Ma, Rui; Fan, Xinpeng; Yin, Fei; Ni, Bing; Gu, Fukang
Numerous studies have been conducted on the cellular morphology of Cryptocaryon irritans. However, details regarding the tomont stage of its life cycle remain lacking. In this study, we investigated the morphology of the tomont stage throughout encystment and cell division using light and electron microscopy. Results showed that there was no secretion of encystation-specific secretory vesicles or extrusomes during formation of the cyst wall. Instead, the synthesis and construction of the C. irritans cyst wall materials may involve molecular events at the pellicle. The somatic cilia and the cytostome were present during encystment and covered by the newly formed cyst wall. New somatic cilia were continuously created between old cilia and showed various lengths during cell division, a process that was similar to morphogenesis in many free-living ciliates. During cell division inside the tomont, dividing daughter cells formed temporary cell chains with no oral primordia before separating from each other into dissociative tomite precursors. The process of cell division may not be accompanied by stomatogenesis, and new oral primordia in offspring cells likely formed before the dividing cell chains split into dissociative spherical tomites. Mitochondrial autophagy was observed in encysting C. irritans cells. Numerous endosymbionts and Golgi structures were observed in the tomont cytoplasm. Cellular metabolic activity in the C. irritans tomont was quite high, with large amounts of materials or cellular organelles potentially being synthesized and prepared for the following infective theront stage.
Yin, Fei; Gong, Qiyang; Li, Yanwei; Dan, Xueming; Sun, Peng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Peng, Shiming; Li, Anxing
To clarify the effects of a Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the physiological functions of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus, this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 2500; 5000; 7500; 10,000; 20,000; and 30,000 theronts/fish to infect marbled rockfish weighing 45 ± 3 g. The survival rate, food intake, respiratory rate, serum ion concentrations and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity were determined. With the increase of the infection concentration and the passage of time, the survival rate of the rockfish gradually decreased. The groups infected with more than 5000 theronts/fish had stopped feeding within 4 days. The respiratory rates of the fish in the groups infected with 2500 and 5000 theronts/fish initially increased and then decreased. In contrast, the respiratory rate of the fish in the groups infected with more than 7500 theronts/fish was elevated to levels significantly higher than the control group after 12 h. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity and serum Na+ and Cl- concentrations increased with increasing infection concentration. In conclusion, the physiological functions of the fish infected with low concentrations of C. irritans can be effectively restored, whereas a high concentration infection induced severe stress. The declined food intake and accelerated respiratory rate could be useful for an early warning system as important indicators.
Mo, Ze-Quan; Yang, Man; Wang, Hai-Qing; Xu, Yang; Huang, Mian-Zhi; Lao, Guo-Feng; Li, Yan-Wei; Li, An-Xing; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming
B cell antigen receptor (BCR) plays a crucial role in B cell development and antibody production. It comprises membrane immunoglobulin non-covalently associated with CD79a/CD79b heterodimer. After B cell activation, initial extracellular signals are transduced by BCR complex and amplified by two protein tyrosine kinases, LYN and SYK, which then trigger various pathways. In the present study, we cloned grouper genes for BCR accessory molecules, EcCD79a (669 bp) and EcCD79b (639 bp), as well as two protein tyrosine kinases, EcLYN (1482 bp) and EcSYK (1854 bp). Homology analysis showed that all four molecules had a relatively high amino acid identity compared with those in other animals. Among them, they all shared the highest identity with Takifugu rubripes (EcCD79a 49%, EcCD79b 52%, EcLYN 82% and EcSYK 77%). The conserved features and important functional residues were analyzed. Together with IgM and IgT, tissue distribution analysis showed that all six molecules were mainly expressed in immune organs, particularly systematic immune organs. In groupers infected with Cryptocaryon irritans, up-regulation of EcCD79a and b, EcIgM and EcIgT were not seen in the early stage skin and gill until 14-21 days. Up-regulation of EcCD79a was seen in head kidney at most time points, while EcCD79a and b were only significantly up-regulated in day 14 spleen. Significant up-regulation of EcIgT were seen in day 21 head kidney and day 1, day14 spleen. Significant up-regulation of EcIgM were seen in day 1 head kidney and 12 h spleen. In addition, two protein kinase genes, EcLYN and EcSYK, were up-regulated in the skin at most time points, which suggested that B cells may be activated at the skin local infection site.
Li, Ze-Xiang; Li, Yan-Wei; Xu, Shun; Xu, Yang; Mo, Ze-Quan; Dan, Xue-Ming; Luo, Xiao-Chun
T cell activation is a complicated process accompanying with the activation of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway, which is not well described in teleost fish. The initiation of this pathway depends on the interaction of membrane TCR co-receptors (e.g. CD4/8, CD3 and CD45) and a series of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases (e.g. Lck, Fyn and ZAP70). Cyptocaryon irritans is a ciliate pathogen of marine fish white spot disease causing huge economic lost in marine aquaculture. This parasite can infect fish gill and skin and is considered to be a good pathogen model for fish gill and skin mucosal immunity. Our previous studies showed the locally mucosal antibody response was important for fish defense against this parasite. While how TCR signaling pathway involved in T cell activation to help B cell activation in C. irritans infected fish is still not known. In the present study, we cloned a grouper TCR co-receptor gene EcCD3ε (537 bp) and its three kinase genes, including EcLck (1512 bp), EcFyn (1605 bp) and EcZAP70 (1893 bp). Homology analysis showed that they all shared the highest identity with corresponding genes from Takifugu rubripes (EcCD3ε 41%, EcLck 88%, EcFyn 98% and EcZAP70 93%), and their conserved motifs involved in the signaling transduction were analyzed. The tissue distribution analysis showed these four genes were high expressed in thymus, and it is interesting to find their comparative high expression in skin, gill and midgut mucosal immune tissues. In C. irritans infected grouper, the expression of three TCR co-receptors (EcCD4-1, EcCD3ε and EcCD45) and three kinases (EcLck, EcFyn and EcZAP70) was tested in skin, gill, head kidney and spleen at 0, 12 h, 24 h, 2 d, 3 d, 5 d and 7 d. All six genes were significantly up-regulated in skin at most tested time points, which indicate the possibility of skin local T cell activation to support the local antibody response. Compared to three TCR co-receptors, significantly up-regulation of three
Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, Yan-Wei; Zhou, Ling; Li, An-Xing; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming
MCSF and its well-known receptor MCSFR had been well studied in humans, regulating the differentiation, proliferation, and survival of the mononuclear phagocyte system. IL-34, which is an alternative ligand of MCSF receptor, was recently identified as a novel cytokine and functionally overlaps with MCSF. However, the functional study of these receptors and their ligands in fish are largely unknown. In the present study, the cDNA of two potential grouper MCSFR ligands have been cloned, EcIL-34 (657 bp) and EcMCSF2 (804 bp), as well as an additional copy of grouper MCSFR, EcMCSFR2 (3141 bp). Sequence analysis showed that these three molecules had higher identities with other fish counterparts compared to mammals and their conserved structures and important functional residues were also analyzed. Tissue distribution analysis showed that EcIL-34 is dominant in brain, gill and spleen compared to EcMCSF2, which is dominant in head kidney, trunk kidney, skin, heart and muscle. EcMCSFR1 was dominant in the most tissues except head kidney and liver compared to EcMCSFR2. The different tissue distribution patterns of these two grouper MCSF receptors and their two ligands indicate the different mononuclear phagocyte differentiation and activation modes in different tissues. In Cryptocaryon irritans infected grouper, EcIL-34 and EcMCSFR2 were the most strongly up-regulated ligand and receptor in the infected sites, gill and skin. Their up-regulation confirmed the proliferation and activation of phagocytes in C. irritans infected sites, which would improve the antigen presentation and elicit the host local specific immune response. In C. irritans infected grouper head kidney, both ligands EcIL-34 and EcMCSF2 (especially EcMCSF2) were up-regulated, but both receptors EcMCSFR1 and EcMCSFR2 were down-regulated, which indicated that the phagocytes differentiation and proliferation may have occurred in this hemopoietic organ, and after that they migrated to the infected cites. The
Yin, Fei; Sun, Peng; Tang, Baojun; Dan, Xueming; Li, Anxing
To investigate the response of pompano fish (Trachinotus ovatus) to white spot disease, we used the protozoan Cryptocaryon irritans to infect live 450-g specimens at concentrations of 40,000 theronts/fish. We assessed the relative infection intensity (RII), serum immobilizing titer, and immunity-related enzyme activities (ACP, AKP, LZM), and assessed feeding, serum ion concentrations (Na(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+) and K(+)) and blood biochemistry (ALT, AST, LDH) of pompano. The fish were then treated with a lethal dose of C. irritans (70,000 theronts/fish) and the number of deaths was recorded. We found that the relative infection intensities of the control group, group I, and group II were 0, 0.630 ± 0.179, and 0.014 ± 0.006. Poly-infection induced a significant increase in the serum immobilizing titer (853.33 ± 295.60) of group II. In terms of the biochemical assessment, group II had significantly higher alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase activities than the other groups, and the lowest lysozyme activity (P < 0.05), compared to higher activity in the control group and the highest level in group I. Only the fishes of group I had stopped feeding after treatment. The concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-), and Ca(2+) in blood serum did not differ significantly among the three groups, but K(+) concentration increased with the increasing infection frequency. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase activities in fish of group II were significantly higher than those of the other groups. Survival of the fish subjected to the lethal dose of C. irritans was 0, 0, and 100 in groups control, I, and II, respectively. In conclusions, based on the food intake of group II, along with the results of relative infection intensity, serum immobilizing titer, and survival, we speculate that the fish in that group acquired high protective immunity following poly-infection by C. irritans, experiencing limited harm for pompano.
Yin, Fei; Dan, Xue-Ming; Sun, Peng; Shi, Zhao-Hong; Gao, Quan-Xin; Peng, Shi-Ming; Li, An-Xing
To explore the effect of low-dose Cryptocaryon irritans infection on growth, feeding and antiparasitic immunity of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 5500 theronts/fish (Group I, 1/10 of 96 h LC50) or 11,000 theronts/fish (Group II) to infect E. coioides weighing 38 g on average at week 0, 2 and 4, respectively. Food consumption was recorded daily; the fish were weighed weekly; serum immobilizing titer (SIT), and acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lysozyme (LZM) activity were recorded every 2 weeks; the fish were treated with lethal dose (70,000 theronts/fish) of C. irritans in the 8th week and death number were recorded. The result shows that in the 1st week after the first infection, the fish's weight gain (WG), length gain (LG), and specific growth rate (SGR) dropped as parasite dose increased, and WG, SGR values were negative; while, after the 2nd and the 3rd infection, no significant differences were detected among the three groups. These results indicated that the 1st infection affected the fish most, while the following infections were protected by some immunity. In the 3rd, 7th, and 8th week, condition factor (CF) increased with the increased infectious dose, indicating that the parasite affected body length more than body weight. As the experiment went on, accumulated food consumption (AFC) of all three groups steadily grew (control > Group I > Group II). But on the 2nd day after the first infection, daily food consumption (DFC) of Group I and II significantly dropped, the decline of Group II was greater than that of Group I, DFC recovered in the following week, with Group I earlier than Group II. After the 2nd infection, DFC of Group I and II dropped again, Group II still dropped more than Group I, and both groups recovered on the 3rd day after infection. The 3rd infection caused no significant difference in week food consumption (WFC). These
Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids on growth, nonspecific immunity, expression of some immune related genes and disease resistance of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea) following natural infestation of parasites (Cryptocaryon irritans).
Zuo, Rantao; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Wang, Jun; Xu, Houguo; Liufu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yanjiao
The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 HUFA) on growth, nonspecific immunity, expression of some immune related genes and disease resistance of juvenile large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea) following natural infestation of parasites (Cryptocaryon irritans). Six isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated with graded levels of n-3 HUFA ranging from 0.15% to 2.25% of the dry weight and the DHA/EPA was approximately fixed at 2.0. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish in floating sea cages (1.0 × 1.0 × 1.5 m), and each cage was stocked with 60 fish (initial average weight 9.79 ± 0.6 g). Fish were fed twice daily (05:00 and 17:00) to apparent satiation for 58 days. Results showed that moderate n-3 HUFA level (0.98%) significantly enhanced growth compared with the control group (0.15% HUFA) (P < 0.05), while higher n-3 HUFA levels (1.37%, 1.79% and 2.25%) had detrimental effects on the growth though no significance was found (P > 0.05). Nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) positive leucocytes percentage of head kidney and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased with increasing n-3 HUFA from 0.15% to 0.60%, and decreased with further increase of n-3 HUFA from 0.60% to 2.25% (P < 0.05). Serum lysozyme activity increased significantly as n-3 HUFA increased from 0.15% to 1.37%, and then decreased with n-3 HUFA from 1.37% to 2.25% (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in phagocytosis index (PI) of head kidney leucocytes among dietary treatments (P > 0.05). The hepatic mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22) and Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) was significantly up-regulated in fish fed the diets with low or moderate levels, while in kidney this increment was only found at specific sampling time during the natural infestation of parasites. The 13 d cumulative mortality rate following natural infestation of parasites decreased
The free-living infective theront of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis historically has been thought to be the only stage susceptible to treatment. A technique is introduced to determine the toxicity of compounds to the detached trophont, the settled tomont and the developing tomites within the tomont t...
Putative diapause in the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), has frequently been assumed as the pest's mode for overwinter survival from the tropics to temperate regions of northern and southern hemispheres. Examination of the scientific literature indicates that putative horn fly diapause ...
Graham, Christine B; Eisen, Rebecca J; Belthoff, James R
Pulex irritans L. is a cosmopolitan flea species that infests a wide variety of hosts. In North America it generally parasitizes large wild mammals, but in the Pacific Northwest an association has emerged between P. irritans and the western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea). While investigators have recognized this association for decades, it has not been clear if P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls, or if the owls serve exclusively as phoretic hosts. Here we describe using a real-time assay that was originally developed to identify bloodmeals in Ugandan cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis Bouché) to detect burrowing owl DNA in P. irritans collected from burrowing owls in southern Idaho. Of 50 fleas tested, 12 had no detectable vertebrate bloodmeal. The remaining 38 (76%) contained burrowing owl DNA. The assay did not detect vertebrate DNA in unfed fleas exposed to owl or mouse pelts and is therefore unlikely to detect DNA in fleas from vertebrates that have served exclusively as phoretic hosts. We conclude that P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls. We discuss the potential implications of this finding for burrowing owl conservation and enzootic plague dynamics.
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linnaeus, 1758), is an important pest that causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry, but insecticide resistance in horn fly populations has made horn fly control increasingly difficult to achieve. In this study, we developed a multiplex...
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans, is an obligate blood-feeding parasite of cattle that causes significant economic impact in many countries. This pest is a continuing problem since it has become resistant to most of the drugs available for its control. In this study, we investigated the re...
Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations. PMID:21310032
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), is a significant economic pest of cattle found throughout Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, and the Americas. The major means of controlling the horn fly is through applications of chemicals with insecticidal activity. A cyclodiene-containing ear tag product h...
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the economically important pests of cattle. Use of insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns of insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticid...
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the economically important pests of cattle. Use of insecticide has been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns of insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and nonavailability of new generation insecticides ...
This study reports the baculovirus expression and biochemical characterization of recombinant acetylcholinesterase from Haematobia irritans (L) (rHiAChE) and the effect of the previously described G262A mutation on enzyme activity and sensitivity to selected organophosphates. The rHiAChE was confirm...
A number of gene mutation in various arthropods have been found to be associated with pesticide resistance. Some of these mutations have been found in the two cattle pests, Rhipicephalus microplus and Haematobia irritans. Sodium channel gene mutations have been associated with pyrethroid resistance ...
Breijo, M; Rocha, S; Ures, X; Pastro, L; Alonzo, P; Fernández, C; Meikle, A
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), is a blood-sucking livestock ectoparasite responsible for substantial livestock losses. In the present work, the potential use of recombinant hematobin (HTB), a horn fly salivary protein, as an antigen for cattle vaccination was investigated. In this trial, horn fly loads and H. irritans's blood intake were assessed in vaccinated (n = 4) and control (n = 4) crossbred dark-coated steers, which were naturally infected. The vaccinated group received a 1 ml subcutaneous injection of 100 µg of HTB protein emulsified in 500 µl of Incomplete Freund Adjuvant (AIF) on days 0 and 30. The control group received on the same days 1 ml of distilled water emulsified in 500 µl of AIF. The vaccinated group had significantly more HTB-specific IgG antibodies after the HTB booster and had a lower fly load than the control group (206 ± 23 vs. 285 ± 23 flies per animal, respectively). Blood intake by H. irritans did not differ between groups. In summary, these results suggest that vaccinating cattle with HTB could reduce cattle H. irritans load.
We used an EST approach to initiate a study of the genome of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans and have used 454 pyrosequencing techniques to sequence 73,512, 100,603, 71,550, and 85,769 expressed genes from the egg, first instar larvae, adult male, and adult female lifestages of the horn fly. cD...
Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie
Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.
Forneris, Natalia S.; Otero, Gabriel; Pereyra, Ana; Repetto, Gustavo; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A.; Basso, Alicia L.
Abstract The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobia irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobia irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes). In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of Haematobia irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B). All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination. PMID:25893073
Guerrero, Felix D; Barros, A Thadeu M
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), has become a problem for Brazilian cattle producers even though its introduction into Brazil is relatively recent. Failure to control this cattle pest is becoming a concern, and horn fly populations from several ranches from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul were surveyed for pyrethroid resistance. Susceptibility bioassays revealed that cypermethrin resistance was widespread and reached high levels in horn fly populations throughout the state, with resistance factors (RFs) ranging from 50.4 to 704.8. Synergist bioassays failed to detect a major role for esterases as a pyrethroid resistance mechanism in these populations, except for the highly pyrethroid-resistant Estrela do Oeste population (RF = 704.8). The kdr sodium channel gene mutation was not detected in eight of the 13 populations, but < 7% of individuals from four populations and 50% of the flies from Estrela do Oeste exhibited this mutation. Neither the superkdr sodium channel gene mutation nor a resistance-associated gene mutation in the HialphaE7 carboxylesterase were found in any of the fly populations. Although target site insensitivity (kdr) and esterase-mediated metabolism occur in horn fly populations from Mato Grosso do Sul state, it seems that they are not the major mechanism causing pyrethroid resistance in most of these populations.
Invasion of the Americas by the horn fly, H. irritans, has resulted in control issues throughout the continent. Insecticide resistance is a major complicating factor with efforts to manage this pest. Stakeholder focus groups identified the horn fly as the top priority arthropod pest affecting cattle...
Guglielmone, A A; Volpogni, M M; Scherling, N; Cobeñas, M M; Mangold, A J; Anziani, O S; Ioppolo, M; Doscher, M
The efficacy of ear tags containing 30% chlorfenapyr (total tag weight=13g) to control natural Haematobia irritans (L.) infestations was evaluated for Holstein heifers in Rafaela, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. A group of heifers (TG) was treated with two ear tags (one tag per ear). A control group (ACG) was maintained in a paddock adjacent to the TG paddock and, a distant control group (DCG) was maintained 700m apart from the other groups. From day 4 to day 98 after treatment, H. irritans infestations of ACG were significantly higher (P<0.05, test of Kruskal-Wallis) than the corresponding infestation of TG, but significantly lower than infestation in DCG, probably due to the proximity of TG. The chlorfenapyr control period, with an efficacy higher than 90% to reduce horn fly populations, lasted for 9 weeks when TG infestation was compared to fly numbers in ACG, but increased to 12 weeks in comparison to DCG. The results of this study show that ear tags impregnated with chlorfenapyr are a useful alternative to pyrethroids and organo-phosphate compounds for horn fly control.
Fowler, F E; Mullens, B A
Horn flies [Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) (L.)] and face flies [Musca autumnalis (Diptera: Muscidae) De Geer] use the same larval resource, but their interactions are poorly studied. Dung pats (n = 350) were core sampled in the summers of 2012 and 2013 from irrigated pastures in Pomona, California, U.S.A. (34°03'N, 117°48'W) and held for face fly and horn fly emergence. Surface areas and estimated weights were recorded for each whole pat. Almost half (42.0%) of the pat cores yielded neither fly, 29.7% yielded horn flies only, 12.9% yielded face flies only and 15.4% yielded both flies. Of the fly-positive pats, surface area and mass were larger for face fly-occupied pats, whereas horn fly-occupied pats were smaller. Pats shared by the two species were intermediate. Horn flies per positive core were unaffected by the absence/presence of face flies, but half as many face flies emerged when pats were co-inhabited by horn flies. Face flies inhabited larger pats, which might better resist heating and drying, to which they are susceptible; horn flies inhabited a broad pat size range. Horn fly tolerance of lower dung moisture probably allows horn flies to colonize and survive in a wide range of pats in dry areas like southern California.
Angel-Sahagún, C. A.; Lezama-Gutiérrez, R.; Molina-Ochoa, J.; Galindo-Velasco, E.; López-Edwards, M.; Rebolledo-Domínguez, O.; Cruz-Vázquez, C.; Reyes-Velázquez, W. P.; Skoda, S. R.; Foster, J. E.
The susceptibility of the egg, pupa, and adult of Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) to isolates of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sor., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown and Smith, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Groups of 20 eggs than 4 h old, pupae less than 48h old and adults were sprayed with a conidial suspension of each isolate. Eggs, pupae and adults of horn fly were susceptible to these entomopathogenic fungi. For treated eggs, the isolates Ma3, Ma 15, Ma25, Pfr1, and Pfr8 reduced adult emergence to 3.8% to 6.3% in comparison with the control (72%). The mortality of pupae infected by the isolates Ma2, Ma25, and Pfr10 ranged between 50% and 71.3%. Mortality of adults after treatment with the isolates Ma6, Ma 10, Ma 14, Ma 15, Pfr 1, Pfr 9, Pfr 10, Pfr 11, and Pfr12 were higher than 90%. The isolate Ma6 produced the lowest LC50 against adult horn flies (8.08 × 102conidia/ml). These findings supported the hypotheses that isolates of M. anisopliae, and P. fumosoroseus are pathogenic against the different biological stages of horn flies by reducing adult emergence when applied on groups of eggs and pupae, and producing mortality when applied to adults. PMID:17119632
Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Calura, Fernando Henrique; Ferrenzini, Jenifer; Forim, Moacir Rossi; Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros de
Much attention has been given to the development of botanical insecticides to provide effective natural control of cattle ectoparasites without harming animals, consumers, and environment. This study evaluated the efficacy of a commercial neem cake in controlling Haematobia irritans infestation on cattle. The study was conducted at the Embrapa Southeast Cattle Research Center (CPPSE), in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, from April to July 2008. The neem cake mixed in mineral salt in a 2% concentration was provided to 20 Nelore cows during nine weeks and had its efficacy evaluated by comparison of the infestation level against a control group. Fly infestations were recorded weekly by digital photographs of each animal from both groups and the number of flies was later counted in a computer-assisted image analyzer. Quantification of neem cake components by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of azadirachtin (421 mg.kg(-1)) and 3-tigloyl-azadirachtol (151 mg.kg(-1)) in the tested neem cake. Addition of the 2% neem cake reduced mineral salt intake in about 22%. The 2% neem cake treatment failed to reduce horn fly infestations on cattle during the 9-week study period.
Perotti, M A; Lysyk, T J
Experiments were conducted to develop an agar-based medium for rearing immature horn flies, Hematobia irritans (L.). Larval survival was determined on sterilized manure inoculated with pure and mixed cultures of Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus pumilus Meyer & Gottheil, Comamonas acidovorans den Dooren de Jong, Pseudomonas mendocina Palleroni, Flavobacterium sp. and Empedobacter breve (Holmes & Owen). Rearing larvae on mixed cultures enhanced pupal weight but not survival. Horn fly larvae failed to survive when reared on standard bacteriological media inoculated with pure and mixed cultures of Acinetobacter sp., P. mendocina, and C. acidovorans. Larvae completed development on a minimal medium supplemented with alfalfa, egg proteins, and vitamins. Medium with low alfalfa content (30 g alfalfa/500 ml minimal medium) had enhanced survival when supplemented with egg yolk protein and vitamins. Medium with high alfalfa content (130 g alfalfa/500 ml minimal medium) had enhanced survival when supplemented with whole egg protein and vitamins. Survival was also favored when media were inoculated with pure cultures of Acinetobacter or Acinetobacter mixed with either Pseudomonas or Comamonas. Individual plates could support larvae developing from up to 40 eggs, and survival was least variable when plates were inoculated with greater numbers of eggs. This rearing system shows promise as a means for conducting standardized bioassays on a meridic diet.
Swiger, Sonja Lise; Payne, Richard D
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of the beef cattle industry. Horn fly adults are blood feeders that remain in constant contact with cattle, providing management opportunities via insecticide-impregnated ear tags. Controlling horn flies in the United States is time consuming and costly, but failure to implement management can lead to weight loss and decreased weight gain of calves and yearlings. In the past decade, new chemical combinations have been impregnated into ear tags for pest management. The objectives of this project were to 1) evaluate the efficacy of ear tags against horn fly populations and 2) determine if reduced fly density results in economic return. During 2013, data were compiled by insecticide class; treated cows averaged fly reductions of 198 (s = 38.91; n = 3) for macrocyclic lactone treatments, 175 (s = 62.74; n = 4) for pyrethroid treatments, and 174 (s = 35.28; n = 8) for organophosphate treatments compared with untreated animals (214; s = 50.38; n = 9). During 2014, mean fly reductions were 187 (s = 14.15; n = 4) for macrocyclic lactone, 147 (s = 61.41; n = 13) for pyrethroid, and 143 (s = 77.16; n = 8) for organophosphate treatments relative to the untreated (200; s = 99.83; n = 14). A novel technology, the VetGun application system, tested in 2014, resulted in fly reductions (121 ±, n = 4), but means were not statistically significant from the control (200; s = 99.83; n = 14). Treatment of cattle with ear tags significantly reduced horn fly numbers compared with untreated cattle.
Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Guerrero, Felix D.; Heekin, Andrew M.; Wang, Ju; Dowd, Scot E.; Sun, Yan; Foil, Lane D.; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect. PMID:23028533
Domingues, Luísa N; Guerrero, Felix D; Becker, Michael E; Alison, Montgomery W; Foil, Lane D
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans, is an obligate blood-feeding parasite of cattle that causes significant economic impact in many countries. We investigated the resistance of a horn fly population from Louisiana/USA to endosulfan, a cyclodiene insecticide. Bioassays were performed in 2010 and 2011 in order to determine the resistance ratio of the population to endosulfan and a PCR assay was developed to detect the Rdl mutation which is the replacement of an alanine with a serine at the GABA receptor locus that has been associated with resistance to cyclodienes in other insect species. Endosulfan tags had provided 8 weeks of effective control in 2010 but only 1 week in 2011. After only one summer (June-September/2010) of exposure to the endosulfan tagged cattle, there was a significant increase in the resistance ratio for endosulfan in the fly population. Most flies surveyed by the PCR diagnostic assay were homozygous susceptible at the Rdl locus, the resistant (R) allele was mainly present in the heterozygous state and there was no difference in the frequency of the R allele between female and male flies. After the first year's exposure of the horn flies to the endosulfan tags, the frequency of the R allele increased significantly. However, after one year without endosulfan treatment (2011-2012), the frequency of the R allele significantly dropped. These results indicate that target site resistance was responsible, at least in part, for the resistance and that a fitness cost is possibly associated with the Rdl mutation.
Genetic covariation of the marine fungal symbiont Haloguignardia irritans (Ascomycota, Pezizomycotina) with its algal hosts Cystoseira and Halidrys (Phaeophyceae, Fucales) along the west coast of North America.
Harvey, J B J; Goff, Lynda J
The fungal endophyte Haloguignardia irritans induces gall formation on the brown algal genera Cystoseira and Halidrys occurring from Oregon to Baja California, Mexico. Here we examine genetic covariation and compare rDNA phylogenies to investigate the coevolutionary histories of H. irritans and its algal hosts. Despite recognition of H. irritans as a single morphological species, internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequences representative of its geographic range are characterized by sequence variation at the intraspecific to intrageneric levels. An assessment of parallel cladogenesis between endophyte and host phylogenies provides evidence for a combination of independent fungal divergence and host jumping, similar to that observed in terrestrial lichens. Our results suggest that reduced gene flow due to geographic isolation is a major contributing factor to more concerted covariation observed at one island site, rather than to differences among algal host species alone. Because geography and its effects on gene flow can create heterogeneous mosaics of coevolution for symbioses in terrestrial environments, our results support the notion that conservation efforts toward the maintenance of genetic diversity in marine environments should likewise consider geographic complexity and its effects on coevolving marine species.
Juan, Laura W; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martin; Masuh, Hector M
Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker, Eucalyptus elata Dehnh, Eucalyptus fraxinoides Deane & Maiden, E. obliqua L'Hér) were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Essential oils were mainly composed of 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and p-cymene. Vapors from these essential oils and their major components were found to be toxic to Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) adults. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber, and the number of knocked down flies was recorded as a function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that essential oil of E. polybractea had the highest knockdown activity of 3.44 min. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect.
Curtis, Michael P; Chubb, Nathan; Ellsworth, Edmund; Goodwin, Richard; Holzmer, Sue; Koch, Jason; McTier, Tom; Menon, Sanjay; Mills, Kent; Pullins, Aleah; Stuk, Tim; Zinser, Erich
Haematobia irritans (horn fly) infestation in cattle is responsible for over a billion dollars a year in global economic loss due to decreased milk production and lower feed conversion. There is significant need for new insecticidal agents since current treatments such as organophosphates and pyrethroids suffer from field resistance. Isoxazoline oxime ethers represent a new class of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor channel blockers which show good activity (LD(90) = 1.0 μg/mL) against horn flies in an in vitro feed assay and have demonstrated efficacy (>90% reduction at 1.0mg/kg) as a topical treatment in a field study.
Chamorro, Manuel F; Passler, Thomas; Givens, M Daniel; Edmondson, Misty A; Wolfe, Dwight F; Walz, Paul H
Identifying reservoirs and transmission routes for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are important in developing biosecurity programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate BVDV transmission by the hematophagous horn fly (Haematobia irritans). Flies collected from four persistently infected cattle were placed in fly cages attached to principal (n = 4) and control (n = 4) BVDV-naïve calves housed individually in isolation rooms. Flies were able to feed on principal calves, but a barrier prevented fly feeding from control calves. Flies were tested for BVDV by RT-PCR and virus isolation at time of collection from PI cattle and after 48 h of exposure on BVDV-naïve calves. Blood samples were collected from calves and tested for BVDV infection. Virus was isolated from fly homogenates at collection from PI animals and at removal from control and principal calves. All calves remained negative for BVDV by virus isolation and serology throughout the study. Bovine viral diarrhea virus may be detected in horn flies collected from PI cattle, but horn flies do not appear to be an important vector for BVDV transmission.
Xu, Yuan; Vick-Majors, Trista; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael; Priscu, John C; Amaral-Zettler, Linda
We report an in-depth survey of next-generation DNA sequencing of ciliate diversity and community structure in two permanently ice-covered McMurdo Dry Valley lakes during the austral summer and autumn (November 2007 and March 2008). We tested hypotheses on the relationship between species richness and environmental conditions including environmental extremes, nutrient status, and day length. On the basis of the unique environment that exists in these high-latitude lakes, we expected that novel taxa would be present. Alpha diversity analyses showed that extreme conditions-that is, high salinity, low oxygen, and extreme changes in day length-did not impact ciliate richness; however, ciliate richness was 30% higher in samples with higher dissolved organic matter. Beta diversity analyses revealed that ciliate communities clustered by dissolved oxygen, depth, and salinity, but not by season (i.e., day length). The permutational analysis of variance test indicated that depth, dissolved oxygen, and salinity had significant influences on the ciliate community for the abundance matrices of resampled data, while lake and season were not significant. This result suggests that the vertical trends in dissolved oxygen concentration and salinity may play a critical role in structuring ciliate communities. A PCR-based strategy capitalizing on divergent eukaryotic V9 hypervariable region ribosomal RNA gene targets unveiled two new genera in these lakes. A novel taxon belonging to an unknown class most closely related to Cryptocaryon irritans was also inferred from separate gene phylogenies.
Aquaculture, including both freshwater and marine production, has on a world scale exhibited one of the highest growth rates within animal protein production during recent decades and is expected to expand further at the same rate within the next 10 years. Control of diseases is one of the most prominent challenges if this production goal is to be reached. Apart from viral, bacterial, fungal and metazoan infections it has been documented that protozoan parasites affect health and welfare and thereby production of fish in marine aquaculture. Representatives within the main protozoan groups such as amoebae, dinoflagellates, kinetoplastid flagellates, diplomonadid flagellates, apicomplexans, microsporidians and ciliates have been shown to cause severe morbidity and mortality among farmed fish. Well studied examples are Neoparamoeba perurans, Amyloodinium ocellatum, Spironucleus salmonicida, Ichthyobodo necator, Cryptobia salmositica, Loma salmonae, Cryptocaryon irritans, Miamiensis avidus and Trichodina jadranica. The present report provides details on the parasites' biology and impact on productivity and evaluates tools for diagnosis, control and management. Special emphasis is placed on antiprotozoan immune responses in fish and a strategy for development of vaccines is presented.
Tan, A A; Azman, S N; Abdul Rani, N R; Kua, B C; Sasidharan, S; Kiew, L V; Othman, N; Noordin, R; Chen, Y
There is a great diversity of protein samples types and origins, therefore the optimal procedure for each sample type must be determined empirically. In order to obtain a reproducible and complete sample presentation which view as many proteins as possible on the desired 2DE gel, it is critical to perform additional sample preparation steps to improve the quality of the final results, yet without selectively losing the proteins. To address this, we developed a general method that is suitable for diverse sample types based on phenolchloroform extraction method (represented by TRI reagent). This method was found to yield good results when used to analyze human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), Vibrio cholerae, Cryptocaryon irritans cyst and liver abscess fat tissue. These types represent cell line, bacteria, parasite cyst and pus respectively. For each type of samples, several attempts were made to methodically compare protein isolation methods using TRI-reagent Kit, EasyBlue Kit, PRO-PREP™ Protein Extraction Solution and lysis buffer. The most useful protocol allows the extraction and separation of a wide diversity of protein samples that is reproducible among repeated experiments. Our results demonstrated that the modified TRI-reagent Kit had the highest protein yield as well as the greatest number of total proteins spots count for all type of samples. Distinctive differences in spot patterns were also observed in the 2DE gel of different extraction methods used for each type of sample.
Insecticide resistance can arise through several mechanisms broadly classified as target site, metabolic, or reduced penetration. Penetration resistance can arise through alterations in the ability of an insecticide to penetrate or otherwise enter an individual that is treated with insecticide. Targ...
Dominant conditional lethal gene systems are being investigated as population control technologies against agricultural insect pests. One of the critical components of these systems is a highly expressed female-specific gene promoter which can be used to drive expression of a lethality-inducing gene...
Li, Yan-Wei; Xu, Dong-Dong; Li, Xia; Mo, Ze-Quan; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Li, An-Xing; Dan, Xue-Ming
Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play important roles in host defense against pathogen infection, are the most intensively studied pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we identified three novel TLR1 subfamily members, including TLR1 (EcTLR1b), TLR2 (EcTLR2b) and TLR14 (EcTLR14), from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b displayed low sequence identity with the previously reported grouper TLR1 (EcTLR1a) and TLR2 (EcTLR2a), respectively. The open reading frames (ORFs) of EcTLR1b, EcTLR2b and EcTLR14 contain 2484 bp, 2394 bp and 2640 bp, which encode the corresponding 827 amino acids (aa), 797 aa and 879 aa, respectively. All three TLRs have leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains (including an LRR-NT (except for EcTLR1b), several LRR motifs and an LRR-CT), a trans-membrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The TIR domains of the three TLRs exhibited conserved boxes, namely box1, box2 and box3, and their 3D models were similar to those of human TLR1 or TLR2. Sequence alignment demonstrated that the TIR domains of the three TLRs shared higher sequence identity with those of other species than the full-length receptors. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that EcTLR1s and EcTLR2s are characterized by their differing evolutionary status, whereas EcTLR14 was found to be in the same group as other piscine TLR14/18s. The three TLRs were ubiquitously expressed in seven tested tissues of healthy groupers, although their expression profiles were different. Post Cryptocaryon irritans infection, TLR1s expression was up-regulated in the gills. The expression of TLR2b was mainly increased in the spleen, but decreased in the gills, which was similar to the expression pattern of TLR2a post C. irritans infection. Unlike EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b, however, the grouper TLR14 transcript was substantially induced in both tissues post challenge. These findings may be helpful in understanding the innate immune mechanism of host
Molecular characterization and immunolocalization of the olfactory co-recepter Orco from two blood-feeding muscid flies, the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans, L.) and the horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans, L.)
Olafson, Pia Untalan
Biting flies are economically important, blood-feeding pests of medical and veterinary significance. Chemosensory-based biting fly behaviors, such as host/nutrient source localization and ovipositional site selection, are intriguing targets for the development of supplemental control strategies. In an effort to expand our understanding of biting fly chemosensory pathways, transcripts encoding the highly conserved insect odorant co-receptor (Orco) were isolated from two representative biting fly species, the stable fly (Scal\\Orco) and the horn fly (Hirr\\Orco). Orco forms a complex with an odor-specific odorant receptor to form an odor-gated ion channel. The biting fly transcripts were predicted to encode proteins with 87% – 94% amino acid similarity to published insect Orco sequences and were detected in various immature stages as well as in adult structures associated with olfaction, i.e. antennae and maxillary palps, and gustation, i.e. proboscis. Further, the relevant proteins were immunolocalized to specific antennal sensilla using anti-serum raised against a peptide sequence conserved between the two fly species. Results from this study provide a basis for functional evaluation of repellent/attractant effects on as yet uncharacterized stable fly and horn fly conventional odorant receptors. PMID:23278866
Derouen, S M; Miller, J E; Foil, L D; Gentry, G T
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of horn fly and gastrointestinal (GI) nematode control on cow-calf performance with a spring-calving system. A total of 508 cow-calf records from two locations in Louisiana were available for study over two trials (2005 and 2006). Cow and calf pairs were stratified by cow age, calf sex, calf age, calf sire breed and calf sire and randomly assigned to three replicate treatment groups across the two locations. The treatments were: (1) no horn fly or GI nematode control; (2) horn fly control administrated to cows with insecticidal ear tags applied in late-May (start of trial); (3) GI nematode control administrated to calves in late-May, mid-July and late-August (each calf received fenbendazole at the rate of 5 mg kg(-1) body weight); and (4) horn fly and GI nematode control as stated above. Length of the trials ranged from 115 to 124 days (late-May to weaning in late-September or early-October). Cows and calves were weighed at the start of the trial, mid-July and weaning. Weekly horn fly counts were conducted. Individual calf fecal samples were collected in late-May, mid-July, late-August, weaning and 10-14 days after late-May and late-August collections. Cows treated for horn flies had lower (P<0.05) fly counts compared with untreated cows for each trial; however, overall fly counts for the treated cows at one location exceeded over 70 flies per side. Calves treated with fenbendazole had lower (P<0.01) GI nematode fecal egg counts (FEC) for the 10-14 day post-treatment collections. Calves treated GI nematodes and whose dams were treated for horn flies had numerically higher or greater (P<0.05) total calf gains (8.6 kg and 11.8 kg) in both trials than untreated calves. Weight gain differences for fenbendazole-treated calves compared with untreated calves were of greater magnitude from mid-July to weaning than weight gain differences from late-May to mid-July in both trials. There were no treatment differences for any of the cow response traits. In conclusion, improvement in calf growth from both horn fly and GI nematode treatments were realized even with marginal levels of fly control and a greater response in calf growth resulted when deworming of spring-born calves occurred when they were 4 months of age or older.
BACKGROUND: Horn flies are among the most important biting fly pests of cattle in the United States. Horn fly management is largely dependent upon pesticides, which ultimately leads to the rapid development of insecticide resistance. Alternative control strategies, including repellents, have shown p...
Buffalo fly (Haematobia irritans exigua) and horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans) cause irritation and production loss in much of the cattle producing area of the world. In Australia losses from buffalo fly were recently estimated at A$78m per year. Control is largely performed by using organoph...
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans, is an important pest to the livestock industry that causes economic losses of approximately US$1 billion in the U.S. and a similar value in Latin America. Horn fly control efforts still relies mainly on direct application of insecticides although horn fly ...
Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...
Liu, Yan-Meng; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Xu, De-Hai; Fu, Yao-Wu; Lin, De-Jie; Zhou, Sheng-Yu; Li, Jian-Pei
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is a ciliated parasite that elicits great economic losses in aquaculture. In the present study, a polyphenol compound, curcumin, was obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa by bioassay-guided isolation based on the efficacy of anti-I. multifiliis theronts. Anti-I. multifiliis efficacy of curcumin was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin resulted in 100% mortality of I. multifiliis theronts at a concentration of 1mg/L within 21.7±1.2min and killed all tomonts at 8mg/L within 31.0±1.0min. Curcumin at 4mg/L for 16h exposure can completely terminate the reproduction of tomonts. The pretreatment with curcumin at concentrations of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125mg/L for 2h significantly reduced the infectivity of I. multifiliis theronts. Curcumin at 4mg/L completely cured the infected grass carp and protected naive fish from I. multifiliis infection after 10days exposure. The 4h median effective concentration (EC50) of curcumin to I. multifiliis theronts and the 5h EC50 of curcumin to I. multifiliis tomonts were 0.303mg/L and 2.891mg/L, respectively. The 96h median lethal concentration (LC50) of curcumin to grass carp was 56.8mg/L, which was approximately 187.4 times EC50 of curcumin to theronts and 19.6 times EC50 of curcumin to tomonts. The results demonstrated that curcumin has the potential to be a safe and effective therapeutant for controlling ichthyophthiriasis in aquaculture.
Song, Kaige; Ling, Fei; Huang, Aiguo; Dong, Wenjing; Liu, Guanglu; Jiang, Chao; Zhang, Qizhong; Wang, Gaoxue
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, an external fish parasite, often causes significant economic damage to the aquaculture industry. Since the use of malachite green was banned, the search of alternative substance to control I. multifiliis infections becomes stringent. In present study, in vitro and in vivo anti-ich efficacies of isopsoralen and psoralidin, two active compounds isolated from methanol extract of Psoralea corylifolia by bioassay-guided fractionation based on the efficacy of anti-ich encysted tomonts, were evaluated. In vitro antiprotozoal efficacy of psoralidin is much better than that of isopsoralen. Psoralidin can kill all theronts at concentrations of 0.8 mg/L or more during 4 h exposure; and terminate reproduction of I. multifiliis post 6 h exposure of protomonts to 0.9 mg/L and encysted tomonts to 1.2 mg/L. In vivo trials showed that 5 h exposure of infected fish to 2.5 mg/L of psoralidin significantly reduced the number of theronts released from tomonts. Furthermore, we observed that a part of protomonts, collected from infected fish post treatment, presented characteristic morphological changes of apoptosis after staining with Annexin V-EGFP/propidium iodide, indicating the possible mechanism of psoralidin against I. multifiliis trophont in situ. On the basis of these results, psoralidin can be used as a potential lead compound for the development of commercial drug against I. multifiliis. PMID:26042195
The availability of complete mitochondrial genome data for Diptera, one of the largest Metazoan orders, in public databases is limited. Herein, we generated the complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genomes for Cochliomyia hominivorax, Haematobia irritans, Phormia regina and Sarcophaga crassipa...
Breijo, M; Pastro, L; Rocha, S; Ures, X; Alonzo, P; Santos, M; Bolatto, C; Fernández, C; Meikle, A
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), is a blood-sucking ectoparasite that is responsible for sizeable economic losses in livestock. The salivary gland products facilitate blood intake. Taking advantage of the identification of novel H. irritans salivary antigens (Hematobin, HTB and Irritans 5, IT5), we investigated the parasite loads, H. irritans blood intake, and antibody response of naturally infected bovines during the fly season. Fly loads and fly hemoglobin content fluctuated during the trial. Each time horn fly loads exceeded 200 flies per cattle, a reduction in horn fly blood intake was observed three weeks later. All of the cattle elicited an antibody response against HTB and IT5 that declined once the fly season was over. Cattle anti-IT5 titers were positively correlated with parasite loads and negatively correlated with fly blood intake. These results suggest that the natural changes in the H. irritans blood intake observed in this study were associated with a natural host response against horn fly salivary antigens.
Sréter-Lancz, Zsuzsa; Tornyai, Krisztián; Széll, Zoltán; Sréter, Tamás; Márialigeti, Károly
Fleas (95 Pulex irritans, 50 Ctenocephalides felis, 45 Ctenocephalides canis) and ixodid ticks (223 ixodes ricinus, 231 Dermacentor reticulatus, 204 Haemaphysalis concinna) were collected in Hungary and tested, in assays based on PCR, for Bartonella infection. Low percentages of P. irritans (4.2%) and C. felis (4.0%) were found to be infected. The groEL sequences of the four isolates from P. irritans were different from all the homologous sequences for bartonellae previously stored in GenBank but closest to those of Bartonella sp. SE-Bart-B (sharing 96% identities). The groEL sequences of the two isolates from C. felis were identical with those of the causative agents of cat scratch disease, Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, respectively. The pap31 sequences of B. henselae amplified from Hungarian fleas were identical with that of Marseille strain. No Bartonella-specific amplification products were detected in C. canis, I. ricinus, D. reticulatus and H. concinna pools.
In vitro assessment of the chemotherapeutic action of a specific hydrogen peroxide, peracetic, acetic, and peroctanoic acid-based formulation against the free-living stages of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora).
Picón-Camacho, Sara M; Marcos-Lopez, Mar; Beljean, Alexandre; Debeaume, Sylvain; Shinn, Andrew P
Traditionally, malachite green administrated as in-bath treatment was the most effective and common strategy used in freshwater aquaculture systems to control infections of the ciliate protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876. After the ban of malachite green in the USA and Europe to be used in fish for human consumption, there has been extensive research destined to find efficacious replacements. Recently, peracetic acid-based compounds have demonstrated a strong cytotoxic effect in vitro and in vivo against I. multifiliis. In the present study, we tested the efficacy of a hydrogen peroxide, peracetic, acetic and peroctanoic acid-based formulation (HPPAPA) to eliminate the free-living stages of I. multifiliis (tomonts, cysts and theronts). The results obtained showed that the administration of low doses (8, 12 or 15 mg/l) of a specific HPPAPA-based product during a short window of exposure (60 min) kills nearly all free-living stages of I. multifiliis (theronts, tomonts and cysts) within the window of treatment (∼100% mortality for all the stages; one-way ANOVA, P ≤ 0.001). Of note, even the lowest concentration of HPPAPA tested (8 mg/l) was able to disrupt normal cyst development and therefore theront release. The demonstrated in vitro efficacy of the peracetic acid-based product tested on the present study suggests its great potential to control I. multifiliis infections in commercial aquacultural systems.
The horn fly (Haematobia irritans) is a major cattle pest in the American continent, causing yearly economic losses of over US $860 million in Brazil. Frequent use of chemical insecticides has led to the development of insecticide resistance, leading to significant economic losses and environmental ...
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans L., is an obligate blood-feeding fly and the primary insect pest parasitizing cattle in the United States. Pesticide resistance has become a huge problem for cattle producers and although several mechanisms of resistance are possible, target site resistance is the m...
Fontalvo, Mariana Campos; Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Araujo, Andreina de Carvalho; Santos, Naylla Mayana Dos; Oliveira, Glauber Meneses Barboza de; Aguiar, Daniel Moura; Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio de; Horta, Mauricio Claudio
This study verified the occurrence of Bartonella spp. in dogs, cats, wild mammals and their ectoparasites in Petrolina and Lagoa Grande Counties, Pernambuco, located in a semi-arid region in Northeastern Brazil. Anti-Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in 24.8% of dogs (27/109) and in 15% of cats (6/40). Bartonella sp. DNA was identified by PCR performed on DNA extracted from blood and ectoparasites using primers targeting Bartonella sp. gltA and ribC genes in 100% (9/9) of Pulex irritans from Cerdocyon thous, 57.4% (35/61) of P. irritans from dogs, 2.3% (1/43) of Ctenocephalides felis felis from dogs, 53.3% (24/45) of C. felis felis from cats, and 10% (1/10) of Polyplax spp. from Thrichomys apereoides. DNA sequencing identified Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae in C. felis felis from cats, Bartonella rochalimae in P. irritans from dog and C. thous, and Bartonella vinsoni berkhofii in P. irritans from dog.
A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Catageiomyia Theobald was conducted. Treatment of the genital morphology of the genus includes a composite description of the genus, a detailed description and illustration of the type species (Cg. irritans (...
Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body wt/day and 0.6 mg/kg body wt/day) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% AI Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musc...
Silva, Guilherme Araujo Collares da; Lins, Luciana Araujo; Irala, Márcio Josué Costa; Cárcamo, Marcial Corrêa; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha
The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016) at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length < 5.0 cm, n= 7) and long coat (coat length > 5.0 cm, n= 7). In total, 2057 fleas were collected, 1541 of which were C. felis (74.91%) and 516 were P. irritans (25.08%). The number of C. felis and P. irritans individuals was significantly affected by hair coat length and time of year. The variation in flea numbers over the study months was higher in long-coated than in short-coated dogs for the two flea species and flea numbers increased with increasing mean monthly temperatures. The results provide a better understanding of behavioral aspects of flea communities in dogs and may help develop control strategies targeting these parasites.
Poo-Muñoz, Daniela A; Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Escobar, Luis E; Astorga, Francisca; Bermúdez, Sergio E; Martínez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Abarca, Katia; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo
Fleas and ticks are parasites of wild and domestic mammals, and can be vectors of several pathogens. In rural areas, domestic carnivores such as the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris L.), may act as a "bridge" between natural areas and human settlements where ectoparasites can be used as a metric of such link. The aim of this study was to identify fleas, ticks, and Rickettsia spp., collected from domestic and wild carnivores in a natural reserve and surrounding human settlements in Central Chile, using morphological keys and molecular analysis. We surveyed 170 households from which 107 dogs and eight cats were sampled. From the natural reserve, we sampled two chilla foxes (Pseudalopex griseus Gray), two lesser grison (Galictis cuja Molina), three kodkods (Leopardus guigna Molina), and four dogs. From dogs, we collected Ctenocephalides felis Bouché, Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, Pulex irritans L., and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. Latreille; C. felis was the most frequent ectoparasite. Cats were infested only by C. felis and Rh. sanguineus s.l. From wild carnivores, we obtained C. canis and P. irritans, the latter being most frequent. Molecular analysis of P. irritans detected 10 haplotypes and two main clades, which tended to separate fleas from wild and domestic hosts. Molecular analysis of ompA and ompB genes confirmed the presence of Rickettsia felis in fleas collected from owned dogs and cats, which could represent a potential risk factor of R. felis transmission in the area.
Ferraz da Costa, Maria do Socorro; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Ferraz da Costa, Ana Julia; Facury Filho, Elias Jorge; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento
The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months), 40 heifers aged 16.6 ± 2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir) and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir) and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0 ± 0.2 ticks/animal), with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9 ± 0.3 flies/animal) and D. hominis (1.5 ± 0.2 larvae/animal) on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals. PMID:26464941
Abdel-Naser, Mohamed Badawy; Lotfy, Ranya Adel; Al-Sherbiny, Maged Mustafa; Sayed Ali, Nehad Mahmoud
IgG and IgE against salivary gland proteins of bedbug (Cimex lectularius) were assessed in comparison with mosquito (Culex pipiens) and flea (Pulex irritans) antigens in the sera of papular urticaria patients (group I), siblings without papular urticaria (group IIa), patients' parents (group IIb), and healthy controls (group III) (Immunoblotting). Anti-C. lectularius IgG was significantly recognized at 66 and 10 kDa in 40% of group I, besides others ranging from 45 to 107 kDa. Group IIa significantly reacted with 70 kDa (57.1%). Group IIb reacted with 21 and 8.5 kDa (26.7%). Sixty percent of group IIb and 100% of group III significantly identified a band of 12.5 kDa. IgG against C. pipiens was significantly recognized at a range of 18-105 kDa in group I, IIb (115, 7 kDa), and III (58, 50 kDa). Anti-P. irritans IgG was significantly recognized by group I (100, 70 kDa) and group IIa (60, 35 kDa). IgE response was confined to C. pipiens at 115 and 54 kDa in groups I and III, respectively, besides 68 and 58 kDa in group IIa. It is concluded that IgG is present against C. lectularius, C. pipiens, and P. irritans in papular urticaria and may contribute to its pathogenesis.
Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Shahriari, Bahador; Azizi, Kourosh; Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Jalal; Amin, Masoume
Blood sucking insects, such as fleas, are responsible for the transmission of many infectious disease-causing agents which impose an intolerable burden on the health of people living particularly in endemic parts of the world. Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) are found in many parts of the world including Iran. Both adult male and female fleas are obligatory ectoparasites. They are one of the main public health concerns as a result of their nuisance or the potential to act as vectors of a number of medically-important pathogens. The current study was conducted to examine the geographical distribution and fauna of fleas and their anthropophagic index in part of Fars province, southern Iran. This study was the first to be done in Iran. A total of 20 villages were randomly selected. From October 2011 to May 2012, adult fleas were collected by direct hand catch from human to animal shelters. Overall 848 fleas, most of which were blood-fed, were captured from the floor or the body of farm animal hosts (cattle, sheep, goat and hens). Only two different genera of fleas were identified, the main species (99.76 %) was human flea, Pulex irritans. The village of Shamsabad was the most heavily infested area. P. irritans had an anthropophagic index of 15 % using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). It could be concluded that P. irritans is widely distributed in this area. Based on their blood feeding activity, fleas thus posed a serious health threat to residents and their economically important livestock in this part of Iran.
Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C; Vaucher, R A; Baldissera, M D; Raffin, R; Boligon, A; Athayde, M; Baretta, D; Machado, G; DA Silva, A S
This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and andiroba, Carapa guianensis (Sapindales: Meliaceae), essential oils on two species of fly. For in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To evaluate the insecticidal effects of the oils, adult flies of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Musca domestica L. (both: Diptera: Muscidae) were separated by species in test cages (n = 10 per group), and subsequently tested with oils at concentrations of 1.0% and 5.0% using a negative control to validate the test. Both oils showed insecticidal activity. Tea tree oil at a concentration of 5.0% was able to kill M. domestica with 100.0% efficacy after 12 h of exposure. However, the effectiveness of andiroba oil at a concentration of 5.0% was only 67.0%. The insecticidal efficacy (100.0%) of both oils against H. irritans was observed at both concentrations for up to 4 h. The repellency effects of the oils at concentrations of 5.0% were tested in vivo on Holstein cows naturally infested by H. irritans. Both oils demonstrated repellency at 24 h, when the numbers of flies on cows treated with tea tree and andiroba oil were 61.6% and 57.7%, respectively, lower than the number of flies on control animals. It is possible to conclude that these essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects against the species of fly used in this study.
Thomas, G; Jespersen, J B
Many non-biting muscids (filth flies) are characterised by the habit of visiting manure or rotting organic material to feed and/or oviposit. As these flies also often have close associations with human beings, as well as human habitations and domestic animals, they are potentially both a nuisance and a contributory factor in the transmission of diseases. The authors examine the biology, economic importance and control of four of the most important non-biting muscids: housefly, Musca domestica; face fly, Musca autumnalis; Australian bush fly, Musca vetustissima; sheep head fly, Hydrotaea irritans.
Beck, W; Clark, H H
Different flea species may infest humans temporarily. Such arthropods should be considered as a possible cause of erythematous and pruritic papules and nodules of unclear origin. Bites from animal fleas can be seen in people with close contact to domestic or wild animals. This dermatosis may often be misdiagnosed. Several flea species including Pulex irritans, Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, Ceratophyllus gallinae, Ceratophyllus columbae and Archaeopsylla erinacei may infest human skin, causing symptoms. Flea bite-allergy and the role of various flea species as disease vectors are also discussed.
Breijo, M; Rocha, S; Ures, X; Pedrana, G; Alonzo, P; Meikle, A
The burden of infestation of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae), differs among bovines within the same herd. We hypothesized that these differences might be related to the epidermal thickness of the cattle and the blood intake capacity of the fly. Results showed that dark animals carried more flies and had a thinner epidermis than light-coloured animals, which was consistent with the greater haemoglobin content found in flies caught on darker cattle. Similarly, epidermal thickness increased with body weight, whereas haemoglobin content decreased. Overall, we suggest that accessibility of blood is a factor that partially explains cattle attractiveness to flies.
Márquez, F J; Millán, J; Rodríguez-Liébana, J J; García-Egea, I; Muniain, M A
A total of 559 fleas representing four species (Pulex irritans, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Spilopsyllus cuniculi) collected on carnivores (five Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, six European wildcat Felis silvestris, 10 common genet Genetta genetta, three Eurasian badger Meles meles, 22 red fox Vulpes vulpes, 87 dogs and 23 cats) in Andalusia, southern Spain, were distributed in 156 pools of monospecific flea from each carnivore, and tested for Bartonella infection in an assay based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16 S-23 S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Twenty-one samples (13.5%) were positive and the sequence data showed the presence of four different Bartonella species. Bartonella henselae was detected in nine pools of Ctenocephalides felis from cats and dogs and in three pools of Ctenocephalides canis from cats; Bartonella clarridgeiae in Ctenocephalides felis from a cat, and Bartonella alsatica in Spilopsyllus cuniculi from a wildcat. DNA of Bartonella sp., closely related to Bartonella rochalimae, was found in seven pools of Pulex irritans from foxes. This is the first detection of B. alsatica and Bartonella sp. in the Iberian Peninsula. All of these Bartonella species have been implicated as agents of human diseases. The present survey confirms that carnivores are major reservoirs for Bartonella spp.
Gálvez, R; Montoya, A; Checa, R; Martín, O; Marino, V; Miró, G
This entomological survey examines the spatial and seasonal distribution patterns of flea species infesting dogs in Spain. Bioclimatic zones covering broad climate and vegetation ranges were surveyed according to size. In a cross-sectional spatial survey carried out from late May 2013 to mid-July 2015, 1084 dogs from 42 different locations were examined. A total of 3032 fleas were collected and identified as belonging to the following species: Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (81.7%, 2476 fleas); Ctenocephalides canis (11.4%, 347 fleas); Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (6.9%, 208 fleas), and Echidnophaga gallinacea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (0.03%, one flea). Variables observed to have effects on flea abundance were animal weight, sex, length of hair and habitat. In the seasonal survey conducted from June 2014 to June 2015, 1014 fleas were collected from 239 dogs at 30 veterinary practices across Spain. Peaks in C. felis abundance were observed in early summer and late autumn, whereas high numbers of P. irritans and C. canis were recorded in autumn. Numbers of fleas detected in winter were low overall. Based on these findings, the present study updates the spatial and seasonal distributions of flea species in Spain and assesses the impacts of host and habitat variables on flea infestation.
McGee, Brady K; Butler, Matthew J; Pence, Danny B; Alexander, James L; Nissen, Janet B; Ballard, Warren B; Nicholson, Kerry L
To determine whether swift foxes (Vulpes velox) could facilitate transmission of Yersinia pestis to uninfected black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies by acquiring infected fleas, ectoparasite and serologic samples were collected from swift foxes living adjacent to prairie dog towns during a 2004 plague epizootic in northwestern Texas, USA. A previous study (1999-2001) indicated that these swift foxes were infested almost exclusively with the flea Pulex irritans. Black-tailed prairie dogs examined from the study area harbored only Pulex simulans and Oropsylla hirsuta. Although P. irritans was most common, P. simulans and O. hirsuta were collected from six swift foxes and a single coyote (Canis latrans) following the plague epizootic. Thus, both of these canids could act as transport hosts (at least temporarily) of prairie dog fleas following the loss of their normal hosts during a plague die-off. All six adult swift foxes tested positive for antibodies to Y. pestis. All 107 fleas from swift foxes tested negative for Y. pestis by mouse inoculation. Although swift foxes could potentially carry Y. pestis to un-infected prairie dog colonies, we believe they play only a minor role in plague epidemiology, considering that they harbored just a few uninfected prairie dog fleas (P. simulans and O. hirsuta).
McClellan-Green, Patricia; Romano, Jocelyn; Oberdörster, Eva
Exposure to contaminants in the environment is indiscriminate and multiple species/populations of all sexes are potentially at risk. In this paper we examine the current information available on gender specific differences in invertebrates following exposure to environmental contaminants. Because of their close association with the environment and diversity of habitats, invertebrates are uniquely at risk for adverse responses to pollutants. Since 97% of all animal species are invertebrates, it would be impossible to cover each of the phyla in this review. Instead, this paper discusses major invertebrate species including insects (Periplaneta americana, Panorpa vulgaris, Lycosa hilaris, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), and Drosophilia melanogaster), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), crustaceans (Streptocephalus dichotomus, Amphiascus tenuiremis, Microarthridion littorale, Tisbe bulbisetosa, Acartia tonsa, and Palaemonetes pugio), mollusks (Pinctada fucata martensii, Ilyanassa obsoleta, Nucella lapillus, Hinia reticulata, Thais clavigera, and Mercenaria mercenaria), corals (Euphyllia ancora and Montipara capitata), and echinoderms (Asterias rubens) that have been used in studies examining the differences between males and females. Our discussion focuses on gender differences that occur in both toxicokinetic mechanisms (uptake and elimination, metabolism and physiology) and other toxicological endpoints (survival and behavior as well as morphology and development). It will become evident that the endocrine systems of invertebrates have many traits and/or pathways that are comparable to those observed in higher organisms. Yet the sensitivity of some elements of the invertebrate endocrine system, e.g., disruption of neuropeptide hormone signaling following TBT exposure, highlights the uniqueness of their systems and their potential for disruption.
Abernathy, Jason W; Xu, Peng; Li, Ping; Xu, De-Hai; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Klesius, Phillip; Arias, Covadonga; Liu, Zhanjiang
Background The ciliate protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) is an important parasite of freshwater fish that causes 'white spot disease' leading to significant losses. A genomic resource for large-scale studies of this parasite has been lacking. To study gene expression involved in Ich pathogenesis and virulence, our goal was to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for the development of a powerful microarray platform for the analysis of global gene expression in this species. Here, we initiated a project to sequence and analyze over 10,000 ESTs. Results We sequenced 10,368 EST clones using a normalized cDNA library made from pooled samples of the trophont, tomont, and theront life-cycle stages, and generated 9,769 sequences (94.2% success rate). Post-sequencing processing led to 8,432 high quality sequences. Clustering analysis of these ESTs allowed identification of 4,706 unique sequences containing 976 contigs and 3,730 singletons. These unique sequences represent over two million base pairs (~10% of Plasmodium falciparum genome, a phylogenetically related protozoan). BLASTX searches produced 2,518 significant (E-value < 10-5) hits and further Gene Ontology (GO) analysis annotated 1,008 of these genes. The ESTs were analyzed comparatively against the genomes of the related protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila and P. falciparum, allowing putative identification of additional genes. All the EST sequences were deposited by dbEST in GenBank (GenBank: EG957858–EG966289). Gene discovery and annotations are presented and discussed. Conclusion This set of ESTs represents a significant proportion of the Ich transcriptome, and provides a material basis for the development of microarrays useful for gene expression studies concerning Ich development, pathogenesis, and virulence. PMID:17577414
Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Padilla-Lardizábal, G; del Río Portilla, M A
Culture of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is emerging as an alternative to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) for oyster producers, who face severe mortalities since 1997 in Northwest México. For determining the health status of this species, we conducted a histopathological analysis of cultured populations from two estuaries in the Pacific coast of México. Macroscopical analysis revealed animals with transparent and retracted mantle. Histopathological analysis of these specimens showed tissue alterations and parasitic forms consistent with Perkinsus sp. infection. Stages of the parasite identified included tomont and trophozoites with an eccentric vacuole characteristic of Perkinsus spp. Pieces of tissues of infected oysters were incubated in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM) resulting in blue-black hypnospores after incubation. The identity of the parasite was confirmed by species specific PCR-based assay in DNA samples from oysters, tissue fractions from FTM cultures, and deparaffined samples with Perkinsus-like parasite detected by histology. Sequencing of positive amplified fragments (307bp) showed a sequence similar to Perkinsus marinus strain TXsc NTS ribosomal RNA gene (100% coverage and 98% identity, GenBank Accession No. AF497479.1) and to P. marinus, Genomic DNA, (100% coverage and 97% identity, GenBank Accession No. S78416.1). The prevalence of P. marinus varied from 1 to 5% in Boca del Camichín and from 1 to 6% in Pozo Chino. In general, the intensity of infection was moderate. The infection was observed in oysters from 31 to 110mm of shell length. This is the first record of P. marinus in oysters from the North America Pacific coast and the first record in C. corteziensis. The origin of this parasite in the area is unknown, but it may be associated to introductions of Crassostrea virginica from the East coast of United States of America or Gulf of México.
Modifications in climatic conditions, movements of hosts and goods, changes in animal phenology and human behaviour and increase of wildlife, are presently concurring in the geographic spread of vectors and cardio-respiratory nematodes, e.g. Dirofilaria immitis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Capillaria aerophila. All these factors may also influence dispersion and clinical significance of fleas, thus posing relevant challenges in those regions where other parasites are emerging at the same time. Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans cause discomfort, nuisance, allergic reactions, anaemia, and may transmit several pathogens, some of them are of importance for public health. The present article reviews the importance of fleas in small animal practice and their sanitary relevance for dogs, cats and humans, and discusses current control methods in the present era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes, towards a possible changing perspective for controlling key parasites affecting companion animals.
Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina
Fleas are important vectors of several Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. In this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in Ethiopia and identified morphologically as Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for Rickettsia and Bartonella DNA by using molecular methods. Rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily C. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs and cats. A larger proportion of flea-infested dogs (69%) than cats (37%) harbored at least one C. felis infected with R. felis. Rickettsia typhi was not detected. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in 6% (2 of 34) of C. felis collected from cats. Our study highlights the likelihood of human exposure to R. felis, an emerging agent of spotted fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease, in urban areas in Ethiopia.
Laforce, F. Marc; Acharya, I. L.; Stott, Gordon; Brachman, Philip S.; Kaufman, Arnold F.; Clapp, Richard F.; Shah, N. K.
In the autumn of 1967, plague broke out among hill people in western Nepal, a country that had not previously reported human plague. Two persons were infected from an active sylvatic focus at a grazing area 5 km from Nawra, the village where the epidemic occurred. The second patient introduced plague into the village where the rest of the cases occurred. Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that plague was spread both by the airborne route, resulting in 6 cases of tonsillar plague and 1 case of primary pneumonic plague, as well as by infected fleas, resulting in 17 cases of bubonic plague. Since no evidence of a rodent epizootic was uncovered in the village itself, and because of the distinct clustering of the bubonic cases, human-to-human spread of plague by infected ectoparasite vectors, presumably Pulex irritans, is thought to have occurred. This focus probably represents the most southerly boundary of the central Asian plague area yet identified. PMID:5317008
Modifications in climatic conditions, movements of hosts and goods, changes in animal phenology and human behaviour and increase of wildlife, are presently concurring in the geographic spread of vectors and cardio-respiratory nematodes, e.g. Dirofilaria immitis, Angiostrongylus vasorum, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and Capillaria aerophila. All these factors may also influence dispersion and clinical significance of fleas, thus posing relevant challenges in those regions where other parasites are emerging at the same time. Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans cause discomfort, nuisance, allergic reactions, anaemia, and may transmit several pathogens, some of them are of importance for public health. The present article reviews the importance of fleas in small animal practice and their sanitary relevance for dogs, cats and humans, and discusses current control methods in the present era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes, towards a possible changing perspective for controlling key parasites affecting companion animals. PMID:23497511
Mumcuoglu, K Y; Miller, J; Manor, O; Ben-Yshai, F; Klaus, S
Newly arrived Ethiopian immigrants in Israel were screened for ectoparasitic insects and mites. Of 304 individuals examined 65.1% were infested with the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis). The infestation rate among children varied between 65 and 100%. Children aged 6-11 years were the most infested group and no differences between girls and boys were found. The infestation rate in children was significantly higher than that found in adults. Approximately 39% of those examined were infested with the body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus). The rate of infestation with this parasite was higher in adults than in children and higher in females than males. Ten percent of the immigrants examined were infested with the scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) and 4.3% with the human flea (Pulex irritans).
Domínguez-Peñafiel, G.; Giménez-Pardo, C.; Gegúndez, M.I.; Lledó, L.
This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited. PMID:21894267
Oyarzún, M P; Quiroz, A; Birkett, M A
The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most widespread and economically important pests of cattle. Although insecticides have been used for fly control, success has been limited because of the development of insecticide resistance in all countries where the horn fly is found. This problem, along with public pressure for insecticide-free food and the prohibitive cost of developing new classes of compounds, has driven the investigation of alternative control methods that minimize or avoid the use of insecticides. This review provides details of the economic impact of horn flies, existing insecticides used for horn fly control and resistance mechanisms. Current research on new methods of horn fly control based on resistant cattle selection, semiochemicals, biological control and vaccines is also discussed.
Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina
Fleas are important vectors of several Rickettsia and Bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. In this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in Ethiopia and identified morphologically as Ctenocephalides felis felis, C. canis, Pulex irritans, and Echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for Rickettsia and Bartonella DNA by using molecular methods. Rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily C. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs and cats. A larger proportion of flea-infested dogs (69%) than cats (37%) harbored at least one C. felis infected with R. felis. Rickettsia typhi was not detected. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in 6% (2 of 34) of C. felis collected from cats. Our study highlights the likelihood of human exposure to R. felis, an emerging agent of spotted fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat-scratch disease, in urban areas in Ethiopia. PMID:24445204
Aydın, Mehmet Fatih; Balkaya, Ibrahim; Aktaş, Münir; Dumanlı, Nazir
In this study, three red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) which died after traffic accidents were examined in terms of ectoparasites, in the province of Erzurum in January of 2009. 13 ticks and 74 fleas were collected from the foxes and taken to the laboratory in separate glasses containing 70% alcohol. Ticks were taken directly from 70% alcohol and have been identified under the stereo microscope. Fleas were cleared in 10% KOH solution during 4-13 days and washed in distilled water 3-4 times and were identified under the light microscope. Two tick species Ixodes hexagonus Leach, 1815 (5 males, 7 females) and Haemaphysalis numidiana Neumann, 1905 (1 male) and four flea species Pulex irritans Linne, 1758 (23 males, 37 females), Chaetopsylla globiceps Tacshenberg, 1880 (11 female), Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, 1826 (2 female) and Ctenocephalides felis felis Bouche, 1835 (1 female) were identified. In this study H. numidiana have been identified in the fox for the first time.
Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Edrington, Thomas S; Loneragan, Guy H
Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing approximately 10(2), approximately 10(4), or 10(6) S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and > 12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 x 10(2) CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide.
Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Singh, Baneshwar; Wells, Jeffrey D; Guerrero, Felix; Ray, David A
The availability of complete mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) data for Diptera, one of the largest metazoan orders, in public databases is limited. The advent of high throughput sequencing technology provides the potential to generate mtgenomes for many species affordably and quickly. However, these technologies need to be validated for dipterans as the members of this clade play important economic and research roles. Illumina and 454 sequencing platforms are widely used in genomic research involving non-model organisms. The Illumina platform has already been utilized for generating mitochondrial genomes without using conventional long range PCR for insects whereas the power of 454 sequencing for generating mitochondrial genome drafts without PCR has not yet been validated for insects. Thus, this study examines the utility of 454 sequencing approach for dipteran mtgenomic research. We generated complete or nearly complete mitochondrial genomes for Cochliomyia hominivorax, Haematobia irritans, Phormia regina and Sarcophaga crassipalpis using a 454 sequencing approach. Comparisons between newly obtained and existing assemblies for C. hominivorax and H. irritans revealed no major discrepancies and verified the utility of 454 sequencing for dipteran mitochondrial genomes. We also report the complete mitochondrial sequences for two forensically important flies, P. regina and S. crassipalpis, which could be used to provide useful information to legal personnel. Comparative analyses revealed that dipterans follow similar codon usage and nucleotide biases that could be due to mutational and selection pressures. This study illustrates the utility of 454 sequencing to obtain complete mitochondrial genomes for dipterans without the aid of conventional molecular techniques such as PCR and cloning and validates this method of mtgenome sequencing in arthropods.
Foley, P; Foley, J; Sándor, A D; Ionica, A M; Matei, I A; D'Amico, G; Gherman, C M; Dom A, C; Mihalca, A D
Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes (L.)) are widespread across Europe, tolerant of synanthropic ecosystems, and susceptible to diseases potentially shared with humans and other animals. We describe flea fauna on red foxes in Romania, a large, ecologically diverse country, in part because fleas may serve as an indicator of the risk of spillover of vector-borne disease. We found 912 individual fleas of seven species on the 305 foxes assessed, for an infestation prevalence of 49.5%. Mean flea load per fox was 5.8 (range 0-44 fleas), and flea detections were most abundant in fall and early spring. Fleas included generalists (Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis), 32.6% of all fleas), Ct. felis (Bouché, 0.1%), and Pulex irritans L. (29.9%), the fox specialist Chaetopsylla globiceps (Taschenberg, 32.5%), mesocarnivore fleas Paraceras melis Walker (3.2%) and Ch. trichosa Kohaut (1.5%), and the small mammal flea Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg, 0.1%), which is rarely or never reported from carnivores. There were significantly more female than male Ch. globiceps, Ct. canis, and Pu. irritans, and these three species were the most broadly distributed geographically. Diversity indices suggested reduced diversity in mountainous areas above 700 m. When compared to other flea studies on foxes in Europe, Romania had flea diversity near the median of reports, which was unexpected given Romania's high ecological diversity. Notably absent prey specialists, compared to other studies, include Archaeopsylla erinacei (Bouché) and Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale). Further studies of possible disease agents in fox fleas could help elucidate possible risks of vector-borne disease in foxes, domestic animals, and humans as well.
Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier
Homeless people are particularly exposed to ectoparasite. The living conditions and the crowded shelters provide ideal conditions for the spread of lice, fleas, ticks, and mites. Body lice have long been recognized as human parasites and although typically prevalent in rural communities in upland areas of countries close to the equator, it is now increasingly encountered in developed countries especially in homeless people or inner city economically deprived population. Fleas are widespread but are not adapted to a specific host and may occasionally bite humans. Most common fleas that parasite humans are the cat, the rat, and the human fleas, Ctenocephalides felis, Xenopsylla cheopis, and Pulex irritans, respectively. Ticks belonging to the family Ixodidae, in particular, the genera Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Ixodes, are frequent parasites in humans. Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis is a mite (Arachnida class) responsible for scabies. It is an obligate parasite of human skin. The hematophagic-biting mite, Liponyssoides sanguineus, is a mite of the rat, mouse, and other domestic rodents but can also bite humans. Finally, the incidence of skin disease secondary to infestation with the human bedbug, Cimex lectularius, has increased recently. Bacteria, such as Wolbacchia spp. have been detected in bedbug. The threat posed by the ectoparasite in homeless is not the ectoparasite themselves but the associated infectious diseases that they may transmit to humans. Except for scabies all these ectoparasites are potential vectors for infectious agents. Three louse-borne diseases are known at this time. Trench fever caused by Bartonella quintana (B. quintana), epidemic typhus caused by Rickettsia prowazekii, and relapsing fever caused by the spirochete Borrelia recurrentis. Fleas transmit plague (Xenopsylla cheopis and Pulex irritans), murine typhus (Xenopsylla cheopis), flea-borne spotted rickettsiosis on account of the recently described species Rickettsia felis (C. felis
Steelman, C D; McNew, R W; Simpson, R B; Rorie, R W; Phillips, J M; Rosenkrans, C F
A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the efficacy of tactics that could be used to manage populations of insecticide-resistant horn flies, Hematobia irritans irritans (L.). Insecticide spray, spot-on or pour-on formulations and two IGRs in bolus formulation, 1.3- and 3.2-ha pasture rotations on different rotation schedules, 0-50% Brahman breeding, selected fly-resistant cows, and a mechanical trap were evaluated singly and in combination. Concentration-mortality tests indicated that horn flies collected from cows used in the current study were significantly less susceptible to diazinon, coumaphos, and methoxychlor than horn flies from cows at the same locations previously used to determine baseline susceptibility. During the 3-yr study at the Southeast Research and Extension Center (SEREC), the IGR-bolus significantly reduced (P < 0.05) horn fly numbers on both the continuous and rotational graze regimens, resulting in significantly (P < 0.05) greater calf weaning weights (average of 24 kg). Horn fly numbers were significantly greater on untreated cows during the 3-yr study at the Southwest Research and Extension Center (SWREC) compared with the mean fly numbers on cows that received fly-management treatments. All tactics and tactic-combinations used at SWREC on cattle having no Brahman breeding failed to significantly reduce insecticide-resistant horn fly numbers. However, the combination of Brahman breeding with the IGR-Bolus and mechanical trap significantly reduced horn fly numbers and resulted in significant increases in calf weaning weight. In addition, mean horn fly numbers decreased significantly as the percentage Brahman breeding increased with 50% Brahman breeding reducing horn fly numbers by 140 flies per cow. No significant difference was found between the mean fly numbers on the fly-resistant purebred group and the cows that had no Brahman breeding but received the IGR-Bolus or used the mechanical trap. The use of synergized zeta-cypermethrin pour
Cañón-Franco, William Alberto; Pérez-Bedoya, José Leandro
Flea infestation is a common worldwide problem, its effective control results in high costs and difficult implementation. During February to August 2007, an epidemiological study of Siphonaptera order in dogs and cats admitted at the University of Caldas-Colombia - Veterinary Hospital (UCVH), was carried out by corporal examination and recording epidemiological variables. Overall, 3698 fleas were collected from 140 dogs and 30 cats. Two main species were identified: Ctenocephalides felis (94.2%) and Pulex irritans (5.8%) and a single specimen of Xenopsylla cheopis were also collected. Owners also considered some products as improper or of doubtful efficacy and employed schedules defined as inadequate, both because of a poor choice and an erroneous use of the product. Epidemiological factors associated with flea infestation allowed estimating the effect of variables such as locality, sleeping area, preferred place, type of floor, presence of other animals, and type of hair. Performing epidemiological studies on canine and feline populations in other areas of the country is required for an adequate implementation of strategies for flea control in pets.
Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P
The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a complex climate phenomenon occurring in the Pacific Ocean at intervals of 2-7 years. The term refers to fluctuations in ocean temperatures in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean (El Niño [the warm phase of ENSO] and La Niña [the cool phase of ENSO]) and in atmospheric pressure across the Pacific basin (Southern Oscillation). This weather pattern is attributed with causing climate change in certain parts of the world and is associated with disease outbreaks. The question of how ENSO affects skin and skin-related disease is relatively unanswered. We aimed to review the literature describing the effects of this complex weather pattern on skin. El Niño has been associated with increases in the occurrence of actinic keratosis, tinea, pityriasis versicolor, miliaria, folliculitis, rosacea, dermatitis by Paederus irritans and Paederus sabaeus, and certain vector-borne and waterborne diseases, such as dengue fever, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, Barmah Forest virus, and leptospirosis, and with decreases in the occurrence of dermatitis, scabies, psoriasis, and papular urticaria. La Niña has been associated with increases in the occurrence of varicella, hand, foot, and mouth disease, and Ross River virus (in certain areas), and decreases in viral warts and leishmaniasis. Reports on the effects of ENSO on skin and skin-related disease are limited, and more studies could be helpful in the future.
Changbunjong, Tanasak; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Maneeon, Pattarapon; Ganpanakngan, Manoch; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Sriwichai, Patchara; Sumruayphol, Suchada; Ruangsittichai, Jiraporn
Stomoxyini flies (Diptera: Muscidae) include species of parasitic flies of medical and veterinary importance. The adult flies feed on the blood of mammals and may transmit several parasites and pathogens. We conducted an entomological survey of Stomoxyini flies from different sites in Thailand. Stomoxyini flies were collected at four major types of sites: zoos, livestock farms, wildlife conservation areas and a national park using vavoua traps between November 2010 and April 2011. A total of 3,314 Stomoxyini flies belonging to the genera Stomoxys, Haematobosca, Haematostoma and Haematobia were collected. Eight species were identified: S. calcitrans (46.6%), S. uruma (26.8%), S. pulla (4.3%), S. indicus (0.7%), S. sitiens (0.1%), H. sanguinolenta (11.2 %), H. austeni (0.5%) and H. irritans exigua (9.8%). The diversity of Stomoxyini flies in the livestock farms was higher than the other sites. Altitude correlated with the number of flies. This study provides information that may be useful for Stomoxyini flies control.
Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Montoya, Viviana; Martínez, Alejandra; Pérez, Jorge E.; Mercado, Marcela; de la Ossa, Alberto; Vélez, Carolina; Estrada, Gloria; Correa, Maria I.; Duque, Laura; Ariza, Juan S.; Henao, Cesar; Valbuena, Gustavo; Hidalgo, Marylin
Rickettsioses caused by Rickettsia felis are an emergent global threat. Historically, the northern region of the province of Caldas in Colombia has reported murine typhus cases, and recently, serological studies confirmed high seroprevalence for both R. felis and R. typhi. In the present study, fleas from seven municipalities were collected from dogs, cats, and mice. DNA was extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify gltA, ompB, and 17kD genes. Positive samples were sequenced to identify the species of Rickettsia. Of 1,341 fleas, Ctenocephalides felis was the most prevalent (76.7%). Positive PCR results in the three genes were evidenced in C. felis (minimum infection rates; 5.3%), C. canis (9.2%), and Pulex irritans (10.0%). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analyses of sequences showed high identity values (> 98%) with R. felis, and all were highly related by phylogenetic analyses. This work shows the first detection of R. felis in fleas collected from animals in Colombia. PMID:23878183
Cadioli, Fabiano Antonio; Barnabé, Patrícia de Athayde; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Alves; André, Marcos Rogério; Sampaio, Paulo Henrique; Fidélis Junior, Otávio Luiz; Teixeira, Marta Maria Geraldes; Marques, Luiz Carlos
This is the first description of a Trypanosoma vivax outbreak in the state of São Paulo (municipality of Lins). Fever, jaundice, decreased milk production, weight loss, profuse diarrhea, abortion, anemia, leukocytosis and hyperfibrinogenemia were observed in the affected animals. Thirty-one cows and calves died out of a total of 1080 in the herd. Three cows showed neurological symptoms like dysmetria, ataxia, muscle weakness, ptyalism, lymph node enlargement and submandibular edema. Flagellated hemoparasites were observed in blood smears. The species was diagnosed as T. vivax by means of PCR. This T.vivax strain showed resistance to diaminazene aceturate and the infection spread quickly at the herd. From the ELISA test, 599 serum samples (98.36%) were positive for anti-T.vivax IgG antibodies. This outbreak occurred during a very dry period, which indicates that other factors were involved in the outbreak, such as absence of tabanids and large populations of Haematobia irritans and Stomoxys calcitrans. The increases in these populations may have been due to the use of biosolid waste from sugar and ethanol plants in the sugarcane plantations surrounding the dairy farm.
López-Pérez, A M; Osikowicz, L; Bai, Y; Montenieri, J; Rubio, A; Moreno, K; Gage, K; Suzán, G; Kosoy, M
The host-parasite-vector relationship of Bartonella spp. system in wild carnivores and their fleas from northwestern Mexico was investigated. Sixty-six carnivores belonging to eight species were sampled, and 285 fleas belonging to three species were collected during spring (April-May) and fall (October-November) seasons. We detected Bartonella species in 7 carnivores (10.6%) and 27 fleas (9.5%) through either blood culture or PCR. Of the 27 Bartonella-positive fleas, twenty-two were Pulex simulans, three were Pulex irritans and one was Echidnophaga gallinacea. The gltA gene and ITS region sequences alignment revealed six and eight genetic variants of Bartonella spp., respectively. These variants were clustered into Bartonella rochalimae, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and another genotype, which likely represents a novel species of Bartonella spp. Although experimental infection studies are required to prove the vector role of P. simulans, our results suggest that this flea may play an important role in the Bartonella transmission. The results indicated possible host-specific relationships between Bartonella genotypes and the families of the carnivores, but further studies are needed to verify this finding. The presence of zoonotic species of Bartonella spp. in wild carnivores raises the issue of their potential risk for humans in fragmented ecosystems.
Spencer, K.A.; Egoscue, H.J.
A total of 3,241 fleas, representing seven species, were identified from 398 samples collected from San Joaquin kit foxes (Vulpes velox macrotis), California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi), and deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training Site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. Of 3,109 fleas collected from kit foxes 95.7% were Echidnophaga gallinacea, 4.0% Pulex irritans, 0.2% Hoplopsyllus anomolus, and 0.1% Odontopsyllus dentatus. One male Ctenocephalides fells was also collected from a kit fox. The 118 fleas collected from California ground squirrels consisted of Hoplopsyllus anomolus (55.9%), Echidnophaga gallinacea (37.3%), and Oropsylla montanus (6.8%). The 14 fleas collected from deer mice were Aetheca wagneri. Based on the distribution and abundance of flea species collected, and the vector efficiency of these fleas, it appears that kit foxes could play a role in the transfer of natural vectors of sylvatic plague between rodent populations, if the bacterium responsible for plague (Yersinia pestis) were present at Camp Roberts. Little information regarding kit fox food habits was evidenced by the distribution and abundance of small mammal flea species collected from kit foxes.
Ziwa, Michael H; Matee, Mecky I; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Kilonzo, Bukheti S
Human plague remains a public health concern in Tanzania despite its quiescence in most foci for years, considering the recurrence nature of the disease. Despite the long-standing history of this problem, there have not been recent reviews of the current knowledge on plague in Tanzania. This work aimed at providing a current overview of plague in Tanzania in terms of its introduction, potential reservoirs, possible causes of plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in the country. Plague is believed to have been introduced to Tanzania from the Middle East through Uganda with the first authentication in 1886. Xenopsylla brasiliensis, X. cheopis, Dinopsyllus lypusus, and Pulex irritans are among potential vectors while Lophuromys spp, Praomys delectorum, Graphiurus murinus, Lemniscomys striatus, Mastomys natalensis, and Rattus rattus may be the potential reservoirs. Plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in Tanzania are likely to be attributable to a complexity of factors including cultural, socio-economical, environmental and biological. Minimizing or preventing people's proximity to rodents is probably the most effective means of preventing plague outbreaks in humans in the future. In conclusion, much has been done on plague diagnosis in Tanzania. However, in order to achieve new insights into the features of plague epidemiology in the country, and to reorganize an effective control strategy, we recommend broader studies that will include the ecology of the pathogen, vectors and potential hosts, identifying the reservoirs, dynamics of infection and landscape ecology.
Cruywagen, Elsie M; Crous, Pedro W; Roux, Jolanda; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J
There have been numerous reports in the scientific and popular literature suggesting that African baobab (Adansonia digitata) trees are dying, with symptoms including a black mould on their bark. The aim of this study was to determine the identity of the fungi causing this black mould and to consider whether they might be affecting the health of trees. The fungi were identified by sequencing directly from mycelium on the infected tissue as well as from cultures on agar. Sequence data for the ITS region of the rDNA resulted in the identification of four fungi including Aureobasidium pullulans, Toxicocladosporium irritans and a new species of Rachicladosporium described here as Rachicladosporium africanum. A single isolate of an unknown Cladosporium sp. was also found. These fungi, referred to here as black mould, are not true sooty mould fungi and they were shown to penetrate below the bark of infected tissue, causing a distinct host reaction. Although infections can lead to dieback of small twigs on severely infected branches, the mould was not found to kill trees.
Domínguez-Peñafiel, G; Giménez-Pardo, C; Gegúndez, Mi; Lledó, L
This paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the Las Merindades area of the Province of Burgos, Spain. The study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. The parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. In this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus were the most prevalent species whereas Dermacentor reticulatus showed affinity for the fox and wolf. The overall prevalence of parasitisation by fleas was 27%. Ctenophthalmus spp. showed the wider range host in wild animals, while Pulex irritans was the most frequent specie found. The parasitic prevalences by lice (Trichodectes melis, Trichodectes canis and Trichodectes mustelae) and by mite (Neotrombicula spp., Laelaps agilis and Sarcoptes scabiei) were 4% and 12%, respectively. In both cases only wild animals were found parasited.
Yamada, Kaori; Kawanishi, Yuichi; Yamada, Akinori; Tokuda, Gaku; Gurung, Raj Deep; Sasaki, Takeshi; Nakajima, Yumiko; Maekawa, Hideaki
Mariner-like elements (MLEs) have been isolated from various eukaryotic genomes and they are divided into 15 subfamilies, including main five subfamilies: mauritiana, cecropia, mellifera/capitata, irritans, and elegans/briggsae. In the present study, MLEs belonging to mellifera subfamily were isolated from various spiders and insects (Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera) inhabiting the South-West Islands of Japan and neighboring regions. MLEs isolated from 15 different species formed a distinct novel cluster in mellifera subfamily. MLEs obtained from three different species [i.e., the bee Amegilla senahai subflavescens (Amsmar1), the wasp Campsomeris sp. (Casmar1), and the swallowtail butterfly Pachliopta aristolochiae (Paamar1)] contained an intact open reading frame that encoded a putative transposase. These transposases exhibited high similarity of 97.9% among themselves. In case of Casmar1, the presence of an intact ORF was found in high frequencies (i.e., 11 out of 12 clones). In addition, these transposases also showed the presence of a terminal inverted repeat-binding motif, DD(34)D and two highly conserved amino acid motifs, (W/L)(I/L)PHQL and YSP(D/N)L(A/S)P. These two motifs differed from previously known motifs, WVPHEL and YSPDLAP. MLEs isolated from these three different species may have been inserted into their genomes by horizontal transfer. Furthermore, the presence of an intact ORF suggests that they are still active in habitats along these isolated islands.
Mori, Emiliano; Sforzi, Andrea; Menchetti, Mattia; Mazza, Giuseppe; Lovari, Sandro; Pisanu, Benoît
The crested porcupine Hystrix cristata is a large body-sized rodent, occurring in Europe only in the Italian Peninsula, where it may have been introduced in early Medieval times. Its parasite fauna is currently poorly known and limited to few anecdotal observations. We have analyzed the ectoparasite load of 165 crested porcupines from Tuscany and Latium (Central Italy). Both captured and road-killed individuals were checked for fleas and ticks. Overall, only 39 porcupines were infested by four species of ticks and five of fleas. Abundance of ectoparasites was higher in areas with higher habitat richness, with respect to densely wooded areas. The most frequent species was the flea Pulex irritans (25%), whose prevalence peaked in winter probably because of optimal abiotic conditions in the porcupine's den. The remaining species of both hard ticks (Rhipicephalus bursa, Pholeoixodes hexagonus, and Ixodes ventalloi) and fleas (Paraceras melis, Ctenocephalides canis, Dasypsyllus gallinulae, and Hystrichopsylla talpae), all with prevalence lower than 5%, could be due to den sharing with other vertebrates, mainly carnivores such as, e.g., red foxes and badgers. The second most prevalent species was the generalist tick Ixodes ricinus (21%). An adult male-biased parasitism for ticks has been detected, suggesting a possible role of testosterone related immune-depressive effect. The low richness in dominant ectoparasite species, built up by locally acquired generalist taxa, provides support to the allochthonous origin of this rodent in Italy.
Visser, M; Rehbein, S; Wiedemann, C
The species of flea infesting pets and hedgehogs in Germany were investigated through a survey of small animal practitioners throughout the country who were asked to collect specimens at their veterinary practices. A total of 625 veterinarians/veterinary practices responded and provided 2445 intact anti identifiable flea specimens. These fleas originated from 294 dogs (795 fleas), 334 cats (1152 fleas), 76 hedgehogs (481 fleas), five domestic rabbits (10 fleas), one golden hamster (four fleas) and one ferret (three fleas). Dogs were found to be infested with Archaeopsylla erinacei, Chaetopsylla globiceps, Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, Hystrichopsylla talpae, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Paraceras melis and Pulex irritans. From cats, Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ceratophyllus gallinae, Ceratophyllus garei, Ctenocephalides felis, Ctenophthalmus assimilis, Hystrichopsylla talpae, Monopsyllus sciurorum, Nosopsyllus fasciatus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi and Typhloceras poppei were collected. In both dogs and cats the most prevalent species were Ctenocephalides felis (78.9% and 91.6%, respectively) and Archaeopsylla erinacei (21.1% and 12.6%, respectively) followed by Ctenocephalides canis in dogs (5.8%) and Hystrichopsylla talpae in cats (1.2%). The fleas isolated from rabbits were Ctenocephalides felis, Hystrichopsylla talpae and Spilopsyllus cuniculi. Nosopsyllus fasciatus and Ctenocephalides felis were recovered from the golden hamster and the ferret, respectively. The hedgehogs were found to be infested with Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ceratophyllus gallinae and Ctenocephalides felis.
Lledó, Lourdes; Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Saz, José Vicente; Serrano, José Luis
Four hundred red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were examined for ecto- (arthropods) and endoparasites (Leishmania spp., Trichinella spp., and intestinal parasites). Different species of flea (total prevalence, 40.50%), tick (16.25%), mite (7.25%), and fly (1.50%) were identified. The most prevalent flea was Pulex irritans (found on 29% of the foxes); the most prevalent tick, mite, and fly were Ixodes canisuga (on 5%), Sarcoptes scabiei (on 5.25%), and Hippobosca equina (on 1%), respectively. The endoparasites identified included Leishmania spp. (found in 12% of the foxes), Trichinella spp. (in 15.5%, with T. britovi the most prevalent species in 15.25%), Cestoda (in 72.75%, with Mesocestoides spp. the most prevalent in 69.50%), and intestinal ascarids (in 73.25%, with Ancylostoma caninum the most prevalent in 12.50%). No animal was free of parasites. The present results suggest that foxes can act as sentinels of diseases transmitted by ecto- and endoparasites.
Sofer, S; Gutiérrez, R; Morick, D; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S
Fleas represent an acknowledged burden on dogs worldwide. The characterization of flea species infesting kennel dogs from two localities in Israel (Rehovot and Jerusalem) and their molecular screening for Bartonella species (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae) was investigated. A total of 355 fleas were collected from 107 dogs. The fleas were morphologically classified and molecularly screened targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Of the 107 dogs examined, 80 (74.8%) were infested with Ctenocephalides canis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 68 (63.6%) with Ctenocephalides felis, 15 (14.0%) with Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) and one (0.9%) with Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). Fleas were grouped into 166 pools (one to nine fleas per pool) according to species and host. Thirteen of the 166 flea pools (7.8%) were found to be positive for Bartonella DNA. Detected ITS sequences were 99-100% similar to those of four Bartonella species: Bartonella henselae (six pools); Bartonella elizabethae (five pools); Bartonella rochalimae (one pool), and Bartonella bovis (one pool). The present study indicates the occurrence of a variety of flea species in dogs in Israel; these flea species are, in turn, carriers of several zoonotic Bartonella species. Physicians, veterinarians and public health workers should be aware of the presence of these pathogens in dog fleas in Israel and preventive measures should be implemented.
Gracia, M J; Calvete, C; Estrada, R; Castillo, J A; Peribáñez, M A; Lucientes, J
Fleas are a common cause of feline skin disorders as well as vectors of zoonotic diseases. This study evaluated the flea species infesting domestic cats in Spain and assessed factors influencing their distribution. Fleas from 217 cats from 57 localities in Spain were identified and associations between abundance, and host-dependent, host habitat and environmental factors were examined. Variations in infracommunity and component community structure were also explored. Three species were present, of which Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) was the most abundant (98.4%), followed by Ctenocephalides canis (Curtis) (1.1%) and Pulex irritans (L.) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (0.5%). Overall abundance and abundances of both C. felis and C. canis were higher on farms than in apartments, but overall flea abundance and abundances of both C. felis and C. canis were lower in rural than urban environments. Overall abundance and C. felis abundance were lower during the warmest months, and mean annual rainfall was positively correlated with overall, C. felis and C. canis abundances. No relationship between the number of species per cat and any host, habitat or physiographical variable was found. Species richness was not correlated with mean annual temperature or rainfall. Flea abundance was mainly associated with host habitat and environmental factors.
Gamerschlag, Sara; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Heukelbach, Jörg; Feldmeier, Hermann; D'Haese, Jochen
Different Tunga penetrans isolates from various hosts obtained from South America (Fortaleza. Brazil) have been studied by nucleotide sequence comparison of the first and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, ITS2) of the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) and part of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA. Results show no significant host-dependent sequence differences. No indication for intraindividual and intraspecific polymorphisms could be detected. Comparing the ITS1 spacer region of T. penetrans from South America with that from Africa (Togo, Cameroon), distinct length variations have been observed caused by a repetitive sequence motif of 99 bp. The ITS1 from the South American T. penetrans contain two tandemly repeated copies, whereas four of these units are present in the spacer of the African T. penetrans. The absence of homogenization of these units indicates a recent separation of both populations. However, the different number of repetitions together with two base substitutions put the evolutionary distance of only 135 years as postulated for the transfer of T. penetrans from South America to Africa into question. Repetitive sequences could also be detected within the ITS1 rDNA region of other flea species Ctenocephalides felis, Echidnophaga gallinacea, Pulex irritans, Spilopsyllus cuniculi, and Xenopsylla cheopis. The repeat units with lengths from 10 to 99 bp are arranged in pure tandem or interspersed. The repetitive elements observed in the ITS1 of various flea species may serve as a valuable tool for phylogeographic studies.
Oliveira, M C S; Alencar, M M; Giglioti, R; Beraldo, M C D; Aníbal, F F; Correia, R O; Boschini, L; Chagas, A C S; Bilhassi, T B; Oliveira, H N
The resistance to infestations by ectoparasites and infections by gastrointestinal nematodes was studied in 45 animals (males and females) of two genetic groups: purebred Nelore (NI, n=28) and Three-Cross (1/2 Angus+1/4 Canchim+1/4 Nelore - TC, n=17). The animals were monitored for 24 months, during which they were left to graze in tropical pastures without receiving treatment for parasites. Each month the animals were examined for infestations by external parasites, to count the numbers of cattle ticks Rhipicephalus microplus with diameter greater than 4.5mm present on the left side, horn flies (Haematobia irritans) present in the lumbar region and botfly larvae (Dermatobia hominis) present on the entire body. The H. irritans counts were performed with the aid of digital photographs. At the time of examination, fecal samples were collected to count the eggs per gram (EPG) and to perform coprocultures, and peripheral blood samples were drawn to determine the packed cell volume (PCV) and to count the eosinophils. For statistical analysis, the count data were transformed into log₁₀ (n+1), where n is the number of parasites. For PCV, significant effects (P<0.05) were found for collection month (CO), genetic group (GG) and gender (SX), with means and respective standard errors of 41.5 ± 0.65% for the NI animals, 39.3 ± 0.83% for the TC, 41.5 ± 0.72% for the females and 39.3 ± 0.77% for the males. Regarding the eosinophil counts, only the effect of sex was significant (P<0.01), with means and respective standard errors of 926.0 ± 46.2/μL, for males and 1088.0 ± 43.8/μL of blood, for females. The NI animals presented lower mean counts for all the external parasites compared to the TC animals (P<0.01). For ticks, the transformed means followed by standard errors for the NI and TC animals were 0.06 ± 0.01 and 0.34 ± 0.02, while for horn flies these were 0.92 ± 0.05 and 1.36 ± 0.06 and for botfly larvae they were 0.05 ± 0.03 and 0.45 ± 0.05, respectively
Millán, J; Ruiz-Fons, F; Márquez, F J; Viota, M; López-Bao, J V; Paz Martín-Mateo, M
Ectoparasites can cause important skin disorders in animals and can also transmit pathogens. The Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus has been stated to be the most endangered felid in the world and such vector-borne pathogens may threaten its survival. We surveyed 98 wild carnivores (26 Iberian lynxes, 34 red foxes Vulpes vulpes, 24 Egyptian mongooses Herpestes ichneumon, 11 common genets Genetta genetta, two Eurasian badgers Meles meles, one polecat Mustela putorius) and 75 domestic but free-ranging carnivores (46 cats Felis catus, 29 dogs Canis familiaris) from June 2004 to June 2006 in the two areas where the last lynx metapopulations survive: Sierra Morena and Doñana (Andalusia, southern Spain). A total of 65% of lynxes were parasitized (50% by ticks, 19% by fleas, 4% by lice, 31% by hippoboscid flies), as were 75% of foxes (58%, 60%, 0%, 19%), 71% of mongooses (50%, 4%, 46%, 0%), 54% of genets (18%, 36%, 0%, 0%), 30% of cats (22%, 14%, 0%, 2%), and 7% of dogs (surveyed only for ticks). Both badgers presented ticks, fleas and lice. Five species of ixodid ticks (Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev and Matikashvili, Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus), Ixodes hexagonus Leach and Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado; and Hyalomma sp.), four species of fleas (Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, Pulex irritans Linnaeus, Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale), Xenopsylla cunicularis Smit), three species of chewing lice (Felicola (Felicola) inequalis (Piaget), Trichodectes (Trichodectes) melis (Fabricius), and Felicola (Lorisicola) isidoroi Pérez and Palma), and one species of hippoboscid fly (Hippobosca longipennis (Fabricius)) were found. We did not detect any cases of mange. Hippobosca longipennis is a new record for Spanish wildlife, and all the flea species are new records for the Iberian lynx. Fleas were more frequent on lynxes and foxes in winter than in spring. Rhipicephalus spp. were more frequent on cats in spring than in any other season. These and other
Host ranges of gregarious muscoid fly parasitoids: Muscidifurax raptorellus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae).
Geden, Christopher J; Moon, Roger D
Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios, and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with five dipteran hosts: house fly (Musca domestica L.), stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.), horn fly (Hematobia irritans L.), black dump fly [Hydrotaea aenescens (Weidemann)] (Diptera: Muscidae), and a flesh fly (Sarcophaga bullata Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). M. raptorellus killed and successfully parasitized all five host species and produced an average 2.6 parasitoid progeny from each host. Host attack rates were highest on stable fly and lowest on horn fly; there were no differences among hosts in the total number of progeny produced. T. zealandicus killed larvae of all fly host species in similar numbers, but parasitism was most successful on H. aenescens and S. bullata and least successful on horn fly and house fly hosts. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (10.2 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 2.5 progeny were produced from parasitized horn fly hosts. Most of the killed puparia that produced neither adult flies nor parasitoids ("duds") contained dead parasitoids; in house fly, stable fly, and horn fly hosts, >30% of these dudded pupae contained adult wasps that failed to eclose. T. nigra successfully parasitized pupae of all host species except house fly and was most successful on stable fly. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (30.6 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 5.7 progeny were produced from horn fly hosts.
Scasta, John D; Talley, Justin L; Engle, David M; Debinski, Diane M
We assessed local horn fly (Haematobia irritans L.) and face fly (Musca autumnalis De Geer) communities on cattle in 2012 and 2013 relative to vegetation and climate data to understand how parasitism of cattle is influenced by change in climate and vegetation structure. We compared heterogeneity management using spatially and temporally discrete fires (i.e., patch-burning one-third of a pasture annually) to homogeneity management (i.e., burning entire pasture in 2012 then no burning in 2013), with cattle grazing all years in both treatments. Predicted emergence of horn flies and face flies was 24 and 34 d earlier in 2012 associated with earlier spring warming, a significant deviation from the five-year mean. Intraannual horn fly dynamics were explained by concurrent high ambient air temperature the day of observations, but face flies were explained by low ambient air temperatures and dry conditions 3 wk before observations. Importance values of information for the theoretic models including fire treatments ranged from 0.89 to 1, indicating that both horn flies and face flies are sensitive to habitat alterations and fire-driven animal movements. Ordination indicates herds on unburned pastures were dissimilar to herds on pastures burned with patchy fires or pastures burned completely and species-specific fly responses to different vegetation structure metrics. For example, horn flies were correlated with vegetation visual obstruction, and face flies were correlated with woody plant cover. Vegetation structure may be as important as climate in driving the dynamics of fly parasites of cattle.
Cantó, Germinal J; Guerrero, Roberto I; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela
The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P<0.01), between season and ectoparasites load, more fleas were obtained in the summer and autumn than in the winter and spring; however, no statistical difference was observed for endoparasites load (P>0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094).
Panagiotakopulu, Eva; Buckland, Paul C.
The impact of insect species directly associated with man-made habitats and human dispersal has been, and remains globally significant. Their early expansion from their original niches into Europe is intrinsically related to discussions of climate change, origins of domesticated plants and animals, the spread of agriculture and infectious diseases. The Holocene fossil records of the dispersal of three storage pest species, Sitophilus granarius, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, and Tribolium castaneum, the housefly, Musca domestica, and the human flea, Pulex irritans from 221 sites have been mapped ranging from the Near East to Europe and from the Neolithic to the post medieval period. The importance of human induced change as a driver for the spread of synanthropic faunas and the potential for the spread of disease during this process are discussed. The results show links between mobility of farming groups and distribution of synanthropic insect species and produce a roadmap for the different cultural periods of the Late Holocene based on dispersal of these synanthropic insects. During the Neolithic, the first wave of insect introductions shows the northern European frontiers of storage of cereals, introduction of domestic animals and pastoralism and exchange. Pest introductions, linked with the itinerary of the Roman army, reached the most northerly parts of the Empire. During the medieval period, the insect records indicate further expansion and changes which parallel the spread of epidemic diseases like Plague. Understanding the timing and the rates of change of synanthropic insects provides key information about the development of the homogenised and highly anthropogenic environments in which we live today.
Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam
This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.
Cantó, Germinal J.; Guerrero, Roberto I.; Olvera-Ramírez, Andrea M.; Milián, Feliciano; Mosqueda, Juan; Aguilar-Tipacamú, Gabriela
The prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central Mexico was evaluated. Three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the Animal Control Center Unit, a unit of State Government, from June 2010 to May 2011, were included in the study. All cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. One-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. Single infestations were observed in 106 (30%) cats and mixed infestations in 84 (23%) cats. Four species of fleas were recovered: Ctenocephalides felis in 53% of the cats, C. canis in 18%, Echidnophaga gallinacea in 7% and Pulex irritans in 1%. One-hundred and sixty three (45%) cats were infected with one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites: 48 (13%) with nematodes, 145 (40%) with cestodes, and one animal presented Moniliformis moniliformis. Prevalences and mean intensity of infection were: Physaloptera praeputialis 7 and 18; T. cati 3 and 2; Ancylostoma tubaeforme 2.5 and 2; Toxascaris leonina 0.5 and 2; Dipylidium caninum 36 and 32; Taenia taeniformis 4 and 3 and Moniliformis moniliformis 0.3 and 106, respectively. There was significant association (P<0.01), between season and ectoparasites load, more fleas were obtained in the summer and autumn than in the winter and spring; however, no statistical difference was observed for endoparasites load (P>0.05). The correlation between the total number of ectoparasites and endoparasites was not significant (r = 0.089, P = 0.094). PMID:23573282
Soares, Tatiane Sanches; Soares Torquato, Ricardo Jose; Alves Lemos, Francisco Jose; Tanaka, Aparecida Sadae
Dengue is a serious disease transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti during blood meal feeding. It is estimated that the dengue virus is transmitted to millions of individuals each year in tropical and subtropical areas. Dengue control strategies have been based on controlling the vector, Ae. aegypti, using insecticide, but the emergence of resistance poses new challenges. The aim of this study was the identification of specific protease inhibitors of the digestive enzymes from Ae. aegypti larvae, which may serve as a prospective alternative biocontrol method. High affinity protein inhibitors were selected by all of the digestive serine proteases of the 4th instar larval midgut, and the specificity of these inhibitors was characterized. These inhibitors were obtained from a phage library displaying variants of HiTI, a trypsin inhibitor from Haematobia irritans, that are mutated in the reactive loop (P1-P4'). Based on the selected amino acid sequence pattern, seven HiTI inhibitor variants were cloned, expressed and purified. The results indicate that the HiTI variants named T6 (RGGAV) and T128 (WNEGL) were selected by larval trypsin-like (IC(50) of 1.1 nM) and chymotrypsin-like enzymes (IC(50) of 11.6 nM), respectively. The variants T23 (LLGGL) and T149 (GGVWR) inhibited both larval chymotrypsin-like (IC(50) of 4.2 nM and 29.0 nM, respectively) and elastase-like enzymes (IC(50) of 1.2 nM for both). Specific inhibitors were successfully obtained for the digestive enzymes of Ae. aegypti larvae by phage display. Our data also strongly suggest the presence of elastase-like enzymes in Ae. aegypti larvae. The HiTI variants T6 and T23 are good candidates for the development as a larvicide to control the vector.
Bahgat, Iman M
Rodents and their ectoparasites were studied inside and outside houses in the newly settled areas, east of lakes, Ismailia Governorate, Egypt. Forty traps per month in each of the two sides were used for collecting rodent during 2009. From 221 rodent were collected from inside houses; Mus musculus N=115 (52.04%), Rattus rattus. frugivorous N=54 (24.43%), R. r. alexandrinus N=40 (18.10%) and R. norvegicus N=12 (5.43%). From 177 rodent were collected from outside houses; M musculus N=4 (2.3%), R. r. frugivorous N=29 (16.43%), R. r. alexandrinus N=37 (20.9%), R. norvegicus N=36 (20.3%), Gerbillus pyramidum N= 67 (37.9%) and Jaculus jaculus N=4 (2.3%). Total ectoparasites per rat inside houses were 765 (3.46 E/Rat) which were classified as fleas, N=464 (2.11 F/R); lice N=150 (0.68 L/R) and mites N=151 (0 68 M/R). From outside house, total ectoparasites per rat were 984 (5.5 E/R) which were classified as fleas, N=410(2.31 F/R); lice N=100 (0.56 L/R), mites N=400 (2.23 M/R) and ticks, N=74 (0.42 T/R). From indoors two fleas species were recorded (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenopsyllus segnis); one species of lice (Polyplax spinulosa) and four species of mites (Laelaps nuttall, Ornithonyssus bacoti, Dermanyssus gallinae and Eulaelaps stabularis). The outdoors ectoparasites were; six fleas species (X. cheopis, X. ramesis, Pulex irritans, C. segnis, Stenoponia tripectinata and Nosopsylla sinaiensis); one lice species (P. spinulosa); Six mites species (L. nuttalli, O. bacoti, D. gallinae, E. stabularis, Haemogamnasus pontiger and Hirstionyssus isabellinus) and immature stages of two ticks species (Rhipicephalus sp. and Hyalomma sp.). Most of these ectoparasites were recorded infesting G. pyramidum.
Williams, R E; Westby, E J; Hendrix, K S; Lemenager, R P
Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticide-impregnated ear tags in controlling face flies, Musca autumnalis DeGeer, and horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linn.), on pastured beef cattle. In one 16-week trial, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ear tags treated with stirofos (Rabon) insecticide reduced horn fly numbers by 79% (P less than .05) and face fly numbers by 30% (P less than .05). Coumaphos (Co-Ral) insecticide dust bags used in a separate herd produced an 86% (P less than .05) reduction in horn flies and an 18% (P less than .05) reduction in face flies. In the second study, 5 and 10% permethrin (Atroban), PVC-treated ear tags in a one-piece design were tested. In this 11 week trial, horn fly control averaged 95% (P less than .05) with the 10% tag and 77% (P less than .05) with the 5% tag. Face fly control averaged 49% (P less than .05) for 8 weeks with the 10% permethrin tag. No significant face fly control was achieved with the 5% permethrin tag. In a herd treated with coumaphos dust bags, horn fly control averaged 93% (P less than .05) and face fly control averaged 34% (P less than .05). The third study tested 5 and 10% permethrin, PVC-treated ear tags in a two-piece design and two-piece 5% permethrin-treated ear tags in a polyurethane matrix. Fourteen-week horn fly control averaged 88% (P less than .05) with the 10% PVC-treated tag, 83% (P less than .05) with the 5% PVC-treated tag, 71% (P less than .05) with the 5% polyurethane-treated tag and 74% (P less than .05) with coumaphos dust bags. Face fly control averaged less than 50% (P greater than .05) throughout the trial with all treatments.
Capári, B; Hamel, D; Visser, M; Winter, R; Pfister, K; Rehbein, S
During 2011, faeces from 235 owned domestic cats from a rural area in western Hungary were examined using standard coproscopical techniques. The overall prevalence of cats with endoparasites was 39.6% (95% CI 33.3-46.1). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 17.4%; Toxascaris 7.2%), followed by those of Aelurostrongylus lungworms (14.5%), hookworms (11.1%), taeniid cestodes (4.7%), Cystoisospora coccidians (4.3%), and capillarids (3.8%). Single and multiple infections with up to five parasites concurrently were founded in 24.7% and 14.9% of the cats, respectively. Mixed endoparasite infections were recorded more frequently (p=0.0245) in cats greater than one year old compared to younger cats. Young cats (≤ 1 year) were parasitized more frequently (p<0.05) with ascarids and Cystoisospora spp. but demonstrated infections of hookworms, lungworms and taeniid cestodes less often than the older cats. Cats with taeniid infection were more likely (p<0.05) to harbour Toxocara, hookworm, Aelurostrongylus, and capillarid infections than cats without taeniid cestodes. Cats of owners who claimed the use of wormers were less frequently helminth-positive compared to cats whose owners did not use anthelmintics (21.2% vs. 44.4%; p=0.001). A subset of 115 faecal samples screened by a coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia-specific antigen in 37.4% samples. Giardia cysts were found by immunofluorescent staining in 30 of the 43 samples tested positive for Giardia by ELISA. In addition, ectoparasites collected from 82 cats by body search and combing were identified. Fleas (1-30 per cat), biting lice (Felicola subrostratus), and ticks (1-5 per cat) were isolated from 58, 1 and 43 cats, respectively. Ctenocephalides felis was identified on all flea infested cats while single specimens of C. canis and Pulex irritans were recovered from three and two cats, respectively. All but one tick collected were adult Ixodes ricinus; the single other tick was a
Rehbein, Steffen; Kaulfuß, Karl-heinz; Visser, Martin; Sommer, Maria Franziska; Grimm, Felix; Silaghi, Cornelia
This paper reports on endoparasite infections diagnosed in 2012 by standard coproscopical techniques and coproantigen Giardia ELISA in 165 dogs used for sheep herding in 36 farms in central Germany. The overall prevalence of dogs with evidence of endoparasite infections was 27.3% (95% CI 20.6-34.7). The most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (Toxocara, 6.7%; Toxascaris 3.6%), hookworms (5.5%) and taeniid cestodes (4.2%), followed by those of Trichuris whipworms (3.0%), Capillaria aerophila (1.8%), Angiostrongylus and Crenosoma lungworms (1.2% each) and Cystoisospora canis coccidians (0.6%). Molecular identification demonstrated the seven dogs shedding taeniid eggs positive for Taenia (T.) species tapeworms (five, T. hydatigena; one, T. ovis; one Taenia sp.). Screening of the faeces with the coproantigen ELISA revealed Giardia specific antigen in 5.5% of the samples. The majority of the dogs had evidence of single endoparasite infections (22.4%) while evidence for infection with two or three parasites concurrently was found in six (3.6%) and two (1.2%) of the dogs, respectively. Dogs ≤ 1 year (n = 19) were parasitized more frequently (p < 0.05) with overall gastrointestinal parasites (63.2% vs. 20.5%), ascarids (36.8% vs. 6.8%) and Giardia spp. (21.1% vs. 3.4%) than older dogs (n = 146). Dogs which had been wormed within six months of examination tested less frequently positive for gastrointestinal helminths compared to dogs not wormed (11.1% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.0567). In addition, ear swabs taken from 43 sheep dogs in 2012 were examined, and Otodectes cynotis mites were extracted from one dog. Identification of ectoparasites collected by full body search and combing from 113 sheep dogs in the years 2011 to 2013 revealed infestation of fleas and ticks (each up to five specimens per dog) on 13 and 108 dogs, respectively, with nine dogs carrying both fleas and ticks. Archaeopsylla erinacei, Ctenocephalides (C) canis, C. felis and Pulex irritans
Shukullari, Enstela; Rapti, Dhimitër; Visser, Martin; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen
To establish the diversity and seasonality of ectoparasite infestation in client-owned dogs in Albania, 602 dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana from March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive were examined for ectoparasites by full body search and total body comb. In addition, ear swab specimens collected from all dogs and scrapings taken from skin lesions suspicious of mite infestation were examined for parasitic mites. Overall, 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95%CI 12.6-18.6) were demonstrated to be infested, and nine species of ectoparasites were identified: Ixodes ricinus, 0.8 %; Rhipicephalus sanguineus s. l., 8.1 %; Demodex canis, 0.2 %; Sarcoptes scabiei, 0.7 %; Otodectes cynotis, 2.8 %; Ctenocephalides canis, 4.8 %; Ctenocephalides felis, 3.0 %; Pulex irritans, 0.2 %; and Trichodectes canis, 0.2 %. Single and multiple infestations with up to four species of ectoparasites concurrently were recorded in 67 (11.1 %, 95%CI 8.7-13.9) and 26 dogs (4.3 %, 95%CI 2.8-6.3), respectively. On univariate analysis, the category of breed (pure breed dogs vs. mixed-breed dogs), the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the housing environment (mainly indoors/indoors with regular outside walking vs. yard plus kennel/run), the history of ectoparasiticide treatment and the season of examination were identified as significant (p < 0.05) factors predisposing dogs to various ectoparasites, while the variables dog's age, gender, the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural) and the presence/absence of other pets were not significant predictors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with overall ectoparasitism revealed that dogs treated with ectoparasiticides at least once per year (odds ratio [OR] = 0.24; p < 0.001) had a significantly lower risk of infestation compared with dogs not treated against ectoparasite infestation. Dogs examined during spring, summer and autumn (OR = 7.08, 7.43 and 2.48, respectively; all p < 0
Silva, Heloisa Cristina; Prette, Nancy; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro M; Buzzulini, Carolina; dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen F Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José
The present work aimed to evaluate, through ten different studies, the therapeutic efficacy of a new pour-on formulation, containing 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, against parasites of cattle. Results obtained on trials against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus showed that the pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained superior efficacy indexes against this ectoparasite, when compared with formulations containing 0.5 per cent ivermectin, 1 per cent ivermectin and the combination of 1 per cent abamectin +20 per cent levamisole. The results of efficacy of the ivermectin+abamectin and the 0.5 per cent ivermectin against Haematobia irritans were similar. Against Cochliomyia hominivorax larvae, all pour-on formulations tested (1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin), as well as 1 per cent doramectin administered subcutaneously, were considered ineffective. Cattle medicated with 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin, pour-on, remained free from parasitism by Dermatobia hominis larvae during 42 days (96 per cent efficacy), while values superior to 90 per cent were obtained by 0.5 per cent ivermectin (92 per cent) and 0.5 per cent abamectin (93 per cent) until the 42nd and 35th days post treatment, respectively. Against Haemonchus placei and Oesophagostomum radiatum, the pour-on of ivermectin+abamectin showed better efficacy than the 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin. As to Cooperia punctata, there was no difference regarding efficacy results obtained by the avermectins combination and abamectin. The pour-on combination of 1.5 per cent ivermectin +0.5 per cent abamectin obtained high efficacy against R. (B.) microplus, D. hominis and some species of cattle gastrointestinal helminths when compared with formulations of 0.5 per cent ivermectin and 0.5 per cent abamectin administered through the same route. PMID:26392893