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Sample records for cryotherapy

  1. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy; Actinic keratosis - cryotherapy; Solar keratosis - cryotherapy ... warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, cryotherapy is used to ...

  2. Cryotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Carlos E; Pisters, Louis L

    2003-06-01

    Cryotherapy, or the use of freezing, is a long-established method of tumor cell destruction. Although in the past cryotherapy was widely used as a local treatment for prostate cancer, this technique was abandoned not due to lack of efficacy but because the complication rate was unacceptably high. However, there has been a re-emergence in the popularity of cryotherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer due to improvements in instrumentation, tumor localization and treatment delivery. Using transrectal ultrasound imaging, prostate cryotherapy is currently delivered with multiple probes via a percutaneous transperineal approach. The extent of freezing can be precisely controlled and monitored with thermocouples and tissue destruction is monitored with real-time visualization of the prostate and surrounding structures. The role of cryotherapy in localized prostate cancer is reviewed.

  3. Focal cryotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsivian, Matvey; Polascik, Thomas J

    2010-05-01

    Focal therapy for prostate cancer has emerged an interesting concept as a less morbid option for the treatment of localized low-risk disease. Despite the growing interest in focal therapy, this approach has not yet gained sufficient popularity nor provided enough data to be discussed outside the experimental application. Herein we summarize the available data on focal cryotherapy and focus on the targets to be achieved in order to increase the applicability of focal cryotherapy to clinical practice. A cautious approach to candidate selection and generation of solid scientific data that would result in wide consensus on patient selection strategies and follow-up schemes would provide the tools necessary to take the path of focal therapy. Currently available focal cryotherapy data demonstrate excellent short-term results and a favorable quality-of-life profile. Although the future role of focal treatment is debated, a growing amount of science is generated in support of this minimally invasive approach.

  4. Prostate cancer: cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Katsuto

    2003-11-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has more than doubled in the last 10 years, and 220,900 new cases will be detected in 2003. This increase is due in large part to increased use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based screening, transrectal ultrasonography, and random biopsy of the prostate. The treatment of prostate cancer, however, remains controversial, and no consensus has been established as to what constitutes appropriate treatment for any stage of disease, especially for localized cancers. Radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, or watchful waiting all have their advocates, and the risks and benefits of these approaches are discussed frequently. Skepticism about conventional treatments has stimulated patients and physicians to search for alternatives that are effective and associated with limited morbidity. Technologic developments have rekindled interest in cryotherapy as a viable alternative to other, more conventional localized therapies. Given the relative paucity of alternatives for patients who experience biochemical progression after radiotherapy, cryosurgery also may prove to be a good alternative for those patients whose tumors appear to remain localized despite progression. In addition, it appears that cryosurgery will play an increased role in the future management of prostate cancer.

  5. Cryotherapy following total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Adie, Sam; Kwan, Amy; Naylor, Justine M; Harris, Ian A; Mittal, Rajat

    2012-09-12

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is a common intervention for patients with end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee. Post-surgical management may include cryotherapy. However, the effectiveness of cryotherapy is unclear. To evaluate the acute (within 48 hours) application of cryotherapy following TKR on pain, blood loss and function. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, DARE, HTA Database, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and Web of Science on 15th March 2012. Randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials in which the experimental group received any form of cryotherapy, and was compared to any control group following TKR indicated for osteoarthritis. Two reviewers independently selected trials for inclusion. Disagreements were discussed and resolved involving a third reviewer if required. Data were then extracted and the risk of bias of trials assessed. Main outcomes were blood loss, visual analogue score (VAS) pain, adverse events, knee range of motion, transfusion rate and knee function. Secondary outcomes were analgesia use, knee swelling, length of hospital stay, quality of life and activity level. Effects of interventions were estimated as mean differences (MD), standardised mean differences (SMD) or given as risk ratios (RR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-analyses were performed using the inverse variance method and pooled using random effects. Eleven randomised trials and one controlled clinical trial involving 809 participants met the inclusion criteria. There is very low quality evidence from 10 trials (666 participants) that cryotherapy has a small benefit on blood loss (SMD -0.46, 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.08), equivalent to 225mL less blood loss in cryotherapy group (95% CI, 39 to 410mL). This benefit may not be clinically significant. There was very low quality evidence from four trials (322 participants) that cryotherapy improved visual analogue score pain at 48 hours (MD = -1.32 points on a 10 point scale, 95% CI

  6. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for conjunctival amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2009-05-01

    Conjunctival amyloidosis is a rare disease, the etiology of which is not completely understood. Four patients with primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis without systemic involvement or antecedent ocular disease underwent liquid nitrogen cryotherapy either after surgical biopsy (3 patients) or alone. Two patients had posttreatment recurrence of conjunctival amyloidosis and received 2 rounds of cryotherapy per affected eye (per patient). All the patients were satisfied with their surgical results, and conjunctival amyloidosis was eradicated in all 4 after cryotherapy. Although surgical debulking is the usual treatment for this disease, liquid nitrogen cryotherapy to the ocular surface seems to be a safe and effective adjunct or alternative treatment.

  7. Cryotherapy on postoperative rehabilitation of joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ni, Sheng-Hui; Jiang, Wen-Tong; Guo, Lei; Jin, Yu-Heng; Jiang, Tian-Long; Zhao, Yuyan; Zhao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of cryotherapy on joint arthroplasty recovery remains controversial. This systematic review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of cryotherapy in patients after joint arthroplasty. Comprehensive literature searches of several databases including Cochrane Library (2013), MEDLINE (1950-2013), and Embase (1980-2013) were performed. We sought randomised controlled trials that compared the experimental group received any form of cryotherapy with any control group after joint arthroplasty. The main outcomes were postoperative blood loss, adverse events, and pain. Analyses were performed with Revman 5.0. Results were shown as mean differences (MD) and standard deviations or as risk difference and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Ten trials comprised 660 total knee arthroplastys and three trials comprised 122 total hip arthroplastys (THAs) met the inclusion criteria. Blood loss was significantly decreased by cryotherapy (MD = -109.68; 95 % CI -210.92 to -8.44; P = 0.03). Cryotherapy did not increase the risk of adverse effect (n.s.). Cryotherapy decreased pain at the second day of postoperative (MD = -1.32; 95 % CI -2.37 to -0.27; P = 0.0003), but did not decreased pain at the first and third day of postoperative (n.s.). Cryotherapy appears effective in these selected patients after joint arthroplasty. The benefits of cryotherapy on blood loss after joint arthroplasty were obvious. However, the subgroup analysis indicated that cryotherapy did not decreased blood loss after THA. Cryotherapy did not increase the risk of adverse effect. Cryotherapy decreased pain at the second day of postoperative, but did not decreased pain at the first and third day of postoperative. II.

  8. Compressive cryotherapy versus cryotherapy alone in patients undergoing knee surgery: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Mingzhi; Sun, Xiaohong; Tian, Xiliang; Zhang, Xianbin; Shi, Tieying; Sun, Ran; Dai, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to conduct a meta-analysis to identify and compare the effectiveness of compressive cryotherapy and cryotherapy alone for patients undergoing knee surgery. Postoperative management is an important guarantee for the success of surgery. Cryotherapy and compression are two common nursing techniques after knee surgery, and are considered to be effective for postoperative clinical symptoms such as local pain and swelling. However, no previous meta-analyses have compared the effectiveness of compressive cryotherapy and cryotherapy alone in patients undergoing knee surgery. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a search in MEDLINE (via Pubmed, 1990-2014), EMBASE (via Elsevier, 1990-2014), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, 1990-2014), CINAHL (1990-2014) and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1990-2014) databases for RCTs published in English and Chinese. The primary outcome measure of interest was visual analog scale and girth measure. Finally, a meta-analysis was carried out using RevMan 5.3. Among the 593 RCTs, 10 RCTs were selected and included into this study. These studies included 522 patients who underwent knee surgery. Patients who underwent compressive cryotherapy tended to have less pain than patients who underwent cryotherapy alone at POD2 and POD3, while compressive cryotherapy had a strong tendency towards less swelling over cryotherapy alone at POD1 and POD2. However, there was no significant difference between compressive cryotherapy and cryotherapy alone at the intermediate stage of rehabilitation after knee surgery. All adverse reactions were recorded in all included RCTs. Current evidence suggests that compressive cryotherapy is beneficial to patients undergoing knee surgery at the early rehabilitation stage. At the last stage, the effectiveness of compressive cryotherapy and cryotherapy alone were found to be similar.

  9. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). Interventional case series. In this clinical practice case series, the effects of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on SLK were observed. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was performed using a Brymill E tip spray (0.013-inch aperture) with a double freeze-thaw technique. All subjects were outpatients who had local anesthesia with a single drop of topical proparacaine. The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Four female patients (average age, 64 +/- 13 years) and seven eyes with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Resolution of signs and symptoms occurred within two weeks. Disease recurred in two patients and three of seven eyes, although repeat cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. The repeat cryotherapy was performed at three months postoperatively. There were no adverse ocular events. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy appears to be an effective alternative treatment for SLK as all subjects studied achieved long-term cures. Repeat cryotherapy may be necessary in some instances and may be performed three months after the first treatment.

  10. Multifaceted Comparison of Two Cryotherapy Devices Used After Total Knee Arthroplasty: Cryotherapy Device Comparison.

    PubMed

    Schinsky, Mark F; McCune, Christine; Bonomi, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Some form of cryotherapy used after total knee arthroplasty is commonplace. However, various factors determine the specific device deployed. This study aimed to answer the following questions: : A group of 100 patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty by a single surgeon were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved, prospective study and randomized to receive either a circulating cold water or ice/gel pack cryotherapy device postoperatively. Demographic, pain, swelling, blood loss, range of motion, compliance, satisfaction, and adverse event outcomes were recorded until 6 weeks after surgery. Hospital staff satisfaction and economic variables were examined. The ice/gel pack cryotherapy wrap was noninferior to the cold water cryotherapy device for any patient outcome measured. Average pain level at 6 weeks postoperative was significantly less in the ice/gel pack cryotherapy wrap group. Hospital staff satisfaction was higher with the ice/gel pack cryotherapy wrap.Substantial economic savings can be realized at our institution by switching to the lower cost cryotherapy device. In this study, the lower cost ice/gel pack cryotherapy wrap was noninferior to the circulating ice water cryotherapy device with respect to objective patient outcomes and subjective patient satisfaction after total knee arthroplasty. Hospital staff satisfaction and economic considerations also favor the ice/gel pack compression cryotherapy wraps.

  11. Cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R; Ribeiro, F; Oliveira, J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of cryotherapy on joint position sense are not clearly established; however it is paramount to understand its impact on peripheral feedback to ascertain the safety of using ice therapy before resuming exercise on sports or rehabilitation settings. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cryotherapy, when applied over the quadriceps and over the knee joint, on knee position sense. This within-subjects repeated-measures study encompassed fifteen subjects. Knee position sense was measured by open kinetic chain technique and active positioning at baseline and after cryotherapy application. Knee angles were determined by computer analysis of the videotape images. Twenty-minute ice bag application was applied randomly, in two sessions 48 h apart, over the quadriceps and the knee joint. The main effect for cryotherapy application was significant (F (1.14)=7.7, p=0.015) indicating an increase in both absolute and relative angular errors after the application. There was no significant main effect for the location of cryotherapy application, indicating no differences between the application over the quadriceps and the knee joint. In conclusion, cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense in normal knees. This deleterious effect is similar when cryotherapy is applied over the quadriceps or the knee joint. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  12. Cryotherapy decreases intraarticular temperature after ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Ronald Edward; Spindler, Kurt Paul; Warren, Todd Alan; McCarty, Eric Cleveland; Secic, Michelle

    2004-04-01

    Cryotherapy has been shown to decrease intraarticular temperature in all regions of the knee after arthroscopy. The purpose of our study was to determine if similar declines in intraarticular temperature were seen with the use of cryotherapy after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, a procedure which, unlike simple arthroscopy, produces postoperative hemarthrosis. Sixteen patients had intraarticular temperatures measured for 2 hours after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with cryotherapy instituted for only 1 of the 2 hours (eight patients for the first hour and eight patients for the second hour). Significant declines were seen in the suprapatellar pouch after either hour (-2.7 degrees C in Group 1, -2.7 degrees C in Group 2) but not in the lateral gutter. The difference between cryotherapy versus no cryotherapy in the first hour in the suprapatellar pouch was 6.0 degrees C, a clinically meaningful temperature difference. We hypothesize the swelling and hemarthrosis was more pronounced in the lateral gutter because of its dependent position and therefore blunted the effect of cryotherapy seen in the lateral gutter. Cooling of the intraarticular temperature should be considered in the clinical benefits of cryotherapy.

  13. The Effects of Cryotherapy on Proprioception System

    PubMed Central

    Furmanek, Mariusz Paweł; Słomka, Kajetan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Proprioception plays an important role in the complex mechanism of joint control. Contemporary sport activities impose extremely high physical demands on athletes. Winter sports are played in areas with excessively low temperatures. Moreover, many athletes are subjected to treatments that involve local lowering of the body temperature before, during, and after physical activity. This work reviews the current knowledge regarding the influence of local cryotherapy on the proprioception system. The reviewed literature identified several tests that evaluate different aspects of proprioception. There is no universally agreed protocol, or clear set of criteria for test conditions. The outcomes of different tests and assessments of cryotherapy procedures using different cold modalities are poorly correlated. In general, the published results on the mechanism of cryotherapy effects on proprioception are not uniquely conclusive and are frequently contradictory. Additional high-quality research is required to explicitly answer the following questions: (1) whether local cryotherapy influences all aspects of proprioception; (2) whether the current methods of evaluation are adequate for the exploration of the relationship between cryotherapy and proprioception; and (3) whether the application of local cryotherapy is safe for athletes regarding proprioception. The review clearly showed that there is no comprehensive model relating cryotherapy and proprioception. PMID:25478573

  14. The effects of cryotherapy on proprioception system.

    PubMed

    Furmanek, Mariusz Paweł; Słomka, Kajetan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Proprioception plays an important role in the complex mechanism of joint control. Contemporary sport activities impose extremely high physical demands on athletes. Winter sports are played in areas with excessively low temperatures. Moreover, many athletes are subjected to treatments that involve local lowering of the body temperature before, during, and after physical activity. This work reviews the current knowledge regarding the influence of local cryotherapy on the proprioception system. The reviewed literature identified several tests that evaluate different aspects of proprioception. There is no universally agreed protocol, or clear set of criteria for test conditions. The outcomes of different tests and assessments of cryotherapy procedures using different cold modalities are poorly correlated. In general, the published results on the mechanism of cryotherapy effects on proprioception are not uniquely conclusive and are frequently contradictory. Additional high-quality research is required to explicitly answer the following questions: (1) whether local cryotherapy influences all aspects of proprioception; (2) whether the current methods of evaluation are adequate for the exploration of the relationship between cryotherapy and proprioception; and (3) whether the application of local cryotherapy is safe for athletes regarding proprioception. The review clearly showed that there is no comprehensive model relating cryotherapy and proprioception.

  15. Dystrophic calcification of the prostate after cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dru, Christopher; Bender, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We present a previously undocumented complication of dystrophic calcification of the prostate after cryotherapy. An 87-year-old male presented with recurrent lower urinary tract infections and was found to have an obstructing large calcified mass in the right lobe of the prostate. Subsequently, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and bladder neck with laser lithotripsy to remove the calculus. We propose that chronic inflammation and necrosis of the prostate from cryotherapy resulted in dystrophic calcification of the prostate. As the use of cryotherapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer continues to increase, it is important that clinicians be aware of this scenario and the technical challenges it poses.

  16. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for surface eye disease (an AOS thesis).

    PubMed

    Fraunfelder, Frederick Web

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of new treatments with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on some external eye conditions. In this retrospective case study, 6 separate series from a single tertiary care referral center practice are described. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was used to treat conjunctival amyloidosis, primary pterygia, recurrent pterygia, advancing wavelike epitheliopathy (AWLE), superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK), and palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Four patients with primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Two of them had recurrence of the amyloidosis, which cleared with subsequent treatment. Eighteen patients with primary pterygia had excision and cryotherapy with 1 recurrence. Of 6 subjects who presented with recurrent pterygia, 4 had a second recurrence after excision and cryotherapy. In 5 patients with AWLE, the condition resolved within 2 weeks without recurrence or the need for subsequent cryotherapy. Four patients with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Disease recurred in 2 patients and 3 of 7 eyes, although subsequent cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. Two patients and 3 eyelids with palpebral VKC were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. VKC recurred in all cases. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy to the surface of the eye is effective in treating AWLE, and SLK. Excision followed by cryotherapy is successful in treating conjunctival amyloidosis and primary pterygia Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is unsuccessful in the treatment of recurrent pterygia and VKC.

  17. Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy for Surface Eye Disease (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Fraunfelder, Frederick Web

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of new treatments with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy on some external eye conditions. Methods In this retrospective case study, 6 separate series from a single tertiary care referral center practice are described. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was used to treat conjunctival amyloidosis, primary pterygia, recurrent pterygia, advancing wavelike epitheliopathy (AWLE), superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK), and palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). The main outcome measure was the resolution of the disease process after treatment. Results Four patients with primary localized conjunctival amyloidosis were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Two of them had recurrence of the amyloidosis, which cleared with subsequent treatment. Eighteen patients with primary pterygia had excision and cryotherapy with 1 recurrence. Of 6 subjects who presented with recurrent pterygia, 4 had a second recurrence after excision and cryotherapy. In 5 patients with AWLE, the condition resolved within 2 weeks without recurrence or the need for subsequent cryotherapy. Four patients with SLK were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Disease recurred in 2 patients and 3 of 7 eyes, although subsequent cryotherapy eradicated SLK in all cases. Two patients and 3 eyelids with palpebral VKC were treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. VKC recurred in all cases. Conclusions Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy to the surface of the eye is effective in treating AWLE, and SLK. Excision followed by cryotherapy is successful in treating conjunctival amyloidosis and primary pterygia Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is unsuccessful in the treatment of recurrent pterygia and VKC. PMID:19277243

  18. Cryotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a needle-like applicator called a cryoprobe, and liquid nitrogen or argon gas to create intense cold to freeze and destroy ... of the diseased tissue and then deliver the liquid nitrogen or argon gas. Living tissue, healthy or diseased, cannot withstand extremely ...

  19. Should athletes return to activity after cryotherapy?

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Kimberly A; Saliba, Susan A

    2014-01-01

    Bleakley CM, Costello JT, Glasgow PD. Should athletes return to sport after applying ice? A systematic review of the effect of local cooling on functional performance. Sports Med. 2012; 42(1):69-87. Does local tissue cooling affect immediate functional performance outcomes in a sport situation? Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE, each from the earliest available record through April 2011. Combinations of 18 medical subheadings or key words were used to complete the search. Study Selection : This systematic review included only randomized controlled trials and crossover studies published in English that examined human participants who were treated with a local cooling intervention. At least 1 functional performance outcome that was measured before and after a cooling intervention had to be reported. Excluded were studies using whole-body cryotherapy or cold-water immersion above the waist and studies that measured strength or force production during evoked muscle contraction. Data were extracted by 2 authors using a customized form to evaluate relevant data on study design, eligibility criteria, detailed characteristics of cooling protocols, comparisons, and outcome measures. Disagreement was resolved by consensus or third-party adjudication. To perform an intent-to-treat analysis when possible, data were extracted according to the original allocation groups, and losses to follow-up were noted. The review authors were not blinded to the study author, institution, or journal. For each study, mean differences or standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous outcomes using RevMan (version 5.1; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Treatment effects were based on between-groups comparisons (cryotherapy versus control) using postintervention outcomes or within-group comparisons (precryotherapy versus postcryotherapy). If continuous data were

  20. Should Athletes Return to Activity After Cryotherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, Kimberly A.; Saliba, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    Reference/Citation Bleakley CM, Costello JT, Glasgow PD. Should athletes return to sport after applying ice? A systematic review of the effect of local cooling on functional performance. Sports Med. 2012; 42(1):69–87. Clinical Question Does local tissue cooling affect immediate functional performance outcomes in a sport situation? Data Sources Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE, each from the earliest available record through April 2011. Combinations of 18 medical subheadings or key words were used to complete the search. Study Selection This systematic review included only randomized controlled trials and crossover studies published in English that examined human participants who were treated with a local cooling intervention. At least 1 functional performance outcome that was measured before and after a cooling intervention had to be reported. Excluded were studies using whole-body cryotherapy or cold-water immersion above the waist and studies that measured strength or force production during evoked muscle contraction. Data Extraction Data were extracted by 2 authors using a customized form to evaluate relevant data on study design, eligibility criteria, detailed characteristics of cooling protocols, comparisons, and outcome measures. Disagreement was resolved by consensus or third-party adjudication. To perform an intent-to-treat analysis when possible, data were extracted according to the original allocation groups, and losses to follow-up were noted. The review authors were not blinded to the study author, institution, or journal. For each study, mean differences or standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous outcomes using RevMan (version 5.1; The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Treatment effects were based on between-groups comparisons (cryotherapy versus control) using postintervention outcomes or within-group comparisons

  1. Update on cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ritch, Chad R; Katz, Aaron E

    2009-05-01

    Stage migration has led to an increased incidence of localized and low-risk prostate cancer. Intermediate-term data are emerging on the efficacy of cryotherapy, but direct comparison to other therapeutic modalities is difficult as the parameters for recurrence are not well defined. Studies using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiation and Oncology and the Phoenix (nadir plus 2) criteria for biochemical recurrence show that primary cryotherapy appears to be comparable for low-risk prostate cancer as other treatment modalities. In addition, health-related quality-of-life measures have improved with the most recent third-generation systems demonstrating low incontinence and urethrorectal fistula rates. Erectile dysfunction is high with whole gland ablation, but focal therapy may reduce these rates while still ablating unilateral cancerous tissue. Prostate cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer is an evolving but viable therapeutic option. Long-term data are still needed to establish a definitive role for cryosurgery in prostate cancer treatment.

  2. [Rescue cryotherapy for prostate cancer after radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    García, Erique Lledó; Amo, Felipe Herranz; San Segundo, Carmen González; Fagundo, Eva Paños; Escudero, Roberto Molina; Alonso, Adrian Husillos; Piniés, Gabriel Ogaya; Rascón, Jose Jara; Fernández, Carlos Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Radical Radiotherapy constitutes a useful therapeutic option for localized prostate cancer. Almost one third of prostate cancer patients choose this alternative to treat the disease. Despite modifications in the technique as intensity modulation, 3D conformational radiotherapy or computer-assisted brachytherapy, a significant percentage of these patients will show an increase in PSA values after radiation. Local relapse without distant disease and PSA less than 10 ng/ml are candidates for salvage therapy. Cryotherapy has already become a curative treatment option in this group of patients. Recent technological as well as surgical advances in salvage-cryotherapy have reduced dramatically complications and progressively increase the interest on this alternative.

  3. Skin temperature response to cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chesterton, Linda S; Foster, Nadine E; Ross, Lesley

    2002-04-01

    To compare the localized skin-cooling effects of 2 cryotherapy modalities and to review the clinical relevance of the results. Randomized controlled trial with repeated measures. Laboratory experiment. Convenience sample of 20 volunteers (13 women, 7 men), ages 21.3 to 44 years (mean, 31.3 +/- 6.8 y). A flexible frozen gel pack, a 454 g packet of frozen peas, or a control applied to the anterior thigh. No blinding was undertaken. Surface skin temperature under the modality at baseline and 10 and 20 minutes after application. Significant effects were recorded for modality (F(2) = 290.56, P <.0001), time (F(1.27) = 1868.07, P <.0001), and their interaction (F(2.09) = 305.47, P <.0001). After 20 minutes, frozen peas produced the lowest mean skin temperature +/- standard deviation of 10.8 degrees C +/- 2.28 degrees C compared with 14.4 degrees C +/- 2.53 degrees C from the gel pack and 26.1 degrees C +/- 1.75 degrees C from the control. Skin temperature fell between both time periods with the application of frozen peas but stabilized after 10 minutes of gel pack and control application. Application of frozen peas produced mean skin temperatures adequate to induce localized skin analgesia, to reduce nerve conduction velocity, and to reduce metabolic enzyme activity to clinically relevant levels. Flexible frozen gel packs did not cool skin sufficiently to achieve these levels. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  4. Clobetasol propionate ointment reduces inflammation after cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hindson, T C; Spiro, J; Scott, L V

    1985-05-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out comparing the effects of clobetasol propionate ointment and the ointment base on the inflammation induced by cryotherapy of basal cell carcinomata and warts. A single application of the steroid was shown to be significantly better at reducing erythema, pain and swelling than the ointment base.

  5. Cryotherapy induces an increase in muscle stiffness.

    PubMed

    Point, M; Guilhem, G; Hug, F; Nordez, A; Frey, A; Lacourpaille, L

    2018-01-01

    Although cold application (ie, cryotherapy) may be useful to treat sports injuries and to prevent muscle damage, it is unclear whether it has adverse effects on muscle mechanical properties. This study aimed to determine the effect of air-pulsed cryotherapy on muscle stiffness estimated using ultrasound shear wave elastography. Myoelectrical activity, ankle passive torque, shear modulus (an index of stiffness), and muscle temperature of the gastrocnemius medialis were measured before, during an air-pulsed cryotherapy (-30°C) treatment of four sets of 4 minutes with 1-minute recovery in between and during a 40 minutes postcryotherapy period. Muscle temperature significantly decreased after the second set of treatment (10 minutes: 32.3±2.5°C; P<.001), peaked at 29 minutes (27.9±2.2°C; P<.001) and remained below baseline values at 60 minutes (29.5±2.0°C; P<.001). Shear modulus increased by +11.5±11.8% after the second set (10 minutes; P=.011), peaked at 30 minutes (+34.7±42.6%; P<.001), and remained elevated until the end of the post-treatment period (+25.4±17.1%; P<.001). These findings provide evidence that cryotherapy induces an increase in muscle stiffness. This acute change in muscle mechanical properties may lower the amount of stretch that the muscle tissue is able to sustain without subsequent injury. This should be considered when using cryotherapy in athletic practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effectiveness of cryotherapy treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Silvana; Gonzales, Miguel; Munoz, Sergio; Jeronimo, Jose; Robles, Sylvia

    2008-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of cryotherapy treatment delivered by general practitioners in primary care settings, as part of a screen-and-treat approach for cervical cancer prevention. Women aged between 25 and 49 years residing in San Martin, Peru, who were positive on visual inspection screening were treated, if eligible, with cryotherapy following biopsy. At 12 months post cryotherapy treatment the participants were evaluated for treatment effectiveness and examined by visual inspection and Papanicolaou test and, if positive, referred to a gynecologist for colposcopy and biopsy. Cryotherapy treatment was performed for 1398 women; of these, 531 (38%) had a histology result of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Cryotherapy effectively cured CIN in 418 (88%) women, including 49 (70%) women with a baseline diagnosis of CIN 3. Cryotherapy is an effective treatment for cervical precancerous lesions; it can easily be administered by general practitioners in primary care settings following visual inspection screening.

  7. Novel dry cryotherapy system for cooling the equine digit

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovski, Darko; Lenfest, Margret; Chatterjee, Sraboni; Orsini, James

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Digital cryotherapy is commonly used for laminitis prophylaxis and treatment. Currently validated methods for distal limb cryotherapy involve wet application or compression technology. There is a need for a practical, affordable, dry cryotherapy method that effectively cools the digit. The objective of this study was to evaluate the hoof wall surface temperatures (HWSTs) achieved with a novel dry cryotherapy technology. Design Repeated-measures in vivo experimental study. Setting Experimental intervention at a single site. Participants 6 systemically healthy horses (3 mares, 3 geldings). Interventions Cryotherapy was applied to six horses for eight hours with a commercially available rubber and rubber and welded fabricice boot, which extended proximally to include the foot and pastern. Reusable malleable cold therapy packs were secured against the foot and pastern with the three built-in hook-and-loop fastener panels. Primary and secondary outcome measures HWST and pastern surface temperature of the cryotherapy-treated limb, HWST of the control limb and ambient temperature were recorded every five minutes throughout the study period. Results Results were analysed with mixed-effects multivariable regression analysis. The HWST (median 11.1°C, interquartile range 8.6°C–14.7°C) in the cryotherapy-treated limb was significantly decreased compared with the control limb (median 29.7°C, interquartile range 28.9°C–30.4°C) (P≤0.001). Cryotherapy limb HWST reached a minimum of 6.75°C (median) with an interquartile range of 4.1°C–9.3°C. Minimum HWST was achieved 68 minutes after cryotherapy pack application. Conclusions Dry application of cryotherapy significantly reduced HWST and reached minimums below the therapeutic target of 10°C. This cryotherapy method might offer an effective alternative for digital cooling. PMID:29344364

  8. Cryotherapy Treatment After Unicompartmental and Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Review.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Morad; Sodhi, Nipun; Jawad, Michael; Newman, Jared M; Khlopas, Anton; Bhave, Anil; Mont, Michael A

    2017-12-01

    Cryotherapy is widely utilized to enhance recovery after knee surgeries. However, the outcome parameters often vary between studies. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to compare (1) no cryotherapy vs cryotherapy; (2) cold pack cryotherapy vs continuous flow device cryotherapy; (3) various protocols of application of these cryotherapy methods; and (4) cost-benefit analysis in patients who had unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A search for "knee" and "cryotherapy" using PubMed, EBSCO Host, and SCOPUS was performed, yielding 187 initial reports. After selecting for RCTs relevant to our study, 16 studies were included. Of the 8 studies that compared the immediate postoperative outcomes between patients who did and did not receive cryotherapy, 5 studies favored cryotherapy (2 cold packs and 3 continuous cold flow devices). Of the 6 studies comparing the use of cold packs and continuous cold flow devices in patients who underwent UKA or TKA, 3 favor the use of continuous flow devices. There was no difference in pain, postoperative opioid consumption, or drain output between 2 different temperature settings of continuous cold flow device. The optimal device to use may be one that offers continuous circulating cold flow, as there were more studies demonstrating better outcomes. In addition, the pain relieving effects of cryotherapy may help minimize pain medication use, such as with opioids, which are associated with numerous potential side effects as well as dependence and addiction. Meta-analysis on the most recent RCTs should be performed next. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, Cristina; Srougi, Victor; da Costa, José Batista; Baghdad, Mohammed; Velilla, Guillermo; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Bergerat, Sebastien; Garcia-Barreras, Silvia; Rozet, François; Ingels, Alexandre; Galiano, Marc; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Barret, Eric; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa). The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. Materials and methods: We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. Results: The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipment utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40°C) to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1–5). Conclusions: Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment. PMID:28727387

  10. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Cristina; Srougi, Victor; da Costa, José Batista; Baghdad, Mohammed; Velilla, Guillermo; Nunes-Silva, Igor; Bergerat, Sebastien; Garcia-Barreras, Silvia; Rozet, François; Ingels, Alexandre; Galiano, Marc; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Barret, Eric; Cathelineau, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa). The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipament utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40ºC) to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1-5). Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  11. Percutaneous Cryotherapy of Vascular Malformation: Initial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelis, F., E-mail: francoiscornelis@hotmail.com; Neuville, A.; Labreze, C.

    The present report describes a case of percutaneous cryotherapy in a 36-year-old woman with a large and painful pectoral venous malformation. Cryoablation was performed in a single session for this 9-cm mass with 24 h hospitalisation. At 2- and 6-month follow-up, the pain had completely disappeared, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a significant decrease in size. Percutaneous cryoablation shows promise as a feasible and apparently safe method for local control in patients with symptomatic venous vascular malformations.

  12. Cryotherapy treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: women's experiences in Peru.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Patricia S; Bingham, Allison; Winkler, Jennifer L; Bishop, Amie; Sellors, John W; Lagos, Gloria; Pastor, Cesar Moron

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to examine cryotherapy experiences among women who received treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in a cervical cancer prevention project in rural Peru. The sample consisted of all women receiving cryotherapy during a 4-month period (July through October 2001). Structured interviews were conducted to collect information about the adequacy of information provision, women's satisfaction with cryotherapy, their ability to comply with postcryotherapy recommendations and condom use, their experience with cryotherapy side effects, and their satisfaction with cryotherapy follow-up. Of the 224 women who were interviewed, user satisfaction with cryotherapy treatment was generally good. A few women engaged in sex earlier than 30 days after treatment, primarily due to partner pressure to resume sex and the women's inability to successfully negotiate abstention from sex. These couples were not always able to use condoms. The percentage of women reporting vaginal discharge was within the range of responses reported in other studies. Cryotherapy appears to be acceptable to women in low-resource settings such as Peru.

  13. Cryotherapy simulator for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hahn, James K; Manyak, Michael J; Jin, Ge; Kim, Dongho; Rewcastle, John; Kim, Sunil; Walsh, Raymond J

    2002-01-01

    Cryotherapy is a treatment modality that uses a technique to selectively freeze tissue and thereby cause controlled tissue destruction. The procedure involves placement of multiple small diameter probes through the perineum into the prostate tissue at selected spatial intervals. Transrectal ultrasound is used to properly position the cylindrical probes before activation of the liquid Argon cooling element, which lowers the tissue temperature below -40 degrees Centigrade. Tissue effect is monitored by transrectal ultrasound changes as well as thermocouples placed in the tissue. The computer-based cryotherapy simulation system mimics the major surgical steps involved in the procedure. The simulated real-time ultrasound display is generated from 3-D ultrasound datasets where the interaction of the ultrasound with the instruments as well as the frozen tissue is simulated by image processing. The thermal and mechanical simulations of the tissue are done using a modified finite-difference/finite-element method optimized for real-time performance. The simulator developed is a part of a comprehensive training program, including a computer-based learning system and hands-on training program with a proctor, designed to familiarize the physician with the technique and equipment involved.

  14. Cryotherapy does not affect peroneal reaction following sudden inversion.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine L; Hart, Joseph M; Palmieri-Smith, Riann; Cross, Kevin M; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2007-11-01

    If ankle joint cryotherapy impairs the ability of the ankle musculature to counteract potentially injurious forces, the ankle is left vulnerable to injury. To compare peroneal reaction to sudden inversion following ankle joint cryotherapy. Repeated measures design with independent variables, treatment (cryotherapy and control), and time (baseline, immediately post treatment, 15 minutes post treatment, and 30 minutes post treatment). University research laboratory. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers. An ice bag was secured to the lateral ankle joint for 20 minutes. The onset and average root mean square amplitude of EMG activity in the peroneal muscles was calculated following the release of a trap door mechanism causing inversion. There was no statistically significant change from baseline for peroneal reaction time or average peroneal muscle activity at any post treatment time. Cryotherapy does not affect peroneal muscle reaction following sudden inversion perturbation.

  15. Contemporary results of focal therapy for prostate cancer using cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, V; Williams, A K; Chin, J

    2010-09-01

    With the increasing diagnosis of prostate cancer, there have been concerns expressed regarding the potential over-treatment that may ensue following the diagnosis of localized prostate cancer. Minimally invasive treatments such as cryotherapy have been used successfully to treat the entire gland, however complications such as incontinence and erectile dysfunction can still occur. Focal cryotherapy is a modification of the standard cryotherapy technique, aiming to only treat the portion of the prostate gland which has the cancer of clinical significance. The potential advantage of this is the minimization of complications; however the remainder of the prostate is still viable and so can develop cancer subsequently. There have been several published studies demonstrating promising efficacy with a low morbidity rate using focal cryotherapy to treat prostate cancer, however further follow up is required before definitive conclusions can be reached. The appropriate selection of patients and subsequent follow up are areas needing further research and the development of improved imaging modalities.

  16. Current status of cryotherapy for prostate and kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seok; Kang, Seok Ho

    2014-12-01

    In terms of treating diseases, minimally invasive treatment has become a key element in reducing perioperative complications. Among the various minimally invasive treatments, cryotherapy is often used in urology to treat various types of cancers, especially prostate cancer and renal cancer. In prostate cancer, the increased incidence of low-risk, localized prostate cancer has made minimally invasive treatment modalities an attractive option. Focal cryotherapy for localized unilateral disease offers the added benefit of minimal morbidities. In renal cancer, owing to the increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging, nearly 70% of newly detected renal masses are stage T1a, making them more susceptible to minimally invasive nephron-sparing therapies including laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy and ablative therapies. This article reviews the various outcomes of cryotherapy compared with other treatments and the possible uses of cryotherapy in surgery.

  17. Current Status of Cryotherapy for Prostate and Kidney Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seok

    2014-01-01

    In terms of treating diseases, minimally invasive treatment has become a key element in reducing perioperative complications. Among the various minimally invasive treatments, cryotherapy is often used in urology to treat various types of cancers, especially prostate cancer and renal cancer. In prostate cancer, the increased incidence of low-risk, localized prostate cancer has made minimally invasive treatment modalities an attractive option. Focal cryotherapy for localized unilateral disease offers the added benefit of minimal morbidities. In renal cancer, owing to the increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging, nearly 70% of newly detected renal masses are stage T1a, making them more susceptible to minimally invasive nephron-sparing therapies including laparoscopic and robotic partial nephrectomy and ablative therapies. This article reviews the various outcomes of cryotherapy compared with other treatments and the possible uses of cryotherapy in surgery. PMID:25512811

  18. Cryotherapy versus electrocautery in the treatment of genital warts.

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, P D; Langlet, F; Thin, R N

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two male patients with ano-genital warts were randomly allocated to a single-blind study of cryotherapy versus electrocautery. There was no significant difference in the success rates of these two forms of treatment in patients followed for three months. Cryotherapy was qualitatively much more acceptable to the patients than electrocautery. It seems particularly suited to patients with widely scattered warts who are unable to attend for regular treatment. PMID:7272706

  19. Immediate effects of cryotherapy on static and dynamic balance.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Matthew; Bivens, Serena; Pesterfield, Jennifer; Clemson, Nathan; Castle, Whitney; Sole, Gisela; Wassinger, Craig A

    2013-02-01

    Cryotherapy is commonly used in physical therapy with many known benefits; however several investigations have reported decreased functional performance following therapeutic application thereof. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cryotherapy applied to the ankle on static and dynamic standing balance. It was hypothesized that balance would be decreased after cryotherapy application. Twenty individuals (aged 18 to 40 years) participated in this research project. Each participant was tested under two conditions: an experimental condition where subjects received ice water immersion of the foot and ankle for 15 minutes immediately before balance testing and a control condition completed at room temperature. A Biodex® Balance System was used to quantify balance using anterior/posterior (AP), medial/lateral (ML), and overall balance indices. Paired t-tests were used to compare the balance indices for the two conditions with alpha set at 0.05 a priori. Effect size was also calculated to account for the multiple comparisons made. The static balance indices did not display statistically significant differences between the post-cryotherapy and the control conditions with low effect sizes. Dynamic ML indices significantly increased following the cryotherapy application compared to the control exhibiting a moderate effect size indicating decreased balance following cryotherapy application. No differences were noted between experimental and control conditions for the dynamic AP or overall balance indices while a small effect size was noted for both. The results suggest that cryotherapy to the ankle has a negative effect on the ML component of dynamic balance following ice water immersion. Immediate return to play following cryotherapy application is cautioned given the decreased dynamic ML balance and potential for increased injury risk. 3b Case-control study.

  20. Intra-articular knee temperature changes: ice versus cryotherapy device.

    PubMed

    Warren, Todd A; McCarty, Eric C; Richardson, Airron L; Michener, Todd; Spindler, Kurt P

    2004-03-01

    Cryotherapy is commonly applied without research documenting the intra-articular (IA) temperature changes or subject discomfort between ice and a cryotherapy device. The null hypothesis is that no difference would be observed in IA temperature decline or subject tolerance between ice and the cryotherapy device in normal knees. Prospective, within-subject controlled clinical trial. Twelve subjects had IA temperature in suprapatellar pouch and skin recorded bilaterally after application of cryotherapy versus ice. Subject tolerance was recorded by 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Statistical evaluation was by Spearman's correlation analysis and paired, nonparametric Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Both significantly lowered (P < 0.001) skin and IA temperature with median decreases (ice/cryotherapy) at 30 (3.3 degrees C/2.2 degrees C), 60 (12.8 degrees C/7.1 degrees C), and 90 (15.2 degrees C/9.7 degrees C) minutes. However, ice lowered the IA temperature significantly more than the cryotherapy device (P < 0.001) and was more painful by VAS at 30 and 60 minutes (P < 0.01). Both methods produced large declines in skin and IA temperatures. However, ice was more effective yet resulted in higher pain scores. The authors hypothesize that IA temperatures below a threshold are associated with increased perceived pain.

  1. Proprioception and Throwing Accuracy in the Dominant Shoulder After Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wassinger, Craig A; Myers, Joseph B; Gatti, Joseph M; Conley, Kevin M; Lephart, Scott M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Application of cryotherapy modalities is common after acute shoulder injury and as part of rehabilitation. During athletic events, athletes may return to play after this treatment. The effects of cryotherapy on dominant shoulder proprioception have been assessed, yet the effects on throwing performance are unknown. Objective: To determine the effects of a cryotherapy application on shoulder proprioception and throwing accuracy. Design: Single-group, pretest-posttest control session design. Setting: University-based biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Healthy college-aged subjects (n = 22). Intervention(s): Twenty-minute ice pack application to the dominant shoulder. Main Outcome Measure(s): Active joint position replication, path of joint motion replication, and the Functional Throwing Performance Index. Results: Subjects demonstrated significant increases in deviation for path of joint motion replication when moving from 90° of abduction with 90° of external rotation to 20° of flexion with neutral shoulder rotation after ice pack application. Also, subjects exhibited a decrease in Functional Throwing Performance Index after cryotherapy application. No differences were found in subjects for active joint position replication after cryotherapy application. Conclusions: Proprioception and throwing accuracy were decreased after ice pack application to the shoulder. It is important that clinicians understand the deficits that occur after cryotherapy, as this modality is commonly used following acute injury and during rehabilitation. This information should also be considered when attempting to return an athlete to play after treatment. PMID:17597948

  2. Proprioception and throwing accuracy in the dominant shoulder after cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wassinger, Craig A; Myers, Joseph B; Gatti, Joseph M; Conley, Kevin M; Lephart, Scott M

    2007-01-01

    Application of cryotherapy modalities is common after acute shoulder injury and as part of rehabilitation. During athletic events, athletes may return to play after this treatment. The effects of cryotherapy on dominant shoulder proprioception have been assessed, yet the effects on throwing performance are unknown. To determine the effects of a cryotherapy application on shoulder proprioception and throwing accuracy. Single-group, pretest-posttest control session design. University-based biomechanics laboratory. Healthy college-aged subjects (n = 22). Twenty-minute ice pack application to the dominant shoulder. Active joint position replication, path of joint motion replication, and the Functional Throwing Performance Index. Subjects demonstrated significant increases in deviation for path of joint motion replication when moving from 90 degrees of abduction with 90 degrees of external rotation to 20 degrees of flexion with neutral shoulder rotation after ice pack application. Also, subjects exhibited a decrease in Functional Throwing Performance Index after cryotherapy application. No differences were found in subjects for active joint position replication after cryotherapy application. Proprioception and throwing accuracy were decreased after ice pack application to the shoulder. It is important that clinicians understand the deficits that occur after cryotherapy, as this modality is commonly used following acute injury and during rehabilitation. This information should also be considered when attempting to return an athlete to play after treatment.

  3. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for conjunctival lymphangiectasia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2009-12-01

    To report a case series of conjunctival lymphangiectasia treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. A 1.5-mm Brymill cryoprobe was applied in a double freeze-thaw method after an incisional biopsy of a portion of the conjunctiva in patients with conjunctival lymphangiectasia. Freeze times were 1 to 2 seconds with thawing of 5 to 10 seconds between treatments. Patients were reexamined at 1 day, 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly following cryotherapy. Five eyes of 4 patients (3 male and 1 female) with biopsy-proven conjunctival lymphangiectasia underwent liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. The average patient age was 53 years. Ocular examination revealed large lymphatic vessels that were translucent and without conjunctival injection. Subjective symptoms included epiphora, ocular irritation, eye redness, and occasional blurred vision. After treatment with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy, the patients' symptoms and signs resolved within 2 weeks. Lymphangiectasia recurred twice in one patient, at 1 and 3 years postoperatively. In another patient, lymphangiectasia recurred at 6 months. The average time to recurrence in these 3 eyes was 18 months. Average length of follow-up was 24.5 months for all subjects. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy may be an effective surgical alternative in the treatment of conjunctival lymphangiectasia. Cryotherapy may need to be repeated in some instances.

  4. Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy for Conjunctival Lymphangiectasia: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case series of conjunctival lymphangiectasia treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Methods: A 1.5-mm Brymill cryoprobe was applied in a double freeze-thaw method after an incisional biopsy of a portion of the conjunctiva in patients with conjunctival lymphangiectasia. Freeze times were 1 to 2 seconds with thawing of 5 to 10 seconds between treatments. Patients were reexamined at 1 day, 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly following cryotherapy. Results: Five eyes of 4 patients (3 male and 1 female) with biopsy-proven conjunctival lymphangiectasia underwent liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. The average patient age was 53 years. Ocular examination revealed large lymphatic vessels that were translucent and without conjunctival injection. Subjective symptoms included epiphora, ocular irritation, eye redness, and occasional blurred vision. After treatment with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy, the patients’ symptoms and signs resolved within 2 weeks. Lymphangiectasia recurred twice in one patient, at 1 and 3 years postoperatively. In another patient, lymphangiectasia recurred at 6 months. The average time to recurrence in these 3 eyes was 18 months. Average length of follow-up was 24.5 months for all subjects. Conclusion: Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy may be an effective surgical alternative in the treatment of conjunctival lymphangiectasia. Cryotherapy may need to be repeated in some instances. PMID:20126499

  5. Focal Cryotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tay, K J; Polascik, T J

    2016-07-01

    To systematically review the oncological and functional outcomes of contemporary primary prostate focal cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer in the context of current developments in prostate focal therapy. We performed a systematic search of the Pubmed, Cochrane and Embase databases to identify studies where primary prostate focal cryotherapy was performed to treat prostate cancer. These included reports on focal/ lesion/ sector ablation, hemi-ablation and partial prostate ablation. We excluded salvage focal therapy studies. Where multiple reports were published over time from a single cohort, the latest one was used. Our search yielded 290 publications, including 17 primary reports on eight single-center cohort studies and one multi-center registry report. Of 1,595 men identified, mean age was 60.5-69.5 years and mean PSA 5.1-7.8 ng/ml. When stratified by D'Amico risk criteria, 52% of the aggregate total number of men were low-risk, 38% intermediate-risk and 10% high-risk. Besides 12-core TRUS biopsy, 3 cohorts reported using TTMB and one included mpMRI to select men for focal treatment. Median follow-up ranged from 13-63 months. BPFS ranged from 71-98%. The overall post-treatment positive biopsy rate was 8-25%. Among 5 cohorts with a mandatory 6-12 month posttreatment biopsy, 216 of 272 men (79%) did undergo biopsy, with 47 positive (21.8%). Of these, 15 were infield, 26 outfield, 2 bilateral and 4 undeclared. Ten upgraded to Gleason≥7. Overall, two men had metastatic disease and none died of prostate cancer. Post-treatment continence rates were 96-100% and rates of erectile dysfunction ranged from 0-42%. The rate of post-treatment urinary retention ranged from 0-15%. The rate of recto-urethral fistula was 0-0.1%. Focal cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer is a safe and provides good preservation of sexual and urinary function. Accurate cancer localization and risk stratification is key to patient selection. In highly selected patients, focal therapy

  6. VIA and cryotherapy: doing what's best.

    PubMed

    Chumworathayi, Bandit; Limpaphayom, Kobchitt; Srisupundit, Somkeart; Lumbiganon, Pisake

    2006-08-01

    Cervical cancer kills about 6,000 Thai women annually and has been for decades. The age-standardized incidence ratio (ASR) is 20.9 per 100,000 women-years. A multi-province survey by the Thai National Cancer Institute found that coverage of the previous cervical cancer screening program (i.e. the opportunistic Pap smear) was only 5%. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy, a secondary prevention program, could be a more practical approach for cervical cancer prevention, particularly in low resource, rural, and remote settings. The authors are expanding this program throughout Thailand (in conjunction with the use of the Pap smear when appropriate) with an 80% coverage target. Using both approaches in a complementary fashion should significantly reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer among Thai women.

  7. Treatability by Cryotherapy in a Screen-and-Treat Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Gage, JC; Rodriguez, AC; Schiffman, M; Garcia, FA; Long, LR; Budihas, S; Herrero, R; Burk, RD; Jeronimo, J

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We estimated the percentage of women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV+) who cannot be immediately treated with cryotherapy. Materials and Methods In a 10,000-woman Costa Rican cohort, we analyzed the 559 HPV+ women aged 25-55, and estimated the proportion for whom immediate cryotherapy was not indicated (i.e., invasive cancer, large precancerous lesions, or benign abnormalities that risk failure such as large ectopy, squamocolumnar junction not visualized, polyps, ulcers, or distorted or atrophied cervix). To determine whether cryotherapy at time of baseline HPV screening would effectively treat HPV+ women, two expert gynecologists independently judged entire clinical histories (5-7 years of cytology, histology, and HPV tests) and a full longitudinal series of digitized cervical images.. Results Reviewers judged 144 (25.8%) of 559 HPV+ women as not treatable by immediate cryotherapy. Among 72 women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) who would benefit most from a screening program, 35 (48.6%) were not treatable. In particular, 29 women (40.3%) were determined not treatable for reasons most likely associated with cryotherapy's inadequacy (lesion was large, suspected cancerous or in the endocervical canal or fornix). Conclusions “Screen-and-treat” programs in low-resource settings will soon use a rapid HPV test to screen older women once or twice in their lifetime, identifying women at higher risk for precancer. Our findings suggest cryotherapy might not effectively treat many precancers and other safe, low-technology treatment options could be required, in a scenario where all HPV+ women in this targeted group would receive cryotherapy at the same visit. PMID:19550216

  8. Preoperative cryotherapy use in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Koyonos, Loukas; Owsley, Kevin; Vollmer, Emily; Limpisvasti, Orr; Gambardella, Ralph

    2014-12-01

    Unrelieved postoperative pain may impair rehabilitation, compromise functional outcomes, and lead to patient dissatisfaction. Preemptive multimodal analgesic techniques may improve outcomes after surgery. We hypothesized that patients using preoperative cryotherapy plus a standardized postoperative treatment plan will have lower pain scores and require less pain medication compared with patients receiving a standardized postoperative treatment plan alone after arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). A total of 53 consecutive patients undergoing arthroscopically assisted ACLR performed by one of seven surgeons were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group 1 received no preoperative cryotherapy and group 2 received 30 to 90 minutes of preoperative cryotherapy to the operative leg using a commercial noncompressive cryotherapy unit. Visual analog scale pain scores and narcotic use were recorded for the first 4 days postoperatively. Total hours of cold therapy and continuous passive motion (CPM) use and highest degree of flexion achieved were recorded as well. Group 1 consisted of 26 patients (15 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft bone patellar tendon bone [BPTB]), and group 2 consisted of 27 patients (16 allograft Achilles tendon and 11 autograft BPTB). Group 2 patients reported less pain (average 1.3 units, p < 0.02) and used less narcotic use (average 1.7 tablets, p < 0.02) for the first 36 hours compared with group 1. No statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups with regard to demographics, hours of postoperative cryotherapy, hours of CPM use, or maximum knee flexion achieved. Complications did not occur in either group. This is the first report we are aware of showing the postoperative effects of preoperative cryotherapy. Our results support the safety and efficacy of preoperative cryotherapy in a multimodal pain regimen for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. Thieme

  9. Midportion achilles tendon microcirculation after intermittent combined cryotherapy and compression compared with cryotherapy alone: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Karsten; Grasemann, Ruth; Spies, Marcus; Vogt, Peter M

    2008-11-01

    The effect of combined cryotherapy/compression versus cryotherapy alone on the Achilles tendon is undetermined. Standardized combined cryotherapy/compression changes in midportion Achilles tendon microcirculation are superior to those with cryotherapy during intermittent application. Controlled laboratory study. Sixty volunteers were randomized for either combined cryotherapy/compression (Cryo/Cuff, DJO Inc, Vista, California: n = 30; 32 +/- 11 years) or cryotherapy alone (KoldBlue, TLP Industries, Kent, United Kingdom: n = 30; 33 +/- 12 years) with intermittent 3 x 10-minute application. Midportion Achilles tendon microcirculation was determined (O2C, LEA Medizintechnik, Giessen, Germany). Both Cryo/Cuff and KoldBlue significantly reduced superficial and deep capillary tendon blood flow within the first minute of application (43 +/- 46 arbitrary units [AU] vs 10 +/- 19 AU and 42 +/- 46 AU vs 12 +/- 10 AU; P = .0001) without a significant difference throughout all 3 applications. However, during recovery, superficial and deep capillary blood flow was reestablished significantly faster using Cryo/Cuff (P = .023). Tendon oxygen saturation was reduced in both groups significantly (3 minutes Cryo/Cuff: 36% +/- 20% vs 16% +/- 15%; KoldBlue: 42% +/- 19% vs 28% +/- 20%; P < .05) with significantly stronger effects using Cryo/Cuff (P = .014). Cryo/Cuff led to significantly higher tendon oxygenation (Cryo/Cuff: 62% +/- 28% vs baseline 36% +/- 20%; P = .0001) in superficial and deep tissue (Cryo/Cuff: 73% +/- 14% vs baseline 65% +/- 17%; P = .0001) compared with KoldBlue during all recoveries. Postcapillary venous filling pressures were significantly reduced in both groups during application; however, Cryo/Cuff led to significantly, but marginally, lower pressures (Cryo/Cuff: 41 +/- 7 AU vs baseline 51 +/- 13 AU; P = .0001 and KoldBlue: 46 +/- 7 AU vs baseline 56 +/- 11 AU; P = .026 for Cryo/Cuff vs KoldBlue). Increased tendon oxygenation is achieved as tendon

  10. Is the deleterious effect of cryotherapy on proprioception mitigated by exercise?

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, F; Moreira, S; Neto, J; Oliveira, J

    2013-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the acute effects of cryotherapy on knee position sense and to determine the time period necessary to normalize joint position sense when exercising after cryotherapy. 12 subjects visited the laboratory twice, once for cryotherapy followed by 30 min of exercise on a cycloergometer and once for cryotherapy followed by 30 min of rest. Sessions were randomly determined and separated by 48 h. Cryotherapy was applied in the form of ice bag, filled with 1 kg of crushed ice, for 20 min. Knee position sense was measured at baseline, after cryotherapy and every 5 min after cryotherapy removal until a total of 30 min. The main effect of cryotherapy was significant showing an increase in absolute (F7,154=43.76, p<0.001) and relative (F7,154=7.97, p<0.001) errors after cryotherapy. The intervention after cryotherapy (rest vs. exercise) revealed a significant main effect only for absolute error (F7,154=4.05, p<0.001), i.e., when subjects exercised after cryotherapy, the proprioceptive acuity reached the baseline values faster (10 min vs. 15 min). Our results indicated that the deleterious effect of cryotherapy on proprioception is mitigated by low intensity exercise, being the time necessary to normalize knee position sense reduced from 15 to 10 min. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Bronchoscopic cryotherapy treatment of isolated endoluminal typical carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Bertoletti, Laurent; Elleuch, Rami; Kaczmarek, David; Jean-François, Rita; Vergnon, Jean Michel

    2006-11-01

    Bronchial typical carcinoid tumors are rare. The "gold standard" treatment is surgery, but there is literature to support bronchoscopic therapy with curative intent. Based on the efficacy of cryotherapy for in situ lung cancer, we studied the safety and efficacy of rigid bronchoscopic treatment with cryotherapy on isolated endoluminal typical carcinoid tumors. All the patients from the Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Thoracic Oncology of St. Etienne University Hospital (France), and of Hôpital Notre Dame, University Hospital of Montreal referred with typical carcinoid were screened. Inclusion criteria included the following: proven typical carcinoid, strictly endoluminal disease amenable to bronchoscopic therapy, and no evidence of lymph node invasion. All patients had a complete removal of the tumor, and all patients received cryotherapy to the implantation base. Twenty-nine patients were screened, and 18 were included. Mean age was 47 years, and study population included 11 women. Median follow-up was 55 months. There was a single recurrence 7 years after the initial bronchoscopic treatment. Cryotherapy is a safe and effective adjunct to endobronchial mechanical resection of typical carcinoids. Unlike other adjuncts that have been proposed, cryotherapy is not associated with long-term complications including bronchial stenosis.

  12. How does cryotherapy effect ankle proprioception in healthy individuals?

    PubMed

    Houten, Daniel; Cooper, Darren

    2017-09-01

    Objectives To investigate how a 15-min cryotherapy intervention effects proprioception by measuring joint positional sense (JPS) and static single legged balance. Design Repeated measures design. Setting Laboratory. Participants Eighteen healthy university sports team students (11 males, 7 females) aged between 20 and 21 years old. Main outcome measures Participants were treated with 15 min of Aircast Cryo-cuff. The subject's skin temperature was measured before and immediately after 15 min of cryotherapy treatment. Ankle active joint positional sense (A-JPS) and passive joint positional sense (P-JPS) were measured at pre-test, immediately post-test, and 5 min post-test. Static balance was measured by centre of pressure (CoP) mean path length, medial-lateral (ML) CoP mean deviation, and anterior-posterior (AP) CoP mean deviation and mean time-to-boundary (TtB) minima for AP and ML directions. Results No significant differences were found for the variables of JPS and static single balance testing after 15 min of cryotherapy treatment. However, mean differences for CoP mean path length and ML mean deviation were shown to improve following cryotherapy treatment, results not previously found in the literature. Conclusion Results suggest that 15 min of Cryo-cuff treatment does not significantly affect proprioception. Although the effect of cryotherapy on proprioception depends on cooling modality used, time frame applied, and joint applied to.

  13. Focal cryotherapy in the treatment of localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy D; Allen, Bryan J; Pow-Sang, Julio M

    2013-07-01

    The management choice for newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer presents a challenge to both the physician and the patient. Traditionally, surgery and radiation therapy have been the most commonly recommended options. More recently, active surveillance is recommended as the preferred management choice for a subset of men with localized, low-risk cancer. Recent reports also suggest that focal cryotherapy may be considered as a management option for selected cases of clinically localized prostate cancer. A review of the literature on focal cryotherapy from 2002 to 2012 was performed. Outcomes on cancer control, complications, and quality of life were extracted and assessed. The biochemical disease-free survival at 5 years is comparable to whole gland treatment modalities. Complications are minimal and comparable with other local treatment modalities. Focal cryotherapy is safe and effective, and it may improve failure rates in men who initially pursue active surveillance protocols. Early outcomes with cancer control are encouraging.

  14. Technological aspects of delivering cryotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lau, Benjamin; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Valerio, Massimo; Hamid, Sami; Ahmed, Hashim Uddin; Arya, Manit

    2015-03-01

    Since the era of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, there has been a stage and grade migration seen with prostate cancer along with a reduction in mortality. Subsequently, concerns have been raised about the over treatment of patients following the diagnosis of localized prostate cancers. Cryotherapy, in which extremely low temperatures induce cell death via multiple mechanisms, has seen a drastic improvement in its technology since the 1800s. Such advances have improved oncological outcomes while reducing complication rates. Furthermore, technological advances have allowed the development of focal cryotherapy which aims to reduce morbidity associated with more radical whole-gland therapies. There is growing evidence that focal cryotherapy provides good oncological and morbidity rates when compared with traditional radical/whole-gland therapies.

  15. Hyperbaric gaseous cryotherapy: effects on skin temperature and systemic vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Mourot, Laurent; Cluzeau, Christian; Regnard, Jacques

    2007-10-01

    To compare skin-surface cooling caused by the application of an ice bag (15min) and the projection of carbon dioxide microcristals (2min) under high pressure (75 bar) and low temperature (-78 degrees C), a modality called hyperbaric gaseous cryotherapy. Randomized controlled trial with repeated measure. Laboratory experiment. Twelve healthy male subjects (mean +/- standard deviation, 22.9+/-1.8y). Ice bag and hyperbaric gaseous cryotherapy were randomly applied on the skin of the nondominant hand. Skin temperature of the cooled (dorsal and palmar sides) and contralateral (dorsal side) hands were continuously measured with thermistor surface-contact probes before, during, and after (30min) cooling. Hyperbaric gaseous cryotherapy projection induced a large decrease (P<.05) of the dorsal skin temperature of the cooled hand (from 32.5 degrees +/-0.5 degrees C to 7.3 degrees +/-0.8 degrees C) and a significant decrease of the skin temperature of the palmar side and of the contralateral hand. The skin temperature of the dorsal side of the cooled hand was decreased with an ice bag (from 32.5 degrees +/-0.6 degrees C to 13.9 degrees +/-0.7 degrees C, P<.05). However, the lowest temperature was significantly higher than during hyperbaric gaseous cryotherapy, and no significant changes in the other skin temperatures were observed. Rewarming was equal after the 2 modalities, highlighting a more rapid increase of the skin temperature after hyperbaric gaseous cryotherapy. Hyperbaric gaseous cryotherapy projection decreased the skin temperature of the cooled and contralateral hand, suggesting a systemic skin vasoconstriction response. On the other hand, the vascular responses triggered by ice pack cooling appeared limited and localized to the cooled area.

  16. Hemodynamic instability following airway spray cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Pedoto, Alessia; Desiderio, Dawn; Amar, David; Downey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Spray cryotherapy (SCT) of airway lesions is used to effectively palliate respiratory symptoms related to airway obstruction but significant intraoperative hemodynamic complications have been noted. We reviewed the experience at a single institution using SCT for the treatment of obstructive airway tumors. Methods A retrospective review of a single institution experience with intraoperative and postoperative hemodynamic complications associated with SCT was performed. Descriptive statistics were performed. Results Between June 2009 and April 2010, 34 treatment sessions were performed on 28 patients. Median age was 60 years (range, 15–88 years). Tumor characteristics were as follows: 13 primary lung cancers (43%), 11 pulmonary metastases (50%), 1 direct extension of an esophageal cancer (3%) and 2 benign pulmonary lesions (7%). Twenty-one tumors (75%) were distal to the carina; 14 (50%) were >95% occlusive. Median procedure length was 78 min (range, 15–176 min). Eleven sessions (31%) led to severe hypotension and/or bradycardia, with 2 patients requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. One patient died intraoperatively after cardiac arrest; a second patient was stable intra-operatively but died within 24 h of SCT. Four patients required reintubation and short-term mechanical ventilation. Conclusions Unpredictable life-threatening hemodynamic instability can follow endobronchial SCT. We propose that the most likely cause is pulmonary venous gaseous emboli entering the right heart, the coronary arteries and the systemic circulation. Although SCT may offer advantages over airway laser therapy (such as no risk of fire and rapid hemostasis), further study is needed to delineate the relative likelihood of therapeutic benefit versus catastrophic complications. PMID:27763916

  17. The Use of Ice in Baseball Injuries (Cryotherapy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suspenski, Thomas J.

    Cryotherapy (the use of ice and exercise to rehabilitate athletic injuries) can be an effective method of treating baseball injuries. It is generally agreed that ice is appropriate for the first 24 to 48 hours, but there is disagreement over its use beyond 72 hours. Some physicians and trainers support the use of heat with either exercise or rest,…

  18. Salvage cryotherapy: is there a role for focal therapy?

    PubMed

    Gowardhan, Bharat; Greene, Damian

    2010-05-01

    Prostate cancer treatment has undergone vast development over the last few decades, but the most notable changes have included nerve-sparing open radical prostatectomy, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, including robot-assisted and, more recently, cryotherapy and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). While radical surgery is the current gold standard, the less invasive therapeutic options of cryotherapy and HIFU are regarded as largely experimental by governing bodies. In the case of cryotherapy, a wealth of experience has been accumulated demonstrating its efficacy. Initially used as a salvage treatment for radiation-failed prostate cancer, cryotherapy has been widely used as a primary treatment for localized and locally advanced prostate cancer. More recently, there has been interest expressed in the concept of focal therapy in prostate cancer. This has been evaluated as a primary treatment for prostate cancer, but little information is available regarding the potential use as a salvage treatment. In this article, we evaluate the potential for focal treatment in the salvage setting.

  19. Is Cryotherapy Friend or Foe for Symptomatic Cervical Ectopy?

    PubMed Central

    Çekmez, Yasemin; Şanlıkan, Fatih; Göçmen, Ahmet; Vural, Aylin; Türkmen, Simge Bağcı

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the success rates and clinical outcomes of cervical cryotherapy applied to cervical ectopy for symptomatic relief. Subjects and Methods A total of 124 women who underwent cryotherapy for symptomatic treatment of cervical ectopy were included in this study. Indications for treatment were: abundant leucorrhoea (n = 114), post-coital bleeding (n = 22), recurrent cervicitis (n = 30) and pelvic pain (n = 12). Cryotherapy consisted of the use of carbon dioxide at −89°C to destroy the ectopic columnar epithelium by freezing, and it was transmitted to the ectopy through a flat cryoprobe. No routine anaesthesia or analgesia was administered. All patients were questioned about the status of their symptoms after 6 weeks of treatment. Results The highest success rate was obtained in patients with abundant leucorrhoea (n = 102; 89.5%), while the lowest success rate was achieved in subjects with pelvic pain (n = 7; 58%). After treatment, no severe complications were observed, except for hydrorrhoea for a few days. Success rates were 9 times lower in patients who had 3 or more cervicitis episodes per 6 months. Conclusion In this study, the success rate of cryotherapy was highest in patients with abundant leucorrhoea and lowest in patients with pelvic pain and recurrent cervicitis. Hence, we recommend that clinicians perform the procedure in such patients without much delay. PMID:26436550

  20. The effect of cryotherapy on nerve conduction velocity, pain threshold and pain tolerance.

    PubMed

    Algafly, Amin A; George, Keith P

    2007-06-01

    To determine the impact of the application of cryotherapy on nerve conduction velocity (NCV), pain threshold (PTH) and pain tolerance (PTO). A within-subject experimental design; treatment ankle (cryotherapy) and control ankle (no cryotherapy). Hospital-based physiotherapy laboratory. A convenience sample of adult male sports players (n = 23). NCV of the tibial nerve via electromyogram as well as PTH and PTO via pressure algometer. All outcome measures were assessed at two sites served by the tibial nerve: one receiving cryotherapy and one not receiving cryotherapy. In the control ankle, NCV, PTH and PTO did not alter when reassessed. In the ankle receiving cryotherapy, NCV was significantly and progressively reduced as ankle skin temperature was reduced to 10 degrees C by a cumulative total of 32.8% (p<0.05). Cryotherapy led to an increased PTH and PTO at both assessment sites (p<0.05). The changes in PTH (89% and 71%) and PTO (76% and 56%) were not different between the iced and non-iced sites. The data suggest that cryotherapy can increase PTH and PTO at the ankle and this was associated with a significant decrease in NCV. Reduced NCV at the ankle may be a mechanism by which cryotherapy achieves its clinical goals.

  1. The effect of cryotherapy on nerve conduction velocity, pain threshold and pain tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Algafly, Amin A; George, Keith P

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the impact of the application of cryotherapy on nerve conduction velocity (NCV), pain threshold (PTH) and pain tolerance (PTO). Design A within‐subject experimental design; treatment ankle (cryotherapy) and control ankle (no cryotherapy). Setting Hospital‐based physiotherapy laboratory. Participants A convenience sample of adult male sports players (n = 23). Main outcome measures NCV of the tibial nerve via electromyogram as well as PTH and PTO via pressure algometer. All outcome measures were assessed at two sites served by the tibial nerve: one receiving cryotherapy and one not receiving cryotherapy. Results In the control ankle, NCV, PTH and PTO did not alter when reassessed. In the ankle receiving cryotherapy, NCV was significantly and progressively reduced as ankle skin temperature was reduced to 10°C by a cumulative total of 32.8% (p<0.05). Cryotherapy led to an increased PTH and PTO at both assessment sites (p<0.05). The changes in PTH (89% and 71%) and PTO (76% and 56%) were not different between the iced and non‐iced sites. Conclusions The data suggest that cryotherapy can increase PTH and PTO at the ankle and this was associated with a significant decrease in NCV. Reduced NCV at the ankle may be a mechanism by which cryotherapy achieves its clinical goals. PMID:17224445

  2. Whole-body cryotherapy in athletes.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni; Colombini, Alessandra; Melegati, Gianluca

    2010-06-01

    Cold therapy is commonly used as a procedure to relieve pain symptoms, particularly in inflammatory diseases, injuries and overuse symptoms. A peculiar form of cold therapy (or stimulation) was proposed 30 years ago for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The therapy, called whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), consists of exposure to very cold air that is maintained at -110 degrees C to -140 degrees C in special temperature-controlled cryochambers, generally for 2 minutes. WBC is used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms caused by numerous disorders, particularly those associated with rheumatic conditions, and is recommended for the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia and ankylosing spondylitis. In sports medicine, WBC has gained wider acceptance as a method to improve recovery from muscle injury. Unfortunately, there are few papers concerning the application of the treatment on athletes. The study of possible enhancement of recovery from injuries and possible modification of physiological parameters, taking into consideration the limits imposed by antidoping rules, is crucial for athletes and sports physicians for judging the real benefits and/or limits of WBC. According to the available literature, WBC is not harmful or detrimental in healthy subjects. The treatment does not enhance bone marrow production and could reduce the sport-induced haemolysis. WBC induces oxidative stress, but at a low level. Repeated treatments are apparently not able to induce cumulative effects; on the contrary, adaptive changes on antioxidant status are elicited--the adaptation is evident where WBC precedes or accompanies intense training. WBC is not characterized by modifications of immunological markers and leukocytes, and it seems to not be harmful to the immunological system. The WBC effect is probably linked to the modifications of immunological molecules having paracrine effects, and not to systemic immunological functions. In fact, there is an increase in anti

  3. Interactive planning of cryotherapy using physics-based simulation.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Hugo; Lekkal, Myriam; Bessard-Duparc, Remi; Cotin, Stephane

    2014-01-01

    Cryotherapy is a rapidly growing minimally invasive technique for the treatment of certain tumors. It consists in destroying cancer cells by extreme cold delivered at the tip of a needle-like probe. As the resulting iceball is often smaller than the targeted tumor, a key to the success of cryotherapy is the planning of the position and orientation of the multiple probes required to treat a tumor, while avoiding any damage to the surrounding tissues. In order to provide such a planning tool, a number of challenges need to be addressed such as fast and accurate computation of the freezing process or interactive positioning of the virtual cryoprobes in the pre-operative image volume. To address these challenges, we present an approach which relies on an advanced computational framework, and a gesture-based planning system using contact-less technology to remain compatible with a use in a sterile environment.

  4. Numerical analysis of whole-body cryotherapy chamber design improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerezhep, D.; Tukmakova, A. S.; Fomin, V. E.; Masalimov, A.; Asach, A. V.; Novotelnova, A. V.; Baranov, A. Yu

    2018-05-01

    Whole body cryotherapy is a state-of-the-art method that uses cold for treatment and prevention of diseases. The process implies the impact of cryogenic gas on a human body that implements in a special cryochamber. The temperature field in the chamber is of great importance since local integument over-cooling may occur. Numerical simulation of WBC has been carried out. Chamber design modification has been proposed in order to increase the uniformity of the internal temperature field. The results have been compared with the ones obtained for a standard chamber design. The value of temperature gradient formed in the chamber containing curved wall with certain height has been decreased almost twice in comparison with the results obtained for the standard design. The modification proposed may increase both safety and comfort of cryotherapy.

  5. Cryotherapy and ankle motion in chronic venous disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kelechi, Teresa J.; Mueller, Martina; Zapka, Jane G.; King, Dana E.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared ankle range of motion (AROM) including dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion and eversion, and venous refill time (VRT) in leg skin inflamed by venous disorders, before and after a new cryotherapy ulcer prevention treatment. Fifty-seven-individuals participated in the randomized clinical trial; 28 in the experimental group and 29 received usual care only. Results revealed no statistically significant differences between the experimental and usual care groups although AROM measures in the experimental group showed a consistent, non-clinically relevant decrease compared to the usual care group except for dorsiflexion. Within treatment group comparisons of VRT results showed a statistically significant increase in both dorsiflexion and plantar flexion for patients with severe VRT in the experimental group (6.9 ± 6.8; p = 0.002 and 5.8 ± 12.6; p = 0.02, respectively). Cryotherapy did not further restrict already compromised AROM, and in some cases, there were minor improvements. PMID:23516043

  6. Depigmentation therapy in vitiligo universalis with cryotherapy and 4-hydroxyanisole.

    PubMed

    Di Nuzzo, S; Masotti, A

    2010-03-01

    Vitiligo is a disease characterized by the loss of melanocytes, resulting in progressive depigmentation of skin, and areas of normally pigmented skin can be of cosmetic concern. Several options have been tried to remove the pigment and make the skin a more even colour. We present an easy and effective therapeutic procedure based on single-session cryotherapy followed by topical 4-hydroxyanisole (4-HA).

  7. Combined dendritic cell cryotherapy of tumor induces systemic antimetastatic immunity.

    PubMed

    Machlenkin, Arthur; Goldberger, Ofir; Tirosh, Boaz; Paz, Adrian; Volovitz, Ilan; Bar-Haim, Erez; Lee, Sung-Hyung; Vadai, Ezra; Tzehoval, Esther; Eisenbach, Lea

    2005-07-01

    Cryotherapy of localized prostate, renal, and hepatic primary tumors and metastases is considered a minimally invasive treatment demonstrating a low complication rate in comparison with conventional surgery. The main drawback of cryotherapy is that it has no systemic effect on distant metastases. We investigated whether intratumoral injections of dendritic cells following cryotherapy of local tumors (cryoimmunotherapy) provides an improved approach to cancer treatment, combining local tumor destruction and systemic anticancer immunity. The 3LL murine Lewis lung carcinoma clone D122 and the ovalbumin-transfected B16 melanoma clone MO5 served as models for spontaneous metastasis. The antimetastatic effect of cryoimmunotherapy was assessed in the lung carcinoma model by monitoring mouse survival, lung weight, and induction of tumor-specific CTLs. The mechanism of cryoimmunotherapy was elucidated in the melanoma model using adoptive transfer of T cell receptor transgenic OT-I CTLs into the tumor-bearing mice, and analysis of Th1/Th2 responses by intracellular cytokine staining in CD4 and CD8 cells. Cryoimmunotherapy caused robust and tumor-specific CTL responses, increased Th1 responses, significantly prolonged survival and dramatically reduced lung metastasis. Although intratumor administration of dendritic cells alone increased the proliferation rate of CD8 cells, only cryoimmunotherapy resulted in the generation of effector memory cells. Furthermore, cryoimmunotherapyprotected mice that had survived primary MO5 tumors from rechallenge with parental tumors. These results present cryoimmunotherapy as a novel approach for systemic treatment of cancer. We envisage that cryotherapy of tumors combined with subsequent in situ immunotherapy by autologous unmodified immature dendritic cells can be applied in practice.

  8. Endoscopic spray cryotherapy for esophageal cancer: safety and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Bruce D.; Dumot, John A.; Abrams, Julian A.; Lightdale, Charles J.; David, Donald S.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Yachimski, Patrick; Johnston, Mark H.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Zfass, Alvin M.; Smith, Jenny O.; Gill, Kanwar Rupinder S.; Burdick, J. Steven; Mallat, Damien; Wolfsen, Herbert C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Few options exist for patients with localized esophageal cancer ineligible for conventional therapies. Endoscopic spray cryotherapy with low-pressure liquid nitrogen has demonstrated efficacy in this setting in early studies. Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of cryotherapy in esophageal carcinoma. Design Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. Setting Ten academic and community medical centers between 2006 and 2009. Patients Subjects with esophageal carcinoma in whom conventional therapy failed and those who refused or were ineligible for conventional therapy. Interventions Cryotherapy with follow-up biopsies. Treatment was complete when tumor eradication was confirmed by biopsy or when treatment was halted because of tumor progression, patient preference, or comorbid condition. Main Outcome Measurements Complete eradication of luminal cancer and adverse events. Results Seventy-nine subjects (median age 76 years, 81% male, 94% with adenocarcinoma) were treated. Tumor stage included T1-60, T2-16, and T3/4-3. Mean tumor length was 4.0 cm (range 1–15 cm). Previous treatment including endoscopic resection, photodynamic therapy, esophagectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy failed in 53 subjects (67%). Forty-nine completed treatment. Complete response of intraluminal disease was seen in 31 of 49 subjects (61.2%), including 18 of 24 (75%) with mucosal cancer. Mean (standard deviation) length of follow-up after treatment was 10.6 (8.4) months overall and 11.5 (2.8) months for T1 disease. No serious adverse events were reported. Benign stricture developed in 10 (13%), with esophageal narrowing from previous endoscopic resection, radiotherapy, or photodynamic therapy noted in 9 of 10 subjects. Limitations Retrospective study design, short follow-up. Conclusions Spray cryotherapy is safe and well tolerated for esophageal cancer. Short-term results suggest that it is effective in those who could not receive conventional treatment, especially for

  9. Endoscopic spray cryotherapy for esophageal cancer: safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Bruce D; Dumot, John A; Abrams, Julian A; Lightdale, Charles J; David, Donald S; Nishioka, Norman S; Yachimski, Patrick; Johnston, Mark H; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Zfass, Alvin M; Smith, Jenny O; Gill, Kanwar Rupinder S; Burdick, J Steven; Mallat, Damien; Wolfsen, Herbert C

    2010-04-01

    Few options exist for patients with localized esophageal cancer ineligible for conventional therapies. Endoscopic spray cryotherapy with low-pressure liquid nitrogen has demonstrated efficacy in this setting in early studies. To assess the safety and efficacy of cryotherapy in esophageal carcinoma. Multicenter, retrospective cohort study. Ten academic and community medical centers between 2006 and 2009. Subjects with esophageal carcinoma in whom conventional therapy failed and those who refused or were ineligible for conventional therapy. Cryotherapy with follow-up biopsies. Treatment was complete when tumor eradication was confirmed by biopsy or when treatment was halted because of tumor progression, patient preference, or comorbid condition. Complete eradication of luminal cancer and adverse events. Seventy-nine subjects (median age 76 years, 81% male, 94% with adenocarcinoma) were treated. Tumor stage included T1-60, T2-16, and T3/4-3. Mean tumor length was 4.0 cm (range 1-15 cm). Previous treatment including endoscopic resection, photodynamic therapy, esophagectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy failed in 53 subjects (67%). Forty-nine completed treatment. Complete response of intraluminal disease was seen in 31 of 49 subjects (61.2%), including 18 of 24 (75%) with mucosal cancer. Mean (standard deviation) length of follow-up after treatment was 10.6 (8.4) months overall and 11.5 (2.8) months for T1 disease. No serious adverse events were reported. Benign stricture developed in 10 (13%), with esophageal narrowing from previous endoscopic resection, radiotherapy, or photodynamic therapy noted in 9 of 10 subjects. Retrospective study design, short follow-up. Spray cryotherapy is safe and well tolerated for esophageal cancer. Short-term results suggest that it is effective in those who could not receive conventional treatment, especially for those with mucosal cancer. Copyright 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  10. Cryotherapy does not impair shoulder joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Dover, Geoffrey; Powers, Michael E

    2004-08-01

    To determine the effects of a cryotherapy treatment on shoulder proprioception. Crossover design with repeated measures. University athletic training and sports medicine research laboratory. Thirty healthy subjects (15 women, 15 men). A 30-minute cryotherapy treatment. Joint position sense was measured in the dominant shoulder by using an inclinometer before and after receiving 30 minutes of either no ice or a 1-kg ice bag application. Skin temperature was measured below the tip of the acromion process and recorded every 5 minutes for the entire 30 minutes and immediately after testing. Three different types of error scores were calculated for data analyses and used to determine proprioception. Separate analyses of absolute, constant, and variable error failed to identify changes in shoulder joint proprioception as a function of the cryotherapy application. Application of an ice bag to the shoulder does not impair joint position sense. The control of proprioception at the shoulder may be more complex than at other joints in the body. Clinical implications may involve modifying rehabilitation considerations when managing shoulder injuries.

  11. Intralesional vincristine combined with cryotherapy for recalcitrant verrucas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Rok; Youn, Jeong-Hwan; Roh, Joo-Young

    2011-01-01

    Verrucas are often recalcitrant to conventional cryotherapy. Since 1970, intralesional bleomycin has been used off-label by dermatologists. But in some cases, the results of intralesional bleomycin were disappointing. Vincristine is a well-known vinca alkaloid antiblastic drug that has been used for treating hematological neoplasm and nephroblastomas. It was reported good efficacy of intralesional vincristine for treating nodular lesion in classic Kaposi sarcoma. Its use in epithelial neoplasm and Kaposi sarcoma may support its efficacy in recalcitrant verrucas. The three patients selected for the study presented severe verrucas on foot, and they had already undergone cryotherapy several times and there was no improvement. They got intralesional vincristine injection on their verrucas. The target lesion was infiltrated with 0.03 mL of vincristine sulphate at a concentration of 1 µg/mL. The injected amount of vincristine was proportional to the diameter of the nodule. After two treatments had been completed, there was a great decrease of lesion size compared with the other lesions. The three patients complained of pain lasting for several days. This pain was generally well tolerated. Intralesional vincristine injection on verruca is an effective and rapid novel method, and when combined with cryotherapy, shows excellent therapeutic response. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Extensive cutaneous chromomycosis: Efficacy of combined terbinafine and cryotherapy].

    PubMed

    Elkhachine, Y; Elbenaye, J; Er-Rami, M; Sakkah, A; Jakar, A; Elhaouri, M

    2018-05-17

    Chromomycosis is a chronic fungal skin infection, mainly affecting the limbs. It is responsible for severe morbidity and its treatment remains long and disappointing. Rarely described in Morocco, we report a new observation that has evolved very well under treatment combining terbinafine and cryotherapy over a short duration. A 56-year-old patient, immunocompetent, had a pustular and crusty placard on both forearms that had evolved for a year. Mycological examination showed fumagoid bodies and cutaneous biopsy showed epithelioid granulomas and giant cells without necrosis. The PCR confirmed a chromomycosis at Fonsecaea pedrosoi. HIV serology was negative. Treatment with terbinafine 250mg/d for 6months combined to cryotherapy resulted in complete remission with initial clinical improvement after only 3 weeks. Chromomycosis occurs increasingly in non-tropical areas. If diagnostic methods become more effective, management remains difficult and poorly codified. Terbinafine-cryotherapy combination would bring a lot of benefits with a little risk to bothpractitioner and patient. This combined treatment would constitute an excellent therapeutic alternative because of its efficiency, feasibility, low cost, method of administration and aesthetic result. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Oral Cryotherapy for Preventing Oral Mucositis in Patients Receiving Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Riley, Philip; McCabe, Martin G; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2016-10-01

    In patients receiving treatment for cancer, does oral cryotherapy prevent oral mucositis? Oral cryotherapy is effective for the prevention of oral mucositis in adults receiving fluorouracil-based chemotherapy for solid cancers, and for the prevention of severe oral mucositis in adults receiving high-dose melphalan-based chemotherapy before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

  14. Cryotherapy Reduces Inflammatory Response Without Altering Muscle Regeneration Process and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling of Rat Muscle.

    PubMed

    Vieira Ramos, Gracielle; Pinheiro, Clara Maria; Messa, Sabrina Peviani; Delfino, Gabriel Borges; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Salvini, Tania de Fátima; Durigan, Joao Luiz Quagliotti

    2016-01-04

    The application of cryotherapy is widely used in sports medicine today. Cooling could minimize secondary hypoxic injury through the reduction of cellular metabolism and injury area. Conflicting results have also suggested cryotherapy could delay and impair the regeneration process. There are no definitive findings about the effects of cryotherapy on the process of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a clinical-like cryotherapy on inflammation, regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling on the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats 3, 7 and 14 days post-injury. It was observed that the intermittent application of cryotherapy (three 30-minute sessions, every 2 h) in the first 48 h post-injury decreased inflammatory processes (mRNA levels of TNF-α, NF-κB, TGF-β and MMP-9 and macrophage percentage). Cryotherapy did not alter regeneration markers such as injury area, desmin and Myod expression. Despite regulating Collagen I and III and their growth factors, cryotherapy did not alter collagen deposition. In summary, clinical-like cryotherapy reduces the inflammatory process through the decrease of macrophage infiltration and the accumulation of the inflammatory key markers without influencing muscle injury area and ECM remodeling.

  15. Cryotherapy Reduces Inflammatory Response Without Altering Muscle Regeneration Process and Extracellular Matrix Remodeling of Rat Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Vieira Ramos, Gracielle; Pinheiro, Clara Maria; Messa, Sabrina Peviani; Delfino, Gabriel Borges; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Salvini, Tania de Fátima; Durigan, Joao Luiz Quagliotti

    2016-01-01

    The application of cryotherapy is widely used in sports medicine today. Cooling could minimize secondary hypoxic injury through the reduction of cellular metabolism and injury area. Conflicting results have also suggested cryotherapy could delay and impair the regeneration process. There are no definitive findings about the effects of cryotherapy on the process of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a clinical-like cryotherapy on inflammation, regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling on the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats 3, 7 and 14 days post-injury. It was observed that the intermittent application of cryotherapy (three 30-minute sessions, every 2 h) in the first 48 h post-injury decreased inflammatory processes (mRNA levels of TNF-α, NF-κB, TGF-β and MMP-9 and macrophage percentage). Cryotherapy did not alter regeneration markers such as injury area, desmin and Myod expression. Despite regulating Collagen I and III and their growth factors, cryotherapy did not alter collagen deposition. In summary, clinical-like cryotherapy reduces the inflammatory process through the decrease of macrophage infiltration and the accumulation of the inflammatory key markers without influencing muscle injury area and ECM remodeling. PMID:26725948

  16. Cellulitis Secondary to Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Christina M; Lu, Emily Y; Kirchhof, Mark G

    Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is a commonly used technique to treat a wide variety of dermatologic conditions including actinic keratoses, non-melanoma skin cancers, verrucae, and seborrheic keratoses. The risks associated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy are important to know and discuss with patients prior to treatment. We report a case of cellulitis secondary to liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for actinic keratosis. We sought to review the literature for an estimate of secondary infection rates following cryotherapy treatment. We searched Pubmed using the terms cryotherapy and infection or cellulitis. We then looked at articles classified as clinical trials where cryotherapy was used to treat skin conditions. We then selected clinical trials that listed cellulitis or infection as an adverse event. There were no case reports, case series, or review articles detailing the risk of infection from liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. We found 8 articles classified as clinical trials on Pubmed that did list infection as an adverse event. The risk of infection from these studies varied from approximately 2% to 30%. There was a great degree of heterogeneity in treatment sites, length of treatment, and treatment targets. While it is difficult to determine the true incidence of infection from liquid nitrogen cryotherapy, clinicians should endeavor to inform patients of this potential risk.

  17. The use of thermal imaging to monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy: A systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matos, Filipe; Neves, Eduardo Borba; Norte, Marco; Rosa, Claudio; Reis, Victor Machado; Vilaça-Alves, José

    2015-11-01

    Cryotherapy has been applied on clinical injuries and as a method for exercise recovery. It is aimed to reduce edema, nervous conduction velocity, and tissue metabolism, as well as to accelerate the recovery process of the muscle injury induced by exercise. Objective: This review aim to investigate the applicability of thermal imaging as a method for monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy. Method: Search the Web of Science database using the terms "Cryotherapy", "Thermography", "Thermal Image" and "Cooling". Results: Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria and pass the PEDro scale quality evaluation. Evidence support the use of thermal imaging as a method for monitoring the skin temperature during cryotherapy, and it is superior to other contact methods and subjective methods of assessing skin temperature. Conclusion: Thermography seems to be an efficient, trustworthy and secure method in order to monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy application. Evidence supports the use of thermography in detriment of contact methods as well as other subjective ones.

  18. Cryotherapy and Joint Position Sense in Healthy Participants: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Joseph T.; Donnelly, Alan E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To (1) search the English-language literature for original research addressing the effect of cryotherapy on joint position sense (JPS) and (2) make recommendations regarding how soon healthy athletes can safely return to participation after cryotherapy. Data Sources: We performed an exhaustive search for original research using the AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SportDiscus databases from 1973 to 2009 to gather information on cryotherapy and JPS. Key words used were cryotherapy and proprioception, cryotherapy and joint position sense, cryotherapy, and proprioception. Study Selection: The inclusion criteria were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) participants were human, (3) an outcome measure included JPS, (4) participants were healthy, and (5) participants were tested immediately after a cryotherapy application to a joint. Data Extraction: The means and SDs of the JPS outcome measures were extracted and used to estimate the effect size (Cohen d) and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparisons of JPS before and after a cryotherapy treatment. The numbers, ages, and sexes of participants in all 7 selected studies were also extracted. Data Synthesis: The JPS was assessed in 3 joints: ankle (n  =  2), knee (n  =  3), and shoulder (n  =  2). The average effect size for the 7 included studies was modest, with effect sizes ranging from −0.08 to 1.17, with a positive number representing an increase in JPS error. The average methodologic score of the included studies was 5.4/10 (range, 5–6) on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Conclusions: Limited and equivocal evidence is available to address the effect of cryotherapy on proprioception in the form of JPS. Until further evidence is provided, clinicians should be cautious when returning individuals to tasks requiring components of proprioceptive input immediately after a cryotherapy treatment. PMID:20446845

  19. Cryotherapy and joint position sense in healthy participants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Costello, Joseph T; Donnelly, Alan E

    2010-01-01

    To (1) search the English-language literature for original research addressing the effect of cryotherapy on joint position sense (JPS) and (2) make recommendations regarding how soon healthy athletes can safely return to participation after cryotherapy. We performed an exhaustive search for original research using the AMED, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SportDiscus databases from 1973 to 2009 to gather information on cryotherapy and JPS. Key words used were cryotherapy and proprioception, cryotherapy and joint position sense, cryotherapy, and proprioception. The inclusion criteria were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) participants were human, (3) an outcome measure included JPS, (4) participants were healthy, and (5) participants were tested immediately after a cryotherapy application to a joint. The means and SDs of the JPS outcome measures were extracted and used to estimate the effect size (Cohen d) and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparisons of JPS before and after a cryotherapy treatment. The numbers, ages, and sexes of participants in all 7 selected studies were also extracted. The JPS was assessed in 3 joints: ankle (n = 2), knee (n = 3), and shoulder (n = 2). The average effect size for the 7 included studies was modest, with effect sizes ranging from -0.08 to 1.17, with a positive number representing an increase in JPS error. The average methodologic score of the included studies was 5.4/10 (range, 5-6) on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. Limited and equivocal evidence is available to address the effect of cryotherapy on proprioception in the form of JPS. Until further evidence is provided, clinicians should be cautious when returning individuals to tasks requiring components of proprioceptive input immediately after a cryotherapy treatment.

  20. Icing oral mucositis: Oral cryotherapy in multiple myeloma patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Joey; Seabrook, Jamie; Fulford, Adrienne; Rajakumar, Irina

    2017-03-01

    Background Up to 70% of patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplant develop oral mucositis as a side effect of high-dose melphalan conditioning chemotherapy. Oral cryotherapy has been documented to be potentially effective in reducing oral mucositis. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the cryotherapy protocol implemented within the hematopoietic stem cell transplant program. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of adult multiple myeloma patients who received high-dose melphalan conditioning therapy for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Primary endpoints were incidence and severity of oral mucositis. Secondary endpoints included duration of oral mucositis, duration of hospital stay, parenteral narcotics use and total parenteral nutrition use. Results One hundred and forty patients were included in the study, 70 patients in both no cryotherapy and cryotherapy groups. Both oral mucositis incidence and severity were found to be significantly lower in the cryotherapy group. Fifty (71.4%) experienced mucositis post cryotherapy compared to 67 (95.7%) in the no cryotherapy group (p < 0.001). The median oral mucositis severity, assessed using the WHO oral toxicity scale from grade 0-4, experienced in the no group was 2.5 vs. 2 in the cryotherapy group (p = 0.03). Oral mucositis duration and use of parenteral narcotics were also significantly reduced. Duration of hospital stay and use of parenteral nutrition were similar between the two groups. Conclusion The cryotherapy protocol resulted in a significantly lower incidence and severity of oral mucositis. These results provide evidence for the continued use of oral cryotherapy, an inexpensive and generally well-tolerated practice.

  1. Low-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Versus Cryotherapy in Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gestaut, Matthew M., E-mail: Matthew.Gestaut@BSWHealth.org; Cai, Wendi; Vyas, Shilpa

    Purpose: Cryotherapy and brachytherapy are definitive local treatment options for low- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer. There are both prospective and retrospective data for brachytherapy, but the use of cryotherapy has been limited primarily to single-institution retrospective studies. Currently, no published evidence has compared low-dose-rate brachytherapy versus cryotherapy. Methods and Materials: Institutional review board approval was obtained to conduct a retrospective chart review of consecutive patients treated at our institution from 1990 to 2012. For inclusion, patients must have received a prostate cancer diagnosis and have been considered to have low- to intermediate-risk disease according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Networkmore » criteria. All patients received brachytherapy or cryotherapy treatment. Disease specifics and failure details were collected for all patients. Failure was defined as prostate-specific antigen nadir +2 ng/mL. Results: A total of 359 patients were analyzed. The groups comprised 50 low-risk cryotherapy (LRC), 92 intermediate-risk cryotherapy (IRC), 133 low-risk brachytherapy (LRB), and 84 intermediate-risk brachytherapy (IRB) patients. The median prostate-specific antigen follow-up periods were 85.6 months (LRC), 59.2 months (IRC), 74.9 months (LRB), and 59.8 months (IRB). The 5-year biochemical progression–free survival (bPFS) rate was 57.9% in the cryotherapy group versus 89.6% in the brachytherapy group (P<.0001). The 5-year bPFS rate was 70.0% (LRC), 51.4% (IRC), 89.4% (LRB), and 89.7% (IRB). The bPFS rate was significantly different between brachytherapy and cryotherapy for low- and intermediate-risk groups (P<.05). The mean nadir temperature reached for cryotherapy patients was −35°C (range, −96°C to −6°C). Cryotherapy used a median of 2 freeze-thaw cycles (range, 2-4 freeze-thaw cycles). Conclusions: Results from this study suggest that cryotherapy is inferior to brachytherapy for

  2. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases. PMID:23569366

  3. Oral cryotherapy reduces mucositis and opioid use after myeloablative therapy--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Anncarin; Birgegård, Gunnar; Ohrn, Kerstin

    2007-10-01

    Mucositis is a major complication in myeloablative therapy, which often necessitates advanced pharmacological pain treatment, including i.v. opioids. Attempts to prevent oral mucositis have included oral cryotherapy, which has been shown to reduce mucositis, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning the effect of oral cryotherapy on opioid use by reducing the mucositis for patients treated with myeloablative therapy before bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate if oral cryotherapy could delay or alleviate the development of mucositis and thereby reduce the number of days with i.v. opioids among patients who receive myeloablative therapy before BMT. Eighty patients 18 years and older, scheduled for BMT, were included consecutively and randomised to oral cryotherapy or standard oral care. A stratified randomisation was used with regard to type of transplantation. Intensity of pain, severity of mucositis and use of opioids were recorded using pain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, mucositis index scores and medical and nursing charts. This study showed that patients receiving oral cryotherapy had less pronounced mucositis and significantly fewer days with i.v. opioids than the control group. In the autologous setting, cryotherapy patients also needed significantly lower total dose of opioids. Oral cryotherapy is an effective and well-tolerated therapy to alleviate mucositis and consequently reduce the number of days with i.v. opioids among patients treated with myeloablative therapy before BMT.

  4. Kinesio® Tape Barrier Does Not Inhibit Intramuscular Cooling During Cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Katie J; McCrone, Michael; Hanson, Thomas A; Mellinger, Christopher D; Gange, Kara

    2018-05-29

    Allied health care professionals commonly apply cryotherapy as treatment for acute musculoskeletal trauma and the associated symptoms. Understanding the impact of a tape barrier on intramuscular temperature can assist in determining treatment duration for effective cryotherapy. To determine whether Kinesio® Tape acts as a barrier that affects intramuscular temperature during cryotherapy application. A repeated-measures, counterbalanced design in which the independent variable was tape application and the dependent variable was muscle temperature as measured by thermocouples placed 1 cm beneath the adipose layer. Additional covariates for robustness were BMI and adipose thickness. University research laboratory. 19 male college students with no contraindications to cryotherapy, no known sensitivity to Kinesio® Tape, and no reported quadriceps injury within the past six months. Topical cryotherapy: crushed-ice bags of 1 kg and 0.5 kg. Intramuscular temperature. The tape barrier had no statistically significant effect on muscle temperature. The pattern of temperature change was indistinguishable between participants with and without tape application. Findings suggest health care professionals can combine cryotherapy with a Kinesio® Tape application without any need for adjustments to cryotherapy duration.

  5. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of cryotherapy on pain, eyelid oedema and facial ecchymosis after craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong Soon; Lim, Nan Young; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Park, Kwang Ok

    2009-11-01

    To identify the effects of cryotherapy on patient discomfort following craniotomy. Following craniotomy, many patients suffer from unexpected discomfort, including pain, eyelid oedema and ecchymosis. Cryotherapy is regarded as a safe method for managing these postcraniotomy problems. Randomised controlled trial. A total of 97 Korean patients who underwent elective supratentorial craniotomy were randomly assigned to a cryotherapy or a control group. In the cryotherapy group, ice bags were applied to surgical wounds, and cold gel packs were applied to periorbital areas, for 20 minutes per hour, beginning three hours postoperatively and for three days thereafter. The level of patient pain was measured using the visual analogue scale while the eyelid oedema was measured using the Kara & Gokalan's scale. Ecchymosis was also classified according to its extent. The level of pain three hours after craniotomy was similar in the cryotherapy and control groups (57.9 vs. 58.7). Three days after surgery, pain had significantly decreased in the cryotherapy group (p = 0.021). After adjusting diagnosis by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), pain score did not differ significantly between the two groups. The mean eyelid oedema scores were lower in the cryotherapy group than in the control group (0.59 vs. 2.29, p < 0.001), with ANCOVA showing that cryotherapy had a significant effect on eyelid oedema (p < 0.001). Pain (p = 0.047) and eyelid oedema (p < 0.001) in the cryotherapy group were significantly decreased over time. Ecchymosis were significantly less frequent in the cryotherapy (11/48, 22.9%) than in the control (26/49, 53.1%) group (p = 0.003). Logistic regression analysis showed that cryotherapy affected ecchymosis (p = 0.001). These results indicate that cryotherapy can control pain, eyelid oedema and facial ecchymosis after craniotomy. Cryotherapy, which is both convenient and cost-effective, can be used to prevent postoperative discomforts in a clinical setting.

  6. Effectiveness of different cryotherapies on pain and disease activity in active rheumatoid arthritis. A randomised single blinded controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, H E; Mikkelsson, M K; Kautiainen, H; Pohjolainen, T H; Leirisalo-Repo, M

    2006-01-01

    Local cryotherapy is used to relieve pain and inflammation in injuries and inflammatory conditions. Whole-body cryotherapy is an extreme method administered at -110 degrees C for 2 to 3 minutes. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of cryotherapies on pain and inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Sixty patients with active seropositive RA were recruited in a randomised controlled single-blinded study to receive whole-body cryotherapy at -110 degrees C, whole-body cryotherapy at -60 degrees C, application of local cold air at -30 degrees C and the use of cold packs locally. In the final analysis, the last 2 groups were pooled. The patients had 2-3 cryotherapy sessions daily for one week plus conventional physiotherapy. Clinical and laboratory variables and patient's and physician's global assessments were used to assess the outcome. Disease activity was calculated by DAS. Pain decreased in all treatment groups, most markedly in the whole-body cryotherapy (-110 degrees C) group. DAS decreased slightly with no statistically significant differences between the groups. No serious or permanent adverse effects were detected. Six of 40 patients (15%) discontinued the whole-body cryotherapy. Pain seemed to decrease more in patients in the whole-body cryotherapy at -110 degrees C than during other cryotherapies, but there were no significant differences in the disease activity between the groups. However, cryotherapy at -110 degrees C is expensive and available only in special centres and may have minor adverse effects. Based on our results, whole-body cryotherapy at -110 degrees C is not superior to local cryotherapy commonly used in RA patients for pain relief and as an adjunct to physiotherapy.

  7. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below -100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC.

  8. Whole-body cryotherapy: empirical evidence and theoretical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Chris M; Bieuzen, François; Davison, Gareth W; Costello, Joseph T

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below −100°C. WBC is increasingly accessible to athletes, and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and facilitate rehabilitation postinjury. Our objective was to review the efficacy and effectiveness of WBC using empirical evidence from controlled trials. We found ten relevant reports; the majority were based on small numbers of active athletes aged less than 35 years. Although WBC produces a large temperature gradient for tissue cooling, the relatively poor thermal conductivity of air prevents significant subcutaneous and core body cooling. There is weak evidence from controlled studies that WBC enhances antioxidant capacity and parasympathetic reactivation, and alters inflammatory pathways relevant to sports recovery. A series of small randomized studies found WBC offers improvements in subjective recovery and muscle soreness following metabolic or mechanical overload, but little benefit towards functional recovery. There is evidence from one study only that WBC may assist rehabilitation for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. There were no adverse events associated with WBC; however, studies did not seem to undertake active surveillance of predefined adverse events. Until further research is available, athletes should remain cognizant that less expensive modes of cryotherapy, such as local ice-pack application or cold-water immersion, offer comparable physiological and clinical effects to WBC. PMID:24648779

  9. CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF CRYOTHERAPY AMONG SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPISTS.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Shawn W; Hawkins, Jeremy R

    2016-02-01

    Therapeutic modalities (TM) are used by sports physical therapists (SPT) but how they are used is unknown. To identify the current clinical use patterns for cryotherapy among SPT. Cross-sectional survey. All members (7283) of the Sports Physical Therapy Section of the APTA were recruited. A scenario-based survey using pre-participation management of an acute or sub-acute ankle sprain was developed. A Select Survey link was distributed via email to participants. Respondents selected a treatment approach based upon options provided. Follow-up questions were asked. The survey was available for two weeks with a follow-up email sent after one week. Question answers were the main outcome measures. Reliability: Cronbach's alpha=>0.9. The SPT response rate = 6.9% (503); responses came from 48 states. Survey results indicated great variability in respondents' approaches to the treatment of an acute and sub-acute ankle sprain. SPT applied cryotherapy with great variability and not always in accordance to the limited research on the TM. Continuing education, application of current research, and additional outcomes based research needs to remain a focus for clinicians. 3.

  10. Intralesional cryotherapy for hypertrophic scars and keloids: a review

    PubMed Central

    O’Boyle, Ciaran P; Shayan-Arani, Holleh; Hamada, Maha Wagdy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertrophic and keloid scarring remain notoriously troublesome for patients to tolerate and frustratingly difficult for clinicians to treat. Many different treatment modalities exist, signifying the failure of any method to achieve consistently excellent results. Intralesional cryotherapy is a relatively recent development that uses a double lumen needle, placed through the core of a keloid or hypertrophic scar, to deliver nitrogen vapour, which freezes the scar from its core, outwards. Methods: This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature on intralesional cryotherapy for hypertrophic scars and keloids. A systematic review or meta-analysis was not possible, since the existing articles did not permit this. Results: A search of English language, peer-reviewed literature was carried out. The evidence base was found to be low (level 4). In addition, much of the published evidence comes from a very few groups. Despite this, consistent findings from case series suggest that the technique is safe and achieves good scar reduction with very few treatments. Adverse effects include depigmentation, recurrence and pain. Pain and recurrence appear to be uncommon and depigmentation may be temporary. Discussion: Well-constructed, prospectively recruited comparative trials are absent from the literature. These are strongly encouraged, in order to strengthen general confidence in this technique and in the repeatability of outcomes reported thus far. PMID:29799581

  11. Current status of spray cryotherapy for airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Ryan F.; Lile, Deacon J.

    2017-01-01

    The use of liquid nitrogen to treat skin and mucosal lesions is well understood in the dermatologic and gastrointestinal literature. Direct spray cryotherapy (SCT) in the airway has shown promising results in the treatment of esophageal premalignant and even invasive lesions. In the airway, several studies have shown it to be a safe, effective treatment for both benign and malignant disease. It is easily administered in the outpatient setting and can be repeated several times without undue side effects. In this article, we review the current literature on the use of SCT for the treatment of endobronchial lesions and also describe our own institutional experience of the use of SCT in the airway. The use of proper technique and airway venting is important in mitigating the complications of barotrauma from massive expansion of nitrogen upon conversion from the liquid to gaseous state. We also review some of the basic science principals behind the use of the cryotherapy to treat lesions in different tissues. We feel that SCT is a potential area for further research at both clinical and basic science level. PMID:28446975

  12. Quadriceps Muscle Function After Rehabilitation With Cryotherapy in Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Joseph M.; Kuenze, Christopher M.; Diduch, David R.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Persistent muscle weakness after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction may be due to underlying activation failure and arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). Knee-joint cryotherapy has been shown to improve quadriceps function transiently in those with AMI, thereby providing an opportunity to improve quadriceps muscle activation and strength in patients with a reconstructed ACL. Objective: To compare quadriceps muscle function in patients with a reconstructed ACL who completed a 2-week intervention including daily cryotherapy (ice bag), daily exercises, or both. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 30 patients with reconstructed ACLs who were at least 6 months post-index surgery and had measurable quadriceps AMI. Intervention(s): The patients attended 4 supervised visits over a 2-week period. They were randomly assigned to receive 20 minutes of knee-joint cryotherapy, 1 hour of therapeutic rehabilitation exercises, or cryotherapy followed by exercises. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured quadriceps Hoffmann reflex, normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, central activation ratio using the superimposed-burst technique, and patient-reported outcomes before and after the intervention period. Results: After the 2-week intervention period, patients who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy had higher normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torques (P = .002, Cohen d effect size = 1.4) compared with those who received cryotherapy alone (P = .16, d = 0.58) or performed exercise alone (P = .16, d = 0.30). Conclusions: After ACL reconstruction, patients with AMI who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy experienced greater strength gains than those who performed cryotherapy or exercises alone. PMID:25299442

  13. Efficacy and safety of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for treatment of Barrett’s esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Suchniak-Mussari, Kristen; Dye, Charles E; Moyer, Matthew T; Mathew, Abraham; McGarrity, Thomas J; Gagliardi, Eileen M; Maranki, Jennifer L; Levenick, John M

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the efficacy and safety of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy as a primary or rescue treatment for BE, with and without dysplasia, or intramucosal adenocarcinoma (IMC). METHODS This was a retrospective, single-center study carried out in a tertiary care center including 45 patients with BE who was treatment-naïve or who had persistent intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, or IMC despite prior therapy. Barrett’s mucosa was resected via EMR when clinically appropriate, then patients underwent cryotherapy until eradication or until deemed to have failed treatment. Surveillance biopsies were taken at standard intervals. RESULTS From 2010 through 2014, 33 patients were studied regarding the efficacy of cryotherapy. Overall, 29 patients (88%) responded to cryotherapy, with 84% having complete regression of all dysplasia and cancer. Complete eradication of cancer and dysplasia was seen in 75% of subjects with IMC; the remaining two subjects did not respond to cryotherapy. Following cryotherapy, 15 patients with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) had 30% complete regression, 50% IM, and 7% low-grade dysplasia (LGD); one subject had persistent HGD. Complete eradication of dysplasia occurred in all 5 patients with LGD. In 5 patients with IM, complete regression occurred in 4, and IM persisted in one. In 136 cryotherapy sessions amongst 45 patients, adverse events included chest pain (1%), stricture (4%), and one gastrointestinal bleed in a patient on dual antiplatelet therapy who had previously undergone EMR. CONCLUSION Cryotherapy is an efficacious and safe treatment modality for Barrett’s esophagus with and without dysplasia or intramucosal adenocarcinoma. PMID:28979713

  14. [Recto-vesico-cutaneous fistula following salvage cryotherapy of the prostate due to recurrent localized prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kocot, A; Spahn, M; Loeser, A; Riedmiller, H

    2011-11-01

    For patients with recurrent prostate cancer after initial external beam radiation salvage cryotherapy is considered as an alternative to salvage prostatectomy. We report a serious complication of salvage cryotherapy in a 72-year-old man suffering from a severe recto-vesico-cutaneous fistula 6 weeks after salvage cryotherapy. To manage this situation salvage cystoprostatectomy and continent urinary diversion with creation of an ileocaecal pouch with cutaneous stoma had to be performed.

  15. Prevention of oral mucositis due to 5-fluorouracil treatment with oral cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baydar, Mustafa; Dikilitas, Mustafa; Sevinc, Alper; Aydogdu, Ismet

    2005-08-01

    One of the most common and important side effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is mucositis with ulcerations in the oral cavity. We investigated the effects of local cryotherapy on mucositis incidence administrated durng 5-FU treatment. In a total of 99 courses, 5-FU and folinic acid combination chemotherapy was given to 40 patients. In our study, we considered every course as a single case, and cryotherapy was given to the same patient in one course but not given in the next. While mucositis developed in 6.7% of the courses given with cryotherapy, this ratio was 38.9% in courses given without cryotherapy. In the logistic regression analysis, development of mucositis had been found to correlate only with cryotherapy. Odds ratio (OR) = 11.5; in the 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.2 - 41.9; (p = 0.001). Results of initial studies evaluating the effects of cryotherapy in preventing mucositis due to 5-FU based chemotherapy regimens were promising. We concluded that oral cooling prevents 5-FU induced mucositis. This effective prophylactic treatment should be used in patients who are at increased risk for developing 5-FU induced mucositis.

  16. Prevention of oral mucositis due to 5-fluorouracil treatment with oral cryotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Baydar, Mustafa; Dikilitas, Mustafa; Sevinc, Alper; Aydogdu, Ismet

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: One of the most common and important side effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is mucositis with ulcerations in the oral cavity. We investigated the effects of local cryotherapy on mucositis incidence administrated durng 5-FU treatment. METHODS: In a total of 99 courses, 5-FU and folinic acid combination chemotherapy was given to 40 patients. In our study, we considered every course as a single case, and cryotherapy was given to the same patient in one course but not given in the next. RESULTS: While mucositis developed in 6.7% of the courses given with cryotherapy, this ratio was 38.9% in courses given without cryotherapy. In the logistic regression analysis, development of mucositis had been found to correlate only with cryotherapy. Odds ratio (OR) = 11.5; in the 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.2 - 41.9; (p = 0.001). DISCUSSION: Results of initial studies evaluating the effects of cryotherapy in preventing mucositis due to 5-FU based chemotherapy regimens were promising. We concluded that oral cooling prevents 5-FU induced mucositis. This effective prophylactic treatment should be used in patients who are at increased risk for developing 5-FU induced mucositis. PMID:16173332

  17. Current role of cryotherapy in retinopathy of prematurity: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jennifer L; Melia, Michele; Yang, Michael B; Buffenn, Angela N; Chiang, Michael F; Lambert, Scott R

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the role of cryotherapy in the current treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Literature searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library were conducted on December 2, 2009, for articles published after 1984. The searches included all languages and retrieved 187 relevant citations. Thirteen articles were deemed relevant to the assessment question and were rated according to the strength of evidence. Four articles reported results from 2 large multicenter randomized clinical trials, and the remaining 9 articles reported results of 3 small randomized trials that directly compared cryotherapy and laser. Neither of the multicenter randomized clinical trials was a direct comparison of cryotherapy with laser. These studies were used to evaluate the comparative trials based on treatment criteria, study populations, and clinical results. Higher percentages of poor structural and functional outcomes generally were seen in eyes treated with cryotherapy compared with eyes undergoing laser treatment. Higher rates of systemic complications and myopia also were identified after treatment with cryotherapy. Despite a relative paucity of level I evidence directly comparing cryotherapy and laser treatment for threshold ROP, the literature suggests that neonatal facilities should gain access to laser technology and laser-trained ophthalmic staff to achieve better outcomes for treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of Benign Tracheal Stenosis Using Endoluminal Spray Cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bhora, Faiz Y; Ayub, Adil; Forleiter, Craig M; Huang, Chyun-Yin; Alshehri, Khalid; Rehmani, Sadiq; Al-Ayoubi, Adnan M; Raad, Wissam; Lebovics, Robert S

    2016-11-01

    Tracheal stenosis is a debilitating disorder with heterogeneity in terms of disease characteristics and management. Repeated recurrences substantially alter patients' quality of life. There is limited evidence for the use of spray cryotherapy (SCT) in the management of benign airway disease. To report our early results for the use of SCT in patients with benign tracheal stenosis. Data were extracted from the medical records of a consecutive series of patients with benign airway stenosis secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) (n = 13), prior tracheotomy or tracheal intubation (n = 8), and idiopathic strictures (n = 5) treated from September 1, 2013, to September 30, 2015, at a tertiary care hospital. Airway narrowing was quantified on a standard quartile grading scale. Response to treatment was assessed by improvement in airway caliber and the time interval for reintervention. Delivery of 4 5-second SCT cycles and 2 balloon dilatations. Twenty-six patients (median [range] age, 53 [16-83] years; 20 [77%] female) underwent 48 SCT sessions. Spray cryotherapy was successfully used without any substantial intraoperative or postoperative complications in all patients. In a median (range) follow-up of 11 (1-26) months, all patients had improvement in symptoms. Before the institution of SCT, 23 patients (88%) had grade III or IV stenosis. At the last evaluation after induction of SCT, 4 (15%) had grade III or IV stenosis, with a mean (SD) change of 1.39 (0.51) (P < .001). Patients with GPA required significantly fewer SCT procedures (mean [SD], 1.38 [0.96] vs 2.31 [1.18]; P = .03) during the study period. Spray cryotherapy was a safe adjunct modality to accomplish airway patency in patients with benign tracheal stenosis. Although efficacy evidence is limited for SCT, it may be useful for patients who have experienced treatment failure with conventional modalities. Further analysis of this cohort will determine the physiologic durability of

  19. The effect of local cryotherapy on subjective and objective recovery characteristics following an exhaustive jump protocol.

    PubMed

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a single local cryotherapy session on the recovery characteristics over a period of 72 hours. Twenty-two young and healthy female (n=17; mean age: 21.9±1.1 years) and male (n=5;mean age: 25.4±2.8 years) adults participated in this study. Following an exhaustive jump protocol (3×30 countermovement jumps), half of the participants received either a single local cryotherapy application (+8°C) or a single local thermoneutral application (+32°C) of 20-minute duration using two thigh cuffs. Subjective measures of recovery (delayed-onset muscle soreness and ratings of perceived exertion) and objective measures of recovery (vertical jump performance and peak power output) were assessed immediately following the postexercise applications (0 hours) and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after the jump protocol. Local cryotherapy failed to significantly affect any subjective recovery variable during the 72-hour recovery period (P>0.05). After 72 hours, the ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower in the thermoneutral group compared to that in the cryotherapy group (P=0.002). No significant differences were observed between the cryotherapy and the thermoneutral groups with respect to any of the objective recovery variables. In this experimental study, a 20-minute cryotherapy cuff application failed to demonstrate a positive effect on any objective measures of recovery. The effects of local thermoneutral application on subjective recovery characteristics were superior when compared to the effects of local cryotherapy application at 72 hours postapplication.

  20. Difference Between Cryotherapy and Follow Up Low Grade Squamous Lesion of Cervix Uteri.

    PubMed

    Jahic, Mahira; Jahic, Elmir; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Hadzimehmedovic, Azra

    2017-08-01

    Cervical cancer can be successfully prevented by effective treatment. Analyse of success of cryotherapy in LSIL and ASCUS. In retrospective study between January 2016 to March 2017, 3244 PAP test were analysed. 257 patients who had been diagnosed with LSIL and ASCUS from PAP smear were divided in two groups: women who had HPV positive, colposcopic positive and cytologic finding of LSIL or ASCUS treathed with cryotherapy and women with LSIL, ASCUS and negative colposcopy. χ 2 test was used for statistical analysis of data. Analysis of 3244 PAP smears showed negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) in 90,10% (N-2923), and abnormal in 9,8% (N-321) of women. ASCUS was found in 4,8% (N-156) and ASC-H in 0,2% (N-6), LSIL in 3,1% (N-101), HSIL in 0,64% (N-21). The average age of patients with ASCUS lesion was 41 ± 12 years. After cryotherapy, HSIL had progression in 1,5% (N-1), persistence in 6,3% (N-4) and regression in 91,7% (N-58). Progression occured in 10,5% (N-4) of HSIL, persistence in 52,6% (N-20) and regression in 36,7% (N-14) in 38 women with LSIL lesion after repeated PAP test. Progression occured in 8% (N-10) of LSIL and 4% HSIL (N-5), persistence in 58% (N-72) and regression in 29,8% (N-37) in 124 women with ASCUS lesion after treatment and repeated PAP test. Difference in progression lesions in HSIL between women with cryotherapy (1,5%) and follow-up (10,5%) after LSIL is not significant, but progression to CIN II occured after cryotherapy. CIN III or cervical cancer was not found. Cryotherapy prevents progression of LSIL in HSIL and in cervical cancer. Because of that cryotherapy is successful method in prevention of cervical cancer.

  1. The effect of local cryotherapy on subjective and objective recovery characteristics following an exhaustive jump protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hohenauer, Erich; Clarys, Peter; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clijsen, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a single local cryotherapy session on the recovery characteristics over a period of 72 hours. Twenty-two young and healthy female (n=17; mean age: 21.9±1.1 years) and male (n=5;mean age: 25.4±2.8 years) adults participated in this study. Following an exhaustive jump protocol (3×30 countermovement jumps), half of the participants received either a single local cryotherapy application (+8°C) or a single local thermoneutral application (+32°C) of 20-minute duration using two thigh cuffs. Subjective measures of recovery (delayed-onset muscle soreness and ratings of perceived exertion) and objective measures of recovery (vertical jump performance and peak power output) were assessed immediately following the postexercise applications (0 hours) and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after the jump protocol. Local cryotherapy failed to significantly affect any subjective recovery variable during the 72-hour recovery period (P>0.05). After 72 hours, the ratings of perceived exertion were significantly lower in the thermoneutral group compared to that in the cryotherapy group (P=0.002). No significant differences were observed between the cryotherapy and the thermoneutral groups with respect to any of the objective recovery variables. In this experimental study, a 20-minute cryotherapy cuff application failed to demonstrate a positive effect on any objective measures of recovery. The effects of local thermoneutral application on subjective recovery characteristics were superior when compared to the effects of local cryotherapy application at 72 hours postapplication. PMID:27579000

  2. Cryotherapy decreases histamine levels in the blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wojtecka-Lukasik, E; Ksiezopolska-Orlowska, K; Gaszewska, E; Krasowicz-Towalska, O; Rzodkiewicz, P; Maslinska, D; Szukiewicz, D; Maslinski, S

    2010-03-01

    Conventional physiotherapy (electrotherapy, magnetic fields), kinesitherapy, and whole-body cryotherapy (plus kinesitherapy) are used to relieve pain and inflammation or to improve function in rheumatic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different physiotherapies and cryotherapy on biochemical blood parameters of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty patients with RA and 17 patients with OA received whole-body cryotherapy at -140 to -160 degrees C for 2 to 3 min, once daily for 4 weeks. The second group of patients (24 with RA and 28 with OA) received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. We measured the parameters of neutrophil activation (respiratory burst, calprotectin) and markers of cartilage metabolism [N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminidase (NAHase), ectonucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase (NTPPHase)] twice: before and 3 months after cryotherapy or physiotherapy. We showed, for the first time, that cryotherapy significantly reduced (P < 0.001) histamine levels in the blood of patients with RA. The effect was long-lasting (for at least 3 months). The levels of blood histamine in patients with OA were not changed significantly. Cryotherapy also downregulated the respiratory burst of PMNs and NAHase activity and upregulated calprotectin levels and the activity of NTPPHase. However, these changes were not statistically significant. In contrast, there were no significant changes in histamine levels or the other biochemical parameters measured in groups of patients treated only with physiotherapy and kinesitherapy. It may be concluded that the beneficial clinical effects of cryotherapy in RA patients are in part due to the action on the production, release, or degradation of histamine.

  3. The Use of Cryotherapy for Papilloma and Early Laryngeal Cancers: Long-term Results.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Michael S; Derakhshan, Adeeb; Milstein, Claudio F

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective chart review. To determine the efficacy of adjuvant cryotherapy in the treatment of early glottic cancer and laryngeal papillomatosis. The use of cryotherapy in conjunction with traditional modalities has recently been proposed to improve voice outcomes in patients with early laryngeal cancer as compared to pretreatment conditions. This study investigates its utility in improving oncological outcomes and decreasing recurrences of laryngeal papillomatosis. Patients with either early glottic cancer or laryngeal papillomatosis that received cryotherapy as part of their surgical regimen were investigated. All patients were seen at a large tertiary care center within a 10-year window. Demographic data were collected and all postoperative notes were reviewed. Recurrences of the laryngeal cancer were noted, as was the duration of time between successive papillomatosis operations. The charts of 54 glottic cancer and 29 papillomatosis patients that received cryotherapy were reviewed. One patient from the papillomatosis cohort was excluded from statistical analysis due to lack of follow-up. Overall, 16 (30%) of the laryngeal cancer patient experienced a malignant recurrence. The overall 5-year survival of these patients was 98% and the 5-year disease-free survival was 74%. The use of adjuvant cryotherapy in the treatment of laryngeal papillomatosis extended the duration of time between surgeries by an average of 79 days (P=.23). The use of adjuvant cryotherapy in the treatment of early glottic cancer does not improve the rate of carcinoma recurrences. Additionally, cryotherapy does not result in a statistically significant increase in the duration of disease-free period for laryngeal papillomatosis patients, although the observed increase may be clinically important. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Difference Between Cryotherapy and Follow Up Low Grade Squamous Lesion of Cervix Uteri

    PubMed Central

    Jahic, Mahira; Jahic, Elmir; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Hadzimehmedovic, Azra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer can be successfully prevented by effective treatment. Aim: Analyse of success of cryotherapy in LSIL and ASCUS. Materials et methods: In retrospective study between January 2016 to March 2017, 3244 PAP test were analysed. 257 patients who had been diagnosed with LSIL and ASCUS from PAP smear were divided in two groups: women who had HPV positive, colposcopic positive and cytologic finding of LSIL or ASCUS treathed with cryotherapy and women with LSIL, ASCUS and negative colposcopy. χ2 test was used for statistical analysis of data. Results: Analysis of 3244 PAP smears showed negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) in 90,10% (N-2923), and abnormal in 9,8% (N-321) of women. ASCUS was found in 4,8% (N-156) and ASC-H in 0,2% (N-6), LSIL in 3,1% (N-101), HSIL in 0,64% (N-21). The average age of patients with ASCUS lesion was 41 ± 12 years. After cryotherapy, HSIL had progression in 1,5% (N-1), persistence in 6,3% (N-4) and regression in 91,7% (N-58). Progression occured in 10,5% (N-4) of HSIL, persistence in 52,6% (N-20) and regression in 36,7% (N-14) in 38 women with LSIL lesion after repeated PAP test. Progression occured in 8% (N-10) of LSIL and 4% HSIL (N-5), persistence in 58% (N-72) and regression in 29,8% (N-37) in 124 women with ASCUS lesion after treatment and repeated PAP test. Difference in progression lesions in HSIL between women with cryotherapy (1,5%) and follow-up (10,5%) after LSIL is not significant, but progression to CIN II occured after cryotherapy. CIN III or cervical cancer was not found. Conclusion: Cryotherapy prevents progression of LSIL in HSIL and in cervical cancer. Because of that cryotherapy is successful method in prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:28974850

  5. Effect of whole body cryotherapy interventions on health-related quality of life in fibromyalgia patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vitenet, M; Tubez, F; Marreiro, A; Polidori, G; Taiar, R; Legrand, F; Boyer, F C

    2018-02-01

    Although fibromyalgia syndrome (SFM) affects 2-4 percent of adults, research has not identified a preferred therapeutic option for patients worldwide yet. Based on recent findings, it can be expected that whole body cryotherapy can improve health-reported quality of life by alleviating the symptoms of musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. Our aim was to determine whether whole body cryotherapy only can result in improved perceived health and quality of life in fibromyalgia patients. 24 patients with fibromyalgia diagnosis were randomized into 2 groups (n=11 in the whole body cryotherapy group, n=13 in the control group). In the whole body cryotherapy group, 10 sessions of whole body cryotherapy were performed (in addition to usual care) in a standard cryotherapy room over a duration of 8days. Subjects in the control group did not change anything in their everyday activities. Quality of life was assessed just before and one month after treatment. Compared with the control group, patients in the whole body cryotherapy group reported significantly improved for health-reported quality of life. These effects lasted for at least one month following intervention. Based on these findings, whole body cryotherapy can be recommended as an effective clinically adjuvant approach in the improvement of health-related quality of life in fibromyalgia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The practice of physical activity and cryotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peres, Daniele; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Dugué, Benoit; Domenech, Susana C; Tordi, Nicolas; Prati, Clement

    2017-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune, chronic and inflammatory disease, which the affected patients present a higher cardiovascular mortality rate. Physical activities have been identified as the most important strategy to prevent cardiovascular diseases. However, the articular damage and the chronic pain caused by RA challenges its regular practice. Moreover, persons with RA tend to avoid PA due to the fear of exacerbating the inflammatory potential and pain. One alternative to avoid the collateral effects of the PA could be the cryotherapy. Therefore, this study aimed to review studies focused on the use of both PA and cryotherapy in RA patients and to identify evidences that both therapies could be combined in order to optimize the symptomatic treatment. Four databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Elsevier and PEDro) were searched to identify publications regarding RA patients, PA and cryotherapy intervention by the terms and operators (rheumatoid arthritis AND exercise OR physical activity OR activity OR training OR reconditioning OR cryotherapy OR cold OR immersion). The selected studies should at least present one measure of the aerobic capacity, disease activity or pain relief. Among 19 studies with RA patients identified, only 4 studies used PA combined with cryotherapy. The other 13 studies used physical activities and 2 studies used cryotherapy intervention. The results of the physical activities combined with cryotherapy studies showed an improvement in the disease activity and pain relief, however without details of the physical activities intervention and an aerobic capacity. Among the physical activities studies, evidence was found suggesting that aerobic exercises and multiactivity exercises with high intensity are the more effective for improve the aerobic capacity. Even if few studies on cryotherapy were found, there are enough evidences in the literature that demonstrate the benefits of this intervention on pain relief and disease activity. In summary

  7. Liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy for dysphagia palliation in patients with inoperable esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kachaamy, Toufic; Prakash, Ravi; Kundranda, Madappa; Batish, Raman; Weber, Jeffrey; Hendrickson, Scott; Yoder, Leon; Do, Hannah; Magat, Theresa; Nayar, Rajeev; Gupta, Digant; DaSilva, Trisha; Sangal, Ashish; Kothari, Shivangi; Kaul, Vivek; Vashi, Pankaj

    2018-05-08

    Dysphagia is a debilitating symptom in patients with inoperable esophageal cancer contributing to poor quality of life and worsening nutritional status. The 2 most commonly used palliative modalities for dysphagia are radiation therapy (RT) and esophageal stent placement. However, RT is limited by adverse events (AEs) and total dose, and stent placement has a high rate of AEs including reflux, migration, and chest pain. A relatively new modality of liquid nitrogen endoscopic spray cryotherapy has been described as salvage when other options have been exhausted and when patients are no longer receiving systemic therapy. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of cryotherapy as the primary modality for relieving dysphagia in inoperable esophageal cancer including patients receiving systemic cancer therapy. This is a retrospective multicenter consecutive case series of 49 inoperable esophageal cancer patients undergoing palliative endoscopic cryotherapy at 4 specialized cancer centers from May 2014 to May 2016. The primary outcomes were change in dysphagia scores between pre- and post-cryotherapy and AE. Dysphagia was measured using a 4-point Likert scale: 0, no dysphagia; 1, dysphagia to solids; 2, dysphagia to semi-solids; 3, dysphagia to liquids; 4, dysphagia to saliva. There were 39 males and 10 females with a mean age of 58 years who underwent a total of 120 cryotherapy treatments. The mean dysphagia score improved significantly from 2.4 pre-cryotherapy to 1.7 post-cryotherapy (improvement of 0.7 points; p<0.001). Minor AE were seen in 6/120 (5.0%) cryotherapy treatments (1 intra-procedural and 5 post-procedural). In addition, one patient developed a severe intra-procedural AE of dilation-related perforation whereas another patient developed a benign stricture requiring dilation. This preliminary retrospective study suggests that liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy may be safe and effective for dysphagia palliation in inoperable esophageal cancer. Large prospective

  8. Cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among recipients of bone marrow transplantation: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, Abdel-Qader Mahmoud

    2014-08-01

    Oral mucositis is a distressing toxic effect of cancer therapy and one of the major side effects of the myeloablative conditioning used to prepare patients for bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Oral cryotherapy is one of the recent modalities used to prevent and manage oral mucositis. The purpose of this review is to clarify the cryotherapy effect on oral mucositis severity among patients receiving myeloablative conditioning followed by BMT. A literature search was performed using six different electronic databases: CINAHL®, MEDLINE®, Nursing Ovid, PubMed, Springer, and Science Direct. Six articles were deemed relevant and included in this review. Oral mucositis increases mortality rate, length of hospital stay, opioid use, and the need for parenteral nutrition usage. It also decreases patient's quality of life and his or her desire to complete treatment. However, oral cryotherapy significantly minimizes the incidence and severity of oral mucositis and decreases secondary oral mucositis complications. Using oral cryotherapy concurrently with a regular oral care protocol can improve its efficacy for preventing and managing oral mucositis. Additional studies should be conducted to create standard oral cryotherapy protocols.

  9. Whole- and partial-body cryostimulation/cryotherapy: Current technologies and practical applications.

    PubMed

    Bouzigon, Romain; Grappe, Frederic; Ravier, Gilles; Dugue, Benoit

    2016-10-01

    Cold therapy is commonly used as a method to relieve pain and inflammation. This review focuses primarily on two methods of cold therapy that have received recent attention: whole-body cryotherapy and partial-body cryotherapy. These methods are used to induce physiological and psychological benefits in humans in the context of medicine, health and sports. The subjects experiencing cryotherapy are dressed in minimal clothing and are exposed to very cold air (at -110°C or less) for 1-4min. Despite the increasing scientific interest in these methods, there is a lack of information about the technologies used. Moreover, there is no existing reference concerning exposure protocols and the relationship between temperature, duration, number of repetitions and the treatments' desired effects. The aim of this review is to compare whole- and partial-body cryotherapy effects (especially on skin temperature) and to classify the protocols for exposure according to the desired effects. This review emphasises 1) the lack of information concerning the actual temperatures inside the cabin or chamber during exposure and 2) the heterogeneity among the exposure protocols that have been reported in the scientific literature. This review will be valuable and relevant to health professionals endeavouring to optimize the cold treatments offered to patients and producers of cryotherapy apparatus striving to create more efficient devices that meet market requirements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effect of whole body cryotherapy on the levels of some hormones in professional soccer players].

    PubMed

    Korzonek-Szlacheta, Ilona; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Stanek, Agata; Swietochowska, Elzbieta; Karpe, Jacek; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2007-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine blood serum concentrations of selected steroid hormones (estradiol--E(2), testosterone--T, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate--DHEA-S) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in professional footballers subjected to whole body cryotherapy. Twenty-two clinically healthy males, mean age 26.7 years, were studied. The subjects underwent ten sessions of whole body cryotherapy in Wroclaw-type chamber, with kinesitherapy following each session. Blood samples were collected before and two days after the treatment and the results were analyzed statistically. After the treatment there was a significant decrease in the concentrations of T (6.01 vs. 4.80 ng/mL, p < 0.01) and E(2) (102.3 vs. 47.5 pg/mL, p < 0.00001), but no DHEA-S and LH. The T/E(2) ratio showed a significant increase form 72.2 to 136.5 (p < 0.01). Whole body cryotherapy leads to a significant decrease in serum T and E(2), with no effect on LH and DHEAS levels. As a results of cryotherapy, the T/E(2) ratio was significant increased. The changes observed are probably due to cryotherapy-induced alternation in the blood supply to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, as well as to modulation of the activity of aromatase which is responsible for conversion of testosterone and androstenedione to estrogens.

  11. Cryotherapy for acute ankle sprains: a randomised controlled study of two different icing protocols.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, C M; McDonough, S M; MacAuley, D C; Bjordal, J

    2006-08-01

    The use of cryotherapy in the management of acute soft tissue injury is largely based on anecdotal evidence. Preliminary evidence suggests that intermittent cryotherapy applications are most effective at reducing tissue temperature to optimal therapeutic levels. However, its efficacy in treating injured human subjects is not yet known. To compare the efficacy of an intermittent cryotherapy treatment protocol with a standard cryotherapy treatment protocol in the management of acute ankle sprains. Sportsmen (n = 44) and members of the general public (n = 45) with mild/moderate acute ankle sprains. Subjects were randomly allocated, under strictly controlled double blind conditions, to one of two treatment groups: standard ice application (n = 46) or intermittent ice application (n = 43). The mode of cryotherapy was standardised across groups and consisted of melting iced water (0 degrees C) in a standardised pack. Function, pain, and swelling were recorded at baseline and one, two, three, four, and six weeks after injury. Subjects treated with the intermittent protocol had significantly (p<0.05) less ankle pain on activity than those using a standard 20 minute protocol; however, one week after ankle injury, there were no significant differences between groups in terms of function, swelling, or pain at rest. Intermittent applications may enhance the therapeutic effect of ice in pain relief after acute soft tissue injury.

  12. The physiologic basis and clinical applications of cryotherapy and thermotherapy for the pain practitioner.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Scott F; Weingand, Kurt; Kruse, Roger J

    2004-07-01

    Cryotherapy and thermotherapy are useful adjuncts for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. Clinicians treating these conditions should be aware of current research findings regarding these modalities, because their choice of modality may affect the ultimate outcome of the patient being treated. Through a better understanding of these modalities, clinicians can optimize their present treatment strategies. Although cold and hot treatment modalities both decrease pain and muscle spasm, they have opposite effects on tissue metabolism, blood flow, inflammation, edema, and connective tissue extensibility. Cryotherapy decreases these effects while thermotherapy increases them. Continuous low-level cryotherapy and thermotherapy are newer concepts in therapeutic modalities. Both modalities provide significant pain relief with a low side-effect profile. Contrast therapy, which alternates between hot and cold treatment modalities, provides no additional therapeutic benefits compared with cryotherapy or thermotherapy alone. Complications of cryotherapy include nerve damage, frostbite, Raynaud's phenomenon, cold-induced urticaria, and slowed wound healing. With thermotherapy, skin burns may occur, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, poor circulation, and spinal cord injuries. In individuals with rheumatoid arthritis, deep-heating modalities should be used with caution because increased inflammation may occur. Whirlpool and other types of hydrotherapy have caused infections of the skin, urogenital, and pulmonary systems. Additionally, ultrasound should not be used in patients with joint prostheses.

  13. Needling versus liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for the treatment of pedal warts a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Daniel J; Brimage, Jessica T; Naraghi, Reza N; Bower, Virginia M

    2014-07-01

    We hypothesized that needling of a pedal wart creates local inflammation and a subsequent cell-mediated immune response (CMIR) against human papillomavirus. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether needling to induce a CMIR against human papillomavirus is an effective treatment for pedal warts compared with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. A secondary objective was to investigate whether the CMIR induced by needling is effective against satellite pedal warts. Eligible patients with pedal warts were randomly allocated to receive either needling or liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Only the primary pedal wart was treated during the study. Follow-up was 12 weeks, with outcome assessments made independently under blinded circumstances. Of 37 patients enrolled in the study, 18 were allocated to receive needling and 19 to receive liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Regression of the primary pedal wart occurred in 64.7% of the needling group (11 of 17) and in 6.2% of the liquid nitrogen cryotherapy group (1 of 16) (P =  .001). No significant relationship was found between needling of the primary pedal wart and regression of satellite pedal warts (P = .615) or complete pedal wart regression (P = .175). There was no significant difference in pain, satisfaction, or cosmesis between the two groups. The regression rate of the primary pedal wart was significantly higher in the needling group compared with the liquid nitrogen cryotherapy group.

  14. Treatment profile and complications associated with cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C B; Jang, T L; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Kabadi, S; Moore, D F; Lu-Yao, G L

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the treatment patterns and 3-12-month complication rates associated with receiving prostate cryotherapy in a population-based study. Men >65 years diagnosed with incident localized prostate cancer in Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER)-Medicare-linked database from 2004 to 2005 were identified. A total of 21,344 men were included in the study, of which 380 were treated initially with cryotherapy. Recipients of cryotherapy versus aggressive forms of prostate therapy (ie, radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy) were more likely to be older, have one co-morbidity, low income, live in the South and be diagnosed with indolent cancer. Complication rates increased from 3 to 12 months following cryotherapy. By the twelfth month, the rates for urinary incontinence, lower urinary tract obstruction, erectile dysfunction and bowel bleeding reached 9.8, 28.7, 20.1 and 3.3%, respectively. Diagnoses of hydronephrosis, urinary fistula or bowel fistula were not evident. The rates of corrective invasive procedures for lower urinary tract obstruction and erectile dysfunction were both <2.9% by the twelfth month. Overall, complications post-cryotherapy were modest; however, diagnoses for lower urinary tract obstruction and erectile dysfunction were common.

  15. Treatment profile and complications associated with cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Calpurnyia B.; Jang, Thomas L.; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Kabadi, Shaum; Moore, Dirk F.; Lu-Yao, Grace L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the treatment patterns and 3 to 12-month complication rates associated with receiving prostate cryotherapy in a population-based study. Men > 65 years diagnosed with incident localized prostate cancer in Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) - Medicare linked database from 2004 to 2005 were identified. A total of 21,344 men were included in the study, of which 380 were treated initially with cryotherapy. Recipients of cryotherapy versus aggressive forms of prostate therapy (i.e. radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy) were more likely to be older, have one co-morbidity, low income, live in the South, and be diagnosed with indolent cancer. Complication rates increased from 3 to 12 months following cryotherapy. By the twelfth month, the rates for urinary incontinence, lower urinary tract obstruction, erectile dysfunction, and bowel bleeding reached 9.8%, 28.7%, 20.1%, and 3.3%, respectively. Diagnoses of hydronephrosis, urinary fistula, or bowel fistula were not evident. The rates of corrective invasive procedures for lower urinary tract obstruction and erectile dysfunction were both <2.9% by the twelfth month. Overall, complications post cryotherapy were modest; however, diagnoses for lower urinary tract obstruction and erectile dysfunction were common. PMID:21519347

  16. Effect of cryotherapy on arteriovenous fistula puncture-related pain in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    P B, Sabitha; Khakha, D C; Mahajan, S; Gupta, S; Agarwal, M; Yadav, S L

    2008-10-01

    Pain during areteriovenous fistula (AVF) cannulation remains a common problem in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of cryotherapy on pain due to arteriovenous fistula puncture in hemodialysis patients. A convenience sample of 60 patients (30 each in experimental and control groups) who were undergoing hemodialysis by using AVF, was assessed in a randomized control trial. Hemodialysis patients who met the inclusion criteria, were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups using a randomization table. Objective and subjective pain scoring was done on two consecutive days of HD treatment (with cryotherapy for the experimental and without cryotherapy for the control group). The tools used were a questionnaire examining demographic and clinical characteristics, an observation checklist for assessing objective pain behavior, and a numerical rating scale for subjective pain assessment. Descriptive statistics were used as deemed appropriate. Chi square, two-sample and paired t-tests, the Mann Whitney test, Wilcoxon's signed rank test, the Kruskal Wallis test, and Spearman's and Pearson's correlations were used for inferential statistics. We found that the objective and subjective pain scores were found to be significantly (P = 0.001) reduced within the experimental group with the application of cryotherapy. This study highlights the need for adopting alternative therapies such as cryotherapy for effective pain management in hospital settings.

  17. Effects of 15 consecutive cryotherapy sessions on the clinical output of fibromyalgic patients.

    PubMed

    Bettoni, Lorenzo; Bonomi, Felice Giulio; Zani, Viviana; Manisco, Luigia; Indelicato, Annamaria; Lanteri, Patrizia; Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread pain disorder in which, the neurogenic origin of the pain, featured by allodynia and hyperalgesia, results from an imbalance in the levels of neurotransmitters and consequently of the peripheral pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Whole body cryotherapy is a peculiar physical therapy known to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms characteristics of rheumatic diseases, through the regulation of the cytokine expression. The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the effects of cryotherapy on the clinical output of fibromyalgic patients. A total of 100 fibromyalgic patients (age range 17-70 years) were observed; 50 subjects were addressed to cryotherapy, while the second group (n = 50) did not underwent to the cryotherapic treatment. All subjects kept the prescribed pharmacological therapy during the study (analgesic and antioxidants). The referred health status pre- and post-observation was evaluated with the following scales: Visual Analogue Scale, Short Form-36, Global Health Status and Fatigue Severity Scale. Fibromyalgic patients treated with cryotherapy reported a more pronounced improvement of the quality of life, in comparison with the non-cryo treated fibromyalgic subjects, as indicated by the scores of the qualitative indexes and sub-indexes, that are widely recognized tools to assess the overall health status and the effect of the treatments. We speculate that this improvement is due to the known direct effect of cryotherapy on the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators having a recognized role in the modulation of pain.

  18. Cryotherapy for acute ankle sprains: a randomised controlled study of two different icing protocols

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, C M; McDonough, S M; MacAuley, D C

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of cryotherapy in the management of acute soft tissue injury is largely based on anecdotal evidence. Preliminary evidence suggests that intermittent cryotherapy applications are most effective at reducing tissue temperature to optimal therapeutic levels. However, its efficacy in treating injured human subjects is not yet known. Objective : To compare the efficacy of an intermittent cryotherapy treatment protocol with a standard cryotherapy treatment protocol in the management of acute ankle sprains. Subjects Sportsmen (n  =  44) and members of the general public (n  =  45) with mild/moderate acute ankle sprains. Methods Subjects were randomly allocated, under strictly controlled double blind conditions, to one of two treatment groups: standard ice application (n  =  46) or intermittent ice application (n  =  43). The mode of cryotherapy was standardised across groups and consisted of melting iced water (0°C) in a standardised pack. Function, pain, and swelling were recorded at baseline and one, two, three, four, and six weeks after injury. Results Subjects treated with the intermittent protocol had significantly (p<0.05) less ankle pain on activity than those using a standard 20 minute protocol; however, one week after ankle injury, there were no significant differences between groups in terms of function, swelling, or pain at rest. Conclusion Intermittent applications may enhance the therapeutic effect of ice in pain relief after acute soft tissue injury. PMID:16611722

  19. Histopathological analysis of the therapeutic response to cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen in patients with multiple actinic keratosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marina Câmara de; Trevisan, Flávia; Pinto, Clovis Antônio Lopes; Xavier, Célia Antônia; Pinto, Jaqueline Campoi Calvo Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Actinic keratoses are premalignant lesions of the skin caused by excessive sun exposure. Lesions may become mainly squamous cell carcinoma. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen is one of the main treatments. In order to evaluate the response of actinic keratosis to cryotherapy by histopathology, two lesions were selected in each of 14 patients with multiple actinic keratoses. In one lesion a biopsy was performed and in the other lesion a biopsy was performed after cryotherapy. Subsequently, both biopsies were compared histologically. Of the thirteen patients who completed the study, the best results were obtained in lesions undergoing cryotherapy concerning the atypia of keratinocytes, epithelial thickness and corneal layer and lymphocytic infiltrate. Despite the small number of patients, it was concluded that, if performed correctly, cryotherapy has high efficacy in the treatment of actinic keratoses.

  20. Does the use of a brief cryotherapy intervention with analgesic administration improve pain management after total knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Wittig-Wells, Deborah; Johnson, Ifeya; Samms-McPherson, Jacqueline; Thankachan, Soosan; Titus, Bobina; Jacob, Ani; Higgins, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies have evaluated only the prolonged use of cryotherapy as a nonpharmacologic pain intervention. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 30-minute application of cryotherapy at the time pain medication was given after a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) provided better pain relief than analgesic drugs alone. A pretest, posttest, randomized controlled trial study design with crossover was used to evaluate the effects of cryotherapy on postoperative pain and satisfaction with pain management. A convenience sample of postoperative knee replacement patients constituted participants in the study. Two sequential episodes of pain requiring analgesic administration were studied in each patient, one with a 30-minute cryotherapy application and the other without cryotherapy. Dependent variables were changes in pain (posttest minus pretest) and level of satisfaction with pain management. Data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance, with p < .05 considered significant. During two sequential treatments for postoperative pain, a total of 29 TKA patients received analgesic medication administration alone for one pain episode and analgesic medication administration with a brief cryotherapy administration for the other pain episode. No significant difference between the two treatments was found for changes in pain scores after the treatments or patient satisfaction with pain management (p > .05). The order in which the treatments were provided was found to be significant (p = .02) for scores on patient satisfaction with pain management, with cryotherapy as the treatment for the second pain episode having higher scores than when delivered for the first pain episode. Sixty minutes after analgesic administration with or without cryotherapy, average pain scores remained greater than 7. In TKA patients, the short-term application of cryotherapy with analgesic medication administration did not significantly decrease pain or improve patient

  1. Successful removal of endobronchial blood clots using bronchoscopic cryotherapy at bedside in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hongyeul; Leem, Cho Sun; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Cho, Young-Jae

    2014-10-01

    Acute airway obstruction after hemoptysis occurs due to the presence of blood clots. These conditions may result in life-threatening ventilation impairment. We report a case of obstruction of the large airway by endobronchial blood clots which were removed using bronchoscopic cryotherapy at the bedside of intensive care unit. A 66-year-old female with endometrial cancer who had undergone chemotherapy, was admitted to the intensive care unit due to neutropenic fever. During mechanical ventilation, the minute ventilation dropped to inadequately low levels and chest radiography showed complete opacification of the left hemithorax. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed large blood clots obstructing the proximal left main bronchus. After unsuccessful attempts to remove the clots with bronchial lavage and forceps extraction, blood clots were removed using bronchoscopic cryotherapy. This report shows that cryotherapy via flexible bronchoscopy at the bedside in the intensive of intensive care unit is a simple and effective alternative for the removal of endobronchial blood clots.

  2. [Current results of nitrogen cryotherapy in eyelid basaliomas].

    PubMed

    Buschmann, W; Linnert, D; Wünsch, P H; Schmutzler, M

    1986-10-01

    By means of long-term follow-ups of large numbers of patients it has been established that nitrogen cryotherapy for lid basaliomas produces very good results with regard to the cure rate, as well as having considerable advantages over other treatment methods. In contrast to other authors we did not employ the spray method, but a very high-performance nitrogen cryo unit with a closed probe. Experimental measurements showed that this unit is capable of generating at least the same temperatures as with the spray method. The cryoapplication technique is described. The cure rate and causes of recurrence in the first series in the total of 84 patients treated from 1979 to 1983 were evaluated by long-term follow-up. If cryobiological principles are observed and the recommended application technique is adhered to, the same cure rate can be achieved as with the spray method and other forms of treatment. There are considerable functional and cosmetic advantages, also as regards the patency of the lacrimal ducts.

  3. Transient global amnesia following a whole-body cryotherapy session.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Justin; Lambert, Anne Chantal; Genné, Daniel

    2017-10-13

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), which consists of a short exposure to very cold and dry air in special 'cryo-chambers', is believed to reduce inflammation and musculoskeletal pain as well as improve athletes' recovery. This is the case of a 63-year-old male, who presented with transient global amnesia (TGA) after undertaking a WBC session. TGA is a clinical syndrome characterised by a sudden onset of anterograde amnesia, sometimes coupled with a retrograde component, lasting up to 24 hours without other neurological deficits. Even though the patient completely recovered, as expected, in 24 hours, this case highlights that WBC is potentially not as risk free as thought to be initially. To conclude, before WBC can be medically recommended, well-conducted studies investigating the possible adverse events are required. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Supportive Cryotherapy: A Review from Head to Toe

    PubMed Central

    Kadakia, Kunal C.; Rozell, Shaina A.; Butala, Anish A.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Context Conventional chemotherapy leads to multiple adverse mucocutaneous complications including oral mucositis, alopecia, ocular toxicity, and onycholysis. Limited pharmacologic interventions are available for preventing these clinical problems. Objectives This study aimed to critically review the role of cryotherapy (regional hypothermia) for alleviating these adverse symptoms. Methods A narrative review was performed, with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials. A comprehensive search using PubMed, Ovid, Embase, and MEDLINE® was completed. References of all cited articles also were reviewed. Data from the review were comprised of articles published between 1970 to May 2013. Results Available evidence suggests that regional hypothermia decreases the burden of chemotherapy-related oral mucositis, alopecia, ocular toxicity, and onycholysis. The major limitations of studies include the absence of blinded control groups and variable clinical endpoints. Conclusion Regional hypothermia decreases the burden of these four chemotherapy-induced complications and is well tolerated. More research is needed to determine what subgroups of cancer patients are most likely to respond to different types of regional hypothermia, the ideal duration of cooling needed, and to further improve the ease of use of the cooling devices. PMID:24210702

  5. Systematic review of oral cryotherapy for management of oral mucositis caused by cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Douglas E; Ohrn, Kerstin; Bowen, Joanne; Fliedner, Monica; Lees, Judith; Loprinzi, Charles; Mori, Takehiko; Osaguona, Anthony; Weikel, Dianna S; Elad, Sharon; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review analyzed the strength of the literature and defined clinical practice guidelines for the use of oral cryotherapy for the prevention and/or treatment of oral mucositis caused by cancer therapy. A systematic review on relevant oral cryotherapy studies indexed prior to 31 December 2010 was conducted by the Mucositis Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society for Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) using OVID/MEDLINE, with publications selected for review based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Findings from the reviewed studies were integrated into guidelines based on the overall level of evidence for each intervention. Guidelines were classified into three types: recommendation, suggestion, or no guideline possible. Twenty-two clinical studies and two meta-analyses were analyzed. Results were compared with the MASCC/ISOO guidelines published in 2007. The recommendation for the use of oral cryotherapy to prevent oral mucositis in patients receiving bolus fluorouracil (5-FU) was maintained, in agreement with the 2007 guidelines. A suggestion for use of oral cryotherapy to prevent oral mucositis in patients receiving high-dose melphalan as conditioning regimen with or without total body irradiation for HCST was revised from the 2007 guidelines. No guideline was possible for any other intervention, due to insufficient evidence. The evidence continues to support the use of oral cryotherapy for prevention of oral mucositis in patients receiving bolus 5-FU chemotherapy or high-dose melphalan. This intervention is consistent with the MASCC/ISOO guidelines published in 2007. The literature is limited by the fact that utilization of a double-blind study design is not feasible. Future studies that compare efficacy of oral cryotherapy with other mucositis agents in patients receiving chemotherapy with relatively short plasma half-lives would be useful.

  6. In vivo optoacoustic temperature imaging for image-guided cryotherapy of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, E. V.; Brecht, H. P.; Motamedi, M.; Oraevsky, A. A.; Ermilov, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate in vivo the feasibility of optoacoustic temperature imaging during cryotherapy of prostate cancer. We developed a preclinical prototype optoacoustic temperature imager that included pulsed optical excitation at a wavelength of 805 nm, a modified clinical transrectal ultrasound probe, a parallel data acquisition system, image processing and visualization software. Cryotherapy of a canine prostate was performed in vivo using a commercial clinical system, Cryocare® CS, with an integrated ultrasound imaging. The universal temperature-dependent optoacoustic response of blood was employed to convert reconstructed optoacoustic images to temperature maps. Optoacoustic imaging of temperature during prostate cryotherapy was performed in the longitudinal view over a region of 30 mm (long)  ×  10 mm (deep) that covered the rectum, the Denonvilliers fascia, and the posterior portion of the treated gland. The transrectal optoacoustic images showed high-contrast vascularized regions, which were used for quantitative estimation of local temperature profiles. The constructed temperature maps and their temporal dynamics were consistent with the arrangement of the cryoprobe and readouts of the thermal needle sensors. The temporal profiles of the readouts from the thermal needle sensors and the temporal profile estimated from the normalized optoacoustic intensity of the selected vascularized region showed significant resemblance, except for the initial overshoot, that may be explained as a result of the physiological thermoregulatory compensation. The temperature was mapped with errors not exceeding  ±2 °C (standard deviation) consistent with the clinical requirements for monitoring cryotherapy of the prostate. In vivo results showed that the optoacoustic temperature imaging is a promising non-invasive technique for real-time imaging of tissue temperature during cryotherapy of prostate cancer, which can be combined

  7. Brief oral cryotherapy for the prevention of high-dose melphalan-induced stomatitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Mori, Takehiko; Yamazaki, Rie; Aisa, Yoshinobu; Nakazato, Tomonori; Kudo, Masumi; Yashima, Tomoko; Kondo, Sakiko; Ikeda, Yasuo; Okamoto, Shinichiro

    2006-04-01

    We previously reported the efficacy of oral cryotherapy for the prevention of high-dose melphalan-induced stomatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the further shortening of the duration of oral cryotherapy could minimize its side effects while sparing its efficacy. Seventeen consecutive recipients of allogeneic hematopoieic stem cell transplant conditioned with high-dose melphalan in combination with fludarabine alone or with fludarabine and additional radiation were enrolled in the study. The severity of stomatitis was graded according to the National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria. Patients were kept on oral cryotherapy shortly before, during, and for additional 30 min after the completion of melphalan administration (60-min oral cryotherapy). Patients who were also enrolled in our previous study received the same type of oral cryotherapy but for additional 90 min after the completion of melphalan administration (120-min oral cryotherapy), and they served as controls. Only 2 (11.8%) of 17 patients receiving 60-min oral cryotherapy and 2 (11.1%) of 18 patients receiving 120-min oral cryotherapy developed grade 2 or 3 stomatitis, respectively. The difference between groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.677). The incidence of unpleasant symptoms such as chills and nausea during oral cryotherapy decreased significantly with 60-min oral cryotherapy, as compared with that associated with 120-min oral cryotherapy (P < 0.01). These results suggest that 60-min oral cryotherapy is as effective as 120-min oral cryotherapy at preventing high-dose melphalan-induced stomatitis, and shorter treatment might have contributed to relieve patient discomfort during oral cryotherapy.

  8. Salvage image guided radiation therapy to the prostate after cryotherapy failure.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Austin B; Sandhu, Ajay P S; Parsons, J Kellogg; Rose, Brent; Einck, John P

    2018-01-01

    Cryotherapy is an option for the primary treatment of localized prostate cancer, along with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiation therapy, and brachytherapy. Although it is known that local recurrence can occur in >20% of patients treated with primary cryotherapy, unfortunately there is a paucity of data on later salvage treatments. The use of external beam radiation therapy is an attractive option after cryotherapy failure, but there is little data on its efficacy and toxicity. We evaluated the biochemical control and complication rates of salvage dose-escalated image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) after cryotherapy failure. Patients who were treated at our institution from 2005 to 2016 were reviewed for those who underwent cryotherapy as initial treatment followed by salvage IGRT. Patients were treated with dose-escalated IG-IMRT using standard treatment margins of 3 mm posterior and 7 mm in all other directions and daily cone beam computed tomography or kv imaging to implanted fiducial markers. Biochemical progression was defined in accordance with the Phoenix consensus conference definition. Eight patients were identified as having received post-cryotherapy salvage radiation within the study period. The median total dose was 77.7 Gy (range, 75.6-81.0 Gy). Median follow-up was 55 months (range, 6-88 months). Six patients remained biochemically controlled at the latest follow-up. One patient developed distant metastases after 22 months and one experienced biochemical failure at 30 months with no evidence of distant metastases. No patients experienced acute gastrointestinal toxicities of grade 2 or higher. There were no cases of late gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity. High-dose IG-IMRT results in high rates of salvage and extremely low rates of serious late toxicity for patients with locally recurrent prostate cancer after cryotherapy. Although the results are encouraging, given the small number of patients in this

  9. The Use of Cryotherapy to Treat Infantile Digital Fibromatosis with a Functional Deficit: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Aviv; Har-Shai, Yaron; Metanes, Isa; Harel, Hani; Wollstein, Ronit

    2018-06-01

    Infantile Digital Fibromatosis (IDF) is a rare benign lesion that can affect the fingers, often appearing at birth or early on in life. Treatment is controversial due to a high recurrence rate following surgical excision, and the tendency of the lesions to regress or resolve completely after the age of one year. Functional loss has rarely been described. We describe a case of IDF with joint contracture and significant functional deficit that was treated with cryotherapy and post procedural occupational therapy with an excellent result. Indications for treatment and cryotherapy as a therapeutic modality for IDF are discussed.

  10. Effect of whole-body cryotherapy on the rheological parameters of blood in older women with spondyloarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Kulis, Aleksandra; Misiorek, Anna; Marchewka, Jakub; Głodzik, Jacek; Teległów, Aneta; Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Marchewka, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Cryotherapy is a physiotherapy method used to treat back pain in older persons. This study aims to evaluate the changes in the rheological parameters of blood in older women with spondyloarthrosis, who underwent whole-body cryotherapy. The experimental group comprised 69 older women with lumbar spondyloarthrosis, aged between 65 and 70 years. Due to the methodology of the procedure, the experimental group was randomly divided into three groups. Each group underwent two weeks of different types of physiotherapy: only whole-body cryotherapy (22 women); only kinesitherapy (23 women); and both cryotherapy and kinesitherapy (24 women). The control group comprised 25 women who did not undergo any form of therapy. The evaluation of the rheological properties of the blood encompassed measurements of the plasma viscosity, the erythrocyte elongation and aggregation indices, and the level of fibrinogen. The conducted rheological tests revealed a significant decrease in the erythrocyte elasticity and aggregation indices only in the group of women who had undergone both whole-body cryotherapy and kinesitherapy. Applying whole-body cryotherapy to older women with spondyloarthrosis decreases the elasticity of erythrocytes and, despite favourable changes in the aggregation parameters, problems with perfusion may still appear. For this reason, the benefit of using whole-body cryotherapy in these persons is debatable.

  11. Comparison between Combination Therapy of Oral Terbinafine and Cryotherapy versus Systemic Meglumine Antimoniate and Cryotherapy in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Farajzadeh, Saeedeh; Esfandiarpour, Iraj; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Mohammadi, Saman; Mohebbi, Azadeh; Mohebbi, Elham; Mostafavi, Mahshid

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection that may lead to a variety of manifestations. In Iran, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has a high prevalence. There are many treatment modalities for CL. The use of oral terbinafine in the treatment of CL has recently been considered. The aim of this study was to compare combination of oral terbinafine plus cryotherapy versus systemic meglumine antimoniate plus cryotherapy in CL. Patients with proven direct smear for CL were divided randomly in 2 groups of 40 cases. For the first group systemic glucantime prescribed (IM, 15 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks. For the second group oral terbinafine as two folds of usual dose in the treatment of fungal diseases prescribed [125 mg/day for body weight (BW) <20 kg, 250 mg/day for BW 20-40 kg, 500 mg/day for BW>40 kg] for 4 weeks. Both groups received cryotherapy every 2 weeks for 4 weeks. The patients were followed monthly for 3 months after the treatment. Partial (HR= 0.55, CI 95%= 0.3-1.1) and complete (HR= 0.53, CI 95%= 0.3-0.98) clinical improvement in terbinafine group was much slower than glucantime group, although at the end of treatment protocols no significant difference between groups were statistically observed (P=0.27). Considering more convenient suitable route of administration and approximately comparable results, it seems that terbinafine can be used as an alternative treatment, especially in the case of allergy or resistance to systemic glucantime.

  12. Is ice right? Does cryotherapy improve outcome for acute soft tissue injury?

    PubMed

    Collins, N C

    2008-02-01

    The use of ice or cryotherapy in the management of acute soft tissue injuries is widely accepted and widely practised. This review was conducted to examine the medical literature to investigate if there is evidence to support an improvement in clinical outcome following the use of ice or cryotherapy. A comprehensive literature search was performed and all human and animal trials or systematic reviews pertaining to soft tissue trauma, ice or cryotherapy were assessed. The clinically relevant outcome measures were (1) a reduction in pain; (2) a reduction in swelling or oedema; (3) improved function; or (4) return to participation in normal activity. Six relevant trials in humans were identified, four of which lacked randomisation and blinding. There were two well conducted randomised controlled trials, one showing supportive evidence for the use of a cooling gel and the other not reaching statistical significance. Four animal studies showed that modest cooling reduced oedema but excessive or prolonged cooling is damaging. There were two systematic reviews, one of which was inconclusive and the other suggested that ice may hasten return to participation. There is insufficient evidence to suggest that cryotherapy improves clinical outcome in the management of soft tissue injuries.

  13. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment: oral cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Riley, Philip; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen V; Littlewood, Anne; Clarkson, Jan E; McCabe, Martin G

    2015-12-23

    Oral mucositis is a side effect of chemotherapy, head and neck radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, affecting over 75% of high risk patients. Ulceration can lead to severe pain and difficulty eating and drinking, which may necessitate opioid analgesics, hospitalisation and nasogastric or intravenous nutrition. These complications may lead to interruptions or alterations to cancer therapy, which may reduce survival. There is also a risk of death from sepsis if pathogens enter the ulcers of immunocompromised patients. Ulcerative oral mucositis can be costly to healthcare systems, yet there are few preventive interventions proven to be beneficial. Oral cryotherapy is a low-cost, simple intervention which is unlikely to cause side-effects. It has shown promise in clinical trials and warrants an up-to-date Cochrane review to assess and summarise the international evidence. To assess the effects of oral cryotherapy for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer who are receiving treatment. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 17 June 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 17 June 2015), EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 17 June 2015), CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 17 June 2015) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 17 June 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry, and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching databases. We included parallel-design randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment. We used outcomes from a published core outcome set registered on the COMET website. Two review authors independently screened the results of electronic searches, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors for information

  14. [Spontaneous peeling of the epimacular membrane after cryotherapy of retinal vasoproliferative tumors: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Coulier, J; Gribomont, A C; De Potter, P

    2013-01-01

    Epimacular membranes when responsible for a significant loss of visual acuity, generally require treatment by vitrectomy and peeling of the membrane. We report the case of a spontaneous peeling of a macular pucker after cryotherapy of peripheral retinal vasoproliferative tumors. Review of the literature.

  15. World Health Organization Guidelines: Use of cryotherapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Santesso, Nancy; Schünemann, Holger; Blumenthal, Paul; De Vuyst, Hugo; Gage, Julia; Garcia, Francisco; Jeronimo, Jose; Lu, Ricky; Luciani, Silvana; Quek, Swee C; Awad, Tahany; Broutet, Nathalie

    2012-08-01

    In 2008, cervical cancer was responsible for 275000 deaths, of which approximately 88% occurred in low- and middle-income countries. In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) committed to updating recommendations for use of cryotherapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We followed the WHO Handbook for Guidelines Development to develop present guidelines. An expert panel was established, which included clinicians, researchers, program directors, and methodologists. An independent group conducted systematic reviews and produced evidence summaries following the GRADE approach. GRADE evidence profiles were created for 16 key questions about the effects of cryotherapy in the presence of histologically confirmed CIN compared with no treatment and with loop electrosurgical excision procedure, as well as the use of different cryotherapy techniques. We identified a small number of randomized controlled trials or independently controlled observational studies. Surrogate outcomes were reported when evidence about outcomes critical to decision making were not available. The panel made 14 recommendations and documented factors that determined the strength and direction of the recommendations in decision tables. The present document summarizes new evidence-based WHO recommendations about the use of cryotherapy in women with histologically confirmed CIN for low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic Postural-Stability Deficits After Cryotherapy to the Ankle Joint.

    PubMed

    Fullam, Karl; Caulfield, Brian; Coughlan, Garrett F; McGroarty, Mark; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-09-01

    Decreased postural stability is a primary risk factor for lower limb musculoskeletal injuries. During athletic competitions, cryotherapy may be applied during short breaks in play or during half-time; however, its effects on postural stability remain unclear. To investigate the acute effects of a 15-minute ankle-joint cryotherapy application on dynamic postural stability. Controlled laboratory study. University biomechanics laboratory. A total of 29 elite-level collegiate male field-sport athletes (age = 20.8 ± 1.12 years, height = 1.80 ± 0.06 m, mass = 81.89 ± 8.59 kg) participated. Participants were tested on the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) reach directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test before and after a 15-minute ankle-joint cryotherapy application. Normalized reach distances; sagittal-plane kinematics of the hip, knee, and ankle joints; and associated mean velocity of the center-of-pressure path during performance of the ANT, PL, and PM reach directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test. We observed a decrease in reach-distance scores for the ANT, PL, and PM reach directions from precryotherapy to postcryotherapy (P < .05). No differences were observed in hip-, knee-, or ankle-joint sagittal-plane kinematics (P > .05). We noted a decrease in mean velocity of the center-of-pressure path from precryotherapy to postcryotherapy (P < .05) in all reach directions. Dynamic postural stability was adversely affected immediately after cryotherapy to the ankle joint.

  17. The Effects of Cryotherapy and PNF Stretching Techniques on Hip Extensor Flexibility in Elderly Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Beth S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Study determined whether three proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation flexibility maneuvers (to increase hamstring length) were as effective in 31 older females as in younger subjects. Cryotherapy intervention was also employed. Results indicated contract-relax and slow-reversal-hold-relax procedures were superior to static stretching;…

  18. Localized blastomycosis-like pyoderma with good response to cotrimoxazol and cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Su, Ozlem; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Onsun, Nahide

    2004-05-01

    Blastomycosis-like pyoderma is an unusual, exaggerated, vegetative-tissue reaction to a prolonged primary or secondary bacterial infection. It is a rare disease, usually seen in immunocompromized patients. We report a case of localized blastomycosis-like pyoderma responding poorly to classic treatments, but that gave a dramatic response to a combination treatment of cotrimoxazol and cryotherapy.

  19. Focal cryotherapy of localized prostate cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shah, Taimur Tariq; Ahmed, Hashim; Kanthabalan, Abi; Lau, Benjamin; Ghei, Maneesh; Maraj, Barry; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Radical/whole gland treatment for prostate cancer has significant side-effects. Therefore focal treatments such as cryotherapy have been used to treat localized lesions whilst aiming to provide adequate cancer control with minimal side-effects. We performed a systematic review of Pubmed/Medline and Cochrane databases' to yield 9 papers for primary focal prostate cryotherapy and 2 papers for focal salvage treatment (radio-recurrent). The results of 1582 primary patients showed biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 months follow-up. Incontinence rates were 0-3.6% and ED 0-42%. Recto-urethral fistula occurred in only 2 patients. Salvage focal cryotherapy had biochemical disease-free survival of 50-68% at 3 years. ED occurred in 60-71%. Focal cryotherapy appears to be an effective treatment for primary localized prostate cancer and compares favorably to radical/whole gland treatments in medium-term oncological outcomes and side-effects. Although more studies are needed it is also effective for radio-recurrent cancer with a low complications rates.

  20. Treatment of condyloma acuminata in pregnant women with cryotherapy combined with proanthocyanidins: Outcome and safety

    PubMed Central

    YANG, LI-JUAN; ZHU, DONG-NING; DANG, YAN-LING; ZHAO, XIONG

    2016-01-01

    Patients with condyloma acuminata (CA) during pregnancy represent a special risk group. The outcomes of many treatment methods for such cases are not satisfactory. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the treatment outcome and safety of cryotherapy combined with proanthocyanidins (PCs) for CA in pregnant women. In this study, 46 pregnant women with CA were treated with cryotherapy combined with PCs. The lesions were sprayed with liquid nitrogen until the color of the wart changed from flesh colored to purple. A PC-containing formulation was then sprayed onto a non-woven fabric or single-layer gauze and applied to the affected area. The PC treatment was applied for 20 min, 2 or 3 times per day. All patients were followed up at 1 and 3 months. No visible warts remained after the cryotherapy and PC treatment. At the 1-month follow-up, only 1 case of recurrence was identified. At 3 months, 5 cases of recurrence were identified, and the recurrence rate was 10.9%. The satisfaction rate of the patients was 94% at 1 month and 87% at 3 months after treatment. All pregnancies resulted in healthy live births without delivery complications. Cryotherapy combined with PCs is indicated to be a safe and effective procedure and may serve as a treatment option for pregnant women with CA. PMID:27284325

  1. Comparison of cryotherapy and photodynamic therapy in treatment of oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Kawczyk-Krupka, Aleksandra; Waśkowska, Jadwiga; Raczkowska-Siostrzonek, Agnieszka; Kościarz-Grzesiok, Anna; Kwiatek, Sebastian; Straszak, Dariusz; Latos, Wojciech; Koszowski, Rafał; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2012-06-01

    Oral leukoplakia is a pre-malignant lesion of the oral mucosa. The aim of this study is to compare the curative effects of photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy in the treatment of oral leukoplakia. The first group, treated by photodynamic therapy (δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), 630-635 nm wavelength), consisted of 48 patients suffering from leukoplakia. The second group consisted of 37 patients treated using cryotherapy. Analyses and comparisons of the complete responses, recurrences, numbers of procedures and adverse effects after both PDT and cryotherapy were obtained. In the first group, a complete response was obtained in 35 patients (72.9%), with thirteen recurrences observed (27.1%) over a six-month period. In the second group, a complete response was obtained in 33 patients (89.2%), and recurrence was observed in nine patients (24.3%). Photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy appear to be comparative methods of treatment that may both serve as alternatives for the traditional surgical treatment of oral leukoplakia. The advantages of PDT are connected with minimally invasive and localized character of the treatment and with not damage of collagenous tissue structures, therefore normal cells will repopulate these arrangements. PDT is more convenient for patients, less painful, and more esthetic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cryotherapy with dynamic intermittent compression for analgesia after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Murgier, J; Cassard, X

    2014-05-01

    Cryotherapy is a useful adjunctive analgesic measure in patients with postoperative pain following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Either static permanent compression or dynamic intermittent compression can be added to increase the analgesic effect of cryotherapy. Our objective was to compare the efficacy of these two compression modalities combined with cryotherapy in relieving postoperative pain and restoring range of knee motion after ligament reconstruction surgery. When combined with cryotherapy, a dynamic and intermittent compression is associated with decreased analgesic drug requirements, less postoperative pain, and better range of knee motion compared to static compression. We conducted a case-control study of consecutive patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at a single institution over a 3-month period. Both groups received the same analgesic drug protocol. One group was managed with cryotherapy and dynamic intermittent compression (Game Ready(®)) and the other with cryotherapy and static compression (IceBand(®)). Of 39 patients, 20 received dynamic and 19 static compression. In the post-anaesthesia recovery unit, the mean visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score was 2.4 (range, 0-6) with dynamic compression and 2.7 (0-7) with static compression (P=0.3); corresponding values were 1.85 (0-9) vs. 3 (0-8) (P=0.16) after 6 hours and 0.6 (0-3) vs. 1.14 (0-3) (P=0.12) at discharge. The cumulative mean tramadol dose per patient was 57.5mg (0-200mg) with dynamic compression and 128.6 mg (0-250 mg) with static compression (P=0.023); corresponding values for morphine were 0mg vs. 1.14 mg (0-8 mg) (P<0.05). Mean range of knee flexion at discharge was 90.5° (80°-100°) with dynamic compression and 84.5° (75°-90°) with static compression (P=0.0015). Dynamic intermittent compression combined with cryotherapy decreases analgesic drug requirements after ACL reconstruction and improves the postoperative recovery of range of knee

  3. Body-mounted robotic instrument guide for image-guided cryotherapy of renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Nobuhiko; Song, Sang-Eun; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Arimitsu, Yasumichi; Fujimoto, Kosuke; Kato, Takahisa; Tuncali, Kemal; Tani, Soichiro; Tokuda, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Image-guided cryotherapy of renal cancer is an emerging alternative to surgical nephrectomy, particularly for those who cannot sustain the physical burden of surgery. It is well known that the outcome of this therapy depends on the accurate placement of the cryotherapy probe. Therefore, a robotic instrument guide may help physicians aim the cryotherapy probe precisely to maximize the efficacy of the treatment and avoid damage to critical surrounding structures. The objective of this paper was to propose a robotic instrument guide for orienting cryotherapy probes in image-guided cryotherapy of renal cancers. The authors propose a body-mounted robotic guide that is expected to be less susceptible to guidance errors caused by the patient’s whole body motion. Methods: Keeping the device’s minimal footprint in mind, the authors developed and validated a body-mounted, robotic instrument guide that can maintain the geometrical relationship between the device and the patient’s body, even in the presence of the patient’s frequent body motions. The guide can orient the cryotherapy probe with the skin incision point as the remote-center-of-motion. The authors’ validation studies included an evaluation of the mechanical accuracy and position repeatability of the robotic instrument guide. The authors also performed a mock MRI-guided cryotherapy procedure with a phantom to compare the advantage of robotically assisted probe replacements over a free-hand approach, by introducing organ motions to investigate their effects on the accurate placement of the cryotherapy probe. Measurements collected for performance analysis included accuracy and time taken for probe placements. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess if either or both organ motion and the robotic guide impacted these measurements. Results: The mechanical accuracy and position repeatability of the probe placement using the robotic instrument guide were 0.3 and 0.1 mm, respectively, at a depth

  4. Skinfold thickness at 8 common cryotherapy sites in various athletic populations.

    PubMed

    Jutte, Lisa S; Hawkins, Jeremy; Miller, Kevin C; Long, Blaine C; Knight, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have observed slower cooling rates in thigh muscle with greater overlying adipose tissue, suggesting that cryotherapy duration should be based on the adipose thickness of the treatment site. Skinfold data do not exist for other common cryotherapy sites, and no one has reported how those skinfolds might vary because of physical activity level or sex. To determine the variability in skinfold thickness among common cryotherapy sites relative to sex and activity level (National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes, recreationally active college athletes). Descriptive laboratory study. Field. Three hundred eighty-nine college students participated; 196 Division I athletes (157 men, 39 women) were recruited during preseason physicals, and 193 recreationally active college athletes (108 men, 85 women) were recruited from physical education classes. Three skinfold measurements to within 1 mm were taken at 8 sites (inferior angle of the scapula, middle deltoid, ulnar groove, midforearm, midthigh, medial collateral ligament, midcalf, and anterior talofibular ligament [ATF]) using Lange skinfold calipers. Skinfold thickness in millimeters. We noted interactions among sex, activity level, and skinfold site. Male athletes had smaller skinfold measurements than female athletes at all sites except the ATF, scapula, and ulnar groove (F₇,₂₇₀₂ = 69.85, P < .001). Skinfold measurements were greater for recreationally active athletes than their Division I counterparts at all sites except the ATF, deltoid, and ulnar groove (F₇,₂₇₀₂ = 30.79, P < .001). Thigh skinfold measurements of recreationally active female athletes were the largest, and their ATF skinfolds were the smallest. Skinfold thickness at common cryotherapy treatment sites varied based on level of physical activity and sex. Therefore, clinicians should measure skinfold thickness to determine an appropriate cryotherapy duration.

  5. [Muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and their correction with the help of whole body cryotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kulikov, A G; Tabiev, V I; Rassulova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possibilities for the correction of muscular disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and their correction with the help of whole body cryotherapy. The study included 55 patients randomly allocated to two groups. Group 1 was comprised of the patients treated with the use of the common mineral baths, physiotherapy, therapeutic physical exercises, spinal massage, and whole body air-cryotherapy. Group 2 contained the patients who were treated in a similar way with the exception of whole body cryotherapy; they served as controls. Muscular disorders were diagnosed by means of functional muscular testing. The study has demonstrated the high prevalence of muscular disorders in the patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis. Moreover, it revealed the profile of such disorders associated with ankylosing spondylitis and showed significant correlation between the results of functional muscular testing, BASMI and BASFI indices as well as characteristics of chest excursions (p<0.01). The analysis of the results of the treatment gave evidence of the higher effectiveness of the combined treatment including whole body cryotherapy in comparison with the alternative therapeutic modalities employed in the present study. This therapeutic modality ensured the statistically more pronounced improvement of functional muscular testing parameters (p<0.05), muscle strength and extensibility, as well as certain other clinical and functional characteristics. The groups of muscles most susceptible to cryogenic therapy have been identified. The data obtained in the present study shed light on some specific features of the action of whole body cryotherapy accounting for its corrective influence on the muscular disorders in the patients presenting with ankylosing spondylitis. It is concluded that the proposed approach can be recommended for the introduction in the combined therapeutic and rehabilitative treatment of muscular

  6. Skinfold Thickness at 8 Common Cryotherapy Sites in Various Athletic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Jutte, Lisa S.; Hawkins, Jeremy; Miller, Kevin C.; Long, Blaine C.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Researchers have observed slower cooling rates in thigh muscle with greater overlying adipose tissue, suggesting that cryotherapy duration should be based on the adipose thickness of the treatment site. Skinfold data do not exist for other common cryotherapy sites, and no one has reported how those skinfolds might vary because of physical activity level or sex. Objective: To determine the variability in skinfold thickness among common cryotherapy sites relative to sex and activity level (National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes, recreationally active college athletes). Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Field. Patients or Other Participants: Three hundred eighty-nine college students participated; 196 Division I athletes (157 men, 39 women) were recruited during preseason physicals, and 193 recreationally active college athletes (108 men, 85 women) were recruited from physical education classes. Intervention(s): Three skinfold measurements to within 1 mm were taken at 8 sites (inferior angle of the scapula, middle deltoid, ulnar groove, midforearm, midthigh, medial collateral ligament, midcalf, and anterior talofibular ligament [ATF]) using Lange skinfold calipers. Main Outcome Measure(s): Skinfold thickness in millimeters. Results: We noted interactions among sex, activity level, and skinfold site. Male athletes had smaller skinfold measurements than female athletes at all sites except the ATF, scapula, and ulnar groove (F7,2702 = 69.85, P < .001). Skinfold measurements were greater for recreationally active athletes than their Division I counterparts at all sites except the ATF, deltoid, and ulnar groove (F7,2702 = 30.79, P < .001). Thigh skinfold measurements of recreationally active female athletes were the largest, and their ATF skinfolds were the smallest. Conclusions: Skinfold thickness at common cryotherapy treatment sites varied based on level of physical activity and sex. Therefore, clinicians should measure

  7. Chamomile infusion cryotherapy to prevent oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz; Ciol, Marcia A; de Melo, Nilce Santos; Figueiredo, Paulo Tadeu de Souza; Leite, André Ferreira; Manzi, Natália de Melo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to compare cryotherapy made only with water and cryotherapy made with chamomile infusion for prevention and reduction of intensity of oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. This is a randomized pilot study with two groups: cryotherapy made only with water (control group, n = 18) and cryotherapy made with chamomile infusion (chamomile group, n = 20). Both groups were instructed to swish the ice around in their oral cavity for at least 30 min during chemotherapy. Assessment of oral mucosa occurred on days 8, 15, and 22 after the first day of chemotherapy. Fifty percent of the patients in the control and 30 % in the chamomile group developed oral mucositis. Mouth pain score was higher in patients in the control group on all evaluations (p = 0.02 for day 8, p = 0.09 for day 15, and p = 0.14 for day 22). Patients in the chamomile group never developed mucositis with grade 2 or higher. Presence of ulceration was statistically significant on day 8 (16 % in the control vs. 0 % in the chamomile group, p = 0.10), but not in days 15 and 22, although 11 % still had ulcerations in the control group and none in the chamomile group. The occurrence of oral mucositis was lower in patients in the chamomile group than in the control group. When compared to the controls, the chamomile group presented less mouth pain and had no ulcerations. Cryotherapy was well tolerated by both groups, and no toxicity related to chamomile was identified.

  8. Liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy in Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia: long-term results.

    PubMed

    Gosain, Sonia; Mercer, Kim; Twaddell, William S; Uradomo, Lance; Greenwald, Bruce D

    2013-08-01

    Liquid nitrogen endoscopic spray cryotherapy can safely and effectively eradicate high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE-HGD). Long-term data on treatment success and safety are lacking. To assess the long-term safety and efficacy of spray cryotherapy in patients with BE-HGD. Single-center, retrospective study. Tertiary-care referral center. A total of 32 patients with BE-HGD of any length. Patients were treated with liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy every 8 weeks until complete eradication of HGD (CE-HGD) and intestinal metaplasia (CE-IM) was found by endoscopic biopsy. Surveillance endoscopy with biopsies was performed for at least 2 years. CE-HGD, CE-IM, durability of response, disease progression, and adverse events. CE-HGD was 100% (32/32), and CE-IM was 84% (27/32) at 2-year follow-up. At last follow-up (range 24-57 months), CE-HGD was 31/32 (97%), and CE-IM was 26/32 (81%). Recurrent HGD was found in 6 (18%), with CE-HGD in 5 after repeat treatment. One patient progressed to adenocarcinoma, downgraded to HGD after repeat cryotherapy. BE segment length ≥3 cm was associated with a higher recurrence of IM (P = .004; odds ratio 22.6) but not HGD. No serious adverse events occurred. Stricture was seen in 3 patients (9%), all successfully dilated. Retrospective study design, small sample size. In patients with BE-HGD, liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy has an acceptable safety profile and success rate for eliminating HGD and IM and is associated with a low rate of recurrence or progression to cancer with long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Image-guided percutaneous cryotherapy for the management of gynecologic cancer metastases.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Leigh A; Munkarah, Adnan R; Vorugu, Vinaya R; Deppe, Gunter; Adam, Barbara; Malone, John M; Littrup, Peter J

    2008-11-01

    To report the clinical response to image-guided percutaneous cryotherapy (IPC) for the palliative management of localized metastases in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Institutional review board approval and patient consent were obtained. Gynecologic oncology patients were identified from our institution's cryotherapy database from August 2003 to August 2007. Cryotherapy was performed with 2.4 mm diameter probes (Endocare, Irvine, CA) with ultrasound or computerized tomography (CT) guidance under conscious sedation and local anesthesia. Follow-up was conducted by imaging studies and clinical encounters, using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST criteria). Twenty-eight ablation sessions were performed for 41 metastatic foci in 15 patients with gynecologic malignancies. Twelve patients had prior chemotherapy and 5 patients had prior radiation. Median follow-up was 317.5 days (range 95-1189). Median post-procedure pain score: 3/10 (range 0-5). Mean initial tumor size was 2.6 cm in maximal diameter. Median reduction in tumor diameter at 1 month was 21.4% (range 2-67.4%), at 3 months was 43.6% (range 16-80.4%), at 6 months was 54.7% (range (16.6-88.9%) and at 9 months was 58.2% (range 32-88.9%). Ten patients received concurrent chemotherapy, 8 had progression of disease at other sites and 2 had stable disease, while the cryotherapy site improved. One of 5 patients who had cryotherapy in the previously irradiated zone had recurrence. A liver capsule hematoma developed as an immediate complication in one patient and an enterocutaneous fistula developed in another. IPC is a well-tolerated, effective tool for local control of isolated metastatic foci as a single-modality treatment and for local control of symptomatic metastases in select patients undergoing systemic therapy for the management of gynecologic malignancies.

  10. Effects of the whole-body cryotherapy on NTproBNP, hsCRP and troponin I in athletes.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Melegati, Gianluca; Barassi, Alessandra; d'Eril, Gianlodovico Melzi

    2009-11-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy refers to brief exposure to very cold air for treating symptoms of various illnesses. In sports medicine, whole-body cryotherapy is administered to improve recovery from muscular trauma. As specific studies are lacking, we measured cardiac markers in 10 top-level rugby players of the Italian National team before and after a 1-week course of daily sessions of whole-body cryotherapy. All subjects continued with the same training workload as that of the previous weeks. N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels increased but remained within the normal range, whilst troponin I (TnI) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were unchanged. Whole-body cryotherapy did not impair cardiac function in this sample of elite athletes.

  11. Effects of partial-body cryotherapy (- 110°C) on muscle recovery between high-intensity exercise bouts.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Junior, J B; Bottaro, M; Vieira, C A; Soares, S R S; Vieira, A; Cleto, V A; Cadore, E L; Coelho, D B; Simoes, H G; Brown, L E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single partial-body cryotherapy bout between training sessions on strength recovery. 12 young men (23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to 2 different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) Partial-body cryotherapy (subjects were exposed to 3 min of partial-body cryotherapy at - 110 °C between 2 high-intensity training sessions); 2) Control (subjects were not exposed to partial-body cryotherapy between 2 high-intensity training sessions). Subjects were exposed to partial-body cryotherapy after the first training session. The 2 knee extension high-intensity training sessions were separated by a 40-min rest interval. Knee extension training consisted of 6 sets of 10 repetitions at 60°.s(-1) for concentric actions and 6 sets of 10 at 180.s(-1) for eccentric actions. The decrease in eccentric peak torque and total work was significantly (p<0.05) less after partial-body cryotherapy (5.6 and 2%, respectively) when compared to control (16 and 11.6%, respectively). However, the decrease in concentric peak torque and total work was not different (p>0.05) between partial-body cryotherapy (9.4 and 6.5%, respectively) and control (7.5 and 5.2%, respectively). These results indicate that the use of partial-body cryotherapy between-training sessions can enhance eccentric muscle performance recovery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Patient-Reported Quality of Life Progression in Men with Prostate Cancer following Primary Cryotherapy, Cyberknife, or Active Holistic Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Werneburg, Glenn T.; Kongnyuy, Michael; Halpern, Daniel M.; Salcedo, Jose M.; Kosinski, Kaitlin E.; Haas, Jonathan A.; Schiff, Jeffrey T.; Corcoran, Anthony T.; Katz, Aaron E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Technological advancements have led to the success of minimally invasive treatment modalities for prostate cancer such as CyberKnife and Cryotherapy. Here, we investigate patient-reported urinary function, bowel habits, and sexual function in patients following CyberKnife (CK) or Cryotherapy treatment, and compare them with active holistic surveillance (AHS) patients. Methods An IRB-approved institutional database was retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent CK, Cryotherapy, or AHS. Quality of life (QoL) survey responses were collected every three months and the mean function scores were analyzed in yearly intervals over the 4 years post-treatment. Results 279 patients (767 survey sets) were included in the study. There was no difference among groups in urinary function scores. The CyberKnife group had significantly lower bowel habit scores in the early years following treatment (year two mean difference: −5.4, p<0.01) but returned to AHS level scores by year four. Cryotherapy patients exhibited initially lower, but not statistically significant, bowel function scores, which then improved and approached those of AHS. Both CyberKnife (year 1 mean difference: −26.7, p<0.001) and Cryotherapy groups (−35.4, p<0.001) had early lower sexual function scores relative to AHS, but then gradually improved and were not significantly different from AHS by the third year post-treatment. A history of hormonal therapy was associated with a lower sexual function scores relative to those patients who did not receive hormones in both CyberKnife (−18.45, p<0.01) and Cryotherapy patients (−14.6, p<0.05). Conclusions After initially lower bowel habits and sexual function scores, CyberKnife or Cryotherapy-treated patients had no significant difference in QoL relative to AHS patients. These results highlight the benefit of CyberKnife and Cryotherapy in the management of organ-confined prostate cancer. PMID:29217830

  13. Safety, feasibility, and acceptability of visual inspection with acetic acid and immediate treatment with cryotherapy in rural Laos.

    PubMed

    Phongsavan, Keokedthong; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Wahlström, Rolf; Marions, Lena

    2011-09-01

    To assess the safety, acceptability, and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) followed by immediate treatment with cryotherapy as a single-visit approach for the prevention of cervical cancer among women in rural Laos. In 2009, women from 2 provinces in Laos were recruited for cervical cancer screening using VIA. If the inspection of the cervix showed a well-defined acetowhite lesion close to the os, immediate cryotherapy was offered. Of the 1926 women who were included, 134 (7.0%) tested positive on VIA. Of these, 113 (84.3%) underwent immediate cryotherapy and none declined treatment. One year after immediate cryotherapy, 77 (68.1%) women returned for a follow-up assessment and 68 (88.3%) were now VIA-negative. There was no report of a major complication during or after treatment. The acceptance of both VIA and cryotherapy was high. Visual inspection with acetic acid is a simple test that requires minimal infrastructure and expenditure. Integration of VIA with cryotherapy at the primary care level may constitute a feasible program for the prevention of cervical cancer in Laos. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of cryotherapy on relief of perineal pain after vaginal childbirth with episiotomy: a randomized and controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Beleza, Ana Carolina Sartorato; Ferreira, Cristine Homsi Jorge; Driusso, Patricia; Dos Santos, Claudia Benedita; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spanó

    2017-12-01

    Verify the effectiveness of cryotherapy in relieving perineal pain in women after vaginal delivery with episiotomy. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Reference Center of Women's Health of Ribeirão Preto (MATER), in the state of São Paulo. The study included 50 women who reported pain in the postpartum period following vaginal delivery with episiotomy. The women in the experimental group applied a bag of crushed ice to the perineal region for 20minutes. Both groups were assessed before, immediately after removal of the ice bag, and one hour after cryotherapy treatment. Complaint of pain was evaluated using a numerical pain assessment scale (0 to 10). Perineal temperature was also measured using an infrared thermometer, and the satisfaction of women undergoing the treatment was assessed using a questionnaire. Pain relief was verified for the experimental group compared to the control group in the second (immediately after use of cryotherapy) and third evaluations (one hour after cryotherapy). The temperature of the perineal region was found to be related to the intensity of pain, e.g. the lower the temperature provided by cryotherapy, the lower the woman's complaint of pain. 88% of women reported being satisfied with the treatment. After 20minutes of application, cryotherapy was effective in relieving perineal pain in women in the immediate postpartum period after vaginal birth with episiotomy. ACTRN12613000052730. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Effects of air-pulsed cryotherapy on neuromuscular recovery subsequent to exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hug, François; Couturier, Antoine; Regnault, Stéphanie; Bournat, Laure; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Dorel, Sylvain

    2013-08-01

    Localized cooling has been proposed as an effective strategy to limit the deleterious effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on neuromuscular function. However, the literature reports conflicting results. This randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the effects of a new treatment, localized air-pulsed cryotherapy (-30°C), on the recovery time-course of neuromuscular function following a strenuous eccentric exercise. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 24 participants were included in either a control group (CONT) or a cryotherapy group (CRYO). Immediately after 3 sets of 20 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of elbow flexors, and then 1, 2, and 3 days after exercise, the CRYO group received a cryotherapy treatment (3 × 4 minutes at -30°C separated by 1 minute). The day before and 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 days after exercise, several parameters were quantified: maximal isometric torque and its associated maximal electromyographic activity recorded by a 64-channel electrode, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), biceps brachii transverse relaxation time (T2) measured using magnetic resonance imaging, creatine kinase activity, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein. Maximal isometric torque decreased similarly for the CONT (-33% ± 4%) and CRYO groups (-31% ± 6%). No intergroup differences were found for DOMS, electromyographic activity, creatine kinase activity, and T2 level averaged across the whole biceps brachii. C-reactive protein significantly increased for CONT (+93% at 72 hours, P < .05) but not for CRYO. Spatial analysis showed that cryotherapy delayed the significant increase of T2 and the decrease of electromyographic activity level for CRYO compared with CONT (between day 1 and day 3) in the medio-distal part of the biceps brachii. Although some indicators of muscle damage after severe eccentric exercise were delayed (ie, local formation of edema and decrease of muscle activity) by repeated air-pulsed cryotherapy, we provide evidence that

  16. Perineal Pain Management with Cryotherapy after Vaginal Delivery: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Morais, Ítalo; Lemos, Andréa; Katz, Leila; Melo, Lorena Fernandes Rosendo de; Maciel, Mariano Maia; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos de

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Systematic reviews that evaluate the perineal cryotherapy to reduce pain in the vaginal postpartum are inconclusive. Purpose To evaluate clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy in the management of humanized postpartum perineal pain and vaginal edema. Methods A double-bind randomized controlled clinical trial (UTN number: U1111-1131-8433) was conducted in a hospital in Northeastern, Brazil. Women were included following humanized childbirth. All had vaginal deliveries of a single, full-term pregnancy with cephalic presentation. Exclusion criteria included previous perineal lesion, episiotomy during the current delivery, instrumental delivery, uterine curettage and postpartum hemorrhage. In the experimental group, an ice pack was applied six times on the perineum for 20 minutes, reducing the temperature between 10 and 15 ° C, then 60 minutes without exposure to cold. In the non-cryotherapy, a water bag unable to reduce the temperature to this extent was used, compliance with the same application protocol of the first group. Perineal temperature was monitored at zero, 10 and 20 minutes for application in both groups. Evaluations were made immediately before and after the applications and 24 hours after delivery spontaneous, to determine the association between variables. Results A total of 80 women were included in the study, 40 in each group. There was no significant difference in scores of perineal pain and edema between the groups with or without cryotherapy until 24 hours after childbirth. There was no difference between groups when accomplished repeated measures analysis over the 24 hours after delivery, considering the median perineal pain (p = 0.3) and edema (p = 0.9). Perineal cryotherapy did not influence the amount of analgesics used (p = 0.07) and no adverse effect was registered. Conclusion The use of cryotherapy following normal vaginal delivery within the concept of humanized minimally interventionist childbirth had no

  17. Cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts (verrucae): a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Catherine; Hicks, Kate; Jayakody, Shalmini; Kang’ombe, Arthur Ricky; Stamuli, Eugena; Turner, Gwen; Thomas, Kim; Curran, Mike; Denby, Gary; Hashmi, Farina; McIntosh, Caroline; McLarnon, Nichola; Torgerson, David; Watt, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts. Design A multicentre, open, two arm randomised controlled trial. Setting University podiatry school clinics, NHS podiatry clinics, and primary care in England, Scotland, and Ireland. Participants 240 patients aged 12 years and over, with a plantar wart that in the opinion of the healthcare professional was suitable for treatment with both cryotherapy and salicylic acid. Interventions Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen delivered by a healthcare professional, up to four treatments two to three weeks apart. Patient self treatment with 50% salicylic acid (Verrugon) daily up to a maximum of eight weeks. Main outcome measures Complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes were (a) complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks controlling for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of wart, (b) patient self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months, (c) time to clearance of plantar wart, (d) number of plantar warts at 12 weeks, and (e) patient satisfaction with the treatment. Results There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in the proportions of participants with complete clearance of all plantar warts at 12 weeks (17/119 (14%) v 15/110 (14%), difference 0.65% (95% CI –8.33 to 9.63), P=0.89). The results did not change when the analysis was repeated but with adjustment for age, whether the wart had been treated previously, and type of plantar wart or for patients’ preferences at baseline. There was no evidence of a difference between the salicylic acid and cryotherapy groups in self reported clearance of plantar warts at six months (29/95 (31%) v 33/98 (34%), difference –3.15% (–16.31 to 10.02), P=0.64) or in time to clearance (hazard ratio 0.80 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.25), P=0.33). There was also no evidence of a difference in the number of plantar

  18. Multiple superficial basal cell carcinomata--topical imiquimod versus curette and cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Superficial basal cell carcinoma can be successfully managed by means other than surgical excision. Nonexcisional approaches include topical imiquimod, and curette and cryotherapy (C&C). This article discusses the management of an insulin dependent diabetic man aged 52 years presenting with 17 torso basal cell carcinomas (BCCs); mostly superficial BCCs (SBCCs). Half were treated with topical imiquimod. The remaining lesions were treated with curette and cryotherapy. All lesions resolved with proven histologic clearance. The patient considered C&C caused him less discomfort and disruption. He developed a late secondary infection in some sites treated with imiquimod. At 12 months there was no evidence of recurrence though new nodular BCCs and SBCCs had developed elsewhere on his upper torso. He has elected to have future SBCCs managed with C&C. While excisional surgery remains the benchmark management for nonmelanoma skin cancer, topical imiquimod and C&C are important options for treating SBCCs.

  19. Enucleation and liquid nitrogen cryotherapy in the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors: a case series.

    PubMed

    Tonietto, Leonardo; Borges, Hedelson Odenir Iecher; Martins, Carlos Alberto Medeiros; Silva, Daniela Nascimento; Sant'Ana Filho, Manoel

    2011-06-01

    This study describes the technique of lesion enucleation without capsule disruption combined with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy in the surgical treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KOTs). Eight patients (9 KOTs) were included in the study. After enucleation, liquid nitrogen was applied twice for 1 minute, with 5-minute intervals between applications. The patients were followed up for 3 to 9 years. There were no recurrences during the follow-up of 9 KOTs for up to 9 years. Only 1 patient had temporary reversible loss of lip sensation after treatment. There were no pathologic fractures. In all cases bone height at the surgical site was restored, and no patients needed bone reconstruction for post-treatment rehabilitation. This study confirmed the efficiency of KOT treatment enucleation without fragmentation combined with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy at the surgical site. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tolerability of 2.5% Lidocaine/Prilocaine Hydrogel in Children Undergoing Cryotherapy for Molluscum Contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Gobbato, André A M; Babadópulos, Tainah; Gobbato, Cintia A R S; Moreno, Ronilson A; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-05-01

    The tolerability of a 2.5% lidocaine/prilocaine hydrogel (Nanorap, Biolab Indústria Farmacêutica Ltd., Sao Paulo, Brazil) was evaluated in 20 children ages 2 to 11 years undergoing cryotherapy for molluscum contagiosum (MC). The product was well tolerated, with only two children presenting with eczema at the application site. These adverse reactions were considered unlikely to be related to the test product, because a patch test was negative in one of the individuals and the other event occurred in only one of the two treated areas. Nanorap is an efficacious and well-tolerated option for topical anesthesia in children undergoing cryotherapy for MC. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cryotherapy for localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia: preliminary findings on two cases.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Vinícius Krieger Costa; Fernandes, Darcy; Navarro, Cláudia Maria; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida; de Almeida, Luciana Yamamoto; León, Jorge Esquiche; Bufalino, Andreia

    2017-05-01

    Localized juvenile spongiotic gingival hyperplasia (LJSGH) is a distinct subtype of inflammatory gingival hyperplasia that shows lack of response to traditional periodontal treatment, and after surgical excision, recurrence rate of 6-16% has been reported. Two girls (11- and 9-year-old) with multifocal red patches along the maxillary and mandibular labial gingiva showed no regression of the lesions after basic periodontal treatment. Surgical excision of focal lesion in each case was performed, which showed typical features of LJSGH. In both cases, the lesions presented recurrence. Hence, cryotherapy sessions in all lesions were performed. Cryotherapy appears to be successfully in LJSGH and well received by paediatric patients. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Cold-therapy and cryotherapy in management patients with shoulder pain].

    PubMed

    Lisiński, Przemysław; Jóźwiak, Daniel; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2005-01-01

    A shoulder pain is one of the most frequent disorders that obliged patients to visit orthopedic practices. A conservative treatment is based on special kind exercises accompanying by physical procedures. The aim of this study is making closer rules and effects of low temperatures in treatment of shoulder pain. Additionally introducing differenties between cold and cryotherapy. In practice we used temperatures higher than -100 degrees Celsius which are called cold-therapy and offers pain reducing, lower level of metabolism and slower velocity of pathologic reactions in damaged area. On the other hand we used temperatures lower than -100 degrees Celsius (cryotherapy) where the reflector hyperemia reaction exists and particularly analgesic effect is present. Both procedures are useful in a conservative treatment of shoulder pain.

  3. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and/or cryotherapy in skeletal muscle restitution, what is better? A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Paulo Roberto Vicente; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Johnson, Douglas Scott; Vanin, Adriane Aver; Albuquerque-Pontes, Gianna Móes; Machado, Caroline Dos Santos Monteiro; Casalechi, Heliodora Leão; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto

    2016-12-01

    Cryotherapy for post-exercise recovery remains widely used despite the lack of quality evidence. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) studies (with both low-level laser therapy and light-emitting diode therapy) have demonstrated positive scientific evidence to suggest its use. The study aims to evaluate PBMT and cryotherapy as a single or combined treatment on skeletal muscle recovery after eccentric contractions of knee extensors. Fifty healthy male volunteers were recruited and randomized into five groups (PBMT, cryotherapy, cryotherapy + PBMT, PMBT + cryotherapy, or placebo) for a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated exercise performance (maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), and muscle damage (creatine kinase (CK)). Assessments were performed at baseline; immediately after; and at 1, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Comparator treatments was performed 3 min after exercise and repeated at 24, 48, and 72 h. PBMT was applied employing a cordless, portable GameDay ™ device (combination of 905 nm super-pulsed laser and 875- and 640-nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs); manufactured by Multi Radiance Medical ™ , Solon - OH, USA), and cryotherapy by flexible rubber ice packs. PBMT alone was optimal for post-exercise recovery with improved MVC, decreased DOMS, and CK activity (p < 0.05) from 24 to 96 h compared to placebo, cryotherapy, and cryotherapy + PBMT. In the PBMT + cryotherapy group, the effect of PBMT was decreased (p > 0.05) but demonstrated significant improvement in MVC, decreased DOMS, and CK activity (p < 0.05). Cryotherapy as single treatment and cryotherapy + PBMT were similar to placebo (p > 0.05). We conclude that PBMT used as single treatment is the best modality for enhancement of post-exercise restitution, leading to complete recovery to baseline levels from 24 h after high-intensity eccentric contractions.

  4. Dynamic Postural-Stability Deficits After Cryotherapy to the Ankle Joint

    PubMed Central

    Fullam, Karl; Caulfield, Brian; Coughlan, Garrett F.; McGroarty, Mark; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-01-01

    Context  Decreased postural stability is a primary risk factor for lower limb musculoskeletal injuries. During athletic competitions, cryotherapy may be applied during short breaks in play or during half-time; however, its effects on postural stability remain unclear. Objective  To investigate the acute effects of a 15-minute ankle-joint cryotherapy application on dynamic postural stability. Design  Controlled laboratory study. Setting  University biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants  A total of 29 elite-level collegiate male field-sport athletes (age = 20.8 ± 1.12 years, height = 1.80 ± 0.06 m, mass = 81.89 ± 8.59 kg) participated. Intervention(s)  Participants were tested on the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) reach directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test before and after a 15-minute ankle-joint cryotherapy application. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Normalized reach distances; sagittal-plane kinematics of the hip, knee, and ankle joints; and associated mean velocity of the center-of-pressure path during performance of the ANT, PL, and PM reach directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test. Results  We observed a decrease in reach-distance scores for the ANT, PL, and PM reach directions from precryotherapy to postcryotherapy (P < .05). No differences were observed in hip-, knee-, or ankle-joint sagittal-plane kinematics (P > .05). We noted a decrease in mean velocity of the center-of-pressure path from precryotherapy to postcryotherapy (P < .05) in all reach directions. Conclusions  Dynamic postural stability was adversely affected immediately after cryotherapy to the ankle joint. PMID:26285088

  5. Cold-induced vasoconstriction may persist long after cooling ends: an evaluation of multiple cryotherapy units.

    PubMed

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K; Diller, Kenneth R

    2015-09-01

    Localized cooling is widely used in treating soft tissue injuries by modulating swelling, pain, and inflammation. One of the primary outcomes of localized cooling is vasoconstriction within the underlying skin. It is thought that in some instances, cryotherapy may be causative of tissue necrosis and neuropathy via cold-induced ischaemia leading to nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI). The purpose of this study is to quantify the magnitude and persistence of vasoconstriction associated with cryotherapy. Data are presented from testing with four different FDA approved cryotherapy devices. Blood perfusion and skin temperature were measured at multiple anatomical sites during baseline, active cooling, and passive rewarming periods. Local cutaneous blood perfusion was depressed in response to cooling the skin surface with all devices, including the DonJoy (DJO, p = 2.6 × 10(-8)), Polar Care 300 (PC300, p = 1.1 × 10(-3)), Polar Care 500 Lite (PC500L, p = 0.010), and DeRoyal T505 (DR505, p = 0.016). During the rewarming period, parasitic heat gain from the underlying tissues and the environment resulted in increased temperatures of the skin and pad for all devices, but blood perfusion did not change significantly, DJO (n.s.), PC300 (n.s.), PC500L (n.s.), and DR505 (n.s.). The results demonstrate that cryotherapy can create a deep state of vasoconstriction in the local area of treatment. In the absence of independent stimulation, the condition of reduced blood flow persists long after cooling is stopped and local temperatures have rewarmed towards the normal range, indicating that the maintenance of vasoconstriction is not directly dependent on the continuing existence of a cold state. The depressed blood flow may dispose tissue to NFCI.

  6. Standardized combined cryotherapy and compression using Cryo/Cuff after wrist arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Marcotty, M; Jungling, O; Vaske, B; Vogt, P M; Knobloch, Karsten

    2011-02-01

    cryotherapy and compression as integral part of the RICE regimen are thought to improve treatment outcome after sport injuries. Using standardized cryotherapy and compression perioperatively has been reported with conflicting clinical results. The impact of combined cryotherapy and compression is compared to standard care among patients undergoing wrist arthroscopy. fifty-six patients undergoing wrist arthroscopy were assessed, 54 patients were randomized to either Cryo/Cuff (3 × 10 min twice daily) or standard care over 3 weeks. Follow-up clinical visits were at postoperative days 1, 8, and 21. One patient in each group was lost during follow-up. Fifty-two patients were analyzed. Statistics were performed as Intention-to-treat analysis. Outcome parameters were pain, three-dimensional volume of the wrist, range of motion, and DASH score. the Cryo/Cuffgroup had a 49% reduction in pain level (VAS 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. VAS 1.8 ± 0.2 on the 21st postoperative day) when compared to a reduction of 41% in the control group (VAS 5.1 ± 0.6 preoperatively vs. VAS 3.0 ± 0.5 on the 21st postoperative day). Swelling and range of motion were not as significantly different between the two groups as were DASH scores (DASH-score Cryo/Cuff group preoperatively 37.3 ± 3.5 and postoperatively 36.9 ± 3.5; DASH-score control group preoperatively 42.8 ± 4.3 and postoperatively 41.9 ± 4.9). The CONSORT score reached 17 out of 22. there was no significant effect of additional home-based combined cryotherapy and compression using the Cryo/Cuff wrist bandage, following wrist arthroscopy regarding pain, swelling, range of motion, and subjective impairment assessed using the DASH score over 3 weeks in comparison with the control group.

  7. Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Athletes: From Therapy to Stimulation. An Updated Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Ziemann, Ewa; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, whole-body cryotherapy is a medical physical treatment widely used in sports medicine. Recovery from injuries (e.g., trauma, overuse) and after-season recovery are the main purposes for application. However, the most recent studies confirmed the anti-inflammatory, anti-analgesic, and anti-oxidant effects of this therapy by highlighting the underlying physiological responses. In addition to its therapeutic effects, whole-body cryotherapy has been demonstrated to be a preventive strategy against the deleterious effects of exercise-induced inflammation and soreness. Novel findings have stressed the importance of fat mass on cooling effectiveness and of the starting fitness level on the final result. Exposure to the cryotherapy somehow mimics exercise, since it affects myokines expression in an exercise-like fashion, thus opening another possible window on the therapeutic strategies for metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. From a biochemical point of view, whole-body cryotherapy not always induces appreciable modifications, but the final clinical output (in terms of pain, soreness, stress, and post-exercise recovery) is very often improved compared to either the starting condition or the untreated matched group. Also, the number and the frequency of sessions that should be applied in order to obtain the best therapeutic results have been deeply investigated in the last years. In this article, we reviewed the most recent literature, from 2010 until present, in order to give the most updated insight into this therapeutic strategy, whose rapidly increasing use is not always based on scientific assumptions and safety standards.

  8. Feasibility of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy after failed radiofrequency ablation for Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Arvind J; Inamdar, Sumant; Kothari, Shivangi; Berkowitz, Joshua; McKinley, Matthew; Kaul, Vivek

    2017-09-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for dysplastic Barrett's esophagus (BE) is highly effective. RFA failures are infrequent but can be a challenging cohort to manage. There are limited data on the feasibility of liquid nitrogen cryospray ablation for complete eradication of dysplasia (CE-D) and/or intestinal metaplasia (CE-IM) after RFA has failed to achieve CE-IM in patients with dysplastic BE. This is a retrospective review from two medical centers of prospectively maintained databases looking at patients that underwent liquid nitrogen cryospray ablation for refractory intestinal metaplasia post failed RFA. Eighteen patients were identified that met inclusion criteria. Eleven patients had persistent dysplasia and IM following RFA and seven had persistent non-dysplastic IM. More than 80% of patients were male with long-segment BE (median length 8 cm). Seventy two percent of patients with dysplasia achieved CE-D after cryotherapy. Fifty percent (9/18) of all RFA failures achieved CE-IM with cryotherapy. In comparison, RFA has a CE-IM of 78% in a less challenging treatment naïve cohort from a large-scale meta-analysis of 3802 patients. No adverse events occurred in our cohort. Cryospray ablation is feasible and safe for achieving CE-D and CE-IM after RFA failure. The CE-D rates are high with cryotherapy in this population. CE-IM with cryotherapy is acceptable in this difficult-to-treat cohort when compared to CE-IM rates with RFA in dysplastic BE treatment naïve patients (50% vs 78%). © 2017 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  9. Cold-induced vasoconstriction may persist long after cooling ends: an evaluation of multiple cryotherapy units

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Localized cooling is widely used in treating soft tissue injuries by modulating swelling, pain, and inflammation. One of the primary outcomes of localized cooling is vasoconstriction within the underlying skin. It is thought that in some instances, cryotherapy may be causative of tissue necrosis and neuropathy via cold-induced ischaemia leading to nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI). The purpose of this study is to quantify the magnitude and persistence of vasoconstriction associated with cryotherapy. Methods Data are presented from testing with four different FDA approved cryotherapy devices. Blood perfusion and skin temperature were measured at multiple anatomical sites during baseline, active cooling, and passive rewarming periods. Results Local cutaneous blood perfusion was depressed in response to cooling the skin surface with all devices, including the DonJoy (DJO, p = 2.6 × 10−8), Polar Care 300 (PC300, p = 1.1 × 10−3), Polar Care 500 Lite (PC500L, p = 0.010), and DeRoyal T505 (DR505, p = 0.016). During the rewarming period, parasitic heat gain from the underlying tissues and the environment resulted in increased temperatures of the skin and pad for all devices, but blood perfusion did not change significantly, DJO (n.s.), PC300 (n.s.), PC500L (n.s.), and DR505 (n.s.). Conclusions The results demonstrate that cryotherapy can create a deep state of vasoconstriction in the local area of treatment. In the absence of independent stimulation, the condition of reduced blood flow persists long after cooling is stopped and local temperatures have rewarmed towards the normal range, indicating that the maintenance of vasoconstriction is not directly dependent on the continuing existence of a cold state. The depressed blood flow may dispose tissue to NFCI. PMID:24562697

  10. Cryotherapy Reduces Progression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1 in South African HIV-Infected Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Firnhaber, Cynthia; Swarts, Avril; Goeieman, Bridgette; Rakhombe, Ntombi; Mulongo, Masangu; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Michelow, Pam; Ramotshela, Sibongile; Faesen, Mark; Levin, Simon; Wilkin, Timothy

    2017-12-15

    HIV-infected women are at an increased risk of cervical cancer, especially in resource-limited countries. Cervical cancer prevention strategies focus treating cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). The management of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in HIV-infected women is unknown. HIV treatment clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. We randomized HIV-infected women with histologic cervical LSIL to cervical cryotherapy vs. no treatment (standard of care). Cervical high-risk human papillomavirus testing (hrHPV) was performed at baseline. All women underwent cervical cytology and colposcopic biopsies 12 months after enrollment. The primary end point was HSIL on histology at month 12. Chi-square was used to compare arms. Overall, 220 HIV-infected women were randomized to cryotherapy (n = 112) or no treatment (n = 108). Median age was 38 years, 94% were receiving antiretroviral therapy; median CD4 was 499 cells per cubic millimeter, and 59% were hrHPV positive. Cryotherapy reduced progression to HSIL: 2/99 (2%) in the cryotherapy arm and 15/103 (15%) in the no treatment arm developed HSIL, 86% reduction (95% confidence interval: 41% to 97%; P = 0.002). Among 17 HSIL end points, 16 were hrHPV+ at baseline. When restricting the analysis to hrHPV+ women, HSIL occurred in 2/61 (3%) in the cryotherapy arm vs. 14/54 (26%) in the no treatment arm, 87% reduction (95% confidence interval: 47% to 97%; P = 0.0004). Participants in the cryotherapy arm experienced greater regression to normal histology and improved cytologic outcomes. Treatment of cervical LSIL with cryotherapy decreased progression to HSIL among HIV-infected women especially if hrHPV positive. These results support treatment of LSIL in human papillomavirus test-and-treat approaches for cervical cancer prevention in resource-constrained settings.

  11. Low-Level Laser Therapy and Cryotherapy as Mono- and Adjunctive Therapies for Achilles Tendinopathy in Rats.

    PubMed

    Haslerud, Sturla; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão; Frigo, Lúcio; Bjordal, Jan Magnus; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Naterstad, Ingvill Fjell; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Joensen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and cryotherapy are widely used treatments in the acute phase of tendon injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of these two treatments on tendon inflammation and mechanical properties. Six groups of six Wistar rats were used in this study. The Achilles tendons of the healthy control group were not subjected to injury or treatment. The tendons of the injured nontreated group (ING) were injured, but not treated. The remaining four groups were injured and subjected to LLLT, cryotherapy, LLLT first/cryotherapy, or cryotherapy first/LLLT. All treatments were performed at 1 h post-trauma. Inflammatory mediators, tendon histology, and biomechanical properties were assessed at 24 h post-trauma by comparing the treatment groups with the ING. In all treatment groups, the inflammatory process shifted in an anti-inflammatory direction compared with the ING. Significant alterations in cytokine expression were found in only the LLLT group (↓IL-1β) and the combined intervention groups (↓IL-1β, ↓TNF-α, ↑IL-6). It was also found that cryotherapy followed by LLLT was the only treatment that significantly (p < 0.05) improved the biomechanical parameters of force (N) and displacement (mm) at the tendon rupture and corresponded with the best histological scores of all of the treatment groups. Our results demonstrate that cryotherapy in combination with LLLT can produce an anti-inflammatory "add-on" effect. The order of therapy administration seems essential, as superior histology and biomechanical results were found in the cryotherapy first/LLLT group.

  12. A Comparative Study of Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy as Monotherapy versus in Combination with Podophyllin in the Treatment of Condyloma Acuminata.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nidhi; Sharma, Sanjeev; Singhal, Chetna

    2017-03-01

    Condyloma Acuminata (CA) is a common viral sexually transmitted disease. Although various treatment modalities are available for treating CA, but none of them can achieve 100% response rate. In a search for better response rate and less recurrence rate, the combination of cytotoxic agent Podophyllin with ablative liquid nitrogen cryotherapy was evaluated over cryotherapy alone. To evaluate the synergistic effect of Podophyllin as a chemotherapeutic adjunct to an ablative therapy of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy versus liquid nitrogen cryotherapy alone in the treatment of CA. Sixty patients with multiple CA were randomly assigned to two groups in the study. Thirty patients in group A received double freeze thaw cycle of 25 seconds of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Thirty patients in Group B were subjected to liquid nitrogen cryotherapy in a similar manner followed by application of not more than 0.5 ml of 25% Podophyllin solution. All patients were followed up at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after the treatment to monitor the response to therapy and evaluation for any recurrence. When the number of unresponsive lesions were more than 30% of original lesions at 4 weeks follow-up, then the whole procedure was repeated again. The complete response rate and the recurrence rate in the Group B in our study were comparable to Group A as the difference was statistically insignificant. But the differentiating point was that the similar results were obtained in Group B with an average1.2 sessions per patient in comparison to an average of 1.67 sessions per patient in Group A. Cryotherapy represents a simple, safe and effective regimen for the treatment of multiple CA which in combination with Podophyllin is even more effective as a single session procedure; thereby shortening the treatment regimen.

  13. Does cryotherapy improve skin circulation compared with compression and elevation in preventing venous leg ulcers?

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Mueller, Martina; Madisetti, Mohan; Prentice, Margie A; Dooley, Mary J

    2017-08-01

    This trial compared skin blood flow, temperature and incidence of venous leg ulcers in patients with chronic venous disease using compression wraps and elevation pillows. Patients with CEAP C4 skin damage and C5 history of ulcers were randomly assigned to a cryotherapy intervention (n = 138) or placebo cuff control (n = 138) applied to the lower legs over 9 months. The time the ulcers healed prior to enrollment in the study for the cryotherapy group ranged from 1 to 2218 days (n = 8, median = 32 days); for the control group, the range was 24 to 489 days (n = 6, median = 390 days). There were no statistically significant blood flow changes measured in perfusion units with a laser Doppler flowmetre within or between the groups; mean difference between the groups was 0·62, P = 0·619. No differences were noted in skin temperature measured with an infrared thermometer within and between the groups; mean difference between the groups was -0·17°C, P = 0·540. Cryotherapy did not improve skin blood flow or temperature and did not show efficacy in preventing ulcers. However, at least 30% of intervention and 50% of control participants were anticipated to develop an ulcer during the study; only ∼7% occurred. These findings suggest that strict adherence to standard of care decreases the incidence of leg ulcers and remains a best practice for leg ulcer prevention. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for lip mucous membrane venous malformation in infants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Ming; Wang, You-Yuan; Lin, Zhao-Yu; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2015-03-01

    Lip mucous membrane venous malformations are common benign lesions in infants. This clinical study evaluates the efficacy and safety of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy used to treat this condition. A total of 84 pediatric patients undergoing liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for venous malformations involving the lips were reviewed, with 45 males and 39 females treated. The overall median age at mucous membrane venous malformation diagnosis was 5.6 months (range 2-18 months). The venous malformations involved the vermilion of the lower lip in 44 cases, the vermilion of the upper lip in 31 cases, and both vermilions in 9 cases. No complications due to anesthesia occurred. After a follow-up period of 2-38 months (mean 25 months), 65 lesions (77.4 %) were completely involuted, 14 lesions (16.7 %) were mostly involuted, and 5 lesions (5.9 %) were partially involuted; no lesions showed a minor amount of involution. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is an effective, simple, and safe management tool for mucous membrane venous malformations of the lip in infants.

  15. Hepatic Cryotherapy and Subsequent Hepatic Arterial Chemotherapy for Colorectal Metastases to the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Majeed H.; Booth, Michael W. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an experience of thirty consecutive patients with hepatic colorectal metastases who were treated with hepatic cryotherapy and subsequent hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy using 5FU. Patients with colorectal metastases confined to the liver but not suitable for resection, and with liver involvement of less than 50% were offered the treatment. Prospective documentation of all patients was undertaken with data being recorded on a computerised database. Patients had a median of 6 (2–15) lesions with sizes ranging from 1–12 cm. There was no 30 day mortality. Postoperative complications developed in 8 patients but were followed by full recovery in all instances. Side effects from chemotherapy occured in 23% of cycles. Twenty seven patients have died. Median survival from the time of cryotherapy was 18.2 months (7–34), or 23months (9–44) from diagnosis of liver lesions. Hepatic cryotherapy with subsequent arterial chemotherapy is safe and well tolerated. The results suggest survival of patients with colorectal hepatic metastases can be improved by the use of this modality of treatment. PMID:9893239

  16. Comparative Effectiveness of Conservative Management Compared to Cryotherapy in Localized Prostate Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Shah, Surbhi; Young, Henry N; Cobran, Ewan K

    2018-06-01

    The high frequency of treatment-related side effects for men with localized prostate cancer creates uncertainty for treatment outcomes. This study assessed the comparative effectiveness of treatment-related side effects associated with conservative management and cryotherapy in patients with localized prostate cancer. A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted, using the linked data of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results and Medicare, which included patients diagnosed from 2000 through year 2013, and their Medicare claims information from 2000 through 2014. To compare the differences in baseline characteristics and treatment-related side effects between the study cohorts, χ 2 tests were conducted. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between treatment selection and side effects. There were 7,998 and 3,051 patients in the conservative management and cryotherapy cohort, respectively. The likelihood of erectile dysfunction, lower urinary tract obstruction, urinary fistula, urinary incontinence, and hydronephrosis was reported to be significantly lower (53%, 35%, 69%, 65%, and 36%, respectively) in the conservative management cohort. Conservative management had a lower likelihood of treatment-related side effects compared to cryotherapy. However, further research is needed to compare other significant long-term outcomes such as costs associated with these treatment choices and quality of life.

  17. Pain in the elderly: Prospective study of hyperbaric CO2 cryotherapy (neurocryostimulation).

    PubMed

    Chatap, Guy; De Sousa, Annabelle; Giraud, Karine; Vincent, Jean-Pierre

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the analgesic effects of hyperbaric CO(2) cryotherapy in elderly inpatients. An open-label prospective study was conducted in two geriatrics departments in patients with a broad range of pain characteristics. Each patient underwent a physical evaluation followed by hyperbaric CO(2) cryotherapy sessions, whose spacing and number were at the discretion of the physiotherapist. Patients completed a 100-mm visual analog scale for pain severity before and after the sessions. We included 51 patients, who were treated between May 2 and June 30, 2005. Mean age was 83.7years, and the female-to-male ratio was 4/1. The patients had acute or chronic pain whose origin was usually musculoskeletal (80.3%) or neurological (18.6%). Pain scores decreased significantly after four sessions, from 52mm to 13mm (P<0.001) in patients with acute pain and from 45mm to 13mm (P<0.001) in those with chronic pain. Hyperbaric CO(2) cryotherapy is an innovative tool that should be incorporated within the non-pharmacological armamentarium for achieving pain relief in older patients.

  18. Use of ultrasound-guided cryotherapy for the management of chronic pain states.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Neil Roy; Malik, Ashish; Madabushi, Lakshmi; Gibson, Charles

    2013-12-01

    To report the use of ultrasound for cyroablation of purely sensory nerves for long-term relief of pain because the use of ultrasound enhances accuracy while minimizing injury to surrounding structures. Case series of three patients with positive long-term outcomes. Outpatient Pain Management Clinic associated with a large, university affiliated, tertiary-care community hospital. 3 ASA physical status 2 and 3 patients who were treated for intercostal neuralgia secondary to surgical incision or vertebral fractures. These patients had failed various medical therapies but had positive responses to diagnostic intercostal nerve blocks. They underwent lesioning of the culprit nerves (with the use of ultrasound). Pain scores were recorded using a numeric rating scale (NRS), and were solicited preprocedurally and postprocedurally, and once again after longterm follow-up (> 2 mos). Longterm (> 2 mos) relief of symptoms from established, chronic pain conditions was achieved with cryotherapy with ultrasound guidance. Neuro-ablative procedures using cryotherapy have been well reported. The use of ultrasound with cryotherapy facilitates direct visualization of the anatomy and aids in avoidance of vital vascular and pleural structures. © 2013.

  19. Elimination of two viruses which interact synergistically from sweetpotato by shoot tip culture and cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q C; Valkonen, J P T

    2008-12-01

    Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; Closteroviridae) and Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV; Potyviridae) interact synergistically and cause severe diseases in co-infected sweetpotato plants (Ipomoea batatas). Sweetpotato is propagated vegetatively and virus-free planting materials are pivotal for sustainable production. Using cryotherapy, SPCSV and SPCSV were eliminated from all treated single-virus-infected and co-infected shoot tips irrespective of size (0.5-1.5mm including 2-4 leaf primordia). While shoot tip culture also eliminated SPCSV, elimination of SPFMV failed in 90-93% of the largest shoot tips (1.5mm) using this technique. Virus distribution to different leaf primordia and tissues within leaf primordia in the shoot apex and petioles was not altered by co-infection of the viruses in the fully virus-susceptible sweetpotato genotype used. SPFMV was immunolocalized to all types of tissues and up to the fourth-youngest leaf primordium. In contrast, SPCSV was detected only in the phloem and up to the fifth leaf primordium. Because only cells in the apical dome of the meristem and the two first leaf primordia survived cryotherapy, all data taken together could explain the results of virus elimination. The simple and efficient cryotherapy protocol developed for virus elimination can also be used for preparation of sweetpotato materials for long-term preservation.

  20. Limited elimination of two viruses by cryotherapy of pelargonium apices related to virus distribution.

    PubMed

    Gallard, A; Mallet, R; Chevalier, M; Grapin, A

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of eradicating the pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV) and pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV) by cryotherapy of axillary shoot apices was investigated using five Pelargonium cultivars. Viruses were detected by DAS-ELISA and their location was determined by immunolocalization. Apex culture did not permit elimination of PFBV and only 15 percent regenerated plants of 'Stellar Artic' cultivar were ELISA PLPV-negative. Plants regenerated from cryotherapy-treated apices were tested by DAS-ELISA after a 3-month in vitro culture period. Viruses were not detected in 25 percent and 50 percent of the plants tested for PFBV and PLPV, respectively. However, immunolocalization carried out on apices originating from cryopreserved shoot tips sampled from DAS-ELISA negative plants showed that they were still virus-infected. Using immunolocalization, PFBV and PLPV could be detected in Pelargonium apices, even in the meristematic dome. However, viral particles were more numerous in basal zone cells than in meristematic cells. Our results demonstrate that PFBV and PLPV are present within meristematic cells and that cryopreservation can partly reduce the quantity of these viruses in Pelargonium plants but not eliminate them totally. Additional knowledge on localization and behaviour of viruses during cryopreservation is essential to optimize cryotherapy and plant genetic resource management.

  1. CRYOTHERAPY AS A METHOD FOR REDUCING THE VIRUS INFECTION OF APPLES (Malus sp.).

    PubMed

    Romadanova, Natalya V; Mishustina, Svetlana A; Gritsenko, D ilyara A; Omasheva, Madina Y; Galiakparov, Nurbol N; Reed, Barbara M; Kushnarenko, Svetlana V

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need in Kazakhstan for virus-free nursery stock to reinvigorate the industry and preserve historic cultivars. An in vitro collection of apples could be used for virus testing and elimination and to provide virus-free elite stock plants to nurseries. Malus sieversii Ledeb. M. Roem. and Malus domestica Borkh. accessions were initiated in vitro for virus identification and elimination. Reverse transcription and multiplex PCR were used to test for five viruses. PVS2 vitrification was used as a tool for cryotherapy. Four viruses, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) were detected in 17 accessions. Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) was not detected. ACLSV affected 53.8% of the accessions, ASPV 30.8%, ASGV 5.1%, and ApMV was found only in 'Aport Alexander'. Cryotherapy produced virus-free shoot tips for seven of nine cultivars tested. Six cultivars had 60-100% elimination of ACLSV. An in vitro collection of 59 accessions was established. Virus elimination using cryotherapy produced virus-free shoots for seven of nine cultivars and is a promising technique for developing a virus-free apple collection.

  2. Effect of time-dependent cryotherapy on redox balance of quadriceps injuries.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marco Aurélio dos Santos; Carvalho, Taiara Ramos de; Cruz, Amanda Cristina Marques Barros da; Jesus, Lennon Rafael Guedine de; Silva Neto, Larissa Alexsandra da; Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Bezerra, Frank Silva

    2016-02-01

    Muscle trauma represents a high number of injuries in professional sport and recreation and may occur through several mechanisms. This study aims at analyzing time-dependent effects of cryotherapy on the redox balance in lesioned quadriceps muscles in F1 mice. Twenty male F1 mice were divided into five groups: (a) animals were not subjected to muscle lesioning or treatment (CTR); (b) quadriceps muscle was lesioned without treatment (L); (c) quadriceps muscle was lesioned and treated with cryotherapy for 5 min (LC5); (d) quadriceps muscle was lesioned and treated with cryotherapy for 20 min (LC20); and quadriceps muscle was lesioned and treated with cryotherapy for 40 min (LC40). The mice were euthanized; the quadriceps muscles were collected and subjected to analyses for levels of protein, hydroperoxides, nitrite, catalase (CAT) activity, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Protein levels were reduced in L (-39%; p < 0.05), LC5 (-54%; p < 0.05), LC20 (-40%; p < 0.05) and LC40 (-50%; p < 0.05) compared to CTR. There was an increase in lipid peroxidation in L (158%; p < 0.05), LC5 (300%; p < 0.01), LC20 (292%; p < 0.01) and LC40 (362%; p < 0.01) compared to CTR. We observed a significant increase in CAT activity in L (164%; p < 0.05) and LC5 (193%; p < 0.01) compared to CTR; a significant reduction in GSH in L (-60%; p < 0.05) and LC20 (-61%; p < 0.05) compared to CTR; and a significant increase in GSSG in LC5 (171%; p < 0.05) compared to CTR. In addition, GSH/GSSG was reduced in L (-89%; p < 0.01), LC5 (-95%; p < 0.01), LC20 (-59%; p < 0.05), and LC40 (-82%; p < 0.01) compared to CTR. This study showed that the cryotherapy does not improve the oxidative stress in lesioned muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of cryotherapy on muscle recovery and inflammation following a bout of damaging exercise.

    PubMed

    Crystal, Naomi J; Townson, David H; Cook, Summer B; LaRoche, Dain P

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cryotherapy on the inflammatory response to muscle-damaging exercise using a randomized trial. Twenty recreationally active males completed a 40-min run at a -10 % grade to induce muscle damage. Ten of the subjects were immersed in a 5 °C ice bath for 20 min and the other ten served as controls. Knee extensor peak torque, soreness rating, and thigh circumference were obtained pre- and post-run, and 1, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h post-run. Blood samples were obtained pre- and post-run, and 1, 6 and 24 h post-run for assay of plasma chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2). Peak torque decreased from 270 ± 57 Nm at baseline to 253 ± 65 Nm post-run and increased to 295 ± 68 Nm by 72 h post-run with no differences between groups (p = 0.491). Soreness rating increased from 3.6 ± 6.0 mm out of 100 mm at baseline to 47.4 ± 28.2 mm post-run and remained elevated at all time points with no differences between groups (p = 0.696). CCL2 concentrations increased from 116 ± 31 pg mL(-1) at baseline to 293 ± 109 pg mL(-1) at 6 h post-run (control) and from 100 ± 27 pg mL(-1) at baseline to 208 ± 71 pg mL(-1) at 6 h post-run (cryotherapy). The difference between groups was not significant (p = 0.116), but there was a trend for lower CCL2 in the cryotherapy group at 6 h (p = 0.102), though this measure was highly variable. In conclusion, 20 min of cryotherapy was ineffective in attenuating the strength decrement and soreness seen after muscle-damaging exercise, but may have mitigated the rise in plasma CCL2 concentration. These results do not support the use of cryotherapy during recovery.

  4. Intermittent KoldBlue cryotherapy of 3×10 min changes mid‐portion Achilles tendon microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Knobloch, Karsten; Grasemann, Ruth; Spies, Marcus; Vogt, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Background Neovascularisation and microcirculatory changes have been reported in Achilles tendinopathy. Cryotherapy and compression, as part of a rest, ice, compression and elevation regimen, are shown to decrease pain and improve function. However, the microcirculatory changes following a given dosage of cryotherapy on mid‐portion Achilles tendon remain unclear. Study design Prospective clinical cohort study, level of evidence 2. Methods 30 people (12 males, 33 (SD 12) years, body mass index 25.6 (5.3) kg/m2) were included in the cohort. 3×10 min KoldBlue ankle‐cooling bandages were applied and microcirculation of Achilles tendon mid‐portion was real‐time and continuously assessed using a laser‐Doppler‐spectrophotometry system (O2C, Germany). Results Superficial capillary blood flow was reduced from 42 to 6, 5 and 3 relative units (rU) in the first, second and third cryotherapy periods, respectively (−65%, p = 0.001), with no significant capillary hyperaemia. Deep capillary tendon blood flow was reduced from 180 to 82, 53 and 52 rU (−71%, p = 0.001) within 6–9 min of application without hyperaemia. Superficial tendon oxygen saturation dropped significantly from 43% to 26%, 18% and 11% (p = 0.001) after repetitive cryotherapy, with persisting increase of tendon oxygenation during rewarming (51%, 49% and 54%, p = 0.077) up to 27% of the baseline level. At 8 mm tendon depth, cryotherapy preserved local oxygenation. Relative postcapillary venous tendon filling pressures were favourably reduced from 41 (11) to 31, 28 and 26 rU (−36%, p = 0.001) superficially and from 56 (11) to 45, 46 and 48 rU (−18%, p = 0.001) in deep capillary blood flow during cryotherapy, facilitating capillary venous clearance. Conclusion Intermittent cryotherapy of 3×10 min significantly decreases local Achilles tendon mid‐portion capillary blood flow by 71%. Within 2 min of rewarming, tendon oxygen saturation is re

  5. Intermittent KoldBlue cryotherapy of 3x10 min changes mid-portion Achilles tendon microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Karsten; Grasemann, Ruth; Spies, Marcus; Vogt, Peter M

    2007-06-01

    Neovascularisation and microcirculatory changes have been reported in Achilles tendinopathy. Cryotherapy and compression, as part of a rest, ice, compression and elevation regimen, are shown to decrease pain and improve function. However, the microcirculatory changes following a given dosage of cryotherapy on mid-portion Achilles tendon remain unclear. Prospective clinical cohort study, level of evidence 2. 30 people (12 males, 33 (SD 12) years, body mass index 25.6 (5.3) kg/m2) were included in the cohort. 3x10 min KoldBlue ankle-cooling bandages were applied and microcirculation of Achilles tendon mid-portion was real-time and continuously assessed using a laser-Doppler-spectrophotometry system (O2C, Germany). Superficial capillary blood flow was reduced from 42 to 6, 5 and 3 relative units (rU) in the first, second and third cryotherapy periods, respectively (-65%, p = 0.001), with no significant capillary hyperaemia. Deep capillary tendon blood flow was reduced from 180 to 82, 53 and 52 rU (-71%, p = 0.001) within 6-9 min of application without hyperaemia. Superficial tendon oxygen saturation dropped significantly from 43% to 26%, 18% and 11% (p = 0.001) after repetitive cryotherapy, with persisting increase of tendon oxygenation during rewarming (51%, 49% and 54%, p = 0.077) up to 27% of the baseline level. At 8 mm tendon depth, cryotherapy preserved local oxygenation. Relative postcapillary venous tendon filling pressures were favourably reduced from 41 (11) to 31, 28 and 26 rU (-36%, p = 0.001) superficially and from 56 (11) to 45, 46 and 48 rU (-18%, p = 0.001) in deep capillary blood flow during cryotherapy, facilitating capillary venous clearance. Intermittent cryotherapy of 3x10 min significantly decreases local Achilles tendon mid-portion capillary blood flow by 71%. Within 2 min of rewarming, tendon oxygen saturation is re-established following cryotherapy. Postcapillary venous filling pressures are reduced during cryotherapy, favouring capillary

  6. Pre-emptive ice cube cryotherapy for reducing pain from local anaesthetic injections for simple lacerations: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Song, JaeWoo; Kim, HyukHoon; Park, EunJung; Ahn, Jung Hwan; Yoon, Eunhui; Lampotang, Samsun; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Choi, SangChun

    2018-02-01

    Subcutaneous local anaesthetic injection can be painful to patients in the ED. We evaluated the effect of cryotherapy by application of an ice cube to the injection site prior to injection in patients with simple lacerations. We conducted a prospective, randomised, controlled trial in consented patients with simple lacerations needing primary repair at a single emergency centre from April to July 2016. We randomly assigned patients undergoing repair for simple lacerations to either the cryotherapy group or the control group (standard care; no cryotherapy or other pretreatment of the injection site). In cryotherapy group subjects, we applied an ice cube (size: 1.5×1.5×1.5 cm) placed inside a sterile glove on the wound at the anticipated subcutaneous lidocaine injection site for 2 min prior to injection. The primary outcome was a subjective numeric rating (0-10 scale) of the perceived pain from the subcutaneous local anaesthetic injections. Secondary outcomes were (a) perceived pain on a numeric scale for cryotherapy itself, that is, pain from contact of the ice cube/glove with the skin and (b) the rate of complications after primary laceration repair. Fifty patients were enrolled, consented and randomised, with 25 in the cryotherapy group and 25 in the control group. The numeric rating scale for subcutaneous anaesthetic injections was median, IQR, 95% CI 2.0 (1 to 3.5), 1.81 to 3.47, respectively, in the cryotherapy group and 5.0 (3 to 7), 3.91 to 6.05 in the control group (Mann-Whitney U=147.50, p=0.001). No wound complications occurred in either group. The numeric rating scale for cryotherapy itself was median, IQR, 95% CI: 2.0 (1 to 3.5), 1.90 to 3.70. Pre-emptive topical injection site cryotherapy lasting 2 min before subcutaneous local anaesthetic injections can significantly reduce perceived pain from subcutaneous local anaesthetic injections in patients presenting for simple laceration repair. KCT0001990. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  7. Cryotherapy for HPV clearance in women with biopsy-confirmed cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Chumworathayi, Bandit; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada; Blumenthal, Paul D; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Pientong, Chamsai; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

    2010-02-01

    To compare the clearance rate of HPV infection among women aged older than 30 years with biopsy-confirmed cervical low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) 1 year after cryotherapy with the spontaneous clearance rate (observation). HPV DNA typing by polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot hybridization were used to identify 14 high-risk types and 23 low-risk types. HPV DNA sequencing was also used for other types. Between December 2007 and March 2009, 100 women were recruited to the study and 60 cases had positive results on HPV testing. Twenty-nine patients were randomly allocated to the cryotherapy group and 31 to the observation group. At 1 year, 89.7% (26/29; 95% CI, 78.6-100%) of the cryotherapy group and 90.3% (28/31; 95% CI, 79.9-100%) of the observation group had negative results on HPV testing (0.6% difference; 95% CI, -15.8 to 14.6%, P=0.94). Cryotherapy failed to increase the clearance of prevalent HPV infections among women with LSIL, although in both arms the clearance rates were above 80%. However, in coupling with visual inspection with acetic acid as a single visit approach, its effect on prevention of HSIL and cervical cancer is still promising. Therefore, cryotherapy should not be withdrawn from such programs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness and safety of cryotherapy after arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Martimbianco, Ana Luiza Cabrera; Gomes da Silva, Brenda Nazaré; de Carvalho, Alan Pedrosa Viegas; Silva, Valter; Torloni, Maria Regina; Peccin, Maria Stella

    2014-11-01

    Cryotherapy is widely used in rehabilitation; however, its effectiveness after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction remains uncertain. To investigate the effectiveness and safety of cryotherapy following ACL reconstruction through a systematic review, randomized and quasi-randomized clinical trials were searched in the databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, PEDro, SportDiscus, CINAHL, LILACS (June 2013). The primary outcomes measures were pain, edema and adverse events; the secondary outcomes were knee function, analgesic medication use, range of motion, blood loss, hospital stay, quality of life and patient satisfaction. The methodological quality of studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration risk-of-bias tool. Ten trials (a total of 573 patients) were included. Results of meta-analysis showed that the use of cold compression devices produced a significant reduction in pain scores 48 h after surgery (p < 0.00001), compared to no cryotherapy. The risk for adverse events did not differ between patients receiving cryotherapy versus no treatment (p = 1.00). The limited evidence currently available is insufficient to draw definitive conclusions on the effectiveness of cryotherapy for other outcomes. There is a need for well designed, good quality randomized trials to answer other questions related to this intervention and increase the precision of future systematic reviews. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda Junior, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts.

  10. Treatment of uncomplicated hemorrhoids with a Hemor-Rite® cryotherapy device: a randomized, prospective, comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Guindic, Luis Charúa

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhoids are one of the most common ailments known. Often described as “varicose veins of the anus and rectum”, hemorrhoids are enlarged, bulging blood vessels in, and about the anus and lower rectum. About 75% of people will have hemorrhoids at some point in their lives. This paper shares the results from the clinical evaluation conducted to study effects of cryotherapy in treating uncomplicated hemorrhoids. The device used in the study is based on topically-applied cold therapy which can produce vasoconstriction in the tissues, tissue hypoxia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation. Cryotherapy was shown to be statistically similar or superior to proctology ointment in some of the parameters studied such as reduction of pain and hemorrhage. Overall it was observed that cryotherapy device contributes to improving the quality of life of patients with hemorrhoids. PMID:24474845

  11. Tolerability and effectiveness of liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy with very short freeze times in the treatment of xanthelasma palpebrarum.

    PubMed

    Labandeira, Javier; Vázquez-Osorio, Igor; Figueroa-Silva, Olalla; Pereiro, Manuel; Toribio, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Xanthelasma are cholesterol-filled, soft, yellow plaques that usually appear on the medial aspects of the eyelids bilaterally. They are always benign lesions so therapy is usually undertaken only for cosmetic reasons. Surgical excision, chemical peeling with tricholoroacetic acid, and laser ablation are commonly used treatments. Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy is a potentially effective but rarely used treatment due to the risk of intense eyelid swelling. We report on our experience with four of our patients, and propose an explanation for the effectiveness of gentle liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy in xanthelasma. We consider that gentle liquid nitrogen cryotherapy should be used in the treatment of xanthelasma due to the ease of application and low risk of adverse effects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cervical HIV-1 RNA shedding after cryotherapy among HIV-positive women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage 2 or 3

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Michael H.; McKenzie, Kevin P.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-Stewart, Grace C.; Coombs, Robert W.; Vuyst, Hugo De; Njoroge, Julia W.; Nyongesa-Malava, Evans; Sakr, Samah R.; Mugo, Nelly R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of cryotherapy on HIV-1 cervical shedding. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Five hundred HIV-positive women enrolled at an HIV treatment clinic in Nairobi, Kenya were screened for cervical cancer. Women diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage 2 or 3 (CIN 2/3) by histology were offered cryotherapy treatment. The first 50 women had cervical swabs taken at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks following treatment. Swabs were analyzed for HIV-1 RNA and compared using General Estimating Equation (GEE) with binomial or Gaussian links. Results Of the 50 women enrolled, 40 were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 10 were not receiving ART at the time of cryotherapy and during study follow-up. Among all women, the odds of detectable cervical HIV-1 RNA did not increase at 2 weeks [odds ratio (OR) 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65–2.13] or 4 weeks (OR 1.29; 95% CI 0.71–2.33) following cryotherapy. Among 10 women not receiving ART, the OR of detectable shedding at 2 weeks was higher, but not statistically significant (OR 4.02; 95% CI 0.53–30.79; P = 0.2), and at 4 weeks remained unchanged (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.27–3.74). Conclusion There was no increase in detectable cervical HIV-1 RNA among HIV-positive women after cryotherapy. The risk of HIV-1 transmission after cryotherapy may not be significant, particularly among women already on ART at the time of cervical treatment. However, further investigation is needed among women not receiving ART. PMID:21716072

  13. An Evaluation by Midwives and Gynecologists of Treatability of Cervical Lesions by Cryotherapy Among Human Papillomavirus–Positive Women

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Julia C.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Adadevoh, Sydney; Alvarez Larraondo, Manuel J.; Chumworathayi, Bandit; Lejarza, Sandra Vargas; Araya, Luis Villegas; Garcia, Francisco; Budihas, Scott R.; Long, Rodney; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Herrero, Rolando; Burk, Robert D.; Jeronimo, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To estimate efficacy of a visual triage of human papillomavirus (HPV)– positive women to either immediate cryotherapy or referral if not treatable (eg, invasive cancer, large precancers). Methods We evaluated visual triage in the HPV-positive women aged 25 to 55 years from the 10,000-woman Guanacaste Cohort Study (n = 552). Twelve Peruvian midwives and 5 international gynecologists assessed treatability by cryotherapy using digitized high-resolution cervical images taken at enrollment. The reference standard of treatability was determined by 2 lead gynecologists from the entire 7-year follow-up of the women. Women diagnosed with histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse or 5-year persistence of carcinogenic HPV infection were defined as needing treatment. Results Midwives and gynecologists judged 30.8% and 41.2% of women not treatable by cryotherapy, respectively (P < 0.01). Among 149 women needing treatment, midwives and gynecologists correctly identified 57.5% and 63.8% (P = 0.07 for difference) of 71 women judged not treatable by the lead gynecologists and 77.6% and 59.7% (P < 0.01 for difference) of 78 women judged treatable by cryotherapy. The proportion of women judged not treatable by a reviewer varied widely and ranged from 18.6%to 61.1%. Interrater agreement was poor with mean pairwise overall agreement of 71.4% and 66.3% and κ ’s of 0.33 and 0.30 for midwives and gynecologists, respectively. Conclusions In future “screen-and-treat” cervical cancer prevention programs using HPV testing and cryotherapy, practitioners will visually triage HPV-positive women. The suboptimal performance of visual triage suggests that screen-and-treat programs using cryotherapy might be insufficient for treating precancerous lesions. Improved, low-technology triage methods and/or improved safe and low-technology treatment options are needed. PMID:19509579

  14. An evaluation by midwives and gynecologists of treatability of cervical lesions by cryotherapy among human papillomavirus-positive women.

    PubMed

    Gage, Julia C; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Adadevoh, Sydney; Larraondo, Manuel J Alvarez; Chumworathayi, Bandit; Lejarza, Sandra Vargas; Araya, Luis Villegas; Garcia, Francisco; Budihas, Scott R; Long, Rodney; Katki, Hormuzd A; Herrero, Rolando; Burk, Robert D; Jeronimo, Jose

    2009-05-01

    To estimate efficacy of a visual triage of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive women to either immediate cryotherapy or referral if not treatable (eg, invasive cancer, large precancers). We evaluated visual triage in the HPV-positive women aged 25 to 55 years from the 10,000-woman Guanacaste Cohort Study (n = 552). Twelve Peruvian midwives and 5 international gynecologists assessed treatability by cryotherapy using digitized high-resolution cervical images taken at enrollment. The reference standard of treatability was determined by 2 lead gynecologists from the entire 7-year follow-up of the women. Women diagnosed with histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse or 5-year persistence of carcinogenic HPV infection were defined as needing treatment. Midwives and gynecologists judged 30.8% and 41.2% of women not treatable by cryotherapy, respectively (P < 0.01). Among 149 women needing treatment, midwives and gynecologists correctly identified 57.5% and 63.8% (P = 0.07 for difference) of 71 women judged not treatable by the lead gynecologists and 77.6% and 59.7% (P < 0.01 for difference) of 78 women judged treatable by cryotherapy. The proportion of women judged not treatable by a reviewer varied widely and ranged from 18.6% to 61.1%. Interrater agreement was poor with mean pairwise overall agreement of 71.4% and 66.3% and kappa's of 0.33 and 0.30 for midwives and gynecologists, respectively. In future "screen-and-treat" cervical cancer prevention programs using HPV testing and cryotherapy, practitioners will visually triage HPV-positive women. The suboptimal performance of visual triage suggests that screen-and-treat programs using cryotherapy might be insufficient for treating precancerous lesions. Improved, low-technology triage methods and/or improved safe and low-technology treatment options are needed.

  15. The Efficacy of Thermotherapy and Cryotherapy on Pain Relief in Patients with Acute Low Back Pain, A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute low back pain is one of the most common health problems especially in industrialized countries where 75 per cent of the population develop it at least once during their life. This study examined the efficacy of thermotherapy and cryotherapy, alongside a routine pharmacologic treatment, on pain relief in patients with acute low back pain referring an orthopedic clinic in Shahrekord, Iran. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 87 patients randomly assigned to three (thermotherapy and cryotherapy as intervention, and naproxen as control) groups of 29 each. The first (thermotherapy) group underwent treatment with hot water bag and naproxen, the second (cryotherapy) group was treated with ice and naproxen, and the naproxen group was only treated with naproxen, all for one week. All patients were examined on 0, 3rd, 8th, and 15th day after the first visit and the data gathered by McGill Pain Questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS software using paired t-test, ANOVA, and chi-square. Results: In this study, mean age of the patients was 34.48 (20–50) years and 51.72 per cent were female. Thermotherapy patients reported significantly less pain compared to cryotherapy and control (p≤0.05). In thermotherapy and cryotherapy groups, mean pain in the first visit was 12.70±3.7 and 12.06±2.6, and on the 15th day after intervention 0.75±0.37 and 2.20±2.12, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated that the application of thermo–therapy and cryotherapy accompanied with a pharmacologic treatment could relieve pain in the patients with acute low back pain. PMID:25386469

  16. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen versus topical salicylic acid application for cutaneous warts in primary care: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, Sjoerd C; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Berger, Marjolein Y; Zaaijer, Krista; Assendelft, Willem J J; de Waal, Margot W M; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Koes, Bart W; Eekhof, Just A H

    2010-10-19

    Cryotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cutaneous warts in primary care. However, evidence favours salicylic acid application. We compared the effectiveness of these treatments as well as a wait-and-see approach. Consecutive patients with new cutaneous warts were recruited in 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands between May 1, 2006, and Jan. 26, 2007. We randomly allocated eligible patients to one of three groups: cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen every two weeks, self-application of salicylic acid daily or a wait-and-see approach. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants whose warts were all cured at 13 weeks. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes included treatment adherence, side effects and treatment satisfaction. Research nurses assessed outcomes during home visits at 4, 13 and 26 weeks. Of the 250 participants (age 4 to 79 years), 240 were included in the analysis at 13 weeks (loss to follow-up 4%). Cure rates were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29%-51%) in the cryotherapy group, 24% (95% CI 16%-35%) in the salicylic acid group and 16% (95% CI 9.5%-25%) in the wait-and-see group. Differences in effectiveness were most pronounced among participants with common warts (n = 116): cure rates were 49% (95% CI 34%-64%) in the cryotherapy group, 15% (95% CI 7%-30%) in the salicylic acid group and 8% (95% CI 3%-21%) in the wait-and-see group. Cure rates among the participants with plantar warts (n = 124) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. For common warts, cryotherapy was the most effective therapy in primary care. For plantar warts, we found no clinically relevant difference in effectiveness between cryotherapy, topical application of salicylic acid or a wait-and-see approach after 13 weeks. (ClinicalTrial.gov registration no. ISRCTN42730629).

  17. Cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen versus topical salicylic acid application for cutaneous warts in primary care: randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bruggink, Sjoerd C.; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Zaaijer, Krista; Assendelft, Willem J.J.; de Waal, Margot W.M.; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; Koes, Bart W.; Eekhof, Just A.H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cryotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cutaneous warts in primary care. However, evidence favours salicylic acid application. We compared the effectiveness of these treatments as well as a wait-and-see approach. Methods Consecutive patients with new cutaneous warts were recruited in 30 primary care practices in the Netherlands between May 1, 2006, and Jan. 26, 2007. We randomly allocated eligible patients to one of three groups: cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen every two weeks, self-application of salicylic acid daily or a wait-and-see approach. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants whose warts were all cured at 13 weeks. Analysis was on an intention-to-treat basis. Secondary outcomes included treatment adherence, side effects and treatment satisfaction. Research nurses assessed outcomes during home visits at 4, 13 and 26 weeks. Results Of the 250 participants (age 4 to 79 years), 240 were included in the analysis at 13 weeks (loss to follow-up 4%). Cure rates were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29%–51%) in the cryotherapy group, 24% (95% CI 16%–35%) in the salicylic acid group and 16% (95% CI 9.5%–25%) in the wait-and-see group. Differences in effectiveness were most pronounced among participants with common warts (n = 116): cure rates were 49% (95% CI 34%–64%) in the cryotherapy group, 15% (95% CI 7%–30%) in the salicylic acid group and 8% (95% CI 3%–21%) in the wait-and-see group. Cure rates among the participants with plantar warts (n = 124) did not differ significantly between treatment groups. Interpretation For common warts, cryotherapy was the most effective therapy in primary care. For plantar warts, we found no clinically relevant difference in effectiveness between cryotherapy, topical application of salicylic acid or a wait-and-see approach after 13 weeks. (ClinicalTrial.gov registration no. ISRCTN42730629) PMID:20837684

  18. Cryotherapy as a conservative treatment modality for gingival enlargement in a patient with Sturge-Weber Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Vikender Singh; Chakraborty, Souvik; Tewari, Shikha; Tewari, Nitesh; Ghosh, Tuhina

    2017-01-01

    Summary This case report describes a case of Sturge-Weber syndrome reported for unilateral gingival enlargement and bleeding from gingiva in maxillary left region. Initial treatment in the form of scaling and root planing was done but recurrence was observed after one year of follow up. Instead of performing conventional surgery, an alternative conservative treatment was planned in the form of cryotherapy with the help of closed nitrous oxide probe. Seeing the satisfactory results obtained, cryotherapy can be suggested as an atraumatic, bloodless and effective chair side procedure for treating vascular gingival enlargement. PMID:28580218

  19. The Effect of Cryotherapy on Human Papillomavirus Clearance among HIV-positive Women in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Katundu, Katundu; Bateman, Allen C.; Pfaendler, Krista S.; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H.; Kapambwe, Sharon; Vermund, Sten H.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Msadabwe, Susan C.; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.; Parham, Groesbeck P.; Chibwesha, Carla J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to investigate the progression of human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection in HIV-positive women after cryotherapy. Methods We examined changes in detection of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) cervical infections among HIV-infected women over a 12-week period following cryotherapy using stored specimens from a cohort study conducted between June 2009 and March 2011 in Lusaka, Zambia. Samples from visits at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12 were tested using the Roche Linear Array assay. Results A total of 89 women were included in the analysis. The median age was 32 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 28–36 years). The median CD4+ cell count was 350 cells/μL (IQR: 214–470 cells/μL) and 66% of women were receiving antiretroviral therapy. At baseline, the prevalence of hrHPV was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 83–95%). HPV45 was the most common HPV type, present in (30%) women, followed by HPV16 (27%), HPV18 (27%), HPV51 (20%), and HPV58 (22%). Among women with valid results both at baseline and 12 weeks, 17/67 (25%) cleared their initial hrHPV infection within 12 weeks of treatment, though 65% (11/17) had new hrHPV types detected. Conclusions Cryotherapy led to clearance of 25% of hrHPV infections within 12 weeks of treatment. However, hrHPV infection remained persistent in most women and new hrHPV types were detected often, explaining the high rate of persistence and recurrence of cervical disease in this population. Continued efforts to scale-up HPV vaccination and cervical screening should remain a priority in high HIV burden settings such as Zambia. PMID:26125097

  20. The Effects of Cryotherapy on Knee Joint Position Sense and Force Production Sense in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Furmanek, Mariusz P.; Słomka, Kajetan J.; Sobiesiak, Andrzej; Rzepko, Marian; Juras, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The proprioceptive information received from mechanoreceptors is potentially responsible for controlling the joint position and force differentiation. However, it is unknown whether cryotherapy influences this complex mechanism. Previously reported results are not universally conclusive and sometimes even contradictory. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of local cryotherapy on knee joint position sense (JPS) and force production sense (FPS). The study group consisted of 55 healthy participants (age: 21 ± 2 years, body height: 171.2 ± 9 cm, body mass: 63.3 ± 12 kg, BMI: 21.5 ± 2.6). Local cooling was achieved with the use of gel-packs cooled to -2 ± 2.5°C and applied simultaneously over the knee joint and the quadriceps femoris muscle for 20 minutes. JPS and FPS were evaluated using the Biodex System 4 Pro apparatus. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not show any statistically significant changes of the JPS and FPS under application of cryotherapy for all analyzed variables: the JPS’s absolute error (p = 0.976), its relative error (p = 0.295), and its variable error (p = 0.489); the FPS’s absolute error (p = 0.688), its relative error (p = 0.193), and its variable error (p = 0.123). The results indicate that local cooling does not affect proprioceptive acuity of the healthy knee joint. They also suggest that local limited cooling before physical activity at low velocity did not present health or injury risk in this particular study group. PMID:29599858

  1. Effects of whole body cryotherapy and cold water immersion on knee skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Costello, J T; Donnelly, A E; Karki, A; Selfe, J

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to (a) compare and contrast the effect of 2 commonly used cryotherapy treatments, 4 min of -110 °C whole body cryotherapy and 8 °C cold water immersion, on knee skin temperature and (b) establish whether either protocol was capable of achieving a skin temperature (<13 °C) believed to be required for analgesic purposes. After ethics committee approval and written informed consent was obtained, 10 healthy males (26.5±4.9 yr, 183.5±6.0 cm, 90.7±19.9 kg, 26.8±5.0 kg/m2, 23.0±9.3% body fat; mean±SD) participated in this randomised controlled crossover study. Skin temperature around the patellar region was assessed in both knees via non-contact, infrared thermal imaging and recorded pre-, immediately post-treatment and every 10 min thereafter for 60 min. Compared to baseline, average, minimum and maximum skin temperatures were significantly reduced (p<0.001) immediately post-treatment and at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after both cooling modalities. Average and minimum skin temperatures were lower (p<0.05) immediately after whole body cryotherapy (19.0±0.9 °C) compared to cold water immersion (20.5±0.6 °C). However, from 10 to 60 min post, the average, minimum and maximum skin temperatures were lower (p<0.05) following the cold water treatment. Finally, neither protocol achieved a skin temperature believed to be required to elicit an analgesic effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. LED therapy or cryotherapy between exercise intervals in Wistar rats: anti-inflammatory and ergogenic effects.

    PubMed

    da Costa Santos, Vanessa Batista; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Milanez, Vinícius Flávio; Corrêa, Julio Cesar Molina; de Andrade Alves, Rubens Igor; Dias, Ivan Frederico Lupiano; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test, between two bouts of exercise, the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) therapy and cryotherapy regarding muscle damage, inflammation, and performance. Male Wistar rats were allocated in four groups: control, passive recovery (PR), cryotherapy (Cryo), and LED therapy. The animals were submitted to 45 min of swimming exercise followed by 25 min of recovery and then a second bout of either 45 min of exercise (muscle damage analysis) or time to exhaustion (performance). During the rest intervals, the rats were kept in passive rest (PR), submitted to cold water immersion (10 min, 10 °C) or LED therapy (940 nm, 4 J/cm(2)) of the gastrocnemius muscle. Blood samples were collected to analyze creatine kinase activity (CK), C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocyte counts. The soleus muscles were evaluated histologically. Time to exhaustion was recorded during the second bout of exercise. After a second bout of 45 min, the results demonstrated leukocytosis in the PR and Cryo groups. Neutrophil counts were increased in all test groups. CK levels were increased in the Cryo group. CRP was increased in PR animals. The PR group presented a high frequency of necrosis, but the LED group had fewer necrotic areas. Edema formation was prevented, and fewer areas of inflammatory cells were observed in the LED group. The time to exhaustion was greater in both the LED and Cryo groups, without differences in CK levels. CRP was decreased in LED animals. We conclude that LED therapy and cryotherapy can improve performance, although LED therapy is more efficient in preventing muscle damage and local and systemic inflammation.

  3. Intramuscular temperature changes during and after 2 different cryotherapy interventions in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Kimberly A; Herman, Daniel C; Hertel, Jay; Saliba, Susan A

    2012-08-01

    Crossover. To compare the time required to decrease intramuscular temperature 8°C below baseline temperature, and to compare intramuscular temperature 90 minutes posttreatment, between 2 cryotherapy modalities. Cryotherapy is used to treat pain from muscle injuries. Cooler intramuscular temperatures may reduce cellular metabolism and secondary hypoxic injury to attenuate acute injury response, specifically the rate of chemical mediator activity. Modalities that decrease intramuscular temperature quickly may be beneficial in the treatment of muscle injuries. Eighteen healthy subjects received 2 cryotherapy conditions, crushed-ice bag (CIB) and cold-water immersion (CWI), in a randomly allocated order, separated by 72 hours. Each condition was applied until intramuscular temperature decreased 8°C below baseline. Intramuscular temperature was monitored in the gastrocnemius, 1 cm below subcutaneous adipose tissue. The primary outcome was time to decrease intramuscular temperature 8°C below baseline. A secondary outcome was intramuscular temperature at the end of a 90-minute rewarming period. Paired t tests were used to examine outcomes. Time to reach an 8°C reduction in intramuscular temperature was not significantly different between CIB and CWI (mean difference, 2.6 minutes; 95% confidence interval: -3.10, 8.30). Intramuscular temperature remained significantly colder 90 minutes post-CWI compared to CIB (mean difference, 2.8°C; 95% confidence interval: 2.07°C, 3.52°C). There was no difference in time required to reduce intramuscular temperature 8°C 1 cm below adipose tissue using CIB and CWI. However, intramuscular temperature remained significantly colder 90 minutes following CWI. These results provide clinicians with information that may guide treatment-modality decisions.

  4. The Acute Effect of Cryotherapy on Muscle Strength and Shoulder Proprioception.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rui; Silva, Filipa; Pedrosa, Vera; Ferreira, João; Lopes, Alexandre

    2017-11-01

    Cryotherapy, a common intervention used by clinicians, poses several benefits in managing acute injuries. However, cooling muscle tissue can interfere with muscular properties and the sensory-motor system. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of cryotherapy with a crushed-ice pack on shoulder proprioception concerning joint position sense, force sense, the threshold for detecting passive movement, and maximal force production. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial. 48 healthy women aged 22.6 ± 0.4 y with a mean body mass index of 22.8 ±0.37 kg/m2 and a percentage of body fat of 15.4 ± 1.5%. In the experimental group, a crushed-ice pack was applied to the shoulder for 15 min, whereas participants in the control group applied a sandbag at skin temperature, also for 15 min. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess maximal voluntary contraction, force sense, joint position sense, and the threshold for detecting passive movement. Paired sample t tests revealed that maximal voluntary isometric contraction decreased significantly after cryotherapy (P ≤ .001), or approximately 10% of the reduction found in both muscular groups assessed. Shoulder position sense (P < .001) and the threshold for detecting passive movement (P = .01 and P = .01 for lateral and medial shoulder rotator muscles, respectively) also suffered significant impairment. Nevertheless, no significant differences emerged in force sense at 20% and 50% of maximal force reproduction (P = .41 and P = .10 for lateral rotator muscles at 20% and 50%, respectively; and P = .20 and P = .09 for medial rotator muscles at 20% and 50%, respectively). Applying a crushed-ice pack to the shoulder for 15 min negatively affected muscle strength and impaired shoulder proprioception by decreasing joint position sense and the threshold for detecting passive movement.

  5. Local photodynamic therapy delays recurrence of equine periocular squamous cell carcinoma compared to cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Elizabeth A; Johnson, Philip J; Delgado, Cherlene; Pearce, Jacqueline W; Moore, Cecil P

    2014-07-01

    (i) To report the successful treatment of 10 cases of equine periocular squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) with surgical excision and photodynamic therapy (PDT) using verteporfin. (ii) To evaluate time to first tumor recurrence between PDT-treated horses and horses treated with surgical excision and cryotherapy. A total of 24 equine PSCC cases were included: group 1 (n = 14) had excision and cryotherapy (1993–2003), group 2 (n = 10), excision and local PDT (2006–2010). Evaluated data: signalment, treatment method, tumor location, size, and time to first recurrence. Groups were compared via chi-square test for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank-sum test for numeric variables. Time to tumor recurrence was examined using Kaplan–Meier product-limit survival analysis. Of 24 cases, nine breeds were affected. Mean age at treatment in years: 14 (range 5–24) in group 1; 11 (range 8–18) in group 2. Median tumor size: 163 mm2 (range 20–625 mm2) in group 1; 195 mm2 (range 45–775 mm2) in group 2. Signalment, tumor laterality, and size were not significantly different between groups. Time to recurrence was significantly different between groups (Logrank test, P = 0.0006). In group 1, 11/14 horses had tumor regrowth with median time to recurrence in months: 10 (range 1–44). In group 2 (minimum follow-up of 25 months; range 25–50), no horse demonstrated tumor recurrence after one treatment with excision and PDT. This represents the first report of local PDT using verteporfin for treatment of equine PSCC. Following surgery, the likelihood of tumor recurrence was significantly reduced with local PDT compared with cryotherapy. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Effects of Maintenance on Quality of Performance of Cryotherapy Devices for Treatment of Precancerous Cervical Lesions.

    PubMed

    Maza, Mauricio; Figueroa, Ruben; Laskow, Bari; Juárez, Alexa; Alfaro, Karla; Alonzo, Todd A; Felix, Juan C; Gage, Julia C; Cremer, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of maintenance on performance of cryosurgical equipment used in El Salvador primary health clinics. Nine gynecological cryotherapy devices used in El Salvador were bench tested against a new machine of the same make and model. The devices were run for five successive double-freeze cycles. The El Salvador machines then received maintenance by a specialized engineer and another double-freeze cycle was performed. Temperature at the device probe tip was recorded throughout each cycle and ballistic gelatin was used as the tissue analogue to measure freeze ball dimensions achieved by the devices. Outcome measures were mean lowest-sustained temperatures and freeze ball mean weight, depth, and diameter. Paired and unpaired t tests were used to compare results premaintenance versus postmaintenance and postmaintenance versus the reference, respectively. Premaintenance versus postmaintenance freeze ball dimensions were significantly different (mean differences in weight = 2.31 g, p = .01; depth = 2.29 mm, p = .03; diameter = 3.51 mm, p = .02). However, postmaintenance dimensions were not significantly different than those of the reference (weight = 7.44 g vs. 8.39 g, p = .07; depth = 10.71 vs. 11.24 mm, p = .1; diameter = 31.38 mm vs. 32.05 mm, p = .3). Postmaintenance, minimum, and lowest-sustained temperatures were within the recommended clinical range. Specialized maintenance was necessary for heavily used cryotherapy devices to perform adequately, highlighting the challenges of gas-based cryotherapy in low- and middle-income countries.

  7. Salvage cryotherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy: the Columbia experience.

    PubMed

    de la Taille, A; Hayek, O; Benson, M C; Bagiella, E; Olsson, C A; Fatal, M; Katz, A E

    2000-01-01

    Cryotherapy of the prostate represents a potential treatment for localized recurrent prostate cancer after radiation therapy. We report our experience and evaluate the predictive factors for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence. Between October 1994 and April 1999, 43 patients underwent salvage cryoablation. All patients had biopsy-proven recurrent prostate cancer without seminal vesicle invasion, negative bone scans, and negative lymph node dissection. Patients had received 3 months of combined hormonal therapy before cryosurgery. Biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS) was defined as a PSA value less than 0.1 ng/mL. Complications included incontinence (9%), obstruction (5%), urethral stricture (5%), rectal pain (26%), urinary infection (9%), scrotal edema (12%), and hematuria (5%). The mean follow-up was 21.9 months (range 1.2 to 54). Twenty-six patients (60%) reached a serum PSA nadir less than 0.1 ng/mL, 16 (37%) had a PSA less than 4 ng/mL, and 1 (3%) had a PSA less than 10 ng/mL. The bRFS rate was 79% at 6 months and 66% at 12 months. The bRFS rate was higher for patients who had an undetectable postcryotherapy PSA than for patients who did not reach a PSA less than 0. 1 ng/mL (73% versus 30%, P = 0.0076). Using multivariate analysis, a PSA nadir greater than 0.1 ng/mL was an independent predictor of PSA recurrence. Current salvage cryotherapy of the prostate can result in undetectable serum PSA levels with low morbidity. Our data support the current safety and efficacy profile. We believe that cryotherapy is a viable option in the treatment of patients who have biopsy-proven local failure after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Further refinements in technique and equipment may enhance cryosurgical results.

  8. Mental state and quality of life after 10 session whole-body cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Borsuk, Paulina; Pawik, Malwina; Rymaszewska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a whole-body cryotherapy (WBCT) on various parameters of the mental state of patients depending on their age, gender, and diagnosed illness. The study included 55 subjects - 43 women and 12 men aged from 20 to 70 years. Based on the diagnosed illness, the patients were divided into two diagnostic groups. The first group consisted of patients with spinal pain syndromes (n = 34). The second group comprised patients with peripheral joint disease (n = 21). All patients underwent 10 WBCT sessions. The subjects completed a survey at two time points: before the first WBCT treatment (T1) and after completing the tenth treatment (T2). The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-Bref) questionnaire and the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWBI) questionnaire were used in the study. After a series of WBCT treatments, the WHOQOL-Bref and PGWBI scores significantly improved (p = .005161, p = .000862, respectively). WBCT proved to be more effective in enhancing the mood and well-being of the patients than in improving their quality of life. WBCT has a significant influence on improving the well-being and mood of patients (in terms of both psychological and somatic aspects) and consequently leads to an improvement in their quality of life. The worse the mental state of the patients is prior to the cryotherapy, the stronger its effect. The observed effectiveness of cryotherapy was the strongest in women, patients with spinal pains and in patients with severe depressive symptoms.

  9. Liquid Nitrogen Cryotherapy in Recalcitrant Alopecia Areata: A Study of 11 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zawar, Vijay P; Karad, Gayatri Mukund

    2016-01-01

    Context: Recalcitrant alopecia areata (AA) is not uncommon in clinical practice. In certain patients, treatment failures are known with almost every conventional therapy either singly or in combination. Aims: To study the efficacy of liquid nitrogen (LN) cryotherapy in patients with recalcitrant AA. Subjects and Methods: We present series of eleven patients of recalcitrant AA, who consulted us after getting no response to various modalities of treatment for 6 months. We treated them with LN cryotherapy every 2 weeks till significant hair regrowth or maximum five sittings (at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks) whichever was earlier. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Each patient was counseled and a written consent was taken. Every session consisted of dual freeze and thaw cycles of 15 s each with a cryo unit spray. Two months of follow-up after last treatment was done to observe sustained re-growth of hair. Statistical Analysis Used: The clinical response was evaluated by using regrowth scale at 4th, 8th, and 16th week. Results: 11 patients were recruited, one patient dropped due to inability to attend follow-ups. Remaining ten patients completed the treatment and follow-up. Out of 10 patients, five patients (50%) showed an excellent response, three (30%) had a satisfactory response, one (10%) had a fair response, and one patient (10%) had a poor response. No serious adverse effects were seen. Sustained hair regrowth was seen in 80% of patients at the 16th week. Conclusions: LN cryotherapy may be worth trying treatment in the management of recalcitrant AA. PMID:27127370

  10. Repetitive cryotherapy attenuates the in vitro and in vivo mononuclear cell activation response.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Angus; Othman, Mohd Izani; Prebble, Hannah; Davies, Sian; Gieseg, Steven P

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Acute and repetitive cryotherapy are routinely used to accelerate postexercise recovery, although the effect on resident immune cells and repetitive exposure has largely been unexplored and neglected. What is the main finding and its importance? Using blood-derived mononuclear cells and semi-professional mixed martial artists, we show that acute and repetitive cryotherapy reduces the in vitro and in vivo T-cell and monocyte activation response whilst remaining independent of the physical performance of elite athletes. We investigated the effect of repetitive cryotherapy on the in vitro (cold exposure) and in vivo (cold water immersion) activation of blood-derived mononuclear cells following high-intensity exercise. Single and repeated cold exposure (5°C) of a mixed cell culture (T cells and monocytes) was investigated using in vitro tissue culture experimentation for total neopterin production (neopterin plus 7,8-dihydroneopterin). Fourteen elite mixed martial art fighters were also randomly assigned to either a cold water immersion (15 min at 10°C) or passive recovery protocol, which they completed three times per week during a 6 week training camp. Urine was collected and analysed for neopterin and total neopterin three times per week, and perceived soreness, fatigue, physical performance (broad jump, push-ups and pull-ups) and training performance were also assessed. Single and repetitive cold exposure significantly (P < 0.001) reduced total neopterin production from the mixed cell culture, whereas cold water immersion significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated urinary neopterin and total neopterin during the training camp without having any effect on physical performance parameters. Soreness and fatigue showed little variation between the groups, whereas training session performance was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the cold water immersion group. The data suggest that acute and repetitive cryotherapy

  11. The role of alternative and natural agents, cryotherapy, and/or laser for management of alimentary mucositis.

    PubMed

    Migliorati, Cesar A; Oberle-Edwards, Loree; Schubert, Mark

    2006-06-01

    To review the literature and update the current guidelines of alternative/natural agents, cryotherapy, and/or laser therapy in the management of alimentary mucositis (AM). The original guidelines developed by the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/International Society for Oral Oncology (ISOO) mucositis study group were the basis for this study. A medical librarian conducted an initial Medline search to identify research articles published between 2002 and 2005 in English language. A search term combination that included stomatitis, mucositis, mucous membrane, neoplasm, lasers, complimentary therapies, amino acids, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, plant extracts, and cryotherapy was conducted. This initial search identified articles with a strong scientific methodology that included both preclinical and clinical research. Using standardized scoring forms, authors reviewed and scored individual articles. A consensus result of the review was achieved in a meeting of reviewers in June of 2005. The initial search identified a total of 167 new articles. Of these, 14 were selected and reviewed: alternative/natural therapy (one preclinical study); cryotherapy (four clinical studies); lasers (two clinical studies); and alternative/natural agents (seven clinical studies). A new guideline could be established for the use of cryotherapy in the management of AM in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients receiving melphalan in the conditioning phase. The rapid progress in the understanding of AM created a need for new prevention and management protocols. Frequent literature review is now necessary to identify agents and protocols being developed in this important area of supportive care in cancer.

  12. Comparison of clinical efficacy and safety of thermotherapy versus cryotherapy in treatment of skin warts: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Izadi Firouzabadi, Leila; Khamesipour, Ali; Ghandi, Narges; Hosseini, Hamed; Teymourpour, Amir; Firooz, Alireza

    2018-01-01

    The effect of thermotherapy in the treatment of skin warts in comparison to cryotherapy, as the standard conventional method, has remained uncertain. This study aimed to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of thermotherapy and cryotherapy in removing skin warts. This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 52 patients aged 18 years and over with ≤ 10 skin warts. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups to receive cryotherapy (every 2 to 3 weeks up to six sessions if required) or thermotherapy (one session). The patients in both groups were followed every 2 to 3 weeks for the first three months, and then three months after the last treatment session. The clearance rate was 79.2% in the thermotherapy group and 58.3% in the cryotherapy group with no significant difference (p = 0.212). The rate of scarring in the thermotherapy group was 20% (p = .018). A higher clearance rate was achieved in the thermotherapy group. However, this result was not statistically significant. There were some minimal post-treatment complications. Patients needed only one session of thermotherapy. Due to the risk of scarring, we suggest thermotherapy only as a suitable treatment method for palmoplantar warts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. An On-Site Thermoelectric Cooling Device for Cryotherapy and Control of Skin Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Natalia; Dedow, Karl; Nguy, Lindsey; Sullivan, Patrick; Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Diller, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Cryotherapy involves the surface application of low temperatures to enhance the healing of soft tissue injuries. Typical devices embody a remote source of chilled water that is pumped through a circulation bladder placed on the treatment site. In contrast, the present device uses thermoelectric refrigeration modules to bring the cooling source directly to the tissue to be treated, thereby achieving significant improvements in control of therapeutic temperature while having a reduced size and weight. A prototype system was applied to test an oscillating cooling and heating protocol for efficacy in regulating skin blood perfusion in the treatment area. Data on 12 human subjects indicate that thermoelectric coolers (TECs) delivered significant and sustainable changes in perfusion for both heating (increase by (±SE) 173.0 ± 66.0%, P < 0.005) and cooling (decrease by (±SE) 57.7 ± 4.2%, P < 0.0005), thus supporting the feasibility of a TEC-based device for cryotherapy with local temperature regulation. PMID:26421089

  14. Whole-body Cryotherapy as a Recovery Technique after Exercise: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Rose, Catriona; Edwards, Kate M; Siegler, Jason; Graham, Kenneth; Caillaud, Corinne

    2017-12-01

    This review aims to evaluate the current body of literature investigating the effect of whole body cryotherapy on recovery after exercise. A systematic search was conducted to investigate the effect of whole body cryotherapy (WBC, exposure to temperatures between -110 to -190°C) on markers of recovery after damaging exercise in healthy, physically active subjects. Of the 16 eligible articles extracted, ten induced muscle damage using controlled exercise in a laboratory setting, while six induced damage during sport-specific training. Results indicated that muscle pain was reduced in 80% of studies following WBC. Two applied studies found recovery of athletic capacity and performance with WBC improved, variables of this nature were also improved in 71% of studies using controlled exercise. Further benefits of WBC treatment included reduction of systemic inflammation and lower concentrations of markers for muscle cell damage. These results suggest that WBC may improve recovery from muscle damage, with multiple exposures more consistently exhibiting improvements in recovery from pain, loss of muscle function, and markers of inflammation and damage. The diversity in muscle damage protocols, exposure timing with regards to exercise, as well as temperatures, duration and frequencies of exposure, make specific recommendations preliminary at present. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Imaging technique for real-time temperature monitoring during cryotherapy of lesions.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Elena; Liopo, Anton; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Ermilov, Sergey

    2016-11-01

    Noninvasive real-time temperature imaging during thermal therapies is able to significantly improve clinical outcomes. An optoacoustic (OA) temperature monitoring method is proposed for noninvasive real-time thermometry of vascularized tissue during cryotherapy. The universal temperature-dependent optoacoustic response (ThOR) of red blood cells (RBCs) is employed to convert reconstructed OA images to temperature maps. To obtain the temperature calibration curve for intensity-normalized OA images, we measured ThOR of 10 porcine blood samples in the range of temperatures from 40°C to ?16°C and analyzed the data for single measurement variations. The nonlinearity (?Tmax) and the temperature of zero OA response (T0) of the calibration curve were found equal to 11.4±0.1°C and ?13.8±0.1°C, respectively. The morphology of RBCs was examined before and after the data collection confirming cellular integrity and intracellular compartmentalization of hemoglobin. For temperatures below 0°C, which are of particular interest for cryotherapy, the accuracy of a single temperature measurement was ±1°C, which is consistent with the clinical requirements. Validation of the proposed OA temperature imaging technique was performed for slow and fast cooling of blood samples embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms.

  16. High intensity focused ultrasound vs. cryotherapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Pratyush; Saurabh, Gyan; Bansal, Rahul; Gupta, Amit

    2008-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers. Here, we will be discussing two upcoming techniques for its management. One is cryotherapy which has returned from oblivion after nearly 150 years armed with latest technology and looking as if its full potential has been recognized now. On the other hand is high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), the application of ultrasound to this field is relatively new and hence a lot of excitement and hope. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed 1942-2005), reference lists of retrieved articles, urology textbooks and our own data looking for studies comparing cryotherapy and HIFU. From 81 titles or abstracts, two independent reviewers identified 50 as potentially relevant. Disagreement was resolved by discussion involving the third reviewer and we finally identified 45 articles. Full reports of 45 articles were retrieved and final selection was made by the same two independent reviewers using the same criteria as for the initial selection. Data were extracted and methodological qualities of selected studies were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Qualitative analysis and synthesis were done. Treatment options depend upon the age of patient, grade of tumor and expectations out of treatment. Patient choice governs the treatment actually to be given. It is the selection of a patient for a particular treatment option that decides how favorable the outcome is going to be. Both these techniques are relatively new and they look promising but both lack long-term data to prove their efficacy. PMID:19468352

  17. Cryotherapy-Induced Persistent Vasoconstriction After Cutaneous Cooling: Hysteresis Between Skin Temperature and Blood Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K; Matthew Brothers, R; Diller, Kenneth R

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the persistence of cold-induced vasoconstriction following cessation of active skin-surface cooling. This study demonstrates a hysteresis effect that develops between skin temperature and blood perfusion during the cooling and subsequent rewarming period. An Arctic Ice cryotherapy unit (CTU) was applied to the knee region of six healthy subjects for 60 min of active cooling followed by 120 min of passive rewarming. Multiple laser Doppler flowmetry perfusion probes were used to measure skin blood flow (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)). Skin surface cooling produced a significant reduction in CVC (P < 0.001) that persisted throughout the duration of the rewarming period. In addition, there was a hysteresis effect between CVC and skin temperature during the cooling and subsequent rewarming cycle (P < 0.01). Mixed model regression (MMR) showed a significant difference in the slopes of the CVC-skin temperature curves during cooling and rewarming (P < 0.001). Piecewise regression was used to investigate the temperature thresholds for acceleration of CVC during the cooling and rewarming periods. The two thresholds were shown to be significantly different (P = 0.003). The results show that localized cooling causes significant vasoconstriction that continues beyond the active cooling period despite skin temperatures returning toward baseline values. The significant and persistent reduction in skin perfusion may contribute to nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI) associated with cryotherapy.

  18. Cryotherapy-Induced Persistent Vasoconstriction After Cutaneous Cooling: Hysteresis Between Skin Temperature and Blood Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Craik, Natalie K.; Matthew Brothers, R.; Diller, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the persistence of cold-induced vasoconstriction following cessation of active skin-surface cooling. This study demonstrates a hysteresis effect that develops between skin temperature and blood perfusion during the cooling and subsequent rewarming period. An Arctic Ice cryotherapy unit (CTU) was applied to the knee region of six healthy subjects for 60 min of active cooling followed by 120 min of passive rewarming. Multiple laser Doppler flowmetry perfusion probes were used to measure skin blood flow (expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC)). Skin surface cooling produced a significant reduction in CVC (P < 0.001) that persisted throughout the duration of the rewarming period. In addition, there was a hysteresis effect between CVC and skin temperature during the cooling and subsequent rewarming cycle (P < 0.01). Mixed model regression (MMR) showed a significant difference in the slopes of the CVC–skin temperature curves during cooling and rewarming (P < 0.001). Piecewise regression was used to investigate the temperature thresholds for acceleration of CVC during the cooling and rewarming periods. The two thresholds were shown to be significantly different (P = 0.003). The results show that localized cooling causes significant vasoconstriction that continues beyond the active cooling period despite skin temperatures returning toward baseline values. The significant and persistent reduction in skin perfusion may contribute to nonfreezing cold injury (NFCI) associated with cryotherapy. PMID:26632263

  19. Inhibition of the aquaporin 3 water channel increases the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, M; Bokaee, S; Davies, J; Harrington, K J; Pandha, H

    2009-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are intrinsic membrane proteins that facilitate selective water and small solute movement across the plasma membrane. In this study, we investigate the role of inhibiting AQPs in sensitising prostate cancer cells to cryotherapy. PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells were cooled to 0, −5 and −10°C. The expression of AQP3 in response to freezing was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR) and western blot analysis. Aquaporins were inhibited using mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplex, and cell survival was assessed using a colorimetric assay. There was a significant increase in AQP3 expression in response to freezing. Cells treated with AQP3 siRNA were more sensitive to cryoinjury compared with control cells (P<0.001). Inhibition of the AQPs by HgCl2 also increased the sensitivity of both cell lines to cryoinjury and there was a complete loss of cell viability at −10°C (P<0.01). In conclusion, we have shown that AQP3 is involved directly in cryoinjury. Inhibition of AQP3 increases the sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to freezing. This strategy may be exploited in the clinic to improve the efficacy of prostate cryotherapy. PMID:19513079

  20. Imaging technique for real-time temperature monitoring during cryotherapy of lesions

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Elena; Liopo, Anton; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Ermilov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Noninvasive real-time temperature imaging during thermal therapies is able to significantly improve clinical outcomes. An optoacoustic (OA) temperature monitoring method is proposed for noninvasive real-time thermometry of vascularized tissue during cryotherapy. The universal temperature-dependent optoacoustic response (ThOR) of red blood cells (RBCs) is employed to convert reconstructed OA images to temperature maps. To obtain the temperature calibration curve for intensity-normalized OA images, we measured ThOR of 10 porcine blood samples in the range of temperatures from 40°C to −16°C and analyzed the data for single measurement variations. The nonlinearity (ΔTmax) and the temperature of zero OA response (T0) of the calibration curve were found equal to 11.4±0.1°C and −13.8±0.1°C, respectively. The morphology of RBCs was examined before and after the data collection confirming cellular integrity and intracellular compartmentalization of hemoglobin. For temperatures below 0°C, which are of particular interest for cryotherapy, the accuracy of a single temperature measurement was ±1°C, which is consistent with the clinical requirements. Validation of the proposed OA temperature imaging technique was performed for slow and fast cooling of blood samples embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms. PMID:27822579

  1. Intralesional excision with topical intralesional cryotherapy improves the treatment of keloid scarring in a paediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Reissis, D; Tickunas, T; Agha, R A; Greig, Avh

    2017-11-01

    Recurrent keloid scarring has a significant impact on quality of life. Management is complex, particularly for scars resistant to conventional treatments and in paediatric cases where radiotherapy is not a suitable adjunct to surgical excision. We present the case of a nine-year-old African Caribbean girl with multiple large and recurrent keloid scars on both ears and bilateral sensorineural deafness. Following repeated intralesional excisions, corticosteroid and botulinum toxin injections, she continued to experience rapid recurrence of her keloids, worsening pain and pruritus. She was no longer able to wear her hearing aids because of the large size of the keloids. We employed a novel technique using topical intralesional cryotherapy, applying liquid nitrogen intraoperatively to the inside of the skin flaps immediately post-intralesional keloid excision and before wound closure. At 26-month follow-up a good aesthetic and symptomatic result was achieved, with minimal hypopigmentation, significantly reduced scar volume and significantly slowed recurrence. We discuss this case and review the current literature on the use of topical intralesional cryotherapy for keloid scarring.

  2. [Cryotherapy after childbirth: the length of application and changes in perineal temperature].

    PubMed

    Francisco, Adriana Amorim; de Oliveira, Sonia Maria Junqueira Vasconcellos; Leventhal, Lucila Coca; de Bosco, Caroline Souza

    2013-06-01

    We present a descriptive study based on the data from two clinical trials conducted at a maternity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, in 2008 and 2009. This study aimed to describe perineal temperature after the application of an ice pack during the postpartum period. Three groups of 38 postpartum women (n=114 total) received an ice pack between 2 and 48 h after delivery. The results showed that after 10 minutes of cryotherapy, the mean perineal temperature varied between 13.3 degreeCand 15.3 degree"C, with a small reduction at the end of the 15- and 20-minute applications (2.4 degreeC and 2.7"C, respectively). Women who received cryotherapy for 10 minutes reported a cool sensation and pain relief; after a session of 15 or 20 minutes, the women reported anesthesia and numbness. In conclusion, an ice pack applied for 10 minutes reduced the perineal temperature to the recommended levels for analgesia (10-15 degreeC).

  3. An On-Site Thermoelectric Cooling Device for Cryotherapy and Control of Skin Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Natalia; Dedow, Karl; Nguy, Lindsey; Sullivan, Patrick; Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Diller, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    Cryotherapy involves the surface application of low temperatures to enhance the healing of soft tissue injuries. Typical devices embody a remote source of chilled water that is pumped through a circulation bladder placed on the treatment site. In contrast, the present device uses thermoelectric refrigeration modules to bring the cooling source directly to the tissue to be treated, thereby achieving significant improvements in control of therapeutic temperature while having a reduced size and weight. A prototype system was applied to test an oscillating cooling and heating protocol for efficacy in regulating skin blood perfusion in the treatment area. Data on 12 human subjects indicate that thermoelectric coolers (TECs) delivered significant and sustainable changes in perfusion for both heating (increase by (±SE) 173.0 ± 66.0%, P < 0.005) and cooling (decrease by (±SE) 57.7 ± 4.2%, P < 0.0005), thus supporting the feasibility of a TEC-based device for cryotherapy with local temperature regulation.

  4. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of salicylic acid and cryotherapy for cutaneous warts. An economic decision model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K S; Keogh-Brown, M R; Chalmers, J R; Fordham, R J; Holland, R C; Armstrong, S J; Bachmann, M O; Howe, A H; Rodgers, S; Avery, A J; Harvey, I; Williams, H C

    2006-08-01

    To estimate the costs of commonly used treatments for cutaneous warts, as well as their health benefits and risk. To create an economic decision model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these treatments, and, as a result, assess whether a randomised controlled trial (RCT) would be feasible and cost-effective. Focus groups, structured interviews and observation of practice. Postal survey sent to 723 patients. A recently updated Cochrane systematic review and published cost and prescribing data. Primary and secondary data collection methods were used to inform the development of an economic decision model. Data from the postal survey provided estimates of the effectiveness of wart treatments in a primary care setting. These estimates were compared with outcomes reported in the Cochrane review of wart treatment, which were largely obtained from RCTs conducted in secondary care. A decision model was developed including a variety of over-the-counter (OTC) and GP-prescribed treatments. The model simulated 10,000 patients and adopted a societal perspective. OTC treatments were used by a substantial number of patients (57%) before attending the GP surgery. By far the most commonly used OTC preparation was salicylic acid (SA). The results of the economic model suggested that of the treatments prescribed by a GP, the most cost-effective treatment was SA, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 2.20 pound/% cured. The ICERs for cryotherapy varied widely (from 1.95 to 7.06 pound/% cured) depending on the frequency of applications and the mode of delivery. The most cost-effective mode of delivery was through nurse-led cryotherapy clinics (ICER = 1.95 pound/% cured) and this could be a cost-effective alternative to GP-prescribed SA. Overall, the OTC therapies were the most cost-effective treatment options. ICERs ranged from 0.22 pound/% cured for OTC duct tape and 0.76 pound/% cured for OTC cryotherapy to 1.12 pound/% cured for OTC SA. However, evidence in

  5. Chemotherapy: the effect of oral cryotherapy on the development of mucositis.

    PubMed

    Karagözoğlu, Serife; Filiz Ulusoy, Mehlika

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of oral cryotherapy on the development of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in patients administered combined chemotherapy. Mucositis has been of interest to scientists for more than 20 years. Unfortunately, this has not resulted in the development of standard procedures for prevention and management. To cope with this side-effect and to prevent opportunistic infections that may emerge during treatment, attempts are taken to provide preventative and comfort measures. In this context, cryotherapy (oral cooling) has become popular as a cheap and readily applicable method in preventing the developing due the rapid infusion of chemotherapy agents, or decreasing its severity. Study involved 60 patients, 30 of whom were in the study group and 30 in the control group. Ice cubes at a size that can be moved easily in the mouth and whose corners have been smoothed in order that they will not cause irritation in the mouth has been used in oral cryotherapy in the study group. Oral chemotherapy was initiated five minutes before chemotherapy and maintained during venous infusions of etoposide (Vepesid), platinol (Cisplatin), mitomycin (Mitomycin-C) and vinblastin (Velbe) depending on the chemotherapy course. According to Patient-Judged Mucositis Grading, the rate of mucositis is 36.7% in study group and 90.0% in control group, the difference between two groups being statistically significant (P < 0.05). According to Physician-Judged Mucositis Grading, the rate of mucositis is 10.0% in the study group and 50.0% in the control group, the difference between two groups being statistically significant (P < 0.05). Oral pH values decreased in 90% of the subjects in study group, i.e. mucositis risk was reduced whereas oral pH values remained unchanged or decreased in 86.7% of the subjects in the control group, namely mucositis risk increased. The difference between study and control groups in terms of the change in pH values after

  6. Recovery following a marathon: a comparison of cold water immersion, whole body cryotherapy and a placebo control.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura J; Cockburn, Emma; Paice, Katherine; Sinclair, Scott; Faki, Tanwir; Hills, Frank A; Gondek, Marcela B; Wood, Alyssa; Dimitriou, Lygeri

    2018-01-01

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular recovery strategy used in an attempt to attenuate the negative impact of strenuous physical activity on subsequent exercise. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effects of whole body cryotherapy (WBC) and cold water immersion (CWI) on markers of recovery following a marathon. Thirty-one endurance trained males completed a marathon. Participants were randomly assigned to a CWI, WBC or placebo group. Perceptions of muscle soreness, training stress and markers of muscle function were recorded before the marathon and at 24 and 48 h post exercise. Blood samples were taken at baseline, post intervention and 24 and 48 h post intervention to assess inflammation and muscle damage. WBC had a harmful effect on muscle function compared to CWI post marathon. WBC positively influenced perceptions of training stress compared to CWI. With the exception of C-reactive protein (CRP) at 24 and 48 h, neither cryotherapy intervention positively influenced blood borne markers of inflammation or structural damage compared to placebo. The findings show WBC has a negative impact on muscle function, perceptions of soreness and a number of blood parameters compared to CWI, contradicting the suggestion that WBC may be a superior recovery strategy. Further, cryotherapy is no more effective than a placebo intervention at improving functional recovery or perceptions of training stress following a marathon. These findings lend further evidence to suggest that treatment belief and the placebo effect may be largely responsible for the beneficial effects of cryotherapy on recovery following a marathon.

  7. Could −79 °C Spray-Type Cryotherapy Be an Effective Monotherapy for the Treatment of Keloid?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae Hwan; Cho, Hyeon-Ju; Lee, Jang Won; Kim, Chan Woo; Chong, Yosep; Chang, Choong Hyun; Park, Kyung-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Cryotherapy has been regarded as an effective modality for the treatment of keloids, and the spray-type device is one of the novel cryotherapeutic units. However, the biological mechanisms and therapeutic effects of this technique are incompletely studied. We evaluated the clinical efficacy of our cryotherapy protocol with molecular and pathologic evidence for the treatment of keloids. We evenly split each of ten keloid lesions into a non-treated (C−) and treated (C+) area; the C+ area was subjected to two freeze-thaw cycles of spray-type cryotherapy using −79 °C spray-type CryoPen™. This treatment was repeated after an interval of two weeks. The proliferation and migration abilities of the fibroblasts isolated from the dermis under the cryotherapy-treated or untreated keloid tissues (at least 5 mm deep) were compared and pathologic findings of the full layer were evaluated. Molecular analysis revealed that the number of dermal fibroblasts was significantly higher in C+ group as compared with C− group. The dermal fibroblasts from C+ group showed more than two-fold increase in the migration ability as compared with the fibroblasts from C− group. The expression of matrix metallopeptidase 9 was increased by more than two-fold and a significant increase in transforming growth factor beta 1 expression and Smad2/3 phosphorylation level was observed in C+ group. C+ group showed more extensive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with thicker fibrosis and occasional “proliferating core collagen” as compared with C− group. Thus, −79 °C spray-type cryotherapy is ineffective as a monotherapy and should be used in combination with intralesional corticosteroids or botulinum toxin A for favourable outcomes in the treatment of thick keloids. PMID:29186868

  8. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men*

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. RESULT In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts. PMID:24770498

  9. Comparing Two Methods of Cryotherapy and Intense Pulsed Light with Triamcinolone Injection in the Treatment of Keloid and Hypertrophic Scars: A Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Meymandi, Simin Shamsi; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Rezazadeh, Azadeh

    2016-10-01

    Keloid and hypertrophic scars are abnormal manifestations of wounds that occur following skin injuries in the form of local proliferation of fibroblasts and increased production of collagen. There are several ways to cure these scars; treatment must be selected based on the nature of the scars. In this clinical trial, two methods-cryotherapy and intense pulsed light (IPL)-are compared in the treatment of scars, and the results are presented in terms of improvement level, complications, and patient satisfaction. This clinical trial was conducted in southeastern Iran. The intervention group included scars that underwent the IPL method and the control group, which consisted of scars that were subjected to cryotherapy. In both methods, intralesional corticosteroid injection was administered. To select samples, the easy sampling method was used. To determine the expected outcomes, the criteria determined in the Vancouver scar scale were used. Data were analyzed using the Mix Model, chi-square test, and t test. In this study, 166 samples of keloid and hypertrophic scars were cured using two methods (Cryotherapy, 83; IPL, 83). The recovery rate was higher in the Cryotherapy group than in the IPL group ( p  > 0.05), and the incidence of complications was also higher in the Cryotherapy group (14.5% vs. 12%). Moreover, patients were more satisfied, although not significantly so, with the cryotherapy method ( p  = 0.09). Both methods were highly successful in curing scars; participants were totally satisfied with both methods.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of plantar warts: economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial (EVerT trial)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plantar warts (verrucae) are extremely common. Although many will spontaneously disappear without treatment, treatment may be sought for a variety of reasons such as discomfort. There are a number of different treatments for cutaneous warts, with salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen being two of the most common forms of treatment. To date, no full economic evaluation of either salicylic acid or cryotherapy has been conducted based on the use of primary data in a pragmatic setting. This paper describes the cost-effectiveness analysis which was conducted alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised trial evaluating the clinical effectiveness of cryotherapy versus 50% salicylic acid of the treatment of plantar warts. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken alongside a pragmatic multicentre, randomised controlled trial assessing the clinical effectiveness of 50% salicylic acid and cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen at 12 weeks after randomisation of patients. Cost-effectiveness outcomes were expressed as the additional cost required to completely cure the plantar warts of one additional patient. A NHS perspective was taken for the analysis. Results Cryotherapy costs on average £101.17 (bias corrected and accelerated (BCA) 95% CI: 85.09-117.26) more per participant over the 12 week time-frame, while there is no additional benefit, in terms of proportion of patients healed compared with salicylic acid. Conclusions Cryotherapy is more costly and no more effective than salicylic acid. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18994246 [controlled-trials.com] and National Research Register N0484189151. PMID:22369511

  11. A novel cryotherapy compression wrap in the management of acute ankle sprains: potential use for special operators on the battlefield.

    PubMed

    Boland, Mark; Mulligan, Ivan; Payette, Justin; Serres, Jennifer; O'Hara, Reginald; Maupin, Genny

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries related to training and operational missions frequently affect military personnel. A common treatment for these injuries is the PRICE (protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation) method, which is time consuming and impractical in the field. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the cryotherapy wrap compared to a traditional treatment in the management of acute ankle sprains. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in a university research laboratory with 13 subjects (9 males and 4 females) with the following physical characteristics: age (yr) 20.6 ? 2.2, height (cm) 177.0 ? 14.3, weight (kg) 76.6 ? 20.6, and body mass index (kg/m2) 24.1 ? 3.7. Participants were instructed to perform PRICE with a traditional ice pack and compression wrap (control group) or with an Arctic Ease? cryotherapy wrap (test group) for 48 hours following enrollment in the study. The Numeric Pain Scale, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure, and ankle/foot volumetric measurement were performed at initial presentation and 24-hour, 48-hour, and 7-day follow-up intervals. While the comparison of the Numeric Pain Scale scores, Foot and Ankle Ability Measure scores, and volumetric changes between groups revealed no statistically significant differences (p > 0.01), there was an 86% compliance rate for subjects in the cryotherapy wrap group compared to a 17% compliance rate of subjects in the control group. The cryotherapy wraps performed comparably to ice therapy and therefore may be especially applicable to military personnel required to operate in austere and hostile environments where traditional therapies are unrealistic. Although this pilot study did not demonstrate that the cryotherapy wraps produce statistically superior results, trends emerged in the data suggesting that subject compliance rate may be improved by using an alternative form of cryotherapy compression, which could lead to better management of

  12. Abdominal Aortic Dissection and Cold-Intolerance After Whole-Body Cryotherapy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cámara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Azpiri-López, José R; Vázquez-Díaz, Luis A; Galarza-Delgado, Dionicio A

    2017-09-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) involves short exposures to air temperatures below -100°C and is purported to enhance recovery after exercise and accelerate rehabilitation after injury. It is generally considered a procedure with few side effects, but there are no large studies that have established its safety profile. We present the case of a 56-year-old patient who developed an abdominal aortic dissection after receiving 15 sessions of WBC. The patient had no other strong risk factors for aortic dissection. Exposure to cold temperatures, including WBC, has multiple hemodynamic effects, including increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and an adrenergic response. We suggest that these changes could act as a trigger for the onset of aortic dissections. This could be the first reported cardiovascular complication associated with WBC.

  13. Bone remodelling biomarkers after whole body cryotherapy (WBC) in elite rugby players.

    PubMed

    Galliera, Emanuela; Dogliotti, Giada; Melegati, Gianluca; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano M; Cabitza, Paolo; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of a brief exposure to extreme cold air (-110°C) in a controlled chamber and it is applied in sports medicine to improve recovery from musculoskeletal trauma. The aim of this study is to better define the beneficial effect of WCB on the musculoskeletal system of athletes, in particular on bone remodelling. Remodelling osteoimmunological biomarkers OPG, RANKL and RANK were measured after WBC treatment in 10 male rugby players randomly selected from the Italian National team. OPG levels were increased significantly, supporting the view that WBC induces an osteogenic effect. Further studies evaluating the effect of WBC on bone metabolism are desirable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Endobronchial cryotherapy facilitates end-stage treatment options in patients with bronchial stenosis: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Fitzmaurice, Gerard J.; Redmond, Karen C.; Fitzpatrick, David A.; Bartosik, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    In keeping with international trends, lung cancer incidence and mortality are increasing among the Irish population with many patients presenting with advanced disease that excludes the potential for curative management. Consequently palliative treatment options for this patient group are being increasingly explored with various degrees of success. Endobronchial stenosis represents a particularly challenging area of management among these patients and a number of techniques have been described without the identification of a single gold standard. We report our experience of the first time use of endobronchial cryotherapy in Ireland with reference to a case series, including an example of its use in the management of benign disease, in order to support patients with borderline lung function and enable definitive palliative treatment. PMID:24791176

  15. Percutaneous thermal ablation of lung tumors - Radiofrequency, microwave and cryotherapy: Where are we going?

    PubMed

    Palussière, J; Catena, V; Buy, X

    2017-09-01

    Main indications of percutaneous pulmonary thermal ablation are early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) for patients who are not amenable to surgery and slow-evolving localized metastatic disease, either spontaneous or following a general treatment. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is the most evaluated technique. This technique offers a local control rate ranging between 80 and 90% for tumors <3cm in diameter. Other more recently used ablation techniques such as microwaves and cryotherapy could overcome some limitations of RFA. One common characteristic of these techniques is an excellent tolerance with very few complications. This article reviews the differences between these techniques when applied to lung tumors, indications, results and complications. Future potential associations with immunotherapy will be discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Cryotherapy for docetaxel-induced hand and nail toxicity: randomised control trial.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Alexandra L; Shaban, Ramon Z; Gillespie, Kerri; Vick, Joanne

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of cryotherapy, in the form of frozen gel gloves, in relation to docetaxel-induced hand and fingernail toxicities. After piloting with 21 patients, a consecutive series sample of patients (n=53) prescribed docetaxel every 3 weeks, for a minimum of three cycles, was enrolled in this randomised control trial. Participants acted as their own control, with the frozen gel glove worn on one randomised hand for 15 min prior to infusion, for the duration of the infusion, and for 15 min of after completion of treatment. Hand and nail toxicities were evaluated by two blinded assessors according to CTCAE.v4 criteria. To assess the potential for cross-infection of multi-use gloves, microbial culture and sensitivity swabs were taken of each glove at every tenth use. Of the 53 participants enrolled in the main study, 21 provided evaluable data. There was a 60 % withdrawal rate due to patient discomfort with the intervention. The mean incidence and severity of toxicities in all evaluable cycles in control and intervention hands respectively were erythroderma grade 1 (5/5 %), nail discolouration grade 1 (81/67 %), nail loss grade 1 (19/19 %) and nail ridging grade 1 (57/57 %). No significant differences were determined between hand conditions in terms of time to event, nor in terms of toxicity in gloved and non-gloved hands. While cryotherapy in the form of frozen gloves for the cutaneous toxicities associated with docetaxel is safe, its limited efficacy, patient discomfort and some logistical issues preclude its use in our clinical setting.

  17. PSA kinetics following primary focal cryotherapy (hemiablation) in organ-confined prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kongnyuy, Michael; Islam, Shahidul; Mbah, Alfred K; Halpern, Daniel M; Werneburg, Glenn T; Kosinski, Kaitlin E; Chen, Connie; Habibian, David J; Schiff, Jeffrey T; Corcoran, Anthony T; Katz, Aaron E

    2018-02-01

    We aim to evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) trends in post-primary focal cryotherapy (PFC) patients. This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study of PFC patients from 2010 to 2015. Patients with at least one post-PFC PSA were included in the study. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) was determined using the Phoenix criteria. PSA bounce was also assessed. We analyzed rates of change of PSA over time of post-PFC between BCR and no BCR groups. PSA-derived variables were analyzed as potential predictors of BCR. A total of 104 PFC patients were included in our analysis. Median (range) age and follow-up time were 66 (48-82) years and 19 (6.3-38.6) months, respectively. Four (3.8%) patients experienced PSA bounce. The median percent drop in first post-PFC PSA of 80.0% was not associated with BCR (p = 0.256) and may indicate elimination of the index lesion. The rate of increase of PSA in BCR patients was significantly higher compared to patients who did not recur (median PSA velocity (PSAV): 0.15 vs 0.04 ng/ml/month, p = 0.001). Similar to PSAV (HR 9.570, 95% CI 3.725-24.592, p < 0.0001), PSA nadir ≥ 2 ng/ml [HR (hazard ratio) 1.251, 95% CI 1.100-1.422, p = 0.001] was independently associated with BCR. A significant drop in post-PFC PSA may indicate elimination of the index lesion. Patients who are likely to recur biochemically have a significantly higher PSAV compared to those who do not recur. Nadir PSA of less than 2 ng/ml may be considered the new normal PSA in focal cryotherapy (hemiablation) follow-up.

  18. Salivary steroid hormone response to whole-body cryotherapy in elite rugby players.

    PubMed

    Grasso, D; Lanteri, P; Di Bernardo, C; Mauri, C; Porcelli, S; Colombini, A; Zani, V; Bonomi, F G; Melegati, G; Banfi, G; Lombardi, G

    2014-01-01

    Saliva represents a low stress, not-invasively collected matrix that allows steroid hormone monitoring in athletes by reflecting type, intensity and duration of exercise. Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) consists of short whole-body exposures to extremely cold air (-110° to -140°C) which, despite being initially used to treat inflammatory diseases, is currently acquiring increasing popularity in sports medicine. Cryostimulation practice is now widely accepted as an effective treatment to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this work was to study the changes of steroid hormones in saliva of rugby players after both 2 and 14 consecutive WBC sessions, in order to investigate the effects of the treatment on their salivary steroid hormonal profile. Twenty-five professional rugby players, belonging to the Italian National Team, underwent a 7-day cryotherapy protocol consisting of 2 daily sessions. Saliva samples were taken in the morning prior to the start of the WBC, in the evening after the end of the second WBC, and in the morning of the day after the last WBC session. The samples were analyzed for cortisol, DHEA, testosterone and estradiol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Cortisol and DHEA showed a reduction already after the 2 WBC sessions of the first day; after 14 consecutive WBC sessions cortisol, DHEA, and estradiol levels decreased, while testosterone increased as did the testosterone to cortisol ratio. These results were confirmed by the fact that the majority of subjects showed variations exceeding the critical difference (CD). In conclusion, we found that WBC acutely affects the salivary steroid hormone profile, and the results are evident already after only one twice-daily session. Most significantly, after one-week of consecutive twice-daily WBC sessions, all the hormones were modified. This is the first experimental report that links changes in the hormonal asset to WBC.

  19. Acute Effects of Partial-Body Cryotherapy on Isometric Strength: Maximum Handgrip Strength Evaluation.

    PubMed

    De Nardi, Massimo; Pizzigalli, Luisa; Benis, Roberto; Caffaro, Federica; Micheletti Cremasco, Margherita

    2017-12-01

    De Nardi, M, Pizzigalli, L, Benis, R, Caffaro, F, and Cremasco, MM. Acute effects of partial-body cryotherapy on isometric strength: maximum handgrip strength evaluation. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3497-3502, 2017-The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a single partial-body cryotherapy (PBC) session on the maximum handgrip strength (JAMAR Hydraulic Hand dynamometer). Two hundred healthy adults were randomized into a PBC group and a control group (50 men and 50 women in each group). After the initial handgrip strength test (T0), the experimental group performed a 150-second session of PBC (temperature range between -130 and -160° C), whereas the control group stayed in a thermo neutral room (22.0 ± 0.5° C). Immediately after, both groups performed another handgrip strength test (T1). Data underlined that both groups showed an increase in handgrip strength values, especially the experimental group (Control: T0 = 39.48 kg, T1 = 40.01 kg; PBC: T0 = 39.61 kg, T1 = 41.34 kg). The analysis also reported a statistical effect related to gender (F = 491.99, P ≤ 0.05), with women showing lower handgrip strength values compared with men (women = 30.43 kg, men = 52.27 kg). Findings provide the first evidence that a single session of PBC leads to the improvement of muscle strength in healthy people. The results of the study imply that PBC could be performed also before a training session or a sport competition, to increase hand isometric strength.

  20. Reduced opiate use after total knee arthroplasty using computer-assisted cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thijs, Elke; Schotanus, Martijn G M; Bemelmans, Yoeri F L; Kort, Nanne P

    2018-05-03

    Despite multimodal pain management and advances in anesthetic techniques, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains painful during the early postoperative phase. This trial investigated whether computer-assisted cryotherapy (CAC) is effective in reduction of pain and consumption of opioids in patients operated for TKA following an outpatient surgery pathway. Sixty patients scheduled for primary TKA were included in this prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial receiving CAC at 10-12 °C (Cold-group, n = 30) or at 21 °C (Warm-group, n = 30) during the first 7 days after TKA according to a fixed schedule. All patients received the same pre-, peri- and postoperative care with a multimodal pain protocol. Pain was assessed before and after every session of cryotherapy using the numerical rating scale for pain (NRS-pain). The consumption of opioids was strictly noted during the first 4 postoperative days. Secondary outcomes were knee swelling, visual hematoma and patient reported outcome measures (PROMs). These parameters were measured pre-, 1, 2 and 6 weeks postoperatively. In both study groups, a reduction in NRS-pain after every CAC session were seen during the postoperative period of 7 days. A mean reduction of 0.9 and 0.7 on the NRS-pain was seen for respectively the Cold- (P = 0.008) and Warm-group (n.s.). A significant (P = 0.001) lower number of opioids were used by the Cold-group during the acute postoperative phase of 4 days, 47 and 83 tablets for respectively the Cold and Warm-group. No difference could be observed for secondary outcomes and adverse effects between both study groups. Postoperative CAC can be in added value in patients following an outpatient surgery pathway for TKA, resulting in reduced experienced pain and consumption of opioids during the first postoperative days.

  1. Endoscopic spray cryotherapy for genitourinary malignancies: safety and efficacy in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Power, Nicholas E.; Silberstein, Jonathan L.; Tarin, Tatum; Au, Joyce; Thorner, Daniel; Ezell, Paula; Monette, Sébastien; Fong, Yuman; Rusch, Valerie; Finley, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects and safety of using endoscopic spray cryotherapy (ESC) on bladder, ureteral, and renal pelvis urothelium in a live porcine model. Subjects and methods: ESC treatments were systematically applied to urothelial sites in the bladder, ureter, and renal pelvis of eight female Yorkshire swine in a prospective trial. Freeze–thaw cycles ranged from 5 to 60 s/cycle for one to six cycles using a 7 French cryotherapy catheter. Tissue was evaluated histologically for treatment-related effects. Acute physiologic effects were evaluated with pulse oximetry, Doppler sonography, and postmortem findings. Results: In bladder, treatment depth was inconsistent regardless of dose, demonstrating urothelial necrosis in one, muscularis propria depth necrosis in two, and full thickness necrosis in all remaining samples. In ureter, full thickness necrosis was seen in all samples, even with the shortest spray duration (5 s/cycle for six cycles or 30 s/cycle for one cycle). Treatment to the renal pelvis was complicated by adiabatic gas expansion of liquid nitrogen to its gaseous state, resulting in high intraluminal pressures requiring venting to avoid organ perforation, even at the lowest treatment settings. At a planned dose of 5 s/cycle for six cycles of the first renal pelvis animal, treatment was interrupted by sudden and unrecoverable cardiopulmonary failure after three cycles. Repeated studies replicated this event. Ultrasound and immediate necropsy confirmed the creation of a large gaseous embolism and reproducible cardiopulmonary effects. Conclusion: ESC in a porcine urothelial treatment model results in full-thickness tissue necrosis in bladder, ureter, and renal pelvis at a minimal treatment settings of 5 s/cycle for six cycles. Adiabatic gas expansion may result in fatal pyelovenous gas embolism and collateral organ injury, as seen in both animals receiving treatment to the renal pelvis in this study. These results raise safety concerns for use

  2. Outcome and safety of transrectal US-guided percutaneous cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Saliken, J C; Donnelly, B J; Brasher, P; Ali-Ridha, N; Ernst, S; Robinson, J

    1999-02-01

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of ultrasound (US)-guided cryotherapy as a primary treatment for localized prostate cancer. A prospective study of percutaneous transrectal US (TRUS)-guided cryotherapy was performed on 71 patients with T1-T3, N0, M0 prostatic cancer: 10 patients underwent two or more procedures. All cases were newly diagnosed and patients had no previous treatment for cancer. For all patients, TRUS biopsies were performed at 5-6 months. Patients were monitored at 6 weeks; 3, 6, 9, and 12 months; and twice yearly thereafter for prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, complications, and clinical evidence of residual disease. Follow-up from 10 to 36 months was available for 70 of 71 patients; one patient died of unrelated disease. Initially, 10 of 69 patients had positive postcryotherapy biopsy results. After repeated treatment, nine of these 10 patients had negative biopsy results and one patient had no follow-up. Overall, 68 of 69 patients had negative biopsy results. At 1 year, 43 of 64 (67%) had an undetectable PSA level. Two patients had proven metastases. Complications include three cases with urethral sloughing requiring transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). One patient had orchitis. Two patients had persistent incontinence, one as the result of a TURP. There was no death, acute serious morbidity, or fistula formation. Impotence was universal at 6 months, but many patients demonstrated late recovery. Cryoablation is an imaging-guided percutaneous intervention for prostate cancer that can safely yield disease-free status in a high percentage of patients with localized disease.

  3. A placebo controlled observer blind immunocytochemical and histologic study of epithelium adjacent to anogenital warts in patients treated with systemic interferon alpha in combination with cryotherapy or cryotherapy alone.

    PubMed Central

    Handley, J M; Maw, R D; Horner, T; Lawther, H; Walsh, M; Dinsmore, W W

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine biopsy specimens of tissue immediately adjacent to anogenital (AG) warts which had been treated with either cryotherapy plus subcutaneous interferon (IFN) alpha 2a or cryotherapy alone, for histological features of (a) human papilloma virus (HPV) infection (b) localised cellular immune responses, to further characterise any cellular immune infiltrates with tissue immunocytochemistry, and to relate any histological, immunocytochemical findings to the treatment response of nearby AG warts. DESIGN--A randomised placebo controlled observer blind study. SETTING--Genitourinary Medicine clinic, Department of Immunopathology, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, N. Ireland. SUBJECTS--Thirty patients with AG warts; 16 treated with IFN alpha 2a plus cryotherapy, and 14 treated with cryotherapy alone. OUTCOME MEASURES--(1) Light microscopic features associated with HPV infection and local cellular immune responses. (2) Indirect immunofluorescence detection of the following cell surface markers: HLA DR, alpha one antitrypsin, CD1, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD22. (3) Clinical response of AG warts to treatment. RESULTS--In pre-treatment biopsies only non specific indicators of HPV infection (acanthosis, 29/30 biopsies, and hyperkeratosis, 7/30 biopsies) were seen on light microscopy. Mononuclear cells were seen both throughout the upper dermis and centred around dermal blood vessels in 19/30 (63.3%) biopsies, and infiltrating into the epidermis in 12/30 (40%) biopsies. On indirect immunofluorescence CD3, CD8, CD4 antigen was detected on the surface of cells throughout the upper dermis in 24/29 (82.7%), 15/29 (51.7%), and 3/29 (10.3%), of biopsy specimens respectively. CD3 antigen, CD8 antigen and CD4 antigen was detected on the surface of cells infiltrating into the epidermis in 18/29 (62%), 7/29 (24.1%), and 6/29 (20.7%) of biopsy specimens respectively. CD1 antigen was seen on the surface of dendritic cells throughout the epidermis in all specimens; CD1 positive cells

  4. Salvage prostatectomy in patients who have failed radiation therapy or cryotherapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bert T; Wood, David P

    2003-12-29

    Asymptomatic prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma poses a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma for clinicians. Patients with locally recurrent disease can consider treatment options of salvage surgery, cryotherapy, watchful waiting, or androgen deprivation. Of these options, only salvage surgery has been shown to result in long-term disease-free survival for selected patients. However, salvage surgery is associated with significant morbidity, including urinary incontinence and rectal injuries. Ideally, salvage surgery outcomes can be optimized with careful patient selection according to clinical stage, serum PSA levels before radiation and surgery, the medical condition of the patient, and clear expectations of the physician and patient. Among patients with locally recurrent disease, those with localized prostate carcinoma amenable to radical prostatectomy before radiation or cryotherapy would be the most suitable candidates for salvage surgery.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of cryotherapy in preventing oral mucositis associated with chemotherapy - a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Katrancı, Nilgün; Ovayolu, Nimet; Ovayolu, Ozlem; Sevinc, Alper

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of oral cryotherapy on the development of oral mucositis related to infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with leucovorin. This study, a randomized controlled trial with random assignments to the experimental and control groups, was conducted with cancer patients. The study included 60 patients; 30 patients in the study group were instructed to hold ice cubes in their mouth shortly before, during, and shortly after infusion of 5-FU with leucovorin, the 30 patients in the control group received routine care. Oral mucositis in the patients was evaluated at 7, 14, and 21 days after chemotherapy. For analysis of data, chi-square, Fisher's tests were used; p < 0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. In the majority of patients receiving cryotherapy, oral mucositis was not observed (Grade 0) at 7 and 14 days. Similarly, incidence of Grades 1, 2, and 3 oral mucositis in the experimental group was quite a bit lower when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). On day 21, no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups was determined based on the development of oral mucositis (p > 0.05). We found that oral cryotherapy has a significant contribution to the protection of oral health by reducing mucositis score according to the WHO mucositis scale, especially on the 7th and 14th days. Nurses' awareness of how cryotherapy can affect patients and options for resolving problems will enable them to provide a higher standard of individualized care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A new argon gas-based device for the treatment of keloid scars with the use of intralesional cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Michiel C E; Bulstra, Anne-Eva J; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Niessen, Frank B

    2014-12-01

    Intralesional (IL) cryotherapy is a new promising technique for the treatment of keloid scars, in which the scar is frozen from inside. Multiple devices are available, mostly based on a simple liquid nitrogen Dewar system, which have a limited freezing capacity. Argon gas-based systems ensure accurate and highly controlled freezing and have shown to be effective within the field of oncologic surgery. However, this technique has never been used for the treatment of keloid scars. This prospective study evaluates an argon gas-based system for the treatment of keloids in a patient population including all Fitzpatrick skin types with a 1-year follow-up. Twenty-five patients with 30 keloid scars were included and treated with a device called Seednet (Galil Medical, Yokneam, Israel). Scar quality and possible scar recurrence were assessed before treatment and post treatment (6 and 12 months) with objective devices determining scar color, scar elasticity, scar volume, and patient's skin type. In addition, scars were evaluated using the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. After 12 months, a significant volume reduction of 62% was obtained, p = 0.05. Moreover, complaints of pain and itching were alleviated and scar quality had improved according to the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Scar pigmentation recovered in 62% of all keloid scars within 12 months. Five out of 30 (17%) scars recurred within 12 months, three of which had previously been treated with liquid nitrogen-based IL cryotherapy. Both recurrent and persistent hypopigmentation were mainly seen in Afro-American patients. IL cryotherapy with the use of an argon gas-based system proves to be effective in the treatment of keloid scars, yielding volume reduction and low recurrence rates. Although hypopigmentation recovered in most cases, it is strongly related to non-Caucasian patients. Finally, additional treatment of keloid scars previously unresponsive to IL cryotherapy is predisposed to a high

  7. Manual Therapy With Cryotherapy Versus Manual Therapy With Kinesio Taping for Males With Lumbar Discopathy: A Pilot Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Lizis, Pawel; Kobza, Wojciech

    2017-06-23

    Context • Numerous modalities of therapeutic interventions exist for lumbar discopathy. Manual therapy is one option, although its effectiveness remains controversial. The addition of cryotherapy to manual therapy may enhance the health benefits in patients with lumbar discopathy.  Objective • The study intended to evaluate the efficacy of manual therapy combined with cryotherapy vs manual therapy combined with Kinesio taping for males with lumbar discopathy. Design • The research team designed a pilot randomized trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and intention-to-treat analysis. Setting • The study occurred in the Physiotherapy Outpatient Department of the Regional Hospital (Zywiec, Poland). Participants • The participants were 40 males with lumbar discopathy, aged 30-75 y, who were patients in the department at the hospital. Intervention • The participants were randomly assigned to an intervention group that received Kaltenborn-Evjenth orthopedic manual therapy (KEOMT) combined with cryotherapy, the KEOMT-C group (n = 20), or to a control group that received KEOMT combined with Kinesio taping, the KEOMT-K group (n = 20). The participants in both groups received 10 treatments, 2 per wk for 5 wk. Outcome Measures • The primary outcome was measured using a visual analog scale and the Laitinen scale pain ratings. The secondary outcome measured the quality of life using the short form-36 questionnaire. The participants completed the tests at baseline and postintervention. Results • After the treatments, the intervention group had significantly lower scores than the control group for pain as well as significantly higher scores for quality of life. Conclusions • Patients achieved better health benefits from manual therapy when it was combined with cryotherapy.

  8. Prolonged superficial local cryotherapy attenuates microcirculatory impairment, regional inflammation, and muscle necrosis after closed soft tissue injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Disch, Alexander C; Stover, John F; Lauffer, Annette; Bail, Herman J; Mittlmeier, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Closed soft tissue injury induces progressive microvascular dysfunction and regional inflammation. The authors tested the hypothesis that adverse trauma-induced effects can be reduced by local cooling. While superficial cooling reduces swelling, pain, and cellular oxygen demand, the effects of cryotherapy on posttraumatic microcirculation are incompletely understood. Controlled laboratory study. After a standardized closed soft tissue injury to the left tibial compartment, male rats were randomly subjected to percutaneous perfusion for 6 hours with 0.9% NaCL (controls; room temperature) or cold NaCL (cryotherapy; 8 degrees C) (n = 7 per group). Uninjured rats served as shams (n = 7). Microcirculatory changes and leukocyte adherence were determined by intravital microscopy. Intramuscular pressure was measured, and invasion of granulocytes and macrophages was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Edema and tissue damage was quantified by gravimetry and decreased desmin staining. Closed soft tissue injury significantly decreased functional capillary density (240 +/- 12 cm(-1)); increased microvascular permeability (0.75 +/- 0.03), endothelial leukocyte adherence (995 +/- 77/cm(2)), granulocyte (182.0 +/- 25.5/mm(2)) and macrophage infiltration, edema formation, and myonecrosis (ratio: 2.95 +/- 0.45) within the left extensor digitorum longus muscle. Cryotherapy for 6 hours significantly restored diminished functional capillary density (393 +/- 35), markedly decreased elevated intramuscular pressure, reduced the number of adhering (462 +/- 188/cm(2)) and invading granulocytes (119 +/- 28), and attenuated tissue damage (ratio: 1.7 +/- 0.17). The hypothesis that prolonged cooling reduces posttraumatic microvascular dysfunction, inflammation, and structural impairment was confirmed. These results may have therapeutic implications as cryotherapy after closed soft tissue injury is a valuable therapeutic approach to improve nutritive perfusion and attenuate leukocyte

  9. Impact of a new cryotherapy device on early rehabilitation after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA): a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sadoghi, Patrick; Hasenhütl, Sandro; Gruber, Gerald; Leitner, Lukas; Leithner, Andreas; Rumpold-Seitlinger, Gudrun; Kastner, Norbert; Poolman, Rudolf W; Glehr, Mathias

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomised and single blinded study was to evaluate the efficiency and safety of a new cryotherapy device in patients undergoing unilateral, primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Our hypothesis was that patients administered to the new cryotherapy device would perform better than patients receiving a conventional standard cold therapy regimen. Ninety-seven patients were randomised into two groups receiving either the cTreatment® (new cryotherapy device) or the standard cold therapy protocol (including cold pack application for six days after the surgical intervention). We evaluated the following endpoints consisting of range of motion (ROM), pain intensity, and knee girth on admission day and the second, fourth, and sixth post-operative day (POD). A statistically significant benefit of the new cryotherapy device was detected regarding the ROM on the sixth POD with an average gain of 7 degrees (p = 0.021). Pain in the numeric rating scale (NRS) score in motion was significantly lower in the cTreatment® group on the second POD (p = 0.034). There were no statistically significant differences between groups regarding the NRS in rest, patient controlled analgesia (PCA) consumption, and girth measurements. No adverse effects were observed in both study groups. The new computer-controlled cooling therapy device provides benefits in terms of early post-operative remobilisation with respect to ROM and pain, which might be attributed to a reduced inflammatory response, as well as reduced secretion and bleeding. The cTreatment® system appears to be a safe and efficient procedure.

  10. Reduced acquisition and reactivation of human papillomavirus infections among older women treated with cryotherapy: results from a randomized trial in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sylvia; Wang, Chunhui; Wright, Thomas C; Denny, Lynette; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Kuhn, Louise

    2010-06-29

    Treatment of women for high-grade cervical cancer precursors frequently results in clearance of the associated high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection but the role of treatment among women without hrHPV is unknown. We investigated whether cervical cryotherapy reduces newly detected hrHPV infections among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women who were hrHPV negative when treated. The impact of cryotherapy on newly detected hrHPV infections was examined among 612 women of known HIV serostatus, aged 35 to 65 years, who were negative for hrHPV DNA, and randomized to either undergo cryotherapy (n = 309) or not (n = 303). All women underwent repeat hrHPV DNA testing 6, 12, 24, and 36 months later. Among 540 HIV-negative women, cryotherapy was associated with a significant reduction in newly detected hrHPV infections. Women in the cryotherapy group were 55% less likely to have newly detected hrHPV than women in the control group (95% CI 0.28 to 0.71). This association was independent of the influence of changes in sexual behaviors following therapy (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.49, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81). Among 72 HIV-positive women, similar reductions were not observed (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.29). Cervical cryotherapy significantly reduced newly detected hrHPV infections among HIV-negative, but not HIV-positive women. These results raise intriguing questions about immunological responses and biological mechanisms underlying the apparent prophylactic benefits of cryotherapy.

  11. Reduced acquisition and reactivation of human papillomavirus infections among older women treated with cryotherapy: results from a randomized trial in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment of women for high-grade cervical cancer precursors frequently results in clearance of the associated high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection but the role of treatment among women without hrHPV is unknown. We investigated whether cervical cryotherapy reduces newly detected hrHPV infections among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women who were hrHPV negative when treated. Methods The impact of cryotherapy on newly detected hrHPV infections was examined among 612 women of known HIV serostatus, aged 35 to 65 years, who were negative for hrHPV DNA, and randomized to either undergo cryotherapy (n = 309) or not (n = 303). All women underwent repeat hrHPV DNA testing 6, 12, 24, and 36 months later. Results Among 540 HIV-negative women, cryotherapy was associated with a significant reduction in newly detected hrHPV infections. Women in the cryotherapy group were 55% less likely to have newly detected hrHPV than women in the control group (95% CI 0.28 to 0.71). This association was independent of the influence of changes in sexual behaviors following therapy (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 0.49, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81). Among 72 HIV-positive women, similar reductions were not observed (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.29). Conclusions Cervical cryotherapy significantly reduced newly detected hrHPV infections among HIV-negative, but not HIV-positive women. These results raise intriguing questions about immunological responses and biological mechanisms underlying the apparent prophylactic benefits of cryotherapy. PMID:20587028

  12. Does photobiomodulation therapy is better than cryotherapy in muscle recovery after a high-intensity exercise? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Thiago; Schmitt, Vinicius Mazzochi; Machado, Guilherme Pinheiro; de Sene, Juliane Souza; de Col, Camila Dallavechia; Tairova, Olga; Salvador, Mirian; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) and cryotherapy, in isolated and combined forms, as muscle recovery techniques after muscle fatigue-inducing protocol. Forty volunteers were randomly divided into five groups: a placebo group (PG); a PBMT group (PBMT); a cryotherapy group (CG); a cryotherapy-PBMT group (CPG); and a PBMT-cryotherapy group (PCG). All subjects performed four sessions at 24-h intervals, during which they submitted to isometric assessment (MVC) and blood collection in the pre-exercise period, and 5 and 60 min post-exercise, while the muscle fatigue induction protocol occurred after the pre-exercise collections. In the remaining sessions performed 24, 48, and 72 h later, only blood collections and MVCs were performed. A single treatment with PBMT and/or cryotherapy was applied after only 2 min of completing the post-5-min MVC test at the first session. In the intragroup comparison, it was found that exercise led to a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the production of MVC in all groups. Comparing the results of MVCs between groups, we observed significant increases in the MVC capacity of the PBMT, CPG, and PCG volunteers in comparison with both PG and CG (p < 0.05). We observed a significant decrease in the concentrations of the biochemical markers of oxidative damage (TBARS and PC) in all groups and muscle damage (creatine kinase-CK) in the PBMT, PCG, and CPG compared with the PG (p < 0.01). The clinical impact of these findings is clear because they demonstrate that the use of phototherapy is more effective than the use of cryotherapy for muscle recovery, additionally cryotherapy decreases PBMT efficacy.

  13. Effects of Various Cryotherapy Applications on Postoperative Pain in Molar Teeth with Symptomatic Apical Periodontitis: A Preliminary Randomized Prospective Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Eyup Candas; Arslan, Hakan

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of intracanal, intraoral, and extraoral cryotherapy on postoperative pain in molar teeth with symptomatic apical periodontitis. A total of 100 patients were randomly distributed into 4 groups: control (without cryotherapy application), intracanal cryotherapy application, intraoral cryotherapy application, and extraoral cryotherapy application. The postoperative pain of the patients was recorded at the first, third, fifth, and seventh days. The data were statistically analyzed by using linear regression, χ 2 , one-way analysis of variance, Tukey post hoc, and Kruskal-Wallis H tests (P = .05). There were no statistically significant differences among the groups in terms of demographic data (P > .05). The preoperative pain levels and preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of pain on percussion were similar among the groups (P > .05). The linear regression analysis demonstrated that group variable had the most significant effect on postoperative pain at day 1 (P < .001) among the other variables (group, age, gender, tooth number, preoperative pain levels, and VAS scores of pain on percussion). When compared with the control group, all the cryotherapy groups exhibited less percussion pain and less postoperative pain at the first, third, fifth, and seventh days (P < .05). Within the study limitations, all the cryotherapy applications (intracanal, intraoral, and extraoral) resulted in lower postoperative pain levels and lower VAS scores of pain on percussion versus those of the control group. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Single-institution comparative study on the outcomes of salvage cryotherapy versus salvage robotic prostatectomy for radio-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vora, Anup; Agarwal, Vidhi; Singh, Prabhjot; Patel, Rupen; Rivas, Rodolfo; Nething, Josh; Muruve, Nic

    2016-03-01

    Although primary treatment of localized prostate cancer provides excellent oncologic control, some men who chose radiotherapy experience a recurrence of disease. There is no consensus on the most appropriate management of these patients after radiotherapy failure. In this single-institution review, we compare our oncologic outcome and toxicity between salvage prostatectomy and cryotherapy treatments. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 23 salvage procedures were performed. Six of those patients underwent salvage prostatectomy while 17 underwent salvage cryotherapy by two high-volume fellowship-trained urologists. Patients being considered for salvage therapy had localized disease at presentation, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 10 ng/mL at recurrence, life expectancy > 10 years at recurrence, and a negative metastatic workup. Patients were followed to observe cancer progression and toxicity of treatment. Patients who underwent salvage cryotherapy were statistically older with a higher incidence of hypertension than our salvage prostatectomy cohort. With a mean follow up of 14.1 months and 7.2 months, the incidence of disease progression was 23.5% and 16.7% after salvage cryotherapy and prostatectomy, respectively. The overall complication rate was also 23.5% versus 16.7%, with the most frequent complication after salvage cryotherapy being urethral stricture and after salvage prostatectomy being severe urinary incontinence. There were no rectal injuries with salvage prostatectomy and one rectourethral fistula in the cohort after salvage cryotherapy. While recurrences from primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer do occur, there is no consensus on its management. In our experience, salvage procedures were generally safe and effective. Both salvage cryotherapy and salvage prostatectomy allow for adequate cancer control with minimal toxicity.

  15. Single-institution comparative study on the outcomes of salvage cryotherapy versus salvage robotic prostatectomy for radio-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Anup; Agarwal, Vidhi; Singh, Prabhjot; Patel, Rupen; Rivas, Rodolfo; Nething, Josh; Muruve, Nic

    2015-01-01

    Background Although primary treatment of localized prostate cancer provides excellent oncologic control, some men who chose radiotherapy experience a recurrence of disease. There is no consensus on the most appropriate management of these patients after radiotherapy failure. In this single-institution review, we compare our oncologic outcome and toxicity between salvage prostatectomy and cryotherapy treatments. Methods From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 23 salvage procedures were performed. Six of those patients underwent salvage prostatectomy while 17 underwent salvage cryotherapy by two high-volume fellowship-trained urologists. Patients being considered for salvage therapy had localized disease at presentation, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 10 ng/mL at recurrence, life expectancy > 10 years at recurrence, and a negative metastatic workup. Patients were followed to observe cancer progression and toxicity of treatment. Results Patients who underwent salvage cryotherapy were statistically older with a higher incidence of hypertension than our salvage prostatectomy cohort. With a mean follow up of 14.1 months and 7.2 months, the incidence of disease progression was 23.5% and 16.7% after salvage cryotherapy and prostatectomy, respectively. The overall complication rate was also 23.5% versus 16.7%, with the most frequent complication after salvage cryotherapy being urethral stricture and after salvage prostatectomy being severe urinary incontinence. There were no rectal injuries with salvage prostatectomy and one rectourethral fistula in the cohort after salvage cryotherapy. Conclusion While recurrences from primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer do occur, there is no consensus on its management. In our experience, salvage procedures were generally safe and effective. Both salvage cryotherapy and salvage prostatectomy allow for adequate cancer control with minimal toxicity. PMID:27014657

  16. [Cryotherapy is useful and safe in the prevention of oral mucositis after high-dose melphalan (L-PAM)].

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Noriko; Ohue, Yukiko; Shigeta, Hiroe; Tasaka, Taizo

    2006-11-01

    We prospectively assessed the effectiveness of cryotherapy after high-dose L-PAM to prevent oral mucositis. Cryotherapy with ice tips was commenced 15 minutes before L-PAM administration, and continued until the end of administration. Twenty-six patients were enrolled in this study. Thirteen patients with myeloma were treated with 200 mg/m2 L-PAM followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, and 13 patients (4 AML, 4 MDS, 2 ALL, 2 lymphoma and 1 CML) were treated with 140 mg/m2 L-PAM followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Grade 1 mucositis occurred in four of 13 patients (31%) with 200 mg/m2 L-PAM, and 2 of 13 patients (16%) with 140 mg/m2 L-PAM. Only one patient had grade 2 mucositis, and no grade 3 mucositis were observed. The procedure was well tolerated in all patients. These data suggest that cryotherapy is effective to minimize L-PAM-induced oral mucositis.

  17. Oral cryotherapy for the prevention of high-dose melphalan-induced stomatitis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Aisa, Yoshinobu; Mori, Takehiko; Kudo, Masumi; Yashima, Tomoko; Kondo, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Akihiro; Ikeda, Yasuo; Okamoto, Shinichiro

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral cryotherapy to prevent high-dose melphalan-induced stomatitis. Eighteen consecutive recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant conditioned with high-dose melphalan (140 mg/m2) in combination with fludarabine alone or with fludarabine and additional chemotherapy or radiation were enrolled. The severity of stomatitis was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Patients were kept on oral cryotherapy using ice chips and ice-cold water shortly before, during, and for additional 90 min after completion of melphalan administration. Only two of 18 patients (11.1%) developed grade 2 or 3 stomatitis while six of seven patients in the historical control developed it (85.7%; P=0.001). These results suggested that oral cryotherapy could effectively prevent stomatitis caused by high-dose melphalan, and we recommend that it should be incorporated into the conditioning regimen with high-dose melphalan.

  18. Comparing the effects of cryotherapy with nitrous oxide gas versus topical corticosteroids in the treatment of oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Amanat, Dariush; Ebrahimi, Hooman; Zahedani, Maryam Zahed; Zeini, Nasim; Pourshahidi, Sara; Ranjbar, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with treatment challenges for clinicians. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of cryotherapy as a new modality with topical corticosteroids as a conventional therapy in the treatment of OLP. Thirty patients with bilateral OLP lesions were selected. From each patient a lesion on one side was chosen randomly for a single session of cryotherapy with nitrous oxide gas and the lesion on the other side received triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% ointment in orabase. Treatment outcome was measured by means of an appearance score, pain score (visual analogue scale), and severity of lesions before treatment and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks of treatment. Paired samples t-test and Wilcoxon test. In both methods of treatment sign score, pain score and severity of lesions was significantly reduced in all follow-up sessions (P<0.05). But the treatment outcome and relapse was not significantly different between the two treatment methods (P>0.05). Cryotherapy with nitrous oxide gas is as effective as topical triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of OLP with no systemic side effects and needs less patient compliance. It can be considered as an alternative or adjuvant therapy in OLP patients to reduce the use of treatments with adverse effects.

  19. Efficacy of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy for Barrett's esophagus after endoscopic resection of intramucosal cancer: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Arvind J; Pleskow, Douglas K; Sengupta, Neil; Kothari, Shivangi; Inamdar, Sumant; Berkowitz, Joshua; Kaul, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    Liquid nitrogen cryotherapy (LNC) allows increased depth of ablation compared with radiofrequency ablation in Barrett's esophagus (BE). Expert centers may use LNC over radiofrequency ablation to ablate Barrett's esophagus after endoscopic resection of intramucosal cancer (IMCA). The aim of our study was to (1) evaluate the safety and efficacy of LNC ablation in patients with BE and IMCA and (2) to evaluate the progression to invasive disease despite therapy. This was a multicenter, retrospective study of consecutive patients with BE who received LNC following endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of IMCA. The outcomes evaluated were complete eradication of dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia and development of invasive cancer during follow up. The follow-up period was at least 1 year from initial LNC. Twenty-seven patients were identified. The median Prague score was C3M5 (range C0M1-C14M14). After EMR+LNC, the median Prague score was C0M1 (range C0M0-C9M10); 22/27 patients (82%) achieved complete eradication of dysplasia after cryotherapy, and 19/27 patients (70%) achieved complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia. One out of 27 patients (4%) developed invasive cancer (disease beyond IMCA) over the study period. Cryotherapy is an effective endoscopic tool for eradication of BE dysplasia after EMR for IMCA. Development of invasive cancer is low for this high-risk group. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Surgical excision and immediate postoperative radiotherapy versus cryotherapy and intralesional steroids in the management of keloids: a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Emad, Maryam; Omidvari, Shapour; Dastgheib, Ladan; Mortazavi, Afshin; Ghaem, Haleh

    2010-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerability of surgical excision and radiotherapy with those of cryotherapy and intralesional steroid treatment of keloids. Twenty-six patients with a total of 76 keloids were enrolled in this study. Nineteen patients with 44 keloids underwent surgical excision combined with immediate 12-Gy irradiation (group A) while the remaining 9 patients with 32 keloids received multiple sessions of intralesional steroid treatment after cryotherapy which continued until flattening of lesion(s) occurred (group B). Two patients were included in both treatment groups. All patients were followed up at regular intervals for at least 1 year. In both treatment groups, keloids responded well without any major side effect. While patients of group A were all satisfied, those of group B (with a mean number of treatment sessions of 5.84 +/- 2.51) experienced more side effects, a more prolonged course, a higher recurrence rate and less satisfaction. This study showed that surgery plus immediate postoperative irradiation was an effective and relatively safe choice for treatment of keloids. Although cryotherapy combined with intralesional steroids was associated with more side effects and higher relapse rates, it could be a good choice for small and newly formed keloids. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Comparison of a continuous temperature-controlled cryotherapy device to a simple icing regimen following outpatient knee arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Shane K; Barfield, William R; Merrill, Keith D; McBryde, Angus M

    2008-01-01

    This prospective, randomized study compared postoperative pain control with use of a continuous temperature-controlled cryotherapy system versus a traditional ice therapy regimen following outpatient knee arthroscopy. Patients with unilateral knee pathology scheduled for outpatient arthroscopic surgery were included. Patients with major ligament reconstructions were excluded. A specific cold therapy regimen was begun postoperatively and continued for 2 weeks as adjunctive management of postoperative pain. Preoperative and postoperative pain intensity, pain type, functionality, and sleep quality were assessed. Patients were randomly assigned to either an ice or a continuous cryotherapy group. Follow-up questionnaires were completed on 5 postoperative days. Data were analyzed using a chi-square test with a level of significance at P < 0.05. Fifty-three patients completed the study. Pain intensity was similar between groups throughout the course of the study. Among patients who reported experiencing night pain, 36% of those in the continuous cryotherapy group were able to sleep soundly with minimal awakening through postoperative day 2 versus 5.9% among the ice therapy group (P = 0.04). No significant differences existed between groups regarding functional ability, and no differences were noted on other follow-up days. These findings support use of continuous temperature-controlled cold therapy devices for nighttime pain control and improved quality of life in the early period following routine knee arthroscopy.

  2. Intralesional Mycobacterium w Vaccine Versus Cryotherapy in Treatment of Refractory Extragenital Warts: A Randomized, Open-Label, Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Dhakar, Ashok K; Dogra, Sunil; Vinay, Keshavamurthy; Sarangal, Rishu; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Singh, Mini P

    2016-01-01

    Initial reports of immunotherapy using intralesional Mycobacterium w (Mw) vaccine have documented its useful role in treatment of genital and extragenital warts. To compare the efficacy and safety of intralesional Mw vaccine versus cryotherapy in the treatment of refractory extragenital warts. This was a prospective, randomized, comparative study of 66 patients. The outcome was assessed in terms of complete clearance of warts and change in Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score. Complete clearance of treated warts was seen in 66.7% (20/30) and 65.5% (19/29) of patients in the Mw and cryotherapy groups, respectively (P = .769). Clearance of distant warts was significantly (P = .004) high in the Mw group. Improvement in DLQI was greater in the Mw group. Both treatment modalities were well tolerated, and no major side effects occurred. Mw vaccine and cryotherapy are equally efficacious in treatment of refractory extragenital warts. Mw vaccine has an added advantage of clearance of distant warts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. A prospective randomized controlled trial to determine if cryotherapy can reduce the pain of patients with minor form of recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Osman Kursat; Birol, Ahu; Tuncez, Fatma; Erkek, Emel; Koc, Can

    2006-01-01

    Tissue cooling has long been used in the management of both acute and chronic pain. To determine whether the application of cryotherapy can reduce the pain of patients with minor form of recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Twenty adult patients who had 2 discrete aphthous stomatitides in the labial mucosa at the same time were included in this prospective, randomized, and placebo-controlled study. One of the 2 aphthous stomatitides was treated with cryotherapy, the other serving as a control. The pain of aphthous stomatitis was scored by the patient on a 6-point scale (from 0 to 5). The size of the aphthous stomatitis was also measured. At any interval, no statistical difference was found between the cryotherapy-treated aphthous stomatitis and the control in the change in the value of pain severity, nor was any statistical difference found in the change in the size of the aphthous stomatitis. However, a trend toward less pain in the aphthous stomatitis receiving cryotherapy was noted. These results suggest that application of cryotherapy on minor form of recurrent oral aphthous stomatitis has no beneficial analgesic effect compared to placebo.

  4. Complex rehabilitation and the clinical condition of working rheumatoid arthritis patients: does cryotherapy always overtop traditional rehabilitation?

    PubMed

    Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna; Pacholec, Anna; Jędryka-Góral, Anna; Bugajska, Joanna; Sadura-Sieklucka, Teresa; Kowalik, Katarzyna; Pawłowska-Cyprysiak, Karolina; Łastowiecka-Moras, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitation slows the progress of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and prevents progression of disability. This study aimed to compare the impact of two rehabilitation programmes on pain, disease activity, locomotor function, global health and work ability forecast in RA patients. Sixty-four employed women aged 24-65 years participated in the study. All patients underwent individual and instrumental kinesiotherapy. Thirty-two patients underwent cryogenic chamber therapy and local cryotherapy as well as non-weight-bearing, instrumental and individual kinesiotherapy. The remaining 32 patients received traditional rehabilitation in the form of electromagnetic and instrumental therapy, individual and pool-based non-weight-bearing kinesiotherapy. Rehabilitation lasted 3 weeks. Patients were examined three times: prior to rehabilitation, after 3 weeks of therapy and 3 months after completion of rehabilitation. The following study instruments were used: to assess disease activity: DAS-28; functional impairment: HAQ-DI; pain severity: VAS; patients' overall well-being: a scale from 0 to 100 (Global Health Index); and patients' own prognosis of fitness for work: the 6th question from Work Ability Index (WAI). Statistical analysis of data was performed using the STATISTICA 8.0 package. Mixed-design two-way analysis of variance was used for hypothesis testing. All patients improved after rehabilitation. The group of patients those who underwent cryotherapy had improved DAS-28, HAQ-DI, VAS and global health scores immediately following the 3-week rehabilitation programme (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.007 and p < 0.001, respectively), as well as at the 3-month follow-up (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.009 and p < 0.001, respectively). Rehabilitation using cryotherapy resulted in greater improvement in disease activity DAS-28 [F(2,105) = 5.700; p = 0.007; η(2) = 0.084] and HAQ-DI locomotor function scores [F(2,109) = 6.771; p = 0.003; η(2) = 0.098] compared to traditional

  5. Validation of a new whole-body cryotherapy chamber based on forced convection.

    PubMed

    Bouzigon, Romain; Arfaoui, Ahlem; Grappe, Frédéric; Ravier, Gilles; Jarlot, Benoit; Dugue, Benoit

    2017-04-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) and partial-body cryotherapy (PBC) are two methods of cold exposure (from -110 to -195°C according to the manufacturers). However, temperature measurement in the cold chamber during a PBC exposure revealed temperatures ranging from -25 to -50°C next to the skin of the subjects (using isolating layer placed between the sensor and the skin). This discrepancy is due to the human body heat transfer. Moreover, on the surface of the body, an air layer called the boundary layer is created during the exposure and limits heat transfer from the body to the cabin air. Incorporating forced convection in a chamber with a participant inside could reduce this boundary layer. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a new WBC technology based on forced convection (frontal unilateral wind) through the measurement of skin temperature. Fifteen individuals performed a 3-min WBC exposure at -40°C with an average wind speed of 2.3ms -1 . The subjects wore a headband, a surgical mask, underwear, gloves and slippers. The skin temperature of the participants was measured with a thermal camera just before exposure, just after exposure and at 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20min after exposure. Mean skin temperature significantly dropped by 11°C just after exposure (p<0.001) and then significantly increased during the 20-min post exposure period (p<0.001). No critically low skin temperature was observed at the end of the cold exposure. This decrease was greater than the mean decreases in all the cryosauna devices with reported exposures between -140°C and -160°C and those in two other WBC devices with reported exposures between -60°C and -110°C. The use of this new technology provides the ability to reach decreases in skin temperature similar to other technologies. The new chamber is suitable and relevant for use as a WBC device. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevention of retinal detachment in Stickler syndrome: the Cambridge prophylactic cryotherapy protocol.

    PubMed

    Fincham, Gregory S; Pasea, Laura; Carroll, Christopher; McNinch, Annie M; Poulson, Arabella V; Richards, Allan J; Scott, John D; Snead, Martin P

    2014-08-01

    The Stickler syndromes are the most common causes of inherited and childhood retinal detachment; however, no consensus exists regarding the effectiveness of prophylactic intervention. We evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the Cambridge prophylactic cryotherapy protocol, a standardized retinal prophylactic treatment developed to prevent retinal detachment arising from giant retinal tears in type 1 Stickler syndrome. Retrospective comparative case series. Four hundred eighty seven patients with type 1 Stickler syndrome. Time to retinal detachment was compared between patients who received bilateral prophylaxis and untreated controls, with and without individual patient matching. Patients receiving unilateral prophylaxis (after fellow eye retinal detachment) were similarly compared with an appropriate control subgroup. Individual patient matching ensured equal age and follow-up between groups and that an appropriate control (who had not suffered a retinal detachment before the age at which their individually matched treatment patient underwent prophylactic treatment) was selected. Matching was blinded to outcome events. Individual patient matching protocols purposely weighted bias against the effectiveness of treatment. All treatment side effects are reported. Time to retinal detachment and side effects occurring after prophylactic treatment. The bilateral control group (n = 194) had a 7.4-fold increased risk of retinal detachment compared to the bilateral prophylaxis group (n = 229) (hazard ratio [HR], 7.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.53-12.08; P<0.001); the matched bilateral control group (n = 165) had a 5.0-fold increased risk compared to the matched bilateral prophylaxis group (n = 165) (HR, 4.97; 95% CI, 2.82-8.78; P<0.001). The unilateral control group (n = 104) had a 10.3-fold increased risk of retinal detachment compared to the unilateral prophylaxis group (n = 64) (HR, 10.29; 95% CI, 4.96-21.36; P<0.001); the matched unilateral control group

  7. Cryotherapy for conjunctival primary acquired melanosis and malignant melanoma. Experience with 62 cases.

    PubMed

    Jakobiec, F A; Rini, F J; Fraunfelder, F T; Brownstein, S

    1988-08-01

    Sixty-two patients were treated by some combination of cryotherapy and surgery with an average follow-up of 3.3 years for one of the following diseases: focal or diffuse flat conjunctival primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia but without a nodule of melanoma (10 cases); unifocal malignant melanoma with or without focal or diffuse PAM (30 cases); and multinodular/multicentric melanoma with and without PAM (22 cases). Of the ten patients who had PAM with atypia, invasive nodules of malignant melanoma did not develop. A second treatment was required to control the disease in four of the ten patients with extensive or diffuse lesions, and one has mild persistent disease. Of the 30 patients with unifocal nodules of malignant melanoma, 27 remained free of recurrence after one treatment, and 2 are asymptomatic after two treatments. One patient with a thick nodule at presentation required a parotidectomy and radical neck dissection for cervical metastases after recurrence in the conjunctival sac. In the group of 22 patients with multinodular malignant melanoma, only two did not have recurrent disease after one treatment. Of those who received multiple therapies, seven remained free of recurrence for at least 2 years after the last treatment; regional or distant metastases developed in nine; four required exenteration; and eight died. Conjunctival adjunctive cryotherapy avoids exenteration in extensive lesions of pure PAM and in unifocal melanoma, but even after multiple therapies, multinodular malignant melanoma had a 45% rate of metastasis. Metastasis was related to the presence of PAM sine pigmento in four patients (microscopically but not clinically detectable PAM); to the location of the nodules (9 of 10 patients who experienced metastases had forniceal, palpebral, and/or caruncular nodules); to the thickness or depth of invasion of the nodules (greater than 2 mm); and to the development of intralymphatic spread ("in-transit" local metastasis) within the

  8. Chronic Achilles tendinopathy: a case study of treatment incorporating active and passive tissue warm-up, Graston Technique®, ART®, eccentric exercise, and cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Miners, Andrew L.; Bougie, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the subjective pain and functional improvements of a patient with chronic Achilles tendinopathy following a treatment plan incorporating active and passive tissue warm-up, followed respectively by soft tissue mobilization utilizing both Graston Technique® and Active Release Techniques®, eccentric exercise, and static stretching in combination with cryotherapy. Background The primary characterization of chronic Achilles tendinopathy is gradual onset of pain and dysfunction focused in one or both Achilles tendons arising secondary to a history of repetitive use or excessive overload. Intervention and Outcome Conservative treatment is commonly the initial strategy for patient management. Tissue heating, soft tissue mobilization, eccentric training, and static stretching with cryotherapy were implemented to reduce pain and improve function. Summary A specific protocol of heat, soft tissue mobilization, eccentric exercise, stretching, and cryotherapy appeared to facilitate a rapid and complete recovery from chronic Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:22131563

  9. Effects of lymphatic drainage and cryotherapy on indirect markers of muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Michael; Jedlicka, Diana; Mester, Joachim

    2018-06-01

    Muscle enzymes are cleared from the extracellular space by the lymphatic system, while smaller proteins enter the bloodstream directly. We investigated if manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), local cryotherapy (CRY), and rest (RST) differently affect the time course of creatine kinase (CK, 84 kDa) and heart-type fatty acid binding protein (h-FABP, 15 kDa) in the blood. Randomized controlled trial. After 4x20 unilateral, eccentric accentuated knee extensions (with one-third of the maximal isometric force) 30 sports students randomly received either a 30 min MLD, CRY or they rested (RST) for the same amount of time. CK, h-FABP, neutrophil granulocytes, and the perceived muscle soreness were assessed before, immediately after, and 1 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours after the exercise. All measures increased significantly (P<0.001) after the protocol indicating that muscle damage was induced. However, the responses did not differ between the treatments. Large and small damage markers were not affected differently by MLD, CRY, or RST, when applied for 30 min and no beneficial effects on inflammation or muscle soreness could be found for MLD and CRY when compared to RST. This information is particularly important for those sports physicians and conditioning specialists who use biochemical muscle damage markers to adjust the training load and volume of athletes.

  10. Anthropometric characteristics and sex influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hammond, L E; Cuttell, S; Nunley, P; Meyler, J

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (-60°C for 30 seconds, -110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (ΔT sk) were calculated. ΔT sk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = -3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ΔT sk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ΔT sk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols.

  11. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise: a crossover study.

    PubMed

    Fonda, B; Sarabon, N

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted of WBC everyday during the recovery period. WBC included single 3-min daily exposures to low temperatures (-140 to -19 °C) in the cryo-cabin. During the recovery period, subjects were tested for biochemical markers, perceived pain sensation, and physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal isometric torque production, and maximally explosive isometric torque production). Majority of the observed variables showed statistically significant time effects (P < 0.05) in control group, which indicates the presence of muscle damage. Significant interaction between the control and WBC condition was evident for the rate of torque development (P < 0.05). Pain measures substantially differed between the WBC and the control condition after the exercise. Results of this study are not completely supportive of the use of WBC for recovery enhancement after strenuous training. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy duration on thermal and cardio-vascular response.

    PubMed

    Fonda, Borut; De Nardi, Massimo; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-05-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is the exposure of minimally dressed participants to very cold air, either in a specially designed chamber (cryo-chamber) or cabin (cryo-cabin), for a short period of time. Practitioners are vague when it comes to recommendations on the duration of a single session. Recommended exposure for cryo-chamber is 150s, but no empirically based recommendations are available for a cryo-cabin. Therefore the aim of this study was to examine thermal and cardio-vascular responses after 90, 120, 150 and 180s of WBC in a cryo-cabin. Our hypothesis was that skin temperature would be significantly lower after longer exposers. Twelve male participants (age 23.9±4.2 years) completed four WBC of different durations (90, 120, 150 and 180s) in a cryo-cabin. Thermal response, heart rate and blood pressure were measured prior, immediately after, 5min after and 30min after the session. Skin temperature differed significantly among different durations, except between 150 and 180s. There was no significant difference in heart rate and blood pressure. Thermal discomfort during a single session displayed a linear increase throughout the whole session. Our results indicate that practitioners and clinicians using cryo-cabin for WBC do not need to perform sessions longer than 150s. We have shown that longer sessions do not substantially affect thermal and cardio-vascular response, but do increase thermal discomfort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anthropometric Characteristics and Sex Influence Magnitude of Skin Cooling following Exposure to Whole Body Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, L. E.; Cuttell, S.; Nunley, P.; Meyler, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether anthropometric measures influence magnitude of skin cooling following exposure to whole body cryotherapy (WBC). Height, weight, body fat percentage, and lean mass were measured in 18 male and 14 female participants. Body surface area, body surface area to mass ratio, body mass index, fat-free mass index, and fat mass index were calculated. Thermal images were captured before and after WBC (−60°C for 30 seconds, −110°C for 2 minutes). Skin temperature was measured at the chest, arm, thigh, and calf. Mean skin temperature before and after WBC and change in mean skin temperature (ΔT sk) were calculated. ΔT sk was significantly greater in females (12.07 ± 1.55°C) than males (10.12 ± 1.86°C; t(30) = −3.09, P = .004). A significant relationship was observed between body fat percentage and ΔT sk in the combined dataset (P = .002, r = .516) and between fat-free mass index and ΔT sk in males (P = .005, r = .622). No other significant associations were found. Skin response of individuals to WBC appears to depend upon anthropometric variables and sex, with individuals with a higher adiposity cooling more than thinner individuals. Effects of sex and anthompometrics should be considered when designing WBC research or treatment protocols. PMID:25061612

  14. A computerized tutor prototype for prostate cryotherapy: key building blocks and system evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Yoed; Shimada, Kenji; Joshi, Purva; Sehrawat, Anjali; Keelan, Robert; Wilfong, Dona M.; McCormick, James T.

    2017-02-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of a prototype for a computer-based tutoring system for prostate cryosurgery, while reviewing its key building blocks and their benchmark performance. The tutoring system lists geometrical constraints of cryoprobe placement, displays a rendered shape of the prostate, simulates cryoprobe insertion, enables distance measurements, simulates the corresponding thermal history, and evaluates the mismatch between the target region shape and a pre-selected planning isotherm. The quality of trainee planning is measured in comparison with a computergenerated plan, created for each case study by a previously developed planning algorithm, known as bubble-packing. While the tutoring level in this study aims only at geometrical constraints on cryoprobe placement and the resulting thermal history, it creates a unique opportunity to gain insight into the process outside of the operation room. System validation of the tutor has been performed by collecting training data from surgical residents, having no prior experience or advanced knowledge of cryotherapy. Furthermore, the system has been evaluated by graduate engineering students having no formal education in medicine. In terms of match between a planning isotherm and the target region shape, results demonstrate medical residents' performance improved from 4.4% in a pretest to 37.8% in a posttest over a course of 50 minutes of training (within 10% margins from a computer-optimized plan). Comparing those results with the performance of engineering students indicates similar results, suggesting that planning of the cryoprobe layout essentially revolves around geometric considerations.

  15. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy in the management of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sang-Yeol; Je, Hyun Dong; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hae-Young; Kim, Hyeong-Dong

    2013-01-01

    To compare 2 different treatment approaches, physical therapy modalities, and joint mobilization versus whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) combined with physical therapy modalities and joint mobilization, for symptoms of adhesive capsulitis (AC) of the shoulder. A randomized trial. Hospital. Patients with AC of the shoulder (N=30). Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The WBC group received physical therapy modalities, passive joint mobilization of the shoulder, and WBC, whereas the non-WBC group received only physical therapy modalities and passive joint mobilization of the shoulder. Visual analog scale (VAS), active range of motion (ROM) of flexion, abduction, internal and external rotation of the shoulder, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES) were measured before and after the intervention. A statistically significant difference between groups was found for the VAS, active ROM of flexion, abduction, internal rotation, and external rotation, and the ASES with greater improvements in the WBC group (Ps<.01). Overall, both groups showed a significant improvement in all outcome measures and ROM measures from pre to post at a level of P<.01. There is significant improvement with the addition of WBC to treatment interventions in this sample of patients. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bolivian health providers' attitudes toward alternative technologies for cervical cancer prevention: a focus on visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stormo, Analía Romina; Altamirano, Victor Conde; Pérez-Castells, Macarena; Espey, David; Padilla, Haydee; Panameño, Karen; Soria, Milton; Santos, Carlos; Saraiya, Mona; Luciani, Silvana

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about health providers' attitudes toward visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in the prevention of cervical cancer, as most research in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has examined attitudes of the general population. This study describes attitudes of Bolivian health professionals toward new technologies for cervical cancer prevention, focusing on VIA and cryotherapy. Between February 2011 and March 2012, we surveyed 7 nurses and 35 physicians who participated in 5-day workshops on VIA and cryotherapy conducted in Bolivia. Multiple choice and open-ended questions were used to assess participants' acceptability of these procedures and the feasibility of their implementation in the context of perceived barriers for the early detection of cervical cancer in this country. Most believed that cultural factors represent the main barrier for the early detection of cervical cancer (70%), although all stated that VIA and cryotherapy would be accepted by women, citing the advantages of VIA over cytology for this belief. Most also believed their colleagues would accept VIA and cryotherapy (71%) and that VIA should replace Pap testing (61%), reiterating the advantages of VIA for these beliefs. Those who believed the contrary expressed a general resistance to change associated with an already existing cytology program and national norms prioritizing Pap testing. Most participants had favorable attitudes toward VIA and cryotherapy; however, a sizable minority cited challenges to their adoption by colleagues and believed VIA should not replace cytology. This report can inform the development of strategies to expand the use of alternative cervical cancer screening methods in LAC and Bolivia.

  17. Bolivian Health Providers’ Attitudes Toward Alternative Technologies for Cervical Cancer Prevention: A Focus on Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Cryotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Stormo, Analía Romina; Altamirano, Victor Conde; Pérez-Castells, Macarena; Espey, David; Padilla, Haydee; Panameño, Karen; Soria, Milton; Santos, Carlos; Saraiya, Mona; Luciani, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about health providers’ attitudes toward visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in the prevention of cervical cancer, as most research in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has examined attitudes of the general population. This study describes attitudes of Bolivian health professionals toward new technologies for cervical cancer prevention, focusing on VIA and cryotherapy. Methods Between February 2011 and March 2012, we surveyed 7 nurses and 35 physicians who participated in 5-day workshops on VIA and cryotherapy conducted in Bolivia. Multiple choice and open-ended questions were used to assess participants’ acceptability of these procedures and the feasibility of their implementation in the context of perceived barriers for the early detection of cervical cancer in this country. Results Most believed that cultural factors represent the main barrier for the early detection of cervical cancer (70%), although all stated that VIA and cryotherapy would be accepted by women, citing the advantages of VIA over cytology for this belief. Most also believed their colleagues would accept VIA and cryotherapy (71%) and that VIA should replace Pap testing (61%), reiterating the advantages of VIA for these beliefs. Those who believed the contrary expressed a general resistance to change associated with an already existing cytology program and national norms prioritizing Pap testing. Conclusions Most participants had favorable attitudes toward VIA and cryotherapy; however, a sizable minority cited challenges to their adoption by colleagues and believed VIA should not replace cytology. This report can inform the development of strategies to expand the use of alternative cervical cancer screening methods in LAC and Bolivia. PMID:22816515

  18. Comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of double-modality therapy, phonophoresis and cryotherapy in the management of musculoskeletal injuries in adult Nigerian subjects.

    PubMed

    Onuwe, H A; Amadi, K; Odeh, S O

    2013-12-20

    This study was designed to compare the efficacy of double-modality therapy, phonophoresis and cryotherapy in the management of pain among subjects who suffered from musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs).Sixty (60) subjects were assigned randomly to one of three groups: DMT group (n=20) received cryotherapy and 15% methyl salicylate phonophoresis, PHONO group (n=20) received 15% methyl salicylate phonophoresis and CRYO group (n=20) received cryotherapy and "sham‟ phonophoresis. Ultrasound at an intensity of 1.5 W/cm² and frequency of 1MHz was used to apply methyl salicylate while intermittent cryotherapy was the mode of application. Subjects‟ pre- and post-treatment pain perception scores (PPS) using visual analogue scale (VAS) were assessed and the sessions of treatment in all groups were recorded. Treatment was administered on alternate days and discharges were made in all groups when subjects were pain free. A total of 275 treatment sessions was recorded - 72 (26.2%) in DMT, 105 (38.2%) in PHONO and 98 (35.6%) in CRYO group respectively which indicated no significant difference (P>0.05). Nineteen (19), thirteen (13) and twelve (12) subjects were pain free in DMT, CRYO or PHONO groups respectively after 1 to 5 treatments. The difference in the severity of pain was significant (P<0.05) in each group post-treatment which suggests that DMT, phonophoresis and cryotherapy were equally effective. The study has demonstrated therapeutic efficacy of DMT, but it was not superior to the single treatment protocol of phonophoresis or cryotherapy. However, it might take fewer sessions in the DMT group to treat and make more than 90% of the subjects pain free and fit to return to active performance.

  19. The effect of a cryotherapy gel wrap on the microcirculation of skin affected by chronic venous disorders.

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Mueller, Martina; Zapka, Jane G; King, Dana E

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to investigate a cryotherapy (cooling) gel wrap applied to lower leg skin affected by chronic venous disorders to determine whether therapeutic cooling improves skin microcirculation. Chronic venous disorders are under-recognized vascular health problems that result in severe skin damage and ulcerations of the lower legs. Impaired skin microcirculation contributes to venous leg ulcer development, thus new prevention therapies should address the microcirculation to prevent venous leg ulcers. Sixty participants (n = 30 per group) were randomized to receive one of two daily 30-minute interventions for four weeks. The treatment group applied the cryotherapy gel wrap around the affected lower leg skin, or compression and elevated the legs on a special pillow each evening at bedtime. The standard care group wore compression and elevated the legs only. Laboratory pre- and post-measures included microcirculation measures of skin temperature with a thermistor, blood flow with a laser Doppler flowmeter, and venous refill time with a photoplethysmograph. Data were collected between 2008 2009 and analysed using descriptive statistics, paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed ranks tests, logistic regression analyses, and mixed model analyses. Fifty-seven participants (treatment = 28; standard care = 29) completed the study. The mean age was 62 years, 70% female, 50% African American. In the final adjusted model, there was a statistically significant decrease in blood flow between the two groups (-6.2[-11.8; -0.6], P = 0.03). No statistically significant differences were noted in temperature or venous refill time. Study findings suggest that cryotherapy improves blood flow by slowing movement within the microcirculation and thus might potentially provide a therapeutic benefit to prevent leg ulcers. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. The effect of a cryotherapy gel wrap on the microcirculation of skin affected by Chronic Venous Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Martina; Zapka, Jane G.; King, Dana E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim This randomized clinical trial was conducted 2008 – 2009 to investigate a cryotherapy (cooling) gel wrap applied to lower leg skin affected by chronic venous disorders to determine whether therapeutic cooling improves skin microcirculation. Impaired skin microcirculation contributes to venous leg ulcer development, thus new prevention therapies should address the microcirculation to prevent venous leg ulcers. Data Sources Sixty participants (n = 30 per group) were randomized to receive one of two daily 30-minute interventions for four weeks. The treatment group applied the cryotherapy gel wrap around the affected lower leg skin, or compression and elevated the legs on a special pillow each evening at bedtime. The standard care group wore compression and elevated the legs only. Laboratory pre- and post-measures included microcirculation measures of skin temperature with a thermistor, blood flow with a laser Doppler flowmeter, and venous refill time with a photoplethysmograph. Review methods Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed ranks tests, logistic regression analyses, and mixed model analyses. Results Fifty-seven participants (treatment = 28; standard care = 29) completed the study. The mean age was 62 years, 70% female, 50% African American. In the final adjusted model, there was a statistically significant decrease in blood flow between the two groups (−6.2[−11.8; −0.6], P = 0.03). No statistically significant differences were noted in temperature or venous refill time. Conclusion Study findings suggest that cryotherapy improves blood flow by slowing movement within the microcirculation and thus might potentially provide a therapeutic benefit to prevent leg ulcers. PMID:21592186

  1. Safety in use of cryotherapy and topical salicylic acid with lactic acid combination in treating verruca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Alam, M; Khondker, L; Ahamed, R S

    2012-10-01

    An interventional study in the treatment of verruca vulgaris was conducted in sixty patients. This study conducted in the out-patient Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Chittagong Medical College Hospital, Chittagong, Bangladesh for duration of eight months (From January 2009 to September 2009). Thirty patients treated with cryotherapy, belonged to Group C and rest thirty patients treated with topical salicylic acid with lactic acid, belonged to Group D. The result showed that the highest side effects immediately after therapy for Group C was burning 30(100%), then irritation 29(96.7%), erythema 28(93.7%), blister formation 28(93.7%) and pain 23(76.7%). On the other hand, highest side effect for Group D is irritation 29(96.7%), then burning 22(73.3%), pain 11(36.7%), pruritus 06(20%), blister formation 04(13%) and erythema 01(3.3%). Statistical significant difference was observed between Group C & Group D patients other than irritation. At 2nd visit, erythema 26(86.7%) was evidenced for Group C, whereas in Group D, there was irritation 16(53.3%). After 3rd visit in 4th week for Group C patients, there was burning 13(43.3%) but in Group D patients, hypo-pigmentation 13(43.3%) was evidenced. On 4th visit in 6th week, hypo-pigmentation 09(30%) was seen in Group C, while in Group D, pruritus and irritation were found. Statistical significant difference was observed between Group C & Group D respondents. Both treatments were associated with side-effects but these were higher with cryotherapy. The study recommends the combination of topical salicylic acid with lactic acid is safer than cryotherapy.

  2. Intralesional cisplatin chemotherapy and topical cryotherapy for the control of choanal squamous cell carcinoma in an African penguin (Spheniscus demersus).

    PubMed

    Ferrell, Shannon T; Marlar, Annajane B; Garner, Michael; Lung, Nancy P

    2006-12-01

    A 3.5-yr-old, 2.5-kg female African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) was diagnosed with a choanal squamous cell carcinoma on the basis of biopsy after a history of choanal ulceration and anorexia with weight loss. Therapeutic modalities included the use of intralesional cisplatin followed by localized, topical cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. The penguin remained free of clinical disease for a period of 9 mo, at which time a second cryotreatment was performed. The patient has remained free of all signs of choanal carcinoma for a period of 13 mo since the second cryotreatment.

  3. Cryotherapy and Topical Minocycline as Adjunctive Measures to Control Pain After Third Molar Surgery: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Gelesko, Savannah; Long, Leann; Faulk, Jan; Phillips, Ceib; Dicus, Carolyn; White, Raymond P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of cryotherapy or topical minocycline on patients’ perceptions of recovery from pain after third molar surgery in an exploratory comparative-effectiveness study. Patients and Methods Subjects aged at least 14 years who were having all 4 third molars removed were enrolled in 3 separate institutional review board–approved studies. Study groups included subjects treated with a passively applied cold wrap for 24 hours postoperatively, subjects treated with topical minocycline during surgery, and subjects enrolled in a nonconcurrent comparison group who had received neither topical minocycline nor directed cryotherapy. Third molar surgery was performed in all cases by trained surgeons using the same protocol. An exact Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the distributions of the worst and average pain scores and a Fisher exact test to compare verbal responses from Gracely pain scales among the 3 groups for postsurgical days (PSDs) 1 to 3. Results This study comprised 51 cryotherapy subjects (2005–2009), 63 minocycline subjects (2003–2004), and 92 comparison-group subjects (2002–2006) who were treated at academic centers and in community practices across the United States (N = 206). Demographic descriptors were similar among all groups. For PSDs 1 through 3 (unadjusted), the highest scores for worst pain (6–7 [out of 7] on Likert-type scale) were reported less frequently in each of the study groups than in subjects in the comparison group, although the numbers of subjects reporting the highest scores were few. The distribution of pain outcomes was significantly different among the 3 groups for worst pain and affective words on PSD 1 (P = .04 for both). However, the small number of subjects who reported the highest pain scores precluded adequate multivariate statistical analyses for all outcomes on PSD 1 to 3. Conclusions Data from this exploratory study suggest that adjunctive therapy to decrease postoperative pain—cryotherapy

  4. One session of partial-body cryotherapy (-110 °C) improves muscle damage recovery.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Junior, J B; Bottaro, M; Vieira, A; Siqueira, A F; Vieira, C A; Durigan, J L Q; Cadore, E L; Coelho, L G M; Simões, H G; Bemben, M G

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of a single session of partial-body cryotherapy (PBC) on muscle recovery, 26 young men performed a muscle-damaging protocol that consisted of five sets of 20 drop jumps with 2-min rest intervals between sets. After the exercise, the PBC group (n = 13) was exposed to 3 min of PBC at -110 °C, and the control group (n = 13) was exposed to 3 min at 21 °C. Anterior thigh muscle thickness, isometric peak torque, and muscle soreness of knee extensors were measured pre, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h following exercise. Peak torque did not return to baseline in control group (P < 0.05), whereas the PBC group recovered peak torques 96 h post exercise (P > 0.05). Peak torque was also higher after PBC at 72 and 96 h compared with control group (P < 0.05). Muscle thickness increased after 24 h in the control group (P < 0.05) and was significantly higher compared with the PBC group at 24 and 96 h (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness returned to baseline for the PBC group at 72 h compared with 96 h for controls. These results indicate that PBC after strenuous exercise may enhance recovery from muscle damage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Recovery From Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: Cold-Water Immersion Versus Whole-Body Cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Lamblin, Julien; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; McCall, Alan; Nédélec, Mathieu; Dawson, Brian; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Ten physically active men performed single-leg hamstring eccentric exercise comprising 5 sets of 15 repetitions. Immediately postexercise, subjects were exposed in a randomized crossover design to CWI (10 min at 10°C) or WBC (3 min at -110°C) recovery. Creatine kinase concentrations, knee-flexor eccentric (60°/s) and posterior lower-limb isometric (60°) strength, single-leg and 2-leg countermovement jumps, muscle soreness, and perception of recovery were measured. The tests were performed before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise. Results showed a very likely moderate effect in favor of CWI for single-leg (effect size [ES] = 0.63; 90% confidence interval [CI] = -0.13 to 1.38) and 2-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.68; 90% CI = -0.08 to 1.43) 72 h after exercise. Soreness was moderately lower 48 h after exercise after CWI (ES = -0.68; 90% CI = -1.44 to 0.07). Perception of recovery was moderately enhanced 24 h after exercise for CWI (ES = -0.62; 90% CI = -1.38 to 0.13). Trivial and small effects of condition were found for the other outcomes. CWI was more effective than WBC in accelerating recovery kinetics for countermovement-jump performance at 72 h postexercise. CWI also demonstrated lower soreness and higher perceived recovery levels across 24-48 h postexercise.

  6. Impact of Whole Body Cryotherapy at -110 °C on Subjects with Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Missmann, M; Himsl, M; Mur, E; Ulmer, H; Marschang, P

    2016-02-01

    Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) in a cryo-chamber as a medical treatment was first established in Japan in the 1980s, later in Central Europe, and is now becoming more popular also in the United States. The exposure to extreme, non-physiological environmental conditions in a cryo-chamber at -110 °C may exceed the normal adaption capacity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of WBC on blood pressure (BP) readings in adult subjects with rheumatic disorders and normal or moderately elevated BP. A sample of 23 subjects (8 female, 15 male) which were recruited according to their pathology between the age of 35 and 69 years undergoing 21 WBC applications was divided into three groups: a group of subjects with anti-hypertensive therapy, a group of subjects with mild arterial hypertension without medical treatment, and a normotensive control-group. A total of 483 BP readings were taken immediately before and after each WBC application. The systolic and diastolic BP were recorded, and the mean arterial pressure, and the amplitude of BP were calculated. A statistically significant rise of BP after WBC was found in the whole sample and in the normotensive group. Over the course of time, no significant change of BP behavior was observed, except for normotensive subjects, who showed a wider range in their systolic BP values. Generally accepted exclusion criteria were applied, and in our sample group WBC was safe with respect to unwanted BP alterations for adult subjects under 70 years-regardless of a pre-existing untreated mild or pharmacologically treated arterial hypertension. Greater changes of BP values might infrequently occur, so an individual monitoring of subjects is necessary.

  7. Costs of cervical cancer screening and treatment using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in Ghana: the importance of scale

    PubMed Central

    Quentin, Wilm; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Legood, Rosa; Opoku, Baafuor K; Mayaud, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the incremental costs of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy at cervical cancer screening facilities in Ghana; to explore determinants of costs through modelling; and to estimate national scale-up and annual programme costs. Methods Resource-use data were collected at four out of six active VIA screening centres, and unit costs were ascertained to estimate the costs per woman of VIA and cryotherapy. Modelling and sensitivity analysis were used to explore the influence of observed differences between screening facilities on estimated costs and to calculate national costs. Results Incremental economic costs per woman screened with VIA ranged from 4.93 US$ to 14.75 US$, and costs of cryotherapy were between 47.26 US$ and 84.48 US$ at surveyed facilities. Under base case assumptions, our model estimated the costs of VIA to be 6.12 US$ per woman and those of cryotherapy to be 27.96 US$. Sensitivity analysis showed that the number of women screened per provider and treated per facility was the most important determinants of costs. National annual programme costs were estimated to be between 0.6 and 4.0 million US$ depending on assumed coverage and adopted screening strategy. Conclusion When choosing between different cervical cancer prevention strategies, the feasibility of increasing uptake to achieve economies of scale should be a major concern. PMID:21214692

  8. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of benefits and harms of cryotherapy, LEEP, and cold knife conization to treat cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Santesso, Nancy; Mustafa, Reem A; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Kehar, Rohan; Gandhi, Shreyas; Chen, Yaolong; Cheung, Adrienne; Hopkins, Jessica; Khatib, Rasha; Ma, Bin; Mustafa, Ahmad A; Lloyd, Nancy; Wu, Darong; Broutet, Nathalie; Schünemann, Holger J

    2016-03-01

    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) stage 2-3 is a premalignant lesion that can progress to cervical cancer in 10-20 years if untreated. To conduct systematic reviews of randomized and nonrandomized studies for effects of cryotherapy, loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), and cold knife conization (CKC) as treatment for CIN 2-3. Medline, Embase, and other databases were searched to February 2012 for benefits, and to July 2012 for harms. Additionally, experts were contacted. Keywords for CIN, cervical cancer, and the treatments were used. Studies of nonpregnant women 18 years or older not previously treated for CIN were included. Two investigators independently screened and collected data. Relative risks and proportions were calculated and evidence assessed using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Recurrence rate was 5.3% 12 months after cryotherapy or LEEP, and 1.4% after CKC. There seemed to be little or no differences in frequency of complications after LEEP or cryotherapy, but they occurred more often after CKC. Evidence suggests premature delivery is most common with CKC, but it also occurs after LEEP and cryotherapy. Despite a comprehensive search, there is very low quality evidence and often no evidence for important outcomes, including reproductive outcomes and complications. Studies assessing these outcomes are needed. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Five-year follow-up of survival and relapse in patients who received cryotherapy during high-dose chemotherapy for stem cell transplantation shows no safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, A; Ohrn, K; Birgegård, G

    2012-11-01

    We have previously published a randomised controlled study of the efficacy of cryotherapy in preventing acute oral mucositis after high-dose chemotherapy for stem cell transplantation. The present study is a 5-year follow-up safety study of survival in these patients. In the previously published study oral cryotherapy (cooling of the oral cavity) during high-dose chemotherapy significantly reduced mucositis grade and opiate use in the treated group. All patients were followed up for at least 5 years with regard to relapse and death rates. Baseline data, transplant complications and mucositis data were compared. Significantly more patients (25/39) who received oral cryotherapy were alive after 5 years compared to 15/39 in the control group (P= 0.025). Relapse rates were similar. The only baseline difference was a lower proportion of patients in complete remission at transplantation in the control group (6 vs. 13, P= 0.047). This 5-year follow-up study gave no support for safety concerns with cryotherapy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Costs of cervical cancer screening and treatment using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in Ghana: the importance of scale.

    PubMed

    Quentin, Wilm; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Legood, Rosa; Opoku, Baafuor K; Mayaud, Philippe

    2011-03-01

    To estimate the incremental costs of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy at cervical cancer screening facilities in Ghana; to explore determinants of costs through modelling; and to estimate national scale-up and annual programme costs. Resource-use data were collected at four out of six active VIA screening centres, and unit costs were ascertained to estimate the costs per woman of VIA and cryotherapy. Modelling and sensitivity analysis were used to explore the influence of observed differences between screening facilities on estimated costs and to calculate national costs. Incremental economic costs per woman screened with VIA ranged from 4.93 US$ to 14.75 US$, and costs of cryotherapy were between 47.26 US$ and 84.48 US$ at surveyed facilities. Under base case assumptions, our model estimated the costs of VIA to be 6.12 US$ per woman and those of cryotherapy to be 27.96 US$. Sensitivity analysis showed that the number of women screened per provider and treated per facility was the most important determinants of costs. National annual programme costs were estimated to be between 0.6 and 4.0 million US$ depending on assumed coverage and adopted screening strategy.   When choosing between different cervical cancer prevention strategies, the feasibility of increasing uptake to achieve economies of scale should be a major concern. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Effect of single-visit VIA and cryotherapy cervical cancer prevention program in Roi Et, Thailand: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Chumworathayi, Bandit; Blumenthal, Paul D; Limpaphayom, Khunying Kobchitt; Kamsa-Ard, Supot; Wongsena, Metee; Supaatakorn, Pongsatorn

    2010-02-01

    To assess the effect of introducing visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy on cervical cancer incidence rates in Roi Et province over time, between 1997 and 2006, and compare this with two nearby provinces. Data from two cancer registration units, one in Srinagarind Hospital and another in Ubon Ratchathani Cancer Center (to which all cervical cancer patients were referred from the three study provinces) were registered, extracted, combined and analyzed using a generalized estimation equation. Cervical cancer detection rates improved. These are represented by the apparent increased incidence rates in Roi Et province during the study period compared with two nearby provinces (P = 0.01), equivalent to a doubling of the previously reported age-standardized incidence ratio and three times its baseline in 2006. A single-visit approach to cervical cancer prevention in Roi Et province using visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy appeared to have an effect in revealing an increased cervical cancer incidence rate by achieving higher coverage, resulting in increased case finding.

  12. Associations of High-Dose Melphalan Pharmacokinetics and Outcomes in the Setting of a Randomized Cryotherapy Trial.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y K; Sborov, D W; Lamprecht, M; Li, J; Wang, J; Hade, E M; Gao, Y; Tackett, K; Williams, N; Benson, D M; Efebera, Y A; Rosko, A E; Devine, S M; Poi, M; Hofmeister, C C; Phelps, M A

    2017-09-01

    High-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell transplantation remains the standard of care for eligible patients with multiple myeloma, but disease response and toxicity, including severe mucositis, varies among patients. Our randomized trial investigated duration of cryotherapy (2 and 6 h) for reduction of mucositis prevalence and severity and explored factors associated with variability in pharmacokinetics and outcomes from melphalan therapy. The results demonstrate that 2-h is at least as effective as 6-h cryotherapy in decreasing severe mucositis. From a population pharmacokinetic model, we identified that fat-free mass, hematocrit, and creatinine clearance were significant covariates, as reported previously. Furthermore, we observed the rs4240803 SLC7A5 polymorphism was significantly associated with pharmacokinetic variability, and pharmacokinetics was associated with both mucositis and neutropenia. However, melphalan exposure was not associated with progression-free or overall survival in our dataset. These findings contribute to ongoing efforts to personalize melphalan dosing in transplant patients. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  13. Prophylaxis of mucosal toxicity by oral propantheline and cryotherapy in children with malignancies undergoing myeloablative chemo-radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Saisho-Hattori, Takako; Koizumi, Yoshitsugu; Minegishi, Masayoshi; Iinuma, Kazuie; Imaizumi, Masue

    2006-12-01

    Mucosal toxicity is an incapacitating complication of intensive chemo-radiotherapy for children with malignant disorders, and is physically and psychologically distressful. It is therefore important to minimize mucosal toxicity in those patients. In this report, the effects of the combined prophylaxis of oral cooling (cryotherapy) and administration of propantheline, an anticholinergic drug, were studied in patients (aged 2-16 year) with acute leukemias or solid tumors, who underwent myeloablative chemo-radiotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue from 1993 to 1997. Patients were pretreated with the combined prophylaxis (n = 12) or single prophylaxis (n = 5), or left untreated (n = 7). The combined prophylaxis significantly reduced the severe mucositis (combined, 8.3%; single, 20.0%; and untreated, 42.9%) and severe diarrhea (combined, 16.7%; single, 60.0%; and untreated, 57.1%). Moreover, the combined prophylaxis tended to shorten the periods of febrile episodes defined as temperature > 38 degrees C (combined, 3.8 days; single, 4.6 days; and untreated, 5.6 days). Therefore, the combination of propantheline and oral cryotherapy may be feasible and effective for reduction of mucosal toxicity in patients with malignancy who undergo high-dose chemotherapy.

  14. Training for cervical cancer prevention programs in low-resource settings: focus on visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, P D; Lauterbach, M; Sellors, J W; Sankaranarayanan, R

    2005-05-01

    The modern approach to cervical cancer prevention, characterized by use of cytology and multiple visits for diagnosis and treatment, has frequently proven challenging and unworkable in low-resource settings. Because of this, the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) has made it a priority to investigate and assess alternative approaches, particularly the use of visual screening methods, such as visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI), for precancer and cancer detection and the use of cryotherapy as a precancer treatment method. As a result of ACCP experience in providing training to nurses and doctors in these techniques, it is now widely agreed that training should be competency based, combining both didactic and hands-on approaches, and should be done in a clinical setting that resembles the service-delivery conditions at the program site. This article reviews ACCP experiences and perceptions about the essentials of training in visual inspection and cryotherapy and presents some lessons learned with regard to training in these techniques in low-resource settings.

  15. [Effect of cryotherapy over the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor].

    PubMed

    Toscano-Garibay, Julia Dolores; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Espitia-Pinzón, Clara; Gil-Carrasco, Félix; Flores-Estrada, José Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cryotherapy is a no invasive technique that uses intense cold to freeze and destroy cancer tissues. There are no descriptions of its effects over the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor. Experimental study in cryogenic spot were applied in the right sclera of twelve pigs for ten minutes. Other 3 pigs were used as normal controls. Animals were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 and the tissues of choriodes and retina were dissected in areas of approximately 1 cm2 surrounding cryogenic spots. Expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor were determined analyzed using polymerase chain reaction coupled to reverse-transcription. Vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly downregulated (24%, p< 0.05) seven days post-treatment meanwhile pigment epithelium-derived factor levels increased 44.8% (p< 0.05) as compared to normal controls (untreated). Both vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor levels remain the same until day 14 but returned to basal expression at day 21. This work expose the relation of cryotherapy with the expression of two factors related to angiogenesis. RESULTS showed significant changes on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor illustrating that both proteins are regulated in response to cryogenic treatment in relatively short periods (21 days).

  16. Acute effects of whole-body cryotherapy on sit-and-reach amplitude in women and men.

    PubMed

    De Nardi, Massimo; La Torre, Antonio; Benis, Roberto; Sarabon, Nejc; Fonda, Borut

    2015-12-01

    Flexibility is an intrinsic property of body tissues, which among other factors determines the range of motion (ROM). A decrease in neural activation of the muscle has been linked with greater ROM. Cryotherapy is an effective technique to reduces neural activation. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if a single session of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) affects ROM. 60 women and 60 men were divided into two groups (control and experimental). After the initial sit-and-reach test, experimental group performed a 150 s session of WBC, whereas the control group stayed in thermo-neutral environment. Immediately after, both groups performed another sit-and-reach test. A 3-way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant time×group and time × gender interaction. Experimental groups improved sit-and-reach amplitude to a greater extend than the control group. Our results support the hypothesis that ROM is increased immediately after a single session of WBC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Theoretical modeling of time-dependent skin temperature and heat losses during whole-body cryotherapy: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Polidori, G; Marreiro, A; Pron, H; Lestriez, P; Boyer, F C; Quinart, H; Tourbah, A; Taïar, R

    2016-11-01

    This article establishes the basics of a theoretical model for the constitutive law that describes the skin temperature and thermolysis heat losses undergone by a subject during a session of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). This study focuses on the few minutes during which the human body is subjected to a thermal shock. The relationship between skin temperature and thermolysis heat losses during this period is still unknown and have not yet been studied in the context of the whole human body. The analytical approach here is based on the hypothesis that the skin thermal shock during a WBC session can be thermally modelled by the sum of both radiative and free convective heat transfer functions. The validation of this scientific approach and the derivation of temporal evolution thermal laws, both on skin temperature and dissipated thermal power during the thermal shock open many avenues of large scale studies with the aim of proposing individualized cryotherapy protocols as well as protocols intended for target populations. Furthermore, this study shows quantitatively the substantial imbalance between human metabolism and thermolysis during WBC, the explanation of which remains an open question. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined excision, cryotherapy, and intraoperative mitomycin C (EXCRIM) for localized intraepithelial and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Sarici, Ahmet M; Arvas, Sema; Pazarli, Halit

    2013-09-01

    To report the results of patients undergoing combined excision, cryotherapy, and intraoperative mitomycin-C (EXCRIM) for primary ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) METHODS: A retrospective review of a non-comparative interventional case series. Histopathologically confirmed primary localized (less than four clock hours) OSSN treated with EXCRIM using adjuvant 0.02 % mitomycin-C (MMC) were included in the study. The main outcome measures were recurrence and complications related to MMC. The study enrolled 28 eyes of 28 patients with OSSN with a median age of 64.5 (range 43 to 84) years. The mean tumor size was 6.9 × 4.35 mm. There was corneal involvement in 23 of 28 (82 %). Seven patients (21 %) had delayed epithelial healing. Two of eight patients (25 %) with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) had positive lateral margins. There were no recurrences over a mean follow-up of 49 months (range 24 to 96). The excision of OSSN combined with cryotherapy and intraoperative MMC is effective with a low recurrence rate. Long-term follow-up yielded favorable results.

  19. Cryotherapy for primary treatment of prostate cancer: intermediate term results of a prospective study from a single institution.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, S Alvarez; Arias Fúnez, F; Bueno Bravo, C; Rodríguez-Patrón Rodríguez, R; Sanz Mayayo, E; Palacios, V Hevia; Burgos Revilla, F J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Published data about cryotherapy for prostate cancer (PC) treatment are based on case series with a lack of clinical trials and the inexistence of a validated definition of biochemical failure. A prospective study with standardized followup protocol was conducted in our institution. Material and Methods. Prospective study of a series of cases including 108 patients diagnosed with localized PC at clinical stage T1c-T2c treated by primary cryoablation and median followup of 61 months. Criteria of biochemical recurrence were unified according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO). End points were biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS), cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. Rate of complications was reported. Results. The BPFS for low-, medium-, and high-risk patients was 96.4%, 91.2%, and 62.2%, respectively. Cancer-specific survival was 98.1%. Overall survival reached 94.4%. Complications included incontinence in 5.6%, urinary tract obstruction in 1.9%, urethral sloughing in 5.6%, haematuria in 1.9%, perineal pain in 11.1%, and prostatorectal fistula in 0.9%. Erectile disfunction was found in 98.1%. Conclusions. Cryotherapy is an effective and minimally invasive treatment for primary PC in well-selected cases, with low surgical risk and good results in terms of BPFS, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival.

  20. Cryotherapy for Primary Treatment of Prostate Cancer: Intermediate Term Results of a Prospective Study from a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, S. Alvarez; Arias Fúnez, F.; Bueno Bravo, C.; Rodríguez-Patrón Rodríguez, R.; Sanz Mayayo, E.; Palacios, V. Hevia; Burgos Revilla, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Published data about cryotherapy for prostate cancer (PC) treatment are based on case series with a lack of clinical trials and the inexistence of a validated definition of biochemical failure. A prospective study with standardized followup protocol was conducted in our institution. Material and Methods. Prospective study of a series of cases including 108 patients diagnosed with localized PC at clinical stage T1c-T2c treated by primary cryoablation and median followup of 61 months. Criteria of biochemical recurrence were unified according to the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO). End points were biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS), cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. Rate of complications was reported. Results. The BPFS for low-, medium-, and high-risk patients was 96.4%, 91.2%, and 62.2%, respectively. Cancer-specific survival was 98.1%. Overall survival reached 94.4%. Complications included incontinence in 5.6%, urinary tract obstruction in 1.9%, urethral sloughing in 5.6%, haematuria in 1.9%, perineal pain in 11.1%, and prostatorectal fistula in 0.9%. Erectile disfunction was found in 98.1%. Conclusions. Cryotherapy is an effective and minimally invasive treatment for primary PC in well-selected cases, with low surgical risk and good results in terms of BPFS, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival. PMID:24693437

  1. Cryotherapy of the nephrostomy tract: a novel technique to decrease the risk of hemorrhage after tubeless percutaneous renal surgery.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Zeph; Andonian, Sero; Srinivasan, Arun; Shapiro, Edan; Vanderbrink, Brian A; Kavoussi, Louis R; Smith, Arthur D

    2009-03-01

    Delayed hemorrhage and significant postoperative pain are associated with complex percutaneous renal surgery. Cryoablation of the percutaneous nephrostomy tract after endoscopic procedures is a potential means of preventing delayed renal hemorrhage. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of this technique by comparing a group of patients who underwent this approach with another group who had nephrostomy tube insertion after percutaneous renal surgery. Sixty patients with complex renal calculi or ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction underwent percutaneous endoscopic management of their disease. At the conclusion of the procedure, 30 consecutive patients underwent a single 10-minute freeze-thaw cycle, in which a cryoprobe traversed the nephrostomy tract. These 30 patients were compared with the preceding 30 patients who had a nephrostomy tube inserted after complex percutaneous renal surgery. The two groups were well matched in terms of age, body mass index, total stone burden, number of patients with full staghorn calculi, and number of patients with concomitant UPJ obstruction. The cryotherapy group had a significantly shorter hospital stay (2.1 v 3.6 days, P < 0.001); decreased rates of delayed bleeding episodes (3% v 13%, P < 0.001), and urinary leak (0% v 10%, P < 0.001). Cryotherapy of the nephrostomy is a novel means of decreasing the risk of delayed postoperative hemorrhage after complex percutaneous renal surgery. It is associated with significantly decreased length of hospitalization postoperatively, as well as decreased risk of urine leakage compared with nephrostomy tubes in these groups of patients.

  2. Benefit of a combined treatment of cryotherapy and chemotherapy on tumour growth and late cryo-induced angiogenesis in a non-small-cell lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Forest, Valérie; Peoc'h, Michel; Campos, Lydia; Guyotat, Denis; Vergnon, Jean-Michel

    2006-10-01

    In the treatment of lung cancers, a local cryotherapy can be proposed as a palliative option for bronchial clearance. But this therapy can also be used as an adjuvant treatment, for instance in association with chemotherapy. We have already demonstrated differential biological effects of these therapies and the benefit to combine them. The aim of this study was to determine if this benefit observed at a molecular level was correlated with tumour growth. As vascular changes occur after cryotherapy, intratumoral angiogenesis was also studied. Cells from the A549 cell line were inoculated into SCID mice. Tumours were treated by cryotherapy (nitrous oxide cryoprobe), chemotherapy (injection of Vinorelbine) or both. Tumour growth was studied in each group and the T/C ratios were compared. Tumours treated by cryochemotherapy presented a significantly reduced volume and the lower T/C ratio, confirming the benefit of a combined treatment. Angiogenesis was assessed at variable time points after cryotherapy by immunohistochemical staining of VEGF and western blot analysis. A late cryo-induced angiogenesis was observed 8-15 days after treatment (expression of VEGF increased from 13% in untreated tumours to 77 and 70%, respectively). To determine if this hypervascularization could enhance the efficiency of chemotherapy, the drug was injected 15 days after cryotherapy and the induction of cell death was investigated (morphological study, immunohistochemical staining of cleaved caspase-3, TUNEL). Necrosis was increased but not apoptosis, suggesting that though a crucial parameter, intratumoral microvessel density is not the only factor to consider to reach an optimal efficiency of a combined treatment.

  3. Impact of visual inspection with acetic acid plus cryotherapy "see and treat" approach on the reduction of the population burden of cervical preinvasive lesions in Southeast Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chigbu, C O; Onyebuchi, A K; Nnakenyi, E F; Egbuji, C C

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the impact of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) plus immediate cryotherapy on the prevalence of VIA-detected cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL). Women in four rural communities in Southeast Nigeria were screened with VIA. Women who tested positive to VIA were offered either immediate cryotherapy or large loop excision of the transformation zone based on predetermined eligibility criteria. Cervical biopsies were taken before cryotherapy and examined by consultant histopathologists. All participants were rescreened 1 year later. The main outcome measures were population prevalence of cervical precancers before and after intervention, cure rates, and over-treatment rates. A total of 653 women participated in the study. The prevalence of cervical SIL before the intervention was 8.9% (58/653). The prevalence 1 year later was 1.4% (9/649). This gave an 84.3% reduction in the population prevalence of SIL. The reduction in cervical SIL prevalence was statistically significant (P = 0.0001). The prevalence of high-grade SIL reduced significantly from 4.1% (27/653) preintervention to 0.5% (3/649) 1 year postintervention (P = 0.0001). This gave an 87.8% reduction in the population prevalence of high-grade SIL. Cryotherapy provided a cure rate of 87.9% (95% confidence interval: 76.82-94.33). Population cervical cancer prevention using VIA plus immediate cryotherapy leads to significant reduction in the population prevalence of cervical SIL. This has the potential of being an acceptable supplement to cervical cytology for cervical cancer prevention in low-income populations.

  4. Efficacy of oral cryotherapy on oral mucositis prevention in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Gu, Zhenyang; Zhai, Ruiren; Zhao, Shasha; Luo, Lan; Li, Dandan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Wei, Huaping; Pang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Lili; Liu, Daihong; Wang, Quanshun; Gao, Chunji

    2015-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether oral cryotherapy can prevent oral mucositis (OM) in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of oral cryotherapy for OM prevention in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing HSCT. PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched through October 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of oral cryotherapy with no treatment or with other interventions for OM in patients undergoing HSCT were included. The primary outcomes were the incidence, severity, and duration of OM. The secondary outcomes included length of analgesic use, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) use, and length of hospital stay. Seven RCTs involving eight articles analyzing 458 patients were included. Oral cryotherapy significantly decreased the incidence of severe OM (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.99) and OM severity (SMD = -2.07, 95% CI = -3.90 to -0.25). In addition, the duration of TPN use and the length of hospitalization were markedly reduced (SMD = -0.56, 95% CI = -0.92 to -0.19; SMD = -0.44, 95% CI = -0.76 to -0.13; respectively). However, the pooled results were uncertain for the duration of OM and analgesic use (SMD = -0.13, 95% CI = -0.41 to 0.15; SMD = -1.15, 95% CI = -2.57 to 0.27; respectively). Oral cryotherapy is a readily applicable and cost-effective prophylaxis for OM in patients undergoing HSCT.

  5. Efficacy of Oral Cryotherapy on Oral Mucositis Prevention in Patients with Hematological Malignancies Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Ruiren; Zhao, Shasha; Luo, Lan; Li, Dandan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Wei, Huaping; Pang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Lili; Liu, Daihong; Wang, Quanshun; Gao, Chunji

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Controversy exists regarding whether oral cryotherapy can prevent oral mucositis (OM) in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of oral cryotherapy for OM prevention in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing HSCT. Methods PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched through October 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effect of oral cryotherapy with no treatment or with other interventions for OM in patients undergoing HSCT were included. The primary outcomes were the incidence, severity, and duration of OM. The secondary outcomes included length of analgesic use, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) use, and length of hospital stay. Results Seven RCTs involving eight articles analyzing 458 patients were included. Oral cryotherapy significantly decreased the incidence of severe OM (RR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.99) and OM severity (SMD = -2.07, 95% CI = -3.90 to -0.25). In addition, the duration of TPN use and the length of hospitalization were markedly reduced (SMD = -0.56, 95% CI = -0.92 to -0.19; SMD = -0.44, 95% CI = -0.76 to -0.13; respectively). However, the pooled results were uncertain for the duration of OM and analgesic use (SMD = -0.13, 95% CI = -0.41 to 0.15; SMD = -1.15, 95% CI = -2.57 to 0.27; respectively). Conclusions Oral cryotherapy is a readily applicable and cost-effective prophylaxis for OM in patients undergoing HSCT. PMID:26024220

  6. Efficacy of cryotherapy plus topical Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb cream versus cryotherapy plus placebo in the treatment of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis: A triple-blind randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Parvizi, Mohammad Mahdi; Moein, Mahmoodreza; Hatam, Gholamreza; Nimrouzi, Majid; Hassanzadeh, Jafar; Hamidizadeh, Nasrin; Khorrami, Hamid Reza; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the highly prevalent endemic diseases in the Middle East and North Africa. Many treatment modalities have been recommended for this condition but success rates remain limited. Herbal remedies have also been used for treatment but evidence-based clinical trials with these products are sparse. In-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown the anti-leishmanial and curative effects of extract of fruits and leaves of Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of topical J. excelsa M. Bieb extract as an adjuvant to cryotherapy for the treatment of human CL. Materials and methods This study was designed as a two-arm triple-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial using a parallel design. Seventy-two patients with clinical diagnosis of CL confirmed by leishmania smears were allocated to receive either a topical formulation of leaf of J. excelsa extract (group A) or placebo (group B) for 3 months. Both groups received cryotherapy as baseline standard treatment. Patients were evaluated before and weekly after the intervention was initiated until complete cure. Results Overall, 82% of patients in group A, experienced complete cure and 9% of them had partial cure. On the other hand, 34% in group B reported complete cure, while 14% of them had partial cure at the end of treatment protocol with a significant difference between the two groups (P< 0.001). The mean duration to healing of the lesions in patients who received J. excelsa extract was statistically significantly shorter than the placebo group (p = 0.04). No significant side effect was seen in the J. excelsa extract group except for mild to moderate local irritation after a few weeks in a few numbers of patients. Conclusion The results of this study showed that topical J. excelsa extract can be used as an adjuvant treatment modality in addition to cryotherapy for accelerating the time to cure in addition to increasing the complete

  7. Recruitment strategy effectiveness for a cryotherapy intervention for a venous leg ulcer prevention study.

    PubMed

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Watts, Ashlee; Wiseman, Jan

    2010-01-01

    To describe the strategies and costs associated with recruiting African American and white adults into a randomized controlled pilot trial. "Cryotherapy for Venous Disorders: A Pilot Study" is a randomized controlled trial designed to determine the effects of a cool gel wrap and leg elevation intervention versus a leg elevation alone intervention on skin temperature, skin microcirculation, quality of life, and pain in adults with stages 4 and 5 chronic venous disorders. We sought to recruit 60 participants (21 African Americans, 37 whites, and 2 Hispanic or Latino) to complete the study. These enrollment targets reflect the demographic distribution of the community in which the study was conducted (33% African American, 66% white, and 2% Latino). Proactive and reactive recruitment strategies were implemented to recruit subjects. Seventy-three individuals (9 African American men, 29 African American women, 11 white men, 22 white women, 1 Asian woman, and 1 Hispanic woman) were screened, and of those, 67 were randomized (9 African American men, 25 African American women, 9 white men, 22 white women, 1 Asian woman, and 1 Hispanic women). Fifty-eight completed the study, yielding an overall 11% attrition rate. An additional 8 subjects canceled or did not show up for a first appointment. Reactive recruitment strategies were most successful for recruiting men, women, African American, and white participants. The 3 most successful reactive strategies were referrals from providers/clinics (34%), flyers posted in the hospital elevators (22%), and targeted mailings from a business (16%). Of the healthcare provider referrals (19), wound care nurses referred 12 completed participants. The amount budgeted for advertisement was $5,000 (2% of the total grant award). The amount spent on recruitment including labor was $5,978, which averaged $103 per participant who completed the study (N = 58). Reactive strategies per participant completer proved more cost-efficient than proactive

  8. The magnitude of tissue cooling during cryotherapy with varied types of compression.

    PubMed

    Tomchuk, David; Rubley, Mack D; Holcomb, William R; Guadagnoli, Mark; Tarno, Jason M

    2010-01-01

    Certified athletic trainers can choose different types of external compression (none, Flex-i-Wrap, and elastic wrap) when applying an ice bag to the body. However, which type facilitates the greatest magnitude of tissue cooling is unclear. To compare the effects of 2 common types of external compression on the magnitude of surface and intramuscular cooling during an ice-bag treatment. Randomized controlled trial. University research laboratory. Fourteen college students (10 women, 4 men; age = 22.4 +/- 1.8 years, height = 169.1 +/- 8.2 cm, mass = 73.3 +/- 18.5 kg, skinfold = 13.14 +/- 1.61 mm) with previous cryotherapy experience and a posterior lower leg skinfold equal to or less than 15 mm. On 3 different days separated by 24 to 48 hours, an ice bag was applied to the posterior lower leg surface of each participant for 30 minutes with no compression, with elastic wrap, or with Flex-i-Wrap. Posterior lower leg surface and intramuscular (2 cm) temperatures were recorded for 95 minutes. At 15 minutes, the elastic wrap produced greater surface temperature reduction than no compression (P = .03); this difference remained throughout the protocol (P range, .03 to .04). At 30 minutes, surface temperatures were 14.95 degrees C, 11.55 degrees C, and 9.49 degrees C when an ice bag was applied with no external compression, Flex-i-Wrap, and elastic wrap, respectively. Surface temperatures between Flex-i-Wrap and elastic wrap and between Flex-i-Wrap and no compression were never different. At 10 minutes, Flex-i-Wrap (P = .006) and elastic wrap (P < .001) produced greater intramuscular temperature reduction than no compression produced; these differences remained throughout the protocol. At 10 minutes, no compression, Flex-i-Wrap, and elastic wrap decreased intramuscular temperature by 1.34 degrees C, 2.46 degrees C, and 2.73 degrees C, respectively. At 25 minutes, elastic wrap (8.03 degrees C) produced greater temperature reduction than Flex-i-Wrap (6.65 degrees C) (P = .03

  9. Ankle Joint Angle and Lower Leg Musculotendinous Unit Responses to Cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Akehi, Kazuma; Long, Blaine C; Warren, Aric J; Goad, Carla L

    2016-09-01

    Akehi, K, Long, BC, Warren, AJ, and Goad, CL. Ankle joint angle and lower leg musculotendinous unit responses to cryotherapy. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2482-2492, 2016-The use of cold application has been debated for its influence on joint range of motion (ROM) and stiffness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 30-minute ice bag application to the plantarflexor muscles or ankle influences passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM and lower leg musculotendinous stiffness (MTS). Thirty-five recreationally active college-aged individuals with no history of lower leg injury 6 months before data collection volunteered. On each testing day, we measured maximum passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM (°) and plantarflexor torque (N·m) on an isokinetic dynamometer to calculate the passive plantarflexor MTS (N·m per degree) at 4 joint angles before, during, and after a treatment. Surface electromyography amplitudes (μV), and skin surface and ambient air temperature (°C) were also measured. Subjects received an ice bag to the posterior lower leg, ankle joint, or nothing for 30 minutes in different days. Ice bag application to the lower leg and ankle did not influence passive ROM (F(12,396) = 0.67, p = 0.78). Passive torque increased after ice bag application to the lower leg (F(12,396) = 2.21, p = 0.011). Passive MTS at the initial joint angle increased after ice bag application to the lower leg (F(12,396) = 2.14, p = 0.014) but not at the other joint angles (p > 0.05). Surface electromyography amplitudes for gastrocnemius and soleus muscles increased after ice application to the lower leg (F(2,66) = 5.61, p = 0.006; F(12,396) = 3.60, p < 0.001). Ice bag application to the lower leg and ankle joint does not alter passive dorsiflexion ROM but increases passive ankle plantarflexor torque in addition to passive ankle plantarflexor MTS at the initial joint angle.

  10. Cold Water Mediates Greater Reductions in Limb Blood Flow than Whole Body Cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Chris; Low, David A; Jones, Helen; Green, Daniel J; Costello, Joseph T; Gregson, Warren

    2017-06-01

    Cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole body cryotherapy (WBC) are widely used recovery methods in an attempt to limit exercise-induced muscle damage, soreness, and functional deficits after strenuous exercise. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of ecologically valid CWI and WBC protocols on postexercise lower limb thermoregulatory, femoral artery, and cutaneous blood flow responses. Ten males completed a continuous cycle exercise protocol at 70% maximal oxygen uptake until a rectal temperature of 38°C was attained. Participants were then exposed to lower-body CWI (8°C) for 10 min, or WBC (-110°C) for 2 min, in a randomized crossover design. Rectal and thigh skin, deep, and superficial muscle temperatures, thigh, and calf skin blood flow (laser Doppler flowmetry), superficial femoral artery blood flow (duplex ultrasound), and arterial blood pressure were measured before, and for 40 min post, cooling interventions. Greater reductions in thigh skin (CWI, -5.9°C ± 1.8°C; WBC, 0.2°C ± 0.5°C; P < 0.001) and superficial (CWI, -4.4°C ± 1.3°C; WBC, -1.8°C ± 1.1°C; P < 0.001) and deep (CWI, -2.9°C ± 0.8°C; WBC, -1.3°C ± 0.6°C; P < 0.001) muscle temperatures occurred immediately after CWI. Decreases in femoral artery conductance were greater after CWI (CWI, -84% ± 11%; WBC, -59% ± 21%, P < 0.02) and thigh (CWI, -80% ± 5%; WBC, -59% ± 14%, P < 0.001), and calf (CWI, -73% ± 13%; WBC, -45% ± 17%, P < 0.001) cutaneous vasoconstriction was greater after CWI. Reductions in rectal temperature were similar between conditions after cooling (CWI, -0.6°C ± 0.4°C; WBC, -0.6°C ± 0.3°C; P = 0.98). Greater reductions in blood flow and tissue temperature were observed after CWI in comparison with WBC. These novel findings have practical and clinical implications for the use of cooling in the recovery from exercise and injury.

  11. The Application of Liquid Nitrogen Spray Cryotherapy in Treatment of Bronchial Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Janke, Kelly J; Abbas, Abbas El-Sayed; Ambur, Vishnu; Yu, Daohai

    Spray cryotherapy (SCT), the application of liquid nitrogen in a noncontact form, has been demonstrated to have efficacy in treating various types of pathologic lesions of the airway when used as an adjunct with bronchoscopy. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the results of the use of bronchoscopic SCT on the airway in a single institution. We performed a retrospective review of data collected on all patients who underwent SCT to re-establish or improve airway patency in an 11-month period. Patients were classified based on the nature of their disease into benign or malignant. Demographic data, change in luminal patency, and clinical outcomes were recorded. The percent of stenosis was divided into grades according to the following classification: 1, ≤25%; 2, 26% to 50%; 3, 51% to 75%; and 4, ≥76%. We defined successful completion of treatment as obtaining a final patency of grade 1. Twenty-two patients met inclusion criteria, with 45.5% (10 patients) having benign stenosis and 54.5% (12 patients) malignant. At initial bronchoscopic evaluation, the median grade of stenosis was 4 for malignant disease and 3.5 for benign disease. The median final posttreatment grade of stenosis was 2 for malignant disease and 1 for benign. The median improvement in grade of stenosis after treatment was 2 for both malignant and benign causes (Wilcoxon test, P = 0.92). Final patency of grade 1 was achieved in 42% of malignant stenosis and 80% of benign. Overall, 86.4% of patients had an improvement in grade of stenosis after treatment. The rate of morbidity was 4.5% (1/22) of all patients. The median change in grade after treatment was 2 grades of improvement for both the benign and malignant groups. These results provide evidence that the use of SCT is equally efficacious for both types of stenosis with an expectation of overall improvement in luminal patency, offering a safe and effective method of achieving airway patency in a minimally invasive fashion. This study

  12. [Salvage cryotherapy of prostate cancer after failed external radiotherapy and brachytherapy: Morbidity and mid-term oncological results].

    PubMed

    Gevorgyan, A; Hétet, J-F; Robert, M; Duchattelle-Dussaule, V; Corno, L; Boulay, I; Baumert, H

    2018-04-01

    To study the oncologic and functional results of salvage cryotherapy after failure of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Patients treated by total salvage cryotherapy (3rd generation) in 2 centers (Groupe Hospitalier Saint-Joseph in Paris and Clinique Jule-Verne Nantes) in between January 2008 and April 2016 were included. The biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) was calculated using the Phoenix criteria (PSA>nadir+2ng/mL). The functional results were assessed clinically. Ninety-seven patients with an average follow up of 39.4months were evaluated retrospectively. The 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival (5y-BRFS) among all patients was 58.1% (IC à 95% [45.9-68.5]). Low and intermediate risk patients (d'Amico classification) were less prone to biochemical recurrence than high risk (81.05% (IC à 95% [64.1-90.5]) 5y-BRFS as opposed to 35.09% (IC à 95% [20.1-50.4]) respectively) (P<0.0001). As were patients with a Gleason score≤7 75.35% (IC à 95% [59.7-85.6]) compared to 32.31% (IC à 95% [16.5-49.2]) for higher Gleason (>7 scores [P=0.0002]). A Gleason score>7 (OR=6.9; P=0.002), PSA nadir>1ng/mL (OR=25.8; P=0.0026) and peri-urethral invasion (OR=35.8; P<0.001) were major risk factors for local recurrence in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, only PSA nadir>1ng/mL (OR=12.9; P=0.042) and peri-urethral invasion (OR=21.6; P=0.0003) remain major risk factors for recurrence. About 13 (16.46%) patients were incontinent of which 3 (3.79%) required placement of an artificial urinary sphincter. Erectile dysfunction was present in 66 (83.5%) patients. Recto-urethral fistula was uncommon in 1 patient (1.27%). Salvage cryotherapy after failure of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy is a reliable and reproducible technique with promising oncological and functional results. Study of prognostic factors will help better select eligible patients in the future. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Focal cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer: a report from the national Cryo On-Line Database (COLD) Registry.

    PubMed

    Ward, John F; Jones, J Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Study Type - Therapy (cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Selective destruction of targeted prostate tissue is now technically feasible. Much has been theorized but little is known about the proper patient selection or treatment outcomes to determine if this organ preserving approach to prostate cancer has merit for further study and diffusion into wider practice. Herein we present the largest retrospective registry report of men treated with sub-total prostate cryotherapy in order to begin to understand how this treatment is being applied despite the paucity of data. •  To identify recent trends in focal cryotherapy from a prospectively maintained treatment registry. •  To describe treatment outcomes after uncontrolled application of focally ablative techniques within community practice. •  We conducted an analysis of the COLD Registry to identify patients treated with partial gland prostate cryoablation between 1997 and 2007. •  Preoperative characteristics and postoperative cancer-specific and functional outcomes were assembled for analysis. •  The COLD Registry contained information for 5853 patients and focal cryotherapy was the codified procedure in 1160 patients (19.8%). •  A dramatic increase in focal treatments was observed, from 46 in 1999 to 567 in 2005 (P < 0.01). •  The biochemical recurrence-free rate (ASTRO definition) at 36 months was 75.7%. •  Prostate biopsy, performed in 164/1160 of patients (14.1%), was positive in 43 (26.3%) of those suspected of cancer recurrence, but in only 3.7% (43/1160) of treated patients. •  Urinary continence (defined as use of 0 pads) was 98.4%. Maintenance of spontaneous erections was 58.1%. Prolonged urinary retention (>30 days) occurred in six (1.1%) patients. Rectourethral fistula was observed in one (0.1%) patient. •  Focal cryoablation is increasingly used for selected patients with prostate cancer. •  Oncological

  14. Knee temperatures measured in vivo after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction followed by cryotherapy with gel-packs or computer controlled heat extraction.

    PubMed

    Rashkovska, Aleksandra; Trobec, Roman; Avbelj, Viktor; Veselko, Matjaž

    2014-09-01

    To obtain in vivo data about intra- and extra-articular knee temperatures to assess the effectiveness of two cryotherapeutic methods-conventional cooling with gel-packs and computer controlled cryotherapy following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Twenty patients were arbitrarily assigned for cryotherapy after ACL reconstruction: 8 patients with frozen gel-packs and 12 patients with computer controlled cryotherapy with constant temperatures of the cooling liquid in the knee pads. The treatment was performed for 12 h. Temperatures were measured with two thermo sensors in catheters placed intraarticularly and subcutaneously, four sensors on the skin and one sensor under protective bandage, every second for 16 h after surgery. In the first 2 h of treatment, there were no significant differences (n.s.) between the groups in temperatures in the intracondylar notch. After 4 h of cryotherapy, the temperatures were significantly lower on the skin (24.6 ± 2.8 and 31.4 ± 1.3 °C, p < 0.01) and in the subcutaneous tissue (28.6 ± 5.7 and 34.6 ± 1.4 °C, p = 0.01), and the difference between the temperature in the intracondylar notch and the subcutaneous tissue was significantly greater (4.0 ± 3.0 and 0.8 ± 0.6 °C, p = 0.01) in the computer controlled cryotherapy group compared to the gel-pack group. The cooling effect of the arthroscopy irrigation fluid on the knee temperature is evident in the first 2 h of treatment. The energy extraction is significantly more effective and controllable by computer controlled cryotherapy than with frozen gel-packs. Prospective comparative study, Level II.

  15. Tracheal Papilloma Treated with Cryotherapy and Interferon-α: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Fatma; Türk, Murat; Demircan, Sedat; Akyürek, Nalan; Yurdakul, Ahmet Selim

    2015-01-01

    Tracheal papilloma (TP) is characterized by papillomatous growth of the bronchial epithelium that involves the trachea as a response to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection. A 40-year-old male, with 3-month history of progressive dyspnea was admitted to our hospital, and there were no any other respiratory symptoms. Physical examination was unremarkable. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed that there was a papillomatous mass at the distal trachea. The lesion occupied 80% of tracheal lumen. This patient received cryotherapy and mechanical debridement under general anesthesia and postoperative pathology showed endotracheal papillomatosis. Patient was treated with interferon-α (IFN-α) and he showed no recurrence at the 8th month of his therapy. PMID:25789192

  16. Cryotherapy in the management of trigeminal neuralgia: a review of the literature and report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Poon, C Y

    2000-12-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a unique neuropathic syndrome confined to the trigeminal system with no analog in the somatic dermatomes or the other cranial nerves. Medical treatment remains the first line of treatment with carbamezapine as the drug of choice. Surgery, central or peripheral is indicated when medical treatment fails or its side effects diminishes quality of life. No surgery offers a permanent cure. Recurrence rates are highest in the most peripheral techniques but these also have the lowest morbidity. Cryotherapy produces a reliable, prolonged and reversible nerve block with no aggravation of symptoms. It is a simple and repeatable procedure in patients who want to avoid major surgery or where it is contra-indicated.

  17. Intralesional cryotherapy versus excision and corticosteroids or brachytherapy for keloid treatment: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Keloids are a burden for patients due to physical, aesthetic and social complaints and treatment remains a challenge because of therapy resistance and high recurrence rates. The main goal of treatment is to improve the quality of life (QoL); this implies that, apart from surgical outcomes, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) need to be taken into account. Decision making in keloid treatment is difficult due to heterogeneity of the condition and the lack of comparative studies. Methods/Design This is a multicentre, randomised controlled open trial that compares 1) intralesional cryotherapy versus excision and corticosteroids for primary keloids, and 2) intralesional cryotherapy versus excision and brachytherapy for therapy-resistant keloids. The primary outcome is the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS), a 12-item scale (with score 12 indicating the best and 120 indicating the worst scar imaginable). A difference of six points on the total score is considered to be of clinical importance. Secondary outcomes are recurrence rates, volume reduction, Skindex-29 scores, SF-36 scores and complication rates. Primary and secondary outcome measurements are taken at baseline, and at 2, 12, 26 and 52 weeks postoperatively. For analysis, a linear mixed model is used. A total of 176 patients will be included over a period of 2.5 years. The protocol is approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the Erasmus University Medical Centre Rotterdam and follows good clinical practice guidelines. Discussion The outcomes of this study will improve evidence-based decision making for the treatment of keloids, as well as patient education. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR4151. PMID:24354714

  18. Comparison of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation and Cryotherapy for Increasing Quadriceps Activation in Patients With Knee Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Conrad M; Lepley, Adam S; Uhl, Tim L; Mattacola, Carl G

    2016-08-01

    Proper neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle is essential for maintaining quadriceps (quad) strength and lower-extremity function. Quad activation (QA) failure is a common characteristic observed in patients with knee pathologies, defined as an inability to voluntarily activate the entire alpha-motor-neuron pool innervating the quad. One of the more popular techniques used to assess QA is the superimposed burst (SIB) technique, a force-based technique that uses a supramaximal, percutaneous electrical stimulation to activate all of the motor units in the quad during a maximal, voluntary isometric contraction. Central activation ratio (CAR) is the formula used to calculate QA level (CAR = voluntary force/SIB force) with the SIB technique. People who can voluntarily activate 95% or more (CAR = 0.95-1.0) of their motor units are defined as being fully activated. Therapeutic exercises aimed at improving quad strength in patients with knee pathologies are limited in their effectiveness due to a failure to fully activate the muscle. Within the past decade, several disinhibitory interventions have been introduced to treat QA failure in patients with knee pathologies. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and cryotherapy are sensory-targeted modalities traditionally used to treat pain, but they have been shown to be 2 of the most successful treatments for increasing QA levels in patients with QA failure. Both modalities are hypothesized to positively affect voluntary QA by disinhibiting the motor-neuron pool of the quad. In essence, these modalities provide excitatory afferent stimuli to the spinal cord, which thereby overrides the inhibitory afferent signaling that arises from the involved joint. However, it remains unknown whether 1 is more effective than the other for restoring QA levels in patients with knee pathologies. By knowing the capabilities of each disinhibitory modality, clinicians can tailor treatments based on the rehabilitation goals

  19. [The feasibility of the application of cryotherapy and radonotherapy for the treatment of the patients presenting with osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Vakulenko, O Y; Rassulova, M A; Razumov, A N

    2017-12-05

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is currently considered to be one of the most widespread diseases. Its main clinical symptoms include pain and dysfunction of joints. In the present review of the foreign and domestic literature, the questions of pathogenesis and risk factors underlying the development of osteoarthritis are discussed. The understanding of OA pathogenesis have altered essentially in the recent years which made necessary the search for the novel approaches to the treatment of this pathology. According to the modern views of OA origin and progression, its therapy should be based on the application of the combination of medicamentous and non-medicamentous modalities including, in particular, collective and individual activities focused on the implementation of the programs of therapeutic physical training as an obligatory component of ОА prophylaxis and treatment. The present review gives evidence of the feasibility of the application of the methods of cryotherapy and radonotherapy for the management of the patients suffering from osteoarthritis. It is emphasized that many recent publications report extensive investigations of the clinical and pathogenetic aspects of the application of these methods for the combined regenerative treatment of the patients presenting with gonarthrosis. The influence of cryotherapy and radonotherapy on the neuroendocrine and immune systems is discussed with special reference to the possibility of regulation of the metabolic processes and retardation of inflammation. It is concluded that the introduction of the above methods into the compulsory individual program for the regenerative treatment of patients presenting with osteoarthritis is pathologically substantiated since it greatly contributes to the reduction of pain and retardation of the progress of the disease. The main pharmaceutical preparations for the OA treatment remain to be slow-acting symptomatic medicines possessed of the chondro-protective effect.

  20. Primary Cryotherapy for High-Grade Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Oncologic and Functional Outcomes from the COLD Registry.

    PubMed

    Tay, Kae Jack; Polascik, Thomas J; Elshafei, Ahmed; Cher, Michael L; Given, Robert W; Mouraviev, Vladimir; Ross, Ashley E; Jones, J Stephen

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the oncological and functional outcomes of primary cryotherapy in men with clinically localized, high-grade prostate cancer. We included all men with biopsy Gleason score ≥8, localized (cT1-2) disease with a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≤50 ng/mL from the Cryo On-Line Data (COLD) registry. The primary outcome was biochemical progression free survival (BPFS) as defined by the Phoenix criteria (nadir PSA +2 ng/mL). Secondary outcomes of continence (defined as strictly no leak) and potency (able to have intercourse) were patient reported. Factors influencing BPFS were evaluated individually using Kaplan Meier and in a multivariate model using Cox regression. Altogether, 300 men were included for analysis. The median follow-up was 18.2 months (mean 28.4) and median BPFS was 69.8 months. Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis, the estimated 2- and 5-year BPFS rate was 77.2% and 59.1%, respectively. Neoadjuvant hormonal therapy was administered to 41% of men and this tended to occur in men with larger prostates, likely as a technical consideration for downsizing before cryosurgery. At multivariate analysis, the presence of Gleason score 9 or 10 (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.9) and a posttreatment PSA nadir of ≥0.4 ng/mL (HR 5.7) were the only significant variables associated with biochemical progression using Cox regression. Complete continence was noted in 90.5% of men and potency in 17% of men at the 12-month follow-up. The incidence of rectourethral fistulae and urinary retention requiring intervention beyond temporary catheterization was 1.3% and 3.3%, respectively. Primary cryotherapy appears to be effective and safe in the community setting for high-grade, clinically localized prostate cancer in the short term.

  1. Management of cryotherapy-ineligible women in a “screen-and-treat” cervical cancer prevention program targeting HIV-infected women in Zambia: Lessons from the field

    PubMed Central

    Pfaendler, Krista S.; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Mudenda, Victor; Stringer, Jeffrey S.A.; Parham, Groesbeck P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a referral and management system for cryotherapy-ineligible women in a “screen-and-treat” cervical cancer prevention program targeting HIV-infected women in Zambia. Methods We established criteria for patient referral, developed a training program for loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) providers, and adapted LEEP to a resource-constrained setting. Results We successfully trained 15 nurses to perform visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) followed by immediate cryotherapy. Women with positive tests but ineligible for cryotherapy were referred for further evaluation. We trained four Zambian physicians to evaluate referrals, perform punch biopsy, LEEP, and manage intra-operative and post-operative complications. From January 2006 through October 2007, a total of 8823 women (41.5% HIV seropositive) were evaluated by nurses in outlying prevention clinics; of these, 1477 (16.7%) were referred for physician evaluation based on established criteria. Of the 875 (59.2% of 1147 referred) that presented for evaluation, 748 (8.4% of total screened) underwent histologic evaluation in the form of punch biopsy or LEEP. Complications associated with LEEP included anesthesia reaction (n=2) which spontaneously resolved, intra-operative (n=12) and post-operative (n=2) bleeding managed by local measures, and post-operative infection (n=12) managed with antibiotics. Conclusion With adaptations for a resource-constrained environment, we have demonstrated that performing LEEP is feasible and safe, with low rates of complications that can be managed locally. It is important to establish referral and management systems using LEEP-based excisional evaluation for women with cryotherapy-ineligible lesions in VIA-based “screen-and-treat” protocols nested within HIV-care programs in resource-constrained settings. PMID:18556050

  2. Management of cryotherapy-ineligible women in a "screen-and-treat" cervical cancer prevention program targeting HIV-infected women in Zambia: lessons from the field.

    PubMed

    Pfaendler, Krista S; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Mudenda, Victor; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Parham, Groesbeck P

    2008-09-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a referral and management system for cryotherapy-ineligible women in a "screen-and-treat" cervical cancer prevention program targeting HIV-infected women in Zambia. We established criteria for patient referral, developed a training program for loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) providers, and adapted LEEP to a resource-constrained setting. We successfully trained 15 nurses to perform visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) followed by immediate cryotherapy. Women with positive tests but ineligible for cryotherapy were referred for further evaluation. We trained four Zambian physicians to evaluate referrals, perform punch biopsy, LEEP, and manage intra-operative and post-operative complications. From January 2006 through October 2007, a total of 8823 women (41.5% HIV seropositive) were evaluated by nurses in outlying prevention clinics; of these, 1477 (16.7%) were referred for physician evaluation based on established criteria. Of the 875 (59.2% of 1147 referred) that presented for evaluation, 748 (8.4% of total screened) underwent histologic evaluation in the form of punch biopsy or LEEP. Complications associated with LEEP included anesthesia reaction (n=2) which spontaneously resolved, intra-operative (n=12) and post-operative (n=2) bleeding managed by local measures, and post-operative infection (n=12) managed with antibiotics. With adaptations for a resource-constrained environment, we have demonstrated that performing LEEP is feasible and safe, with low rates of complications that can be managed locally. It is important to establish referral and management systems using LEEP-based excisional evaluation for women with cryotherapy-ineligible lesions in VIA-based "screen-and-treat" protocols nested within HIV-care programs in resource-constrained settings.

  3. The effect of submaximal exercise preceded by single whole-body cryotherapy on the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in blood of volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Jurecka, Alicja; Woźniak, Alina; Szpinda, Michał; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (-130°C) prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise), and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise). The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P < 0.001). After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P < 0.001) than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC.

  4. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    PubMed Central

    Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szpinda, Michał; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130°C) prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise), and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise). The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P < 0.001). After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P < 0.001) than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC. PMID:24489985

  5. Novel Application of Percutaneous Cryotherapy for the Treatment of Recurrent Oral Bleeding From a Noninvoluting Congenital Hemangioma Involving the Right Buccal Space and Maxillary Tuberosity

    SciTech Connect

    Salehian, Sepand, E-mail: sepand@med.umich.edu; Gemmete, Joseph J., E-mail: gemmete@med.umich.edu; Kasten, Steven, E-mail: skasten@med.umich.edu

    2011-02-15

    Cryotherapy is the application of varying extremes of cold temperatures to destroy abnormal tissue. The intent of this article is to describe a novel technique using percutaneous cryotherapy for treating a noninvoluting congenital craniofacial hemangioma (NICH). An 18-year-old woman with type 1 von Willebrand's disease, as well as a qualitative platelet aggregation disorder, presented with multiple recurrent episodes of oral bleeding from a NICH involving the right buccal space and maxillary tuberosity. The patient was initially treated with a combination of endovascular particulate embolization, percutaneous sclerotherapy, tissue cauterization, and laser therapy between the ages of 4 and 8 years ofmore » age. At 18 years of age, the patient presented with recurrent episodes of oral bleeding related to the NICH. Endovascular embolization was performed using particulate and a liquid embolic agent with limited success. Due to the refractory nature of this bleeding, the patient underwent successful lesion ablation using percutaneous cryotherapy. At 9-month follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic with no episodes of recurrent bleeding.« less

  6. Pulsed CO2 Laser Ablation of Superficial Basal Cell of Limbs and Trunk: A Comparative Randomized Clinical Trial With Cryotherapy and Surgical Ablation.

    PubMed

    Zane, Cristina; Facchinetti, Elena; Arisi, Mariachiara; Ortel, Bernhard; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo

    2017-07-01

    Pulsed CO2 laser is a treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC) although robust clinical evidence has not been reported so far. The authors investigated efficacy, safety, time to wound healing, cosmetic outcome, patient satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness ratio of pulsed CO2 laser in comparison to cryotherapy and surgery. BCCs of the trunk and extremities were randomized to one of the treatments. After 90 days, efficacy and cosmetic outcome were assessed. Patients recorded the time to complete healing of the wound and scored their overall satisfaction. Two hundred forty patients were randomized. After 3 months, complete remission (CR) rate with pulsed CO2 laser was 78.8%. This was significantly lower than surgery, whereas the CR rate with cryotherapy was not significantly different. Cosmetic result was better with surgery. High satisfaction was reported by 65.0% of patients treated with CO2 ablation. Time of wound healing was significantly shorter with CO2 laser. In comparison to cryotherapy, pulsed CO2 laser showed no statistically significant difference in efficacy, cosmetic outcome, and patient satisfaction. Time to healing was shorter; the cost and cost-effectiveness ratio were similar. Surgery had the greatest efficacy rate. The main limitation of this study was the short duration of follow-up (3 months).

  7. Production of consistent pain by intermittent infusion of sterile 5% hypertonic saline, followed by decrease of pain with cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Long, Blaine C; Knight, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Ty; Parcell, Allen C; Feland, J Brent

    2012-08-01

    It is suggested that postinjury pain is difficult to examine; thus, investigators have developed experimental pain models. To minimize pain, cryotherapy (cryo) is applied, but reports on its effectiveness are limited. To investigate a pain model for the anterior knee and examine cryo in reducing the pain. Controlled laboratory study. Therapeutic modality laboratory. 30 physically active healthy male subjects who were free from any lower extremity orthopedic, neurological, cardiovascular, or endocrine pathologies. Perceived pain was measured every minute. Surface temperature was also assessed in the center of the patella and the popliteal fossa. There was a significant interaction between group and time (F68,864 = 3.0, P = .0001). At the first minute, there was no difference in pain between the 3 groups (saline/cryo = 4.80 ± 4.87 mm, saline/sham = 2.80 ± 3.55 mm, no saline/cryo = 4.00 ± 3.33 mm). During the first 5 min, pain increased from 4.80 ± 4.87 to 45.90 ± 21.17 mm in the saline/cryo group and from 2.80 ± 3.55 to 31.10 ± 20.25 mm in the saline/sham group. Pain did not change within the no-saline/cryo group, 4.00 ± 3.33 to 1.70 ± 1.70 mm. Pain for the saline/sham group remained constant for 17 min. Cryo decreased pain for 16 min in the saline/cryo group. There was no difference in preapplication surface temperature between or within each group. No change in temperature occurred within the saline/sham. Cooling and rewarming were similar in both cryo groups. Ambient temperature fluctuated less than 1°C during data collection. Intermittent infusion of sterile 5% hypertonic saline may be a useful experimental pain model in establishing a constant level of pain in a controlled laboratory setting. Cryotherapy decreased the induced anterior knee pain for 16 min.

  8. The effect of three different (-135°C) whole body cryotherapy exposure durations on elite rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Selfe, James; Alexander, Jill; Costello, Joseph T; May, Karen; Garratt, Nigel; Atkins, Stephen; Dillon, Stephanie; Hurst, Howard; Davison, Matthew; Przybyla, Daria; Coley, Andrew; Bitcon, Mark; Littler, Greg; Richards, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) is the therapeutic application of extreme cold air for a short duration. Minimal evidence is available for determining optimal exposure time. To explore whether the length of WBC exposure induces differential changes in inflammatory markers, tissue oxygenation, skin and core temperature, thermal sensation and comfort. This study was a randomised cross over design with participants acting as their own control. Fourteen male professional first team super league rugby players were exposed to 1, 2, and 3 minutes of WBC at -135°C. Testing took place the day after a competitive league fixture, each exposure separated by seven days. No significant changes were found in the inflammatory cytokine interleukin six. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in deoxyhaemoglobin for gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis were found. In vastus lateralis significant reductions (p<0.05) in oxyhaemoglobin and tissue oxygenation index (p<0.05) were demonstrated. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in skin temperature were recorded. No significant changes were recorded in core temperature. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in thermal sensation and comfort were recorded. Three brief exposures to WBC separated by 1 week are not sufficient to induce physiological changes in IL-6 or core temperature. There are however significant changes in tissue oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index, skin temperature and thermal sensation. We conclude that a 2 minute WBC exposure was the optimum exposure length at temperatures of -135°C and could be applied as the basis for future studies.

  9. Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    PubMed

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip R A; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2015-09-18

    Recovery strategies are often used with the intention of preventing or minimising muscle soreness after exercise. Whole-body cryotherapy, which involves a single or repeated exposure(s) to extremely cold dry air (below -100 °C) in a specialised chamber or cabin for two to four minutes per exposure, is currently being advocated as an effective intervention to reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the British Nursing Index and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database. We also searched the reference lists of articles, trial registers and conference proceedings, handsearched journals and contacted experts.The searches were run in August 2015. We aimed to include randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared the use of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) versus a passive or control intervention (rest, no treatment or placebo treatment) or active interventions including cold or contrast water immersion, active recovery and infrared therapy for preventing or treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults. We also aimed to include randomised trials that compared different durations or dosages of WBC. Our prespecified primary outcomes were muscle soreness, subjective recovery (e.g. tiredness, well-being) and adverse effects. Two review authors independently screened search results, selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted and cross-checked data. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials. The random-effects model was used for pooling where there was substantial heterogeneity. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Four laboratory-based randomised controlled trials were included. These reported results for 64

  10. Time-course of changes in inflammatory response after whole-body cryotherapy multi exposures following severe exercise.

    PubMed

    Pournot, Hervé; Bieuzen, François; Louis, Julien; Mounier, Rémi; Fillard, Jean-Robert; Barbiche, Etienne; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n = 11) completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS), the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC) for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day). For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL) -1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), protein C-reactive (CRP) and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post) following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05). Indeed, IL-1β (Post 1 h) and CRP (Post 24 h) levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h) increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05), TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory.

  11. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy (-110 °C) on proprioception and indices of muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Costello, J T; Algar, L A; Donnelly, A E

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on proprioceptive function, muscle force recovery following eccentric muscle contractions and tympanic temperature (T(TY) ). Thirty-six subjects were randomly assigned to a group receiving two 3-min treatments of -110 ± 3 °C or 15 ± 3 °C. Knee joint position sense (JPS), maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the knee extensors, force proprioception and T(TY) were recorded before, immediately after the exposure and again 15 min later. A convenience sample of 18 subjects also underwent an eccentric exercise protocol on their contralateral left leg 24 h before exposure. MVIC (left knee), peak power output (PPO) during a repeated sprint on a cycle ergometer and muscles soreness were measured pre-, 24, 48 and 72h post-treatment. WBC reduced T(TY) , by 0.3 °C, when compared with the control group (P<0.001). However, JPS, MVIC or force proprioception was not affected. Similarly, WBC did not effect MVIC, PPO or muscle soreness following eccentric exercise. WBC, administered 24 h after eccentric exercise, is ineffective in alleviating muscle soreness or enhancing muscle force recovery. The results of this study also indicate no increased risk of proprioceptive-related injury following WBC. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Freezing Nitrogen Ethanol Composite May be a Viable Approach for Cryotherapy of Human Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.

    PubMed

    Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Wang, Jir-You; Chen, Paul Chih-Hsueh; Chang, Ming-Chau; Hung, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Liquid nitrogen has been used as adjuvant cryotherapy for treating giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone. However, the liquid phase and ultrafreezing (-196° C) properties increase the risk of damage to the adjacent tissues and may lead to perioperative complications. A novel semisolid cryogen, freezing nitrogen ethanol composite, might mitigate these shortcomings because of less-extreme freezing. We therefore wished to evaluate freezing nitrogen ethanol composite as a coolant to determine its properties in tumor cryoablation. (1) Is freezing nitrogen ethanol composite-mediated freezing effective for tumor cryoablation in an ex vivo model, and if yes, is apoptosis involved in the tumor-killing mechanism? (2) Does freezing nitrogen ethanol composite treatment block neovascularization and neoplastic progression of the grafted GCTs and is it comparable to that of liquid nitrogen in an in vivo chicken model? (3) Can use of freezing nitrogen ethanol composite as an adjuvant to curettage result in successful short-term treatment, defined as absence of GCT recurrence at a minimum of 1 year in a small proof-of-concept clinical series? The cryogenic effect on bone tissue mediated by freezing nitrogen ethanol composite and liquid nitrogen was verified by thermal measurement in a time-course manner. Cryoablation on human GCT tissue was examined ex vivo for effect on morphologic features (cell shrinkage) and DNA fragmentation (apoptosis). The presumed mechanism was investigated by molecular analysis of apoptosis regulatory proteins including caspases 3, 8, and 9 and Bax/Bcl-2. Chicken chorioallantoic membrane was used as an in vivo model to evaluate the effects of freezing nitrogen ethanol composite and liquid nitrogen treatment on GCT-derived neovascularization and tumor neoplasm. A small group of patients with GCT of bone was treated by curettage and adjuvant freezing nitrogen ethanol composite cryotherapy in a proof-of-concept study. Tumor recurrence and perioperative

  13. Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Comparison with Other Physical Modalities Used with Kinesitherapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gizińska, Małgorzata; Rutkowski, Radosław; Romanowski, Wojciech; Lewandowski, Jacek; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been frequently used to supplement the rehabilitation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of WBC and traditional rehabilitation (TR) on clinical parameters and systemic levels of IL-6, TNF-α in patients with RA. The study group comprised 25 patients who were subjected to WBC (-110 °C) and 19 patients who underwent a traditional rehabilitation program. Some clinical variables and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were used to assess the outcomes. After therapy both groups exhibited similar improvement in pain, disease activity, fatigue, time of walking, and the number of steps over a distance of 50 m. Only significantly better results were observed in HAQ in TR group (p < 0.05). However, similar significant reduction in IL-6 and TNF-α level was observed. The results showed positive effects of a 2-week rehabilitation program for patients with RA regardless of the kind of the applied physical procedure.

  14. Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Comparison with Other Physical Modalities Used with Kinesitherapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gizińska, Małgorzata; Rutkowski, Radosław; Romanowski, Wojciech; Lewandowski, Jacek; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been frequently used to supplement the rehabilitation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of WBC and traditional rehabilitation (TR) on clinical parameters and systemic levels of IL-6, TNF-α in patients with RA. The study group comprised 25 patients who were subjected to WBC (−110°C) and 19 patients who underwent a traditional rehabilitation program. Some clinical variables and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were used to assess the outcomes. After therapy both groups exhibited similar improvement in pain, disease activity, fatigue, time of walking, and the number of steps over a distance of 50 m. Only significantly better results were observed in HAQ in TR group (p < 0.05). However, similar significant reduction in IL-6 and TNF-α level was observed. The results showed positive effects of a 2-week rehabilitation program for patients with RA regardless of the kind of the applied physical procedure. PMID:26576422

  15. Effects of a single whole body cryotherapy (-110°C) bout on neuromuscular performance of the elbow flexors during isokinetic exercise.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Junior, J B; Vieira, C A; Soares, S R S; Guedes, R; Rocha Junior, V A; Simoes, H G; Brown, L E; Bottaro, M

    2014-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that body cooling may decrease neuromuscular performance. However, the effect of a single session of whole body cryotherapy (-110°C) on neuromuscular performance has not been well documented. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single exposure of WBC on elbow flexor neuromuscular performance. Thirteen physically active, healthy young men (age=27.9±4.2 years, mass=79.4±9.7 kg, height=176.7±5.2 cm) were randomly exposed to 2 different experimental conditions separated by a minimum of 72 h: 1) whole body cryotherapy- 3 min at -110°C; 2) control- 3 min at 21°C. All subjects were tested for maximal isokinetic elbow flexion at 60°.s(-1) 30 min before and 10 min after each condition. There were no significant differences in peak torque, average power, total work or muscle activity between conditions. Peak torque was lower at post-test compared to pre-test in both conditions (F=6.58, p=0.025). However, there were no differences between pre-test and post-test for any other variables. These results indicate that strength specialists, athletic trainers and physical therapists might utilize whole body cryotherapy before training or rehabilitation without compromising neuromuscular performance of the elbow flexors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. A Non–Gas-Based Cryotherapy System for the Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Mixed-Methods Approach for Initial Development and Testing

    PubMed Central

    Cremer, Miriam; Paul, Proma; Bergman, Katie; Haas, Michael; Maza, Mauricio; Zevallos, Albert; Ossandon, Miguel; Garai, Jillian D; Winkler, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Gas-based cryotherapy is the most widely used treatment strategy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low-resource settings, but reliance on gas presents challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our team adapted the original CryoPen Cryosurgical System, a cryotherapy device that does not require compressed gas and is powered by electricity, for use in LMICs. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used involving both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, we used a user-centered design approach to identify priority features of the adapted device. U.S.-based and global potential users of the adapted CryoPen participated in discussion groups and a card sorting activity to rank 7 features of the adapted CryoPen: cost, durability, efficacy and safety, maintenance, no need for electricity, patient throughput, and portability. Mean and median rankings, overall rankings, and summary rankings by discussion group were generated. In addition, results of several quantitative tests were analyzed including bench testing to determine tip temperature and heat extraction capabilities; a pathology review of CIN grade 3 cases (N=107) to determine target depth of necrosis needed to achieve high efficacy; and a pilot study (N=5) investigating depth of necrosis achieved with the adapted device to assess efficacy. Results: Discussion groups revealed 4 priority themes for device development in addition to the need to ensure high efficacy and safety and low cost: improved portability, durability, ease of use, and potential for cure. Adaptions to the original CryoPen system included a single-core, single-tip model; rugged carrying case; custom circuit to allow car battery charging; and sterilization by high-level disinfection. In bench testing, there were no significant differences in tip temperature or heat extraction capability between the adapted CryoPen and the standard cryotherapy device. In 80% of the cases in the pilot study, the

  17. A Non-Gas-Based Cryotherapy System for the Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Mixed-Methods Approach for Initial Development and Testing.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Miriam; Paul, Proma; Bergman, Katie; Haas, Michael; Maza, Mauricio; Zevallos, Albert; Ossandon, Miguel; Garai, Jillian D; Winkler, Jennifer L

    2017-03-24

    Gas-based cryotherapy is the most widely used treatment strategy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low-resource settings, but reliance on gas presents challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our team adapted the original CryoPen Cryosurgical System, a cryotherapy device that does not require compressed gas and is powered by electricity, for use in LMICs. A mixed-methods approach was used involving both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, we used a user-centered design approach to identify priority features of the adapted device. U.S.-based and global potential users of the adapted CryoPen participated in discussion groups and a card sorting activity to rank 7 features of the adapted CryoPen: cost, durability, efficacy and safety, maintenance, no need for electricity, patient throughput, and portability. Mean and median rankings, overall rankings, and summary rankings by discussion group were generated. In addition, results of several quantitative tests were analyzed including bench testing to determine tip temperature and heat extraction capabilities; a pathology review of CIN grade 3 cases (N=107) to determine target depth of necrosis needed to achieve high efficacy; and a pilot study (N=5) investigating depth of necrosis achieved with the adapted device to assess efficacy. Discussion groups revealed 4 priority themes for device development in addition to the need to ensure high efficacy and safety and low cost: improved portability, durability, ease of use, and potential for cure. Adaptions to the original CryoPen system included a single-core, single-tip model; rugged carrying case; custom circuit to allow car battery charging; and sterilization by high-level disinfection. In bench testing, there were no significant differences in tip temperature or heat extraction capability between the adapted CryoPen and the standard cryotherapy device. In 80% of the cases in the pilot study, the adapted CryoPen achieved the target depth

  18. Time-Course of Changes in Inflammatory Response after Whole-Body Cryotherapy Multi Exposures following Severe Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Pournot, Hervé; Bieuzen, François; Louis, Julien; Fillard, Jean-Robert; Barbiche, Etienne; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n = 11) completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS), the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC) for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day). For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL) -1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), protein C-reactive (CRP) and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post) following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05). Indeed, IL-1β (Post 1 h) and CRP (Post 24 h) levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h) increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05), TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory. PMID:21829501

  19. The Effect of Three Different (-135°C) Whole Body Cryotherapy Exposure Durations on Elite Rugby League Players

    PubMed Central

    Selfe, James; Alexander, Jill; Costello, Joseph T.; May, Karen; Garratt, Nigel; Atkins, Stephen; Dillon, Stephanie; Hurst, Howard; Davison, Matthew; Przybyla, Daria; Coley, Andrew; Bitcon, Mark; Littler, Greg; Richards, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background Whole body cryotherapy (WBC) is the therapeutic application of extreme cold air for a short duration. Minimal evidence is available for determining optimal exposure time. Purpose To explore whether the length of WBC exposure induces differential changes in inflammatory markers, tissue oxygenation, skin and core temperature, thermal sensation and comfort. Method This study was a randomised cross over design with participants acting as their own control. Fourteen male professional first team super league rugby players were exposed to 1, 2, and 3 minutes of WBC at −135°C. Testing took place the day after a competitive league fixture, each exposure separated by seven days. Results No significant changes were found in the inflammatory cytokine interleukin six. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in deoxyhaemoglobin for gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis were found. In vastus lateralis significant reductions (p<0.05) in oxyhaemoglobin and tissue oxygenation index (p<0.05) were demonstrated. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in skin temperature were recorded. No significant changes were recorded in core temperature. Significant reductions (p<0.05) in thermal sensation and comfort were recorded. Conclusion Three brief exposures to WBC separated by 1 week are not sufficient to induce physiological changes in IL-6 or core temperature. There are however significant changes in tissue oxyhaemoglobin, deoxyhaemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index, skin temperature and thermal sensation. We conclude that a 2 minute WBC exposure was the optimum exposure length at temperatures of −135°C and could be applied as the basis for future studies. PMID:24489726

  20. Spray cryotherapy (SCT): institutional evolution of techniques and clinical practice from early experience in the treatment of malignant airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Turner, J. Francis; Parrish, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background Spray cryotherapy (SCT) was initially developed for gastroenterology (GI) endoscopic use in the esophagus. In some institutions where a device has been utilized by GI, transition to use in the airways by pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons occurred. Significant differences exist, however, in the techniques for safely using SCT in the airways. Methods We describe the early experience at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center from 2011 to 2013 using SCT in patients with malignant airway disease and the evolution of our current techniques and clinical practice patterns for SCT use in patients. In November 2013 enrollment began in a multi-institutional prospective SCT registry in which we are still enrolling and will be reported on separately. Results Twenty-seven patients that underwent 80 procedures (2.96 procedures/patient). The average age was 63 years with a range of 20 to 87 years old. The average Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status was 1.26. All malignancies were advanced stage disease. All procedures were performed in the central airways. Other modalities were used in combination with SCT in 31 (39%) of procedures. Additionally 45 of the 80 (56%) procedures were performed in proximity to a silicone, hybrid, or metal stent. Three complications occurred out of the 80 procedures. All three were transient hypoxia that limited continued SCT treatments. These patients were all discharged from the bronchoscopy recovery room to their pre-surgical state. Conclusions SCT can be safely used for treatment of malignant airway tumor (MAT) in the airways. Understanding passive venting of the nitrogen gas produced as the liquid nitrogen changes to gas is important for safe use of the device. Complications can be minimized by adopting strict protocols to maximize passive venting and to allow for adequate oxygenation in between sprays. PMID:26807288

  1. Role of imaging and biopsy to assess local recurrence after definitive treatment for prostate carcinoma (surgery, radiotherapy, cryotherapy, HIFU).

    PubMed

    Martino, Pasquale; Scattoni, Vincenzo; Galosi, Andrea B; Consonni, Paolo; Trombetta, Carlo; Palazzo, Silvano; Maccagnano, Carmen; Liguori, Giovanni; Valentino, Massimo; Battaglia, Michele; Barozzi, Libero

    2011-10-01

    Defining the site of recurrent disease early after definitive treatment for a localized prostate cancer is a critical issue as it may greatly influence the subsequent therapeutic strategy or patient management. A systematic review of the literature was performed by searching Medline from January 1995 up to January 2011. Electronic searches were limited to the English language, and the keywords prostate cancer, radiotherapy [RT], high intensity focused ultrasound [HIFU], cryotherapy [CRIO], transrectal ultrasound [TRUS], magnetic resonance [MRI], PET/TC, and prostate biopsy were used. Despite the fact that diagnosis of a local recurrence is based on PSA values and kinetics, imaging by means of different techniques may be a prerequisite for effective disease management. Unfortunately, prostate cancer local recurrences are very difficult to detect by TRUS and conventional imaging that have shown limited accuracy at least at early stages. On the contrary, functional and molecular imaging such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), offers the possibility of imaging molecular or cellular processes of individual tumors. Recently, PET/CT, using 11C-choline, 18F-fluorocholine or 11C-acetate has been successfully proposed in detecting local recurrences as well as distant metastases. Nevertheless, in controversial cases, it is necessary to perform a biopsy of the prostatic fossa or a biopsy of the prostate to assess the presence of a local recurrence under guidance of MRI or TRUS findings. It is likely that imaging will be extensively used in the future to detect and localize prostate cancer local recurrences before salvage treatment.

  2. Screen-and-Treat Approach to Cervical Cancer Prevention Using Visual Inspection With Acetic Acid and Cryotherapy: Experiences, Perceptions, and Beliefs From Demonstration Projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Proma; Winkler, Jennifer L.; Bartolini, Rosario M.; Penny, Mary E.; Huong, Trinh Thu; Nga, Le Thi; Kumakech, Edward; Mugisha, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success. PMID:24217554

  3. A prospective, randomized study of cryotherapy during administration of high-dose melphalan to decrease the severity and duration of oral mucositis in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lilleby, K; Garcia, P; Gooley, T; McDonnnell, P; Taber, R; Holmberg, L; Maloney, D G; Press, O W; Bensinger, W

    2006-06-01

    Forty patients with multiple myeloma scheduled to receive melphalan 200 mg/m(2) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation were randomly assigned to receive oral cryotherapy or room temperature normal saline rinses 30 min before and for 6 h after high-dose therapy. Patients were evaluated for the development of mucositis using the National Cancer Institute grading system as well as evaluation of secondary measures such as days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), narcotic use, hospitalization, weight loss and resumption of oral caloric intake for 28 days after transplant. Patients self-scored their pain, swallowing, drinking, eating, sleeping and taste alterations for 28 days. The primary end point of this trial was the incidence of grades 3-4 mucositis. Compared to the normal saline group, patients using cryotherapy experienced less grade 3-4 mucositis, 14 vs 74%, P=0.0005. Patients receiving cryotherapy also had statistically lower uses of narcotics and TPN, although there were no differences in length of hospitalization or weight loss. Patient-reported pain was significantly lower and activities were significantly better in the cryotherapy group.

  4. Screen-and-treat approach to cervical cancer prevention using visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy: experiences, perceptions, and beliefs from demonstration projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Paul, Proma; Winkler, Jennifer L; Bartolini, Rosario M; Penny, Mary E; Huong, Trinh Thu; Nga, Le Thi; Kumakech, Edward; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Jeronimo, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success.

  5. Intralesional immunotherapy with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) in recalcitrant wart: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial including an extra group of candidates for cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Amirnia, Mehdi; Khodaeiani, Effat; Fouladi, Daniel F; Masoudnia, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Due to paucity of randomized clinical trials, intralesional immunotherapy has not been yet accepted as a standard therapeutic method. To examine the efficacy and safety of intralesional immunotherapy with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) for treating recalcitrant wart. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial, a total of 69 patients with recalcitrant warts received either intralesional PPD antigen (n = 35) or intralesional saline (n = 34) for six times at 2-week intervals. A third group of candidates for cryotherapy (n = 33) was also included. The decrease in lesion size (good: complete response, intermediate: 50-99% improvement, poor: <50% improvement), adverse effects and recurrence within 6-month follow-up were documented. At the final session, good, intermediate and poor responses were observed in 77.1%, 22.9% and 0% of the PPD patients; 0%, 14.7% and 85.3% of the placebo patients and 18.2%, 33.3% and 48.5% of the cryotherapy patients, respectively (PPD versus placebo: p < 0.001; PPD versus cryotherapy: p < 0.001). No significant complication was seen in the PPD group. The recurrence rate was 8.6%, 5.9% and 24.2% in the PPD, placebo and cryotherapy groups, respectively (p > 0.05). Intralesional immunotherapy with PPD antigen is highly effective and safe for treating recalcitrant warts. IRCT201407089844N3 in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT).

  6. Measurement of Thermal Conductivity of Porcine Liver in the Temperature Range of Cryotherapy and Hyperthermia (250~315k) by A Thermal Sensor Made of A Micron-Scale Enameled Copper Wire.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z D; Zhao, G; Lu, G R

      BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy and hyperthermia are effective treatments for several diseases, especially for liver cancers. Thermal conductivity is a significant thermal property for the prediction and guidance of surgical procedure. However, the thermal conductivities of organs and tissues, especially over the temperature range of both cryotherapy and hyperthermia are scarce. To provide comprehensive thermal conductivity of liver for both cryotherapy and hyperthermia. A hot probe made of stain steel needle and micron-sized copper wire is used for measurement. To verify data processing, both the least square method and the Monte Carlo inversion method are used to determine the hot probe constants, respectively, with reference materials of water and 29.9 % Ca 2 Cl aqueous solution. Then the thermal conductivities of Hanks solution and pork liver bathed in Hanks solution are measured. The effective length for two methods is nearly the same, but the heat capacity of probe calibrated by the Monte Carlo inversion is temperature dependent. Fairly comprehensive thermal conductivity of porcine liver measured with these two methods in the target temperature range is verified to be similar. We provide an integrated thermal conductivity of liver for cryotherapy and hyperthermia in two methods, and make more accurate predictions possible for surgery. The least square method and the Monte Carlo inversion method have their advantages and disadvantages. The least square method is available for measurement of liquids that not prone to convection or solids in a wide temperature range, while the Monte Carlo inversion method is available for accurate and rapid measurement.

  7. Compressive cryotherapy versus ice-a prospective, randomized study on postoperative pain in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair or subacromial decompression.

    PubMed

    Kraeutler, Matthew J; Reynolds, Kirk A; Long, Cyndi; McCarty, Eric C

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of compressive cryotherapy (CC) vs. ice on postoperative pain in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy for rotator cuff repair or subacromial decompression. A commercial device was used for postoperative CC. A standard ice wrap (IW) was used for postoperative cryotherapy alone. Patients scheduled for rotator cuff repair or subacromial decompression were consented and randomized to 1 of 2 groups; patients were randomized to use either CC or a standard IW for the first postoperative week. All patients were asked to complete a "diary" each day, which included visual analog scale scores based on average daily pain and worst daily pain as well as total pain medication usage. Pain medications were then converted to a morphine equivalent dosage. Forty-six patients completed the study and were available for analysis; 25 patients were randomized to CC and 21 patients were randomized to standard IW. No significant differences were found in average pain, worst pain, or morphine equivalent dosage on any day. There does not appear to be a significant benefit to use of CC over standard IW in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy for rotator cuff repair or subacromial decompression. Further study is needed to determine if CC devices are a cost-effective option for postoperative pain management in this population of patients. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An accurate and reliable method of thermal data analysis in thermal imaging of the anterior knee for use in cryotherapy research.

    PubMed

    Selfe, James; Hardaker, Natalie; Thewlis, Dominic; Karki, Anna

    2006-12-01

    To develop an anatomic marker system (AMS) as an accurate, reliable method of thermal imaging data analysis, for use in cryotherapy research. Investigation of the accuracy of new thermal imaging technique. Hospital orthopedic outpatient department in England. Consecutive sample of 9 patients referred to anterior knee pain clinic. Not applicable. Thermally inert markers were placed at specific anatomic locations, defining an area over the anterior knee of patients with anterior knee pain. A baseline thermal image was taken. Patients underwent a 3-minute thermal washout of the affected knee. Thermal images were collected at a rate of 1 image per minute for a 20-minute re-warming period. A Matlab (version 7.0) program was written to digitize the marker positions and subsequently calculate the mean of the area over the anterior knee. Virtual markers were then defined as 15% distal from the proximal marker, 30% proximal from the distal markers, 15% lateral from the medial marker, and 15% medial from the lateral marker. The virtual markers formed an ellipse, which defined an area representative of the patella shape. Within the ellipse, the mean value of the full pixels determined the mean temperature of this region. Ten raters were recruited to use the program and interrater reliability was investigated. The intraclass correlation coefficient produced coefficients within acceptable bounds, ranging from .82 to .97, indicating adequate interrater reliability. The AMS provides an accurate, reliable method for thermal imaging data analysis and is a reliable tool with which to advance cryotherapy research.

  9. Is whole gland salvage cryotherapy effective as palliative treatment of haematuria in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer? Results of a preliminary case series

    PubMed Central

    Mucciardi, Giuseppe; Galì, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Rosa; Lembo, Francesco; Anastasi, Giuseppina; Butticè, Salvatore; Ascenti, Giorgio; Lugnani, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Locally advanced prostate cancer may cause several complications such as haematuria, bladder outlet obstruction, and renal failure due to the ureteral obstruction. Various treatments have been suggested, including radiotherapy, antifibrinolytics, bladder irrigation with alum solution, transurethral surgery and angioembolization, none of which have proven effectiveness. In the last years cryoablation has become a valid therapeutic option for prostate cancer. In our experience we used this ‘new’ technique as haemostatic therapy. Methods: We selected four patients with gross haematuria affected by locally advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer, who had already been treated with primary radiotherapy. We used third-generation cryotherapy: under ultrasonographic guidance, we inserted six cryoprobes, two in each of the vascular pedicles reaching at least −60°C, and three thermometers. We then induced two freeze–thaw cycles. Results: After the operation the haematuria stopped in all patients and at 9-month follow up we observed a mean of four red cells (range three to five) in the urinary sediment with no evidence of bacteriuria. Prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen and postmicturition residue were significantly reduced. Qmax improved significantly too. Conclusion: Our experience has given us good results with minimal intra- and postoperative complications. We think that haemostatic cryotherapy as a palliative approach for locally advanced prostate cancer could represent a valid treatment option and more consideration could be given to its use. PMID:26425138

  10. One-year follow-up of single-visit approach to cervical cancer prevention based on visual inspection with acetic acid wash and immediate cryotherapy in rural Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chumworathayi, B; Srisupundit, S; Lumbiganon, P; Limpaphayom, K K

    2008-01-01

    The aim is to evaluate 1) the visibility of cervical squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) after cryotherapy treatment and 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of cryotherapy treatment originally performed as part of a safety, acceptability, and feasibility (SAFE) demonstration project evaluating the SAFE of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) followed by immediate offer of cryotherapy among those who were tested positive and eligible for treatment. A total of 704 women presented at 1-year follow-up exam during which VIA was performed again by nurses. Six hundred and forty eight (92.0%) women received colposcopy and any kind of biopsy, if indicated, by trained physician colposcopists at a referral hospital. At 1 year, VIA nurses assessed 42 of 648 referred women (6.5%) as abnormal (test positive or suspected cancer). The SCJ was visible to the colposcopists in 91.7% (594/648) of the women. Among 42 women assessed as abnormal by the nurses, colposcopic findings were abnormal in 83.3% (35/42), with one low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, two high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and one adenocarcinoma confirmed later by biopsy. Among 606 VIA negative women, colposcopy was abnormal in only 23.4% (142/606), with two cases of HSIL confirmed later. Given that the SCJ was visible in the vast majority of women (91.7%) after cryotherapy, VIA could be used to provide follow-up for women previously treated. The disease negative rate after cryotherapy (no human papillomavirus infection, no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and no cancer) at 1 year after treatment was 85.5% (554/648).

  11. Efficacy and Safety of Three Cryotherapy Devices for Wart Treatment: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Walczuk, Imko; Eertmans, Frank; Rossel, Bart; Cegielska, Agnieszka; Stockfleth, Eggert; Antunes, Andre; Adriaens, Els

    2018-06-01

    Cutaneous warts are common skin lesions, caused by human papillomavirus. For years, liquid nitrogen is the cryogen of choice for wart treatment. Alternatively, several cryogenic devices for home treatment are commercially available. The present trial assessed efficacy and safety of a novel nitrous oxide-based cryogenic device for home use (EndWarts Freeze ® in Europe, Compound W ® Nitro-Freeze in the USA). This investigator-blinded, controlled, randomized study compared the nitrous oxide device (test product) with a dimethylether propane-based product (Wartner ® ; comparator 1). Subjects with common or plantar warts (50/50 ratio) were randomized into two groups (n = 58, test product; n = 40, comparator 1). Sequentially, an extra treatment arm (n = 40) was added to compare with a dimethylether-based product with metal nib (Wortie ® ; comparator 2). Main objective implied comparison of the percentage cured subjects after one to maximum three treatments. Efficacy and safety was evaluated by a blinded investigator. After a maximum of three applications, a significantly (p = 0.001) higher cure rate of 70.7% (Intention-to-Treat analysis) was observed with test product versus 46.2% (comparator 1) and 47.5% (comparator 2). Almost three times more subjects were cured after 1 test product application (29.3%), versus comparator 1 (10.4%) and comparator 2 (12.5%). Reported side effects were transient and typical of cryotherapy. All treatments were well-tolerated. The superior cure rates for the test product versus two comparators can be explained by its design. Combination of nitrous oxide (cooling agent), the specific activation method (holding the liquid coolant in the cap), and skin-conforming polyurethane foam, results in higher cooling efficiency (- 80 °C) and more effective wart freezing. This trial demonstrated that the nitrous oxide device is a safe, user-friendly and effective wart treatment for home use, comparing favourably to dimethylether (propane

  12. Comparison of health-related quality of life and prostate-associated symptoms after primary and salvage cryotherapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadis, Aristotelis G; Sachdev, Reena; Salomon, Laurent; Ghafar, Mohamed A; Stisser, Brian C; Shabsigh, Ridwan; Katz, Aaron E

    2003-12-01

    Recent advances in cryosurgery of the prostate have led to the ability to treat tumors successfully with decreased morbidity. The patients' perspectives of this relatively new technique, however, have not yet been addressed. The purpose of this study was to compare health related quality of life (QoL) as well as prostate-associated symptoms in patients after primary and salvage cryoablation for clinically localized prostate cancer using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 131 consecutive patients who underwent cryoablation of the prostate between 1997 and 2001 were included in this confidential mailing study. The patients were either (a) patients with localized prostate cancer with contraindications for radical surgery, including patients refusing other forms of therapy, or (b) had locally recurrent prostate cancer after failure of radiation therapy. All patients received 3 months of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy prior to cryosurgery and were surgically treated by the same surgeon using an argon-based system. We used the EORTC QLQ-C30, a commonly used, multidimensional instrument together with a supplementing, prostate-cancer-specific module. Eighty-one of the 131 patients (response rate 62%) returned the questionnaires. The two groups were comparable regarding age (mean age 72.8 vs 70.1 for the primary and the salvage group, respectively; p=0.22). The overall QoL scores were high in both groups. Primary cryotherapy patients fared significantly better regarding physical (p=0.005) and social (p=0.024) functioning compared with salvage cryotherapy patients. The most prominent prostate-related symptom in both patient groups was sexual dysfunction, followed by urinary symptoms, which were significantly more severe in the salvage group (p=0.001). Incontinence rates were 5.9 and 10% in the primary and the salvage group, respectively. Severe erectile dysfunction was reported in 86 and 90% of the primary and the salvage group, respectively. The present

  13. Prostate Gland Lengths and Iceball Dimensions Predict Micturition Functional Outcome Following Salvage Prostate Cryotherapy in Men with Radiation Recurrent Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Imran; Kalna, Gabriela; Ismail, Mohamed; Birrell, Fiona; Asterling, Sue; McCartney, Elaine; Greene, Damien; Davies, John; Leung, Hing Y.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Tissue cryoablation is a potential curative option for solid malignancies, including radiation recurrent prostate cancer (RRPC). Case series of salvage cryotherapy (SCT) in RRPC have reported promising disease free survival (DFS) outcomes and acceptable toxicity profile. While many men receive SCT, no predictive factors for treatment induced side effects are known. The aim of this study is to validate the oncologic outcome of SCT in a large multi-centre patient cohort and to identify potential parameters associated with an increased risk of micturition symptoms. Patients and Methods In this retrospective analysis, we studied 283 consecutive patients with RRPC treated by SCT in three independent U.K. centres (between 2001 and 2011). Two freeze-thaw cycles of transperineal cryotherapy were performed under transrectal ultrasound guidance by a single surgeon in each of the 3 sites. We analysed clinico-pathological factors against tumour response. Functional outcomes were assessed by continence status and IPSS questionnaire. Predictive factors for SCT-induced micturition symptoms were analysed in a sub-group (n = 42) of consecutive cases. Results We found that nadir post-SCT PSA levels strongly associated with DFS. The DFS rates at 12- and 36-month were 84% and 67% for the ≤1 ng/ml group and 56% and 14% for the >1 ng/ml group, respectively (p<0.001). Correlative analysis revealed highly significant association between patients' post-SCT micturition status with prostate gland and iceball lengths following SCT. Finally, in a reduction model, both gland length and maximal length of iceball were highly associated with patients' IPSS outcome (p<0.001). Conclusion We report the largest European patient cohort treated with SCT for RRPC. Oncologic outcome guided by nadir PSA of <1 ng/ml is consistent with earlier single-centre series. For the first time, we identified physical parameters to predict micturition symptoms following SCT. Our data will directly

  14. Effect of walking and resting after three cryotherapy modalities on the recovery of sensory and motor nerve conduction velocity in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Esperanza; Sandoval, Maria Cristina; Camargo, Diana M; Salvini, Tania F

    2011-01-01

    Different cryotherapy modalities have distinct effects on sensory and motor nerve conduction parameters. However, it is unclear how these parameters change during the post-cooling period and how the exercise carried out in this period would influence the recovery of nerve conduction velocity (NCV). To compare the effects of three cryotherapy modalities on post-cooling NCV and to analyze the effect of walking on the recovery of sensory and motor NCV. Thirty six healthy young subjects were randomly allocated into three groups: ice massage (n=12), ice pack (n=12) and cold water immersion (n=12). The modalities were applied to the right leg. The subjects of each modality group were again randomized to perform a post-cooling activity: a) 30 min rest, b) walking 15 min followed by 15 min rest. The NCV of sural (sensory) and posterior tibial (motor) nerves was evaluated. Initial (pre-cooling) and final (30 min post-cooling) NCV were compared using a paired t-test. The effects of the modalities and the post-cooling activities on NCV were evaluated by an analysis of covariance. The significance level was α=0.05. There was a significant difference between immersion and ice massage on final sensory NCV (p=0.009). Ice pack and ice massage showed similar effects (p>0.05). Walking accelerated the recovery of sensory and motor NCV, regardless of the modality previously applied (p<0.0001). Cold water immersion was the most effective modality for maintaining reduced sensory nerve conduction after cooling. Walking after cooling, with any of the three modalities, enhances the recovery of sensory and motor NCV.

  15. Improved recovery of cryotherapy-treated shoot tips following thermotherapy of in vitro-grown stock shoots of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2009-01-01

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) can be efficiently eradicated from raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus) by a procedure combining thermotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the bottleneck of this procedure is that, following thermotherapy, cryopreserved shoot tips become chlorotic during regrowth and eventually die after several subcultures. In addition, survival of heat-treated stock shoots and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy are low. The present study focused towards improving regrowth of cryopreserved raspberry shoot tips following thermotherapy. Results showed that preconditioning stock shoots with salicylic acid (SA; 0.01-0.1 mM) markedly increased survival of stock shoots after 4 weeks of thermotherapy. Regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was also significantly enhanced when SA (0.05-0.1 mM) was used for preconditioning stock shoots. Addition of either Fe-ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (Fe-EDTA, 50 mg per L) or Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o)hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA, 50 mg per L) to post-culture medium strongly promoted regrowth and totally prevented chlorosis of shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy. Using the parameters optimized in the present study, about 80 percent survival of heat-treated stock shoots and about 33 percent regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy were obtained. Morphology of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was identical to that of control plants, based on observations of leaf shape and size, internode length and plant height. Optimization of the thermotherapy procedure followed by cryotherapy will facilitate the wider application of this technique to eliminate viruses which can invade meristems.

  16. The EVERT (effective verruca treatments) trial protocol: a randomised controlled trial to evaluate cryotherapy versus salicylic acid for the treatment of verrucae.

    PubMed

    Cockayne, E Sarah

    2010-02-08

    Verrucae are a common, infectious and sometimes painful problem. The optimal treatment for verrucae is unclear due to a lack of high quality randomised controlled trials. The primary objective of this study is to compare the clinical effectiveness of two common treatments for verrucae: cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen versus salicylic acid. Secondary objectives include a comparison of the cost-effectiveness of the treatments, and an investigation of time to clearance of verrucae, recurrence/clearance of verrucae at six months, patient satisfaction with treatment, pain associated with treatment, and use of painkillers for the treatments. This is an open, pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial with two parallel groups: cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen delivered by a healthcare professional for a maximum of 4 treatments (treatments 2-3 weeks apart) or daily self-treatment with 50% salicylic acid for a maximum of 8 weeks. Two hundred and sixty-six patients aged 12 years and over with a verruca are being enrolled into the study. The primary outcome is complete clearance of all verrucae as observed on digital photographs taken at 12 weeks compared with baseline and assessed by an independent healthcare professional. Secondary outcomes include self-reported time to clearance of verrucae, self-reported clearance of verrucae at 6 months, cost-effectiveness of the treatments compared to one another, and patient acceptability of both treatments including possible side effects such as pain. The primary analysis will be intention to treat. It is planned that recruitment will be completed by December 2009 and results will be available by June 2010. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN18994246.

  17. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study of chlorhexidine prophylaxis for 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis with nonblinded randomized comparison to oral cooling (cryotherapy) in gastrointestinal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Jens Benn; Skovsgaard, Torben; Bork, Ellen; Damstrup, Lars; Ingeberg, Sten

    2008-04-01

    The purpose was to evaluate prevention of oral mucositis (OM) using chlorhexidine compared with placebo and with oral cooling (cryotherapy) during fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy in gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Patients with previously untreated GI cancer receiving bolus 5-FU/leucovorin chemotherapy were randomized to chlorhexidine mouthrinse 3 times a day for 3 weeks (Arm A), double-blind placebo (normal saline) with the same dose and frequency (Arm B), or cryotherapy with crushed ice 45 minutes during chemotherapy (Arm C). Patients self-reported on severity (CTC-grading) and duration of OM. Among 225 patients randomized, 206 answered the questionnaire (70, 64, and 63 patients in Arms A, B, and C, respectively) and were well balanced with respect to diagnoses, stage, age, sex, smoking habits, and performance status. Mucositis grade 3-4 occurred more frequently in Arm B (33%) than in A (13%, P< .01) and C (11%, P< .005). Duration was significantly longer in B than in both A (P= .035) and C (P= .003). The frequency and duration of OM are significantly improved by prophylactic chlorhexidine and by cryotherapy. The latter is easy and inexpensive but has limited use, as it is drug- and schedule-dependent. The current study is the first double-blind randomized evaluation of prophylactic chlorhexidine in a large adult patient population with solid tumors receiving highly OM-inducing chemotherapy. A role for chlorhexidine in the prevention of OM is suggested, which should be evaluated further.

  18. Comparison of the effects of local cryotherapy and passive cross-body stretch on extensibility in subjects with posterior shoulder tightness.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyue-Nam; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Choung, Sung-Dae; Kim, Si-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to compare the immediate effects of local cryotherapy (LC) and passive cross-body stretch on the extensibility of the posterior shoulder muscle in individuals with posterior shoulder tightness. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a between-shoulder difference in internal rotation (IR) range of motion (ROM) greater than 10° were randomly divided into three groups: LC group, stretching group, and control group (n = 29 in each group). Subjects in the LC group received LC on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and subjects in the stretching group performed passive cross-body stretch. Stretch sensation was measured at the end range of passive IR and horizontal adduction (HA) using numerical rating scale, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles was measured using pressure algometry. Passive and active ROM of IR and HA of the glenohumeral joint were measured using an inclinometer. All measurements were performed at pre-intervention, post- intervention, and 10-min follow-up. Stretch sensation was significantly decreased and PPT was significantly increased in the LC and stretching groups at post-intervention, and these effects were maintained at 10-min follow-up, compared to the control group. Both the LC group and stretching group had a significantly greater increase in passive and active ROM of IR and HA, compared to the control group at post-intervention and 10-min follow-up. However, there were no significant differences in stretch sensation, PPT, or ROM of IR and HA between the LC group and stretching group. LC can be used to decrease the stretch sensation and increase PPT and ROM of IR and HA as much as a stretching exercise. LC could be an alternative method for increasing the restricted ROM of glenohumeral IR and HA for individuals with posterior shoulder tightness, especially for patients and sports players who have severe stretching discomfort. Key PointsLocal cryotherapy (LC) decreased the

  19. The Effects of a Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy Exposure on Physiological, Performance, and Perceptual Responses of Professional Academy Soccer Players After Repeated Sprint Exercise.

    PubMed

    Russell, Mark; Birch, Jack; Love, Thomas; Cook, Christian J; Bracken, Richard M; Taylor, Tom; Swift, Eamon; Cockburn, Emma; Finn, Charlie; Cunningham, Daniel; Wilson, Laura; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-02-01

    Russell, M, Birch, J, Love, T, Cook, CJ, Bracken, RM, Taylor, T, Swift, E, Cockburn, E, Finn, C, Cunningham, D, Wilson, L, and Kilduff, LP. The effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy exposure on physiological, performance, and perceptual responses of professional academy soccer players after repeated sprint exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 415-421, 2017-In professional youth soccer players, the physiological, performance, and perceptual effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session performed shortly after repeated sprint exercise were investigated. In a randomized, counterbalanced, and crossover design, 14 habituated English Premier League academy soccer players performed 15 × 30 m sprints (each followed by a 10 m forced deceleration) on 2 occasions. Within 20 minutes of exercise cessation, players entered a WBC chamber (Cryo: 30 seconds at -60° C, 120 seconds at -135° C) or remained seated (Con) indoors in temperate conditions (∼25° C). Blood and saliva samples, peak power output (countermovement jump), and perceptual indices of recovery and soreness were assessed pre-exercise and immediately, 2-hour and 24-hour postexercise. When compared with Con, a greater testosterone response was observed at 2-hour (+32.5 ± 32.3 pg·ml, +21%) and 24-hour (+50.4 ± 48.9 pg·ml, +28%) postexercise (both P = 0.002) in Cryo (trial × treatment interaction: P = 0.001). No between-trial differences were observed for other salivary (cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio), blood (lactate and creatine kinase), performance (peak power output), or perceptual (recovery or soreness) markers (all trial × treatment interactions: P > 0.05); all of which were influenced by exercise (time effects: all P ≤ 0.05). A single session of WBC performed within 20 minutes of repeated sprint exercise elevated testosterone concentrations for 24 hours but did not affect any other performance, physiological, or perceptual measurements taken. Although unclear, WBC may be

  20. Decision analytic cost-effectiveness model to compare prostate cryotherapy to androgen deprivation therapy for treatment of radiation recurrent prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Kathleen A; Jones, Rob J; Paul, Jim; Birrell, Fiona; Briggs, Andrew H; Leung, Hing Y

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of salvage cryotherapy (SC) in men with radiation recurrent prostate cancer (RRPC). Design Cost-utility analysis using decision analytic modelling by a Markov model. Setting and methods Compared SC and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in a cohort of patients with RRPC (biopsy proven local recurrence, no evidence of metastatic disease). A literature review captured published data to inform the decision model, and resource use data were from the Scottish Prostate Cryotherapy Service. The model was run in monthly cycles for RRPC men, mean age of 70 years. The model was run over the patient lifetime, to assess changes in patient health states and the associated quality of life, survival and cost impacts. Results are reported in terms of the discounted incremental costs and discounted incremental quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained between the 2 alternative interventions. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis used a 10 000 iteration Monte Carlo simulation. Results SC has a high upfront treatment cost, but delays the ongoing monthly cost of ADT. SC is the dominant strategy over the patient lifetime; it is more effective with an incremental 0.56 QALY gain (95% CI 0.28 to 0.87), and less costly with a reduced lifetime cost of £29 719 (€37 619) (95% CI −51 985 to −9243). For a ceiling ratio of £30 000, SC has a 100% probability to be cost-effective. The cost neutral point was at 3.5 years, when the upfront cost of SC (plus any subsequent cumulative cost of side effects and ADT) equates the cumulative cost in the ADT arm. Limitations of our model may arise from its insensitivity to parameter or structural uncertainty. Conclusions The platform for SC versus ADT cost-effective analysis can be employed to evaluate other treatment modalities or strategies in RRPC. SC is the dominant strategy, costing less over a patient's lifetime with improvements in QALYs. Trial registration number This economic analysis

  1. Comparison of the Effects of Local Cryotherapy and Passive Cross-Body Stretch on Extensibility in Subjects with Posterior Shoulder Tightness

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyue-nam; Kwon, Oh-yun; Weon, Jong-hyuck; Choung, Sung-dae; Kim, Si-hyun

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to compare the immediate effects of local cryotherapy (LC) and passive cross-body stretch on the extensibility of the posterior shoulder muscle in individuals with posterior shoulder tightness. Eighty-seven healthy subjects with a between-shoulder difference in internal rotation (IR) range of motion (ROM) greater than 10° were randomly divided into three groups: LC group, stretching group, and control group (n = 29 in each group). Subjects in the LC group received LC on infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and subjects in the stretching group performed passive cross-body stretch. Stretch sensation was measured at the end range of passive IR and horizontal adduction (HA) using numerical rating scale, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles was measured using pressure algometry. Passive and active ROM of IR and HA of the glenohumeral joint were measured using an inclinometer. All measurements were performed at pre-intervention, post- intervention, and 10-min follow-up. Stretch sensation was significantly decreased and PPT was significantly increased in the LC and stretching groups at post-intervention, and these effects were maintained at 10-min follow-up, compared to the control group. Both the LC group and stretching group had a significantly greater increase in passive and active ROM of IR and HA, compared to the control group at post-intervention and 10-min follow-up. However, there were no significant differences in stretch sensation, PPT, or ROM of IR and HA between the LC group and stretching group. LC can be used to decrease the stretch sensation and increase PPT and ROM of IR and HA as much as a stretching exercise. LC could be an alternative method for increasing the restricted ROM of glenohumeral IR and HA for individuals with posterior shoulder tightness, especially for patients and sports players who have severe stretching discomfort. Key Points Local cryotherapy (LC) decreased

  2. Caphosol(®) mouthwash gives no additional protection against oral mucositis compared to cryotherapy alone in stem cell transplantation. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Svanberg, Anncarin; Öhrn, Kerstin; Birgegård, Gunnar

    2015-02-01

    To investigate if adding Caphosol(®), a mouthwash solution, to oral cryotherapy (OC) further protects against oral mucositis (OM), a toxic painful complication to high dose chemotherapy. The study was a randomised, controlled, study design. Patients ≥16 years scheduled for allogeneic stem cell transplantation were included consecutively and randomised to experimental group receiving OC combined with Caphosol(®) (n = 20) or control group receiving OC only (n = 20). OC was given from start to end of HDCT. Caphosol(®), from day 0 to day 21. There were no significant differences regarding age or gender between the groups. Mucositis was assessed with the World Health Organisation (WHO) grading scale. Pain was assessed with a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) from 0 = no pain to 10 = worst imaginable pain. Start and duration of therapy with pain relieving drugs, serum C-reactive protein values, and number of days of hospitalisation were collected from the medical records. Data on OM, oral pain, use of i.v. opioids and total parenteral nutrition were collected during 22 days. There was no significant difference between the groups on OM, oral pain, use of i.v. opioids or TPN between the groups. The study showed no additional effect of combining Caphosol(®) with OC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Visual acuity at 10 years in Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity (CRYO-ROP) study eyes: effect of retinal residua of retinopathy of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Velma; Quinn, Graham E; Summers, C Gail; Hardy, Robert J; Tung, Betty

    2006-02-01

    To describe recognition (letter) acuity at age 10 years in eyes with and without retinal residua of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Presence and severity of ROP residua were documented by a study ophthalmologist. Masked testers measured monocular recognition visual acuity (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study) when the children were 10 years old. Two hundred forty-seven of 255 surviving Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity (CRYO-ROP) randomized trial patients participated. A reference group of 102 of 104 Philadelphia-based CRYO-ROP study participants who did not develop ROP was also tested. More severe retinal residua were associated with worse visual acuity, regardless of whether retinal ablation was performed to treat the severe acute-phase ROP. However, within each ROP residua category, there was a wide range of visual acuity results. This is the first report of the relation between visual acuity (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study charts) and structural abnormalities related to ROP in a large group of eyes that developed threshold ROP in the perinatal period. Visual deficits are greater in eyes with more severe retinal residua than in eyes with mild or no residua. However, severity of ROP residua does not predict the visual acuity of an individual eye because within a single residua category, acuity may range from near normal to blind.

  4. Ablative therapies: Advantages and disadvantages of radiofrequency, cryotherapy, microwave and electroporation methods, or how to choose the right method for an individual patient?

    PubMed

    Seror, O

    2015-06-01

    Several ablation techniques are currently available. Except for electroporation, all of these methods cause fatal damage at a cellular level and irreversible architectural deconstruction at a tissue level by thermal effects. Ablation of a tumor using one of these techniques, whether thermal or otherwise, requires applicators to be positioned from which the energy is delivered in situ. Some techniques, however, require several applicators to be inserted (multibipolar radiofrequency, cryotherapy and electroporation) whereas a single applicator is often sufficient with other technologies (monopolar radiofrequency and microwave). These methods are conceptually very similar but are distinguished from each other in practice through the technologies they use. It is essential to understand these differences as they influence the advantages and limitations of each of the techniques. There is no such thing as the perfect multifunctional ablation device and choice is dictated on an individual patient basis depending on the aim of treatment, which itself depends on each patient's clinical situation. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical Exercise Combined with Whole-Body Cryotherapy in Evaluating the Level of Lipid Peroxidation Products and Other Oxidant Stress Indicators in Kayakers

    PubMed Central

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Alina; Rakowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The influence of exercise combined with whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy men was assessed. The study included 16 kayakers of the Polish National Team, aged 22.7 ± 2.6, subjected to WBC (−120°C–−145°C; 3 min) twice a day for the first 10 days of a 19-day physical training cycle: pre exercise morning stimulation and post exercise afternoon recovery. Blood samples were taken on Day 0 (baseline) and on Days 5, 11 and 19. The serum concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, vitamin E, urea, cortisol, and testosterone were determined, along with the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and morphological blood parameters. On 5th day of exercise/WBC, the baseline GPx activity decreased by 15.1% (P < 0.05), while on 19th day, it increased by 19.7% (P < 0.05) versus Day 5. On Day 19 TBARS concentration decreased versus baseline and Day 5 (by 15.9% and 17.4%, resp.; P < 0.01). On 19 Day urea concentration also decreased versus 11 Day; however, on 5th and 11th days the level was higher versus baseline. Combining exercise during longer training cycles with WBC may be advantageous. PMID:24864189

  6. Physical exercise combined with whole-body cryotherapy in evaluating the level of lipid peroxidation products and other oxidant stress indicators in kayakers.

    PubMed

    Sutkowy, Paweł; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Alina; Rakowski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The influence of exercise combined with whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on the oxidant/antioxidant balance in healthy men was assessed. The study included 16 kayakers of the Polish National Team, aged 22.7 ± 2.6, subjected to WBC (-120°C--145°C; 3 min) twice a day for the first 10 days of a 19-day physical training cycle: pre exercise morning stimulation and post exercise afternoon recovery. Blood samples were taken on Day 0 (baseline) and on Days 5, 11 and 19. The serum concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls, vitamin E, urea, cortisol, and testosterone were determined, along with the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and morphological blood parameters. On 5th day of exercise/WBC, the baseline GPx activity decreased by 15.1% (P < 0.05), while on 19th day, it increased by 19.7% (P < 0.05) versus Day 5. On Day 19 TBARS concentration decreased versus baseline and Day 5 (by 15.9% and 17.4%, resp.; P < 0.01). On 19 Day urea concentration also decreased versus 11 Day; however, on 5th and 11th days the level was higher versus baseline. Combining exercise during longer training cycles with WBC may be advantageous.

  7. Excisional keratectomy combined with focal cryotherapy and amniotic membrane inlay for recalcitrant filamentary fungal keratitis: A retrospective comparative clinical data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingxin; Gao, Minghong; Duncan, Joshua K.; Ran, Di; Roe, Denise J.; Belin, Michael W.; Wang, Mingwu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of a novel surgical intervention, excisional keratectomy combined with focal cryotherapy and amniotic membrane inlay (EKCAI), for the treatment of recalcitrant filamentary fungal keratitis. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who underwent excisional keratectomy combined with conjunctival flap inlay (EKCFI), EKCAI or therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty (TPK) from January 2006 to January 2011. Recalcitrance was determined as being unresponsive to standard medical antifungal therapy for at ≥1 week. Outcome measures among the three intervention modalities were compared. A total of 128 patients had a follow-up of ≥1 year after the primary intervention. The success rates of interventions at 1-year follow-up were 58.33% in the EKCFI group, 88.37% in the EKCAI group and 93.44% in the TPK group (P<0.0002). The preoperative visual acuity of the three groups were similar (P=0.6458), while the postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of patients without recurrence was significantly different among the three groups 3 months after surgery. The best postoperative BCVA was found in the TPK group, while the worst was in the EKCFI group. In conclusion, EKCAI does not require donor cornea, is straightforward surgically, and has a favorable success rate compared with EKCFI. PMID:27882109

  8. Evaluation of the risk factors associated with high-dose chemotherapy-induced dysgeusia in patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: possible usefulness of cryotherapy in dysgeusia prevention.

    PubMed

    Okada, Naoto; Hanafusa, Takeshi; Abe, Shinji; Sato, Chiemi; Nakamura, Toshimi; Teraoka, Kazuhiko; Abe, Masahiro; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Ishizawa, Keisuke

    2016-09-01

    Dysgeusia is one of the sporadic adverse effects induced by chemotherapy, but it remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to retrospectively identify the risk factors related with dysgeusia in patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT). Forty-eight patients with myeloma or lymphoma undergoing AHSCT were enrolled in this study. Data regarding dysgeusia and symptoms were collected by interviews conducted by medical workers. Patient characteristics and unfavorable effects induced by dysgeusia were obtained from medical records and analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors related with dysgeusia. Of the 48 patients, 20 (42 %) had dysgeusia after AHSCT. The total period of parenteral nutrition (TPN) administration and period of decreased oral intake in the dysgeusia group were statistically longer than those in the non-dysgeusia group. Multivariate analyses revealed that oral mucositis (odds ratio: 30.3; p < 0.01) and the type of chemotherapy prior to AHSCT (odds ratio: 6.56; p < 0.05) were independent risk factors, while oral cryotherapy was the independent suppressive factor of dysgeusia (odds ratio: 0.14; p < 0.05). Our study showed that dysgeusia after AHSCT led to the decrease in oral intake and extended the TPN administration period. Moreover, MEAM or LEED chemotherapy and oral mucositis were independent risk factors for dysgeusia in patients undergoing AHSCT, while oral cryotherapy was an independent suppressive factor for dysgeusia. Therefore, oral cryotherapy should be implemented into the regimen of supportive care management in patients undergoing AHSCT.

  9. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy vs. far-infrared vs. passive modalities on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in highly-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, François; Pournot, Hervé; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

  10. Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Bieuzen, François; Pournot, Hervé; Fournier, Jean; Filliard, Jean-Robert; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities. PMID:22163272

  11. Temperature-sensitive release of prostaglandin E₂ and diminished energy requirements in synovial tissue with postoperative cryotherapy: a prospective randomized study after knee arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stålman, Anders; Berglund, Lukas; Dungnerc, Elisabeth; Arner, Peter; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2011-11-02

    Local external cooling of the surgical field after joint surgery is intended to enhance recovery and to facilitate the use of outpatient surgery by reducing pain and improving mobility. We hypothesized that the effects of postoperative cooling and compression after knee arthroscopy would be reflected in changes in the concentrations of metabolic and inflammatory markers in the synovial membrane. Forty otherwise healthy patients who were to undergo knee arthroscopy were included in the study, and half were randomized to receive postoperative cooling and compression. Microdialysis of the synovial membrane was performed postoperatively, and the concentrations of prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), glucose, lactate, glycerol, and glutamate as well as the ethanol exchange ratio (which indicates blood flow) were measured. The temperature of the knee was monitored, and postoperative pain was assessed by the patient with use of a visual analog scale, a numeric rating scale, and the need for rescue medication. Application of the cooling and compression device after knee arthroscopy significantly lowered the temperature in the operatively treated knee (as measured on the skin, within the joint capsule, and intra-articularly). The cooling and compression appeared to decrease inflammation, as indicated by a temperature-sensitive decrease in the PGE₂ concentration. The hypothermia also decreased the metabolic rate of the synovial tissue and thus decreased energy requirements, as shown by the stability of the lactate concentration over time despite the decreased blood flow that was indicated by the increasing ethanol exchange ratio. No effect of the compression and cooling on postoperative pain was detected. Local cryotherapy and compression after knee arthroscopy significantly lowered the temperature in the knee postoperatively, and the synovial PGE₂ concentration was correlated with the temperature. Since PGE₂ is a marker of pain and inflammation, the postoperative local

  12. Outcomes after liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy in Barrett's esophagus-associated high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal adenocarcinoma: 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ramay, Fariha H; Cui, Qingping; Greenwald, Bruce D

    2017-10-01

    Liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy (LNSCT) has been shown to be a safe, well-tolerated, and effective therapy for Barrett's esophagus (BE)-associated high-grade dysplasia (BE-HGD) and intramucosal adenocarcinoma (IMC). Long-term follow-up is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, durability, and rate of neoplastic progression after LNSCT in BE-HGD/IMC at 3 and 5 years. In this single-center, retrospective study drawn from a prospective database, patients with BE-HGD/IMC of any length treated with LNSCT were followed with surveillance endoscopy with biopsy for 3 to 5 years. Patients with IMC completely removed by endoscopic resection were included. Outcome measures included complete eradication of HGD (CE-HGD), dysplasia, and intestinal metaplasia; incidence rates; durability of response; location of recurrent intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia; and rate of disease progression. A total of 50 and 40 patients were included in 3-year and 5-year analyses. Initial CE-HGD, dysplasia, and intestinal metaplasia achieved in 98%, 90%, and 60%, respectively. Overall CE-HGD, dysplasia, and intestinal metaplasia at 3 years were 96% (48/50), 94% (47/50), and 82% (41/50), and at 5 years were 93% (37/40), 88% (35/40), and 75% (30/40). Incidence rates of recurrent intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and HGD/esophageal adenocarcinoma per person-year of follow-up after initial complete eradication of intestinal metaplasia (CE-IM) were 12.2%, 4.0%, and 1.4% per person-year for the 5-year cohort. Most recurrences were found immediately below the neosquamocolumnar junction. Two of 7 HGD recurrences occurred later than 4 years after initial eradication, and 2 patients (4%) progressed to adenocarcinoma despite treatment. In patients with BE-HGD/IMC, LNSCT is effective in eliminating dysplasia and intestinal metaplasia. Progression to adenocarcinoma was uncommon, and recurrence of dysplasia was successfully treated in most cases. Long-term surveillance is necessary to

  13. A systematic review of the effects of visual inspection with acetic acid, cryotherapy, and loop electrosurgical excision procedures for cervical dysplasia in HIV-infected women in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Forhan, Sara E; Godfrey, Catherine C; Watts, D Heather; Langley, Carol L

    2015-04-15

    Cervical cancer, almost all of which is caused by human papillomavirus, accounts for 12% of female cancers worldwide and is more common among HIV-infected women. Nine of 10 deaths from cervical cancer occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Simple screening methods and outpatient treatment of precursor lesions save lives but the benefit of these interventions among HIV-infected women is uncertain. We reviewed evidence of the effects of screening with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), and outpatient treatment for cervical precancer among HIV-infected women in LMIC. A systematic review of articles published from January 1995 through July 2013 was conducted using key terms for VIA cervical screening, cervical precancer treatment with cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure, HIV-infected women, low-resource settings, and outcomes, including morbidity and mortality. Of 2159 articles screened, 14 met inclusion criteria; all considered only morbidity outcomes. No articles dealt with the long-term impact of screening/treatment on cervical cancer incidence or mortality among HIV-infected women. Articles reported on performance of VIA, prevalence of cervical dysplasia, and complications and rates of recurrent dysplasia after treatment. Dysplasia prevalence and recurrence were higher among HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected women but morbidity from treatment was similar. Few data exist on long-term outcomes of VIA, cryotherapy, or loop electrosurgical excision procedure interventions among HIV-infected women in LMIC; longer-term outcomes research is needed to assess the effects of VIA or other screening modalities and outpatient treatment on prevention of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women.

  14. Usefulness and safety of oral cryotherapy in the prevention of oral mucositis after conditioning regimens with high-dose melphalan for autologous stem cell transplantation for lymphoma and myeloma.

    PubMed

    Batlle, Montserrat; Morgades, Mireia; Vives, Susana; Ferrà, Christelle; Oriol, Albert; Sancho, Juan-Manuel; Xicoy, Blanca; Moreno, Miriam; Magallón, Laura; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2014-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a common complication of conditioning regimens with high-dose melphalan (HDmel). This retrospective cohort study analyzes the impact of oral cryotherapy (OC) or room temperature saline rinses on the prevention of OM in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) or lymphoid neoplasias submitted to autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in a single center. From August 2006 to July 2011, 134 consecutive patients were enrolled. Two consecutive groups were included: Non-OC (August 2006 to April 2009, 68 patients) and OC (May 2009 to July 2011, 66 cases). MM cases (78, 58%) received HDmel as the conditioning regimen and 56 patients (42%) with lymphoma received BEAM. The non-OC and OC groups were comparable for the main clinicobiologic features and type of neoplasia. OM was more frequent and severe in patients receiving BEAM as the conditioning therapy. The group of OC showed less frequent and less severe mucositis and fewer days on antibiotics. No differences were observed in the duration of OM, need for parenteral nutrition and narcotics, and the length of hospital stay on comparison with the OC and non-OC groups. By multivariate analyses, OC was an independent favorable prognostic factor for OM development. This study shows that OC is more effective than saline rinses in the prevention of OM in patients with lymphoma and myeloma receiving conditioning regimens with HDmel for ASCT. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Can Whole-Body Cryotherapy with Subsequent Kinesiotherapy Procedures in Closed Type Cryogenic Chamber Improve BASDAI, BASFI, and Some Spine Mobility Parameters and Decrease Pain Intensity in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis?

    PubMed

    Stanek, Agata; Cholewka, Armand; Gadula, Jolanta; Drzazga, Zofia; Sieron, Aleksander; Sieron-Stoltny, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) procedures could potentially have more beneficial effects on index of BASDAI and BASFI, pain intensity, and spine mobility parameters: Ott test, modified Schober test, chest expansion in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients, than kinesiotherapy procedures used separately. AS patients were exposed to a cycle of WBC procedures lasting 3 minutes a day, with a subsequent 60 minutes of kinesiotherapy or 60 minutes of kinesiotherapy only, for 10 consecutive days excluding weekend. After the completion of the cycle of WBC procedures with subsequent kinesiotherapy in the AS patients, BASDAI index decreased about 40% in comparison with the input value, whereas in the group of patients who received only kinesiotherapy it decreased only about 15% in comparison with the input value. After the completion of the treatment in the WBC group, BASFI index decreased about 30% in comparison with the input value, whereas in the kinesiotherapy group it only decreased about 16% in comparison with the input value. The important conclusion was that, in WBC group with subsequent kinesiotherapy, we observed on average about twice better results than in the group treated only by kinesiotherapy.

  16. Can Whole-Body Cryotherapy with Subsequent Kinesiotherapy Procedures in Closed Type Cryogenic Chamber Improve BASDAI, BASFI, and Some Spine Mobility Parameters and Decrease Pain Intensity in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis?

    PubMed Central

    Stanek, Agata; Cholewka, Armand; Gadula, Jolanta; Drzazga, Zofia; Sieron, Aleksander; Sieron-Stoltny, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) procedures could potentially have more beneficial effects on index of BASDAI and BASFI, pain intensity, and spine mobility parameters: Ott test, modified Schober test, chest expansion in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients, than kinesiotherapy procedures used separately. AS patients were exposed to a cycle of WBC procedures lasting 3 minutes a day, with a subsequent 60 minutes of kinesiotherapy or 60 minutes of kinesiotherapy only, for 10 consecutive days excluding weekend. After the completion of the cycle of WBC procedures with subsequent kinesiotherapy in the AS patients, BASDAI index decreased about 40% in comparison with the input value, whereas in the group of patients who received only kinesiotherapy it decreased only about 15% in comparison with the input value. After the completion of the treatment in the WBC group, BASFI index decreased about 30% in comparison with the input value, whereas in the kinesiotherapy group it only decreased about 16% in comparison with the input value. The important conclusion was that, in WBC group with subsequent kinesiotherapy, we observed on average about twice better results than in the group treated only by kinesiotherapy. PMID:26273618

  17. Discoid lupus erythematosus treated with cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Molin, L; Tarstedt, M

    2003-09-01

    A female is presented with multiple longstanding hypertrophic discoid lupus erythematosus lesions resistant to topical and systemic therapy for years. She suffered severe itching and pain localized to the lesions. Treatment with cryosurgery resulted in complete healing of the lesions, leaving slightly hypopigmented soft scars. There was no tendency of relapse during a follow-up period of ten years.

  18. Immunotherapy Plus Cryotherapy: Potential Augmented Abscopal Effect for Advanced Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Joe; Cornell, David L.; Mittal, Sumeet K.; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2018-01-01

    Since the 1920s the gold standard for treating cancer has been surgery, which is typically preceded or followed with chemotherapy and/or radiation, a process that perhaps contributes to the destruction of a patient’s immune defense system. Cryosurgery ablation of a solid tumor is mechanistically similar to a vaccination where hundreds of unique antigens from a heterogeneous population of tumor cells derived from the invading cancer are released. However, releasing tumor-derived self-antigens into circulation may not be sufficient enough to overcome the checkpoint escape mechanisms some cancers have evolved to avoid immune responses. The potentiated immune response caused by blocking tumor checkpoints designed to prevent programmed cell death may be the optimal treatment method for the immune system to recognize these new circulating cryoablated self-antigens. Preclinical and clinical evidence exists for the complementary roles for Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA-4) and PD-1 antagonists in regulating adaptive immunity, demonstrating that combination immunotherapy followed by cryosurgery provides a more targeted immune response to distant lesions, a phenomenon known as the abscopal effect. We propose that when the host’s immune system has been “primed” with combined anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 adjuvants prior to cryosurgery, the preserved cryoablated tumor antigens will be presented and processed by the host’s immune system resulting in a robust cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell response. Based on recent investigations and well-described biochemical mechanisms presented herein, a polyvalent autoinoculation of many tumor-specific antigens, derived from a heterogeneous population of tumor cancer cells, would present to an unhindered yet pre-sensitized immune system yielding a superior advantage in locating, recognizing, and destroying tumor cells throughout the body. PMID:29644213

  19. Common peroneal neuropathy related to cryotherapy and compression in a footballer.

    PubMed

    Babwah, Terence

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the effect of excessive cooling with ice, and compression with a plastic wrap on the common peroneal nerve (CPN) for 90 minutes in a professional footballer, which led to a common peroneal nerve palsy and a resulting footdrop. It highlights the need to be cautious with regards to the duration and frequency of icing as well as the choice of anchoring material when applying ice to injured areas that have superficial nerves passing nearby. Full recovery of the CPN function occurred in this athlete after five weeks. The major causes of footdrop and common causes of common peroneal neuropathy are discussed.

  20. Cryotherapy Reinvented: Application of Phase Change Material for Recovery in Elite Soccer.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Tom; Abbott, Will; Kwiecien, Susan Y; Howatson, Glyn; McHugh, Malachy P

    2018-05-01

    To examine whether donning lower-body garments fitted with cooled phase change material (PCM) would enhance recovery after a soccer match. In a randomized, crossover design, 11 elite soccer players from the reserve squad of a team in the second-highest league in England wore PCM cooled to 15°C (PCM cold ) or left at ambient temperature (PCM amb ; sham control) for 3 h after a soccer match. To assess recovery, countermovement jump height, maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), muscle soreness, and the adapted Brief Assessment of Mood Questionnaire (BAM+) were measured before 12, 36, and 60 h after each match. A belief questionnaire was completed preintervention and postintervention to determine the perceived effectiveness of each garment. Results are comparisons between the 2 conditions at each time point postmatch. MIVC at 36 h postmatch was greater with PCM cold versus PCM warm (P = .01; ES = 1.59; 95% CI, 3.9-17.1%). MIVC also tended to be higher at 60 h postmatch (P = .05; ES = 0.85; 95% CI, -0.4% to 11.1%). Muscle soreness was 26.5% lower in PCM cold versus PCM warm at 36 h (P = .02; ES = 1.7; 95% CI, -50.4 to -16.1 mm) and 24.3% lower at 60 h (P = .04; ES = 1.1; 95% CI, -26.9 to -0.874 mm). There were no between-conditions differences in postmatch countermovement jump height or BAM+ (P > .05). The belief questionnaire revealed that players felt the PCM cold was more effective than the PCM amb after the intervention (P = .004). PCM cooling garments provide a practical means of delivering prolonged postexercise cooling and thereby accelerate recovery in elite soccer players.

  1. Changes in morphology of long bone marrow tissue of rats submitted to cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Pessoa, Rosana Maria Andrade; Nogueira, Carlos Bruno Pinheiro; Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Soares, Eduardo Costa Studart

    2012-02-01

    To study the main effects of local use of liquid nitrogen on bone marrow tissue in rats. The femoral diaphyses of 42 Wistar rats were exposed to three local and sequential applications of liquid nitrogen for one or two minutes, intercalated with periods of five minutes of passive thawing. The animals were sacrificed after one, two, four and 12 weeks and the specimens obtained were analyzed histomorphologically. In the second experimental week of one-minute protocol, histological degree of inflammation obtained a mean score of one (mild), ranging from 0 (absent or scarce) and two (moderate) (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0.01). In the second experimental week of two-minute protocol, degree of inflammation to the medullar tissue obtained an average score of two (Kruskal-Wallis test p=0.01). The degree of inflammation of the bone marrow tissue was higher in protocol of three applications of two minutes compared to protocol of three applications of one minute.

  2. Irreversible Electroporation for Prostate Cancer as Salvage Treatment Following Prior Radiation and Cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Murray, Katie S; Akin, Oguz; Coleman, Jonathan A

    2017-01-01

    Salvage treatment options after localized primary treatment failure of prostate cancer are limited and associated with risk for serious complications. We report on the management details of a 57-year-old African American man treated with partial-gland ablation using irreversible electroporation following local recurrence after brachytherapy and prior salvage cryoablation. Therapeutic and functional outcomes were assessed by conventional means, including serum prostate-specific antigen values and prostate biopsy results.

  3. Cold-water immersion (cryotherapy) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Chris; McDonough, Suzanne; Gardner, Evie; Baxter, G David; Hopkins, J Ty; Davison, Gareth W

    2012-02-15

    Many strategies are in use with the intention of preventing or minimising delayed onset muscle soreness and fatigue after exercise. Cold-water immersion, in water temperatures of less than 15°C, is currently one of the most popular interventional strategies used after exercise. To determine the effects of cold-water immersion in the management of muscle soreness after exercise. In February 2010, we searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library (2010, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), British Nursing Index and archive (BNI), and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). We also searched the reference lists of articles, handsearched journals and conference proceedings and contacted experts.In November 2011, we updated the searches of CENTRAL (2011, Issue 4), MEDLINE (up to November Week 3 2011), EMBASE (to 2011 Week 46) and CINAHL (to 28 November 2011) to check for more recent publications. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing the effect of using cold-water immersion after exercise with: passive intervention (rest/no intervention), contrast immersion, warm-water immersion, active recovery, compression, or a different duration/dosage of cold-water immersion. Primary outcomes were pain (muscle soreness) or tenderness (pain on palpation), and subjective recovery (return to previous activities without signs or symptoms). Three authors independently evaluated study quality and extracted data. Some of the data were obtained following author correspondence or extracted from graphs in the trial reports. Where possible, data were pooled using the fixed-effect model. Seventeen small trials were included, involving a total of 366 participants. Study quality was low. The temperature, duration and frequency of cold-water immersion varied between the different trials as did the exercises and settings. The majority of studies failed to report active surveillance of pre-defined adverse events.Fourteen studies compared cold-water immersion with passive intervention. Pooled results for muscle soreness showed statistically significant effects in favour of cold-water immersion after exercise at 24 hour (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.55, 95% CI -0.84 to -0.27; 10 trials), 48 hour (SMD -0.66, 95% CI -0.97 to -0.35; 8 trials), 72 hour (SMD -0.93; 95% CI -1.36 to -0.51; 4 trials) and 96 hour (SMD -0.58; 95% CI -1.00 to -0.16; 5 trials) follow-ups. These results were heterogeneous. Exploratory subgroup analyses showed that studies using cross-over designs or running based exercises showed significantly larger effects in favour of cold-water immersion. Pooled results from two studies found cold-water immersion groups had significantly lower ratings of fatigue (MD -1.70; 95% CI -2.49 to -0.90; 10 units scale, best to worst), and potentially improved ratings of physical recovery (MD 0.97; 95% CI -0.10 to 2.05; 10 units scale, worst to best) immediately after the end of cold-water immersion.Five studies compared cold-water with contrast immersion. Pooled data for pain showed no evidence of differences between the two groups at four follow-up times (immediately, 24, 48 and 72 hours after treatment). Similar findings for pooled analyses at 24, 48 and 72 hour follow-ups applied to the four studies comparing cold-water with warm-water immersion. Single trials only compared cold-water immersion with respectively active recovery, compression and a second dose of cold-water immersion at 24 hours. There was some evidence that cold-water immersion reduces delayed onset muscle soreness after exercise compared with passive interventions involving rest or no intervention. There was insufficient evidence to conclude on other outcomes or for other comparisons. The majority of trials did not undertake active surveillance of pre-defined adverse events. High quality, well reported research in this area is required.

  4. Cryotherapy with concurrent CpG oligonucleotide treatment controls local tumor recurrence and modulates HER2/neu immunity.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Jesse J; Gibson, Heather M; Littrup, Peter J; Reyes, Joyce D; Cher, Michael L; Takashima, Akira; Wei, Wei-Zen

    2014-10-01

    Percutaneous cryoablation is a minimally invasive procedure for tumor destruction, which can potentially initiate or amplify antitumor immunity through the release of tumor-associated antigens. However, clinically efficacious immunity is lacking and regional recurrences are a limiting factor relative to surgical excision. To understand the mechanism of immune activation by cryoablation, comprehensive analyses of innate immunity and HER2/neu humoral and cellular immunity following cryoablation with or without peritumoral CpG injection were conducted using two HER2/neu(+) tumor systems in wild-type (WT), neu-tolerant, and SCID mice. Cryoablation of neu(+) TUBO tumor in BALB/c mice resulted in systemic immune priming, but not in neu-tolerant BALB NeuT mice. Cryoablation of human HER2(+) D2F2/E2 tumor enabled the functionality of tumor-induced immunity, but secondary tumors were refractory to antitumor immunity if rechallenge occurred during the resolution phase of the cryoablated tumor. A step-wise increase in local recurrence was observed in WT, neu-tolerant, and SCID mice, indicating a role of adaptive immunity in controlling residual tumor foci. Importantly, local recurrences were eliminated or greatly reduced in WT, neu tolerant, and SCID mice when CpG was incorporated in the cryoablation regimen, showing significant local control by innate immunity. For long-term protection, however, adaptive immunity was required because most SCID mice eventually succumbed to local tumor recurrence even with combined cryoablation and CpG treatment. This improved understanding of the mechanisms by which cryoablation affects innate and adaptive immunity will help guide appropriate combination of therapeutic interventions to improve treatment outcomes. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. The Effect of Post-Exercise Cryotherapy on Recovery Characteristics: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hohenauer, Erich; Taeymans, Jan; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Clarys, Peter; Clijsen, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review and meta-analysis was to critically determine the possible effects of different cooling applications, compared to non-cooling, passive post-exercise strategies, on recovery characteristics after various, exhaustive exercise protocols up to 96 hours (hrs). A total of n = 36 articles were processed in this study. To establish the research question, the PICO-model, according to the PRISMA guidelines was used. The Cochrane's risk of bias tool, which was used for the quality assessment, demonstrated a high risk of performance bias and detection bias. Meta-analyses of subjective characteristics, such as delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and objective characteristics like blood plasma markers and blood plasma cytokines, were performed. Pooled data from 27 articles revealed, that cooling and especially cold water immersions affected the symptoms of DOMS significantly, compared to the control conditions after 24 hrs recovery, with a standardized mean difference (Hedges' g) of -0.75 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of -1.20 to -0.30. This effect remained significant after 48 hrs (Hedges' g: -0.73, 95% CI: -1.20 to -0.26) and 96 hrs (Hedges' g: -0.71, 95% CI: -1.10 to -0.33). A significant difference in lowering the symptoms of RPE could only be observed after 24 hrs of recovery, favouring cooling compared to the control conditions (Hedges' g: -0.95, 95% CI: -1.89 to -0.00). There was no evidence, that cooling affects any objective recovery variable in a significant way during a 96 hrs recovery period.

  6. The Effect of Post-Exercise Cryotherapy on Recovery Characteristics: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hohenauer, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review and meta-analysis was to critically determine the possible effects of different cooling applications, compared to non-cooling, passive post-exercise strategies, on recovery characteristics after various, exhaustive exercise protocols up to 96 hours (hrs). A total of n = 36 articles were processed in this study. To establish the research question, the PICO-model, according to the PRISMA guidelines was used. The Cochrane’s risk of bias tool, which was used for the quality assessment, demonstrated a high risk of performance bias and detection bias. Meta-analyses of subjective characteristics, such as delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and objective characteristics like blood plasma markers and blood plasma cytokines, were performed. Pooled data from 27 articles revealed, that cooling and especially cold water immersions affected the symptoms of DOMS significantly, compared to the control conditions after 24 hrs recovery, with a standardized mean difference (Hedges’ g) of -0.75 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of -1.20 to -0.30. This effect remained significant after 48 hrs (Hedges’ g: -0.73, 95% CI: -1.20 to -0.26) and 96 hrs (Hedges’ g: -0.71, 95% CI: -1.10 to -0.33). A significant difference in lowering the symptoms of RPE could only be observed after 24 hrs of recovery, favouring cooling compared to the control conditions (Hedges’ g: -0.95, 95% CI: -1.89 to -0.00). There was no evidence, that cooling affects any objective recovery variable in a significant way during a 96 hrs recovery period. PMID:26413718

  7. Cryotherapy by encapsulation-dehydration is effective for in vitro eradication of latent viruses from ‘Marubakaido’ apple rootstock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) are several major viral pathogens of apple trees, responsible for substantial damage to the world's apple industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of encapsulation-dehydratio...

  8. Cryotherapy of Renal Lesions: Enhancement on Contrast-Enhanced Sonography on Postoperative Day 1 Does Not Imply Viable Tissue Persistence.

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, Michele; Siracusano, Salvatore; Cicero, Calogero; Iannelli, Mariano; Silvestri, Tommaso; Celia, Antonio; Guarise, Alessandro; Stacul, Fulvio

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether persistent enhancement detected on contrast-enhanced sonography at postoperative day 1 (early contrast-enhanced sonography) after cryoablation of renal tumors implies the presence of residual viable tumor tissue, defined as residual enhancing tissue on reference imaging (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging) performed 6 months after the procedure. Seventy-four patients with percutaneous cryoablation of renal tumors had early contrast-enhanced sonography from November 2011 to August 2015. Two independent readers evaluated early contrast-enhanced sonographic findings and contrast-enhanced sonographic investigations performed 1 month after cryoablation of lesions that displayed enhancement on early contrast-enhanced sonography. They scored intralesional enhancement in 4 groups: no enhancement, few intralesional vessels, focal enhancing areas, and diffuse enhancement. Inter-reader agreement in evaluating lesion vascularity on early contrast-enhanced sonography was assessed with weighted κ statistics. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging performed 6 months after the treatment was the reference procedure for assessing the absence or presence of residual disease. Inter-reader agreement in assessing intratumoral vascularization on early contrast-enhanced sonography was very good (κ = 0.90). Enhancement was absent for both readers in 33 of 74 cases; only a few intralesional vessels were visible in 21; whereas diffuse or focal enhancement was present in 13. In the remaining 7 patients, there were differences. Four lesions with focal enhancement on early contrast-enhanced sonography and 1 that was considered avascular had residual tumors on reference imaging. Ablation was successful in the remaining 69 of 74 patients (93%). After cryoablation, intratumoral enhancement on early contrast-enhanced sonography does not imply tumor cell viability. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Cryotherapy in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy and Nail Toxicity in Patients With Breast Cancer Who Are Receiving Paclitaxel

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-09

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Pain; Peripheral Neuropathy; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-related Toxicity

  10. Salvage cryotherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after radiation failure: a prospective case series of the first 100 patients.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mohamed; Ahmed, Shwan; Kastner, Christof; Davies, John

    2007-10-01

    To report the short- to intermediate-term experience of using salvage targeted cryoablation of the prostate (TCAP) for the recurrence of localized prostate cancer after radiotherapy. Between May 2000 and November 2005, 100 patients had salvage TCAP for recurrent prostate cancer after radiotherapy; the mean follow-up was 33.5 months. All patients had biopsy-confirmed recurrent prostate cancer. Biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) was defined using a prostate specific antigen (PSA) level of <0.5 ng/mL and by applying the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) definition for biochemical failure. Patients were stratified into three risk groups, i.e. high-risk (68 men), intermediate-risk (20) and low-risk (12). There were no operative or cancer-related deaths; the 5-year actuarial BRFS was 73%, 45% and 11% for the low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, respectively. Complications included incontinence (13%), erectile dysfunction (86%), lower urinary tract symptoms (16%), prolonged perineal pain (4%), urinary retention (2%), and recto-urethral fistula (1%). Salvage TCAP is a safe and effective treatment for localized prostate cancer recurrence after radiotherapy.

  11. Analysis of laterality and percentage of tumor involvement in 1386 prostatectomized specimens for selection of unilateral focal cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mouraviev, Vladimir; Mayes, Janice M; Madden, John F; Sun, Leon; Polascik, Thomas J

    2007-04-01

    In total, 1386 paraffin embedded radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) excised between 2002-06 were analyzed. Pathologic assessment paid particular attention to laterality and percentage of tumor involvement (PTI) along with pathologic Gleason Score (pGS). Completely unilateral cancers were identified in 254 (18.3%) patients, and in 39% cases of them the signs of clinically significant PCa were revealed. The majority of unilateral tumors (72%) were low volume with a PTI of < or =5. This study suggests that only a select group of men diagnosed with PCa have completely unilateral cancers that would be amenable to focal ablation therapy targeting 1 lobe. Further study is needed to develop predictive models for those patients likely to have small, unilateral cancers that may be amenable to focal therapy.

  12. [New methodological aspects in the use of cryotherapy, ultrasound, magnetotherapy and therapeutic physical exercise in the rehabilitation of gonarthrosis patients].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, V D; Fedorova, N E

    1996-01-01

    Gonarthritis complicated by synovitis was treated by cryo-ultrasound or cryo-magnetotherapy in combination with therapeutic exercise. The comparison of the response has shown that both complexes are highly effective. In the absence of concomitant diseases and contraindications to ultrasound it is better to use cryo-ultrasound and exercise, otherwise cryo-magnetotherapy and exercise is preferential.

  13. Combining thermotherapy with cryotherapy for efficient eradication of Apple stem grooving virus from infected in vitro-cultured apple shoots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Almost all of the literature reporting on the cryopreservation of shoot tips does not specify the sanitary status of the stock material from which shoot tips were taken. The effect of the presence of viruses in plant tissues on the recovery of shoot tips after cryopreservation has not been previousl...

  14. Whole-body cryostimulation (cryotherapy) provides benefits for fatigue and functional status in multiple sclerosis patients. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Miller, E; Kostka, J; Włodarczyk, T; Dugué, B

    2016-12-01

    To study the effects of whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) on fatigue and functional status in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with different levels of fatigue. Two groups of 24 MS patients with fatigue were studied. At the beginning of the study, the first group presented a Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score between 38 and 42 (low-fatigue (LF) group), and the second group had an FSS score between 48 and 52 (high-fatigue (HF) group). Both groups were matched for age and sex. All patients were exposed to 10.3-min session of WBC (one exposure per day at -110°C or lower). Functional status was assessed before and after the series of WBC exposures using the Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA), the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), and the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The RMA was estimated in three sections: gross function (RMA1), leg and trunk (RMA2), and arm (RMA3). MSIS-29 consists of two subscales assessing the physical (MSIS-29-PHYS) and psychological (MSIS-29-PSYCH) status. In both groups, the WBC sessions induced a significant improvement in the functional status and in the feeling of fatigue. However, the changes observed in HF patients were significantly greater than those observed in LF patients, especially in the MSIS-29-PHYS, MSIS-29-PSYCH, RMA1, and RMA3. The changes observed in the EDSS, RMA2, and FSS were similar in both groups. WBC appears to be effective in improving functional status and the feeling of fatigue in patients with MS and especially in those who are the most fatigued. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Modeling Cryotherapy Ice Ball Dimensions and Isotherms in a Novel Gel-based Model to Determine Optimal Cryo-needle Configurations and Settings for Potential Use in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Taimur T.; Arbel, Uri; Foss, Sonja; Zachman, Andrew; Rodney, Simon; Ahmed, Hashim U.; Arya, Manit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To gain a better understanding of ice ball dimensions and temperature isotherms relevant for cell kill when using combinations of cryo-needles we set out to answer 4 questions: (1) what type of cryo-needle? (2) how many needles? (3) best spatial configuration? and (4) correct duty cycle percentage? Methods We conducted laboratory experiments to monitor ice ball dimensions and create multi-needle planar isotherm maps for 17G and 10G cryo-needles using a novel multi-needle thermocouple fixture within gel at body temperature. We tested configurations of 1-4 cryo-needles at duty cycles of 20%-100% with 1-2.5 cm spacing. Results Analysis of various combinations shows that a central core of ≤−40°C develops at a distance of ~1 cm around the cryo-needles. Temperature increases linearly from this point to the ice ball leading edge (0°C), which is a further ≈1 cm away. Thus, the −40°C isotherm is approximately 1 cm inside the leading edge of the ice ball. The optimum distance between cryo-needles was 1.5-2 cm, at duty cycle settings of 70%-100%. At distances further apart or with lower duty cycle settings, ice balls either had a central core >−40°C or had an hourglass shape. Conclusion In answer to questions 1-3, tumor length, diameter, and shape will ultimately determine the number of needles and their configuration. However, we propose a conservative distance for cryo-needle placement between 1 and 1.5 cm should be adopted for clinical practice. In answer to question 4, using low duty cycle settings runs the risk of incomplete −40°C isotherm coverage of the tumor, and thus in routine practice we suggest that settings of 70%-100% are most appropriate. PMID:26902833

  16. Cryosurgical treatment of warts: dimethyl ether and propane versus liquid nitrogen - case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nicholas V; Burkhart, Craig G

    2011-10-01

    For years, dermatologists have relied on cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen as a safe and effective treatment for warts. More recently, several over-the-counter (OTC) wart-freezing therapies have become available. Manufacturers have substituted liquid nitrogen with dimethyl ether and propane (DMEP), and marketed these new preparations to be safe and effective alternatives to in-office cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. However, data from in vitro studies and comparative studies in humans refute manufacturers' claims that these products reproduce in-office cryotherapy.

  17. Keloid scar (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue at the site of a healed skin injury. They often create a thick, puckered effect simulating a tumor. Keloids may be reduced in size by freezing (cryotherapy), external pressure, corticosteroid injections, laser treatments, radiation, or surgical removal.

  18. Proof-of-Concept of a Revolutionary Cooling Shirt with a Thermal Manikin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    involving high levels of physical activity or exposure to high temperature environments including military, fire protection, and sports . Battlefield...spandex. Pockets of the same material were created to fully encapsulate the lightweight cryotherapy pad. The cooling medium is flame resistant to 815°C...effect on the manikin. Per manufacturer recommendation, the cryotherapy pads were stored in a refrigerator at 10°C to obtain a maximum effect. New pads

  19. A systematic review of cost-effective treatment of postoperative rotator cuff repairs.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Rebecca N; Kuhn, John E; Bergner, Jamie L; Rizzone, Katherine H

    2017-05-01

    The Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative combines payment of multiple services for episodes of care into 1 bundle. Rotator cuff repair is a likely candidate for future inclusion. The objective of this study was to determine cost-effective, high-quality postoperative rehabilitation dosing and cryotherapy for patients undergoing rotator cuff repair based on systematic review of the literature. Systematic review of level I and level II articles was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Databases, and PEDro. Conference references and bibliographies were also reviewed. For postoperative therapy, keywords included rotator cuff, rotator cuff repair, exercise therapy, exercise, unsupervised, self-care, postoperative period, physical therapy, and physiotherapy; for cryotherapy, keywords included rotator cuff repair, shoulder, cryotherapy, and ice. Five studies compared postoperative outcomes in participants assigned to supervised therapy vs. unsupervised therapy. Three found no difference between groups. One found improved outcomes in supervised therapy. Limitations included that therapies were not consistently defined and significant methodologic issues were present, decreasing the applicability and validity of the results. Five articles examined cryotherapy outcomes in the postoperative shoulder. Two studies showed improved patient outcomes with cryotherapy vs. no cryotherapy; 2 studies showed no decrease in joint space temperatures at 90 minutes but decrease in temperature at 4 to 23 hours postoperatively. One study indicated that an ice bag and Ace bandage might be as effective as continuous, compressive cryotherapy units using patient-reported outcomes. Further studies are needed to determine effective dosing of physical therapy after rotator cuff repair. Cryotherapy is favorable and cost-effective using simple methods for delivery. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Barrett's esophagus: endoscopic treatments II

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Bruce D.; Lightdale, Charles J.; Abrams, Julian A.; Horwhat, John D.; Chuttani, Ram; Komanduri, Srinadh; Upton, Melissa P.; Appelman, Henry D.; Shields, Helen M.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Sontag, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The following on endoscopic treatments of Barrett's esophagus includes commentaries on animal experiments on cryotherapy; indications for cryotherapy, choice of dosimetry, number of sessions, and role in Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma; recent technical developments of RFA technology and long-term effects; the comparative effects of diverse ablation procedures and the rate of recurrence following treatment; and the indications for treatment of dysplasia and the role of radiofrequency ablation. PMID:21950812

  1. Cervical cancer prevention: safety, acceptability, and feasibility of a single-visit approach in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Paul D; Gaffikin, Lynne; Deganus, Sylvia; Lewis, Robbyn; Emerson, Mark; Adadevoh, Sydney

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and acceptability of a single-visit approach to cervical cancer prevention combining visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid wash (VIA) and cryotherapy. The study was observational. Nine clinicians were trained in VIA and cryotherapy. Over 18 months 3665 women were VIA-tested. If positive and eligible, cryotherapy was offered immediately. Treated women were followed-up at 3 months and 1 year. The test-positive rate was 13.2%. Of those eligible, 70.2% and 21% received immediate or delayed treatment, respectively. No major complications were recorded, and 5.6% presented for a perceived problem post-cryotherapy. Among those treated over 90% expressed satisfaction with their experience, and 96% had an indentifiable squamo-columnar junction. Only 2.6% (6/232) were test positive, 1-year posttreatment. A single-visit approach using VIA and cryotherapy proved to be safe, acceptable, and feasible in an urban African setting.

  2. Cryobiotechnology of apple (Malus spp.): development, progress and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min-Rui; Chen, Long; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2018-05-01

    Cryopreservation provides valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improves the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. Apple (Malus spp.) is one of the most economically important temperate fruit crops. Wild Malus genetic resources and existing cultivars provide valuable genes for breeding new elite cultivars and rootstocks through traditional and biotechnological breeding programs. These valuable genes include those resistant to abiotic factors such as drought and salinity, and to biotic factors such as fungi, bacteria and aphids. Over the last three decades, great progress has been made in apple cryobiology, making Malus one of the most extensively studied plant genera with respect to cryopreservation. Explants such as pollen, seeds, in vivo dormant buds, and in vitro shoot tips have all been successfully cryopreserved, and large Malus cryobanks have been established. Cryotherapy has been used for virus eradication, to obtain virus-free apple plants. Cryopreservation provided valuable genes for further breeding of elite cultivars, and cryotherapy improved the production of virus-free plants in Malus spp., thus assisting the sustainable development of the apple industry. This review provides updated and comprehensive information on the development and progress of apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy. Future research will reveal new applications and uses for apple cryopreservation and cryotherapy.

  3. Cold therapy to prevent paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Claire; Kwon, Nancy; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Paice, Judith A

    2018-04-21

    This case-control study was designed to assess the efficacy of cryotherapy to prevent paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy in women with breast cancer. Participants served as their own paired control, with randomization of the cooled glove/sock to either the dominant or the non-dominant hand/foot, worn for 15 min prior to, during, and 15 min after completion of the paclitaxel infusion. Outcome measures included the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory, the Brief Pain Inventory, and quantitative sensory testing. Data were measured at each of six time points-baseline, post-treatment (approximately 2 weeks after the last paclitaxel infusion), and at the first, fifth, ninth, and final weekly paclitaxel treatments. Of 29 randomized participants, 20 (69%) received at least one cryotherapy treatment, and 11 (38%) received all four cryotherapy treatments. Ten (34%) participants could not tolerate the cryotherapy, and six (21%) declined further participation at some point during the trial. Only seven participants (24%) were available for the final post-chemotherapy QST and questionnaires. There were no significant differences in measures of neuropathy or pain between treated and untreated hands or feet. Strategies to prevent painful peripheral neuropathy are urgently needed. In this current trial, dropout due to discomfort precluded adequate power to fully understand the potential benefits of cryotherapy. Much more research is needed to discover safe and effective preventive strategies that can be easily implemented within busy infusion centers.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of 5-fluorouracil 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% in the treatment of actinic keratosis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Diana; Puig-Peiró, Ruth; Ferrándiz, Carlos; Plazas, Maria Josep; Brosa, Max

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of 5-fluorouracil 0.5%/salicylic acid 10% (5-FU/SA) in the treatment of isolated hyperkeratotic actinic keratosis lesions in Spain. An analytical decision-making model was constructed to compare whether 5-FU/SA was a cost-effective option compared with cryotherapy from the perspective of the Spanish National Health System with a time horizon of 6 months. Costs were expressed in 2014 euros. The cost of patients with hyperkeratotic actinic keratosis treated with 5-FU/SA or cryotherapy was €266 and €285, respectively. 5-FU/SA was associated with higher rates of treatment success and, consequently, more quality-adjusted life years, than cryotherapy. Therefore, 5-FU/SA was the dominant treatment, as it was associated with a lower treatment cost and greater effectiveness than cryotherapy. Economically, 5-FU/SA was a dominant option compared with cryotherapy in the treatment of isolated hyperkeratotic actinic keratosis lesions in Spain.

  5. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    SciTech Connect

    Nuovo, G.J.; Pedemonte, B.M.

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINsmore » in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.« less

  6. Clinical management and risk reduction in women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cytology: A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Yi-Jou; Chen, Yun-Yuan; Hsu, Huang-Cheng; Chiang, Chun-Ju; You, San-Lin; Chen, Hui-Chi; Chen, Chi-An; Cheng, Wen-Fang

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed the management and risk of subsequent cervical intraepithelial neoplasm 3 (CIN3) and invasive cervical cancer in women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology. A total of 53,293 women with a new diagnosis of cytologic LSIL were identified in Taiwan’s national cervical screening registration database. Based on the retrieved clinical management data, the incidence of subsequent CIN3+ lesions was determined, and the hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. The average follow-up was 5.02 years. A total of 988 women developed CIN3+ lesions during this period, with an overall incidence of 369.3 women per 100,000 person-years. Cryotherapy and conization/loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) decreased the subsequent risk of CIN3+ lesions in women younger than 50 years (HR 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37–0.64, p<0.0001 for cryotherapy; HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.27–0.55, p<0.0001 for LEEP). Cryotherapy and conization/LEEP were two significant protective factors for developing CIN3+ lesions, especially in women with biopsy-proven CIN1 (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.37–0.82, p = 0.003 for cryotherapy; HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.24–0.77, p = 0.005 for LEEP). These results suggest that when women are first screened LSIL and lack prior abnormal cervical cytology, cryotherapy should be one of the treatment options. Younger women with a histological biopsy diagnosis of CIN1 were most likely to benefit from cryotherapy. PMID:29284025

  7. Quality of life after open or robotic prostatectomy, cryoablation or brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, John B; Fabrizio, Michael D; Barone, Bethany B; Given, Robert W; Lance, Raymond S; Lynch, Donald F; Davis, John W; Shaves, Mark E; Schellhammer, Paul F

    2010-05-01

    Health related quality of life concerns factor prominently in prostate cancer management. We describe health related quality of life impact and recovery profiles of 4 commonly used operative treatments for localized prostate cancer. Beginning in February 2000 all patients treated with open radical prostatectomy, robot assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy, brachytherapy or cryotherapy were asked to complete the UCLA-PCI questionnaire before treatment, and at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months after treatment. Outcomes were compared across treatment types with statistical analysis using univariate and multivariate models. A total of 785 patients treated between February 2000 and December 2008 were included in the analysis with a mean followup of 24 months. All health related quality of life domains were adversely affected by all treatments and recovery profiles varied significantly by treatment type. Overall urinary function and bother outcomes scored significantly higher after brachytherapy and cryotherapy compared to open radical prostatectomy and robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Brachytherapy and cryotherapy had a 3-fold higher rate of return to baseline urinary function compared to open radical prostatectomy and robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Sexual function and bother scores were highest after brachytherapy, with a 5-fold higher rate of return to baseline function compared to cryotherapy, open radical prostatectomy and robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. All 4 treatments were associated with relatively transient and less pronounced impact on bowel function and bother. In a study of sequential health related quality of life assessments brachytherapy and cryotherapy were associated with higher urinary function and bother scores compared to open radical prostatectomy and da Vinci prostatectomy. Brachytherapy was associated with higher sexual function and bother scores compared to open radical prostatectomy

  8. Conjunctival papilloma: features and outcomes based on age at initial examination.

    PubMed

    Kaliki, Swathi; Arepalli, Sruthi; Shields, Carol L; Klein, Kendra; Sun, Hong; Hysenj, Eralda; Lally, Sara E; Shields, Jerry A

    2013-05-01

    Conjunctival papilloma is a benign epithelial tumor occurring in both children and adults with varying clinical features and outcomes. In this article, we describe our experience regarding the difference in the clinical features and outcomes of conjunctival papilloma based on age at initial examination. To evaluate the clinical features, treatment, and outcomes in patients with conjunctival papilloma based on age at initial examination. Retrospective study. Ocular Oncology Service, Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Ten children and adolescents (aged ≤20 years) and 63 adults (aged >20 years) with conjunctival papilloma. Excisional biopsy, cryotherapy, oral cimetidine, topical or injection interferon alfa-2b, and photodynamic therapy. Tumor response. A comparison of conjunctival papillomas between age groups revealed significant differences in the mean number of tumors per eye (children and adolescents vs adults, 2 vs 1; P = .05), tumor basal dimension (8 vs 6 mm; P = .05), and associated feeder vessels (20% vs 47%; P = .05). Primary treatment included sole treatment with oral cimetidine (15% vs 5%), topical interferon alfa-2b (0% vs 1%), cryotherapy (0% vs 3%), photodynamic therapy (0% vs 1%), excisional biopsy and cryotherapy (38% vs 65%), excisional biopsy and cryotherapy with adjuvant oral cimetidine (8% vs 9%), and excisional biopsy and cryotherapy with adjuvant topical or injection interferon alfa-2b (38% vs 15%). Significant differences in age groups in treatment outcome during the follow-up period (mean, 24 vs 38 months) included complete regression with single treatment (38% vs 95%; P < .01) and tumor recurrence (15% vs 1%; P = .05). Conjunctival papillomas are larger and more likely to be multiple in children and adolescents than in adults. Excisional biopsy and cryotherapy with or without adjuvant oral cimetidine and/or topical interferon alfa-2b provide satisfactory tumor control. Papilloma recurrence is more common in children and

  9. Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... form over warts on your foot or around nails. Your provider may recommend the following treatments if your warts do not go away: Stronger (prescription) medicines A blistering solution Freezing the wart ( cryotherapy ) to remove it Burning the wart ( electrocautery ) to ...

  10. Maintenance Manual for NATICK’s Footwear Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    no text specified 50 75 "all 50 67 "y" 30 44 "Load" 18 18 "Load, sport shoes and playing surfaces" 15 15 38 records 73 records (time in seconds... Cryotherapy may relieve pain in mild cases, but ultrasound and electrogalvanic stimulation are not consistently effective forms of therapy. Aspirin or

  11. User Manual for NATICK’s Footwear Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    seconds) no text specified 50 75 "a" 50 67 "y" 30 44 "Load" 18 18 "Load, sport shoes and playing surfaces" 15 15 38 records 73 records (time in seconds...Achilles tendon eases the plantar fascia and helps prevent recurrence of the injury. Cryotherapy may relieve pain in mild cases, but ultrasound and

  12. [A rare form of granuloma annulare].

    PubMed

    Bogdanowski, T; Wygledowska-Kania, M

    1995-01-01

    We present a four-year-old girl with a doubly rare form of granuloma annulare with non-typical localisation of superficial nodules on the palms and predisposition to ulceration which is very rare in this type of superficial nodules. The diagnosis was proved by histological examination. After the local cryotherapy (ethyl chloride) the lesions almost completely disappeared.

  13. [Physical therapy for scars].

    PubMed

    Masanovic, Marguerite Guillot

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy consists notably of hand or mechanical massages, pressure therapy using various fabrics or splints, cryotherapy, laser therapy, etc. It forms part of the range of therapies used to treat pathological scars, including medical and surgical treatment. While the results are often satisfactory for hypertrophic scars, they remain uncertain for major keloids.

  14. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, Volume 7, Edition 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    distinctive banana -shaped gametocytes. Al- though P. falciparum does not exhibit relapse, infection by this parasite can exhibit recrudescence. This...obliterated (either with cryotherapy, chemical peels , or topical chemotherapeutic agents), to decrease the risk of developing Bowen’s disease or invasive

  15. Development of a Multimarker Urine Test for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    which can, for example, range dramatically from monitoring, in the case of low-risk cancers, to radiation or surgical procedures for higher risk...surgery, radiation , hormone therapy, chemotherapy, brachytherapy, cryotherapy, ultrasound, bisphosphate therapy, biologic 15 therapy, or vaccine therapy...a monokine involved in the acute inflammatory state of polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment and activation. CCL3 is expressed in many cell types

  16. Bioengineering Multifunctional Quantum Dot-Polypeptide Assemblies and Immunoconjugates for the Ablation of Advanced Prostate Cancer Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    disease [1]. Localized prostate cancer is generally treated with surgery (radical prostatectomy), radiation therapy, or cryotherapy [2]. However, disease...receiving radical radiotherapy were left with residual disease [3]. Currently, patients with recurrent, locally advanced, or metastatic prostate cancer are...treated by androgen deprivation alone or in combination with local therapy. Although most patients initially respond to androgen deprivation, a large

  17. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 39. Competency Curriculum for Physical Therapy Assistant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-31

    4 4. Hydrotherapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5. Therapeutic Pool. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6. Cryotherapy...Preparation ..... ........ . 2 2 Patient Transfer ........... ... 3 1 3 Patient Preparation ............ 4 1 4 Hydrotherapy ..... . . . . . . . . . 5 5... HYDROTHERAPY TASKS a. Modify hydrotherapy treatment according to patient’s tolerance b. Treat patient in whirlpool c. Give moist air Baker treatment d

  18. The Role of Cryosurgery of the Prostate for Nonsurgical Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Nayeemuddin, Mohammed; Maddox, Michael; Pareek, Gyan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Technological advancements have reduced the morbidity associated with cryosurgery, leading to an increased interest in this modality for the treatment of organ-confined prostate cancer. In this study, we critically examine the current role of cryoablation of the prostate to better understand how to counsel patients regarding this treatment option. Methods: A database was compiled over a 3-year period (2008–2011) of 30 patients who underwent cryoablation for organ-confined prostate cancer. Indications for cryosurgery included primary treatment, focal treatment (institutional review board–approved prospective study), and salvage cryotherapy for radiation failure. The primary outcomes were biochemical response via prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement and morbidity associated with cryoablation. Cryotherapy failure was defined as an increasing postcryotherapy PSA level ≥ 2 ng/mL above the post-treatment nadir, a positive prostate biopsy, or radiographic evidence of metastatic disease. Results: Of the 30 patients who underwent cryoablation from 2008 to 2011, 26 patients had complete follow-up data for analysis. Of these patients, 17 (65.38%) had total gland cryotherapy, 5 (19.23%) had salvage cryotherapy for radiation failure, and 4 (15.38%) had focal cryotherapy. The mean patient age was 68 years (54–89); median preoperative PSA was 5.5 ng/mL (1.7–15.9); median prostate volume was 35 mL (15–54); mean Gleason score was 7; and the median PSA at study conclusion was 0.7 (0.02–3.4) ng/mL. Of the 17 patients who had total prostate cryotherapy, 11 (64.7%) had significant factors precluding primary treatment by a surgical and/or radiation approach, including neurological disorders (2), morbid obesity (1), rectal cancer treated with radiation (1), kidney/pancreas transplant (2), ileoanal pouch secondary to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (1), renal failure (1), and age (3).There were no intra- or postoperative complications. After a median

  19. Safety, acceptability, and feasibility of a single-visit approach to cervical-cancer prevention in rural Thailand: a demonstration project.

    PubMed

    Gaffikin, L; Blumenthal, P D; Emerson, M; Limpaphayom, K

    2003-03-08

    To increase screening and treatment coverage, innovative approaches to cervical-cancer prevention are being investigated in rural Thailand. We assessed the value of a single-visit approach combining visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid wash (VIA) and cryotherapy. 12 trained nurses provided services in mobile (village health centre-based) and static (hospital-based) teams in four districts of Roi-et Province, Thailand. Over 7 months, 5999 women were tested by VIA. If they tested positive, after counselling about the benefits, potential risks, and probable side-effects they were offered cryotherapy. Data measuring safety, acceptability, feasibility, and effort to implement the programme were gathered. The VIA test-positive rate was 13.3% (798/5999), and 98.5% (609/618) of those eligible accepted immediate treatment. Overall, 756 women received cryotherapy, 629 (83.2%) of whom returned for their first follow-up visit. No major complications were recorded, and 33 (4.4%) of those treated returned for a perceived problem. Only 17 (2.2%) of the treated women needed clinical management other than reassurance about side-effects. Both VIA and cryotherapy were highly acceptable to the patients (over 95% expressed satisfaction with their experience). At their 1-year visit, the squamocolumnar junction was visible to the nurses, and the VIA test-negative rate was 94.3%. A single-visit approach with VIA and cryotherapy seems to be safe, acceptable, and feasible in rural Thailand, and is a potentially efficient method of cervical-cancer prevention in such settings.

  20. Cervical cancer screening: Safety, acceptability, and feasibility of a single-visit approach in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Fallala, Muriel S; Mash, Robert

    2015-05-05

    Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer amongst African women, and yet preventative services are often inadequate. The purpose of the study was to assess the safety, acceptability and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid and cervicography (VIAC) followed by cryotherapy or a loop electrical excision procedure (LEEP) at a single visit for prevention of cancer of the cervix. The United Bulawayo Hospital, Zimbabwe. The study was descriptive, using retrospective data extracted from electronic medical records of women attending the VIAC clinic. Over 24 months 4641 women visited the clinic and were screened for cervical cancer using VIAC. Cryotherapy or LEEP was offered immediately to those that screened positive. Treated women were followed up at three months and one year. The rate of positive results on VIAC testing was 10.8%. Of those who were eligible, 17.0% received immediate cryotherapy, 44.1% received immediate LEEP, 1.9% delayed treatment, and 37.0% were referred to a gynaecologist. No major complications were recorded after cryotherapy or LEEP. Amongst those treated 99.5% expressed satisfaction with their experience. Only 3.2% of those treated at the clinic had a positive result on VIAC one year later. The service was shown to be feasible to sustain over time with the necessary consumables. There were no service-related treatment postponements and the clinic staff and facility were able to meet the demand for the service. A single-visit approach using VIAC, followed by cryotherapy or LEEP, proved to be safe, acceptable and feasible in an urban African setting in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Outcomes a year later suggested that treatment had been effective.

  1. Are treatments for cervical precancerous lesions in less-developed countries safe enough to promote scaling-up of cervical screening programs? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chamot, Eric; Kristensen, Sibylle; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H

    2010-04-01

    Since the mid-1990 s, there have been growing efforts to prevent cervical cancer in less-developed countries through the development of innovative screening approaches such as visual inspection of the cervix associated with same day management of cervical lesions with cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). In the past, promising cancer screening interventions have been widely promoted despite incomplete evidence, only to become the subject of intense controversies about ensuing net health benefit. Because the efficacy and effectiveness of the new protocols for global cervical cancer screening have not been well characterized yet, and as a contribution to the evaluation of the balance between the benefits and risks of these protocols, we reviewed the literature on the safety of cryotherapy and LEEP for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low- and middle-income countries. We searched 12 databases (Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, OCLC, PAIS International Database, WHO Global Health Library, CINAHL, Science.gov, NYAM Grey Literature Report, and POPLINE) for original research published between January 1995 and April 2009. Both peer-reviewed publications and items of "grey" literature were retrieved; no language restriction was applied. We calculated the median (minimum, maximum) reported rate for each harm considered. Because of limitations and heterogeneity in the data, no formal meta-analysis was performed. The search identified 32 articles that reported safety data from 24 cryotherapy and LEEP studies. The combined sample consisted of 6,902 women treated by cryotherapy and 4,524 women treated by LEEP. Most studies were conducted in reference or research settings in Asia and Africa. Short-term harms of cryotherapy and LEEP appeared to be similar to those described in the literature from high-income countries. Information was sparse on HIV-related harms and long-term reproductive outcomes of treatment

  2. Are treatments for cervical precancerous lesions in less-developed countries safe enough to promote scaling-up of cervical screening programs? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since the mid-1990s, there have been growing efforts to prevent cervical cancer in less-developed countries through the development of innovative screening approaches such as visual inspection of the cervix associated with same day management of cervical lesions with cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). In the past, promising cancer screening interventions have been widely promoted despite incomplete evidence, only to become the subject of intense controversies about ensuing net health benefit. Because the efficacy and effectiveness of the new protocols for global cervical cancer screening have not been well characterized yet, and as a contribution to the evaluation of the balance between the benefits and risks of these protocols, we reviewed the literature on the safety of cryotherapy and LEEP for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low- and middle-income countries. Methods We searched 12 databases (Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, OCLC, PAIS International Database, WHO Global Health Library, CINAHL, Science.gov, NYAM Grey Literature Report, and POPLINE) for original research published between January 1995 and April 2009. Both peer-reviewed publications and items of "grey" literature were retrieved; no language restriction was applied. We calculated the median (minimum, maximum) reported rate for each harm considered. Because of limitations and heterogeneity in the data, no formal meta-analysis was performed. Results The search identified 32 articles that reported safety data from 24 cryotherapy and LEEP studies. The combined sample consisted of 6,902 women treated by cryotherapy and 4,524 women treated by LEEP. Most studies were conducted in reference or research settings in Asia and Africa. Short-term harms of cryotherapy and LEEP appeared to be similar to those described in the literature from high-income countries. Information was sparse on HIV-related harms and long

  3. Cervical cancer screening uptake and challenges in Malawi from 2011 to 2015: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Msyamboza, Kelias Phiri; Phiri, Twambilire; Sichali, Wesley; Kwenda, Willy; Kachale, Fanny

    2016-08-17

    Malawi has the highest cervical cancer incidence and mortality in the world with age-standardized rate (ASR) of 75.9 and 49.8 per 100,000 population respectively. In response, Ministry of Health established a cervical cancer screening programme using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and treatment of precancerous lesions with cryotherapy. This paper highlights the roll out, integration with family planning services and HIV ART Programme, uptake and challenges of VIA and Cryotherapy programme. We analyzed program data, supportive supervision, quarterly and annual reports from the National Cervical Cancer Control Program. We evaluated the uptake and challenges of screening services by age, HIV serostatus and trends over a five year period (2011-2015). Between 2011 and 2015, number of cervical cancer screening sites, number of women screened and coverage per annum increased from 75 to 130, 15,331 to 49,301 and 9.3 % to 26.5 % respectively. In this five year period, a total of 145,015 women were screened. Of these, 7,349 (5.1 %) and 6,289 (4.3 %) were VIA positive and suspect cancer respectively. Overall 13,638 (9.4 %) were detected to be VIA positive or had suspect cancer. Of the 48,588 women with known age screened in 2015; 13,642 (28.1 %), 27,275 (56.1 %) and 7,671 (15.8 %) were aged 29 or less, 30-45, 46 years or more. Among 39,101 women with data on HIV serostatus; 21,546 (55.1 %) were HIV negative, 6,209 (15.9 %) were HIV positive and 11, 346 (29.0 %) status was unknown. VIA positivity rate and prevalence of suspect cancer were significantly higher in HIV positive than HIV negative women (8.8 % vs 5.0 %, 6.4 % vs 3.0 %); in women aged 30-45 years than women aged 29 years or less (5.6 % vs 2.3 %, 2.6 % vs 1.2 %) respectively, all p <0.05). The main challenge of the programme was failure to treat VIA positive women eligible for cryotherapy. Over the five year period, the programme only treated 1,001 (43.3 %) out of 2,311 eligible women

  4. Recurrent conjunctival atypical fibroxanthoma in Pigmentosum Xeroderma.

    PubMed

    Cerdà-Ibáñez, M; Barreiro-González, A; Barranco González, H; Aviñó Martínez, J; Évole-Buselli, M; Harto-Castaño, M Á

    2018-02-01

    A 7 year-old boy with Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) and who presents a recurrent conjunctival atypical fibroxanthoma after two surgeries. This is the third procedure and the patient is treated with a surgical excision of the tumour and cryotherapy at the surgical bed. Due to the risk of recurrence, topical Mitomycin C 0,02% was added at post-operative care achieving a good clinical outcome. Surgical exeresis with cryotherapy and topical Mitomycin C is an effective treatment for a case of an atypical fibroxanthoma with a high potential for recurrence and invasion. An ophthalmologic follow-up is required for these patients, as well as general paediatric care and support aids. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Salvage of locally recurrent prostate cancer after definitive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, William M; Henderson, Randal H; Hoppe, Bradford S; Nichols, Romaine C; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2014-08-01

    Although a significant proportion of patients with localized prostate cancer are cured after definitive radiotherapy, solitary local recurrence is observed in a subset of patients and poses a management challenge. Curative-intent treatment options include prostatectomy, reirradiation, cryotherapy, and high-intensity-focused ultrasound. Outcomes data after any of these options are relatively limited. The 5-year biochemical progression-free survival rate is approximately 50% after salvage prostatectomy. However, the morbidity rate of the procedure is significantly higher compared with that observed in previously untreated patients. The likelihood of cure after low dose rate brachytherapy is similar to that observed after salvage prostatectomy, and the morbidity, although significant is less. Although cryotherapy and high-intensity-focused ultrasound may be less morbid than a prostatectomy, the probability of cure is probably lower.

  6. Quality of life outcomes following treatment for localized prostate cancer: is there a clear winner?

    PubMed

    Parker, Walter R; Montgomery, Jeffery S; Wood, David P

    2009-05-01

    The majority of men treated for localized prostate cancer are cured of their disease. As a result, it is important to discuss long-term quality of life (QoL) expectations when counseling patients regarding treatment options. The varying QoL outcomes for radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, and cryotherapy will be reviewed. Robotic and radical prostatectomy has similar outcomes with significant initial worsening of urinary continence and sexual function. External beam radiation has less impact on continence and sexual function but noteworthy bowel toxicity. Brachytherapy results in the most irritative urinary symptoms, with decreased sexual and bowel QoL as well. Cryotherapy greatly reduces sexual function. Every patient has unique pretreatment variables, priorities, and preferences. It is crucial to fully explain the range of oncologic and QoL implications when counseling patients regarding treatment for localized prostate cancer.

  7. Primary conjunctival amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, Chandana; Chaudhury, Krittika P; Biswas, Ranu Roy

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year-old previously healthy male presented with a 4 year history of painless drooping of right upper eyelid. On eversion of the right upper eyelid, a yellowish pink mass was seen in the tarsal region. Rest of the ocular examination was normal in both the eyes. Initial biopsy showed chronic inflammation. Subsequently, the entire mass was excised and histopathological examination showed the presence of amyloid in the subconjunctival stroma. At 3 months follow-up, similar lesion was detected in the right lower, left upper, and lower lid, which were treated with cryotherapy, with partial resolution. Patient has been followed up for more than 2 years without any complaints. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of an isolated primary conjunctival amyloidosis with involvement of both the upper and lower palpebral conjunctiva of either eye. It was treated successfully by excision and cryotherapy.

  8. Scalp Cooling: The Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Alopecia
.

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) from chemotherapy is one of the most feared side effects of many patients, particularly women. Many patients and their healthcare providers believe that cryotherapy can help prevent or mitigate these changes. Scalp cooling has been used for more than 30 years to prevent alopecia caused by chemotherapy, particularly taxanes and anthracyclines. This article presents an overview of the evidence for this strategy, as well as its impact on nursing care provision.

  9. Major challenges to scale up of visual inspection-based cervical cancer prevention programs: the experience of Guatemalan NGOs.

    PubMed

    Chary, Anita Nandkumar; Rohloff, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Like many other low- and middle-income countries, Guatemala has adopted visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a low-resource alternative to the Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) introduced VIA to Guatemala in 2004, and a growing number of NGOs, working both independently and in collaboration with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health, employ VIA in cervical cancer prevention programs today. While much research describes VIA efficacy and feasibility in Latin America, little is known about NGO involvement with VIA programming or experiences with VIA outside the context of clinical trials and pilot projects in the region. To explore challenges faced by NGOs implementing VIA programs in Guatemala, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 NGO staff members involved with 20 VIA programs as direct service providers, program administrators, and training course instructors. Additionally, we collected data through observation at 30 NGO-sponsored cervical cancer screening campaigns, 8 cervical cancer prevention conferences, and 1 week-long NGO-sponsored VIA training course. Frequently highlighted challenges included staff turnover, concerns over training quality, a need for opportunities for continued supervision, and problems with cryotherapy referrals when immediate treatment for VIA-positive women was unavailable. Reducing staff turnover, budgeting to train replacement providers, standardizing training curricula, and offering continued supervision are key strategies to improve VIA service quality and program sustainability. Alternative training methods, such as on-the-job mentoring and course prerequisites of online learning, could help increase training time available for clinical supervision. Efforts should be made to ensure that VIA testing is coupled with immediate cryotherapy, that providers trained in VIA are also trained in cryotherapy, and that cryotherapy supplies and equipment are maintained. Where this is not

  10. A Study of Factors Influencing Productivity in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Outpatient Clinic at Walter Reed Army Medical Center.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    area of infertility or GYN cancer . Patients for preoperative evaluation and post operative follow up are also seen in this clinic. This clinic is held...physicians can examine the cervix and surrounding tissue. In some cases, biopsies are performed to check for cancer . This clinic is held on Wednesday and...for fourteen physicians conducting various clinics (i.e., post-partum, oncology, infertility, colposcopy, cryotherapy , and sterilization), (d) three

  11. A comparison of human papillomavirus testing of clinician-collected and self-collected samples during follow-up after screen-and-treat.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sylvia; Wang, Chunhui; Wright, Thomas C; Denny, Lynette; Kuhn, Louise

    2011-08-15

    Screen-and-treat cervical cancer prevention programs based on high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and cryotherapy have been shown to be effective in resource-limited settings. However, because cryotherapy is not 100% effective, follow-up is needed after treatment to detect post-treatment failures. We compared the test performances of high-risk HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2) using self-collected and clinician-collected samples as well as cervical cytology for identifying cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 or 3 or invasive cervical cancer (CIN2+) among women who did (n=812) and did not (n=1858) undergo cryotherapy in a South African screen-and-treat trial. At 6 months after enrolment (and after cryotherapy, if performed), women were tested using all three screening methods and then underwent colposcopy/biopsy. A predefined subset of women (n=1,455) had extended follow-up with colposcopy/biopsy at 12 months. A total of 33 and 91 cases of CIN2+ were detected among treated and untreated women, respectively. The sensitivity of HPV testing using clinician-collected samples and cervical cytology did not differ by treatment status. HPV testing of clinician-collected samples detected the most cases of CIN2+ among both treated (85%) and untreated (91%) women (p=0.31). Cytology (at a cutoff of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater) detected 76% of cases among both treated and untreated women. However, the sensitivity of HPV testing using self-collected samples was significantly lower among treated versus untreated women (55% vs. 78%, p=0.01). HPV testing using self-collected vaginal specimens may be useful in primary screening but performs poorly for detecting post-treatment failures. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  12. Is imiquimod effective and safe for actinic keratosis?

    PubMed

    Walker, J Kendall; Koenig, Clint

    2003-03-01

    Imiquimod 5% cream, applied 3 times per week for 12 weeks, is effective for treatment of actinic keratosis. Severe erythema and other local reactions occurred in almost everyone receiving treatment, due to imiquimod's immune system-modulating effects. The 25 patients in the treatment group tolerated these adverse effects well. Despite these effects, imiquimod can be used as an alternative to traditional cryotherapy for the treatment of actinic keratosis among selected, motivated

  13. Mechanical therapy for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Guild, Donald Grant

    2012-09-01

    Physical therapy and manual medicine for low back pain encompass many different treatment modalities. There is a vast variety of techniques that physical therapists commonly use in the treatment of low back pain. Some of the therapies include, but are certainly not limited to, education, exercise, lumbar traction, manual manipulation, application of heat, cryotherapy, and ultrasonography. Many of these approaches are discussed specifically in this article. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effects of a Novel Cooling Shirt on Various Physical Performance Parameters in Elite Athletes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-03

    operations and sport matches. The primary purpose of this short-term field observation was to determine the effects of a technical cooling shirt and...limit these individuals’ ability to sustain and satisfactorily continue a high level of performance required during intense ground operations and sport ...specially cut-to-size cryotherapy material in place. The subjects were then counter-balanced, with half of the subjects “loaded” with the cooling material

  15. Muscle Reaction Time During a Simulated Lateral Ankle Sprain After Wet-Ice Application or Cold-Water Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Thain, Peter K.; Bleakley, Christopher M.; Mitchell, Andrew C. S.

    2015-01-01

    Context Cryotherapy is used widely in sport and exercise medicine to manage acute injuries and facilitate rehabilitation. The analgesic effects of cryotherapy are well established; however, a potential caveat is that cooling tissue negatively affects neuromuscular control through delayed muscle reaction time. This topic is important to investigate because athletes often return to exercise, rehabilitation, or competitive activity immediately or shortly after cryotherapy. Objective To compare the effects of wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, and an untreated control condition on peroneus longus and tibialis anterior muscle reaction time during a simulated lateral ankle sprain. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting University of Hertfordshire human performance laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 54 physically active individuals (age = 20.1 ± 1.5 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.07 m, mass = 66.7 ± 5.4 kg) who had no injury or history of ankle sprain. Intervention(s) Wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, or an untreated control condition applied to the ankle for 10 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s) Muscle reaction time and muscle amplitude of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain were calculated. The ankle-sprain simulation incorporated a combined inversion and plantar-flexion movement. Results We observed no change in muscle reaction time or muscle amplitude after cryotherapy for either the peroneus longus or tibialis anterior (P > .05). Conclusions Ten minutes of joint cooling did not adversely affect muscle reaction time or muscle amplitude in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain. These findings suggested that athletes can safely return to sporting activity immediately after icing. Further evidence showed that ice can be applied before ankle rehabilitation without adversely affecting dynamic neuromuscular control. Investigation in patients with acute ankle sprains is

  16. Focal Therapy for Prostate Cancer: An "À la Carte" Approach.

    PubMed

    Sivaraman, Arjun; Barret, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Personalizing focal ablation energy for prostate cancer on the basis of cancer location is a novel concept. We propose the use of high-intensity focused ultrasound, cryotherapy, and brachytherapy for posterior, anterior, and apical tumors, respectively, to improve the overall outcome. This concept needs to be verified in prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intralesional antimony for single lesions of bolivian cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Soto, Jaime; Rojas, Ernesto; Guzman, Miguel; Verduguez, Aleida; Nena, Winne; Maldonado, Maria; Cruz, Mary; Gracia, Lineth; Villarroel, Darsi; Alavi, Isidoro; Toledo, Julia; Berman, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an ultimately self-curing disease for which systemic therapy with pentavalent antimony (Sb) is effective but with side effects. We evaluated 2 local treatments, intralesional (IL) Sb and cryotherapy, for single lesions due to Bolivian Leishmania (v.) braziliensis in a placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized between IL Sb (650 µg/mm(2) of lesion area on days 1, 3, and 5), cryotherapy (days 1 and 14), and placebo cream (daily for 20 days) in a 3:2:3 allocation. Lesion area was measured prior to therapy, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after therapy. The criteria for lesion cure were as follows: not doubling in size at 1 month, at least 50% diminution in size at 3 months, and complete reepithelialization at 6 months. Local adverse effects were recorded. Cure rates were 21 of 30 (70%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 52%-83%) for IL Sb, 4 of 20 (20%; 95% CI, 8%-42%) for cryotherapy, and 5 of 30 (17%; 95% CI, 7%-34%) for placebo cream (P < .001 for IL Sb vs each other group). IL Sb adverse events were limited to injection site pain, with a mean value of 1.0 (mild). The comparative cure rate, small amount of drug administered, and tolerance data for IL Sb suggest that if local therapy for single L. braziliensis lesions is chosen, this treatment is attractive. Given the difficulties of performing placebo-controlled trials in the New World, the combined placebo and cryotherapy cure rate (18%; 95% CI, 10%-31%) is likely to become the standard against which future interventions for L. braziliensis are compared. NCT01300975.

  18. Muscle Reaction Time During a Simulated Lateral Ankle Sprain After Wet-Ice Application or Cold-Water Immersion.

    PubMed

    Thain, Peter K; Bleakley, Christopher M; Mitchell, Andrew C S

    2015-07-01

    Cryotherapy is used widely in sport and exercise medicine to manage acute injuries and facilitate rehabilitation. The analgesic effects of cryotherapy are well established; however, a potential caveat is that cooling tissue negatively affects neuromuscular control through delayed muscle reaction time. This topic is important to investigate because athletes often return to exercise, rehabilitation, or competitive activity immediately or shortly after cryotherapy. To compare the effects of wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, and an untreated control condition on peroneus longus and tibialis anterior muscle reaction time during a simulated lateral ankle sprain. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University of Hertfordshire human performance laboratory. A total of 54 physically active individuals (age = 20.1 ± 1.5 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.07 m, mass = 66.7 ± 5.4 kg) who had no injury or history of ankle sprain. Wet-ice application, cold-water immersion, or an untreated control condition applied to the ankle for 10 minutes. Muscle reaction time and muscle amplitude of the peroneus longus and tibialis anterior in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain were calculated. The ankle-sprain simulation incorporated a combined inversion and plantar-flexion movement. We observed no change in muscle reaction time or muscle amplitude after cryotherapy for either the peroneus longus or tibialis anterior (P > .05). Ten minutes of joint cooling did not adversely affect muscle reaction time or muscle amplitude in response to a simulated lateral ankle sprain. These findings suggested that athletes can safely return to sporting activity immediately after icing. Further evidence showed that ice can be applied before ankle rehabilitation without adversely affecting dynamic neuromuscular control. Investigation in patients with acute ankle sprains is warranted to assess the clinical applicability of these interventions.

  19. An Ambulatory Surgery Service Feasibility Study at Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    sturmdorf) Benign Intraoral lesions Cervical cone Branchial arch appendages, Colpotomy, diagnostic excision Cryotherapy (alone)" Basla cell CA...petrous pyramid, atti- ceantrotomy, closure of fistula, exteneeration of air cells of petrous pyramid, mastoid antrotomy, removal of outer attic wall...here admission forms will be filled out. Patients will then take those forms to the Admissions Office and return to that clinic for stamin up of 1

  20. Regulation and Function of Cytokines that Predict Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    one given the potential for attempts at local curative therapy (whether it be surgery, radiation or cryotherapy ) to subject the patient to both short...from the prostate cancer [2]. Next, following local curative therapy the issue of requirement and timing for second line adjuvant therapy becomes...with locally advanced disease. W81XWH-09-1-0503 Bhowmick, Neil A. 6 f. References [1] Jemal A, Tiwari RC, Murray T, Ghafoor

  1. A Phase II Immunotherapeutic Trial: Combination Androgen Ablative Therapy Treatment for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    two study statisticians; d) the filing of an investigator IND with the FDA; e) procurement of local IRB approvals; f) procurement of FDA-approval to...compromising the interpretation of outcome data pertaining to the treatment of patients with local or advanced prostate cancer receiving treatment on...patients prior treatment (radiation or cryotherapy ) • 1 patient taking Saw Palmetto (before criteria changed) • 5 patients taking Proscar/Avodart • 2

  2. Cryosurgery as primary treatment for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lian, Huibo; Guo, Hongqian; Gan, Weidong; Li, Xiaogong; Yan, Xiang; Wang, Wei; Yang, Rong; Qu, Feng; Ji, Changwei

    2011-12-01

    To present the early results of the use of third-generation cryotherapy as primary treatment for localized prostate cancer in China. From January 2006 to December 2009, 102 patients underwent primary cryosurgery for clinically localized prostate cancer. All patients underwent a dual freeze-thaw cycle using third-generation cryotechnology with ultrathin 17-gauge cryoneedles. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level for all patients at the last follow-up visit was less than 0.5 ng/ml in 94 patients (92.2%) and 0.5 ng/ml or more in 8 (7.8%). One patient (1.0%) had recurrent prostate cancer confirmed by prostate biopsy and was treated with salvage cryotherapy. Seven other patients (6.9%) had an elevated PSA level after cryotherapy despite negative posttreatment biopsies and a metastatic evaluation. Of 102 patients, 1 patient was incontinent preoperatively. Of the remaining 101 patients, 4 patients (4.0%) developed mild incontinence requiring 1 to 2 pads per day. Urethral sloughing occurred in 5 of the 102 patients (4.9%) and in 1 of these patients (1.0%) required transurethral resection of sloughing. The rates of erectile dysfunction were 64.1%. No urethral strictures, rectourethral fistulas, urinary retention, or chronic pelvic pain was reported. The median inpatient stay after cryoablation was 3.2 days. Early results suggest that cryotherapy offers a safe and effective alternative for the primary treatment of localized prostate cancer. Additional studies with longer follow-up are necessary to determine the sustained efficacy of this procedure.

  3. Phase I Trial of Adenovirus-Mediated IL-12 Gene Transduction in Patients with Recurrent Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer Following Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    salvage seed implant, cryotherapy ) or who have a rising PSA while on hormone therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer are as follows: a. A...Gene Transduction in Patients with Recurrent Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer Following Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Simon J. Hall, MD...CONTRACT NUMBER Phase I Trial of Adenovirus-Mediated IL-12 Gene Transduction in Patients with Recurrent Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer Following

  4. Major challenges to scale up of visual inspection-based cervical cancer prevention programs: the experience of Guatemalan NGOs

    PubMed Central

    Chary, Anita Nandkumar; Rohloff, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Like many other low- and middle-income countries, Guatemala has adopted visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a low-resource alternative to the Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) introduced VIA to Guatemala in 2004, and a growing number of NGOs, working both independently and in collaboration with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health, employ VIA in cervical cancer prevention programs today. While much research describes VIA efficacy and feasibility in Latin America, little is known about NGO involvement with VIA programming or experiences with VIA outside the context of clinical trials and pilot projects in the region. Methods: To explore challenges faced by NGOs implementing VIA programs in Guatemala, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 36 NGO staff members involved with 20 VIA programs as direct service providers, program administrators, and training course instructors. Additionally, we collected data through observation at 30 NGO-sponsored cervical cancer screening campaigns, 8 cervical cancer prevention conferences, and 1 week-long NGO-sponsored VIA training course. Results: Frequently highlighted challenges included staff turnover, concerns over training quality, a need for opportunities for continued supervision, and problems with cryotherapy referrals when immediate treatment for VIA-positive women was unavailable. Conclusions: Reducing staff turnover, budgeting to train replacement providers, standardizing training curricula, and offering continued supervision are key strategies to improve VIA service quality and program sustainability. Alternative training methods, such as on-the-job mentoring and course prerequisites of online learning, could help increase training time available for clinical supervision. Efforts should be made to ensure that VIA testing is coupled with immediate cryotherapy, that providers trained in VIA are also trained in cryotherapy, and that cryotherapy

  5. Retinal detachment and retinal holes in retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    PubMed

    Csaky, K; Olk, R J; Mahl, C F; Bloom, S M

    1991-01-01

    Retinal detachment and retinal holes in two family members with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento are reported. We believe these are the first such cases reported in the literature. We describe the presenting symptoms and management, including cryotherapy, scleral buckling procedure, and sulfur hexafluoride injection (SF6), resulting in stable visual acuity in one case and retinal reattachment and improved visual acuity in the other case.

  6. The use of ice in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injury: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Chris; McDonough, Suzanne; MacAuley, Domhnall

    2004-01-01

    There are wide variations in the clinical use of cryotherapy, and guidelines continue to be made on an empirical basis. Systematic review assessing the evidence base for cryotherapy in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injuries. A computerized literature search, citation tracking, and hand searching were carried out up to April 2002. Eligible studies were randomized-controlled trials describing human subjects recovering from acute soft-tissue injuries and employing a cryotherapy treatment in isolation or in combination with other therapies. Two reviewers independently assessed the validity of included trials using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Twenty-two trials met the inclusion criteria. There was a mean PEDro score of 3.4 out of of 10. There was marginal evidence that ice plus exercise is most effective, after ankle sprain and postsurgery. There was little evidence to suggest that the addition of ice to compression had any significant effect, but this was restricted to treatment of hospital inpatients. Few studies assessed the effectiveness of ice on closed soft-tissue injury, and there was no evidence of an optimal mode or duration of treatment. Many more high-quality trials are needed to provide evidence-based guidelines in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injuries.

  7. Optimizing management of actinic keratosis and photodamaged skin: utilizing a stepwise approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew D; Jorizzo, Joseph L

    2009-09-01

    The incidence of photodamaged skin and skin lesions of all degrees of severity, from actinic keratosis (AK) to skin cancers, has dramatically increased. Actinic keratoses are pathologic, reflecting damage of essential skin cell functions and potentially progressing to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The rate of progression is uncertain but may be as high as 10%. Because it is impossible to predict which AKs will progress to SCC, all lesions should be treated. Options include topical therapies, cryotherapy, curettage, and photodynamic therapy. Unfortunately, many individuals do not seek treatment or avoid it because of irritation, discomfort, and concern for scarring. Combining field-directed therapy and cryotherapy has been more effective than cryotherapy alone. Incorporating patient education with treatment may optimize outcomes. We propose a comprehensive 5-step approach for managing AK lesions and photodamaged skin that includes periodic clinical skin examinations; treating AK lesions with a combination of field- and lesion-directed therapy; and patient education regarding sun-protective measures and regular skin self-examinations.

  8. Cost for the treatment of actinic keratosis on the rise in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Eshini; McGuigan, Sean; Sinclair, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To report the burden and cost of actinic keratosis (AK) treatment in Australia and to forecast the number of AK treatments and the associated costs to 2020. Design and setting: A retrospective study of data obtained from medicare Australia for AK treated by cryotherapy between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2012, by year and by state or territory. Results: The total number of AK cryotherapy treatments increased from 247,515 in 1994 to 643,622 in 2012, and we estimate that the number of treatments will increase to 831,952 (95% CI 676,919 to 986,987) by 2020. The total Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) benefits paid out for AK in 2012 was $19.6 million and we forecast that this will increase to $24.7 million by 2020 (without inflation). Conclusion: The number of AK cryotherapy treatments increased by 160% between 1994 and 2012. we forecast that the number of treatments will increase by 30% between 2012 and 2020. The rates of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and AK appear to be increasing at the same rate. During the period 2010 to 2015 AK is anticipated to increase by 17.8% which follows a similar trend to published data that forecasts an increase in NMSC treatments of 22.3%. PMID:25309734

  9. Estimating the costs of cervical cancer screening in high-burden Sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Mvundura, Mercy; Tsu, Vivien

    2014-08-01

    To estimate the capital investment and recurrent costs of national cervical cancer screening and precancer treatment programs in 23 high-incidence countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in order to provide estimates of the investment required to tackle the burden of cervical cancer in this region. These 23 countries account for 64% of the annual cervical cancer deaths in this region. Secondary data were used to estimate the financial costs of equipment purchases and economic costs of screening and treating eligible women over a 10-year period. Screening would be by visual inspection with acetic acid and treatment by cryotherapy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure. Approximately US $59 million would be required to purchase treatment equipment if cryotherapy were placed at every screening facility. Approximately 20 million women would be screened over 10 years. Cost per woman screened in a screen-and-treat program was either US $3.33 or US $7.31, and cost per woman treated was either US $38 or US $71 depending on the location of cryotherapy equipment. It would take less than US $10 per woman screened to significantly decrease the cervical cancer deaths that will occur in Sub-Saharan Africa over the next 10 years. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lower limb ice application alters ground reaction force during gait initiation

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Thiago B.; Moraes, Renato; Guirro, Rinaldo R. J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy is a widely used technique in physical therapy clinics and sports. However, the effects of cryotherapy on dynamic neuromuscular control are incompletely explained. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of cryotherapy applied to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot in healthy young adults on ground reaction forces during gait initiation. METHOD: This study evaluated the gait initiation forces, maximum propulsion, braking forces and impulses of 21 women volunteers through a force platform, which provided maximum and minimum ground reaction force values. To assess the effects of cooling, the task - gait initiation - was performed before ice application, immediately after and 30 minutes after removal of the ice pack. Ice was randomly applied on separate days to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot of the participants. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that ice application for 30 minutes to the sole of the foot and calf resulted in significant changes in the vertical force variables, which returned to their pre-application values 30 minutes after the removal of the ice pack. Ice application to the ankle only reduced propulsion impulse. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that although caution is necessary when performing activities that require good gait control, the application of ice to the ankle, sole of the foot or calf in 30-minute intervals may be safe even preceding such activities. PMID:25993625

  11. Lower limb ice application alters ground reaction force during gait initiation.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Thiago B; Moraes, Renato; Guirro, Rinaldo R J

    2015-01-01

    Cryotherapy is a widely used technique in physical therapy clinics and sports. However, the effects of cryotherapy on dynamic neuromuscular control are incompletely explained. To evaluate the effects of cryotherapy applied to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot in healthy young adults on ground reaction forces during gait initiation. This study evaluated the gait initiation forces, maximum propulsion, braking forces and impulses of 21 women volunteers through a force platform, which provided maximum and minimum ground reaction force values. To assess the effects of cooling, the task--gait initiation--was performed before ice application, immediately after and 30 minutes after removal of the ice pack. Ice was randomly applied on separate days to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot of the participants. It was demonstrated that ice application for 30 minutes to the sole of the foot and calf resulted in