere quickly and safely. An analytical code that simulates the pressure change during a hydrogen leak was developed. A pressure rise analysis for various sized cracks was performed, and the required sizes for relief devices were determined. A safety valve size is φ42.7 mm and a rupture disc for vacuum layer should have a diameter of 37.1 mm, respectively.

  14. Cryogenic processes and equipment - 1984; Proceedings of the Fifth Intersociety Cryogenics Symposium, New Orleans, LA, December 9-14, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerney, P. J.; Chatterjee, N.; Crawford, D. B.; El-Masri, M.

    The topics of cryogenic processes for LNG and EOR, cryogenic refrigerators, components for cryogenic systems, liquid hydrogen as a fuel, cryogenic processes and equipment for large systems, and cryogenic thermodynamics and heat transfer are discussed. The papers include analysis of process efficiency for baseload LNG production, process efficiency considerations for nitrogen rejection units, design and performance analysis of gas sorption compressors, cryogenic vacuum pump design, and the hydrogen-fueled hydrogen transport rail system (a NASA proposal). In addition, refueling considerations for liquid hydrogen-fueled vehicles, variable oxygen supply systems, and orientation dependence to liquid helium heat transfer from a cable-in-channel configuration are considered.

  15. Commissioning of a new timestamp-based data acquisition system for the DRAGON recoil mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Gregory; Akers, Charlie; Connolly, Devin; Fallis, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Dave; Olchanski, Konstantin; Ruiz, Chris

    2014-09-01

    The DRAGON recoil mass separator at TRIUMF exists to study radiative proton and alpha capture reactions, which are important in a variety of astrophysical scenarios. DRAGON experiments require a data acquisition system that can be triggered on either reaction product (γ ray or heavy ion), with the additional requirement of being able to promptly recognize coincidence events in an online environment. To this end, we have designed and implemented a new data acquisition system for DRAGON which consists of two independently triggered readouts. Events from both systems are recorded with timestamps from a 20 MHz clock that are used to tag coincidences in the earliest possible stage of the data analysis. In this talk, I will discuss the design, implementation, and commissioning of the new DRAGON data acquisition system, focusing specifically on the trigger logic, coincidence reconstruction algorithm and live time considerations. I will also discuss the results of an experiment commissioning the new system, which measured the strength of the Ecm = 1113 keV resonance in the 20Ne(p , γ) 21Na radiative proton capture reaction.

  16. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  17. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-29

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

  18. Tough cryogenic alloys from the Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Cr systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schanfein, M. J.; Zackay, V. F.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    By adjusting composition, metastable gamma (austenite) and epsilon (hexagonal) martensite may be retained in Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Cr alloys and used to impact toughness through the TRIP mechanism. The resulting alloys have excellent toughness at cryogenic temperatures. The best alloys obtained to date are: Fe-20Mn, with sigma (sub y) = 79ksi and K sub IC = 275ksi square root of (in) at 77 K, and Fc-16Mn-8Cr, with sigma sub y = 85ksi and K sub IC = 72ksi square root of (in) at 77 K.

  19. Polymeric compositions and their method of manufacture. [forming filled polymer systems using cryogenics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, B. G.; Landel, R. F. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    Filled polymer compositions are made by dissolving the polymer binder in a suitable sublimable solvent, mixing the filler material with the polymer and its solvent, freezing the resultant mixture, and subliming the frozen solvent from the mixture from which it is then removed. The remaining composition is suitable for conventional processing such as compression molding or extruding. A particular feature of the method of manufacture is pouring the mixed solution slowly in a continuous stream into a cryogenic bath wherein frozen particles of the mixture result. The frozen individual particles are then subjected to the sublimation.

  20. Fiber-microsphere system at cryogenic temperatures toward cavity QED using diamond NV centers.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Hideaki; Asai, Takeshi; Toubaru, Kiyota; Fujiwara, Masazumi; Sasaki, Keiji; Takeuchi, Shigeki

    2010-07-05

    The coupling of a microsphere resonator to a tapered fiber was demonstrated at cryogenic temperatures (8 - 13 K) and investigated with a probe laser light whose frequency around the zero phonon line of nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond (638 nm). For this purpose, a liquid-helium-flow cryostat with a large sample chamber is developed and a resonance dip with a Q of 2 x 10(6) is observed. The resonance frequency and the coupling condition are found to be stable for a period of one hour.

  1. Cryogenic Technology for Superconducting Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoyama, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting devices such as magnets and cavities are key components in the accelerator field for increasing the beam energy and intensity, and at the same time making the system compact and saving on power consumption in operation. An effective cryogenic system is required to cool and keep the superconducting devices in the superconducting state stably and economically. The helium refrigeration system for application to accelerators will be discussed in this review article. The concept of two cooling modes -- the liquefier and refrigerator modes -- will be discussed in detail because of its importance for realizing efficient cooling and stable operation of the system. As an example of the practical cryogenic system, the TRISTAN cryogenic system of KEK Laboratory will be treated in detail and the main components of the cryogenic system, including the high-performance multichannel transfer line and liquid nitrogen circulation system at 80K, will also be discussed. In addition, we will discuss the operation of the cryogenic system, including the quench control and safety of the system. The satellite refrigeration system will be discussed because of its potential for wide application in medium-size accelerators and in industry.

  2. Heat release in the cryogenic system of a superconducting integrated detector and the influence of heat on its operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinev, N. V.; Koshelets, V. P.

    2013-03-01

    Heat release in the cryogenic system of a subterahertz-range superconducting integrated detector at ≈4.2 K is studied, and the influence of the released heat on its main characteristics is estimated. The detector chip mounted on a silicon lens is connected to a bias board by aluminum wires 25 μm in diameter, which are fixed by ultrasonic bonding. They are necessary for setting a bias current through the working components of the detector and represent an integral part of the system. The contact resistance between the wires and contact pads of the microchip is measured. The contact resistance is found to considerably exceed the resistance of the aluminum wire and, hence, makes a major contribution to heat release in the system. A "multipoint contact with one wire" technique is suggested. Tests show its efficiency: the contact resistance decreases considerably compared with the standard approach.

  3. Oxygen chemisorption cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a chemisorption compressor cryogenic refrigerator which employs oxygen to provide cooling at 60 to 100 K. The invention includes dual vessels containing an oxygen absorbent material, alternately heated and cooled to provide a continuous flow of high pressure oxygen, multiple heat exchangers for precooling the oxygen, a Joule-Thomson expansion valve system for expanding the oxygen to partially liquefy it and a liquid oxygen pressure vessel. The primary novelty is that, while it was believed that once oxygen combined with an element or compound the reaction could not reverse to release gaseous oxygen, in this case oxygen will indeed react in a reversible fashion with certain materials and will do so at temperatures and pressures which make it practical for incorporation into a cryogenic refrigeration system.

  4. Commissioning the new high power rf system for the AGS with high intensity beam

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.M.; Ciardullo, D.J.; Deng, D.P; Hayes, T.; Onillon, E.; Otis, A.; Sanders, R.T.; Zaltsman, A.

    1994-08-01

    A new high power rf system has been installed in the AGS in order to raise the beam loading limit to beyond 6 {times} 10{sup 13} protons per pulse. The old system was limited to 2.2 {times} 10{sup l3} ppp by: available real power, multi-loop instability, and transient beam loading during batch filling from the Booster. The key components of the new system are: new power amplifiers in the tunnel using the Thomson-CSF TH573 300kW tetrode, rf feedback around the power stage, and reduction of the 10 cavities` R/Q by 1.8 by additional gap capacitors. Commissioning of the new rf system with high intensity beam is described. The intensity goal for the 1994 running period is 4 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp. To date, 3.7 {times} 10{sup 13} ppp has been achieved.

  5. Commissioning of helium compression system for the 12 GeV refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Norton, R.; Creel, J.; Arenius, D.

    2014-01-01

    The compressor system used for the Jefferson Lab (JLab) 12 GeV upgrade, also known as the CHL-2 compressor system, incorporates many design changes to the typical compressor skid design to improve the efficiency, reliability and maintainability from previous systems. These include a considerably smaller bulk oil separator design that does not use coalescing elements/media, automated control of cooling oil injection based on the helium discharge temperature, a helium after-cooler design that is designed for and promotes coalescing of residual oil and a variable speed bearing oil pump to reduce oil bypass. The CHL-2 helium compression system has five compressors configured with four pressure levels that supports the three pressure levels in the cold box. This paper will briefly review several of these improvements and discuss some of the recent commissioning results.

  6. Cryogenics and the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kittel, Peter; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Current plans within NASA involve extending the human exploration of space from low earth orbit into the solar system, with the first human exploration of Mars presently planned in 2011. Integral to all hum Mars mission phases is cryogenic fluid management. Cryogenic fluids will be required both as propellant and for In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). Without safe and efficient cryogen storage human Mars missions will not be possible. Effective control and handling of cryogenic fluids is the key to affordable Mars missions, and advancing active thermal control technology is synergistic with all of NASA's exploration initiatives and with existing and future instrument cooling programs, including MTPE and Origins. Present mission scenarios for human exploration require cryogenic propellant storage for up to 1700 days and for up to 60 metric tons. These requirements represent increases of an order of magnitude over previous storage masses and lifetimes. The key cryogenic terminology areas to be addressed in human Mars missions are long-term propellant storage, cryogenic refrigeration, cryogenic liquefaction, and zero gravity fluid management. Long-term storage for the thermal control of cryogenic propellants is best accomplished with a mix of passive and active technologies. Passive technologies such as advanced multilayer insulation (MLI) concepts will be combined with the development of active coolers (cryogenic refrigerators). Candidates for long-life active cooling applications include Reverse Turbo-Brayton, Stirling, and Pulse-Tube coolers. The integration of passive and active technologies will form a hybrid system optimized to minimize the launch mass while preserving the cryogenic propellants. Since cryogenic propellants are the largest mass that Mars missions must launch from earth, even a modest reduction in the percentage of propellant carried results in a significant weight saving. This paper will present a brief overview of cryogenic fluid management

  7. Some characteristics of dielectric materials at cryogenic temperatures for HVDC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1981-02-01

    This dielectric study was performed as part of the dc Superconducting Power Transmission Line Program. During a screening test program, the dc breakdown strength of 12 dielectric materials, in sheet form, was determined at 12 K under 1.38 MPa of helium pressure, the operating conditions of the cable design. Tests were also made with four of these materials impregnated with mineral oil. Further dc breakdown tests were performed on five of these dielectric materials at various temperatures (12 to 298 K) and pressures (0.69 and 1.38 MPa) of helium. Two sets of experiments were performed on cellulose paper impregnated with distilled water at 83 K and 1.38 MPa of helium pressure. Five dielectric materials were then selected for tests as cable samples with dc and impulse voltages at 12 K and 1.38 MPa of helium. Data are presented on these tests, as well as on those of the electrical conductivity of four dielectric materials at cryogenic temperatures, and of the surface flashover strength of an epoxy bushing at 12 K and 298 K under 0.69 MPa and 1.38 MPa of helium pressures. The characteristics of the dielectric behavior at cryogenic temperatures are discussed.

  8. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer cryogenic support system lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Brett; Thompson, Brian; Schick, Scott

    2010-08-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a JPL-managed MIDEX mission to perform an infrared all-sky survey. The WISE instrument, developed by the Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), is a 40-cm cryogenically-cooled telescope which includes a cryogenic scan mirror and four infrared focal planes (2-HgCdTe, 2-Si:As). Cooling the instrument to the desired temperatures is accomplished by a two-stage, solid hydrogen cryostat, provided by Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center (LMATC). Required temperatures for the instrument optics and Si:As focal planes are <13 K and <7.6 K respectively. To reduce heat loads, the vacuum shell is isolated from the spacecraft bus via composite struts and radiatively cooled to <200 K. The telescope aperture is protected from on-orbit environmental loads via a two-stage radiatively cooled aperture shade. WISE was successfully launched into a 530 km, polar orbit on December 14, 2009, beginning a 10-month mission to survey the entire sky in the infrared.

  9. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Pipe Sizing for Solenoid / VLPC Cryogenic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russ; Sakla, Steve; /Fermilab

    1995-02-20

    The addition of a solenoid magnet and VLPC detectors are two of a number of upgrades which will occur at the D-Zero detector in the near future. Both of these upgrades will require cryogenic services for their operation. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the pipe/tube size choices made for these cryogenic services. This was done by calculating the required flow rates to cool down the magnet and VLPC's over a reasonable length of time and to determine the required piping sizes for a given allowable pressure drop. The pressure drops for steady state conditions also are addressed. The cool down requirements drove the pipe size decision. The raw engineering calculations that were done for this project are included as an appendix to this note. The body of this document discusses the methods and results of the calculations. As a quick summary, Figures 1 and 2 show the size selections. Tables 1 and 2 give a more detailed size and description of each section of Solenoid and VLPC transfer line.

  10. Design, development and testing of a cryogenic temperature heat pipe for the icicle system. [breadboard models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimmer, D. S.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical model was formulated for a cryogenic heat pipe, and thermal and transport analyses were developed to predict the performance characteristics of various heat pipe designs. These analyses permitted optimization of various design parameters. A series of four breadboard heat pipes were fabricated and tested to provide inputs such as internal film coefficients, minimum capillary radii, and wick permeabilities which are required for the analyses. The results of instrumentation, charging, and testing of cryogenic heat pipes were applied to the prototype heat pipes. After a thorough design analysis of three potential heat pipe wicks (slab, artery, and axial groove), the first two were chosen for application to two prototype heat pipes. Detailed designs were made of the two heat pipes and the units were fabricated. Tests were conducted which verified the integrity and safety margin of the design to withstand the internal pressure at ambient temperature and fatigue of thermal cycling. During the acceptance testing in the vacuum chamber, no difficulty was experienced in priming the slab-wick heat pipe and it met the performance design requirements. The artery-wick heat pipe would not prime with nitrogen working fluid for any test conditions.

  11. Continuous-Reading Cryogen Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barone, F. E.; Fox, E.; Macumber, S.

    1984-01-01

    Two pressure transducers used in system for measuring amount of cryogenic liquid in tank. System provides continuous measurements accurate within 0.03 percent. Sensors determine pressure in liquid and vapor in tank. Microprocessor uses pressure difference to compute mass of cryogenic liquid in tank. New system allows continuous sensing; unaffected by localized variations in composition and density as are capacitance-sensing schemes.

  12. Cryogenics at the European Spallation Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisend, J. G., II; Arnold, P.; Hees, J. Fydrych. W.; Jurns, J. M.; Wang, X. L.

    Cryogenics plays an important role at the European Spallation Source, a world class neutron science center, currently under construction in Lund, Sweden. Three principal applications of cryogenics are found at ESS. The SRF cryomodules of the ESS proton linac require cooling at 2 K, 4.5 K and 40 K; the hydrogenmoderator surrounding the target that produces neutrons, requires cooling via 16.5 K helium and LHe is required for many of the scientific instruments. These needs will be met by a set of three cryogenic refrigeration/liquefaction plants and an extensive cryogenic distribution system. Significant progress has been made on the ESS cryogenic system in preparation for the expected first beam on target in 2019. This work includes: funding of industry studies for the accelerator cryoplant, preliminary design of the cryogenic distribution system, investigation of possible in kind contributors and release of the invitation to tender for the accelerator cryoplant.This paper describes the requirements, design solutions and current status of the ESS cryogenic system. The planned recovery of waste heat from the cryogenic plants, a unique aspect of ESS, is described. The procurement of the cryogenic system, expected to be done via a combination of purchase via competitive bids and in kind contributions is also discussed.

  13. Cryogenic Selective Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Nurge, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Under our NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) project we have theoretically demonstrated a novel selective surface that reflects roughly 100 times more solar radiation than any other known coating. If this prediction holds up under experimental tests it will allow cryogenic temperatures to be reached in deep space even in the presence of the sun. It may allow LOX to be carried to the Moon and Mars. It may allow superconductors to be used in deep space without a refrigeration system.

  14. Advances of cryogenics in aeronautics and astronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Lixin

    1992-02-01

    The application principles of cryogenic techniques in aerospace are discussed in detail. Recent advances are addressed, including those made in China. These include: (1) characteristics and applications of rockets propelled by cryogenic liquid hydrogen (LOH)/LOX fuels and those propelled by a new generation of cryogenic liquid propellants; (2) characteristics and status of LOH/LOX-fueled and LNG-fueled aircraft; (3) principles and working envelopes of cryogenic wind tunnels performing aerodynamic experiments at full-scale Re; (4) the main application fields of cryogenics in space technology and their requirements regarding refrigeration temperature and load; (5) the application of cryogenics to fields such as cooling reentry flight vehicles, space simulation facilities, environmental control systems for flight vehicles, and life support systems.

  15. Advances in cryogenic engineering. Volume 29

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of superconductivity are discussed, taking into account the thermal performance of the MFTF magnets, the design and testing of a large bore superconducting magnet test facility, the development of a 12-tesla multifilamentary Nb3Sn magnet, a superconducting magnet for solid NMR studies, advanced applications of superconductors, transition and recovery of a cryogenically stable superconductor, and finite-difference modeling of the cryostability of helium II cooled conductor packs. Other topics explored are related to resource availability, heat exchangers, heat transfer to He I, liquid nitrogen, heat transfer in He II, refrigeration for superconducting and cryopump systems, refrigeration of cryogenic systems, refrigeration and liquefaction, dilution and magnetic refrigeration, cryocoolers, refrigeration for space applications, cryogenic applications, cryogenic instrumentation and data acquisition, and properties of fluids. Attention is given to biomedical applications of cryogenics in China, long-term cryogen storage in space, and a passive orbital disconnect strut.

  16. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 2: Cryogenic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Detailed designs were made for three earth orbital propulsion systems; (1) the space shuttle (integrated) OMS/RCS, (2) the space shuttle (dedicated) OMS (LO2), and (3) the space tug. The preferred designs from the integrated OMS/RCS were used as the basis for the flight test article design. A plan was prepared that outlines the steps, cost, and schedule required to complete the development of the prototype DSL tank and feedline (LH2 and LO2) systems. Ground testing of a subscale model using LH2 verified the expulsion characteristics of the preferred DSL designs.

  17. Test and Commissioning of 82.6 GHz ECRH system on SST-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, D.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Shukla, B. K.; Chattopadhyay, Prabal; Srinivas, Y. S. S.; Khilar, P. L.; Kushwah, Mahesh; Rajnish, Kumar; Sugandhi, Ritesh; Singh, Manoj; Babu, Rajan; P, Jatin; G, Agrajit; Biswas, Prabal; D, Pragnesh; Kadia, B. R.; V, Chetan; Patel, Harshida; P, Dharmesh; Kirit, P.; Parmar, K. G.; Makwana, A. R.; Harsha, M.; Soni, Jignesh; Yadav, Vipin; Shmelev, M.; Belousov, V.; Kurbatov, V.; Belov, Yu; Tai, E.

    2005-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system will play an important role in plasma formation, heating and current drive in the Superconducting Steady state Tokamak (SST-1). Commissioning activity of the machine has been initiated. Many of the sub-systems have been prepared for the first plasma discharge. A radial and a top port have been allotted for low field side (LFS) and high field side (HFS) launch of O and X- modes in the plasma. The system is based on a gyrotron source operating at a frequency of 82.6±0.1GHz (GLGD-82.6/0.2) and capable of delivering 0.2 MW / 1000s with 17% duty cycle. The transmission line consisting of ~15 meters length 63.5mm corrugated wave guide, DC break, wave guide switch, mitre bend, polariser, bellows that terminates with a vacuum barrier CVD window. A beam launching system used to steer the microwave beam in the plasma volume is connected between the end of the transmission line and the tokamak radial and top ports. A VME based real time data acquisition and control (DAC) system is used for monitoring, acquisition and control. Hard-wired interlock operates a rail-gap based crowbar system in less than 10µs under any fault condition. Burn patterns are recorded at various stages in the transmission line. The gyrotron is tested for ~200 kW / 1000s operation on a water dummy load. Transmission line is tested at various power levels for long pulse operation. The paper highlights the experimental results of successful commissioning of the system.

  18. Commissioning of a multiple-frequency modulation smoothing by spectral dispersion demonstration system on OMEGA EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruschwitz, B. E.; Kelly, J. H.; Dorrer, C.; Okishev, A. V.; Waxer, L. J.; Balonek, G.; Begishev, I. A.; Bittle, W.; Consentino, A.; Cuffney, R.; Hill, E.; Marozas, J. A.; Moore, M.; Roides, R. G.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2013-02-01

    A one-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) demonstration system for smoothing focal-spot nonuniformities using multiple modulation frequencies (multi-FM SSD) was commissioned on one long-pulse beamline of OMEGA EP—the first use of such a system in a high-energy laser. System models of frequency modulation-to-amplitude modulation (FM-to-AM) conversion in the OMEGA EP beamline and final optics were used to develop an AM budget. The AM budget in turn provided a UV power limit of 0.85 TW, based on accumulation of B-integral in the final optics. The front end of the demonstration system utilized a National Ignition Facility preamplifier module (PAM) with a custom SSD grating inserted into the PAM's multipass amplifier section. The dispersion of the SSD grating was selected to cleanly propagate the dispersed SSD bandwidth through various pinholes in the system while maintaining sufficient focal-spot smoothing performance. A commissioning plan was executed that systematically introduced the new features of the demonstration system into OMEGA EP. Ultimately, the OMEGA EP beamline was ramped to the UV power limit with various pulse shapes. The front-end system was designed to provide flexibility in pulse shaping. Various combinations of pickets and nanosecond-scale drive pulses were demonstrated, with multi-FM SSD selectively applied to portions of the pulse. Analysis of the dispersion measured by the far-field diagnostics at the outputs of the infrared beamline and the frequency-conversion crystals indicated that the SSD modulation spectrum was maintained through both the beamline and the frequency-conversion process. At the completion of the plan, a series of equivalent-target-plane measurements with distributed phase plates installed were conducted that confirmed the expected timeintegrated smoothing of the focal spot.

  19. Design and performance of a modular low-radioactivity readout system for cryogenic detectors in the CDMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerib, D. S.; Barnes, P. D., Jr.; Brink, P. L.; Cabrera, B.; Clarke, R. M.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Golwala, S. R.; Huber, M. E.; Kurylowicz, M.; Mandic, V.; Martinis, J. M.; Meunier, P.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Nam, S. W.; Perillo-Isaac, M.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Schnee, R. W.; Seitz, D. N.; Shutt, T.; Smith, G. W.; Stockwell, W. K.; Sundqvist, K. M.; White, S.

    2008-07-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment employs ultra-cold solid-state detectors to search for rare events resulting from WIMP-nucleus scattering. An innovative detector packaging and readout system has been developed to meet the unusual combination of requirements for: low temperature, low radioactivity, low energy threshold, and large channel count. Features include use of materials with low radioactivity such as multi-layer KAPTON laminates for circuit boards; immunity to microphonic noise via a vacuum coaxial wiring design, manufacturability, and modularity. The detector readout design had to accommodate various electronic components which have to be operated in close proximity to the detector as well maintaining separate individual temperatures (ranging from 600 mK to 150 K) in order to achieve optimal noise performance. The paper will describe the general electrical, thermal, and mechanical designs of the CDMS readout system, as well as presenting the theoretical and measured performance of the detector readout channels.

  20. Imaging new transient nanostructures using a microfluidic chip integrated with a controlled environment vitrification system for cryogenic transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinkee; Jha, Ashish K; Bose, Arijit; Tripathi, Anubhav

    2008-11-18

    Nanostructures (vesicles, micelles, bilayers) are important in nanomedicine and biochemical processes. They are agents for encapsulation and eventual release of drugs, flavors, and fragrances. The structural transition from micelles to vesicles through disk-like intermediate states has been demonstrated previously. Here, we disclose a new route for the micelle-vesicle transition, where micelles aggregate to first form long tubules that become unstable, and break up into vesicles. A simple theory, based on energy principles, is presented to explain the tubule-vesicle transition. Observation of this new tubular intermediate state has been facilitated by the development of an integrated microfluidic chip/cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) unit. Although this transition has been observed in a specific amphiphilic system where micellar solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (HDBS) are mixed to form vesicles, this new tool can be applied broadly to study transient structures in nanoscale systems under the very controlled conditions provided by microfluidics.

  1. Investigation of cryogenic rupture disc design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keough, J. B.; Oldland, A. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rupture disc designs of both the active (command actuated) and passive (pressure ruptured) types were evaluated for performance characteristics at cryogenic temperatures and for capability to operate in a variety of cryogens, including gaseous and liquid fluorine. The test results, coupled with information from literature and industry searches, were used to establish a statement of design criteria and recommended practices for application of rupture discs to cryogenic rocket propellant feed and vent systems.

  2. GeMS: Gemini Mcao System: current status and commissioning plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccas, Maxime; Rigaut, François; Gratadour, Damien; d'Orgeville, Céline; Bec, Matthieu; Daruich, Felipe; Perez, Gabriel; Arriagada, Gustavo; Bombino, Stacy; Carter, Chris; Cavedoni, Chas; Collao, Fabian; Collins, Paul; Diaz, Pablo; Ebbers, Angelic; Galvez, Ramon; Gausachs, Gaston; Hardash, Steve; James, Eric; Karewicz, Stan; Lazo, Manuel; Maltes, Diego; Mouser, Ron; Rogers, Rolando; Rojas, Roberto; Sheehan, Michael; Trancho, Gelys; Vergara, Vicente; Vucina, Tomislav

    2008-07-01

    The Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics project was launched in April 1999 to become the Gemini South AO facility in Chile. The system includes 5 laser guide stars, 3 natural guide stars and 3 deformable mirrors optically conjugated at 0, 4.5 and 9km to achieve near-uniform atmospheric compensation over a 1 arc minute square field of view. Sub-contracted systems with vendors were started as early as October 2001 and were all delivered by July 2007, but for the 50W laser (due around September 2008). The in-house development began in January 2006, and is expected to be completed by the end of 2008 to continue with integration and testing (I&T) on the telescope. The on-sky commissioning phase is scheduled to start during the first half of 2009. In this general overview, we will first describe the status of each subsystem with their major requirements, risk areas and achieved performance. Next we will present our plan to complete the project by reviewing the remaining steps through I&T and commissioning on the telescope, both during day-time and at night-time. Finally, we will summarize some management activities like schedules, resources and conclude with some lessons learned.

  3. Optimization and testing of the Beck Engineering free-piston cryogenic pump for LNG systems on heavy vehicles. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Douglas S.

    2003-01-10

    Task 7 was completed by reaching Milestone 7: Test free piston cryogenic pump (FPCP) in Integrated LNG System. Task 4: Alternative Pump Design was also completed. The type of performance of the prototype LNG system is consistent with requirements of fuel systems for heavy vehicles; however, the maximum flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is significantly less than the total flow requirement. The flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is determined by a cavitation limit for the FPCP.

  4. Vibrational measurement for commissioning SRF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, M.W.; Leibfritz, J.; Martinez, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Schappert, W.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The commissioning of two cryomodule components is underway at Fermilab's Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Accelerator Test Facility. The research at this facility supports the next generation high intensity linear accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC), a new high intensity injector (Project X) and other future machines. These components, Cryomodule No.1 (CM1) and Capture Cavity II (CC2), which contain 1.3 GHz cavities are connected in series in the beamline and through cryogenic plumbing. Studies regarding characterization of ground motion, technical and cultural noise continue. Mechanical transfer functions between the foundation and critical beamline components have been measured and overall system displacement characterized. Baseline motion measurements given initial operation of cryogenic, vacuum systems and other utilities are considered.

  5. Cryogenic treatment of gas

    DOEpatents

    Bravo, Jose Luis [Houston, TX; Harvey, III, Albert Destrehan; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX

    2012-04-03

    Systems and methods of treating a gas stream are described. A method of treating a gas stream includes cryogenically separating a first gas stream to form a second gas stream and a third stream. The third stream is cryogenically contacted with a carbon dioxide stream to form a fourth and fifth stream. A majority of the second gas stream includes methane and/or molecular hydrogen. A majority of the third stream includes one or more carbon oxides, hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2, one or more sulfur compounds, or mixtures thereof. A majority of the fourth stream includes one or more of the carbon oxides and hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 2. A majority of the fifth stream includes hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3 and one or more of the sulfur compounds.

  6. CRYOGENIC DEWAR

    DOEpatents

    Chamberlain, W.H.; Maseck, H.E.

    1964-01-28

    This patent relates to a dewar for storing cryogenic gase and is of the type having aii inner flask surrounded by a vacuum jacket and having a vent spout through which evaporating gas escapes. Heretofore substantial gas loss has resulted from the radiation of heat towards the flask from the warmer outer elements of the dewar. In this invention, the mask is surrounded by a thermally conducting shield which is disposed in the vacuum space between the flask and the outer elements of the dewar. The shield contacts only the vent spout, which is cooled by the evaporating gas, and thus is maintained at a temperature very close to that of the flask itself. Accordingly, heat radiated toward the flask is intercepted and conducted to the evaporating gas rather than being re-radiated towards the hask. In a liquid helium dewar of typical configniration the mention reduces the boil-off rate by approximately one-half.(AEC)

  7. Cryogenic Technology Development for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chato, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the status and findings of different cryogenic technology research projects in support of the President s Vision for Space Exploration. The exploration systems architecture study is reviewed for cryogenic fluid management needs. It is shown that the exploration architecture is reliant on the cryogenic propellants of liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen and liquid methane. Needs identified include: the key technologies of liquid acquisition devices, passive thermal and pressure control, low gravity mass gauging, prototype pressure vessel demonstration, active thermal control; as well as feed system testing, and Cryogenic Fluid Management integrated system demonstration. Then five NASA technology projects are reviewed to show how these needs are being addressed by technology research. Projects reviewed include: In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot; Experimentation for the Maturation of Deep Space Cryogenic Refueling Technology; Cryogenic Propellant Operations Demonstrator; Zero Boil-Off Technology Experiment; and Propulsion and Cryogenic Advanced Development. Advances are found in the areas of liquid acquisition of liquid oxygen, mass gauging of liquid oxygen via radio frequency techniques, computational modeling of thermal and pressure control, broad area cooling thermal control strategies, flight experiments for resolving low gravity issues of cryogenic fluid management. Promising results are also seen for Joule-Thomson pressure control devices in liquid oxygen and liquid methane and liquid acquisition of methane, although these findings are still preliminary.

  8. Space Transportation System Technology Symposium. Volume 5; Operations, Maintenance, and Safety (Including Cryogenic Systems)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The prospect of undertaking a reusable launch vehicle development led the NASA Office of Manned Space Flight (OMSF) to request the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) to organize and direct a program to develop the technology that would aid in selecting the best system alternatives and that would support the ultimate development of an earth-to-orbit shuttle. Such a Space Transportation System Technology Program has been initiated. OART, OMSF, and NASA Flight and Research Centers with the considerable inputs of Department of Defense personnel have generated the program through the efforts of several Technology Working Groups and a Technology Steering Group. Funding and management of the recommended efforts is being accomplished through the normal OART and OMSF line management channels. The work is being done in government laboratories and under contract with industry and universities. Foreign nations have been invited to participate in this work as well. Substantial funding, from both OART and OMSF, was applied during the second half of fiscal year 1970. The Space Transportation System Technology Symposium held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, July 15-17, 1970, was the first public report on that program. The Symposium goals were to consider the technology problems, their status, and the prospective program outlook for the benefit of the industry, government, university, and foreign participants considered to be contributors to the program. In addition, it offered an opportunity to identify the responsible individuals already engaged in the program. The Symposium sessions were intended to confront each presenter with his technical peers as listeners, and this, I believe, was substantially accomplished. Because of the high interest in the material presented, and also because the people who could edit the output are already deeply involved in other important tasks, we have elected to publish the material essentially as it was presented

  9. Overview and Status of the 12 GeV Cryogenic System Upgrade At Jlab

    SciTech Connect

    Dana Arenius, Jonathan Creel, Venkatarao Ganni, Kelly Dixon, Peter Knudsen

    2010-04-01

    As part of the planned Jefferson Laboratory's electron accelerator (CEBAF) power upgrade, ten additional superconducting RF cryomodules will be added to its accelerator linacs. Although physically the same size as each of the original 40 linac cryomodules, each new cryomodule will have approximately 4 times the acceleration power. To support the additional cryomodule heat loads generated, the existing 2K, 4600W Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) plant capacity will be doubled to a total of 9200W at 2K plus 24,000W at 35K for shield loads. The specified base line process cycle has been modeled after the laboratory s "Ganni Helium Cycle" process technology. In addition, a fourth physics experimental "Hall D" will be constructed which will have an additional stand alone 200W at 4K helium cryogenic plant. In October of 2008, Jefferson Laboratory (JLab) received approval for project "Critical Decision 3" construction phase status from the US Department of Energy.

  10. Lightweight thermally efficient composite feedlines for the space tug cryogenic propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spond, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Six liquid hydrogen feedline design concepts were developed for the cryogenic space tug. The feedlines include composite and all-metal vacuum jacketed and nonvacuum jacketed concepts, and incorporate the latest technological developments in the areas of thermally efficient vacuum jacket end closures and standoffs, radiation shields in the vacuum annulus, thermal coatings, and lightweight dissimilar metal flanged joints. The feedline design concepts are evaluated on the basis of thermal performance, weight, cost, reliability, and reusability. Design concepts were proved in a subscale test program. Detail design was completed on the most promising composite feedline concept and an all-metal feedline. Three full scale curved composite feedlines and one all-metal feedline assembly were fabricated and subjected to a test program representative of flight hardware qualification. The test results show that composite feedline technology is fully developed. Composite feedlines are ready for space vehicle application and offer significant reduction in weights over the conventional all-metal feedlines presently used.

  11. Cryogenic System for Interferometry of High-precision Optics at 20 K: Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake,Peter; Chambers, John; Mink, Ronald G.; Content, David; Davila, Pamela; Robinson, F. David; Chrzanowski, Chris; Shirgur, Badri; Frohlich, chip

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the facility and experimental methods at the Goddard Space Flight Center Optics Branch for the measurement of the surface figure of cryogenically-cooled spherical mirrors using standard phase-shifting interferometry, with a standard uncertainty below 2nm rms. Two developmental silicon carbide mirrors were tested: both were spheres with radius of curvature of 600 mm, and clear apertures of 150 mm. The mirrors were cooled within a cryostat, and the surface figure error measured through a fused-silica window. The GSFC team developed methods to measure the in-situ SFE at 20 K with a combined standard uncertainty below 2 nm rms and the change in SFE with temperature (the cryochange) with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.25 -- 0.75 nm rms. This paper will present the measurement facility, methods, and uncertainty analysis.

  12. Design and performance of transfer assembly for the infrared telescope for Space Lab 2. [cryogenic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The cryogenic design features employed in the case of the Infrared Telescope (IRT) for Spacelab 2 are unique. They involve the delivery of helium gas at a temperature of 2 K to the IR detectors from a superfluid supply dewar which is separate from the telescope/detector unit. This design has the advantage that thermal and mechanical vibration disturbances in the liquid helium bath are decoupled from the IR detector. The interfacing of the storage dewar with the IRT telescope/detector unit (called cryostat) is the function of the subsystem which is called the transfer assembly (TA). The TA design is discussed, taking into account the porous plug module, the plumbing module, the helix module, and the dewar heat exchanger units. Aspects of transfer assembly performance are also considered.

  13. Commissioning a Tape Transport System for Decay Studies and Beam Diagnostics at CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Lister, C. J.; Teh, K.; Kondev, F. G.; Nair, C.; Chowdhury, P.; Deo, A. Y.; Lakshmi, S.

    2011-10-01

    The CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to the ATLAS facility at Argonne utilizes the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf for producing neutron-rich radioactive nuclei. CARIBU will be used for a wide variety of experiments, involving both reaccelerated and stopped beams, in nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics and applications. Many of these experiments will require a means of transporting radioactivity to and from detector counting stations for the purpose of assaying beam content, measuring half-lives, β- γ spectroscopy and determining Gamow-Teller strength distributions. We have commissioned the first of several tape transport systems that will perform these functions. An overview of the design and deployment of the system will be given along with preliminary test results. Supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  14. Commissioning of helium refrigeration system at JLab for 12 GeV upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.; Dixon, K.; Norton, R.; Creel, J.; Arenius, D.

    2014-01-01

    The new 4.5 K refrigerator system added to the Jefferson Lab (JLab) Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) for the 12 GeV upgrade will double its previous capacity. It includes a 4.5 K cold box system and compressor system with associated oil removal and gas management systems. At its maximum capacity condition, this new system supports an additional 238 g/s 30 K 1.16 bar cold compressor return flow, a 15 g/s 4.5 K liquefaction load and a 12.6 kW 35-55 K shield load. Five more design conditions, ranging from liquefaction to refrigeration and a stand-by/reduced load state, were specified for the sizing and selection of its components. The cold box system is comprised of a 300-60 K vertical cold box that incorporates a liquid nitrogen pre-cooler and a 60-4.5 K horizontal cold box housing seven turbines that are configured in four expansion stages including one Joule-Thompson expander. The helium compression system has five compressors to support three pressure levels in the cold box. This paper will briefly review the salient 4.5 K system design features and discuss the recent commissioning results.

  15. Commissioning of helium refrigeration system at JLab for 12 GeV upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Knudsen, Peter N.; Norton, Robert O.; Creel, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    The new 4.5 K refrigerator system added to the Jefferson Lab (JLab) Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) for the 12 GeV upgrade will double its previous capacity. It includes a 4.5 K cold box system and compressor system with associated oil removal and gas management systems. At its maximum capacity condition, this new system supports an additional 238 g/s 30 K 1.16 bar cold compressor return flow, a 15 g/s 4.5 K liquefaction load and a 12.6 kW 35–55 K shield load. Five more design conditions, ranging from liquefaction to refrigeration and a stand-by/reduced load state, were specified for the sizing and selection of its components. The cold box system is comprised of a 300–60 K vertical cold box that incorporates a liquid nitrogen pre-cooler and a 60–4.5 K horizontal cold box housing seven turbines that are configured in four expansion stages including one Joule-Thompson expander. The helium compression system has five compressors to support three pressure levels in the cold box. This paper will briefly review the salient 4.5 K system design features and discuss the recent commissioning results.

  16. Cryogenic design of liquid-nitrogen circulation system for long-length HTS cables with altitude variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Ryu, Ki Nam; Yang, Hyung Suk

    2017-04-01

    Liquid-nitrogen (LN2) circulation systems with altitude variation are investigated and designed for application to practical long-length HTS cables. This study is motivated by the KEPCO's immediate plan to install new HTS cables in existing utility tunnels including inclined and vertical sections. The distribution of pressure and temperature along the LN2 circulation loop is examined for various geographic conditions, taking into account the gravitational effect of altitude variation. The cryogenic cooling requirements are defined in terms of the pressure and temperature of LN2, and a design process is graphically demonstrated on phase diagram. It is concluded that the LN2 flow rate along the cable with altitude variation should be carefully determined with the constraints on pressure and temperature, and the proposed graphical method is useful in the design.

  17. 201 W picosecond green laser using a mode-locked fiber laser driven cryogenic Yb:YAG amplifier system.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Katie; Zembek, Jason; Envid, Victoria; Brown, David C

    2012-11-15

    We have generated 201 W of green (514.5 nm) average power from a frequency-doubled picosecond cryogenic Yb:YAG laser system driven by a 50 MHz, 12.4 ps mode-locked Yb fiber laser producing 430 W of average power at 1029 nm, using direct pulse amplification. The fundamental beam produced was near-diffraction-limited (M(2)<1.3). Second-harmonic-generation is achieved using a 20 mm long noncritically phase-matched Lithium triborate (LiB3O5) crystal; conversion efficiencies as high as 58% have been observed. At 100 W of 514.5 nm output power, the average M(2) value was 1.35. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average power picosecond green pulsed laser.

  18. Commissioning and Operation Results of 110 GHZ Ech System in Kstar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, Mi; Han, Won-Soon; Kim, Jongsu; Bae, Young-Soon; Yang, Hyung-Lyeol; Park, Seungil; Do, Heejin; Namkung, Won; Cho, Moohyun; Gorelov, Yuri; Lohr, John; Doane, John

    2011-02-01

    A 110 GHz GYCOM gyrotron, which was loaned from DIII-D in General Atomics (GA) including a matching optics unit (MOU) and a magnet, was successfully commissioned and used for the second harmonic ECH-assisted startup in 2009 Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) campaign. The gyrotron was aligned at the magnetic field axis of the magnet by adjusting aligners on top and bottom flanges of the magnet during the installation procedures. The measured images of the output beam profile at the window using a burn paper showed a good agreement with those measured in DIII-D. The maximum available RF power was just about 250 kW, which was measured at the terminal dummy load, due to the limitation of the existing power supply of which nominal beam voltage and current were 63 kV and 20 A, respectively. The 110 GHz, 250 kW EC wave, which corresponds to the second harmonic resonance wave to the toroidal field of 2 T, was injected to KSTAR for the plasma start-up and current ramp-up. The plasma start-up was successfully and reliably achieved through the second harmonic ECH pre-ionization. The injection mode was the X-mode with oblique launch angle to the toroidal magnetic field. This paper reports the initial commissioning and operation results of the 110 GHz ECH system. Moreover, the experimental results of the ECH-assisted start-up during the 2009 KSTAR campaign are presented and discussed.

  19. Commissioning and quality assurance for the treatment delivery components of the AccuBoost system.

    PubMed

    Iftimia, Ileana; Talmadge, Mike; Ladd, Ron; Halvorsen, Per

    2015-03-08

    The objective for this work was to develop a commissioning methodology for the treatment delivery components of the AccuBoost system, as well as to establish a routine quality assurance program and appropriate guidance for clinical use based on the commissioning results. Various tests were developed: 1) assessment of the accuracy of the displayed separation value; 2) validation of the dwell positions within each applicator; 3) assessment of the accuracy and precision of the applicator localization system; 4) assessment of the combined dose profile of two opposed applicators to confirm that they are coaxial; 5) measurement of the absolute dose delivered with each applicator to confirm acceptable agreement with dose based on Monte Carlo modeling; 6) measurements of the skin-to-center dose ratio using optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters; and 7) assessment of the mammopad cushion's effect on the center dose. We found that the difference between the measured and the actual paddle separation is < 0.1 cm for the separation range of 3 cm to 7.5 cm. Radiochromic film measurements demonstrated that the number of dwell positions inside the applicators agree with the values from the vendor, for each applicator type and size. The shift needed for a good applicator-grid alignment was within 0.2 cm. The dry-run test using film demonstrated that the shift of the dosimetric center is within 0.15 cm. Dose measurements in water converted to polystyrene agreed within 5.0% with the Monte Carlo data in polystyrene for the same applicator type, size, and depth. A solid water-to-water (phantom) factor was obtained for each applicator, and all future annual quality assurance tests will be performed in solid water using an average value of 1.07 for the solid water-to-water factor. The skin-to-center dose ratio measurements support the Monte Carlo-based values within 5.0% agreement. For the treatment separation range of 4 cm to 8cm, the change in center dose would be < 1.0% for all

  20. SU-E-T-73: Commissioning of a Treatment Planning System for Proton Spot Scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Saini, J; Kang, Y; Schultz, L; Nicewonger, D; Herrera, M; Wong, T; Bowen, S; Bloch, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A treatment planning system (TPS) was commissioned for clinical use with a fixed beam line proton delivery system. An outline of the data collection, modeling, and verification is provided. Methods: Beam data modeling for proton spot scanning in CMS Xio TPS requires the following measurements: (i) integral depth dose curves (IDDCs); (ii) absolute dose calibration; and (iii) beam spot characteristics. The IDDCs for 18 proton energies were measured using an integrating detector in a single spot field in a water phantom. Absolute scaling of the IDDCs were performed based on ion chamber measurements in mono-energetic 10×10 cm{sup 2} fields in water. Beam spot shapes were measured in air using a flat panel scintillator detector at multiple planes. For beam model verification, more than 45 uniform dose phantom and patient plans were generated. These plans were used to measure range, point dose, and longitudinal and lateral profiles. Tolerances employed for verification are: point dose and longitudinal profiles, ±2%; range, ±1 mm; FWHM for lateral profiles, ±2 mm; and patient plan dose distribution, gamma index of >90% at 3%/3 mm criteria. Results: More than 97% of the point dose measurements out of 115 were within +/-2% with maximum deviation of 3%. 98% of the ranges measured were within 1 mm with maximum deviation of 1.4mm. The normalized depth doses were within 2% at all depths. The maximum error in FWHM of lateral profiles was found to be less than 2mm. For 5 patient plans representing different anatomic sites, a total of 38 planes for 12 beams were analyzed for gamma index with average value of 99% and minimum of 94%. Conclusions: The planning system is successfully commissioned and can be safely deployed for clinical use. Measurements of IDDCs on user beam are highly recommended instead of using standard beam IDDCs.