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Sample records for cryptographic key management

  1. A cryptographic key management solution for HIPAA privacy/security regulations.

    PubMed

    Lee, W-B; Lee, C-D

    2008-01-01

    The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) privacy and security regulations are two crucial provisions in the protection of healthcare privacy. Privacy regulations create a principle to assure that patients have more control over their health information and set limits on the use and disclosure of health information. The security regulations stipulate the provisions implemented to guard data integrity, confidentiality, and availability. Undoubtedly, the cryptographic mechanisms are well defined to provide suitable solutions. In this paper, to comply with the HIPAA regulations, a flexible cryptographic key management solution is proposed to facilitate interoperations among the applied cryptographic mechanisms. In addition, case of consent exceptions intended to facilitate emergency applications and other possible exceptions can also be handled easily.

  2. Cryptographic Key Management and Critical Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CSEDS) industry led program (DE-FOA-0000359) entitled "Innovation for Increasing CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (12CSEDS)," awarded a contract to Sypris Electronics LLC to develop a Cryptographic Key Management System for the smart grid (Scalable Key Management Solutions for Critical Infrastructure Protection). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sypris Electronics, LLC as a result of that award entered into a CRADA (NFE-11-03562) between ORNL and Sypris Electronics, LLC. ORNL provided its Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) as a tool to be modified and usedmore » as a metric to address risks and vulnerabilities in the management of cryptographic keys within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) domain of the electric sector. ORNL concentrated our analysis on the AMI domain of which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) Working Group 1 (WG1) has documented 29 failure scenarios. The computational infrastructure of this metric involves system stakeholders, security requirements, system components and security threats. To compute this metric, we estimated the stakes that each stakeholder associates with each security requirement, as well as stochastic matrices that represent the probability of a threat to cause a component failure and the probability of a component failure to cause a security requirement violation. We applied this model to estimate the security of the AMI, by leveraging the recently established National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628 guidelines for smart grid security and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 63351, Part 9 to identify the life cycle for cryptographic key management, resulting in a vector that assigned to each stakeholder an estimate of their average loss in terms of dollars per day of

  3. Secure Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) Considerations for Smart Grid Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Aldridge, Hal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine some unique challenges associated with key management in the Smart Grid and concomitant research initiatives: 1) effectively model security requirements and their implementations, and 2) manage keys and key distribution for very large scale deployments such as Smart Meters over a long period of performance. This will set the stage to: 3) develop innovative, low cost methods to protect keying material, and 4) provide high assurance authentication services. We will present our perspective on key management and will discuss some key issues within the life cycle of a cryptographic key designed to achieve the following:more » 1) control systems designed, installed, operated, and maintained to survive an intentional cyber assault with no loss of critical function, and 2) widespread implementation of methods for secure communication between remote access devices and control centers that are scalable and cost-effective to deploy.« less

  4. Centralized Cryptographic Key Management and Critical Risk Assessment - CRADA Final Report For CRADA Number NFE-11-03562

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, R. K.; Peters, Scott

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) Cyber Security for Energy Delivery Systems (CSEDS) industry led program (DE-FOA-0000359) entitled "Innovation for Increasing Cyber Security for Energy Delivery Systems (12CSEDS)," awarded a contract to Sypris Electronics LLC to develop a Cryptographic Key Management System for the smart grid (Scalable Key Management Solutions for Critical Infrastructure Protection). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sypris Electronics, LLC as a result of that award entered into a CRADA (NFE-11-03562) between ORNL and Sypris Electronics, LLC. ORNL provided its Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) as a tool to be modifiedmore » and used as a metric to address risks and vulnerabilities in the management of cryptographic keys within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) domain of the electric sector. ORNL concentrated our analysis on the AMI domain of which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) Working Group 1 (WG1) has documented 29 failure scenarios. The computational infrastructure of this metric involves system stakeholders, security requirements, system components and security threats. To compute this metric, we estimated the stakes that each stakeholder associates with each security requirement, as well as stochastic matrices that represent the probability of a threat to cause a component failure and the probability of a component failure to cause a security requirement violation. We applied this model to estimate the security of the AMI, by leveraging the recently established National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628 guidelines for smart grid security and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 63351, Part 9 to identify the life cycle for cryptographic key management, resulting in a vector that assigned to each stakeholder an estimate of their average loss in terms of dollars per day of

  5. SIMPL Systems, or: Can We Design Cryptographic Hardware without Secret Key Information?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rührmair, Ulrich

    This paper discusses a new cryptographic primitive termed SIMPL system. Roughly speaking, a SIMPL system is a special type of Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) which possesses a binary description that allows its (slow) public simulation and prediction. Besides this public key like functionality, SIMPL systems have another advantage: No secret information is, or needs to be, contained in SIMPL systems in order to enable cryptographic protocols - neither in the form of a standard binary key, nor as secret information hidden in random, analog features, as it is the case for PUFs. The cryptographic security of SIMPLs instead rests on (i) a physical assumption on their unclonability, and (ii) a computational assumption regarding the complexity of simulating their output. This novel property makes SIMPL systems potentially immune against many known hardware and software attacks, including malware, side channel, invasive, or modeling attacks.

  6. Quantum key management

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  7. A Cryptographic SoC for Robust Protection of Secret Keys in IPTV DRM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanghan; Yang, Hae-Yong; Yeom, Yongjin; Park, Jongsik

    The security level of an internet protocol television (IPTV) digital right management (DRM) system ultimately relies on protection of secret keys. Well known devices for the key protection include smartcards and battery backup SRAMs (BB-SRAMs); however, these devices could be vulnerable to various physical attacks. In this paper, we propose a secure and cost-effective design of a cryptographic system on chip (SoC) that integrates the BB-SRAM with a cell-based design technique. The proposed SoC provides robust safeguard against the physical attacks, and satisfies high-speed and low-price requirements of IPTV set-top boxes. Our implementation results show that the maximum encryption rate of the SoC is 633Mb/s. In order to verify the data retention capabilities, we made a prototype chip using 0.18µm standard cell technology. The experimental results show that the integrated BB-SRAM can reliably retain data with a 1.4µA leakage current.

  8. Apparatus, system and method for providing cryptographic key information with physically unclonable function circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Areno, Matthew

    2015-12-08

    Techniques and mechanisms for providing a value from physically unclonable function (PUF) circuitry for a cryptographic operation of a security module. In an embodiment, a cryptographic engine receives a value from PUF circuitry and based on the value, outputs a result of a cryptographic operation to a bus of the security module. The bus couples the cryptographic engine to control logic or interface logic of the security module. In another embodiment, the value is provided to the cryptographic engine from the PUF circuitry via a signal line which is distinct from the bus, where any exchange of the value by either of the cryptographic engine and the PUF circuitry is for communication of the first value independent of the bus.

  9. Secure SCADA communication by using a modified key management scheme.

    PubMed

    Rezai, Abdalhossein; Keshavarzi, Parviz; Moravej, Zahra

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a new cryptographic key management scheme which increases the efficiency and security of the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) communication. In the proposed key management scheme, two key update phases are used: session key update and master key update. In the session key update phase, session keys are generated in the master station. In the master key update phase, the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) protocol is used. The Poisson process is also used to model the Security Index (SI) and Quality of Service (QoS). Our analysis shows that the proposed key management not only supports the required speed in the MODBUS implementation but also has several advantages compared to other key management schemes for secure communication in SCADA networks. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Secure management of biomedical data with cryptographic hardware.

    PubMed

    Canim, Mustafa; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    The biomedical community is increasingly migrating toward research endeavors that are dependent on large quantities of genomic and clinical data. At the same time, various regulations require that such data be shared beyond the initial collecting organization (e.g., an academic medical center). It is of critical importance to ensure that when such data are shared, as well as managed, it is done so in a manner that upholds the privacy of the corresponding individuals and the overall security of the system. In general, organizations have attempted to achieve these goals through deidentification methods that remove explicitly, and potentially, identifying features (e.g., names, dates, and geocodes). However, a growing number of studies demonstrate that deidentified data can be reidentified to named individuals using simple automated methods. As an alternative, it was shown that biomedical data could be shared, managed, and analyzed through practical cryptographic protocols without revealing the contents of any particular record. Yet, such protocols required the inclusion of multiple third parties, which may not always be feasible in the context of trust or bandwidth constraints. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a framework that removes the need for multiple third parties by collocating services to store and to process sensitive biomedical data through the integration of cryptographic hardware. Within this framework, we define a secure protocol to process genomic data and perform a series of experiments to demonstrate that such an approach can be run in an efficient manner for typical biomedical investigations.

  11. Secure Management of Biomedical Data With Cryptographic Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Canim, Mustafa; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Malin, Bradley

    2014-01-01

    The biomedical community is increasingly migrating toward research endeavors that are dependent on large quantities of genomic and clinical data. At the same time, various regulations require that such data be shared beyond the initial collecting organization (e.g., an academic medical center). It is of critical importance to ensure that when such data are shared, as well as managed, it is done so in a manner that upholds the privacy of the corresponding individuals and the overall security of the system. In general, organizations have attempted to achieve these goals through deidentification methods that remove explicitly, and potentially, identifying features (e.g., names, dates, and geocodes). However, a growing number of studies demonstrate that deidentified data can be reidentified to named individuals using simple automated methods. As an alternative, it was shown that biomedical data could be shared, managed, and analyzed through practical cryptographic protocols without revealing the contents of any particular record. Yet, such protocols required the inclusion of multiple third parties, which may not always be feasible in the context of trust or bandwidth constraints. Thus, in this paper, we introduce a framework that removes the need for multiple third parties by collocating services to store and to process sensitive biomedical data through the integration of cryptographic hardware. Within this framework, we define a secure protocol to process genomic data and perform a series of experiments to demonstrate that such an approach can be run in an efficient manner for typical biomedical investigations. PMID:22010157

  12. Low-power cryptographic coprocessor for autonomous wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszyna, Jakub; Winiecki, Wiesław

    2013-10-01

    The concept of autonomous wireless sensor networks involves energy harvesting, as well as effective management of system resources. Public-key cryptography (PKC) offers the advantage of elegant key agreement schemes with which a secret key can be securely established over unsecure channels. In addition to solving the key management problem, the other major application of PKC is digital signatures, with which non-repudiation of messages exchanges can be achieved. The motivation for studying low-power and area efficient modular arithmetic algorithms comes from enabling public-key security for low-power devices that can perform under constrained environment like autonomous wireless sensor networks. This paper presents a cryptographic coprocessor tailored to the autonomous wireless sensor networks constraints. Such hardware circuit is aimed to support the implementation of different public-key cryptosystems based on modular arithmetic in GF(p) and GF(2m). Key components of the coprocessor are described as GEZEL models and can be easily transformed to VHDL and implemented in hardware.

  13. A novel, privacy-preserving cryptographic approach for sharing sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Cassa, Christopher A; Miller, Rachel A; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    Objective DNA samples are often processed and sequenced in facilities external to the point of collection. These samples are routinely labeled with patient identifiers or pseudonyms, allowing for potential linkage to identity and private clinical information if intercepted during transmission. We present a cryptographic scheme to securely transmit externally generated sequence data which does not require any patient identifiers, public key infrastructure, or the transmission of passwords. Materials and methods This novel encryption scheme cryptographically protects participant sequence data using a shared secret key that is derived from a unique subset of an individual’s genetic sequence. This scheme requires access to a subset of an individual’s genetic sequence to acquire full access to the transmitted sequence data, which helps to prevent sample mismatch. Results We validate that the proposed encryption scheme is robust to sequencing errors, population uniqueness, and sibling disambiguation, and provides sufficient cryptographic key space. Discussion Access to a set of an individual’s genotypes and a mutually agreed cryptographic seed is needed to unlock the full sequence, which provides additional sample authentication and authorization security. We present modest fixed and marginal costs to implement this transmission architecture. Conclusions It is possible for genomics researchers who sequence participant samples externally to protect the transmission of sequence data using unique features of an individual’s genetic sequence. PMID:23125421

  14. A novel key management solution for reinforcing compliance with HIPAA privacy/security regulations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Ding; Ho, Kevin I-J; Lee, Wei-Bin

    2011-07-01

    Digitizing medical records facilitates the healthcare process. However, it can also cause serious security and privacy problems, which are the major concern in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). While various conventional encryption mechanisms can solve some aspects of these problems, they cannot address the illegal distribution of decrypted medical images, which violates the regulations defined in the HIPAA. To protect decrypted medical images from being illegally distributed by an authorized staff member, the model proposed in this paper provides a way to integrate several cryptographic mechanisms. In this model, the malicious staff member can be tracked by a watermarked clue. By combining several well-designed cryptographic mechanisms and developing a key management scheme to facilitate the interoperation among these mechanisms, the risk of illegal distribution can be reduced.

  15. Novel Authentication of Monitoring Data Through the use of Secret and Public Cryptographic Keys

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Tolk, Keith; Tanner, Jennifer E.

    The Office of Nuclear Verification (ONV) is supporting the development of a piece of equipment to provide data authentication and protection for a suite of monitoring sensors as part of a larger effort to create an arms control technology toolkit. This device, currently called the Red Box, leverages the strengths of both secret and public cryptographic keys to authenticate, digitally sign, and pass along monitoring data to allow for host review, and redaction if necessary, without the loss of confidence in the authenticity of the data by the monitoring party. The design of the Red Box will allow for themore » addition and removal of monitoring equipment and can also verify that the data was collected by authentic monitoring equipment prior to signing the data and sending it to the host and for review. The host will then forward the data to the monitor for review and inspection. This paper will highlight the progress to date of the Red Box development, and will explain the novel method of leveraging both symmetric and asymmetric (secret and public key) cryptography to authenticate data within a warhead monitoring regime.« less

  16. Automatic Inference of Cryptographic Key Length Based on Analysis of Proof Tightness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    within an attack tree structure, then expand attack tree methodology to include cryptographic reductions. We then provide the algorithms for...maintaining and automatically reasoning about these expanded attack trees . We provide a software tool that utilizes machine-readable proof and attack metadata...and the attack tree methodology to provide rapid and precise answers regarding security parameters and effective security. This eliminates the need

  17. Symmetric Key Services Markup Language (SKSML)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Arshad

    Symmetric Key Services Markup Language (SKSML) is the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) being standardized by the OASIS Enterprise Key Management Infrastructure Technical Committee for requesting and receiving symmetric encryption cryptographic keys within a Symmetric Key Management System (SKMS). This protocol is designed to be used between clients and servers within an Enterprise Key Management Infrastructure (EKMI) to secure data, independent of the application and platform. Building on many security standards such as XML Signature, XML Encryption, Web Services Security and PKI, SKSML provides standards-based capability to allow any application to use symmetric encryption keys, while maintaining centralized control. This article describes the SKSML protocol and its capabilities.

  18. Defense frontier analysis of quantum cryptographic systems.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, B; Rao, R; Sun, P C; Tancevski, L; Fainman, S

    1998-05-10

    When a quantum cryptographic system operates in the presence of background noise, security of the key can be recovered by a procedure called key distillation. A key-distillation scheme effective against so-called individual (bitwise-independent) eavesdropping attacks involves sacrifice of some of the data through privacy amplification. We derive the amount of data sacrifice sufficient to defend against individual eavesdropping attacks in both BB84 and B92 protocols and show in what sense the communication becomes secure as a result. We also compare the secrecy capacity of various quantum cryptosystems, taking into account data sacrifice during key distillation, and conclude that the BB84 protocol may offer better performance characteristics than the B92.

  19. Biased decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum cryptographic conferencing with finite resources.

    PubMed

    Chen, RuiKe; Bao, WanSu; Zhou, Chun; Li, Hongwei; Wang, Yang; Bao, HaiZe

    2016-03-21

    In recent years, a large quantity of work have been done to narrow the gap between theory and practice in quantum key distribution (QKD). However, most of them are focus on two-party protocols. Very recently, Yao Fu et al proposed a measurement-device-independent quantum cryptographic conferencing (MDI-QCC) protocol and proved its security in the limit of infinitely long keys. As a step towards practical application for MDI-QCC, we design a biased decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum cryptographic conferencing protocol and analyze the performance of the protocol in both the finite-key and infinite-key regime. From numerical simulations, we show that our decoy-state analysis is tighter than Yao Fu et al. That is, we can achieve the nonzero asymptotic secret key rate in long distance with approximate to 200km and we also demonstrate that with a finite size of data (say 1011 to 1013 signals) it is possible to perform secure MDI-QCC over reasonable distances.

  20. The Zagora cryptograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coucouzeli, A.

    A unique lead seal from the well-known eighth century B.C. settlement of Zagora on the island of Andros dramatically confirms and expands our knowledge of the town planning identified at the site and constituting the earliest example of an orthogonal grid plan in the Greek world. The seal in question is decorated with a symbolic design that constitutes a rare representation of the Dioskouroi as part of the constellation Gemini. This design appears to have acted as a cryptograph enciphering the basic mathematical and astronomical principles behind the planning of Zagora. Besides offering us new insights into early Greek settlement planning, the cryptograph seems to reveal an advanced practical competence in mathematics and celestial observation, which was hitherto unsuspected for such an early period. The Zagora cryptograph also suggests that astronomy and mathematics played a crucial role in the strengthening of the ruling elite's power at Zagora in the framework of the rising city-state or polis. The tight interweaving of astronomical, mathematical, architectural and social considerations in the planning of Zagora is an entirely new discovery for Greece, whose implications are far-reaching.

  1. Cryptographic Securities Exchanges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Christopher; Parkes, David C.

    While transparency in financial markets should enhance liquidity, its exploitation by unethical and parasitic traders discourages others from fully embracing disclosure of their own information. Traders exploit both the private information in upstairs markets used to trade large orders outside traditional exchanges and the public information present in exchanges' quoted limit order books. Using homomorphic cryptographic protocols, market designers can create "partially transparent" markets in which every matched trade is provably correct and only beneficial information is revealed. In a cryptographic securities exchange, market operators can hide information to prevent its exploitation, and still prove facts about the hidden information such as bid/ask spread or market depth.

  2. Evaluating privacy-preserving record linkage using cryptographic long-term keys and multibit trees on large medical datasets.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adrian P; Borgs, Christian; Randall, Sean M; Schnell, Rainer

    2017-06-08

    Integrating medical data using databases from different sources by record linkage is a powerful technique increasingly used in medical research. Under many jurisdictions, unique personal identifiers needed for linking the records are unavailable. Since sensitive attributes, such as names, have to be used instead, privacy regulations usually demand encrypting these identifiers. The corresponding set of techniques for privacy-preserving record linkage (PPRL) has received widespread attention. One recent method is based on Bloom filters. Due to superior resilience against cryptographic attacks, composite Bloom filters (cryptographic long-term keys, CLKs) are considered best practice for privacy in PPRL. Real-world performance of these techniques using large-scale data is unknown up to now. Using a large subset of Australian hospital admission data, we tested the performance of an innovative PPRL technique (CLKs using multibit trees) against a gold-standard derived from clear-text probabilistic record linkage. Linkage time and linkage quality (recall, precision and F-measure) were evaluated. Clear text probabilistic linkage resulted in marginally higher precision and recall than CLKs. PPRL required more computing time but 5 million records could still be de-duplicated within one day. However, the PPRL approach required fine tuning of parameters. We argue that increased privacy of PPRL comes with the price of small losses in precision and recall and a large increase in computational burden and setup time. These costs seem to be acceptable in most applied settings, but they have to be considered in the decision to apply PPRL. Further research on the optimal automatic choice of parameters is needed.

  3. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOEpatents

    Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.

    1998-03-24

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.

  4. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOEpatents

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Chau, Hoi Fung

    1998-01-01

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically.

  5. Heavy-Ion Microbeam Fault Injection into SRAM-Based FPGA Implementations of Cryptographic Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiyun; Du, Guanghua; Shao, Cuiping; Dai, Liang; Xu, Guoqing; Guo, Jinlong

    2015-06-01

    Transistors hit by heavy ions may conduct transiently, thereby introducing transient logic errors. Attackers can exploit these abnormal behaviors and extract sensitive information from the electronic devices. This paper demonstrates an ion irradiation fault injection attack experiment into a cryptographic field-programmable gate-array (FPGA) circuit. The experiment proved that the commercial FPGA chip is vulnerable to low-linear energy transfer carbon irradiation, and the attack can cause the leakage of secret key bits. A statistical model is established to estimate the possibility of an effective fault injection attack on cryptographic integrated circuits. The model incorporates the effects from temporal, spatial, and logical probability of an effective attack on the cryptographic circuits. The rate of successful attack calculated from the model conforms well to the experimental results. This quantitative success rate model can help evaluate security risk for designers as well as for the third-party assessment organizations.

  6. Method for exponentiating in cryptographic systems

    DOEpatents

    Brickell, Ernest F.; Gordon, Daniel M.; McCurley, Kevin S.

    1994-01-01

    An improved cryptographic method utilizing exponentiation is provided which has the advantage of reducing the number of multiplications required to determine the legitimacy of a message or user. The basic method comprises the steps of selecting a key from a preapproved group of integer keys g; exponentiating the key by an integer value e, where e represents a digital signature, to generate a value g.sup.e ; transmitting the value g.sup.e to a remote facility by a communications network; receiving the value g.sup.e at the remote facility; and verifying the digital signature as originating from the legitimate user. The exponentiating step comprises the steps of initializing a plurality of memory locations with a plurality of values g.sup.xi ; computi The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789 between the Department of Energy and AT&T Company.

  7. Evaluation of Information Leakage from Cryptographic Hardware via Common-Mode Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yu-Ichi; Homma, Naofumi; Mizuki, Takaaki; Sugawara, Takeshi; Kayano, Yoshiki; Aoki, Takafumi; Minegishi, Shigeki; Satoh, Akashi; Sone, Hideaki; Inoue, Hiroshi

    This paper presents a possibility of Electromagnetic (EM) analysis against cryptographic modules outside their security boundaries. The mechanism behind the information leakage is explained from the view point of Electromagnetic Compatibility: electric fluctuation released from cryptographic modules can conduct to peripheral circuits based on ground bounce, resulting in radiation. We demonstrate the consequence of the mechanism through experiments where the ISO/IEC standard block cipher AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is implemented on an FPGA board and EM radiations from power and communication cables are measured. Correlation Electromagnetic Analysis (CEMA) is conducted in order to evaluate the information leakage. The experimental results show that secret keys are revealed even though there are various disturbing factors such as voltage regulators and AC/DC converters between the target module and the measurement points. We also discuss information-suppression techniques as electrical-level countermeasures against such CEMAs.

  8. An adaptive cryptographic accelerator for network storage security on dynamically reconfigurable platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Li; Liu, Jing-Ning; Feng, Dan; Tong, Wei

    2008-12-01

    Existing security solutions in network storage environment perform poorly because cryptographic operations (encryption and decryption) implemented in software can dramatically reduce system performance. In this paper we propose a cryptographic hardware accelerator on dynamically reconfigurable platform for the security of high performance network storage system. We employ a dynamic reconfigurable platform based on a FPGA to implement a PowerPCbased embedded system, which executes cryptographic algorithms. To reduce the reconfiguration latency, we apply prefetch scheduling. Moreover, the processing elements could be dynamically configured to support different cryptographic algorithms according to the request received by the accelerator. In the experiment, we have implemented AES (Rijndael) and 3DES cryptographic algorithms in the reconfigurable accelerator. Our proposed reconfigurable cryptographic accelerator could dramatically increase the performance comparing with the traditional software-based network storage systems.

  9. Cryptographic robustness of a quantum cryptography system using phase-time coding

    SciTech Connect

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2008-01-15

    A cryptographic analysis is presented of a new quantum key distribution protocol using phase-time coding. An upper bound is obtained for the error rate that guarantees secure key distribution. It is shown that the maximum tolerable error rate for this protocol depends on the counting rate in the control time slot. When no counts are detected in the control time slot, the protocol guarantees secure key distribution if the bit error rate in the sifted key does not exceed 50%. This protocol partially discriminates between errors due to system defects (e.g., imbalance of a fiber-optic interferometer) and eavesdropping. In themore » absence of eavesdropping, the counts detected in the control time slot are not caused by interferometer imbalance, which reduces the requirements for interferometer stability.« less

  10. Elliptic net and its cryptographic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslim, Norliana; Said, Mohamad Rushdan Md

    2017-11-01

    Elliptic net is a generalization of elliptic divisibility sequence and in cryptography field, most cryptographic pairings that are based on elliptic curve such as Tate pairing can be improved by applying elliptic nets algorithm. The elliptic net is constructed by using n dimensional array of values in rational number satisfying nonlinear recurrence relations that arise from elliptic divisibility sequences. The two main properties hold in the recurrence relations are for all positive integers m>n, hm +nhm -n=hm +1hm -1hn2-hn +1hn -1hm2 and hn divides hm whenever n divides m. In this research, we discuss elliptic divisibility sequence associated with elliptic nets based on cryptographic perspective and its possible research direction.

  11. Secure Method for Biometric-Based Recognition with Integrated Cryptographic Functions

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Shin-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to combine cryptography and biometrics, but these methods require the synchronization of internal systems and are vulnerable to power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. This paper presents a new secure cryptographic authentication method using biometric features. The proposed system combines the advantages of biometric identification and cryptographic techniques. By adding a subsystem to existing biometric recognition systems, we can simultaneously achieve the security of cryptographic technology and the error tolerance of biometric recognition. This method can be used for biometric data encryption, signatures, and other types of cryptographic computation. The method offers a high degree of security with protection against power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. Moreover, it can be used to improve the confidentiality of biological data storage and biodata identification processes. Remote biometric authentication can also be safely applied. PMID:23762851

  12. Secure method for biometric-based recognition with integrated cryptographic functions.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Shin-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric systems refer to biometric technologies which can be used to achieve authentication. Unlike cryptography-based technologies, the ratio for certification in biometric systems needs not to achieve 100% accuracy. However, biometric data can only be directly compared through proximal access to the scanning device and cannot be combined with cryptographic techniques. Moreover, repeated use, improper storage, or transmission leaks may compromise security. Prior studies have attempted to combine cryptography and biometrics, but these methods require the synchronization of internal systems and are vulnerable to power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. This paper presents a new secure cryptographic authentication method using biometric features. The proposed system combines the advantages of biometric identification and cryptographic techniques. By adding a subsystem to existing biometric recognition systems, we can simultaneously achieve the security of cryptographic technology and the error tolerance of biometric recognition. This method can be used for biometric data encryption, signatures, and other types of cryptographic computation. The method offers a high degree of security with protection against power analysis attacks, fault-based cryptanalysis, and replay attacks. Moreover, it can be used to improve the confidentiality of biological data storage and biodata identification processes. Remote biometric authentication can also be safely applied.

  13. Cryptographically secure biometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoianov, A.

    2010-04-01

    Biometric systems usually do not possess a cryptographic level of security: it has been deemed impossible to perform a biometric authentication in the encrypted domain because of the natural variability of biometric samples and of the cryptographic intolerance even to a single bite error. Encrypted biometric data need to be decrypted on authentication, which creates privacy and security risks. On the other hand, the known solutions called "Biometric Encryption (BE)" or "Fuzzy Extractors" can be cracked by various attacks, for example, by running offline a database of images against the stored helper data in order to obtain a false match. In this paper, we present a novel approach which combines Biometric Encryption with classical Blum-Goldwasser cryptosystem. In the "Client - Service Provider (SP)" or in the "Client - Database - SP" architecture it is possible to keep the biometric data encrypted on all the stages of the storage and authentication, so that SP never has an access to unencrypted biometric data. It is shown that this approach is suitable for two of the most popular BE schemes, Fuzzy Commitment and Quantized Index Modulation (QIM). The approach has clear practical advantages over biometric systems using "homomorphic encryption". Future work will deal with the application of the proposed solution to one-to-many biometric systems.

  14. Deductive Verification of Cryptographic Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, Jose Barcelar; Barbosa, Manuel; Pinto, Jorge Sousa; Vieira, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    We report on the application of an off-the-shelf verification platform to the RC4 stream cipher cryptographic software implementation (as available in the openSSL library), and introduce a deductive verification technique based on self-composition for proving the absence of error propagation.

  15. Physically Unclonable Cryptographic Primitives by Chemical Vapor Deposition of Layered MoS2.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Abdullah; Armstrong, Darren; Alharbi, Somayah; Shahrjerdi, Davood

    2017-12-26

    Physically unclonable cryptographic primitives are promising for securing the rapidly growing number of electronic devices. Here, we introduce physically unclonable primitives from layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) by leveraging the natural randomness of their island growth during chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We synthesize a MoS 2 monolayer film covered with speckles of multilayer islands, where the growth process is engineered for an optimal speckle density. Using the Clark-Evans test, we confirm that the distribution of islands on the film exhibits complete spatial randomness, hence indicating the growth of multilayer speckles is a spatial Poisson process. Such a property is highly desirable for constructing unpredictable cryptographic primitives. The security primitive is an array of 2048 pixels fabricated from this film. The complex structure of the pixels makes the physical duplication of the array impossible (i.e., physically unclonable). A unique optical response is generated by applying an optical stimulus to the structure. The basis for this unique response is the dependence of the photoemission on the number of MoS 2 layers, which by design is random throughout the film. Using a threshold value for the photoemission, we convert the optical response into binary cryptographic keys. We show that the proper selection of this threshold is crucial for maximizing combination randomness and that the optimal value of the threshold is linked directly to the growth process. This study reveals an opportunity for generating robust and versatile security primitives from layered transition metal dichalcogenides.

  16. Formal Analysis of Key Integrity in PKCS#11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcone, Andrea; Focardi, Riccardo

    PKCS#11 is a standard API to cryptographic devices such as smarcards, hardware security modules and usb crypto-tokens. Though widely adopted, this API has been shown to be prone to attacks in which a malicious user gains access to the sensitive keys stored in the devices. In 2008, Delaune, Kremer and Steel proposed a model to formally reason on this kind of attacks. We extend this model to also describe flaws that are based on integrity violations of the stored keys. In particular, we consider scenarios in which a malicious overwriting of keys might fool honest users into using attacker's own keys, while performing sensitive operations. We further enrich the model with a trusted key mechanism ensuring that only controlled, non-tampered keys are used in cryptographic operations, and we show how this modified API prevents the above mentioned key-replacement attacks.

  17. Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation: Department of Defense Public Key Infrastructure and Key Management Infrastructure Token Protection Profile (Medium Robustness)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-22

    may be derived from detailed inspection of the IC itself or from illicit appropriation of design information. Counterfeit smart cards can be mass...Infrastructure (PKI) as the Internet to securely and privately exchange data and money through the use of a public and a private cryptographic key pair...interference devices (SQDIS), electrical testing, and electron beam testing. • Other attacks, such as UV or X-rays or high temperatures, could cause erasure

  18. A Polynomial Subset-Based Efficient Multi-Party Key Management System for Lightweight Device Networks.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ning, Huansheng; Ghafoor, AtaUllah

    2017-03-24

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices to measure sensitive data that are highly vulnerable to security attacks due to their constrained resources. In a similar manner, the internet-based lightweight devices used in the Internet of Things (IoT) are facing severe security and privacy issues because of the direct accessibility of devices due to their connection to the internet. Complex and resource-intensive security schemes are infeasible and reduce the network lifetime. In this regard, we have explored the polynomial distribution-based key establishment schemes and identified an issue that the resultant polynomial value is either storage intensive or infeasible when large values are multiplied. It becomes more costly when these polynomials are regenerated dynamically after each node join or leave operation and whenever key is refreshed. To reduce the computation, we have proposed an Efficient Key Management (EKM) scheme for multiparty communication-based scenarios. The proposed session key management protocol is established by applying a symmetric polynomial for group members, and the group head acts as a responsible node. The polynomial generation method uses security credentials and secure hash function. Symmetric cryptographic parameters are efficient in computation, communication, and the storage required. The security justification of the proposed scheme has been completed by using Rubin logic, which guarantees that the protocol attains mutual validation and session key agreement property strongly among the participating entities. Simulation scenarios are performed using NS 2.35 to validate the results for storage, communication, latency, energy, and polynomial calculation costs during authentication, session key generation, node migration, secure joining, and leaving phases. EKM is efficient regarding storage, computation, and communication overhead and can protect WSN-based IoT infrastructure.

  19. An Authentication and Key Management Mechanism for Resource Constrained Devices in IEEE 802.11-based IoT Access Networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Han, Youn-Hee; Min, Sung-Gi

    2017-09-21

    Many Internet of Things (IoT) services utilize an IoT access network to connect small devices with remote servers. They can share an access network with standard communication technology, such as IEEE 802.11ah. However, an authentication and key management (AKM) mechanism for resource constrained IoT devices using IEEE 802.11ah has not been proposed as yet. We therefore propose a new AKM mechanism for an IoT access network, which is based on IEEE 802.11 key management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism. The proposed AKM mechanism does not require any pre-configured security information between the access network domain and the IoT service domain. It considers the resource constraints of IoT devices, allowing IoT devices to delegate the burden of AKM processes to a powerful agent. The agent has sufficient power to support various authentication methods for the access point, and it performs cryptographic functions for the IoT devices. Performance analysis shows that the proposed mechanism greatly reduces computation costs, network costs, and memory usage of the resource-constrained IoT device as compared to the existing IEEE 802.11 Key Management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism.

  20. An Authentication and Key Management Mechanism for Resource Constrained Devices in IEEE 802.11-based IoT Access Networks

    PubMed Central

    Han, Youn-Hee; Min, Sung-Gi

    2017-01-01

    Many Internet of Things (IoT) services utilize an IoT access network to connect small devices with remote servers. They can share an access network with standard communication technology, such as IEEE 802.11ah. However, an authentication and key management (AKM) mechanism for resource constrained IoT devices using IEEE 802.11ah has not been proposed as yet. We therefore propose a new AKM mechanism for an IoT access network, which is based on IEEE 802.11 key management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism. The proposed AKM mechanism does not require any pre-configured security information between the access network domain and the IoT service domain. It considers the resource constraints of IoT devices, allowing IoT devices to delegate the burden of AKM processes to a powerful agent. The agent has sufficient power to support various authentication methods for the access point, and it performs cryptographic functions for the IoT devices. Performance analysis shows that the proposed mechanism greatly reduces computation costs, network costs, and memory usage of the resource-constrained IoT device as compared to the existing IEEE 802.11 Key Management with the IEEE 802.1X authentication mechanism. PMID:28934152

  1. [Linking anonymous databases for national and international multicenter epidemiological studies: a cryptographic algorithm].

    PubMed

    Quantin, C; Fassa, M; Coatrieux, G; Riandey, B; Trouessin, G; Allaert, F A

    2009-02-01

    Compiling individual records which come from different sources remains very important for multicenter epidemiological studies, but at the same time European directives or other national legislation concerning nominal data processing have to be respected. These legal aspects can be satisfied by implementing mechanisms that allow anonymization of patient data (such as hashing techniques). Moreover, for security reasons, official recommendations suggest using different cryptographic keys in combination with a cryptographic hash function for each study. Unfortunately, such an anonymization procedure is in contradiction with the common requirement in public health and biomedical research as it becomes almost impossible to link records from separate data collections where the same entity is not referenced in the same way. Solving this paradox by using methodology based on the combination of hashing and enciphering techniques is the main aim of this article. The method relies on one of the best known hashing functions (the secure hash algorithm) to ensure the anonymity of personal information while providing greater resistance to dictionary attacks, combined with encryption techniques. The originality of the method relies on the way the combination of hashing and enciphering techniques is performed: like in asymmetric encryption, two keys are used but the private key depends on the patient's identity. The combination of hashing and enciphering techniques provides a great improvement in the overall security of the proposed scheme. This methodology makes the stored data available for use in the field of public health for the benefit of patients, while respecting legal security requirements.

  2. Using Compilers to Enhance Cryptographic Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangerter, E.; Barbosa, M.; Bernstein, D.; Damgård, I.; Page, D.; Pagter, J. I.; Sadeghi, A.-R.; Sovio, S.

    Developing high-quality software is hard in the general case, and it is significantly more challenging in the case of cryptographic software. A high degree of new skill and understanding must be learnt and applied without error to avoid vulnerability and inefficiency. This is often beyond the financial, manpower or intellectual resources avail-able. In this paper we present the motivation for the European funded CACE (Computer Aided Cryptography Engineering) project The main objective of CACE is to provide engineers (with limited or no expertise in cryptography) with a toolbox that allows them to generate robust and efficient implementations of cryptographic primitives. We also present some preliminary results already obtained in the early stages of this project, and discuss the relevance of the project as perceived by stakeholders in the mobile device arena.

  3. Critical analysis of the Bennett-Riedel attack on secure cryptographic key distributions via the Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-noise scheme.

    PubMed

    Kish, Laszlo B; Abbott, Derek; Granqvist, Claes G

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR's scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive) attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged.

  4. A Polynomial Subset-Based Efficient Multi-Party Key Management System for Lightweight Device Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Zahid; Ning, Huansheng; Ghafoor, AtaUllah

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of lightweight devices to measure sensitive data that are highly vulnerable to security attacks due to their constrained resources. In a similar manner, the internet-based lightweight devices used in the Internet of Things (IoT) are facing severe security and privacy issues because of the direct accessibility of devices due to their connection to the internet. Complex and resource-intensive security schemes are infeasible and reduce the network lifetime. In this regard, we have explored the polynomial distribution-based key establishment schemes and identified an issue that the resultant polynomial value is either storage intensive or infeasible when large values are multiplied. It becomes more costly when these polynomials are regenerated dynamically after each node join or leave operation and whenever key is refreshed. To reduce the computation, we have proposed an Efficient Key Management (EKM) scheme for multiparty communication-based scenarios. The proposed session key management protocol is established by applying a symmetric polynomial for group members, and the group head acts as a responsible node. The polynomial generation method uses security credentials and secure hash function. Symmetric cryptographic parameters are efficient in computation, communication, and the storage required. The security justification of the proposed scheme has been completed by using Rubin logic, which guarantees that the protocol attains mutual validation and session key agreement property strongly among the participating entities. Simulation scenarios are performed using NS 2.35 to validate the results for storage, communication, latency, energy, and polynomial calculation costs during authentication, session key generation, node migration, secure joining, and leaving phases. EKM is efficient regarding storage, computation, and communication overhead and can protect WSN-based IoT infrastructure. PMID:28338632

  5. Enhancing LoRaWAN Security through a Lightweight and Authenticated Key Management Approach.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Iborra, Ramon; Sánchez-Gómez, Jesús; Pérez, Salvador; Fernández, Pedro J; Santa, José; Hernández-Ramos, José L; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2018-06-05

    Luckily, new communication technologies and protocols are nowadays designed considering security issues. A clear example of this can be found in the Internet of Things (IoT) field, a quite recent area where communication technologies such as ZigBee or IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) already include security features to guarantee authentication, confidentiality and integrity. More recent technologies are Low-Power Wide-Area Networks (LP-WAN), which also consider security, but present initial approaches that can be further improved. An example of this can be found in Long Range (LoRa) and its layer-two supporter LoRa Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN), which include a security scheme based on pre-shared cryptographic material lacking flexibility when a key update is necessary. Because of this, in this work, we evaluate the security vulnerabilities of LoRaWAN in the area of key management and propose different alternative schemes. Concretely, the application of an approach based on the recently specified Ephemeral Diffie⁻Hellman Over COSE (EDHOC) is found as a convenient solution, given its flexibility in the update of session keys, its low computational cost and the limited message exchanges needed. A comparative conceptual analysis considering the overhead of different security schemes for LoRaWAN is carried out in order to evaluate their benefits in the challenging area of LP-WAN.

  6. Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corndorf, Eric

    With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic

  7. Critical Analysis of the Bennett–Riedel Attack on Secure Cryptographic Key Distributions via the Kirchhoff-Law–Johnson-Noise Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Abbott, Derek; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, Bennett and Riedel (BR) (http://arxiv.org/abs/1303.7435v1) argued that thermodynamics is not essential in the Kirchhoff-law–Johnson-noise (KLJN) classical physical cryptographic exchange method in an effort to disprove the security of the KLJN scheme. They attempted to demonstrate this by introducing a dissipation-free deterministic key exchange method with two batteries and two switches. In the present paper, we first show that BR's scheme is unphysical and that some elements of its assumptions violate basic protocols of secure communication. All our analyses are based on a technically unlimited Eve with infinitely accurate and fast measurements limited only by the laws of physics and statistics. For non-ideal situations and at active (invasive) attacks, the uncertainly principle between measurement duration and statistical errors makes it impossible for Eve to extract the key regardless of the accuracy or speed of her measurements. To show that thermodynamics and noise are essential for the security, we crack the BR system with 100% success via passive attacks, in ten different ways, and demonstrate that the same cracking methods do not function for the KLJN scheme that employs Johnson noise to provide security underpinned by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. We also present a critical analysis of some other claims by BR; for example, we prove that their equations for describing zero security do not apply to the KLJN scheme. Finally we give mathematical security proofs for each BR-attack against the KLJN scheme and conclude that the information theoretic (unconditional) security of the KLJN method has not been successfully challenged. PMID:24358129

  8. Number Theory and Public-Key Cryptography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefton, Phyllis

    1991-01-01

    Described are activities in the study of techniques used to conceal the meanings of messages and data. Some background information and two BASIC programs that illustrate the algorithms used in a new cryptographic system called "public-key cryptography" are included. (CW)

  9. Cryptographic framework for document-objects resulting from multiparty collaborative transactions.

    PubMed

    Goh, A

    2000-01-01

    Multiparty transactional frameworks--i.e. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) or Health Level (HL) 7--often result in composite documents which can be accurately modelled using hyperlinked document-objects. The structural complexity arising from multiauthor involvement and transaction-specific sequencing would be poorly handled by conventional digital signature schemes based on a single evaluation of a one-way hash function and asymmetric cryptography. In this paper we outline the generation of structure-specific authentication hash-trees for the the authentication of transactional document-objects, followed by asymmetric signature generation on the hash-tree value. Server-side multi-client signature verification would probably constitute the single most compute-intensive task, hence the motivation for our usage of the Rabin signature protocol which results in significantly reduced verification workloads compared to the more commonly applied Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) protocol. Data privacy is handled via symmetric encryption of message traffic using session-specific keys obtained through key-negotiation mechanisms based on discrete-logarithm cryptography. Individual client-to-server channels can be secured using a double key-pair variation of Diffie-Hellman (DH) key negotiation, usage of which also enables bidirectional node authentication. The reciprocal server-to-client multicast channel is secured through Burmester-Desmedt (BD) key-negotiation which enjoys significant advantages over the usual multiparty extensions to the DH protocol. The implementation of hash-tree signatures and bi/multidirectional key negotiation results in a comprehensive cryptographic framework for multiparty document-objects satisfying both authentication and data privacy requirements.

  10. Physically unclonable cryptographic primitives using self-assembled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaoying; Comeras, Jose Miguel M Lobez; Park, Hongsik; Tang, Jianshi; Afzali, Ali; Tulevski, George S; Hannon, James B; Liehr, Michael; Han, Shu-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Information security underpins many aspects of modern society. However, silicon chips are vulnerable to hazards such as counterfeiting, tampering and information leakage through side-channel attacks (for example, by measuring power consumption, timing or electromagnetic radiation). Single-walled carbon nanotubes are a potential replacement for silicon as the channel material of transistors due to their superb electrical properties and intrinsic ultrathin body, but problems such as limited semiconducting purity and non-ideal assembly still need to be addressed before they can deliver high-performance electronics. Here, we show that by using these inherent imperfections, an unclonable electronic random structure can be constructed at low cost from carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes are self-assembled into patterned HfO2 trenches using ion-exchange chemistry, and the width of the trench is optimized to maximize the randomness of the nanotube placement. With this approach, two-dimensional (2D) random bit arrays are created that can offer ternary-bit architecture by determining the connection yield and switching type of the nanotube devices. As a result, our cryptographic keys provide a significantly higher level of security than conventional binary-bit architecture with the same key size.

  11. Physically unclonable cryptographic primitives using self-assembled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhaoying; Comeras, Jose Miguel M. Lobez; Park, Hongsik; Tang, Jianshi; Afzali, Ali; Tulevski, George S.; Hannon, James B.; Liehr, Michael; Han, Shu-Jen

    2016-06-01

    Information security underpins many aspects of modern society. However, silicon chips are vulnerable to hazards such as counterfeiting, tampering and information leakage through side-channel attacks (for example, by measuring power consumption, timing or electromagnetic radiation). Single-walled carbon nanotubes are a potential replacement for silicon as the channel material of transistors due to their superb electrical properties and intrinsic ultrathin body, but problems such as limited semiconducting purity and non-ideal assembly still need to be addressed before they can deliver high-performance electronics. Here, we show that by using these inherent imperfections, an unclonable electronic random structure can be constructed at low cost from carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes are self-assembled into patterned HfO2 trenches using ion-exchange chemistry, and the width of the trench is optimized to maximize the randomness of the nanotube placement. With this approach, two-dimensional (2D) random bit arrays are created that can offer ternary-bit architecture by determining the connection yield and switching type of the nanotube devices. As a result, our cryptographic keys provide a significantly higher level of security than conventional binary-bit architecture with the same key size.

  12. 75 FR 52798 - State-07, Cryptographic Clearance Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... of records, Authority for maintenance of the system, Purpose, Safeguards and Retrievability as well... INDIVIDUALS COVERED BY THE SYSTEM: All current Civil Service and Foreign Service direct hire employees of the... well as those who have already received cryptographic clearance. CATEGORIES OF RECORDS IN THE SYSTEM...

  13. Cryptographic Boolean Functions with Biased Inputs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-31

    theory of random graphs developed by Erdős and Rényi [2]. The graph properties in a random graph expressed as such Boolean functions are used by...distributed Bernoulli variates with the parameter p. Since our scope is within the area of cryptography , we initiate an analysis of cryptographic...Boolean functions with biased inputs, which we refer to as µp-Boolean functions, is a common generalization of Boolean functions which stems from the

  14. Physical key-protected one-time pad

    PubMed Central

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Vellekoop, Ivo M.; Assawaworrarit, Sid; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-01-01

    We describe an encrypted communication principle that forms a secure link between two parties without electronically saving either of their keys. Instead, random cryptographic bits are kept safe within the unique mesoscopic randomness of two volumetric scattering materials. We demonstrate how a shared set of patterned optical probes can generate 10 gigabits of statistically verified randomness between a pair of unique 2 mm3 scattering objects. This shared randomness is used to facilitate information-theoretically secure communication following a modified one-time pad protocol. Benefits of volumetric physical storage over electronic memory include the inability to probe, duplicate or selectively reset any bits without fundamentally altering the entire key space. Our ability to securely couple the randomness contained within two unique physical objects can extend to strengthen hardware required by a variety of cryptographic protocols, which is currently a critically weak link in the security pipeline of our increasingly mobile communication culture. PMID:24345925

  15. Failure Impact Analysis of Key Management in AMI Using Cybernomic Situational Assessment (CSA)

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T; Hauser, Katie R

    2013-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented a computational framework for quantifying the security of a system in terms of the average loss a stakeholder stands to sustain as a result of threats to the system. We named this system, the Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES). In this paper, we refine the framework and apply it to cryptographic key management within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) as an example. The stakeholders, requirements, components, and threats are determined. We then populate the matrices with justified values by addressing the AMI at a higher level, rather than trying to consider every piece of hardwaremore » and software involved. We accomplish this task by leveraging the recently established NISTR 7628 guideline for smart grid security. This allowed us to choose the stakeholders, requirements, components, and threats realistically. We reviewed the literature and selected an industry technical working group to select three representative threats from a collection of 29 threats. From this subset, we populate the stakes, dependency, and impact matrices, and the threat vector with realistic numbers. Each Stakeholder s Mean Failure Cost is then computed.« less

  16. Biometric Methods for Secure Communications in Body Sensor Networks: Resource-Efficient Key Management and Signal-Level Data Scrambling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Francis Minhthang; Hatzinakos, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    As electronic communications become more prevalent, mobile and universal, the threats of data compromises also accordingly loom larger. In the context of a body sensor network (BSN), which permits pervasive monitoring of potentially sensitive medical data, security and privacy concerns are particularly important. It is a challenge to implement traditional security infrastructures in these types of lightweight networks since they are by design limited in both computational and communication resources. A key enabling technology for secure communications in BSN's has emerged to be biometrics. In this work, we present two complementary approaches which exploit physiological signals to address security issues: (1) a resource-efficient key management system for generating and distributing cryptographic keys to constituent sensors in a BSN; (2) a novel data scrambling method, based on interpolation and random sampling, that is envisioned as a potential alternative to conventional symmetric encryption algorithms for certain types of data. The former targets the resource constraints in BSN's, while the latter addresses the fuzzy variability of biometric signals, which has largely precluded the direct application of conventional encryption. Using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals as biometrics, the resulting computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of these methods for delivering secure communications in BSN's.

  17. Using the Hill Cipher to Teach Cryptographic Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    The Hill cipher is the simplest example of a "block cipher," which takes a block of plaintext as input, and returns a block of ciphertext as output. Although it is insecure by modern standards, its simplicity means that it is well suited for the teaching of such concepts as encryption modes, and properties of cryptographic hash functions. Although…

  18. Protecting Cryptographic Keys and Functions from Malware Attacks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    registers. modifies RSA private key signing in OpenSSL to use the technique. The resulting system has the following features: 1. No special hardware is...the above method based on OpenSSL , by exploiting the Streaming SIMD Extension (SSE) XMM registers of modern Intel and AMD x86-compatible CPU’s [22...one can store a 2048-bit exponent.1 Our prototype is based on OpenSSL 0.9.8e, the Ubuntu 6.06 Linux distribution with a 2.6.15 kernel, and SSE2 which

  19. Secure key from bound entanglement.

    PubMed

    Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2005-04-29

    We characterize the set of shared quantum states which contain a cryptographically private key. This allows us to recast the theory of privacy as a paradigm closely related to that used in entanglement manipulation. It is shown that one can distill an arbitrarily secure key from bound entangled states. There are also states that have less distillable private keys than the entanglement cost of the state. In general, the amount of distillable key is bounded from above by the relative entropy of entanglement. Relationships between distillability and distinguishability are found for a class of states which have Bell states correlated to separable hiding states. We also describe a technique for finding states exhibiting irreversibility in entanglement distillation.

  20. A cryptographic hash function based on chaotic network automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machicao, Jeaneth; Bruno, Odemir M.

    2017-12-01

    Chaos theory has been used to develop several cryptographic methods relying on the pseudo-random properties extracted from simple nonlinear systems such as cellular automata (CA). Cryptographic hash functions (CHF) are commonly used to check data integrity. CHF “compress” arbitrary long messages (input) into much smaller representations called hash values or message digest (output), designed to prevent the ability to reverse the hash values into the original message. This paper proposes a chaos-based CHF inspired on an encryption method based on chaotic CA rule B1357-S2468. Here, we propose an hybrid model that combines CA and networks, called network automata (CNA), whose chaotic spatio-temporal outputs are used to compute a hash value. Following the Merkle and Damgård model of construction, a portion of the message is entered as the initial condition of the network automata, so that the rest parts of messages are iteratively entered to perturb the system. The chaotic network automata shuffles the message using flexible control parameters, so that the generated hash value is highly sensitive to the message. As demonstrated in our experiments, the proposed model has excellent pseudo-randomness and sensitivity properties with acceptable performance when compared to conventional hash functions.

  1. Modular multiplication in GF(p) for public-key cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszyna, Jakub

    Modular multiplication forms the basis of modular exponentiation which is the core operation of the RSA cryptosystem. It is also present in many other cryptographic algorithms including those based on ECC and HECC. Hence, an efficient implementation of PKC relies on efficient implementation of modular multiplication. The paper presents a survey of most common algorithms for modular multiplication along with hardware architectures especially suitable for cryptographic applications in energy constrained environments. The motivation for studying low-power and areaefficient modular multiplication algorithms comes from enabling public-key security for ultra-low power devices that can perform under constrained environments like wireless sensor networks. Serial architectures for GF(p) are analyzed and presented. Finally proposed architectures are verified and compared according to the amount of power dissipated throughout the operation.

  2. An SSH key management system: easing the pain of managing key/user/account associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, D.; Betts, W.; Lauret, J.; Shiryaev, A.

    2008-07-01

    Cyber security requirements for secure access to computing facilities often call for access controls via gatekeepers and the use of two-factor authentication. Using SSH keys to satisfy the two factor authentication requirement has introduced a potentially challenging task of managing the keys and their associations with individual users and user accounts. Approaches for a facility with the simple model of one remote user corresponding to one local user would not work at facilities that require a many-to-many mapping between users and accounts on multiple systems. We will present an SSH key management system we developed, tested and deployed to address the many-to-many dilemma in the environment of the STAR experiment. We will explain its use in an online computing context and explain how it makes possible the management and tracing of group account access spread over many sub-system components (data acquisition, slow controls, trigger, detector instrumentation, etc.) without the use of shared passwords for remote logins.

  3. Cryptographic synchronization recovery by measuring randomness of decrypted data

    DOEpatents

    Maestas, Joseph H.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    1990-01-01

    The invention relates to synchronization of encrypted data communication systems and a method which looks for any lack of pattern or intelligent information in the received data and triggers a resynchronization signal based thereon. If the encrypter/decrypter pairs are out of cryptographic synchronization, the received (decrypted) data resembles pseudorandom data. A method and system are provided for detecting such pseudorandom binary data by, for example, ones density. If the data is sufficiently random the system is resynchronized.

  4. Cryptographic robustness of practical quantum cryptography: BB84 key distribution protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2008-07-15

    In real fiber-optic quantum cryptography systems, the avalanche photodiodes are not perfect, the source of quantum states is not a single-photon one, and the communication channel is lossy. For these reasons, key distribution is impossible under certain conditions for the system parameters. A simple analysis is performed to find relations between the parameters of real cryptography systems and the length of the quantum channel that guarantee secure quantum key distribution when the eavesdropper's capabilities are limited only by fundamental laws of quantum mechanics while the devices employed by the legitimate users are based on current technologies. Critical values are determinedmore » for the rate of secure real-time key generation that can be reached under the current technology level. Calculations show that the upper bound on channel length can be as high as 300 km for imperfect photodetectors (avalanche photodiodes) with present-day quantum efficiency ({eta} {approx} 20%) and dark count probability (p{sub dark} {approx} 10{sup -7})« less

  5. Cryptographic robustness of practical quantum cryptography: BB84 key distribution protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2008-07-01

    In real fiber-optic quantum cryptography systems, the avalanche photodiodes are not perfect, the source of quantum states is not a single-photon one, and the communication channel is lossy. For these reasons, key distribution is impossible under certain conditions for the system parameters. A simple analysis is performed to find relations between the parameters of real cryptography systems and the length of the quantum channel that guarantee secure quantum key distribution when the eavesdropper’s capabilities are limited only by fundamental laws of quantum mechanics while the devices employed by the legitimate users are based on current technologies. Critical values are determined for the rate of secure real-time key generation that can be reached under the current technology level. Calculations show that the upper bound on channel length can be as high as 300 km for imperfect photodetectors (avalanche photodiodes) with present-day quantum efficiency (η ≈ 20%) and dark count probability ( p dark ˜ 10-7).

  6. Security of subcarrier wave quantum key distribution against the collective beam-splitting attack.

    PubMed

    Miroshnichenko, G P; Kozubov, A V; Gaidash, A A; Gleim, A V; Horoshko, D B

    2018-04-30

    We consider a subcarrier wave quantum key distribution (QKD) system, where quantum encoding is carried out at weak sidebands generated around a coherent optical beam as a result of electro-optical phase modulation. We study security of two protocols, B92 and BB84, against one of the most powerful attacks for this class of systems, the collective beam-splitting attack. Our analysis includes the case of high modulation index, where the sidebands are essentially multimode. We demonstrate numerically and experimentally that a subcarrier wave QKD system with realistic parameters is capable of distributing cryptographic keys over large distances in presence of collective attacks. We also show that BB84 protocol modification with discrimination of only one state in each basis performs not worse than the original BB84 protocol in this class of QKD systems, thus significantly simplifying the development of cryptographic networks using the considered QKD technique.

  7. Setting objectives for managing Key deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Wagner, Tyler; Stauffer, Glenn E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is responsible for the protection and management of Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) because the species is listed as Endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The purpose of the ESA is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. There are a host of actions that could possibly be undertaken to recover the Key deer population, but without a clearly defined problem and stated objectives it can be difficult to compare and evaluate alternative actions. In addition, management goals and the acceptability of alternative management actions are inherently linked to stakeholders, who should be engaged throughout the process of developing a decision framework. The purpose of this project was to engage a representative group of stakeholders to develop a problem statement that captured the management problem the FWS must address with Key deer and identify objectives that, if met, would help solve the problem. In addition, the objectives were organized in a hierarchical manner (i.e., an objectives network) to show how they are linked, and measurable attributes were identified for each objective. We organized a group of people who represented stakeholders interested in and potentially affected by the management of Key deer. These stakeholders included individuals who represented local, state, and federal governments, non-governmental organizations, the general public, and local businesses. This stakeholder group met five full days over the course of an eight-week period to identify objectives that would address the following problem:“As recovery and removal from the Endangered Species list is the purpose of the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service needs a management approach that will ensure a sustainable, viable, and healthy Key deer population. Urbanization has affected the behavior and population dynamics of the Key deer and the amount and characteristics

  8. PEM public key certificate cache server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, T.

    1993-12-01

    Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) provides privacy enhancement services to users of Internet electronic mail. Confidentiality, authentication, message integrity, and non-repudiation of origin are provided by applying cryptographic measures to messages transferred between end systems by the Message Transfer System. PEM supports both symmetric and asymmetric key distribution. However, the prevalent implementation uses a public key certificate-based strategy, modeled after the X.509 directory authentication framework. This scheme provides an infrastructure compatible with X.509. According to RFC 1422, public key certificates can be stored in directory servers, transmitted via non-secure message exchanges, or distributed via other means. Directory services provide a specialized distributed database for OSI applications. The directory contains information about objects and then provides structured mechanisms for accessing that information. Since directory services are not widely available now, a good approach is to manage certificates in a centralized certificate server. This document describes the detailed design of a centralized certificate cache serve. This server manages a cache of certificates and a cache of Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL's) for PEM applications. PEMapplications contact the server to obtain/store certificates and CRL's. The server software is programmed in C and ELROS. To use this server, ISODE has to be configured and installed properly. The ISODE library 'libisode.a' has to be linked together with this library because ELROS uses the transport layer functions provided by 'libisode.a.' The X.500 DAP library that is included with the ELROS distribution has to be linked in also, since the server uses the DAP library functions to communicate with directory servers.

  9. A Secure Key Distribution System of Quantum Cryptography Based on the Coherent State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Xiao-Yu

    1996-01-01

    The cryptographic communication has a lot of important applications, particularly in the magnificent prospects of private communication. As one knows, the security of cryptographic channel depends crucially on the secrecy of the key. The Vernam cipher is the only cipher system which has guaranteed security. In that system the key must be as long as the message and most be used only once. Quantum cryptography is a method whereby key secrecy can be guaranteed by a physical law. So it is impossible, even in principle, to eavesdrop on such channels. Quantum cryptography has been developed in recent years. Up to now, many schemes of quantum cryptography have been proposed. Now one of the main problems in this field is how to increase transmission distance. In order to use quantum nature of light, up to now proposed schemes all use very dim light pulses. The average photon number is about 0.1. Because of the loss of the optical fiber, it is difficult for the quantum cryptography based on one photon level or on dim light to realize quantum key-distribution over long distance. A quantum key distribution based on coherent state is introduced in this paper. Here we discuss the feasibility and security of this scheme.

  10. Physical cryptographic verification of nuclear warheads

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, R. Scott; Danagoulian, Areg; Macdonald, Ruaridh R.; Vavrek, Jayson R.

    2016-01-01

    How does one prove a claim about a highly sensitive object such as a nuclear weapon without revealing information about the object? This paradox has challenged nuclear arms control for more than five decades. We present a mechanism in the form of an interactive proof system that can validate the structure and composition of an object, such as a nuclear warhead, to arbitrary precision without revealing either its structure or composition. We introduce a tomographic method that simultaneously resolves both the geometric and isotopic makeup of an object. We also introduce a method of protecting information using a provably secure cryptographic hash that does not rely on electronics or software. These techniques, when combined with a suitable protocol, constitute an interactive proof system that could reject hoax items and clear authentic warheads with excellent sensitivity in reasonably short measurement times. PMID:27432959

  11. Physical cryptographic verification of nuclear warheads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, R. Scott; Danagoulian, Areg; Macdonald, Ruaridh R.; Vavrek, Jayson R.

    2016-08-01

    How does one prove a claim about a highly sensitive object such as a nuclear weapon without revealing information about the object? This paradox has challenged nuclear arms control for more than five decades. We present a mechanism in the form of an interactive proof system that can validate the structure and composition of an object, such as a nuclear warhead, to arbitrary precision without revealing either its structure or composition. We introduce a tomographic method that simultaneously resolves both the geometric and isotopic makeup of an object. We also introduce a method of protecting information using a provably secure cryptographic hash that does not rely on electronics or software. These techniques, when combined with a suitable protocol, constitute an interactive proof system that could reject hoax items and clear authentic warheads with excellent sensitivity in reasonably short measurement times.

  12. Physical cryptographic verification of nuclear warheads.

    PubMed

    Kemp, R Scott; Danagoulian, Areg; Macdonald, Ruaridh R; Vavrek, Jayson R

    2016-08-02

    How does one prove a claim about a highly sensitive object such as a nuclear weapon without revealing information about the object? This paradox has challenged nuclear arms control for more than five decades. We present a mechanism in the form of an interactive proof system that can validate the structure and composition of an object, such as a nuclear warhead, to arbitrary precision without revealing either its structure or composition. We introduce a tomographic method that simultaneously resolves both the geometric and isotopic makeup of an object. We also introduce a method of protecting information using a provably secure cryptographic hash that does not rely on electronics or software. These techniques, when combined with a suitable protocol, constitute an interactive proof system that could reject hoax items and clear authentic warheads with excellent sensitivity in reasonably short measurement times.

  13. Key handling in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Newe, T.

    2007-07-01

    With the rapid growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received significant attention. However, security will be an important factor for their full adoption. Wireless sensor nodes pose unique challenges and as such traditional security protocols, used in traditional networks cannot be applied directly. Some new protocols have been published recently with the goal of providing both privacy of data and authentication of sensor nodes for WSNs. Such protocols can employ private-key and/or public key cryptographic algorithms. Public key algorithms hold the promise of simplifying the network infrastructure required to provide security services such as: privacy, authentication and non-repudiation, while symmetric algorithms require less processing power on the lower power wireless node. In this paper a selection of key establishment/agreement protocols are reviewed and they are broadly divided into two categories: group key agreement protocols and pair-wise key establishment protocols. A summary of the capabilities and security related services provided by each protocol is provided.

  14. Designing and Operating Through Compromise: Architectural Analysis of CKMS for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Duren, Mike; Aldridge, Hal; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2013-01-01

    Compromises attributable to the Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) highlight the necessity for constant vigilance. The APT provides a new perspective on security metrics (e.g., statistics based cyber security) and quantitative risk assessments. We consider design principals and models/tools that provide high assurance for energy delivery systems (EDS) operations regardless of the state of compromise. Cryptographic keys must be securely exchanged, then held and protected on either end of a communications link. This is challenging for a utility with numerous substations that must secure the intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) that may comprise complex control system of systems. For example, distribution andmore » management of keys among the millions of intelligent meters within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is being implemented as part of the National Smart Grid initiative. Without a means for a secure cryptographic key management system (CKMS) no cryptographic solution can be widely deployed to protect the EDS infrastructure from cyber-attack. We consider 1) how security modeling is applied to key management and cyber security concerns on a continuous basis from design through operation, 2) how trusted models and key management architectures greatly impact failure scenarios, and 3) how hardware-enabled trust is a critical element to detecting, surviving, and recovering from attack.« less

  15. Tomographic quantum cryptography: equivalence of quantum and classical key distillation.

    PubMed

    Bruss, Dagmar; Christandl, Matthias; Ekert, Artur; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Macchiavello, Chiara

    2003-08-29

    The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.

  16. Secure and Efficient Regression Analysis Using a Hybrid Cryptographic Framework: Development and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoqian; Aziz, Md Momin Al; Wang, Shuang; Mohammed, Noman

    2018-01-01

    Background Machine learning is an effective data-driven tool that is being widely used to extract valuable patterns and insights from data. Specifically, predictive machine learning models are very important in health care for clinical data analysis. The machine learning algorithms that generate predictive models often require pooling data from different sources to discover statistical patterns or correlations among different attributes of the input data. The primary challenge is to fulfill one major objective: preserving the privacy of individuals while discovering knowledge from data. Objective Our objective was to develop a hybrid cryptographic framework for performing regression analysis over distributed data in a secure and efficient way. Methods Existing secure computation schemes are not suitable for processing the large-scale data that are used in cutting-edge machine learning applications. We designed, developed, and evaluated a hybrid cryptographic framework, which can securely perform regression analysis, a fundamental machine learning algorithm using somewhat homomorphic encryption and a newly introduced secure hardware component of Intel Software Guard Extensions (Intel SGX) to ensure both privacy and efficiency at the same time. Results Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method provides a better trade-off in terms of security and efficiency than solely secure hardware-based methods. Besides, there is no approximation error. Computed model parameters are exactly similar to plaintext results. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this kind of secure computation model using a hybrid cryptographic framework, which leverages both somewhat homomorphic encryption and Intel SGX, is not proposed or evaluated to this date. Our proposed framework ensures data security and computational efficiency at the same time. PMID:29506966

  17. SHAMROCK: A Synthesizable High Assurance Cryptography and Key Management Coprocessor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    and excluding devices from a communicating group as they become trusted, or untrusted. An example of using rekeying to dynamically adjust group...algorithms, such as the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA), work by computing a cryptographic hash of a message using, for example , the...material is based upon work supported by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering under Air Force Contract No. FA8721- 05-C

  18. Physical cryptographic verification of nuclear warheads

    DOE PAGES

    Kemp, R. Scott; Danagoulian, Areg; Macdonald, Ruaridh R.; ...

    2016-07-18

    How does one prove a claim about a highly sensitive object such as a nuclear weapon without revealing information about the object? This paradox has challenged nuclear arms control for more than five decades. We present a mechanism in the form of an interactive proof system that can validate the structure and composition of an object, such as a nuclear warhead, to arbitrary precision without revealing either its structure or composition. We introduce a tomographic method that simultaneously resolves both the geometric and isotopic makeup of an object. We also introduce a method of protecting information using a provably securemore » cryptographic hash that does not rely on electronics or software. Finally, these techniques, when combined with a suitable protocol, constitute an interactive proof system that could reject hoax items and clear authentic warheads with excellent sensitivity in reasonably short measurement times.« less

  19. Automated secured cost effective key refreshing technique to enhance WiMAX privacy key management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridevi, B.; Sivaranjani, S.; Rajaram, S.

    2013-01-01

    In all walks of life the way of communication is transformed by the rapid growth of wireless communication and its pervasive use. A wireless network which is fixed and richer in bandwidth is specified as IEEE 802.16, promoted and launched by an industrial forum is termed as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX). This technology enables seamless delivery of wireless broadband service for fixed and/or mobile users. The obscurity is the long delay which occurs during the handoff management in every network. Mobile WiMAX employs an authenticated key management protocol as a part of handoff management in which the Base Station (BS) controls the distribution of keying material to the Mobile Station (MS). The protocol employed is Privacy Key Management Version 2- Extensible Authentication Protocol (PKMV2-EAP) which is responsible for the normal and periodical authorization of MSs, reauthorization as well as key refreshing. Authorization key (AK) and Traffic Encryption key (TEK) plays a vital role in key exchange. When the lifetime of key expires, MS has to request for a new key to BS which in turn leads to repetition of authorization, authentication as well as key exchange. To avoid service interruption during reauthorization , two active keys are transmitted at the same time by BS to MS. The consequences of existing work are hefty amount of bandwidth utilization, time consumption and large storage. It is also endured by Man in the Middle attack and Impersonation due to lack of security in key exchange. This paper designs an automatic mutual refreshing of keys to minimize bandwidth utilization, key storage and time consumption by proposing Previous key and Iteration based Key Refreshing Function (PKIBKRF). By integrating PKIBKRF in key generation, the simulation results indicate that 21.8% of the bandwidth and storage of keys are reduced and PKMV2 mutual authentication time is reduced by 66.67%. The proposed work is simulated with Qualnet model and

  20. Design of cryptographically secure AES like S-Box using second-order reversible cellular automata for wireless body area network applications.

    PubMed

    Gangadari, Bhoopal Rao; Rafi Ahamed, Shaik

    2016-09-01

    In biomedical, data security is the most expensive resource for wireless body area network applications. Cryptographic algorithms are used in order to protect the information against unauthorised access. Advanced encryption standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm plays a vital role in telemedicine applications. The authors propose a novel approach for design of substitution bytes (S-Box) using second-order reversible one-dimensional cellular automata (RCA 2 ) as a replacement to the classical look-up-table (LUT) based S-Box used in AES algorithm. The performance of proposed RCA 2 based S-Box and conventional LUT based S-Box is evaluated in terms of security using the cryptographic properties such as the nonlinearity, correlation immunity bias, strict avalanche criteria and entropy. Moreover, it is also shown that RCA 2 based S-Boxes are dynamic in nature, invertible and provide high level of security. Further, it is also found that the RCA 2 based S-Box have comparatively better performance than that of conventional LUT based S-Box.

  1. Design of cryptographically secure AES like S-Box using second-order reversible cellular automata for wireless body area network applications

    PubMed Central

    Rafi Ahamed, Shaik

    2016-01-01

    In biomedical, data security is the most expensive resource for wireless body area network applications. Cryptographic algorithms are used in order to protect the information against unauthorised access. Advanced encryption standard (AES) cryptographic algorithm plays a vital role in telemedicine applications. The authors propose a novel approach for design of substitution bytes (S-Box) using second-order reversible one-dimensional cellular automata (RCA2) as a replacement to the classical look-up-table (LUT) based S-Box used in AES algorithm. The performance of proposed RCA2 based S-Box and conventional LUT based S-Box is evaluated in terms of security using the cryptographic properties such as the nonlinearity, correlation immunity bias, strict avalanche criteria and entropy. Moreover, it is also shown that RCA2 based S-Boxes are dynamic in nature, invertible and provide high level of security. Further, it is also found that the RCA2 based S-Box have comparatively better performance than that of conventional LUT based S-Box. PMID:27733924

  2. Secure and Efficient Regression Analysis Using a Hybrid Cryptographic Framework: Development and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sadat, Md Nazmus; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Aziz, Md Momin Al; Wang, Shuang; Mohammed, Noman

    2018-03-05

    Machine learning is an effective data-driven tool that is being widely used to extract valuable patterns and insights from data. Specifically, predictive machine learning models are very important in health care for clinical data analysis. The machine learning algorithms that generate predictive models often require pooling data from different sources to discover statistical patterns or correlations among different attributes of the input data. The primary challenge is to fulfill one major objective: preserving the privacy of individuals while discovering knowledge from data. Our objective was to develop a hybrid cryptographic framework for performing regression analysis over distributed data in a secure and efficient way. Existing secure computation schemes are not suitable for processing the large-scale data that are used in cutting-edge machine learning applications. We designed, developed, and evaluated a hybrid cryptographic framework, which can securely perform regression analysis, a fundamental machine learning algorithm using somewhat homomorphic encryption and a newly introduced secure hardware component of Intel Software Guard Extensions (Intel SGX) to ensure both privacy and efficiency at the same time. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method provides a better trade-off in terms of security and efficiency than solely secure hardware-based methods. Besides, there is no approximation error. Computed model parameters are exactly similar to plaintext results. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of secure computation model using a hybrid cryptographic framework, which leverages both somewhat homomorphic encryption and Intel SGX, is not proposed or evaluated to this date. Our proposed framework ensures data security and computational efficiency at the same time. ©Md Nazmus Sadat, Xiaoqian Jiang, Md Momin Al Aziz, Shuang Wang, Noman Mohammed. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 05.03.2018.

  3. Quantum key distribution with an entangled light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzurnak, B.; Stevenson, R. M.; Nilsson, J.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements performed on entangled photon pairs shared between two parties can allow unique quantum cryptographic keys to be formed, creating secure links between users. An advantage of using such entangled photon links is that they can be adapted to propagate entanglement to end users of quantum networks with only untrusted nodes. However, demonstrations of quantum key distribution with entangled photons have so far relied on sources optically excited with lasers. Here, we realize a quantum cryptography system based on an electrically driven entangled-light-emitting diode. Measurement bases are passively chosen and we show formation of an error-free quantum key. Our measurements also simultaneously reveal Bell's parameter for the detected light, which exceeds the threshold for quantum entanglement.

  4. A fingerprint key binding algorithm based on vector quantization and error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Qian; Lv, Ke; He, Ning

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, researches on seamless combination cryptosystem with biometric technologies, e.g. fingerprint recognition, are conducted by many researchers. In this paper, we propose a binding algorithm of fingerprint template and cryptographic key to protect and access the key by fingerprint verification. In order to avoid the intrinsic fuzziness of variant fingerprints, vector quantization and error correction technique are introduced to transform fingerprint template and then bind with key, after a process of fingerprint registration and extracting global ridge pattern of fingerprint. The key itself is secure because only hash value is stored and it is released only when fingerprint verification succeeds. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our ideas.

  5. Using Temporal Logic to Specify and Verify Cryptographic Protocols (Progress Report)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    know, Meadows’ 1Supported by grant HKUST 608/94E from the Hong Kong Research Grants Council. 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704... 1 Introduction We have started work on a project to apply temporal logic to reason about cryptographic protocols. Some of the goals of the project...are as follows. 1 . Allow the user to state and prove that the penetrator cannot use logical or algebraic techniques (e.g., we are disregarding

  6. William Friedman, Geneticist Turned Cryptographer

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Irwin L.

    2017-01-01

    William Friedman (1891–1969), trained as a plant geneticist at Cornell University, was employed at Riverbank Laboratories by the eccentric millionaire George Fabyan to work on wheat breeding. Friedman, however, soon became intrigued by and started working on a pet project of Fabyan’s involving the conjecture that Francis Bacon, a polymath known for the study of ciphers, was the real author of Shakespeare’s plays. Thus, beginning in ∼1916, Friedman turned his attention to the so called “Baconian cipher,” and developed decryption techniques that bore similarity to approaches for solving problems in population genetics. His most significant, indeed pathbreaking, work used ideas from genetics and statistics, focusing on analysis of the frequencies of letters in language use. Although he had transitioned from being a geneticist to a cryptographer, his earlier work had resonance in his later pursuits. He soon began working directly for the United States government and produced solutions used to solve complex military ciphers, in particular to break the Japanese Purple code during World War II. Another important legacy of his work was the establishment of the Signal Intelligence Service and eventually the National Security Agency. PMID:28476859

  7. William Friedman, Geneticist Turned Cryptographer.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Irwin L

    2017-05-01

    William Friedman (1891-1969), trained as a plant geneticist at Cornell University, was employed at Riverbank Laboratories by the eccentric millionaire George Fabyan to work on wheat breeding. Friedman, however, soon became intrigued by and started working on a pet project of Fabyan's involving the conjecture that Francis Bacon, a polymath known for the study of ciphers, was the real author of Shakespeare's plays. Thus, beginning in ∼1916, Friedman turned his attention to the so called "Baconian cipher," and developed decryption techniques that bore similarity to approaches for solving problems in population genetics. His most significant, indeed pathbreaking, work used ideas from genetics and statistics, focusing on analysis of the frequencies of letters in language use. Although he had transitioned from being a geneticist to a cryptographer, his earlier work had resonance in his later pursuits. He soon began working directly for the United States government and produced solutions used to solve complex military ciphers, in particular to break the Japanese Purple code during World War II. Another important legacy of his work was the establishment of the Signal Intelligence Service and eventually the National Security Agency. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Cryptographic Protocol for Comparing Sets without Leaking Them: Applications in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, Peter R.

    2011-09-01

    We describe a cryptographic protocol for two or more persons to compare individual lists of astronomical objects of interest without leaking them. Cryptographers have long known such protocols; astronomers and other scientists may benefit from them also. We describe some latent opportunities that would be enabled by this protocol. Consider the following scenario: Alice has a set of stars that are candidate hosts of transiting planets. Bob has a similar set. Alice and Bob have a mutual desire to know the intersection of their two lists without revealing them to each other. Alice and Bob can recruit a trusted third party, Josephine, to make the comparison, report the results, and then destroy each list. Limitations of that approach are that 1) Josephine must devote time to make each comparison, 2) Alice and Bob may not know a Josephine that they both can trust, especially if Alice and Bob are from different communities, 3) Josephine may not indeed be trustworthy, 4) a fourth person may wittingly or unwittingly intercept one or both of the lists in Josephine's care, and 5) anticipating those limitations, Alice and Bob may elect not to recruit a Josephine and hence not compare their lists. We describe a variant that overcomes those limitations by A) encrypting the lists prior to transmitting them to Josephine, and B) replacing a human Josephine with a computer website.

  9. Key Management Infrastructure Increment 2 (KMI Inc 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Key Management Infrastructure Increment 2 (KMI Inc 2) Defense Acquisition Management...PB - President’s Budget RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAE - Service Acquisition Executive TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then...Assigned: April 6, 2015 Program Information Program Name Key Management Infrastructure Increment 2 (KMI Inc 2) DoD Component DoD The acquiring DoD

  10. Quantum key distribution with an entangled light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Dzurnak, B.; Stevenson, R. M.; Nilsson, J.

    Measurements performed on entangled photon pairs shared between two parties can allow unique quantum cryptographic keys to be formed, creating secure links between users. An advantage of using such entangled photon links is that they can be adapted to propagate entanglement to end users of quantum networks with only untrusted nodes. However, demonstrations of quantum key distribution with entangled photons have so far relied on sources optically excited with lasers. Here, we realize a quantum cryptography system based on an electrically driven entangled-light-emitting diode. Measurement bases are passively chosen and we show formation of an error-free quantum key. Our measurementsmore » also simultaneously reveal Bell's parameter for the detected light, which exceeds the threshold for quantum entanglement.« less

  11. An Analysis of Cryptographically Significant Boolean Functions With High Correlation Immunity by Reconfigurable Computer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    with high correlation immunity and then evaluate these functions for other desirable cryptographic features. C. METHOD The only known primary methods...out if not used) # ---------------------------------- # PRIMARY = < primary file 1> < primary file 2> #SECONDARY = <secondary file 1...finding the fuction value for a //set u and for each value of v. end end

  12. SARS: Key factors in crisis management.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hsin-Chao; Chen, Thai-Form; Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted at a single hospital selected in Taipei during the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak from March to July, 2003 in Taiwan. During this period of time, 104 SARS patients were admitted to the hospital. There were no negative reports related to the selected hospital despite its being located right in the center of an area struck by the epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors enabling the hospital to survive SARS unscathed. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with the nursing directors and nursing managers of the SARS units, along with a review of relevant hospital documents. The five key elements identified as survival factors during this SARS crisis are as follows: 1. good control of timing for crisis management, 2. careful decision-making, 3. thorough implementation, 4. effective communication, and 5. trust between management and employees. The results of this study reconfirmed the selected hospital as a model for good crisis management during the SARS epidemic.

  13. Security of a sessional blind signature based on quantum cryptograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Zhang, Rui-Ling

    2014-08-01

    We analyze the security of a sessional blind signature protocol based on quantum cryptograph and show that there are two security leaks in this protocol. One is that the legal user Alice can change the signed message after she gets a valid blind signature from the signatory Bob, and the other is that an external opponent Eve also can forge a valid blind message by a special attack, which are not permitted for blind signature. Therefore, this protocol is not secure in the sense that it does not satisfy the non-forgeability of blind signatures. We also discuss the methods to prevent the attack strategies in the end.

  14. Eight Key Facets of Small Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    1980-01-01

    Identifies eight key facets of small business management and suggests activities that may be used to assist in their development. The key facets are (1) product or service, (2) competition, (3) marketing strategies, (4) personnel needs, (5) equipment and facility needs, (6) finances, (7) planning, and (8) entrepreneurship. (JOW)

  15. Keys to career success in managed care.

    PubMed

    Sandrick, K

    1996-04-01

    Given the prominence that managed care will have in the future U.S. healthcare system, financial managers who want to advance their careers must take steps to hone their managed care knowledge and skills, become accomplished managed care strategists, and identify opportunities to gain expertise in the managed care field. Healthcare Financial Management interviewed a number of managed care experts to obtain their views on how healthcare financial managers can prepare for a career in managed care organizations. The experts agree that one of the keys to future success lies in financial managers' willingness to assume more and different types of responsibility than before as the shift to managed care continues.

  16. Experimental quantum key distribution with source flaws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feihu; Wei, Kejin; Sajeed, Shihan; Kaiser, Sarah; Sun, Shihai; Tang, Zhiyuan; Qian, Li; Makarov, Vadim; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-09-01

    Decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) is a standard technique in current quantum cryptographic implementations. Unfortunately, existing experiments have two important drawbacks: the state preparation is assumed to be perfect without errors and the employed security proofs do not fully consider the finite-key effects for general attacks. These two drawbacks mean that existing experiments are not guaranteed to be proven to be secure in practice. Here, we perform an experiment that shows secure QKD with imperfect state preparations over long distances and achieves rigorous finite-key security bounds for decoy-state QKD against coherent attacks in the universally composable framework. We quantify the source flaws experimentally and demonstrate a QKD implementation that is tolerant to channel loss despite the source flaws. Our implementation considers more real-world problems than most previous experiments, and our theory can be applied to general discrete-variable QKD systems. These features constitute a step towards secure QKD with imperfect devices.

  17. Design and Analysis of Optimization Algorithms to Minimize Cryptographic Processing in BGP Security Protocols.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Vinay K; Montgomery, Doug

    2017-07-01

    The Internet is subject to attacks due to vulnerabilities in its routing protocols. One proposed approach to attain greater security is to cryptographically protect network reachability announcements exchanged between Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routers. This study proposes and evaluates the performance and efficiency of various optimization algorithms for validation of digitally signed BGP updates. In particular, this investigation focuses on the BGPSEC (BGP with SECurity extensions) protocol, currently under consideration for standardization in the Internet Engineering Task Force. We analyze three basic BGPSEC update processing algorithms: Unoptimized, Cache Common Segments (CCS) optimization, and Best Path Only (BPO) optimization. We further propose and study cache management schemes to be used in conjunction with the CCS and BPO algorithms. The performance metrics used in the analyses are: (1) routing table convergence time after BGPSEC peering reset or router reboot events and (2) peak-second signature verification workload. Both analytical modeling and detailed trace-driven simulation were performed. Results show that the BPO algorithm is 330% to 628% faster than the unoptimized algorithm for routing table convergence in a typical Internet core-facing provider edge router.

  18. Quantum cryptography with a predetermined key, using continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. D.

    2000-12-01

    Correlations of the type discussed by EPR in their original 1935 paradox for continuous variables exist for the quadrature phase amplitudes of two spatially separated fields. These correlations were first experimentally reported in 1992. We propose to use such EPR beams in quantum cryptography, to transmit with high efficiency messages in such a way that the receiver and sender may later determine whether eavesdropping has occurred. The merit of the new proposal is in the possibility of transmitting a reasonably secure yet predetermined key. This would allow relay of a cryptographic key over long distances in the presence of lossy channels.

  19. Key management schemes using routing information frames in secure wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaev, V. A.; Finogeev, A. G.; Finogeev, A. A.; Parygin, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the problems and objectives of key management for data encryption in wireless sensor networks (WSN) of SCADA systems. The structure of the key information in the ZigBee network and methods of keys obtaining are discussed. The use of a hybrid key management schemes is most suitable for WSN. The session symmetric key is used to encrypt the sensor data, asymmetric keys are used to encrypt the session key transmitted from the routing information. Three algorithms of hybrid key management using routing information frames determined by routing methods and the WSN topology are presented.

  20. WLC Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miret, Josep M.; Sebé, Francesc

    Low-cost devices are the key component of several applications: RFID tags permit an automated supply chain management while smart cards are a secure means of storing cryptographic keys required for remote and secure authentication in e-commerce and e-government applications. These devices must be cheap in order to permit their cost-effective massive manufacturing and deployment. Unfortunately, their low cost limits their computational power. Other devices such as nodes of sensor networks suffer from an additional constraint, namely, their limited battery life. Secure applications designed for these devices cannot make use of classical cryptographic primitives designed for full-fledged computers.

  1. All-optical cryptography of M-QAM formats by using two-dimensional spectrally sliced keys.

    PubMed

    Abbade, Marcelo L F; Cvijetic, Milorad; Messani, Carlos A; Alves, Cleiton J; Tenenbaum, Stefan

    2015-05-10

    There has been an increased interest in enhancing the security of optical communications systems and networks. All-optical cryptography methods have been considered as an alternative to electronic data encryption. In this paper we propose and verify the use of a novel all-optical scheme based on cryptographic keys applied on the spectral signal for encryption of the M-QAM modulated data with bit rates of up to 200 gigabits per second.

  2. Quantum key distribution with 1.25 Gbps clock synchronization.

    PubMed

    Bienfang, J; Gross, A; Mink, A; Hershman, B; Nakassis, A; Tang, X; Lu, R; Su, D; Clark, Charles; Williams, Carl; Hagley, E; Wen, Jesse

    2004-05-03

    We have demonstrated the exchange of sifted quantum cryptographic key over a 730 meter free-space link at rates of up to 1.0 Mbps, two orders of magnitude faster than previously reported results. A classical channel at 1550 nm operates in parallel with a quantum channel at 845 nm. Clock recovery techniques on the classical channel at 1.25 Gbps enable quantum transmission at up to the clock rate. System performance is currently limited by the timing resolution of our silicon avalanche photodiode detectors. With improved detector resolution, our technique will yield another order of magnitude increase in performance, with existing technology.

  3. Short Review on Quantum Key Distribution Protocols.

    PubMed

    Giampouris, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Cryptographic protocols and mechanisms are widely investigated under the notion of quantum computing. Quantum cryptography offers particular advantages over classical ones, whereas in some cases established protocols have to be revisited in order to maintain their functionality. The purpose of this paper is to provide the basic definitions and review the most important theoretical advancements concerning the BB84 and E91 protocols. It also aims to offer a summary on some key developments on the field of quantum key distribution, closely related with the two aforementioned protocols. The main goal of this study is to provide the necessary background information along with a thorough review on the theoretical aspects of QKD, concentrating on specific protocols. The BB84 and E91 protocols have been chosen because most other protocols are similar to these, a fact that makes them important for the general understanding of how the QKD mechanism functions.

  4. Institutional Research: The Key to Successful Enrollment Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    Enrollment management includes the processes and activities that influence the size, shape, and characteristics of a student body by directing institutional efforts in marketing, recruitment, admissions, pricing, and financial aid. Institutional research plays an essential, if not the key, role in enrollment management. This report discusses the…

  5. A noise-immune cryptographic information protection method for facsimile information transmission and the realization algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Bardachenko, Vitaliy F.; Nikolsky, Alexander I.; Lazarev, Alexander A.; Ogorodnik, Konstantin V.

    2006-04-01

    We analyse the existent methods of cryptographic defence for the facsimile information transfer, consider their shortcomings and prove the necessity of better information protection degree. The method of information protection that is based on presentation of input data as images is proposed. We offer a new noise-immune algorithm for realization of this method which consists in transformation of an input frame by pixels transposition according to an entered key. At decoding mode the reverse transformation of image with the use of the same key is used. Practical realization of the given method takes into account noise in the transmission channels and information distortions by scanners, faxes and others like that. We show that the given influences are reduced to the transformation of the input image coordinates. We show the algorithm in detail and consider its basic steps. We show the possibility of the offered method by the means of the developed software. The realized algorithm corrects curvature of frames: turn, scaling, fallout of pixels and others like that. At low noise level (loss of pixel information less than 10 percents) it is possible to encode, transfer and decode any types of images and texts with 12-size font character. The software filters for information restore and noise removing allow to transfer fax data with 30 percents pixels loss at 18-size font text. This percent of data loss can be considerably increased by the use of the software character recognition block that can be realized on fuzzy-neural algorithms. Examples of encoding and decryption of images and texts are shown.

  6. Key personality traits of sales managers.

    PubMed

    Lounsbury, John W; Foster, Nancy A; Levy, Jacob J; Gibson, Lucy W

    2014-01-01

    Sales managers are crucial for producing positive sales outcomes for companies. However, there has been a relative dearth of scholarly investigations into the personal attributes of sales managers. Such information could prove important in the recruitment, selection, training needs identification, career planning, counseling, and development of sales managers. Drawing on Holland's vocational theory, we sought to identify key personality traits that distinguish sales managers from other occupations and are related to their career satisfaction. The main sample was comprised of a total of 978 sales managers employed in a large number of companies across the United States (along with a comparison sample drawn from 79,512 individuals from other professional occupations). Participants completed an online version of Resource Associates' Personal Style Inventory as well a measure of career satisfaction. Our sample of 978 sales managers had higher levels of Assertiveness, Customer Service Orientation, Extraversion, Image Management, Optimism, and Visionary Style; and lower levels of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Intrinsic Motivation, Openness, and Tough-Mindedness than a sample of 79,512 individuals in a variety of other occupations. Nine of these traits were significantly correlated with sales managers' career satisfaction. Based on the results, a psychological profile of sales managers was presented as were implications for their recruitment, selection, training, development, and mentoring.

  7. From shared care to disease management: key-influencing factors

    PubMed Central

    Eijkelberg, Irmgard M.J.G.; Spreeuwenberg, Cor; Mur-Veeman, Ingrid M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to improve the quality of care of chronically ill patients the traditional boundaries between primary and secondary care are questioned. To demolish these boundaries so-called ‘shared care’ projects have been initiated in which different ways of substitution of care are applied. When these projects end, disease management may offer a solution to expand the achieved co-operation between primary and secondary care. Objective Answering the question: What key factors influence the development and implementation of shared care projects from a management perspective and how are they linked? Theory The theoretical framework is based on the concept of the learning organisation. Design Reference point is a multiple case study that finally becomes a single case study. Data are collected by means of triangulation. The studied cases concern two interrelated Dutch shared care projects for type 2 diabetic patients, that in the end proceed as one disease management project. Results In these cases the predominant key-influencing factors appear to be the project management, commitment and local context, respectively. The factor project management directly links the latter two, albeit managing both appear prerequisites to its success. In practice this implies managing the factors' interdependency by the application of change strategies and tactics in a committed and skilful way. Conclusion Project management, as the most important and active key factor, is advised to cope with the interrelationships of the influencing factors in a gradually more fundamental way by using strategies and tactics that enable learning processes. Then small-scale shared care projects may change into a disease management network at a large scale, which may yield the future blueprint to proceed. PMID:16896415

  8. From shared care to disease management: key-influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Eijkelberg, I M; Spreeuwenberg, C; Mur-Veeman, I M; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of care of chronically ill patients the traditional boundaries between primary and secondary care are questioned. To demolish these boundaries so-called 'shared care' projects have been initiated in which different ways of substitution of care are applied. When these projects end, disease management may offer a solution to expand the achieved co-operation between primary and secondary care. Answering the question: What key factors influence the development and implementation of shared care projects from a management perspective and how are they linked? The theoretical framework is based on the concept of the learning organisation. Reference point is a multiple case study that finally becomes a single case study. Data are collected by means of triangulation. The studied cases concern two interrelated Dutch shared care projects for type 2 diabetic patients, that in the end proceed as one disease management project. In these cases the predominant key-influencing factors appear to be the project management, commitment and local context, respectively. The factor project management directly links the latter two, albeit managing both appear prerequisites to its success. In practice this implies managing the factors' interdependency by the application of change strategies and tactics in a committed and skillful way. Project management, as the most important and active key factor, is advised to cope with the interrelationships of the influencing factors in a gradually more fundamental way by using strategies and tactics that enable learning processes. Then small-scale shared care projects may change into a disease management network at a large scale, which may yield the future blueprint to proceed.

  9. Secure password-based authenticated key exchange for web services

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Fang; Meder, Samuel; Chevassut, Olivier

    This paper discusses an implementation of an authenticated key-exchange method rendered on message primitives defined in the WS-Trust and WS-SecureConversation specifications. This IEEE-specified cryptographic method (AuthA) is proven-secure for password-based authentication and key exchange, while the WS-Trust and WS-Secure Conversation are emerging Web Services Security specifications that extend the WS-Security specification. A prototype of the presented protocol is integrated in the WSRF-compliant Globus Toolkit V4. Further hardening of the implementation is expected to result in a version that will be shipped with future Globus Toolkit releases. This could help to address the current unavailability of decent shared-secret-based authentication options inmore » the Web Services and Grid world. Future work will be to integrate One-Time-Password (OTP) features in the authentication protocol.« less

  10. Quantum key distribution without detector vulnerabilities using optically seeded lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comandar, L. C.; Lucamarini, M.; Fröhlich, B.; Dynes, J. F.; Sharpe, A. W.; Tam, S. W.-B.; Yuan, Z. L.; Penty, R. V.; Shields, A. J.

    2016-05-01

    Security in quantum cryptography is continuously challenged by inventive attacks targeting the real components of a cryptographic set-up, and duly restored by new countermeasures to foil them. Owing to their high sensitivity and complex design, detectors are the most frequently attacked components. It was recently shown that two-photon interference from independent light sources can be used to remove any vulnerability from detectors. This new form of detection-safe quantum key distribution (QKD), termed measurement-device-independent (MDI), has been experimentally demonstrated but with modest key rates. Here, we introduce a new pulsed laser seeding technique to obtain high-visibility interference from gain-switched lasers and thereby perform MDI-QKD with unprecedented key rates in excess of 1 megabit per second in the finite-size regime. This represents a two to six orders of magnitude improvement over existing implementations and supports the new scheme as a practical resource for secure quantum communications.

  11. Completely device-independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Edgar A.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Kofler, Johannes; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) is a provably secure way for two distant parties to establish a common secret key, which then can be used in a classical cryptographic scheme. Using quantum entanglement, one can reduce the necessary assumptions that the parties have to make about their devices, giving rise to device-independent QKD (DIQKD). However, in all existing protocols to date the parties need to have an initial (at least partially) random seed as a resource. In this work, we show that this requirement can be dropped. Using recent advances in the fields of randomness amplification and randomness expansion, we demonstrate that it is sufficient for the message the parties want to communicate to be (partially) unknown to the adversaries—an assumption without which any type of cryptography would be pointless to begin with. One party can use her secret message to locally generate a secret sequence of bits, which can then be openly used by herself and the other party in a DIQKD protocol. Hence our work reduces the requirements needed to perform secure DIQKD and establish safe communication.

  12. Key Management Scheme Based on Route Planning of Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Liang, Jixing; Zheng, Bingxin; Jiang, Shengming; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-29

    In many wireless sensor network application scenarios the key management scheme with a Mobile Sink (MS) should be fully investigated. This paper proposes a key management scheme based on dynamic clustering and optimal-routing choice of MS. The concept of Traveling Salesman Problem with Neighbor areas (TSPN) in dynamic clustering for data exchange is proposed, and the selection probability is used in MS route planning. The proposed scheme extends static key management to dynamic key management by considering the dynamic clustering and mobility of MSs, which can effectively balance the total energy consumption during the activities. Considering the different resources available to the member nodes and sink node, the session key between cluster head and MS is established by modified an ECC encryption with Diffie-Hellman key exchange (ECDH) algorithm and the session key between member node and cluster head is built with a binary symmetric polynomial. By analyzing the security of data storage, data transfer and the mechanism of dynamic key management, the proposed scheme has more advantages to help improve the resilience of the key management system of the network on the premise of satisfying higher connectivity and storage efficiency.

  13. A Hybrid Key Management Scheme for WSNs Based on PPBR and a Tree-Based Path Key Establishment Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Liang, Jixing; Zheng, Bingxin; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    With the development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in most application scenarios traditional WSNs with static sink nodes will be gradually replaced by Mobile Sinks (MSs), and the corresponding application requires a secure communication environment. Current key management researches pay less attention to the security of sensor networks with MS. This paper proposes a hybrid key management schemes based on a Polynomial Pool-based key pre-distribution and Basic Random key pre-distribution (PPBR) to be used in WSNs with MS. The scheme takes full advantages of these two kinds of methods to improve the cracking difficulty of the key system. The storage effectiveness and the network resilience can be significantly enhanced as well. The tree-based path key establishment method is introduced to effectively solve the problem of communication link connectivity. Simulation clearly shows that the proposed scheme performs better in terms of network resilience, connectivity and storage effectiveness compared to other widely used schemes. PMID:27070624

  14. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic ( ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

  15. Small private key MQPKS on an embedded microprocessor.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-03-19

    Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012.

  16. Optimal attacks on qubit-based Quantum Key Recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leermakers, Daan; Škorić, Boris

    2018-03-01

    Quantum Key Recycling (QKR) is a quantum cryptographic primitive that allows one to reuse keys in an unconditionally secure way. By removing the need to repeatedly generate new keys, it improves communication efficiency. Škorić and de Vries recently proposed a QKR scheme based on 8-state encoding (four bases). It does not require quantum computers for encryption/decryption but only single-qubit operations. We provide a missing ingredient in the security analysis of this scheme in the case of noisy channels: accurate upper bounds on the required amount of privacy amplification. We determine optimal attacks against the message and against the key, for 8-state encoding as well as 4-state and 6-state conjugate coding. We provide results in terms of min-entropy loss as well as accessible (Shannon) information. We show that the Shannon entropy analysis for 8-state encoding reduces to the analysis of quantum key distribution, whereas 4-state and 6-state suffer from additional leaks that make them less effective. From the optimal attacks we compute the required amount of privacy amplification and hence the achievable communication rate (useful information per qubit) of qubit-based QKR. Overall, 8-state encoding yields the highest communication rates.

  17. Gencrypt: one-way cryptographic hashes to detect overlapping individuals across samples

    PubMed Central

    Turchin, Michael C.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Meta-analysis across genome-wide association studies is a common approach for discovering genetic associations. However, in some meta-analysis efforts, individual-level data cannot be broadly shared by study investigators due to privacy and Institutional Review Board concerns. In such cases, researchers cannot confirm that each study represents a unique group of people, leading to potentially inflated test statistics and false positives. To resolve this problem, we created a software tool, Gencrypt, which utilizes a security protocol known as one-way cryptographic hashes to allow overlapping participants to be identified without sharing individual-level data. Availability: Gencrypt is freely available under the GNU general public license v3 at http://www.broadinstitute.org/software/gencrypt/ Contact: joelh@broadinstitute.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22302573

  18. BARI+: a biometric based distributed key management approach for wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Khaliq-ur-Rahman Raazi Syed; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) consist of resource constrained sensing devices just like other wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, they differ from WSN in topology, scale and security requirements. Due to these differences, key management schemes designed for WSN are inefficient and unnecessarily complex when applied to WBAN. Considering the key management issue, WBAN are also different from WPAN because WBAN can use random biometric measurements as keys. We highlight the differences between WSN and WBAN and propose an efficient key management scheme, which makes use of biometrics and is specifically designed for WBAN domain.

  19. Manager. Outlining for Busy Managers the Key Points of Effective Management. The Supervisor's "Do-It-Yourself" Series 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabey, Gordon P.

    This guide, which is intended for new supervisors and managers to use in an independent study setting, deals with the key points of effective management. The following topics are discussed in the individual sections: understanding what a manager is and why managers are appointed; setting objectives and achieving results; planning and controlling…

  20. BARI+: A Biometric Based Distributed Key Management Approach for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Khaliq-ur-Rahman Raazi Syed; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) consist of resource constrained sensing devices just like other wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, they differ from WSN in topology, scale and security requirements. Due to these differences, key management schemes designed for WSN are inefficient and unnecessarily complex when applied to WBAN. Considering the key management issue, WBAN are also different from WPAN because WBAN can use random biometric measurements as keys. We highlight the differences between WSN and WBAN and propose an efficient key management scheme, which makes use of biometrics and is specifically designed for WBAN domain. PMID:22319333

  1. Towards secure quantum key distribution protocol for wireless LANs: a hybrid approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, R. Lalu; Reddy, P. Chenna

    2015-12-01

    The primary goals of security such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation in communication networks can be achieved with secure key distribution. Quantum mechanisms are highly secure means of distributing secret keys as they are unconditionally secure. Quantum key distribution protocols can effectively prevent various attacks in the quantum channel, while classical cryptography is efficient in authentication and verification of secret keys. By combining both quantum cryptography and classical cryptography, security of communications over networks can be leveraged. Hwang, Lee and Li exploited the merits of both cryptographic paradigms for provably secure communications to prevent replay, man-in-the-middle, and passive attacks. In this paper, we propose a new scheme with the combination of quantum cryptography and classical cryptography for 802.11i wireless LANs. Since quantum cryptography is premature in wireless networks, our work is a significant step forward toward securing communications in wireless networks. Our scheme is known as hybrid quantum key distribution protocol. Our analytical results revealed that the proposed scheme is provably secure for wireless networks.

  2. Investigation of Current State of Crytpography and Theoretical Implementation of a Cryptographic System for the Combat Service Support Control System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    34 Advances in Crypt g: Proceedings of CRYPTO 84,r o ... .. .. _ __...o ... .. ... ....... ed. by G.R. Blakely and D. Chaum . [Wagn84b] Wagner, Neal R...in Distributed Computer Systems," IEEE Trans. on Computers, Vol. C-35, No. 7, Jul. 86, pp. 583-590. Gifford, David K., "Cryptographic Sealing for

  3. Silicon photonic transceiver circuit for high-speed polarization-based discrete variable quantum key distribution

    DOE PAGES

    Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; DeRose, Christopher T.; ...

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a silicon photonic transceiver circuit for high-speed discrete variable quantum key distribution that employs a common structure for transmit and receive functions. The device is intended for use in polarization-based quantum cryptographic protocols, such as BB84. Our characterization indicates that the circuit can generate the four BB84 states (TE/TM/45°/135° linear polarizations) with >30 dB polarization extinction ratios and gigabit per second modulation speed, and is capable of decoding any polarization bases differing by 90° with high extinction ratios.

  4. Silicon photonic transceiver circuit for high-speed polarization-based discrete variable quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M; DeRose, Christopher T; Boynton, Nicholas; Urayama, Junji; Camacho, Ryan; Pomerene, Andrew; Starbuck, Andrew L; Trotter, Douglas C; Davids, Paul S; Lentine, Anthony L

    2017-05-29

    We demonstrate a silicon photonic transceiver circuit for high-speed discrete variable quantum key distribution that employs a common structure for transmit and receive functions. The device is intended for use in polarization-based quantum cryptographic protocols, such as BB84. Our characterization indicates that the circuit can generate the four BB84 states (TE/TM/45°/135° linear polarizations) with >30 dB polarization extinction ratios and gigabit per second modulation speed, and is capable of decoding any polarization bases differing by 90° with high extinction ratios.

  5. Silicon photonic transceiver circuit for high-speed polarization-based discrete variable quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; DeRose, Christopher T.

    We demonstrate a silicon photonic transceiver circuit for high-speed discrete variable quantum key distribution that employs a common structure for transmit and receive functions. The device is intended for use in polarization-based quantum cryptographic protocols, such as BB84. Our characterization indicates that the circuit can generate the four BB84 states (TE/TM/45°/135° linear polarizations) with >30 dB polarization extinction ratios and gigabit per second modulation speed, and is capable of decoding any polarization bases differing by 90° with high extinction ratios.

  6. Delay and cost performance analysis of the diffie-hellman key exchange protocol in opportunistic mobile networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soelistijanto, B.; Muliadi, V.

    2018-03-01

    Diffie-Hellman (DH) provides an efficient key exchange system by reducing the number of cryptographic keys distributed in the network. In this method, a node broadcasts a single public key to all nodes in the network, and in turn each peer uses this key to establish a shared secret key which then can be utilized to encrypt and decrypt traffic between the peer and the given node. In this paper, we evaluate the key transfer delay and cost performance of DH in opportunistic mobile networks, a specific scenario of MANETs where complete end-to-end paths rarely exist between sources and destinations; consequently, the end-to-end delays in these networks are much greater than typical MANETs. Simulation results, driven by a random node movement model and real human mobility traces, showed that DH outperforms a typical key distribution scheme based on the RSA algorithm in terms of key transfer delay, measured by average key convergence time; however, DH performs as well as the benchmark in terms of key transfer cost, evaluated by total key (copies) forwards.

  7. Revocable identity-based proxy re-signature against signing key exposure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Chunlin; Ma, Tingchun; Wang, Jinli; Wang, Caifen

    2018-01-01

    Identity-based proxy re-signature (IDPRS) is a novel cryptographic primitive that allows a semi-trusted proxy to convert a signature under one identity into another signature under another identity on the same message by using a re-signature key. Due to this transformation function, IDPRS is very useful in constructing privacy-preserving schemes for various information systems. Key revocation functionality is important in practical IDPRS for managing users dynamically; however, the existing IDPRS schemes do not provide revocation mechanisms that allow the removal of misbehaving or compromised users from the system. In this paper, we first introduce a notion called revocable identity-based proxy re-signature (RIDPRS) to achieve the revocation functionality. We provide a formal definition of RIDPRS as well as its security model. Then, we present a concrete RIDPRS scheme that can resist signing key exposure and prove that the proposed scheme is existentially unforgeable against adaptive chosen identity and message attacks in the standard model. To further improve the performance of signature verification in RIDPRS, we introduce a notion called server-aided revocable identity-based proxy re-signature (SA-RIDPRS). Moreover, we extend the proposed RIDPRS scheme to the SA-RIDPRS scheme and prove that this extended scheme is secure against adaptive chosen message and collusion attacks. The analysis results show that our two schemes remain efficient in terms of computational complexity when implementing user revocation procedures. In particular, in the SA-RIDPRS scheme, the verifier needs to perform only a bilinear pairing and four exponentiation operations to verify the validity of the signature. Compared with other IDPRS schemes in the standard model, our SA-RIDPRS scheme greatly reduces the computation overhead of verification.

  8. A Trustworthy Key Generation Prototype Based on DDR3 PUF for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenchao; Zhang, Zhenhua; Li, Miaoxin; Liu, Zhenglin

    2014-01-01

    Secret key leakage in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a high security risk especially when sensor nodes are deployed in hostile environment and physically accessible to attackers. With nowadays semi/fully-invasive attack techniques attackers can directly derive the cryptographic key from non-volatile memory (NVM) storage. Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) is a promising technology to resist node capture attacks, and it also provides a low cost and tamper-resistant key provisioning solution. In this paper, we designed a PUF based on double-data-rate SDRAM Type 3 (DDR3) memory by exploring its memory decay characteristics. We also described a prototype of 128-bit key generation based on DDR3 PUF with integrated fuzzy extractor. Due to the wide adoption of DDR3 memory in WSN, our proposed DDR3 PUF technology with high security levels and no required hardware changes is suitable for a wide range of WSN applications. PMID:24984058

  9. Effective user management with high strength crypto -key in dynamic group environment in cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P. J.; Suganya, P.; Karthik, G.

    2017-11-01

    Cloud Clusters consists of various collections of files which are being accessed by multiple users of Cloud. The users are managed as a group and the association of the user to a particular group is dynamic in nature. Every group has a manager who handles the membership of a user to a particular group by issuing keys for encryption and decryption. Due to the dynamic nature of a user he/she may leave the group very frequently. But an attempt can be made by the user who has recently left the group to access a file maintained by that group. Key distribution becomes a critical issue while the behavior of the user is dynamic. Existing techniques to manage the users of group in terms of security and key distribution has been investigated so that to arrive at an objective to identify the scopes to increase security and key management scheme in cloud. The usage of various key combinations to measure the strength of security and efficiency of user management in dynamic cloud environment has been investigated.

  10. SciTech Connect

    No, author

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors inmore » Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.« less

  11. System of end-to-end symmetric database encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galushka, V. V.; Aydinyan, A. R.; Tsvetkova, O. L.; Fathi, V. A.; Fathi, D. V.

    2018-05-01

    The article is devoted to the actual problem of protecting databases from information leakage, which is performed while bypassing access control mechanisms. To solve this problem, it is proposed to use end-to-end data encryption, implemented at the end nodes of an interaction of the information system components using one of the symmetric cryptographic algorithms. For this purpose, a key management method designed for use in a multi-user system based on the distributed key representation model, part of which is stored in the database, and the other part is obtained by converting the user's password, has been developed and described. In this case, the key is calculated immediately before the cryptographic transformations and is not stored in the memory after the completion of these transformations. Algorithms for registering and authorizing a user, as well as changing his password, have been described, and the methods for calculating parts of a key when performing these operations have been provided.

  12. Revocable identity-based proxy re-signature against signing key exposure

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tingchun; Wang, Jinli; Wang, Caifen

    2018-01-01

    Identity-based proxy re-signature (IDPRS) is a novel cryptographic primitive that allows a semi-trusted proxy to convert a signature under one identity into another signature under another identity on the same message by using a re-signature key. Due to this transformation function, IDPRS is very useful in constructing privacy-preserving schemes for various information systems. Key revocation functionality is important in practical IDPRS for managing users dynamically; however, the existing IDPRS schemes do not provide revocation mechanisms that allow the removal of misbehaving or compromised users from the system. In this paper, we first introduce a notion called revocable identity-based proxy re-signature (RIDPRS) to achieve the revocation functionality. We provide a formal definition of RIDPRS as well as its security model. Then, we present a concrete RIDPRS scheme that can resist signing key exposure and prove that the proposed scheme is existentially unforgeable against adaptive chosen identity and message attacks in the standard model. To further improve the performance of signature verification in RIDPRS, we introduce a notion called server-aided revocable identity-based proxy re-signature (SA-RIDPRS). Moreover, we extend the proposed RIDPRS scheme to the SA-RIDPRS scheme and prove that this extended scheme is secure against adaptive chosen message and collusion attacks. The analysis results show that our two schemes remain efficient in terms of computational complexity when implementing user revocation procedures. In particular, in the SA-RIDPRS scheme, the verifier needs to perform only a bilinear pairing and four exponentiation operations to verify the validity of the signature. Compared with other IDPRS schemes in the standard model, our SA-RIDPRS scheme greatly reduces the computation overhead of verification. PMID:29579125

  13. Differential Fault Analysis on CLEFIA with 128, 192, and 256-Bit Keys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Junko; Fukunaga, Toshinori

    This paper describes a differential fault analysis (DFA) attack against CLEFIA. The proposed attack can be applied to CLEFIA with all supported keys: 128, 192, and 256-bit keys. DFA is a type of side-channel attack. This attack enables the recovery of secret keys by injecting faults into a secure device during its computation of the cryptographic algorithm and comparing the correct ciphertext with the faulty one. CLEFIA is a 128-bit blockcipher with 128, 192, and 256-bit keys developed by the Sony Corporation in 2007. CLEFIA employs a generalized Feistel structure with four data lines. We developed a new attack method that uses this characteristic structure of the CLEFIA algorithm. On the basis of the proposed attack, only 2 pairs of correct and faulty ciphertexts are needed to retrieve the 128-bit key, and 10.78 pairs on average are needed to retrieve the 192 and 256-bit keys. The proposed attack is more efficient than any previously reported. In order to verify the proposed attack and estimate the calculation time to recover the secret key, we conducted an attack simulation using a PC. The simulation results show that we can obtain each secret key within three minutes on average. This result shows that we can obtain the entire key within a feasible computational time.

  14. Patients' Data Management System Protected by Identity-Based Authentication and Key Exchange.

    PubMed

    Rivero-García, Alexandra; Santos-González, Iván; Hernández-Goya, Candelaria; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Yung, Moti

    2017-03-31

    A secure and distributed framework for the management of patients' information in emergency and hospitalization services is proposed here in order to seek improvements in efficiency and security in this important area. In particular, confidentiality protection, mutual authentication, and automatic identification of patients are provided. The proposed system is based on two types of devices: Near Field Communication (NFC) wristbands assigned to patients, and mobile devices assigned to medical staff. Two other main elements of the system are an intermediate server to manage the involved data, and a second server with a private key generator to define the information required to protect communications. An identity-based authentication and key exchange scheme is essential to provide confidential communication and mutual authentication between the medical staff and the private key generator through an intermediate server. The identification of patients is carried out through a keyed-hash message authentication code. Thanks to the combination of the aforementioned tools, a secure alternative mobile health (mHealth) scheme for managing patients' data is defined for emergency and hospitalization services. Different parts of the proposed system have been implemented, including mobile application, intermediate server, private key generator and communication channels. Apart from that, several simulations have been performed, and, compared with the current system, significant improvements in efficiency have been observed.

  15. Symmetric Link Key Management for Secure Neighbor Discovery in a Decentralized Wireless Sensor Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT...KEY MANAGEMENT FOR SECURE NEIGHBOR DISCOVERY IN A DECENTRALIZED WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK by Kelvin T. Chew September 2017 Thesis Advisor...DATE September 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SYMMETRIC LINK KEY MANAGEMENT FOR SECURE NEIGHBOR

  16. DOD Financial Management: Effect of Continuing Weaknesses on Management and Operations and Status of Key Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-13

    the information needed to effectively (1) manage its assets, (2) assess program performance and make budget decisions , (3) make cost- effective ... decision making, including the information needed to effectively (1) manage its assets, (2) assess program performance and make budget decisions , (3...incorporating key elements of a comprehensive management approach , such as a complete analysis of the return on investment, quantitatively -defined goals

  17. Security Concepts for Satellite Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobehn, C.; Penné, B.; Rathje, R.; Weigl, A.; Gorecki, Ch.; Michalik, H.

    2008-08-01

    The high costs to develop, launch and maintain a satellite network makes protecting the assets imperative. Attacks may be passive such as eavesdropping on the payload data. More serious threat are active attacks that try to gain control of the satellite, which may lead to the total lost of the satellite asset. To counter these threats, new satellite and ground systems are using cryptographic technologies to provide a range of services: confidentiality, entity & message authentication, and data integrity. Additionally, key management cryptographic services are required to support these services. This paper describes the key points of current satellite control and operations, that are authentication of the access to the satellite TMTC link and encryption of security relevant TM/TC data. For payload data management the key points are multi-user ground station access and high data rates both requiring frequent updates and uploads of keys with the corresponding key management methods. For secure satellite management authentication & key negotiation algorithms as HMAC-RIPEMD160, EC- DSA and EC-DH are used. Encryption of data uses algorithms as IDEA, AES, Triple-DES, or other. A channel coding and encryption unit for payload data provides download data rates up to Nx250 Mbps. The presented concepts are based on our experience and heritage of the security systems for all German MOD satellite projects (SATCOMBw2, SAR-Lupe multi- satellite system and German-French SAR-Lupe-Helios- II systems inter-operability) as well as for further international (KOMPSAT-II Payload data link system) and ESA activities (TMTC security and GMES).

  18. Revealing of photon-number splitting attack on quantum key distribution system by photon-number resolving devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidash, A. A.; Egorov, V. I.; Gleim, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum cryptography allows distributing secure keys between two users so that any performed eavesdropping attempt would be immediately discovered. However, in practice an eavesdropper can obtain key information from multi-photon states when attenuated laser radiation is used as a source of quantum states. In order to prevent actions of an eavesdropper, it is generally suggested to implement special cryptographic protocols, like decoy states or SARG04. In this paper, we describe an alternative method based on monitoring photon number statistics after detection. We provide a useful rule of thumb to estimate approximate order of difference of expected distribution and distribution in case of attack. Formula for calculating a minimum value of total pulses or time-gaps to resolve attack is shown. Also formulas for actual fraction of raw key known to Eve were derived. This method can therefore be used with any system and even combining with mentioned special protocols.

  19. Patients’ Data Management System Protected by Identity-Based Authentication and Key Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-García, Alexandra; Santos-González, Iván; Hernández-Goya, Candelaria; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Yung, Moti

    2017-01-01

    A secure and distributed framework for the management of patients’ information in emergency and hospitalization services is proposed here in order to seek improvements in efficiency and security in this important area. In particular, confidentiality protection, mutual authentication, and automatic identification of patients are provided. The proposed system is based on two types of devices: Near Field Communication (NFC) wristbands assigned to patients, and mobile devices assigned to medical staff. Two other main elements of the system are an intermediate server to manage the involved data, and a second server with a private key generator to define the information required to protect communications. An identity-based authentication and key exchange scheme is essential to provide confidential communication and mutual authentication between the medical staff and the private key generator through an intermediate server. The identification of patients is carried out through a keyed-hash message authentication code. Thanks to the combination of the aforementioned tools, a secure alternative mobile health (mHealth) scheme for managing patients’ data is defined for emergency and hospitalization services. Different parts of the proposed system have been implemented, including mobile application, intermediate server, private key generator and communication channels. Apart from that, several simulations have been performed, and, compared with the current system, significant improvements in efficiency have been observed. PMID:28362328

  20. Effects of a group-based reproductive management extension programme on key management outcomes affecting reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Brownlie, Tom S; Morton, John M; Heuer, Cord; McDougall, Scott

    2015-02-01

    A group-based reproductive management extension programme has been designed to help managers of dairy herds improve herd reproductive performance. The aims of this study were, firstly, to assess effects of participation by key decision makers (KDMs) in a farmer action group programme in 2009 and 2010 on six key management outcomes (KMOs) that affect reproductive performance over 2 years (2009-2010 and 2010-2011), and secondly, to describe KDM intentions to change management behaviour(s) affecting each management outcome after participation in the programme. Seasonal calving dairy herds from four regions of New Zealand were enrolled in the study. Intentions to modify management behaviour were recorded using the formal written action plans developed during the extension programme. KMOs assessed were calving pattern of the herd, pre-calving heifer liveweight, pre-calving and premating body condition score (BCS), oestrus detection, anoestrus cow management and bull management. Participation was associated with improvements in heifer liveweight, more heifers calving in the first 6 weeks of the seasonal calving period, premating BCS and oestrus detection. No significant effects were observed on anoestrus cow management or bull management. KDMs with greater numbers of proposed actions had lower 6 week in-calf rates in the second study year than KDMs who proposed fewer actions. A more effective strategy to ensure more appropriate objectives is proposed. Strategies to help KDMs to implement proposed actions more successfully should be investigated to improve the programme further. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Institutional Data Management in Higher Education. ECAR Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanosky, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from the 2009 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of institutional data management, which examines the policies and practices by which higher education institutions effectively collect, protect, and use digital information assets to meet academic and business needs. Importantly, it also…

  2. Adaptive real time selection for quantum key distribution in lossy and turbulent free-space channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Marangon, Davide G.; Canale, Matteo; Savorgnan, Ilaria; Bacco, Davide; Barbieri, Mauro; Calimani, Simon; Barbieri, Cesare; Laurenti, Nicola; Villoresi, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The unconditional security in the creation of cryptographic keys obtained by quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols will induce a quantum leap in free-space communication privacy in the same way that we are beginning to realize secure optical fiber connections. However, free-space channels, in particular those with long links and the presence of atmospheric turbulence, are affected by losses, fluctuating transmissivity, and background light that impair the conditions for secure QKD. Here we introduce a method to contrast the atmospheric turbulence in QKD experiments. Our adaptive real time selection (ARTS) technique at the receiver is based on the selection of the intervals with higher channel transmissivity. We demonstrate, using data from the Canary Island 143-km free-space link, that conditions with unacceptable average quantum bit error rate which would prevent the generation of a secure key can be used once parsed according to the instantaneous scintillation using the ARTS technique.

  3. Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Nurul T.; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    The security of conventional cryptography systems is threatened in the forthcoming era of quantum computers. Quantum key distribution (QKD) features fundamentally proven security and offers a promising option for quantum-proof cryptography solution. Although prototype QKD systems over optical fiber have been demonstrated over the years, the key generation rates remain several orders of magnitude lower than current classical communication systems. In an effort toward a commercially viable QKD system with improved key generation rates, we developed a discrete-variable QKD system based on time-bin quantum photonic states that can generate provably secure cryptographic keys at megabit-per-second rates over metropolitan distances. We use high-dimensional quantum states that transmit more than one secret bit per received photon, alleviating detector saturation effects in the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors used in our system that feature very high detection efficiency (of more than 70%) and low timing jitter (of less than 40 ps). Our system is constructed using commercial off-the-shelf components, and the adopted protocol can be readily extended to free-space quantum channels. The security analysis adopted to distill the keys ensures that the demonstrated protocol is robust against coherent attacks, finite-size effects, and a broad class of experimental imperfections identified in our system. PMID:29202028

  4. Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nurul T; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J

    2017-11-01

    The security of conventional cryptography systems is threatened in the forthcoming era of quantum computers. Quantum key distribution (QKD) features fundamentally proven security and offers a promising option for quantum-proof cryptography solution. Although prototype QKD systems over optical fiber have been demonstrated over the years, the key generation rates remain several orders of magnitude lower than current classical communication systems. In an effort toward a commercially viable QKD system with improved key generation rates, we developed a discrete-variable QKD system based on time-bin quantum photonic states that can generate provably secure cryptographic keys at megabit-per-second rates over metropolitan distances. We use high-dimensional quantum states that transmit more than one secret bit per received photon, alleviating detector saturation effects in the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors used in our system that feature very high detection efficiency (of more than 70%) and low timing jitter (of less than 40 ps). Our system is constructed using commercial off-the-shelf components, and the adopted protocol can be readily extended to free-space quantum channels. The security analysis adopted to distill the keys ensures that the demonstrated protocol is robust against coherent attacks, finite-size effects, and a broad class of experimental imperfections identified in our system.

  5. Protecting privacy in a clinical data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Kong, Guilan; Xiao, Zhichun

    2015-06-01

    Peking University has several prestigious teaching hospitals in China. To make secondary use of massive medical data for research purposes, construction of a clinical data warehouse is imperative in Peking University. However, a big concern for clinical data warehouse construction is how to protect patient privacy. In this project, we propose to use a combination of symmetric block ciphers, asymmetric ciphers, and cryptographic hashing algorithms to protect patient privacy information. The novelty of our privacy protection approach lies in message-level data encryption, the key caching system, and the cryptographic key management system. The proposed privacy protection approach is scalable to clinical data warehouse construction with any size of medical data. With the composite privacy protection approach, the clinical data warehouse can be secure enough to keep the confidential data from leaking to the outside world. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. New public key cryptosystem based on quaternions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durcheva, Mariana; Karailiev, Kristian

    2017-12-01

    Quaternions are not commonly used in cryptography. Nevertheless, the noncommutativity of their multiplication makes them suitable for cryptographic purposes. In this paper we suggest a Diffie-Hellman like cryptosystem based on the the quaternions. Additionally, a computer realization of the protocol is given.

  7. Mobility based key management technique for multicast security in mobile ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Madhusudhanan, B; Chitra, S; Rajan, C

    2015-01-01

    In MANET multicasting, forward and backward secrecy result in increased packet drop rate owing to mobility. Frequent rekeying causes large message overhead which increases energy consumption and end-to-end delay. Particularly, the prevailing group key management techniques cause frequent mobility and disconnections. So there is a need to design a multicast key management technique to overcome these problems. In this paper, we propose the mobility based key management technique for multicast security in MANET. Initially, the nodes are categorized according to their stability index which is estimated based on the link availability and mobility. A multicast tree is constructed such that for every weak node, there is a strong parent node. A session key-based encryption technique is utilized to transmit a multicast data. The rekeying process is performed periodically by the initiator node. The rekeying interval is fixed depending on the node category so that this technique greatly minimizes the rekeying overhead. By simulation results, we show that our proposed approach reduces the packet drop rate and improves the data confidentiality.

  8. Teaching Tip: Utilizing Classroom Simulation to Convey Key Concepts in IT Portfolio Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    Managing a portfolio of IT projects is an important capability for firms and their managers. The classroom simulation described here provides students in an MBA information systems management/strategy course with the opportunity to deepen their understanding of the key concepts that should be considered in managing an IT portfolio and helps…

  9. Enhanced diffie-hellman algorithm for reliable key exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryan; Kumar, Chaithanya; Vincent, P. M. Durai Raj

    2017-11-01

    The Diffie -Hellman is one of the first public-key procedure and is a certain way of exchanging the cryptographic keys securely. This concept was introduced by Ralph Markel and it is named after Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. Sender and Receiver make a common secret key in Diffie-Hellman algorithm and then they start communicating with each other over the public channel which is known to everyone. A number of internet services are secured by Diffie -Hellman. In Public key cryptosystem, the sender has to trust while receiving the public key of the receiver and vice-versa and this is the challenge of public key cryptosystem. Man-in-the-Middle attack is very much possible on the existing Diffie-Hellman algorithm. In man-in-the-middle attack, the attacker exists in the public channel, the attacker receives the public key of both sender and receiver and sends public keys to sender and receiver which is generated by his own. This is how man-in-the-middle attack is possible on Diffie-Hellman algorithm. Denial of service attack is another attack which is found common on Diffie-Hellman. In this attack, the attacker tries to stop the communication happening between sender and receiver and attacker can do this by deleting messages or by confusing the parties with miscommunication. Some more attacks like Insider attack, Outsider attack, etc are possible on Diffie-Hellman. To reduce the possibility of attacks on Diffie-Hellman algorithm, we have enhanced the Diffie-Hellman algorithm to a next level. In this paper, we are extending the Diffie -Hellman algorithm by using the concept of the Diffie -Hellman algorithm to get a stronger secret key and that secret key is further exchanged between the sender and the receiver so that for each message, a new secret shared key would be generated. The second secret key will be generated by taking primitive root of the first secret key.

  10. DNA based random key generation and management for OTP encryption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Xin; Sun, Manhui

    2017-09-01

    One-time pad (OTP) is a principle of key generation applied to the stream ciphering method which offers total privacy. The OTP encryption scheme has proved to be unbreakable in theory, but difficult to realize in practical applications. Because OTP encryption specially requires the absolute randomness of the key, its development has suffered from dense constraints. DNA cryptography is a new and promising technology in the field of information security. DNA chromosomes storing capabilities can be used as one-time pad structures with pseudo-random number generation and indexing in order to encrypt the plaintext messages. In this paper, we present a feasible solution to the OTP symmetric key generation and transmission problem with DNA at the molecular level. Through recombinant DNA technology, by using only sender-receiver known restriction enzymes to combine the secure key represented by DNA sequence and the T vector, we generate the DNA bio-hiding secure key and then place the recombinant plasmid in implanted bacteria for secure key transmission. The designed bio experiments and simulation results show that the security of the transmission of the key is further improved and the environmental requirements of key transmission are reduced. Analysis has demonstrated that the proposed DNA-based random key generation and management solutions are marked by high security and usability. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Designing new institutions for implementing integrated disaster risk management: key elements and future directions.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Chennat; Okada, Norio

    2007-12-01

    The goal of integrated disaster risk management is to promote an overall improvement in the quality of safety and security in a region, city or community at disaster risk. This paper presents the case for a thorough overhaul of the institutional component of integrated disaster risk management. A review of disaster management institutions in the United States indicates significant weaknesses in their ability to contribute effectively to the implementation of integrated disaster risk management. Our analysis and findings identify eight key elements for the design of dynamic new disaster management institutions. Six specific approaches are suggested for incorporating the identified key elements in building new institutions that would have significant potential for enhancing the effective implementation of integrated disaster risk management. We have developed a possible blueprint for effective design and construction of efficient, sustainable and functional disaster management institutions.

  12. A joint signal processing and cryptographic approach to multimedia encryption.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yinian; Wu, Min

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing trend for multimedia applications to use delegate service providers for content distribution, archiving, search, and retrieval. These delegate services have brought new challenges to the protection of multimedia content confidentiality. This paper discusses the importance and feasibility of applying a joint signal processing and cryptographic approach to multimedia encryption, in order to address the access control issues unique to multimedia applications. We propose two atomic encryption operations that can preserve standard compliance and are friendly to delegate processing. Quantitative analysis for these operations is presented to demonstrate that a good tradeoff can be made between security and bitrate overhead. In assisting the design and evaluation of media security systems, we also propose a set of multimedia-oriented security scores to quantify the security against approximation attacks and to complement the existing notion of generic data security. Using video as an example, we present a systematic study on how to strategically integrate different atomic operations to build a video encryption system. The resulting system can provide superior performance over both generic encryption and its simple adaptation to video in terms of a joint consideration of security, bitrate overhead, and friendliness to delegate processing.

  13. National disease management plans for key chronic non-communicable diseases in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, C C

    2002-07-01

    In Singapore, chronic, non-communicable diseases, namely coronary heart disease, stroke and cancer, account for more than 60% of all deaths and a high burden of disability and healthcare expenditure. The burden of these diseases is likely to rise with our rapidly ageing population and changing lifestyles, and will present profound challenges to our healthcare delivery and financing systems over the next 20 to 30 years. The containment and optimal management of these conditions require a strong emphasis on patient education and the development of integrated models of healthcare delivery in place of the present uncoordinated, compartmentalised way of delivering healthcare. To meet these challenges, the Ministry of Health's major thrusts are disease control measures which focus mainly on primary prevention; and disease management, which coordinates the national effort to reduce the incidence of these key diseases and their predisposing factors and to ameliorate their long-term impact by optimising control to reduce mortality, morbidity and complications, and improving functional status through rehabilitation. The key initiatives include restructuring of the public sector healthcare institutions into two clusters, each comprising a network of primary health care polyclinics, regional hospitals and tertiary institutions. The functional integration of these healthcare elements within each cluster under a common senior administrative and professional management, and the development of common clinical IT systems will greatly facilitate the implementation of disease management programmes. Secondly, the Ministry is establishing National Disease Registries in coronary heart disease, cancer, stroke, myopia and kidney failure, which will be valuable sources of clinical and outcomes data. Thirdly, in partnership with expert groups, national committees and professional agencies, the Ministry will produce clinical practice guidelines which will assist doctors and healthcare

  14. Unconditional security of a three state quantum key distribution protocol.

    PubMed

    Boileau, J-C; Tamaki, K; Batuwantudawe, J; Laflamme, R; Renes, J M

    2005-02-04

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols are cryptographic techniques with security based only on the laws of quantum mechanics. Two prominent QKD schemes are the Bennett-Brassard 1984 and Bennett 1992 protocols that use four and two quantum states, respectively. In 2000, Phoenix et al. proposed a new family of three-state protocols that offers advantages over the previous schemes. Until now, an error rate threshold for security of the symmetric trine spherical code QKD protocol has been shown only for the trivial intercept-resend eavesdropping strategy. In this Letter, we prove the unconditional security of the trine spherical code QKD protocol, demonstrating its security up to a bit error rate of 9.81%. We also discuss how this proof applies to a version of the trine spherical code QKD protocol where the error rate is evaluated from the number of inconclusive events.

  15. Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits

    DOE PAGES

    Islam, Nurul T.; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton; ...

    2017-11-24

    The security of conventional cryptography systems is threatened in the forthcoming era of quantum computers. Quantum key distribution (QKD) features fundamentally proven security and offers a promising option for quantum-proof cryptography solution. Although prototype QKD systems over optical fiber have been demonstrated over the years, the key generation rates remain several orders of magnitude lower than current classical communication systems. In an effort toward a commercially viable QKD system with improved key generation rates, we developed a discrete-variable QKD system based on time-bin quantum photonic states that can generate provably secure cryptographic keys at megabit-per-second rates over metropolitan distances. Wemore » use high-dimensional quantum states that transmit more than one secret bit per received photon, alleviating detector saturation effects in the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors used in our system that feature very high detection efficiency (of more than 70%) and low timing jitter (of less than 40 ps). Our system is constructed using commercial off-the-shelf components, and the adopted protocol can be readily extended to free-space quantum channels. In conclusion, the security analysis adopted to distill the keys ensures that the demonstrated protocol is robust against coherent attacks, finite-size effects, and a broad class of experimental imperfections identified in our system.« less

  16. Provably secure and high-rate quantum key distribution with time-bin qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Nurul T.; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Cahall, Clinton

    The security of conventional cryptography systems is threatened in the forthcoming era of quantum computers. Quantum key distribution (QKD) features fundamentally proven security and offers a promising option for quantum-proof cryptography solution. Although prototype QKD systems over optical fiber have been demonstrated over the years, the key generation rates remain several orders of magnitude lower than current classical communication systems. In an effort toward a commercially viable QKD system with improved key generation rates, we developed a discrete-variable QKD system based on time-bin quantum photonic states that can generate provably secure cryptographic keys at megabit-per-second rates over metropolitan distances. Wemore » use high-dimensional quantum states that transmit more than one secret bit per received photon, alleviating detector saturation effects in the superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors used in our system that feature very high detection efficiency (of more than 70%) and low timing jitter (of less than 40 ps). Our system is constructed using commercial off-the-shelf components, and the adopted protocol can be readily extended to free-space quantum channels. In conclusion, the security analysis adopted to distill the keys ensures that the demonstrated protocol is robust against coherent attacks, finite-size effects, and a broad class of experimental imperfections identified in our system.« less

  17. Understanding security failures of two authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Dheerendra

    2015-03-01

    Smart card based authentication and key agreement schemes for telecare medicine information systems (TMIS) enable doctors, nurses, patients and health visitors to use smart cards for secure login to medical information systems. In recent years, several authentication and key agreement schemes have been proposed to present secure and efficient solution for TMIS. Most of the existing authentication schemes for TMIS have either higher computation overhead or are vulnerable to attacks. To reduce the computational overhead and enhance the security, Lee recently proposed an authentication and key agreement scheme using chaotic maps for TMIS. Xu et al. also proposed a password based authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS using elliptic curve cryptography. Both the schemes provide better efficiency from the conventional public key cryptography based schemes. These schemes are important as they present an efficient solution for TMIS. We analyze the security of both Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s schemes. Unfortunately, we identify that both the schemes are vulnerable to denial of service attack. To understand the security failures of these cryptographic schemes which are the key of patching existing schemes and designing future schemes, we demonstrate the security loopholes of Lee's scheme and Xu et al.'s scheme in this paper.

  18. Managing malocclusion in the mixed dentition: six keys to success. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Padhraig S; Johal, Ama; DiBiase, Andrew T

    2008-11-01

    Indications of developing malocclusion are often present in the mixed dentition.With judicious supervision and timely intervention their effects can be minimized. The general dental practitioner is ideally placed to recognize, manage and correct many such incipient problems. This first of two papers considers three keys to success involving, normal dental development, deviations from normal eruption patterns, crossbite correction and habit cessation. The appropriate management of developing malocclusion may simplify later orthodontic management or indeed make such intervention unnecessary.

  19. Implementing Diffie-Hellman key exchange using quantum EPR pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sayonnha; Parakh, Abhishek

    2015-05-01

    This paper implements the concepts of perfect forward secrecy and the Diffie-Hellman key exchange using EPR pairs to establish and share a secret key between two non-authenticated parties and transfer messages between them without the risk of compromise. Current implementations of quantum cryptography are based on the BB84 protocol, which is susceptible to siphoning attacks on the multiple photons emitted by practical laser sources. This makes BB84-based quantum cryptography protocol unsuitable for network computing environments. Diffie-Hellman does not require the two parties to be mutually authenticated to each other, yet it can provide a basis for a number of authenticated protocols, most notably the concept of perfect forward secrecy. The work proposed in this paper provides a new direction in utilizing quantum EPR pairs in quantum key exchange. Although, classical cryptography boasts of efficient and robust protocols like the Diffie-Hellman key exchange, in the current times, with the advent of quantum computing they are very much vulnerable to eavesdropping and cryptanalytic attacks. Using quantum cryptographic principles, however, these classical encryption algorithms show more promise and a more robust and secure structure for applications. The unique properties of quantum EPR pairs also, on the other hand, go a long way in removing attacks like eavesdropping by their inherent nature of one particle of the pair losing its state if a measurement occurs on the other. The concept of perfect forward secrecy is revisited in this paper to attribute tighter security to the proposed protocol.

  20. Agri-Environmental Resource Management by Large-Scale Collective Action: Determining KEY Success Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uetake, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large-scale collective action is necessary when managing agricultural natural resources such as biodiversity and water quality. This paper determines the key factors to the success of such action. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper analyses four large-scale collective actions used to manage agri-environmental resources in Canada and…

  1. Management of CAD/CAM information: Key to improved manufacturing productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Brainin, J.

    1984-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of CAD/CAM information. To stimulate advancements in this area, a joint NASA/Navy/Industry project designated Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) is underway with the goal of raising aerospace industry productivity through advancement of technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. The project complements traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD research is guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 repesentatives from aerospace and computer companies. The IPAD accomplishments to date in development of requirements and prototype software for various levels of company-wide CAD/CAM data management are summarized and plans for development of technology for management of distributed CAD/CAM data and information required to control future knowledge-based CAD/CAM systems are discussed.

  2. Efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search for EMRs in cloud storage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lifeng; Yau, Wei-Chuen

    2015-02-01

    Searchable encryption is an important cryptographic primitive that enables privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted electronic medical records (EMRs) in cloud storage. Efficiency of such searchable encryption in a medical cloud storage system is very crucial as it involves client platforms such as smartphones or tablets that only have constrained computing power and resources. In this paper, we propose an efficient secure-channel free public key encryption with keyword search (SCF-PEKS) scheme that is proven secure in the standard model. We show that our SCF-PEKS scheme is not only secure against chosen keyword and ciphertext attacks (IND-SCF-CKCA), but also secure against keyword guessing attacks (IND-KGA). Furthermore, our proposed scheme is more efficient than other recent SCF-PEKS schemes in the literature.

  3. Management of CAD/CAM information: Key to improved manufacturing productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, R. E.; Brainin, J.

    1984-01-01

    A key element to improved industry productivity is effective management of CAD/CAM information. To stimulate advancements in this area, a joint NASA/Navy/industry project designated Intergrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) is underway with the goal of raising aerospace industry productivity through advancement of technology to integrate and manage information involved in the design and manufacturing process. The project complements traditional NASA/DOD research to develop aerospace design technology and the Air Force's Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) program to advance CAM technology. IPAD research is guided by an Industry Technical Advisory Board (ITAB) composed of over 100 representatives from aerospace and computer companies.

  4. Energy-Efficient Implementation of ECDH Key Exchange for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lederer, Christian; Mader, Roland; Koschuch, Manuel; Großschädl, Johann; Szekely, Alexander; Tillich, Stefan

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are playing a vital role in an ever-growing number of applications ranging from environmental surveillance over medical monitoring to home automation. Since WSNs are often deployed in unattended or even hostile environments, they can be subject to various malicious attacks, including the manipulation and capture of nodes. The establishment of a shared secret key between two or more individual nodes is one of the most important security services needed to guarantee the proper functioning of a sensor network. Despite some recent advances in this field, the efficient implementation of cryptographic key establishment for WSNs remains a challenge due to the resource constraints of small sensor nodes such as the MICAz mote. In this paper we present a lightweight implementation of the elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) key exchange for ZigBee-compliant sensor nodes equipped with an ATmega128 processor running the TinyOS operating system. Our implementation uses a 192-bit prime field specified by the NIST as underlying algebraic structure and requires only 5.20 ·106 clock cycles to compute a scalar multiplication if the base point is fixed and known a priori. A scalar multiplication using a random base point takes about 12.33 ·106 cycles. Our results show that a full ECDH key exchange between two MICAz motes consumes an energy of 57.33 mJ (including radio communication), which is significantly better than most previously reported ECDH implementations on comparable platforms.

  5. Cryptographically supported NFC tags in medication for better inpatient safety.

    PubMed

    Özcanhan, Mehmet Hilal; Dalkılıç, Gökhan; Utku, Semih

    2014-08-01

    Reliable sources report that errors in drug administration are increasing the number of harmed or killed inpatients, during healthcare. This development is in contradiction to patient safety norms. A correctly designed hospital-wide ubiquitous system, using advanced inpatient identification and matching techniques, should provide correct medicine and dosage at the right time. Researchers are still making grouping proof protocol proposals based on the EPC Global Class 1 Generation 2 ver. 1.2 standard tags, for drug administration. Analyses show that such protocols make medication unsecure and hence fail to guarantee inpatient safety. Thus, the original goal of patient safety still remains. In this paper, a very recent proposal (EKATE) upgraded by a cryptographic function is shown to fall short of expectations. Then, an alternative proposal IMS-NFC which uses a more suitable and newer technology; namely Near Field Communication (NFC), is described. The proposed protocol has the additional support of stronger security primitives and it is compliant to ISO communication and security standards. Unlike previous works, the proposal is a complete ubiquitous system that guarantees full patient safety; and it is based on off-the-shelf, new technology products available in every corner of the world. To prove the claims the performance, cost, security and scope of IMS-NFC are compared with previous proposals. Evaluation shows that the proposed system has stronger security, increased patient safety and equal efficiency, at little extra cost.

  6. Geometric Data Perturbation-Based Personal Health Record Transactions in Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, S.; Kavitha, V.

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new delivery model for information technology services and it typically involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources over the Internet. However, cloud computing raises concerns on how cloud service providers, user organizations, and governments should handle such information and interactions. Personal health records represent an emerging patient-centric model for health information exchange, and they are outsourced for storage by third parties, such as cloud providers. With these records, it is necessary for each patient to encrypt their own personal health data before uploading them to cloud servers. Current techniques for encryption primarily rely on conventional cryptographic approaches. However, key management issues remain largely unsolved with these cryptographic-based encryption techniques. We propose that personal health record transactions be managed using geometric data perturbation in cloud computing. In our proposed scheme, the personal health record database is perturbed using geometric data perturbation and outsourced to the Amazon EC2 cloud. PMID:25767826

  7. Geometric data perturbation-based personal health record transactions in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, S; Kavitha, V

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is a new delivery model for information technology services and it typically involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources over the Internet. However, cloud computing raises concerns on how cloud service providers, user organizations, and governments should handle such information and interactions. Personal health records represent an emerging patient-centric model for health information exchange, and they are outsourced for storage by third parties, such as cloud providers. With these records, it is necessary for each patient to encrypt their own personal health data before uploading them to cloud servers. Current techniques for encryption primarily rely on conventional cryptographic approaches. However, key management issues remain largely unsolved with these cryptographic-based encryption techniques. We propose that personal health record transactions be managed using geometric data perturbation in cloud computing. In our proposed scheme, the personal health record database is perturbed using geometric data perturbation and outsourced to the Amazon EC2 cloud.

  8. Managing malocclusion in the mixed dentition: six keys to success part 2.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Padhraig; Johal, Ama; DiBiase, Andrew T

    2008-12-01

    Regular recall strategies ensure the general dental practitioner is ideally placed to recognize, manage and correct many occlusal problems in the mixed dentition phase. The first paper focused on recognition of normal and abnormal occlusal development, cessation of habits and correction of crossbites. This paper considers management of leeway space, highlights the importance of palpation of unerupted maxillary canines, and discusses the need for judicious removal of primary teeth (Keys 4-6).

  9. Network-Centric Quantum Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Single-photon quantum communications (QC) offers ``future-proof'' cryptographic security rooted in the laws of physics. Today's quantum-secured communications cannot be compromised by unanticipated future technological advances. But to date, QC has only existed in point-to-point instantiations that have limited ability to address the cyber security challenges of our increasingly networked world. In my talk I will describe a fundamentally new paradigm of network-centric quantum communications (NQC) that leverages the network to bring scalable, QC-based security to user groups that may have no direct user-to-user QC connectivity. With QC links only between each of N users and a trusted network node, NQC brings quantum security to N2 user pairs, and to multi-user groups. I will describe a novel integrated photonics quantum smartcard (``QKarD'') and its operation in a multi-node NQC test bed. The QKarDs are used to implement the quantum cryptographic protocols of quantum identification, quantum key distribution and quantum secret splitting. I will explain how these cryptographic primitives are used to provide key management for encryption, authentication, and non-repudiation for user-to-user communications. My talk will conclude with a description of a recent demonstration that QC can meet both the security and quality-of-service (latency) requirements for electric grid control commands and data. These requirements cannot be met simultaneously with present-day cryptography.

  10. Fish traders as key actors in fisheries: gender and adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Lindström, Lars; Jiddawi, Narriman S

    2013-12-01

    This paper fills an important gap towards adaptive management of small-scale fisheries by analyzing the gender dimension of fish trade in Zanzibar, Tanzania. We hypothesize that gender-based differences are present in the fish value chain and to test the hypothesis interviews were performed to analyze: (i) markets, customers, and mobility, (ii) material and economic resources, (iii) traded fish species, (iv) contacts and organizations, and (v) perceptions and experiences. Additionally, management documents were analyzed to examine the degree to which gender is considered. Results show that women traders had less access to social and economic resources, profitable markets, and high-value fish, which resulted in lower income. These gender inequalities are linked, among others, to women's reproductive roles such as childcare and household responsibilities. Formal fisheries management was found to be gender insensitive, showing how a crucial feedback element of adaptive management is missing in Zanzibar's management system, i.e., knowledge about key actors, their needs and challenges.

  11. Key management and encryption under the bounded storage model.

    SciTech Connect

    Draelos, Timothy John; Neumann, William Douglas; Lanzone, Andrew J.

    2005-11-01

    There are several engineering obstacles that need to be solved before key management and encryption under the bounded storage model can be realized. One of the critical obstacles hindering its adoption is the construction of a scheme that achieves reliable communication in the event that timing synchronization errors occur. One of the main accomplishments of this project was the development of a new scheme that solves this problem. We show in general that there exist message encoding techniques under the bounded storage model that provide an arbitrarily small probability of transmission error. We compute the maximum capacity of this channelmore » using the unsynchronized key-expansion as side-channel information at the decoder and provide tight lower bounds for a particular class of key-expansion functions that are pseudo-invariant to timing errors. Using our results in combination with Dziembowski et al. [11] encryption scheme we can construct a scheme that solves the timing synchronization error problem. In addition to this work we conducted a detailed case study of current and future storage technologies. We analyzed the cost, capacity, and storage data rate of various technologies, so that precise security parameters can be developed for bounded storage encryption schemes. This will provide an invaluable tool for developing these schemes in practice.« less

  12. Deterrence of device counterfeiting, cloning, and subversion by substitution using hardware fingerprinting

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R; Bauer, Todd M; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-09-30

    Deterrence of device subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a computing device for authenticating a hardware platform of the computing device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware platform. The PUF circuit is used to generate a PUF value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the PUF value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the computing device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  13. Key exchange using biometric identity based encryption for sharing encrypted data in cloud environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Waleed K.; Al-Assam, Hisham

    2017-05-01

    The main problem associated with using symmetric/ asymmetric keys is how to securely store and exchange the keys between the parties over open networks particularly in the open environment such as cloud computing. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) have been providing a practical solution for session key exchange for loads of web services. The key limitation of PKI solution is not only the need for a trusted third partly (e.g. certificate authority) but also the absent link between data owner and the encryption keys. The latter is arguably more important where accessing data needs to be linked with identify of the owner. Currently available key exchange protocols depend on using trusted couriers or secure channels, which can be subject to man-in-the-middle attack and various other attacks. This paper proposes a new protocol for Key Exchange using Biometric Identity Based Encryption (KE-BIBE) that enables parties to securely exchange cryptographic keys even an adversary is monitoring the communication channel between the parties. The proposed protocol combines biometrics with IBE in order to provide a secure way to access symmetric keys based on the identity of the users in unsecure environment. In the KE-BIOBE protocol, the message is first encrypted by the data owner using a traditional symmetric key before migrating it to a cloud storage. The symmetric key is then encrypted using public biometrics of the users selected by data owner to decrypt the message based on Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption. Only the selected users will be able to decrypt the message by providing a fresh sample of their biometric data. The paper argues that the proposed solution eliminates the needs for a key distribution centre in traditional cryptography. It will also give data owner the power of finegrained sharing of encrypted data by control who can access their data.

  14. Active listening: The key of successful communication in hospital managers.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Vahid Kohpeima; Tabatabaee, Seyed Saeed; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili; Rajabi, Mahboobeh

    2016-03-01

    One of the important causes of medical errors and unintentional harm to patients is ineffective communication. The important part of this skill, in case it has been forgotten, is listening. The objective of this study was to determine whether managers in hospitals listen actively. This study was conducted between May and June 2014 among three levels of managers at teaching hospitals in Kerman, Iran. Active Listening skill among hospital managers was measured by self-made Active Listening Skill Scale (ALSS), which consists of the key elements of active listening and has five subscales, i.e., Avoiding Interruption, Maintaining Interest, Postponing Evaluation, Organizing Information, and Showing Interest. The data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS software, version 20, and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, the chi-squared test, and multiple linear regressions. The mean score of active listening in hospital managers was 2.32 out of 3.The highest score (2.27) was obtained by the first-level managers, and the top managers got the lowest score (2.16). Hospital mangers were best in showing interest and worst in avoiding interruptions. The area of employment was a significant predictor of avoiding interruption and the managers' gender was a strong predictor of skill in maintaining interest (p < 0.05). The type of management and education can predict postponing evaluation, and the length of employment can predict showing interest (p < 0.05). There is a necessity for the development of strategies to create more awareness among the hospital managers concerning their active listening skills.

  15. Location-Aware Dynamic Session-Key Management for Grid-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Ling; Lin, I-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    Security is a critical issue for sensor networks used in hostile environments. When wireless sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network are distributed in an insecure hostile environment, the sensor nodes must be protected: a secret key must be used to protect the nodes transmitting messages. If the nodes are not protected and become compromised, many types of attacks against the network may result. Such is the case with existing schemes, which are vulnerable to attacks because they mostly provide a hop-by-hop paradigm, which is insufficient to defend against known attacks. We propose a location-aware dynamic session-key management protocol for grid-based wireless sensor networks. The proposed protocol improves the security of a secret key. The proposed scheme also includes a key that is dynamically updated. This dynamic update can lower the probability of the key being guessed correctly. Thus currently known attacks can be defended. By utilizing the local information, the proposed scheme can also limit the flooding region in order to reduce the energy that is consumed in discovering routing paths. PMID:22163606

  16. Location-aware dynamic session-key management for grid-based Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Ling; Lin, I-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    Security is a critical issue for sensor networks used in hostile environments. When wireless sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network are distributed in an insecure hostile environment, the sensor nodes must be protected: a secret key must be used to protect the nodes transmitting messages. If the nodes are not protected and become compromised, many types of attacks against the network may result. Such is the case with existing schemes, which are vulnerable to attacks because they mostly provide a hop-by-hop paradigm, which is insufficient to defend against known attacks. We propose a location-aware dynamic session-key management protocol for grid-based wireless sensor networks. The proposed protocol improves the security of a secret key. The proposed scheme also includes a key that is dynamically updated. This dynamic update can lower the probability of the key being guessed correctly. Thus currently known attacks can be defended. By utilizing the local information, the proposed scheme can also limit the flooding region in order to reduce the energy that is consumed in discovering routing paths.

  17. PKPass

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Ryan M.

    Password management solutions exist, but few are designed for enterprise systems administrators sharing oncall rotations. Due to the Multi-Factor Level of Assurance 4 effort, DOE is now distributing PIV cards with cryptographically signed certificate and private key pairs to administrators and other security-significant users. We utilize this public key infrastructure (PKI) to encrypt passwords for other recipients in a secure way. This is cross platform (works on OSX and Linux systems), and has already been adopted internally by the NCCS systems administration staff to replace their old password book system.

  18. Key Factors to Instructors' Satisfaction of Learning Management Systems in Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Busaidi, Kamla Ali; Al-Shihi, Hafedh

    2012-01-01

    Learning Management System (LMS) enables institutions to administer their educational resources, and support their traditional classroom education and distance education. LMS survives through instructors' continuous use, which may be to a great extent associated with their satisfaction of the LMS. Consequently, this study examined the key factors…

  19. Active listening: The key of successful communication in hospital managers

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Vahid Kohpeima; Tabatabaee, Seyed Saeed; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili; Rajabi, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the important causes of medical errors and unintentional harm to patients is ineffective communication. The important part of this skill, in case it has been forgotten, is listening. The objective of this study was to determine whether managers in hospitals listen actively. Methods This study was conducted between May and June 2014 among three levels of managers at teaching hospitals in Kerman, Iran. Active Listening skill among hospital managers was measured by self-made Active Listening Skill Scale (ALSS), which consists of the key elements of active listening and has five subscales, i.e., Avoiding Interruption, Maintaining Interest, Postponing Evaluation, Organizing Information, and Showing Interest. The data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS software, version 20, and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, the chi-squared test, and multiple linear regressions. Results The mean score of active listening in hospital managers was 2.32 out of 3.The highest score (2.27) was obtained by the first-level managers, and the top managers got the lowest score (2.16). Hospital mangers were best in showing interest and worst in avoiding interruptions. The area of employment was a significant predictor of avoiding interruption and the managers’ gender was a strong predictor of skill in maintaining interest (p < 0.05). The type of management and education can predict postponing evaluation, and the length of employment can predict showing interest (p < 0.05). Conclusion There is a necessity for the development of strategies to create more awareness among the hospital managers concerning their active listening skills. PMID:27123221

  20. Key management of the double random-phase-encoding method using public-key encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2010-03-01

    Public-key encryption has been used to encode the key of the encryption process. In the proposed technique, an input image has been encrypted by using the double random-phase-encoding method using extended fractional Fourier transform. The key of the encryption process have been encoded by using the Rivest-Shamir-Adelman (RSA) public-key encryption algorithm. The encoded key has then been transmitted to the receiver side along with the encrypted image. In the decryption process, first the encoded key has been decrypted using the secret key and then the encrypted image has been decrypted by using the retrieved key parameters. The proposed technique has advantage over double random-phase-encoding method because the problem associated with the transmission of the key has been eliminated by using public-key encryption. Computer simulation has been carried out to validate the proposed technique.

  1. Conceptual framework for holistic dialysis management based on key performance indicators.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hu-Chen; Itoh, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    This paper develops a theoretical framework of holistic hospital management based on performance indicators that can be applied to dialysis hospitals, clinics or departments in Japan. Selection of a key indicator set and its validity tests were performed primarily by a questionnaire survey to dialysis experts as well as their statements obtained through interviews. The expert questionnaire asked respondents to rate the degree of "usefulness" for each of 66 indicators on a three-point scale (19 responses collected). Applying the theoretical framework, we selected a minimum set of key performance indicators for dialysis management that can be used in the Japanese context. The indicator set comprised 27 indicators and items that will be collected through three surveys: patient satisfaction, employee satisfaction, and safety culture. The indicators were confirmed by expert judgment from viewpoints of face, content and construct validity as well as their usefulness. This paper established a theoretical framework of performance measurement for holistic dialysis management from primary healthcare stakeholders' perspectives. In this framework, performance indicators were largely divided into healthcare outcomes and performance shaping factors. Indicators of the former type may be applied for the detection of operational problems or weaknesses in a dialysis hospital, clinic or department, while latent causes of each problem can be more effectively addressed by the latter type of indicators in terms of process, structure and culture/climate within the organization. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  2. Classification of cognitive systems dedicated to data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiela, Lidia; Ogiela, Marek R.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper will be presented classification of new cognitive information systems dedicated to cryptographic data splitting and sharing processes. Cognitive processes of semantic data analysis and interpretation, will be used to describe new classes of intelligent information and vision systems. In addition, cryptographic data splitting algorithms and cryptographic threshold schemes will be used to improve processes of secure and efficient information management with application of such cognitive systems. The utility of the proposed cognitive sharing procedures and distributed data sharing algorithms will be also presented. A few possible application of cognitive approaches for visual information management and encryption will be also described.

  3. Experimental quantum key distribution with simulated ground-to-satellite photon losses and processing limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Gigov, Nikolay; Higgins, Brendon L.; Yan, Zhizhong; Meyer-Scott, Evan; Khandani, Amir K.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Jennewein, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential to improve communications security by offering cryptographic keys whose security relies on the fundamental properties of quantum physics. The use of a trusted quantum receiver on an orbiting satellite is the most practical near-term solution to the challenge of achieving long-distance (global-scale) QKD, currently limited to a few hundred kilometers on the ground. This scenario presents unique challenges, such as high photon losses and restricted classical data transmission and processing power due to the limitations of a typical satellite platform. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by implementing a QKD protocol, with optical transmission and full post-processing, in the high-loss regime using minimized computing hardware at the receiver. Employing weak coherent pulses with decoy states, we demonstrate the production of secure key bits at up to 56.5 dB of photon loss. We further illustrate the feasibility of a satellite uplink by generating a secure key while experimentally emulating the varying losses predicted for realistic low-Earth-orbit satellite passes at 600 km altitude. With a 76 MHz source and including finite-size analysis, we extract 3374 bits of a secure key from the best pass. We also illustrate the potential benefit of combining multiple passes together: while one suboptimal "upper-quartile" pass produces no finite-sized key with our source, the combination of three such passes allows us to extract 165 bits of a secure key. Alternatively, we find that by increasing the signal rate to 300 MHz it would be possible to extract 21 570 bits of a secure finite-sized key in just a single upper-quartile pass.

  4. 25 CFR 558.3 - Procedures for forwarding applications and reports for key employees and primary management...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GAMING LICENSES AND BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY MANAGEMENT OFFICIALS GAMING LICENSES FOR KEY EMPLOYEES AND PRIMARY... at a gaming operation, a tribe shall: (1) Forward to the Commission a completed application for...

  5. Cancer care management through a mobile phone health approach: key considerations.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Safdari, Reza; Rahimi, Azin

    2013-01-01

    Greater use of mobile phone devices seems inevitable because the health industry and cancer care are facing challenges such as resource constraints, rising care costs, the need for immediate access to healthcare data of types such as audio video texts for early detection and treatment of patients and increasing remote aids in telemedicine. Physicians, in order to study the causes of cancer, detect cancer earlier, act in prevention measures, determine the effectiveness of treatment and specify the reasons for the treatment ineffectiveness, need to access accurate, comprehensive and timely cancer data. Mobile devices provide opportunities and can play an important role in consulting, diagnosis, treatment, and quick access to health information. There easy carriage make them perfect tools for healthcare providers in cancer care management. Key factors in cancer care management systems through a mobile phone health approach must be considered such as human resources, confidentiality and privacy, legal and ethical issues, appropriate ICT and provider infrastructure and costs in general aspects and interoperability, human relationships, types of mobile devices and telecommunication related points in specific aspects. The successful implementation of mobile-based systems in cancer care management will constantly face many challenges. Hence, in applying mobile cancer care, involvement of users and considering their needs in all phases of project, providing adequate bandwidth, preparation of standard tools that provide maximum mobility and flexibility for users, decreasing obstacles to interrupt network communications, and using suitable communication protocols are essential. It is obvious that identifying and reducing barriers and strengthening the positive points will have a significant role in appropriate planning and promoting the achievements of mobile cancer care systems. The aim of this article is to explain key points which should be considered in designing

  6. Emergency management in health: key issues and challenges in the UK.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew C K; Phillips, Wendy; Challen, Kirsty; Goodacre, Steve

    2012-10-19

    Emergency planning in the UK has grown considerably in recent years, galvanised by the threat of terrorism. However, deficiencies in NHS emergency planning were identified and the evidence-base that underpins it is questionable. Inconsistencies in terminologies and concepts also exist. Different models of emergency management exist internationally but the optimal system is unknown. This study examines the evidence-base and evidence requirements for emergency planning in the UK health context. The study involved semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and opinion leaders. Purposive sampling was used to obtain a breadth of views from various agencies involved in emergency planning and response. Interviews were then analysed using a grounded approach using standard framework analysis techniques. We conducted 17 key informant interviews. Interviewees identified greater gaps in operational than technical aspects of emergency planning. Social and behavioural knowledge gaps were highlighted with regards to how individuals and organisations deal with risk and behave in emergencies. Evidence-based approaches to public engagement and for developing community resilience to disasters are lacking. Other gaps included how knowledge was developed and used. Conflicting views with regards to the optimal configuration and operation of the emergency management system were voiced. Four thematic categories for future research emerged:(i) Knowledge-base for emergency management: Further exploration is needed of how knowledge is acquired, valued, disseminated, adopted and retained.(ii) Social and behavioural issues: Greater understanding of how individuals approach risk and behave in emergencies is required.(iii) Organisational issues in emergencies: Several conflicting organisational issues were identified; value of planning versus plans, flexible versus standardized procedures, top-down versus bottom-up engagement, generic versus specific planning, and reactive versus

  7. Using a Functional Simulation of Crisis Management to Test the C2 Agility Model Parameters on Key Performance Variables

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    1 18th ICCRTS Using a Functional Simulation of Crisis Management to Test the C2 Agility Model Parameters on Key Performance Variables...AND SUBTITLE Using a Functional Simulation of Crisis Management to Test the C2 Agility Model Parameters on Key Performance Variables 5a. CONTRACT...command in crisis management. C2 Agility Model Agility can be conceptualized at a number of different levels; for instance at the team

  8. A Secure and Robust User Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for Hierarchical Multi-medical Server Environment in TMIS.

    PubMed

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Goswami, Adrijit

    2015-09-01

    The telecare medicine information system (TMIS) helps the patients to gain the health monitoring facility at home and access medical services over the Internet of mobile networks. Recently, Amin and Biswas presented a smart card based user authentication and key agreement security protocol usable for TMIS system using the cryptographic one-way hash function and biohashing function, and claimed that their scheme is secure against all possible attacks. Though their scheme is efficient due to usage of one-way hash function, we show that their scheme has several security pitfalls and design flaws, such as (1) it fails to protect privileged-insider attack, (2) it fails to protect strong replay attack, (3) it fails to protect strong man-in-the-middle attack, (4) it has design flaw in user registration phase, (5) it has design flaw in login phase, (6) it has design flaw in password change phase, (7) it lacks of supporting biometric update phase, and (8) it has flaws in formal security analysis. In order to withstand these security pitfalls and design flaws, we aim to propose a secure and robust user authenticated key agreement scheme for the hierarchical multi-server environment suitable in TMIS using the cryptographic one-way hash function and fuzzy extractor. Through the rigorous security analysis including the formal security analysis using the widely-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, the formal security analysis under the random oracle model and the informal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. Furthermore, we simulate our scheme using the most-widely accepted and used Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. The simulation results show that our scheme is also secure. Our scheme is more efficient in computation and communication as compared to Amin-Biswas's scheme and other related schemes. In addition, our scheme supports extra functionality features as compared to

  9. Trust Threshold Based Public Key Management in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-05

    should operate in a self-organized way. Capkun t al. [15] proposed a certificate-based self-organized pub- c key management for MANETs by removing...period allo node started with ignorance interact with other nodes, th not reach T th Table 2 Attack behavior for operations . Operation Attack...section, we discuss the core operations o CTPKM as illustrated by Fig. 1 . Each mobile entity is able t communicate with other entities using public

  10. Notification: Key Management Challenges Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    June 9, 2014. The OIG is beginning work to update the fiscal year 2014 list of areas we consider to be the key management challenges confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  11. The Organization of Teaching Process for the Development of Key Competencies (Case Study: Future Managers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khusainova, Guzel R.; Galeeva, Farida T.; Giniyatullina, Diana R.; Tarasova, Natalya M.; Tsareva, Ekaterina E.

    2016-01-01

    This article is focused on the development of the organizational forms of future managers training for the development of their key competencies, namely, creativity and the ability to work in a team. The analysis of works of the researchers in the field of management and pedagogics shows that small groups as an organizational form has great…

  12. A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-10-01

    Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment.

  13. Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education. Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education", the 2010 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of how the economic recession is impacting information technology (IT) organizations and operations in higher education. The study was designed to address the…

  14. Attacks on quantum key distribution protocols that employ non-ITS authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacher, C.; Abidin, A.; Lorünser, T.; Peev, M.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.; Larsson, J.-Å.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how adversaries with large computing resources can break quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols which employ a particular message authentication code suggested previously. This authentication code, featuring low key consumption, is not information-theoretically secure (ITS) since for each message the eavesdropper has intercepted she is able to send a different message from a set of messages that she can calculate by finding collisions of a cryptographic hash function. However, when this authentication code was introduced, it was shown to prevent straightforward man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks against QKD protocols. In this paper, we prove that the set of messages that collide with any given message under this authentication code contains with high probability a message that has small Hamming distance to any other given message. Based on this fact, we present extended MITM attacks against different versions of BB84 QKD protocols using the addressed authentication code; for three protocols, we describe every single action taken by the adversary. For all protocols, the adversary can obtain complete knowledge of the key, and for most protocols her success probability in doing so approaches unity. Since the attacks work against all authentication methods which allow to calculate colliding messages, the underlying building blocks of the presented attacks expose the potential pitfalls arising as a consequence of non-ITS authentication in QKD post-processing. We propose countermeasures, increasing the eavesdroppers demand for computational power, and also prove necessary and sufficient conditions for upgrading the discussed authentication code to the ITS level.

  15. Deviation Management: Key Management Subsystem Driver of Knowledge-Based Continuous Improvement in the Henry Ford Production System.

    PubMed

    Zarbo, Richard J; Copeland, Jacqueline R; Varney, Ruan C

    2017-10-01

    To develop a business subsystem fulfilling International Organization for Standardization 15189 nonconformance management regulatory standard, facilitating employee engagement in problem identification and resolution to effect quality improvement and risk mitigation. From 2012 to 2016, the integrated laboratories of the Henry Ford Health System used a quality technical team to develop and improve a management subsystem designed to identify, track, trend, and summarize nonconformances based on frequency, risk, and root cause for elimination at the level of the work. Programmatic improvements and training resulted in markedly increased documentation culminating in 71,641 deviations in 2016 classified by a taxonomy of 281 defect types into preanalytic (74.8%), analytic (23.6%), and postanalytic (1.6%) testing phases. The top 10 deviations accounted for 55,843 (78%) of the total. Deviation management is a key subsystem of managers' standard work whereby knowledge of nonconformities assists in directing corrective actions and continuous improvements that promote consistent execution and higher levels of performance. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Implementation of Rivest Shamir Adleman Algorithm (RSA) and Vigenere Cipher In Web Based Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryanti, Aryanti; Mekongga, Ikhthison

    2018-02-01

    Data security and confidentiality is one of the most important aspects of information systems at the moment. One attempt to secure data such as by using cryptography. In this study developed a data security system by implementing the cryptography algorithm Rivest, Shamir Adleman (RSA) and Vigenere Cipher. The research was done by combining Rivest, Shamir Adleman (RSA) and Vigenere Cipher cryptographic algorithms to document file either word, excel, and pdf. This application includes the process of encryption and decryption of data, which is created by using PHP software and my SQL. Data encryption is done on the transmit side through RSA cryptographic calculations using the public key, then proceed with Vigenere Cipher algorithm which also uses public key. As for the stage of the decryption side received by using the Vigenere Cipher algorithm still use public key and then the RSA cryptographic algorithm using a private key. Test results show that the system can encrypt files, decrypt files and transmit files. Tests performed on the process of encryption and decryption of files with different file sizes, file size affects the process of encryption and decryption. The larger the file size the longer the process of encryption and decryption.

  17. A brief review on key technologies in the battery management system of electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kailong; Li, Kang; Peng, Qiao; Zhang, Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Batteries have been widely applied in many high-power applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles, where a suitable battery management system (BMS) is vital in ensuring safe and reliable operation of batteries. This paper aims to give a brief review on several key technologies of BMS, including battery modelling, state estimation and battery charging. First, popular battery types used in EVs are surveyed, followed by the introduction of key technologies used in BMS. Various battery models, including the electric model, thermal model and coupled electro-thermal model are reviewed. Then, battery state estimations for the state of charge, state of health and internal temperature are comprehensively surveyed. Finally, several key and traditional battery charging approaches with associated optimization methods are discussed.

  18. Exponential Arithmetic Based Self-Healing Group Key Distribution Scheme with Backward Secrecy under the Resource-Constrained Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hua; Zheng, Yandong; Zhang, Xiyong; Li, Zhoujun

    2016-01-01

    In resource-constrained wireless networks, resources such as storage space and communication bandwidth are limited. To guarantee secure communication in resource-constrained wireless networks, group keys should be distributed to users. The self-healing group key distribution (SGKD) scheme is a promising cryptographic tool, which can be used to distribute and update the group key for the secure group communication over unreliable wireless networks. Among all known SGKD schemes, exponential arithmetic based SGKD (E-SGKD) schemes reduce the storage overhead to constant, thus is suitable for the the resource-constrained wireless networks. In this paper, we provide a new mechanism to achieve E-SGKD schemes with backward secrecy. We first propose a basic E-SGKD scheme based on a known polynomial-based SGKD, where it has optimal storage overhead while having no backward secrecy. To obtain the backward secrecy and reduce the communication overhead, we introduce a novel approach for message broadcasting and self-healing. Compared with other E-SGKD schemes, our new E-SGKD scheme has the optimal storage overhead, high communication efficiency and satisfactory security. The simulation results in Zigbee-based networks show that the proposed scheme is suitable for the resource-restrained wireless networks. Finally, we show the application of our proposed scheme. PMID:27136550

  19. Changes to Quantum Cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Hidema

    Quantum cryptography has become a subject of widespread interest. In particular, quantum key distribution, which provides a secure key agreement by using quantum systems, is believed to be the most important application of quantum cryptography. Quantum key distribution has the potential to achieve the “unconditionally” secure infrastructure. We also have many cryptographic tools that are based on “modern cryptography” at the present time. They are being used in an effort to guarantee secure communication over open networks such as the Internet. Unfortunately, their ultimate efficacy is in doubt. Quantum key distribution systems are believed to be close to practical and commercial use. In this paper, we discuss what we should do to apply quantum cryptography to our communications. We also discuss how quantum key distribution can be combined with or used to replace cryptographic tools based on modern cryptography.

  20. Multi-factor authentication

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-10-21

    Detection and deterrence of spoofing of user authentication may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a user of the hardware device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a PUF value. Combining logic is coupled to receive the PUF value, combines the PUF value with one or more other authentication factors to generate a multi-factor authentication value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the multi-factor authentication value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the hardware device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  1. System and method for key generation in security tokens

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Philip G.; Humble, Travis S.; Paul, Nathanael R.

    Functional randomness in security tokens (FRIST) may achieve improved security in two-factor authentication hardware tokens by improving on the algorithms used to securely generate random data. A system and method in one embodiment according to the present invention may allow for security of a token based on storage cost and computational security. This approach may enable communication where security is no longer based solely on onetime pads (OTPs) generated from a single cryptographic function (e.g., SHA-256).

  2. Mechanisms of chronic pain - key considerations for appropriate physical therapy management.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Carol A; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Bond, Samantha

    2017-07-01

    In last decades, knowledge of nociceptive pain mechanisms has expanded rapidly. The use of quantitative sensory testing has provided evidence that peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms play a relevant role in localized and widespread chronic pain syndromes. In fact, almost any patient suffering with a chronic pain condition will demonstrate impairments in the central nervous system. In addition, it is accepted that pain is associated with different types of trigger factors including social, physiological, and psychological. This rational has provoked a change in the understanding of potential mechanisms of manual therapies, changing from a biomechanical/medical viewpoint, to a neurophysiological/nociceptive viewpoint. Therefore, interventions for patients with chronic pain should be applied based on current knowledge of nociceptive mechanisms since determining potential drivers of the sensitization process is critical for effective management. The current paper reviews mechanisms of chronic pain from a clinical and neurophysiological point of view and summarizes key messages for clinicians for proper management of individuals with chronic pain.

  3. An Efficient Identity-Based Key Management Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks Using the Bloom Filter

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Xinshuai; Feng, Kerong; Zhang, Qunfang; Huang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development and widespread adoption of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), security has become an increasingly prominent problem. How to establish a session key in node communication is a challenging task for WSNs. Considering the limitations in WSNs, such as low computing capacity, small memory, power supply limitations and price, we propose an efficient identity-based key management (IBKM) scheme, which exploits the Bloom filter to authenticate the communication sensor node with storage efficiency. The security analysis shows that IBKM can prevent several attacks effectively with acceptable computation and communication overhead. PMID:25264955

  4. Policies for managing urban growth and landscape change: a key to conservation in the 21st century

    Treesearch

    David N., tech. ed. Bengston

    2005-01-01

    Protecting natural areas in the face of urbanization is one of the most important challenges for conservation in the 21st century. The papers in this collection examine key issues related to growth management and selected approaches to managing urban growth and minimizing its social and environmental costs. They were presented at the 2004 annual meeting of the Society...

  5. Key Words for New Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taeock; Isaac, Frederick

    This paper briefly describes the effects of changes instituted by new library administrators and discusses the roles of both upper and middle level library managers in the process of adapting to change. Suggestions based on the experience of the authors as new middle level managers at a time when extensive changes were occurring in a university…

  6. An Expressive, Lightweight and Secure Construction of Key Policy Attribute-Based Cloud Data Sharing Access Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guofen; Hong, Hanshu; Xia, Yunhao; Sun, Zhixin

    2017-10-01

    Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is an interesting cryptographic technique for flexible cloud data sharing access control. However, some open challenges hinder its practical application. In previous schemes, all attributes are considered as in the same status while they are not in most of practical scenarios. Meanwhile, the size of access policy increases dramatically with the raise of its expressiveness complexity. In addition, current research hardly notices that mobile front-end devices, such as smartphones, are poor in computational performance while too much bilinear pairing computation is needed for ABE. In this paper, we propose a key-policy weighted attribute-based encryption without bilinear pairing computation (KP-WABE-WB) for secure cloud data sharing access control. A simple weighted mechanism is presented to describe different importance of each attribute. We introduce a novel construction of ABE without executing any bilinear pairing computation. Compared to previous schemes, our scheme has a better performance in expressiveness of access policy and computational efficiency.

  7. Notification: Key Management Challenges Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board - FY2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    January 21, 2016. The EPA OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2016 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  8. 10 CFR 95.18 - Key personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.18 Key personnel. The senior management official and... Clearance. Other key management officials, as determined by the CSA, must be granted an access authorization... organization's policies or practices in the performance of activities involving classified information. This...

  9. Security of Y-00 and Similar Quantum Cryptographic Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-16

    security of Y-00 type protocols is clarified. Key words: Quantum cryptography PACS: 03.67.Dd Anew approach to quantum cryptog- raphy called KCQ, ( keyed ...classical- noise key generation [2] or the well known BB84 quantum protocol [3]. A special case called αη (or Y-00 in Japan) has been experimentally in... quantum noise for typical op- erating parameters. It weakens both the data and key security , possibly information-theoretically and cer- tainly

  10. Epidemiological Data Management during an Outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease: Key Issues and Observations from Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Owada, Kei; Eckmanns, Tim; Kamara, Kande-Bure O'Bai; Olu, Olushayo Oluseun

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Leone experienced intense transmission of Ebola virus disease (EVD) from May 2014 to November 2015 during which a total of 8,704 confirmed cases and over 3,589 confirmed deaths were reported. Our field observation showed many issues in the EVD data management system, which may have contributed to the magnitude and long duration of the outbreak. In this perspective article, we explain the key issues with EVD data management in the field, and the resulting obstacles in analyzing key epidemiological indicators during the outbreak response work. Our observation showed that, during the latter part of the EVD outbreak, surveillance and data management improved at all levels in the country as compared to the earlier stage. We identified incomplete filling and late arrival of the case investigation forms at data management centers, difficulties in detecting double entries and merging identified double entries in the database, and lack of clear process of how death of confirmed cases in holding, treatment, and community care centers are reported to the data centers as some of challenges to effective data management. Furthermore, there was no consolidated database that captured and linked all data sources in a structured way. We propose development of a new application tool easily adaptable to new occurrences, regular data harmonization meetings between national and district data management teams, and establishment of a data quality audit system to assure good quality data as ways to improve EVD data management during future outbreaks.

  11. A review on the key issues for lithium-ion battery management in electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Languang; Han, Xuebing; Li, Jianqiu; Hua, Jianfeng; Ouyang, Minggao

    2013-03-01

    Compared with other commonly used batteries, lithium-ion batteries are featured by high energy density, high power density, long service life and environmental friendliness and thus have found wide application in the area of consumer electronics. However, lithium-ion batteries for vehicles have high capacity and large serial-parallel numbers, which, coupled with such problems as safety, durability, uniformity and cost, imposes limitations on the wide application of lithium-ion batteries in the vehicle. The narrow area in which lithium-ion batteries operate with safety and reliability necessitates the effective control and management of battery management system. This present paper, through the analysis of literature and in combination with our practical experience, gives a brief introduction to the composition of the battery management system (BMS) and its key issues such as battery cell voltage measurement, battery states estimation, battery uniformity and equalization, battery fault diagnosis and so on, in the hope of providing some inspirations to the design and research of the battery management system.

  12. Defining disaster resilience: comparisons from key stakeholders involved in emergency management in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul M; Spencer, Caroline; McArdle, Dudley; Archer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Three years after the introduction of the National Strategy for Disaster Resilience there remains no unanimously adopted definition of disaster resilience within Australia's emergency management sector. The aim of this study is to determine what the concept means to key stakeholders in the emergency management sector in the Australian State of Victoria, and how these conceptualisations overlap and diverge. Via an online survey, 113 people were asked how they define disaster resilience in their work in the emergency management sector. A data mining software tool, Leximancer, was employed to uncover the relationships between the definitions provided. The findings show that stakeholders see resilience as an 'ability' that encompasses emergency management activities and personal responsibility. However, the findings also highlight some possible points of conflict between stakeholders. In addition, the paper outlines and discusses a number of potential consequences for the implementation and the success of the resilience-based approach in Australia. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  13. Quantum-noise randomized data encryption for wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber-optic networks

    SciTech Connect

    Corndorf, Eric; Liang Chuang; Kanter, Gregory S.

    2005-06-15

    We demonstrate high-rate randomized data-encryption through optical fibers using the inherent quantum-measurement noise of coherent states of light. Specifically, we demonstrate 650 Mbit/s data encryption through a 10 Gbit/s data-bearing, in-line amplified 200-km-long line. In our protocol, legitimate users (who share a short secret key) communicate using an M-ry signal set while an attacker (who does not share the secret key) is forced to contend with the fundamental and irreducible quantum-measurement noise of coherent states. Implementations of our protocol using both polarization-encoded signal sets as well as polarization-insensitive phase-keyed signal sets are experimentally and theoretically evaluated. Different from the performancemore » criteria for the cryptographic objective of key generation (quantum key-generation), one possible set of performance criteria for the cryptographic objective of data encryption is established and carefully considered.« less

  14. Key principles of community-based natural resource management: a synthesis and interpretation of identified effective approaches for managing the commons.

    PubMed

    Gruber, James S

    2010-01-01

    This article examines recent research on approaches to community-based environmental and natural resource management and reviews the commonalities and differences between these interdisciplinary and multistakeholder initiatives. To identify the most effective characteristics of Community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), I collected a multiplicity of perspectives from research teams and then grouped findings into a matrix of organizational principles and key characteristics. The matrix was initially vetted (or "field tested") by applying numerous case studies that were previously submitted to the World Bank International Workshop on CBNRM. These practitioner case studies were then compared and contrasted with the findings of the research teams. It is hoped that the developed matrix may be useful to researchers in further focusing research, understanding core characteristics of effective and sustainable CBNRM, providing practitioners with a framework for developing new CBNRM initiatives for managing the commons, and providing a potential resource for academic institutions during their evaluation of their practitioner-focused environmental management and leadership curriculum.

  15. Key factors of case management interventions for frequent users of healthcare services: a thematic analysis review.

    PubMed

    Hudon, Catherine; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Lambert, Mireille; Diadiou, Fatoumata; Bouliane, Danielle; Beaudin, Jérémie

    2017-10-22

    The aim of this paper was to identify the key factors of case management (CM) interventions among frequent users of healthcare services found in empirical studies of effectiveness. Thematic analysis review of CM studies. We built on a previously published review that aimed to report the effectiveness of CM interventions for frequent users of healthcare services, using the Medline, Scopus and CINAHL databases covering the January 2004-December 2015 period, then updated to July 2017, with the keywords 'CM' and 'frequent use'. We extracted factors of successful (n=7) and unsuccessful (n=6) CM interventions and conducted a mixed thematic analysis to synthesise findings. Chaudoir's implementation of health innovations framework was used to organise results into four broad levels of factors: (1) ,environmental/organisational level, (2) practitioner level, (3) patient level and (4) programme level. Access to, and close partnerships with, healthcare providers and community services resources were key factors of successful CM interventions that should target patients with the greatest needs and promote frequent contacts with the healthcare team. The selection and training of the case manager was also an important factor to foster patient engagement in CM. Coordination of care, self-management support and assistance with care navigation were key CM activities. The main issues reported by unsuccessful CM interventions were problems with case finding or lack of care integration. CM interventions for frequent users of healthcare services should ensure adequate case finding processes, rigorous selection and training of the case manager, sufficient intensity of the intervention, as well as good care integration among all partners. Other studies could further evaluate the influence of contextual factors on intervention impacts. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  16. Key factors of case management interventions for frequent users of healthcare services: a thematic analysis review

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Chouinard, Maud-Christine; Lambert, Mireille; Diadiou, Fatoumata; Bouliane, Danielle; Beaudin, Jérémie

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper was to identify the key factors of case management (CM) interventions among frequent users of healthcare services found in empirical studies of effectiveness. Design Thematic analysis review of CM studies. Methods We built on a previously published review that aimed to report the effectiveness of CM interventions for frequent users of healthcare services, using the Medline, Scopus and CINAHL databases covering the January 2004–December 2015 period, then updated to July 2017, with the keywords ‘CM’ and ‘frequent use’. We extracted factors of successful (n=7) and unsuccessful (n=6) CM interventions and conducted a mixed thematic analysis to synthesise findings. Chaudoir’s implementation of health innovations framework was used to organise results into four broad levels of factors: (1) environmental/organisational level, (2) practitioner level, (3) patient level and (4) programme level. Results Access to, and close partnerships with, healthcare providers and community services resources were key factors of successful CM interventions that should target patients with the greatest needs and promote frequent contacts with the healthcare team. The selection and training of the case manager was also an important factor to foster patient engagement in CM. Coordination of care, self-management support and assistance with care navigation were key CM activities. The main issues reported by unsuccessful CM interventions were problems with case finding or lack of care integration. Conclusions CM interventions for frequent users of healthcare services should ensure adequate case finding processes, rigorous selection and training of the case manager, sufficient intensity of the intervention, as well as good care integration among all partners. Other studies could further evaluate the influence of contextual factors on intervention impacts. PMID:29061623

  17. Quantum key distribution network for multiple applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, A.; Kondoh, T.; Ochi, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Yoshino, K.; Iizuka, H.; Sakamoto, T.; Tomita, A.; Shimamura, E.; Asami, S.; Sasaki, M.

    2017-09-01

    The fundamental architecture and functions of secure key management in a quantum key distribution (QKD) network with enhanced universal interfaces for smooth key sharing between arbitrary two nodes and enabling multiple secure communication applications are proposed. The proposed architecture consists of three layers: a quantum layer, key management layer and key supply layer. We explain the functions of each layer, the key formats in each layer and the key lifecycle for enabling a practical QKD network. A quantum key distribution-advanced encryption standard (QKD-AES) hybrid system and an encrypted smartphone system were developed as secure communication applications on our QKD network. The validity and usefulness of these systems were demonstrated on the Tokyo QKD Network testbed.

  18. DNA Cryptography and Deep Learning using Genetic Algorithm with NW algorithm for Key Generation.

    PubMed

    Kalsi, Shruti; Kaur, Harleen; Chang, Victor

    2017-12-05

    Cryptography is not only a science of applying complex mathematics and logic to design strong methods to hide data called as encryption, but also to retrieve the original data back, called decryption. The purpose of cryptography is to transmit a message between a sender and receiver such that an eavesdropper is unable to comprehend it. To accomplish this, not only we need a strong algorithm, but a strong key and a strong concept for encryption and decryption process. We have introduced a concept of DNA Deep Learning Cryptography which is defined as a technique of concealing data in terms of DNA sequence and deep learning. In the cryptographic technique, each alphabet of a letter is converted into a different combination of the four bases, namely; Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G) and Thymine (T), which make up the human deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Actual implementations with the DNA don't exceed laboratory level and are expensive. To bring DNA computing on a digital level, easy and effective algorithms are proposed in this paper. In proposed work we have introduced firstly, a method and its implementation for key generation based on the theory of natural selection using Genetic Algorithm with Needleman-Wunsch (NW) algorithm and Secondly, a method for implementation of encryption and decryption based on DNA computing using biological operations Transcription, Translation, DNA Sequencing and Deep Learning.

  19. Free-space quantum key distribution by rotation-invariant twisted photons.

    PubMed

    Vallone, Giuseppe; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Sponselli, Anna; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Villoresi, Paolo

    2014-08-08

    "Twisted photons" are photons carrying a well-defined nonzero value of orbital angular momentum (OAM). The associated optical wave exhibits a helical shape of the wavefront (hence the name) and an optical vortex at the beam axis. The OAM of light is attracting a growing interest for its potential in photonic applications ranging from particle manipulation, microscopy, and nanotechnologies to fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, classical data multiplexing, and quantum communication. Hitherto, however, all results obtained with optical OAM were limited to laboratory scale. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of a link for free-space quantum communication with OAM operating over a distance of 210 m. Our method exploits OAM in combination with optical polarization to encode the information in rotation-invariant photonic states, so as to guarantee full independence of the communication from the local reference frames of the transmitting and receiving units. In particular, we implement quantum key distribution, a protocol exploiting the features of quantum mechanics to guarantee unconditional security in cryptographic communication, demonstrating error-rate performances that are fully compatible with real-world application requirements. Our results extend previous achievements of OAM-based quantum communication by over 2 orders of magnitude in the link scale, providing an important step forward in achieving the vision of a worldwide quantum network.

  20. Free-Space Quantum Key Distribution by Rotation-Invariant Twisted Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Sponselli, Anna; Slussarenko, Sergei; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Villoresi, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    "Twisted photons" are photons carrying a well-defined nonzero value of orbital angular momentum (OAM). The associated optical wave exhibits a helical shape of the wavefront (hence the name) and an optical vortex at the beam axis. The OAM of light is attracting a growing interest for its potential in photonic applications ranging from particle manipulation, microscopy, and nanotechnologies to fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, classical data multiplexing, and quantum communication. Hitherto, however, all results obtained with optical OAM were limited to laboratory scale. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of a link for free-space quantum communication with OAM operating over a distance of 210 m. Our method exploits OAM in combination with optical polarization to encode the information in rotation-invariant photonic states, so as to guarantee full independence of the communication from the local reference frames of the transmitting and receiving units. In particular, we implement quantum key distribution, a protocol exploiting the features of quantum mechanics to guarantee unconditional security in cryptographic communication, demonstrating error-rate performances that are fully compatible with real-world application requirements. Our results extend previous achievements of OAM-based quantum communication by over 2 orders of magnitude in the link scale, providing an important step forward in achieving the vision of a worldwide quantum network.

  1. Multi-agent system as a new approach to effective chronic heart failure management: key considerations.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Safdari, Reza; Rahimi, Azin

    2013-09-01

    Given the importance of the follow-up of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients to reduce common causes of re-admission and deterioration of their status that lead to imposing spiritual and physical costs on patients and society, modern technology tools should be used to the best advantage. The aim of this article is to explain key points which should be considered in designing an appropriate multi-agent system to improve CHF management. In this literature review articles were searched with keywords like multi-agent system, heart failure, chronic disease management in Science Direct, Google Scholar and PubMed databases without regard to the year of publications. Agents are an innovation in the field of artificial intelligence. Because agents are capable of solving complex and dynamic health problems, to take full advantage of e-Health, the healthcare system must take steps to make use of this technology. Key factors in CHF management through a multi-agent system approach must be considered such as organization, confidentiality in general aspects and design and architecture points in specific aspects. Note that use of agent systems only with a technical view is associated with many problems. Hence, in delivering healthcare to CHF patients, considering social and human aspects is essential. It is obvious that identifying and resolving technical and non-technical challenges is vital in the successful implementation of this technology.

  2. Group assessment of key indicators of sustainable waste management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tot, Bojana; Vujić, Goran; Srđević, Zorica; Ubavin, Dejan; Russo, Mário Augusto Tavares

    2017-09-01

    Decision makers in developing countries are struggling to solve the present problems of solid waste management. Prioritisation and ranking of the most important indicators that influence the waste management system is very useful for any decision maker for the future planning and implementation of a sustainable waste management system. The aim of this study is to evaluate key indicators and their related sub-indicators in a group decision-making environment. In order to gain insight into the subject it was necessary to obtain the qualified opinions of decision makers from different countries who understand the situation in the sector of waste management in developing countries. An assessment is performed by 43 decision makers from both developed and developing countries, and the applied methodology is based on a combined use of the analytic hierarchy process, from the multi-criteria decision-making set of tools, and the preferential voting method known as Borda Count, which belongs to social choice theory. Pairwise comparison of indicators is performed with the analytic hierarchy process, and the ranking of indicators once obtained is assessed with Borda Count. Detailed analysis of the final results showed that the Institutional-Administrative indicator was the most important one, with the maximum weight as derived by both groups of decision makers. The results also showed that the combined use of the analytic hierarchy process and Borda Count contributes to the credibility and objectivity of the decision-making process, allowing its use in more complex waste management group decision-making problems to be recommended.

  3. Quantum Cryptography for Secure Communications to Low-Earth Orbit Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.

    1999-06-03

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection. Key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit. We have developed an experimental quantum cryptography system based on the transmissionmore » of non-orthogonal single-photon polarization states to generate shared key material over line-of-sight optical links. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on in orbit.« less

  4. Combining Cryptography with EEG Biometrics

    PubMed Central

    Kazanavičius, Egidijus; Woźniak, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Cryptographic frameworks depend on key sharing for ensuring security of data. While the keys in cryptographic frameworks must be correctly reproducible and not unequivocally connected to the identity of a user, in biometric frameworks this is different. Joining cryptography techniques with biometrics can solve these issues. We present a biometric authentication method based on the discrete logarithm problem and Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes, perform its security analysis, and demonstrate its security characteristics. We evaluate a biometric cryptosystem using our own dataset of electroencephalography (EEG) data collected from 42 subjects. The experimental results show that the described biometric user authentication system is effective, achieving an Equal Error Rate (ERR) of 0.024.

  5. Combining Cryptography with EEG Biometrics.

    PubMed

    Damaševičius, Robertas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis; Kazanavičius, Egidijus; Woźniak, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Cryptographic frameworks depend on key sharing for ensuring security of data. While the keys in cryptographic frameworks must be correctly reproducible and not unequivocally connected to the identity of a user, in biometric frameworks this is different. Joining cryptography techniques with biometrics can solve these issues. We present a biometric authentication method based on the discrete logarithm problem and Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes, perform its security analysis, and demonstrate its security characteristics. We evaluate a biometric cryptosystem using our own dataset of electroencephalography (EEG) data collected from 42 subjects. The experimental results show that the described biometric user authentication system is effective, achieving an Equal Error Rate (ERR) of 0.024.

  6. Open Mobile Alliance Secure Content Exchange: Introducing Key Management Constructs and Protocols for Compromise-Resilient Easing of DRM Restrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravitz, David William

    This paper presents an insider's view of the rationale and the cryptographic mechanics of some principal elements of the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Secure Content Exchange (SCE) Technical Specifications. A primary goal is to enable implementation of a configurable methodology that quarantines the effects that unknown-compromised entities have on still-compliant entities in the system, while allowing import from upstream protection systems and multi-client reuse of Rights Objects that grant access to plaintext content. This has to be done without breaking compatibility with the underlying legacy OMA DRM v2.0/v2.1 Technical Specifications. It is also required that legacy devices can take at least partial advantage of the new import functionality, and can request the creation of SCE-compatible Rights Objects and utilize Rights Objects created upon request of SCE-conformant devices. This must be done in a way that the roles played by newly defined entities unrecognizable by legacy devices remain hidden.

  7. A Secure Information Framework with APRQ Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupa, Ch.

    2017-08-01

    Internet of the things is the most trending topics in the digital world. Security issues are rampant. In the corporate or institutional setting, security risks are apparent from the outset. Market leaders are unable to use the cryptographic techniques due to their complexities. Hence many bits of private information, including ID, are readily available for third parties to see and to utilize. There is a need to decrease the complexity and increase the robustness of the cryptographic approaches. In view of this, a new cryptographic technique as good encryption pact with adjacency, random prime number and quantum code properties has been proposed. Here, encryption can be done by using quantum photons with gray code. This approach uses the concepts of physics and mathematics with no external key exchange to improve the security of the data. It also reduces the key attacks by generation of a key at the party side instead of sharing. This method makes the security more robust than with the existing approach. Important properties of gray code and quantum are adjacency property and different photons to a single bit (0 or 1). These can reduce the avalanche effect. Cryptanalysis of the proposed method shows that it is resistant to various attacks and stronger than the existing approaches.

  8. Random ambience using high fidelity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu, Nur Azman; Sahib, Shahrin

    2011-06-01

    Most of the secure communication nowadays mandates true random keys as an input. These operations are mostly designed and taken care of by the developers of the cryptosystem. Due to the nature of confidential crypto development today, pseudorandom keys are typically designed and still preferred by the developers of the cryptosystem. However, these pseudorandom keys are predictable, periodic and repeatable, hence they carry minimal entropy. True random keys are believed to be generated only via hardware random number generators. Careful statistical analysis is still required to have any confidence the process and apparatus generates numbers that are sufficiently random to suit the cryptographic use. In this underlying research, each moment in life is considered unique in itself. The random key is unique for the given moment generated by the user whenever he or she needs the random keys in practical secure communication. An ambience of high fidelity digital image shall be tested for its randomness according to the NIST Statistical Test Suite. Recommendation on generating a simple 4 megabits per second random cryptographic keys live shall be reported.

  9. Breaking down the barriers of using strong authentication and encryption in resource constrained embedded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobler, Ron; Scheffel, Peter; Jackson, Scott; Gaj, Kris; Kaps, Jens Peter

    2013-05-01

    Various embedded systems, such as unattended ground sensors (UGS), are deployed in dangerous areas, where they are subject to compromise. Since numerous systems contain a network of devices that communicate with each other (often times with commercial off the shelf [COTS] radios), an adversary is able to intercept messages between system devices, which jeopardizes sensitive information transmitted by the system (e.g. location of system devices). Secret key algorithms such as AES are a very common means to encrypt all system messages to a sufficient security level, for which lightweight implementations exist for even very resource constrained devices. However, all system devices must use the appropriate key to encrypt and decrypt messages from each other. While traditional public key algorithms (PKAs), such as RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), provide a sufficiently secure means to provide authentication and a means to exchange keys, these traditional PKAs are not suitable for very resource constrained embedded systems or systems which contain low reliability communication links (e.g. mesh networks), especially as the size of the network increases. Therefore, most UGS and other embedded systems resort to pre-placed keys (PPKs) or other naïve schemes which greatly reduce the security and effectiveness of the overall cryptographic approach. McQ has teamed with the Cryptographic Engineering Research Group (CERG) at George Mason University (GMU) to develop an approach using revolutionary cryptographic techniques that provides both authentication and encryption, but on resource constrained embedded devices, without the burden of large amounts of key distribution or storage.

  10. NREL Makes Key Appointments

    Science.gov Websites

    Makes Key Appointments Staffing for Distributed Energy and Tech Management Announced For more information contact: Gary Schmitz, 303-275-4050 email: Gary Schmitz Golden, Colo., Feb. 28, 2001 - Two reorganized Planning and Technology Management Division. Anthony Schaffhauser has been selected to become

  11. Multi-Agent System as a New Approach to Effective Chronic Heart Failure Management: Key Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Rahimi, Azin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Given the importance of the follow-up of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients to reduce common causes of re-admission and deterioration of their status that lead to imposing spiritual and physical costs on patients and society, modern technology tools should be used to the best advantage. The aim of this article is to explain key points which should be considered in designing an appropriate multi-agent system to improve CHF management. Methods In this literature review articles were searched with keywords like multi-agent system, heart failure, chronic disease management in Science Direct, Google Scholar and PubMed databases without regard to the year of publications. Results Agents are an innovation in the field of artificial intelligence. Because agents are capable of solving complex and dynamic health problems, to take full advantage of e-Health, the healthcare system must take steps to make use of this technology. Key factors in CHF management through a multi-agent system approach must be considered such as organization, confidentiality in general aspects and design and architecture points in specific aspects. Conclusions Note that use of agent systems only with a technical view is associated with many problems. Hence, in delivering healthcare to CHF patients, considering social and human aspects is essential. It is obvious that identifying and resolving technical and non-technical challenges is vital in the successful implementation of this technology. PMID:24195010

  12. Analyzing the Effectiveness of the Self-organized Public-Key Management System on MANETs under the Lack of Cooperation and the Impersonation Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Eduardo; Dos Santos, Aldri Luiz; Lima, Michele N.; Albini, Luiz Carlos Pessoa

    Among the key management schemes for MANETs, the Self-Organized Public-Key Management System (PGP-Like) is the main chaining-based key management scheme. It is fully self-organized and does not require any certificate authority. Two kinds of misbehavior attacks are considered to be great threats to PGP-Like: lack of cooperation and impersonation attacks. This work quantifies the impact of such attacks on the PGP-Like. Simulation results show that PGP-Like was able to maintain its effectiveness when submitted to the lack of cooperation attack, contradicting previously theoretical results. It correctly works even in the presence of more than 60% of misbehaving nodes, although the convergence time is affected with only 20% of misbehaving nodes. On the other hand, PGP-Like is completely vulnerable to the impersonation attack. Its functionality is affected with just 5% of misbehaving nodes, confirming previously theoretical results.

  13. Key Intersections between HRD and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Toby M.

    2011-01-01

    This article is in part inspired by an HRD director's insight that his HRD staff should view themselves as HRD Family Doctors, suggesting that a doctor-patient relationship was similar in many respects to the HRD-manager consulting relationship. Although that is possible in some organizations, the author's interviews with corporate managers and…

  14. Soil management: The key to soil quality and sustainable agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basch, Gottlieb; Barão, Lúcia; Soares, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Today, after the International Year of Soils in 2015 and the proclamation by the International Union of Soil Sciences of the International Decade of Soils 2015-2020, much attention is paid to soil quality. Often used interchangeably, both terms, soil quality and soil health, refer to dynamic soil properties such as soil organic matter or pH, while soil quality also includes inherent soil properties such as texture or mineral composition. However, it is the dynamic or manageable properties that adequate soil management can influence and thus contribute to a well-functioning soil environment capable to deliver the soil-mediated provisioning, regulating and supporting ecosystem services and soil functions. This contribution intends to highlight the key principles of sustainable soil management and provide evidence that they are compliant with a productive, resource efficient and ecologically friendly agriculture. Paradoxically, and despite benefitting from good soil quality, agriculture itself when based on conventional, especially intensive tillage-based soil management practices contributes decisively to soil degradation and to several of the soil threats as identified by the Soil Thematic Strategy, being soil erosion and soil organic matter decline the most notorious ones. To mitigate soil degradation, the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy has introduced conservation measures, mainly through cross-compliance measures supposed to guarantee minimum soil cover, to limit soil erosion and to maintain the levels of soil organic matter. However, it remains unclear to what extent EU member states apply these 'Good Agricultural and Environmental Condition' (GAEC) measures to their utilized agricultural areas. Effective and cost-efficient soil management systems able to conserve or to restore favourable soil conditions, to minimize soil erosion and to invert soil organic matter and soil biodiversity decline and improve soil structure are those capable to mimic as

  15. The Proposal of Key Performance Indicators in Facility Management and Determination the Weights of Significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbalová, Jarmila; Vilčeková, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    The practice of facilities management is rapidly evolving with the increasing interest in the discourse of sustainable development. The industry and its market are forecasted to develop to include non-core functions, activities traditionally not associated with this profession, but which are increasingly being addressed by facilities managers. The scale of growth in the built environment and the consequential growth of the facility management sector is anticipated to be enormous. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are measure that provides essential information about performance of facility services delivery. In selecting KPI, it is critical to limit them to those factors that are essential to the organization reaching its goals. It is also important to keep the number of KPI small just to keep everyone's attention focused on achieving the same KPIs. This paper deals with the determination of weights of KPI of FM in terms of the design and use of sustainable buildings.

  16. RETRACTED: The Application of Symmetric Key Cryptographic Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Lingling; Ji, Zhigang; Wang, Zhihui

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Publisher. The authors have plagiarized a paper that had already appeared in "Queen's 25th Biennial Symposium on Communications", page 168-172, print ISBN 978-1-4244-5709-0, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/BSC.2010.5472979. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  17. KEY ITEMS OF INNOVATION MANAGEMENT IN THE PRIMARY HEALTHCARE CENTRES CASE STUDY: FINLAND.

    PubMed

    Aslani, Alireza; Zolfagharzadeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Naaranoja, Marja

    2015-09-01

    Trends such as aging populations, excess costs, rising public expectations, and progress in medical science and technologies point out the necessity of adaptation and development of innovation in the healthcare systems particularly in developed countries. The main objective of this article is to review diffusion of innovation in the healthcare sector. Different types of innovation, diffusion characteristics, and adoption mechanisms are the subjects that are discussed in the selected case study, Finland. Finally, the key items of innovation management in the Finnish health system are introduced. The results can be implemented in other countries as well.

  18. 49 CFR 236.1033 - Communications and security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall: (1) Use an algorithm approved by the National Institute of Standards (NIST) or a similarly...; or (ii) When the key algorithm reaches its lifespan as defined by the standards body responsible for approval of the algorithm. (c) The cleartext form of the cryptographic keys shall be protected from...

  19. 49 CFR 236.1033 - Communications and security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall: (1) Use an algorithm approved by the National Institute of Standards (NIST) or a similarly...; or (ii) When the key algorithm reaches its lifespan as defined by the standards body responsible for approval of the algorithm. (c) The cleartext form of the cryptographic keys shall be protected from...

  20. 49 CFR 236.1033 - Communications and security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shall: (1) Use an algorithm approved by the National Institute of Standards (NIST) or a similarly...; or (ii) When the key algorithm reaches its lifespan as defined by the standards body responsible for approval of the algorithm. (c) The cleartext form of the cryptographic keys shall be protected from...

  1. 49 CFR 236.1033 - Communications and security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shall: (1) Use an algorithm approved by the National Institute of Standards (NIST) or a similarly...; or (ii) When the key algorithm reaches its lifespan as defined by the standards body responsible for approval of the algorithm. (c) The cleartext form of the cryptographic keys shall be protected from...

  2. 49 CFR 236.1033 - Communications and security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall: (1) Use an algorithm approved by the National Institute of Standards (NIST) or a similarly...; or (ii) When the key algorithm reaches its lifespan as defined by the standards body responsible for approval of the algorithm. (c) The cleartext form of the cryptographic keys shall be protected from...

  3. Digital rights management for digital cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirovski, Darko; Peinado, Marcus; Petitcolas, Fabien A. P.

    2001-12-01

    There is a wide consensus among the feature film production studios that the Internet era brings a new paradigm for film distribution to cinemas worldwide. The benefits of digital cinema to both producers and cinemas are numerous: significantly lower distribution and maintenance costs, immediate access to film libraries, higher presentation quality, and strong potential for developing new business models. Despite these advantages, the studios are still reluctant to jump into the digital age. The main showstopper for digital cinema is the danger of widespread piracy. Piracy already costs Hollywood an estimated two billion dollars annually and digital cinema without proper copyright enforcement could increase this number. In this paper, we present a copyright management system that aims at providing the set of necessary security tools: standard cryptographic primitives and copyright protection mechanisms that enable a reliable and secure feature film delivery system.

  4. [Discussion on developing a data management plan and its key factors in clinical study based on electronic data capture system].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-na; Huang, Xiu-ling; Gao, Rui; Lu, Fang

    2012-08-01

    Data management has significant impact on the quality control of clinical studies. Every clinical study should have a data management plan to provide overall work instructions and ensure that all of these tasks are completed according to the Good Clinical Data Management Practice (GCDMP). Meanwhile, the data management plan (DMP) is an auditable document requested by regulatory inspectors and must be written in a manner that is realistic and of high quality. The significance of DMP, the minimum standards and the best practices provided by GCDMP, the main contents of DMP based on electronic data capture (EDC) and some key factors of DMP influencing the quality of clinical study were elaborated in this paper. Specifically, DMP generally consists of 15 parts, namely, the approval page, the protocol summary, role and training, timelines, database design, creation, maintenance and security, data entry, data validation, quality control and quality assurance, the management of external data, serious adverse event data reconciliation, coding, database lock, data management reports, the communication plan and the abbreviated terms. Among them, the following three parts are regarded as the key factors: designing a standardized database of the clinical study, entering data in time and cleansing data efficiently. In the last part of this article, the authors also analyzed the problems in clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine using the EDC system and put forward some suggestions for improvement.

  5. SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    This report contains papers on the following topics: NREN Security Issues: Policies and Technologies; Layer Wars: Protect the Internet with Network Layer Security; Electronic Commission Management; Workflow 2000 - Electronic Document Authorization in Practice; Security Issues of a UNIX PEM Implementation; Implementing Privacy Enhanced Mail on VMS; Distributed Public Key Certificate Management; Protecting the Integrity of Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail; Practical Authorization in Large Heterogeneous Distributed Systems; Security Issues in the Truffles File System; Issues surrounding the use of Cryptographic Algorithms and Smart Card Applications; Smart Card Augmentation of Kerberos; and An Overview of the Advanced Smart Card Access Control System.more » Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.« less

  6. 6 Keys to Identity Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Idan

    2011-01-01

    An Identity and Access Management (IAM) project on campus can feel like a Sisyphean task: Just when access rights have finally been sorted out, the semester ends--and users change roles, leave campus, or require new processes. IT departments face a constantly changing technical landscape: (1) integrating new applications and retiring old ones; (2)…

  7. On protection against a bright-pulse attack in the two-pass quantum cryptography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balygin, K. A.; Klimov, A. N.; Korol'kov, A. V.; Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.

    2016-06-01

    The security of keys in quantum cryptography systems, in contrast to mathematical cryptographic algorithms, is guaranteed by fundamental quantum-mechanical laws. However, the cryptographic resistance of such systems, which are distributed physical devices, fundamentally depends on the method of their implementation and particularly on the calibration and control of critical parameters. The most important parameter is the number of photons in quasi-single-photon information states in a communication channel. The sensitivity to a bright-pulse attack has been demonstrated in an explicit form for a number of systems. A method guaranteeing the resistance to such attacks has been proposed and implemented. Furthermore, the relation of physical observables used and obtained at the control of quantum states to the length of final secret keys has been obtained for the first time.

  8. Authentication and Encryption Using Modified Elliptic Curve Cryptography with Particle Swarm Optimization and Cuckoo Search Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kota, Sujatha; Padmanabhuni, Venkata Nageswara Rao; Budda, Kishor; K, Sruthi

    2018-05-01

    Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) uses two keys private key and public key and is considered as a public key cryptographic algorithm that is used for both authentication of a person and confidentiality of data. Either one of the keys is used in encryption and other in decryption depending on usage. Private key is used in encryption by the user and public key is used to identify user in the case of authentication. Similarly, the sender encrypts with the private key and the public key is used to decrypt the message in case of confidentiality. Choosing the private key is always an issue in all public key Cryptographic Algorithms such as RSA, ECC. If tiny values are chosen in random the security of the complete algorithm becomes an issue. Since the Public key is computed based on the Private Key, if they are not chosen optimally they generate infinity values. The proposed Modified Elliptic Curve Cryptography uses selection in either of the choices; the first option is by using Particle Swarm Optimization and the second option is by using Cuckoo Search Algorithm for randomly choosing the values. The proposed algorithms are developed and tested using sample database and both are found to be secured and reliable. The test results prove that the private key is chosen optimally not repetitive or tiny and the computations in public key will not reach infinity.

  9. The key incident monitoring and management system - history and role in quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Badrick, Tony; Gay, Stephanie; Mackay, Mark; Sikaris, Ken

    2018-01-26

    The determination of reliable, practical Quality Indicators (QIs) from presentation of the patient with a pathology request form through to the clinician receiving the report (the Total Testing Process or TTP) is a key step in identifying areas where improvement is necessary in laboratories. The Australasian QIs programme Key Incident Monitoring and Management System (KIMMS) began in 2008. It records incidents (process defects) and episodes (occasions at which incidents may occur) to calculate incident rates. KIMMS also uses the Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) to assign quantified risk to each incident type. The system defines risk as incident frequency multiplied by both a harm rating (on a 1-10 scale) and detection difficulty score (also a 1-10 scale). Between 2008 and 2016, laboratories participating rose from 22 to 69. Episodes rose from 13.2 to 43.4 million; incidents rose from 114,082 to 756,432. We attribute the rise in incident rate from 0.86% to 1.75% to increased monitoring. Haemolysis shows the highest incidence (22.6% of total incidents) and the highest risk (26.68% of total risk). "Sample is suspected to be from the wrong patient" has the second lowest frequency, but receives the highest harm rating (10/10) and detection difficulty score (10/10), so it is calculated to be the 8th highest risk (2.92%). Similarly, retracted (incorrect) reports QI has the 10th highest frequency (3.9%) but the harm/difficulty calculation confers the second highest risk (11.17%). TTP incident rates are generally low (less than 2% of observed episodes), however, incident risks, their frequencies multiplied by both ratings of harm and discovery difficulty scores, concentrate improvement attention and resources on the monitored incident types most important to manage.

  10. Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Group Key Management Integrated with Adaptive Intrusion Detection in Mobile ad hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-05

    applications in wireless networks such as military battlefields, emergency response, mobile commerce , online gaming, and collaborative work are based on the...www.elsevier.com/locate/peva Performance analysis of hierarchical group key management integrated with adaptive intrusion detection in mobile ad hoc...Accepted 19 September 2010 Available online 26 September 2010 Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks Intrusion detection Group communication systems Group

  11. Authenticity techniques for PACS images and records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Stephen T. C.; Abundo, Marco; Huang, H. K.

    1995-05-01

    Along with the digital radiology environment supported by picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) comes a new problem: How to establish trust in multimedia medical data that exist only in the easily altered memory of a computer. Trust is characterized in terms of integrity and privacy of digital data. Two major self-enforcing techniques can be used to assure the authenticity of electronic images and text -- key-based cryptography and digital time stamping. Key-based cryptography associates the content of an image with the originator using one or two distinct keys and prevents alteration of the document by anyone other than the originator. A digital time stamping algorithm generates a characteristic `digital fingerprint' for the original document using a mathematical hash function, and checks that it has not been modified. This paper discusses these cryptographic algorithms and their appropriateness for a PACS environment. It also presents experimental results of cryptographic algorithms on several imaging modalities.

  12. An Energy-Efficient Secure Routing and Key Management Scheme for Mobile Sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Deployment Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Le Xuan; Canh, Ngo Trong; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Heejo

    2008-01-01

    For many sensor network applications such as military or homeland security, it is essential for users (sinks) to access the sensor network while they are moving. Sink mobility brings new challenges to secure routing in large-scale sensor networks. Previous studies on sink mobility have mainly focused on efficiency and effectiveness of data dissemination without security consideration. Also, studies and experiences have shown that considering security during design time is the best way to provide security for sensor network routing. This paper presents an energy-efficient secure routing and key management for mobile sinks in sensor networks, called SCODEplus. It is a significant extension of our previous study in five aspects: (1) Key management scheme and routing protocol are considered during design time to increase security and efficiency; (2) The network topology is organized in a hexagonal plane which supports more efficiency than previous square-grid topology; (3) The key management scheme can eliminate the impacts of node compromise attacks on links between non-compromised nodes; (4) Sensor node deployment is based on Gaussian distribution which is more realistic than uniform distribution; (5) No GPS or like is required to provide sensor node location information. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme can defend against common attacks in sensor networks including node compromise attacks, replay attacks, selective forwarding attacks, sinkhole and wormhole, Sybil attacks, HELLO flood attacks. Both mathematical and simulation-based performance evaluation show that the SCODEplus significantly reduces the communication overhead, energy consumption, packet delivery latency while it always delivers more than 97 percent of packets successfully. PMID:27873956

  13. An Energy-Efficient Secure Routing and Key Management Scheme for Mobile Sinks in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Deployment Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hung, Le Xuan; Canh, Ngo Trong; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Heejo

    2008-12-03

    For many sensor network applications such as military or homeland security, it is essential for users (sinks) to access the sensor network while they are moving. Sink mobility brings new challenges to secure routing in large-scale sensor networks. Previous studies on sink mobility have mainly focused on efficiency and effectiveness of data dissemination without security consideration. Also, studies and experiences have shown that considering security during design time is the best way to provide security for sensor network routing. This paper presents an energy-efficient secure routing and key management for mobile sinks in sensor networks, called SCODE plus . It is a significant extension of our previous study in five aspects: (1) Key management scheme and routing protocol are considered during design time to increase security and efficiency; (2) The network topology is organized in a hexagonal plane which supports more efficiency than previous square-grid topology; (3) The key management scheme can eliminate the impacts of node compromise attacks on links between non-compromised nodes; (4) Sensor node deployment is based on Gaussian distribution which is more realistic than uniform distribution; (5) No GPS or like is required to provide sensor node location information. Our security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme can defend against common attacks in sensor networks including node compromise attacks, replay attacks, selective forwarding attacks, sinkhole and wormhole, Sybil attacks, HELLO flood attacks. Both mathematical and simulation-based performance evaluation show that the SCODE plus significantly reduces the communication overhead, energy consumption, packet delivery latency while it always delivers more than 97 percent of packets successfully.

  14. Careful assessment key in managing prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Gujadhur, Rahul; Aning, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Prostatitis is a common condition estimated to affect up to 30% of men in their lifetime, it is most prevalent in men aged between 35 and 50. Prostatitis is subclassified into: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic pelvic pain and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis. Acute bacterial prostatitis presents with acute onset pelvic pain which may or may not be related to voiding, lower urinary tract symptoms, sometimes haematuria or haematospermia and systemic symptoms such as fever and rigors. A documented history of recurrent urinary tract infections is the key feature of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Duration of symptoms > 3 months defines chronicity. The key symptom of chronic pelvic pain syndrome is pain. Patients may describe pain during or after ejaculation as their predominant symptom. Clinical assessment includes a thorough history and examination. A digital rectal examination should be performed after a midstream urine (MSU) sample has been collected for urine dipstick, microscopy and culture. The prostate should be checked for nodules. In acute bacterial prostatitis the MSU is the only laboratory investigation required. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome may be multifactorial and part of a more generalised pain disorder. Pelvic floor muscle abnormalities, altered neuroendocrine pathways, chemically induced inflammation, bacterial infection, autoimmune processes, dysfunctional voiding as well intraprostatic ductal reflux mechanisms have all been identified in men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

  15. Practical Quantum Cryptography for Secure Free-Space Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Buttler, W.T.; Hughes, R.J.; Kwiat, P.G.

    1999-02-01

    Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics and information-theoretically secure post-processing methods. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental free-space system with which we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of quantum key generation overmore » a point-to-point outdoor atmospheric path in daylight. We achieved a transmission distance of 0.5 km, which was limited only by the length of the test range. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on orbit. We present a feasibility analysis of surface-to-satellite quantum key generation.« less

  16. FREE-SPACE QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY IN DAYLIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.

    2000-01-01

    Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generate shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light. The security of these transmissions is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics and information-theoretically secure post-processing methods. An adversary can neither successfully tap the quantum transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. In this paper we describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from our experimental free-space system with which we have demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of quantum key generation overmore » a point-to-point outdoor atmospheric path in daylight. We achieved a transmission distance of 0.5 km, which was limited only by the length of the test range. Our results provide strong evidence that cryptographic key material could be generated on demand between a ground station and a satellite (or between two satellites), allowing a satellite to be securely re-keyed on orbit. We present a feasibility analysis of surface-to-satellite quantum key generation.« less

  17. Reset Tree-Based Optical Fault Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Geon; Choi, Dooho; Seo, Jungtaek; Kim, Howon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new reset tree-based scheme to protect cryptographic hardware against optical fault injection attacks. As one of the most powerful invasive attacks on cryptographic hardware, optical fault attacks cause semiconductors to misbehave by injecting high-energy light into a decapped integrated circuit. The contaminated result from the affected chip is then used to reveal secret information, such as a key, from the cryptographic hardware. Since the advent of such attacks, various countermeasures have been proposed. Although most of these countermeasures are strong, there is still the possibility of attack. In this paper, we present a novel optical fault detection scheme that utilizes the buffers on a circuit's reset signal tree as a fault detection sensor. To evaluate our proposal, we model radiation-induced currents into circuit components and perform a SPICE simulation. The proposed scheme is expected to be used as a supplemental security tool. PMID:23698267

  18. A Survey of Managers' Access to Key Performance Indicators via HIS: The Case of Iranian Teaching Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Maryam; Khorrami, Farid; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Golchin, Mohammad H; Azad, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shafei

    2018-01-01

    The challenges of using health information systems in developing countries are different from developed countries for various reasons such as infrastructure and data culture of organizations. The aim of this study is to assess managers' access to key performance indicators (KPI) via Hospital Information System (HIS) in teaching hospitals of Iran. All managers (Census method) of the four teaching hospitals affiliated to Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences (HUMS) were included in this study. KPIs which are linked to the strategic objectives of organizations were adopted from the strategic plan of HUMS. The questionnaire used in this study included three categories: Financial, Human Resources and clinical. One-sample t-test was used and the significant difference score was calculated for the acceptable level. We found that HIS cannot facilitate access to KPIs for managers in the main categories, but it was effective in two subcategories of income (p = 0.314) and salary (P = 0.289)). A study of barriers to the use of managers of HIS in hospitals is suggested.

  19. Federal Plan for Cyber Security and Information Assurance Research and Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    Security Systems 103 varieties of the BB84 scheme have been developed, and other forms of quantum key distribution have been proposed. Rapid progress has led... key . Capability Gaps Existing quantum cryptographic protocols may also have weaknesses. Although BB84 is generally regarded as secure , researchers...complement agency-specific prioritization and R&D planning efforts in cyber security and information assurance. The Plan also describes the key Federal

  20. KeyWare: an open wireless distributed computing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpantzer, Isaac; Schoenfeld, Larry; Grindahl, Merv; Kelman, Vladimir

    1995-12-01

    Deployment of distributed applications in the wireless domain lack equivalent tools, methodologies, architectures, and network management that exist in LAN based applications. A wireless distributed computing environment (KeyWareTM) based on intelligent agents within a multiple client multiple server scheme was developed to resolve this problem. KeyWare renders concurrent application services to wireline and wireless client nodes encapsulated in multiple paradigms such as message delivery, database access, e-mail, and file transfer. These services and paradigms are optimized to cope with temporal and spatial radio coverage, high latency, limited throughput and transmission costs. A unified network management paradigm for both wireless and wireline facilitates seamless extensions of LAN- based management tools to include wireless nodes. A set of object oriented tools and methodologies enables direct asynchronous invocation of agent-based services supplemented by tool-sets matched to supported KeyWare paradigms. The open architecture embodiment of KeyWare enables a wide selection of client node computing platforms, operating systems, transport protocols, radio modems and infrastructures while maintaining application portability.

  1. 76 FR 11433 - Federal Transition To Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)-256

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... generating digital signatures. Current information systems, Web servers, applications and workstation operating systems were designed to process, and use SHA-1 generated signatures. National Institute of... cryptographic keys, and more robust algorithms by December 2013. Government systems may begin to encounter...

  2. Research on key technology of prognostic and health management for autonomous underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi

    2017-12-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are non-cable and autonomous motional underwater robotics. With a wide range of activities, it can reach thousands of kilometers. Because it has the advantages of wide range, good maneuverability, safety and intellectualization, it becomes an important tool for various underwater tasks. How to improve diagnosis accuracy of the AUVs electrical system faults, and how to repair AUVs by the information are the focus of navy in the world. In turn, ensuring safe and reliable operation of the system has very important significance to improve AUVs sailing performance. To solve these problems, in the paper the prognostic and health management(PHM) technology is researched and used to AUV, and the overall framework and key technology are proposed, such as data acquisition, feature extraction, fault diagnosis, failure prediction and so on.

  3. Higher Education Management. The Key Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David, Ed.; Palfreyman, David, Ed.

    This book presents the views of 15 individual authors on the principles of management in higher education from a British perspective. Preliminary material includes brief biographical sketches of each contributing author and a list of selected abbreviations. Individual chapters are: (1) "Setting the Scene" (David Palfreyman and David…

  4. Trend analysis of key solvency ratios for health plans in Medicaid managed care.

    PubMed

    McCue, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this article is to assess the solvency of health plans that manage Medicaid members across key plan traits, specifically Medicaid dominant or plans with more than 75 percent Medicaid members, and plans owned by publicly traded companies, and sponsored by health care providers. The study accessed National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) financial data and computed key solvency ratios for 117 Medicaid health plans over a five-year time trend from 2007 to 2011. A mean test compared the mean values for each year and for the entire study period on risk-based capital (RBC), cash-flow margin and debt to total capital ratios across these plan traits. For all years except 2008 Medicaid dominant plans had a lower RBC ratio for all four out of five years. Cash-flow margin ratio for Medicaid dominant plans was only lower in 2011 than non-Medicaid dominant plans. From 2007 to 2010, debt to total capital was higher for plans owned by publicly traded companies than non-publicly traded companies. Given the potential for an expanding Medicaid market, Medicaid health plans have reduced their risk of insolvency by increasing the RBC over time and reducing their debt capital. However between 2010 and 2011 cash-flow margin ratio decreased by almost 180 basis points for Medicaid dominant plans.

  5. Automation is key to managing a population's health.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Michael B; Hodach, Richard

    2012-04-01

    Online tools for automating population health management can help healthcare organizations meet their patients' needs both during and between encounters with the healthcare system. These tools can facilitate: The use of registries to track patients' health status and care gaps. Outbound messaging to notify patients when they need care. Care team management of more patients at different levels of risk. Automation of workflows related to case management and transitions of care. Online educational and mobile health interventions to engage patients in their care. Analytics programs to identify opportunities for improvement.

  6. Key Management Schemes for Peer-to-Peer Multimedia Streaming Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, J. A. M.; López-Ramos, J. A.; Casado, L. G.

    Key distribution for multimedia live streaming peer-to-peer overlay networks is a field still in its childhood stage. A scheme designed for networks of this kind must seek security and efficiency while keeping in mind the following restrictions: limited bandwidth, continuous playing, great audience size and clients churn. This paper introduces two novel schemes that allow a trade-off between security and efficiency by allowing to dynamically vary the number of levels used in the key hierarchy. These changes are motivated by great variations in audience size, and initiated by decision of the Key Server. Additionally, a comparative study of both is presented, focusing on security and audience size. Results show that larger key hierarchies can supply bigger audiences, but offer less security against statistical attacks. The opposite happens for shorter key hierarchies.

  7. Security analysis of quadratic phase based cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Malallah, Ra'ed; Healy, John J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2016-09-01

    The linear canonical transform (LCT) is essential in modeling a coherent light field propagation through first-order optical systems. Recently, a generic optical system, known as a Quadratic Phase Encoding System (QPES), for encrypting a two-dimensional (2D) image has been reported. It has been reported together with two phase keys the individual LCT parameters serve as keys of the cryptosystem. However, it is important that such the encryption systems also satisfies some dynamic security properties. Therefore, in this work, we examine some cryptographic evaluation methods, such as Avalanche Criterion and Bit Independence, which indicates the degree of security of the cryptographic algorithms on QPES. We compare our simulation results with the conventional Fourier and the Fresnel transform based DRPE systems. The results show that the LCT based DRPE has an excellent avalanche and bit independence characteristics than that of using the conventional Fourier and Fresnel based encryption systems.

  8. Choice of optical system is critical for the security of double random phase encryption systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cassidy, Derek; Zhao, Liang; Ryle, James P.; Healy, John J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-06-01

    The linear canonical transform (LCT) is used in modeling a coherent light-field propagation through first-order optical systems. Recently, a generic optical system, known as the quadratic phase encoding system (QPES), for encrypting a two-dimensional image has been reported. In such systems, two random phase keys and the individual LCT parameters (α,β,γ) serve as secret keys of the cryptosystem. It is important that such encryption systems also satisfy some dynamic security properties. We, therefore, examine such systems using two cryptographic evaluation methods, the avalanche effect and bit independence criterion, which indicate the degree of security of the cryptographic algorithms using QPES. We compared our simulation results with the conventional Fourier and the Fresnel transform-based double random phase encryption (DRPE) systems. The results show that the LCT-based DRPE has an excellent avalanche and bit independence characteristics compared to the conventional Fourier and Fresnel-based encryption systems.

  9. Key issues in the management of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: latest developments and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Natasha; D’Cruz, David

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is a chronic multisystem disease with significant associated morbidity and mortality. A deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of SLE has led to the development of biologic agents, primarily targeting B cells and others inhibiting costimulatory molecules, type I interferons and cytokines such as interleukin-6. Several of these agents have been studied in clinical trials; some have shown promise while others have yielded disappointing results. Economic and regulatory issues continue to hamper the availability of such therapies for SLE patients. With increasing recognition that recurrent flares of disease activity lead to long-term damage accrual, one of the most important recent developments in patient management has been the concept of treat-to-target in SLE while minimizing patient exposure to excessive corticosteroid and other immunosuppressive therapy. This article reviews these key issues in SLE management, outlining recent developments and clinical implications for patients. PMID:26622325

  10. Enhanced K-means clustering with encryption on cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Iqjot; Dwivedi, Prerna; Gupta, Taru; Shynu, P. G.

    2017-11-01

    This paper tries to solve the problem of storing and managing big files over cloud by implementing hashing on Hadoop in big-data and ensure security while uploading and downloading files. Cloud computing is a term that emphasis on sharing data and facilitates to share infrastructure and resources.[10] Hadoop is an open source software that gives us access to store and manage big files according to our needs on cloud. K-means clustering algorithm is an algorithm used to calculate distance between the centroid of the cluster and the data points. Hashing is a algorithm in which we are storing and retrieving data with hash keys. The hashing algorithm is called as hash function which is used to portray the original data and later to fetch the data stored at the specific key. [17] Encryption is a process to transform electronic data into non readable form known as cipher text. Decryption is the opposite process of encryption, it transforms the cipher text into plain text that the end user can read and understand well. For encryption and decryption we are using Symmetric key cryptographic algorithm. In symmetric key cryptography are using DES algorithm for a secure storage of the files. [3

  11. Security in Wireless Sensor Networks Employing MACGSP6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitipaichit, Yuttasart

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have unique characteristics which constrain them; including small energy stores, limited computation, and short range communication capability. Most traditional security algorithms use cryptographic primitives such as Public-key cryptography and are not optimized for energy usage. Employing these algorithms for the…

  12. Key Features Of Peer Support In Chronic Disease Prevention And Management.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Edwin B; Ballesteros, Juana; Bhushan, Nivedita; Coufal, Muchieh M; Kowitt, Sarah D; McDonough, A Manuela; Parada, Humberto; Robinette, Jennifer B; Sokol, Rebeccah L; Tang, Patrick Y; Urlaub, Diana

    2015-09-01

    Peer support from community health workers, promotores de salud, and others through community and health care organizations can provide social support and other assistance that enhances health. There is substantial evidence for both the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of peer support, as well as for its feasibility, reach, and sustainability. We discuss findings from Peers for Progress, a program of the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation, to examine when peer support does not work, guide dissemination of peer support programs, and help integrate approaches such as e-health into peer support. Success factors for peer support programs include proactive implementation, attention to participants' emotions, and ongoing supervision. Reaching those whom conventional clinical and preventive services too often fail to reach; reaching whole populations, such as people with diabetes, rather than selected samples; and addressing behavioral health are strengths of peer support that can help achieve health care that is efficient and of high quality. Challenges for policy makers going forward include encouraging workforce development, balancing quality control with maintaining key features of peer support, and ensuring that underresourced organizations can develop and manage peer support programs. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Twenty Seven Years of Quantum Cryptography!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard

    2011-03-01

    One of the fundamental goals of cryptographic research is to minimize the assumptions underlying the protocols that enable secure communications between pairs or groups of users. In 1984, building on earlier research by Stephen Wiesner, Charles Bennett and Gilles Brassard showed how quantum physics could be harnessed to provide information-theoretic security for protocols such as the distribution of cryptographic keys, which enables two parties to secure their conventional communications. Bennett and Brassard and colleagues performed a proof-of-principle quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment with single-photon quantum state transmission over a 32-cm air path in 1991. This seminal experiment led other researchers to explore QKD in optical fibers and over line-of-sight outdoor atmospheric paths (``free-space''), resulting in dramatic increases in range, bit rate and security. These advances have been enabled by improvements in sources and single-photon detectors. Also in 1991 Artur Ekert showed how the security of QKD could be related to quantum entanglement. This insight led to a deeper understanding and proof of QKD security with practical sources and detectors in the presence of transmission loss and channel noise. Today, QKD has been implemented over ranges much greater than 100km in both fiber and free-space, multi-node network testbeds have been demonstrated, and satellite-based QKD is under study in several countries. ``Quantum hacking'' researchers have shown the importance of extending security considerations to the classical devices that produce and detect the photon quantum states. New quantum cryptographic protocols such as secure identification have been proposed, and others such as quantum secret splitting have been demonstrated. It is now possible to envision quantum cryptography providing a more secure alternative to present-day cryptographic methods for many secure communications functions. My talk will survey these remarkable developments.

  14. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 19, Number 7

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    public key certificates and cryptographic keys for crypto - graphic devices. In an environment where enterprise protection relies on an array of IA-enabled...allowing for greater accuracy, currency , and relevance of the information con- tained in the satellite communications data- base will be evaluated...JWPO). The purpose of the JWPO is to define, develop, validate, and evolve the JTRS SCA; acquire wave- form software applications; acquire Crypto

  15. Identifying Key Performance Indicators for Holistic Hospital Management with a Modified DEMATEL Approach

    PubMed Central

    Si, Sheng-Li; You, Xiao-Yue; Huang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Performance analysis is an important way for hospitals to achieve higher efficiency and effectiveness in providing services to their customers. The performance of the healthcare system can be measured by many indicators, but it is difficult to improve them simultaneously due to the limited resources. A feasible way is to identify the central and influential indicators to improve healthcare performance in a stepwise manner. In this paper, we propose a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) approach to identify key performance indicators (KPIs) for holistic hospital management. First, through integrating evidential reasoning approach and interval 2-tuple linguistic variables, various assessments of performance indicators provided by healthcare experts are modeled. Then, the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique is adopted to build an interactive network and visualize the causal relationships between the performance indicators. Finally, an empirical case study is provided to demonstrate the proposed approach for improving the efficiency of healthcare management. The results show that “accidents/adverse events”, “nosocomial infection”, ‘‘incidents/errors”, “number of operations/procedures” are significant influential indicators. Also, the indicators of “length of stay”, “bed occupancy” and “financial measures” play important roles in performance evaluation of the healthcare organization. The proposed decision making approach could be considered as a reference for healthcare administrators to enhance the performance of their healthcare institutions. PMID:28825613

  16. Identifying Key Performance Indicators for Holistic Hospital Management with a Modified DEMATEL Approach.

    PubMed

    Si, Sheng-Li; You, Xiao-Yue; Liu, Hu-Chen; Huang, Jia

    2017-08-19

    Performance analysis is an important way for hospitals to achieve higher efficiency and effectiveness in providing services to their customers. The performance of the healthcare system can be measured by many indicators, but it is difficult to improve them simultaneously due to the limited resources. A feasible way is to identify the central and influential indicators to improve healthcare performance in a stepwise manner. In this paper, we propose a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) approach to identify key performance indicators (KPIs) for holistic hospital management. First, through integrating evidential reasoning approach and interval 2-tuple linguistic variables, various assessments of performance indicators provided by healthcare experts are modeled. Then, the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique is adopted to build an interactive network and visualize the causal relationships between the performance indicators. Finally, an empirical case study is provided to demonstrate the proposed approach for improving the efficiency of healthcare management. The results show that "accidents/adverse events", "nosocomial infection", ''incidents/errors", "number of operations/procedures" are significant influential indicators. Also, the indicators of "length of stay", "bed occupancy" and "financial measures" play important roles in performance evaluation of the healthcare organization. The proposed decision making approach could be considered as a reference for healthcare administrators to enhance the performance of their healthcare institutions.

  17. Key strategies to improve systems for managing patient complaints within health facilities - what can we learn from the existing literature?

    PubMed

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Kane, Sumit

    2018-01-01

    Information from patient complaints - a widely accepted measure of patient satisfaction with services - can inform improvements in service quality, and contribute towards overall health systems performance. While analyses of data from patient complaints received much emphasis, there is limited published literature on key interventions to improve complaint management systems. The objectives are two-fold: first, to synthesise existing evidence and provide practical options to inform future policy and practice and, second, to identify key outstanding gaps in the existing literature to inform agenda for future research. We report results of review of the existing literature. Peer-reviewed published literature was searched in OVID Medline, OVID Global Health and PubMed. In addition, relevant citations from the reviewed articles were followed up, and we also report grey literature from the UK and the Netherlands. Effective interventions can improve collection of complaints (e.g. establishing easy-to-use channels and raising patients' awareness of these), analysis of complaint data (e.g. creating structures and spaces for analysis and learning from complaints data), and subsequent action (e.g. timely feedback to complainants and integrating learning from complaints into service quality improvement). No one single measure can be sufficient, and any intervention to improve patient complaint management system must include different components, which need to be feasible, effective, scalable, and sustainable within local context. Effective interventions to strengthen patient complaints systems need to be: comprehensive, integrated within existing systems, context-specific and cognizant of the information asymmetry and the unequal power relations between the key actors. Four gaps in the published literature represent an agenda for future research: limited understanding of contexts of effective interventions, absence of system-wide approaches, lack of evidence from low- and

  18. Robust and Reusable Fuzzy Extractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyen, Xavier

    The use of biometric features as key material in security protocols has often been suggested to relieve their owner from the need to remember long cryptographic secrets. The appeal of biometric data as cryptographic secrets stems from their high apparent entropy, their availability to their owner, and their relative immunity to loss. In particular, they constitute a very effective basis for user authentication, especially when combined with complementary credentials such as a short memorized password or a physical token. However, the use of biometrics in cryptography does not come without problems. Some difficulties are technical, such as the lack of uniformity and the imperfect reproducibility of biometrics, but some challenges are more fundamental.

  19. Assessing the Health-Care Risk: The Clinical-VaR, a Key Indicator for Sound Management.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Enrique; Feria-Domínguez, José Manuel; Sebastián-Lacave, Alonso

    2018-03-30

    Clinical risk includes any undesirable situation or operational factor that may have negative consequences for patient safety or capable of causing an adverse event (AE). The AE, intentional or unintentionally, may be related to the human factor, that is, medical errors (MEs). Therefore, the importance of the health-care risk management is a current and relevant issue on the agenda of many public and private institutions. The objective of the management has been evolving from the identification of AE to the assessment of cost-effective and efficient measures that improve the quality control through monitoring. Consequently, the goal of this paper is to propose a Key Risk Indicator (KRI) that enhances the advancement of the health-care management system. Thus, the application of the Value at Risk (VaR) concept in combination to the Loss Distribution Approach (LDA) is proved to be a proactive tool, within the frame of balanced scorecard (BSC), in health organizations. For this purpose, the historical events recorded in the Algo-OpData ® database (Algorithmics Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) have been used. The analysis highlights the importance of risk in the financials outcomes of the sector. The results of paper show the usefulness of the Clinical-VaR to identify and monitor the risk and sustainability of the implemented controls.

  20. Assessing the Health-Care Risk: The Clinical-VaR, a Key Indicator for Sound Management

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Enrique; Sebastián-Lacave, Alonso

    2018-01-01

    Clinical risk includes any undesirable situation or operational factor that may have negative consequences for patient safety or capable of causing an adverse event (AE). The AE, intentional or unintentionally, may be related to the human factor, that is, medical errors (MEs). Therefore, the importance of the health-care risk management is a current and relevant issue on the agenda of many public and private institutions. The objective of the management has been evolving from the identification of AE to the assessment of cost-effective and efficient measures that improve the quality control through monitoring. Consequently, the goal of this paper is to propose a Key Risk Indicator (KRI) that enhances the advancement of the health-care management system. Thus, the application of the Value at Risk (VaR) concept in combination to the Loss Distribution Approach (LDA) is proved to be a proactive tool, within the frame of balanced scorecard (BSC), in health organizations. For this purpose, the historical events recorded in the Algo-OpData® database (Algorithmics Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) have been used. The analysis highlights the importance of risk in the financials outcomes of the sector. The results of paper show the usefulness of the Clinical-VaR to identify and monitor the risk and sustainability of the implemented controls. PMID:29601529

  1. Strategic management and organizational behavior in dental education: reflections on key issues in an environment of change.

    PubMed

    Dunning, David G; Durham, Timothy M; Lange, Brian M; Aksu, Mert N

    2009-06-01

    With issues such as shrinking revenue, access to care, faculty workloads, and graying faculty, dental schools are faced with difficult challenges that fall to dental school deans to manage. Do dental school deans have the organizational skill sets and ethical frameworks necessary to address the challenges now facing dental schools? The purpose of this article is to pose questions and suggestions regarding some of the key issues in dental colleges today and to stimulate discussion in the dental community about needed changes in dental education.

  2. Cryptographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's fictional bestseller, The Da Vinci Code. But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's…

  3. EMSODEV and EPOS-IP: key findings for effective management of EU research infrastructure projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Materia, Paola; Bozzoli, Sabrina; Beranzoli, Laura; Cocco, Massimo; Favali, Paolo; Freda, Carmela; Sangianantoni, Agata

    2017-04-01

    -2019) is a project of 47 partners, 6 associate partners and several international organizations for a total of 25 countries involved. EPOS IP is a key step in EPOS' mission of a pan-European Earth science integrated platform. It will deliver not only a suite of domain-specific and multidisciplinary data and services in one platform, but also the legal, governance and financial frameworks to ensure the infrastructure future operation and sustainability (EPOS ERIC). INGV experience over the years indicates that effective management of EU RIs projects should contain 5 basic elements: 1.Defined life cycle and milestones: Map of phases, deliverables, key milestones and sufficiency criteria for each group involved in the project using project management tools and software. 2.Shared organization, systems, roles: Defined roles for team members and responsibilities for functional managers are crucial. Similarly, a system of communication and team involvement is essential to success. Leadership and interpersonal/organizational skills are also important. 3.Quality assurance: Quality dimension should be aligned to the project objectives and specific criteria should be identified for each phase of the project. 4.Tracking and variance analysis: Regular reports and periodic meetings of the teams are crucial to identify when things are off target. Schedule slips, cost overruns, open issues, new risks and problems must be dealt with as early as possible. 5.Impact assessment by monitoring the achievement of results and socio-economic impact.

  4. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Richard John; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD aremore » extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.« less

  5. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    DOEpatents

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2013-07-09

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  6. Secure multi-party communication with quantum key distribution managed by trusted authority

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Richard John; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Peterson, Charles Glen

    2015-01-06

    Techniques and tools for implementing protocols for secure multi-party communication after quantum key distribution ("QKD") are described herein. In example implementations, a trusted authority facilitates secure communication between multiple user devices. The trusted authority distributes different quantum keys by QKD under trust relationships with different users. The trusted authority determines combination keys using the quantum keys and makes the combination keys available for distribution (e.g., for non-secret distribution over a public channel). The combination keys facilitate secure communication between two user devices even in the absence of QKD between the two user devices. With the protocols, benefits of QKD are extended to multi-party communication scenarios. In addition, the protocols can retain benefit of QKD even when a trusted authority is offline or a large group seeks to establish secure communication within the group.

  7. Extending key sharing: how to generate a key tightly coupled to a network security policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantzidis, Matheos

    2006-04-01

    Current state of the art security policy technologies, besides the small scale limitation and largely manual nature of accompanied management methods, are lacking a) in real-timeliness of policy implementation and b) vulnerabilities and inflexibility stemming from the centralized policy decision making; even if, for example, a policy description or access control database is distributed, the actual decision is often a centralized action and forms a system single point of failure. In this paper we are presenting a new fundamental concept that allows implement a security policy by a systematic and efficient key distribution procedure. Specifically, we extend the polynomial Shamir key splitting. According to this, a global key is split into n parts, any k of which can re-construct the original key. In this paper we present a method that instead of having "any k parts" be able to re-construct the original key, the latter can only be reconstructed if keys are combined as any access control policy describes. This leads into an easily deployable key generation procedure that results a single key per entity that "knows" its role in the specific access control policy from which it was derived. The system is considered efficient as it may be used to avoid expensive PKI operations or pairwise key distributions as well as provides superior security due to its distributed nature, the fact that the key is tightly coupled to the policy, and that policy change may be implemented easier and faster.

  8. Run-length encoding graphic rules, biochemically editable designs and steganographical numeric data embedment for DNA-based cryptographical coding system.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Tomonori

    2013-03-01

    There have been a wide variety of approaches for handling the pieces of DNA as the "unplugged" tools for digital information storage and processing, including a series of studies applied to the security-related area, such as DNA-based digital barcodes, water marks and cryptography. In the present article, novel designs of artificial genes as the media for storing the digitally compressed data for images are proposed for bio-computing purpose while natural genes principally encode for proteins. Furthermore, the proposed system allows cryptographical application of DNA through biochemically editable designs with capacity for steganographical numeric data embedment. As a model case of image-coding DNA technique application, numerically and biochemically combined protocols are employed for ciphering the given "passwords" and/or secret numbers using DNA sequences. The "passwords" of interest were decomposed into single letters and translated into the font image coded on the separate DNA chains with both the coding regions in which the images are encoded based on the novel run-length encoding rule, and the non-coding regions designed for biochemical editing and the remodeling processes revealing the hidden orientation of letters composing the original "passwords." The latter processes require the molecular biological tools for digestion and ligation of the fragmented DNA molecules targeting at the polymerase chain reaction-engineered termini of the chains. Lastly, additional protocols for steganographical overwriting of the numeric data of interests over the image-coding DNA are also discussed.

  9. Run-length encoding graphic rules, biochemically editable designs and steganographical numeric data embedment for DNA-based cryptographical coding system

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Tomonori

    2013-01-01

    There have been a wide variety of approaches for handling the pieces of DNA as the “unplugged” tools for digital information storage and processing, including a series of studies applied to the security-related area, such as DNA-based digital barcodes, water marks and cryptography. In the present article, novel designs of artificial genes as the media for storing the digitally compressed data for images are proposed for bio-computing purpose while natural genes principally encode for proteins. Furthermore, the proposed system allows cryptographical application of DNA through biochemically editable designs with capacity for steganographical numeric data embedment. As a model case of image-coding DNA technique application, numerically and biochemically combined protocols are employed for ciphering the given “passwords” and/or secret numbers using DNA sequences. The “passwords” of interest were decomposed into single letters and translated into the font image coded on the separate DNA chains with both the coding regions in which the images are encoded based on the novel run-length encoding rule, and the non-coding regions designed for biochemical editing and the remodeling processes revealing the hidden orientation of letters composing the original “passwords.” The latter processes require the molecular biological tools for digestion and ligation of the fragmented DNA molecules targeting at the polymerase chain reaction-engineered termini of the chains. Lastly, additional protocols for steganographical overwriting of the numeric data of interests over the image-coding DNA are also discussed. PMID:23750303

  10. Practical cryptographic strategies in the post-quantum era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabanov, I. S.; Yunusov, R. R.; Kurochkin, Y. V.; Fedorov, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum key distribution technologies promise information-theoretic security and are currently being deployed in com-mercial applications. We review new frontiers in information security technologies in communications and distributed storage applications with the use of classical, quantum, hybrid classical-quantum, and post-quantum cryptography. We analyze the cur-rent state-of-the-art, critical characteristics, development trends, and limitations of these techniques for application in enterprise information protection systems. An approach concerning the selection of practical encryption technologies for enterprises with branched communication networks is discussed.

  11. Notification: FY 2017 Update of Proposed Key Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Jan 5, 2017. The EPA OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2017 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  12. Using key performance indicators as knowledge-management tools at a regional health-care authority level.

    PubMed

    Berler, Alexander; Pavlopoulos, Sotiris; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2005-06-01

    The advantages of the introduction of information and communication technologies in the complex health-care sector are already well-known and well-stated in the past. It is, nevertheless, paradoxical that although the medical community has embraced with satisfaction most of the technological discoveries allowing the improvement in patient care, this has not happened when talking about health-care informatics. Taking the above issue of concern, our work proposes an information model for knowledge management (KM) based upon the use of key performance indicators (KPIs) in health-care systems. Based upon the use of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework (Kaplan/Norton) and quality assurance techniques in health care (Donabedian), this paper is proposing a patient journey centered approach that drives information flow at all levels of the day-to-day process of delivering effective and managed care, toward information assessment and knowledge discovery. In order to persuade health-care decision-makers to assess the added value of KM tools, those should be used to propose new performance measurement and performance management techniques at all levels of a health-care system. The proposed KPIs are forming a complete set of metrics that enable the performance management of a regional health-care system. In addition, the performance framework established is technically applied by the use of state-of-the-art KM tools such as data warehouses and business intelligence information systems. In that sense, the proposed infrastructure is, technologically speaking, an important KM tool that enables knowledge sharing amongst various health-care stakeholders and between different health-care groups. The use of BSC is an enabling framework toward a KM strategy in health care.

  13. Key actions towards the sustainable management of European geese.

    PubMed

    Stroud, David A; Madsen, Jesper; Fox, Anthony D

    2017-03-01

    Increasing abundance of geese in North America and Europe constitutes a major conservation success, but has caused increasing conflicts with economic, health and safety interests, as well as ecosystem impacts. Potential conflict resolution through a single, 'one size fits all' policy is hindered by differences in species' ecology, behaviour, abundance and population status, and in contrasting political and socio-economic environments across the flyways. Effective goose management requires coordinated application of a suite of tools from the local level to strategic flyway management actions. The European Goose Management Platform, established under the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds, aims to harmonise and prioritise management, monitoring and conservation efforts, sharing best practice internationally by facilitating agreed policies, coordinating flyway efforts, and sharing and exchanging experiences and information. This depends crucially upon adequate government financing, the collection of necessary monitoring data (e.g., on distribution, abundance, hunting bags, demography, ecosystem and agricultural damage), the collation and effective use of such data and information, as well as the evaluation of outcomes of existing management measures.

  14. Retraction notice to: "The Application of Symmetric Key Cryptographic Algorithms in Wireless Sensor Networks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Lingling; Ji, Zhigang; Wang, Zhihui

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of the Publisher. The authors have plagiarized a paper that had already appeared in "Queen's 25th Biennial Symposium on Communications", page 168-172, print ISBN 978-1-4244-5709-0. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  15. Key strategies to improve systems for managing patient complaints within health facilities – what can we learn from the existing literature?

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Information from patient complaints – a widely accepted measure of patient satisfaction with services – can inform improvements in service quality, and contribute towards overall health systems performance. While analyses of data from patient complaints received much emphasis, there is limited published literature on key interventions to improve complaint management systems. Objectives: The objectives are two-fold: first, to synthesise existing evidence and provide practical options to inform future policy and practice and, second, to identify key outstanding gaps in the existing literature to inform agenda for future research. Methods: We report results of review of the existing literature. Peer-reviewed published literature was searched in OVID Medline, OVID Global Health and PubMed. In addition, relevant citations from the reviewed articles were followed up, and we also report grey literature from the UK and the Netherlands. Results: Effective interventions can improve collection of complaints (e.g. establishing easy-to-use channels and raising patients’ awareness of these), analysis of complaint data (e.g. creating structures and spaces for analysis and learning from complaints data), and subsequent action (e.g. timely feedback to complainants and integrating learning from complaints into service quality improvement). No one single measure can be sufficient, and any intervention to improve patient complaint management system must include different components, which need to be feasible, effective, scalable, and sustainable within local context. Conclusions: Effective interventions to strengthen patient complaints systems need to be: comprehensive, integrated within existing systems, context-specific and cognizant of the information asymmetry and the unequal power relations between the key actors. Four gaps in the published literature represent an agenda for future research: limited understanding of contexts of effective interventions

  16. Securing Secrets and Managing Trust in Modern Computing Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayler, Andy

    2016-01-01

    The amount of digital data generated and stored by users increases every day. In order to protect this data, modern computing systems employ numerous cryptographic and access control solutions. Almost all of such solutions, however, require the keeping of certain secrets as the basis of their security models. How best to securely store and control…

  17. Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-10

    Contractor Address: 10 Moulton Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 Title of the Project: Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY...Technologies Kathryn Carson Program Manager Quantum Information Processing 2 | P a g e Approved for public release; distribution is...we have continued work calculating the key rates achievable parametrically with receiver performance. In addition, we describe the initial designs

  18. A Hierarchical structure of key performance indicators for operation management and continuous improvement in production systems

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ningxuan; Zhao, Cong; Li, Jingshan; Horst, John A.

    2018-01-01

    Key performance indicators (KPIs) are critical for manufacturing operation management and continuous improvement (CI). In modern manufacturing systems, KPIs are defined as a set of metrics to reflect operation performance, such as efficiency, throughput, availability, from productivity, quality and maintenance perspectives. Through continuous monitoring and measurement of KPIs, meaningful quantification and identification of different aspects of operation activities can be obtained, which enable and direct CI efforts. A set of 34 KPIs has been introduced in ISO 22400. However, the KPIs in a manufacturing system are not independent, and they may have intrinsic mutual relationships. The goal of this paper is to introduce a multi-level structure for identification and analysis of KPIs and their intrinsic relationships in production systems. Specifically, through such a hierarchical structure, we define and layer KPIs into levels of basic KPIs, comprehensive KPIs and their supporting metrics, and use it to investigate the relationships and dependencies between KPIs. Such a study can provide a useful tool for manufacturing engineers and managers to measure and utilize KPIs for CI. PMID:29398722

  19. A Hierarchical structure of key performance indicators for operation management and continuous improvement in production systems.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ningxuan; Zhao, Cong; Li, Jingshan; Horst, John A

    2016-01-01

    Key performance indicators (KPIs) are critical for manufacturing operation management and continuous improvement (CI). In modern manufacturing systems, KPIs are defined as a set of metrics to reflect operation performance, such as efficiency, throughput, availability, from productivity, quality and maintenance perspectives. Through continuous monitoring and measurement of KPIs, meaningful quantification and identification of different aspects of operation activities can be obtained, which enable and direct CI efforts. A set of 34 KPIs has been introduced in ISO 22400. However, the KPIs in a manufacturing system are not independent, and they may have intrinsic mutual relationships. The goal of this paper is to introduce a multi-level structure for identification and analysis of KPIs and their intrinsic relationships in production systems. Specifically, through such a hierarchical structure, we define and layer KPIs into levels of basic KPIs, comprehensive KPIs and their supporting metrics, and use it to investigate the relationships and dependencies between KPIs. Such a study can provide a useful tool for manufacturing engineers and managers to measure and utilize KPIs for CI.

  20. Productivity--a key to managing cost-per-case. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Orefice, J J; Jennings, M C

    1983-08-01

    Productivity and productivity management are critical to effective case-mix management. Case-mix management expands on traditional productivity management to include the relationship between such intermediate products as patient days, tests and meals, and the ultimate end product, the case. As hospitals search to increase the profitability of specific case types, they must focus on two critical productivity control points. First, they must examine length of stay and ancillary utilization as one level of productivity. Then they must turn to more traditional analyses and review departmental productivity in the production of the intermediate products. No case-mix management system is complete unless it focuses on both of these critical relationships. Part two of this article will explore performance reporting and its role in managing both productivity and case mix.

  1. Entrepreneurial Librarianship: The Key to Effective Information Services Management. Information Services Management Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Clair, Guy

    The need to approach library management from an entrepreneurial business perspective is vital, whether the information facility is in a corporate, academic, public or school setting. Although librarianship is not a business, library management must be driven by the same characteristics-- responsibility, performance, and control--as any other…

  2. Quantum-secured blockchain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiktenko, E. O.; Pozhar, N. O.; Anufriev, M. N.; Trushechkin, A. S.; Yunusov, R. R.; Kurochkin, Y. V.; Lvovsky, A. I.; Fedorov, A. K.

    2018-07-01

    Blockchain is a distributed database which is cryptographically protected against malicious modifications. While promising for a wide range of applications, current blockchain platforms rely on digital signatures, which are vulnerable to attacks by means of quantum computers. The same, albeit to a lesser extent, applies to cryptographic hash functions that are used in preparing new blocks, so parties with access to quantum computation would have unfair advantage in procuring mining rewards. Here we propose a possible solution to the quantum era blockchain challenge and report an experimental realization of a quantum-safe blockchain platform that utilizes quantum key distribution across an urban fiber network for information-theoretically secure authentication. These results address important questions about realizability and scalability of quantum-safe blockchains for commercial and governmental applications.

  3. Hybrid cryptosystem implementation using fast data encipherment algorithm (FEAL) and goldwasser-micali algorithm for file security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmawati, D.; Budiman, M. A.; Siburian, W. S. E.

    2018-05-01

    On the process of exchanging files, security is indispensable to avoid the theft of data. Cryptography is one of the sciences used to secure the data by way of encoding. Fast Data Encipherment Algorithm (FEAL) is a block cipher symmetric cryptographic algorithms. Therefore, the file which wants to protect is encrypted and decrypted using the algorithm FEAL. To optimize the security of the data, session key that is utilized in the algorithm FEAL encoded with the Goldwasser-Micali algorithm, which is an asymmetric cryptographic algorithm and using probabilistic concept. In the encryption process, the key was converted into binary form. The selection of values of x that randomly causes the results of the cipher key is different for each binary value. The concept of symmetry and asymmetry algorithm merger called Hybrid Cryptosystem. The use of the algorithm FEAL and Goldwasser-Micali can restore the message to its original form and the algorithm FEAL time required for encryption and decryption is directly proportional to the length of the message. However, on Goldwasser- Micali algorithm, the length of the message is not directly proportional to the time of encryption and decryption.

  4. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding innetwork processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks. PMID:27873963

  5. A Novel Re-keying Function Protocol (NRFP) For Wireless Sensor Network Security.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Maan Younis; Hua, Gui Wei; Alsharabi, Naif

    2008-12-04

    This paper describes a novel re-keying function protocol (NRFP) for wireless sensor network security. A re-keying process management system for sensor networks is designed to support in-network processing. The design of the protocol is motivated by decentralization key management for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), covering key deployment, key refreshment, and key establishment. NRFP supports the establishment of novel administrative functions for sensor nodes that derive/re-derive a session key for each communication session. The protocol proposes direct connection, in-direct connection and hybrid connection. NRFP also includes an efficient protocol for local broadcast authentication based on the use of one-way key chains. A salient feature of the authentication protocol is that it supports source authentication without precluding in-network processing. Security and performance analysis shows that it is very efficient in computation, communication and storage and, that NRFP is also effective in defending against many sophisticated attacks.

  6. Enrollment Management: A Key to Student Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Charles C.; And Others

    This four-part presentation examines the theory and practice of enrollment management at Florida Community College at Jacksonville (FCCJ). First, Charles C. Spence offers a brief description of FCCJ and reviews some of the problems facing the college when he assumed the presidency in 1985, including a significant enrollment decline and serious…

  7. ATIP Report: Cyber Security Research in China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-05

    vulnerabilities. ATIP Document ID: 150605AR CYBER SECURITY RESEARCH IN CHINA 17 Le GUAN et al. at SKLOIS of IIE, CAS proposed a solution named “ Mimosa ...that protects RSA private keys against the above software-based and physical memory attacks. When the Mimosa service is in idle, private keys are...encrypted and reside in memory as ciphertext. During the cryptographic computing, Mimosa uses hardware transactional memory (HTM) to ensure that (a

  8. Managing clinical education through understanding key principles.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Joanne; Wright, Caroline; Baird, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, a practicum facilitated the integration of on-campus learning and practical workplace training. Over the past 3 decades, an educative practicum has evolved that promotes clinical reasoning, including analytical and evaluative abilities, through reflective practice. Anecdotal evidence indicates that the delivery of clinical education within medical radiation science entry-level programs continues to vacillate between traditional practicums and the new reflective practicums. To review the literature about clinical education within the medical radiation sciences and identify key principles for practitioners seeking to reflect upon and improve their approach to teaching and supporting students in the clinical environment. A search of 3 major journal databases, Internet searches, and hand searches of reference lists were conducted to identify literature about clinical education in the medical radiation sciences from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2012. Twenty-two studies were included in this review. The 5 key elements associated with clinical education include the clinical support model and quality, overcoming the theory-practice gap, learning outcomes and reliable and valid assessment, preparing and supporting students, and accommodating differing teaching and learning needs. Many factors influence the quality of clinical education, including the culture of the clinical environment and clinical leadership roles. Several approaches can help students bridge the theory-practice gap, including simulators, role-playing activities, and reflective journals. In addition, clinical educators should use assessment strategies that objectively measure student progress, and they should be positive role models for their students. The successful clinical education of students in the medical radiation sciences depends upon the systems, structures, and people in the clinical environment. Clinical education is accomplished through the collaborative efforts of the

  9. Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-27

    Address: 10 Moulton Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 Title of the Project: Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY...Technologies Kathryn Carson Program Manager Quantum Information Processing Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Seaworthy Quantum Key Distribution Design and Validation (SEAKEY) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  10. An effective and secure key-management scheme for hierarchical access control in E-medicine system.

    PubMed

    Odelu, Vanga; Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2013-04-01

    Recently several hierarchical access control schemes are proposed in the literature to provide security of e-medicine systems. However, most of them are either insecure against 'man-in-the-middle attack' or they require high storage and computational overheads. Wu and Chen proposed a key management method to solve dynamic access control problems in a user hierarchy based on hybrid cryptosystem. Though their scheme improves computational efficiency over Nikooghadam et al.'s approach, it suffers from large storage space for public parameters in public domain and computational inefficiency due to costly elliptic curve point multiplication. Recently, Nikooghadam and Zakerolhosseini showed that Wu-Chen's scheme is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack. In order to remedy this security weakness in Wu-Chen's scheme, they proposed a secure scheme which is again based on ECC (elliptic curve cryptography) and efficient one-way hash function. However, their scheme incurs huge computational cost for providing verification of public information in the public domain as their scheme uses ECC digital signature which is costly when compared to symmetric-key cryptosystem. In this paper, we propose an effective access control scheme in user hierarchy which is only based on symmetric-key cryptosystem and efficient one-way hash function. We show that our scheme reduces significantly the storage space for both public and private domains, and computational complexity when compared to Wu-Chen's scheme, Nikooghadam-Zakerolhosseini's scheme, and other related schemes. Through the informal and formal security analysis, we further show that our scheme is secure against different attacks and also man-in-the-middle attack. Moreover, dynamic access control problems in our scheme are also solved efficiently compared to other related schemes, making our scheme is much suitable for practical applications of e-medicine systems.

  11. Affine Equivalence and Constructions of Cryptographically Strong Boolean Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    manner is crucial for today’s global citizen. We want our financial transactions over the Internet to get processed without error. Cyber warfare between...encryption and decryption processes . An asymmetric cipher uses different keys to encrypt and decrypt a message, and the connection between the encryption and...Depending on how a symmetric cipher processes a message before encryption or de- cryption, a symmetric cipher can be further classified into a block or

  12. Quality Management and Key Performance Indicators in Oncologic Esophageal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gockel, Ines; Ahlbrand, Constantin Johannes; Arras, Michael; Schreiber, Elke Maria; Lang, Hauke

    2015-12-01

    Ranking systems and comparisons of quality and performance indicators will be of increasing relevance for complex "high-risk" procedures such as esophageal cancer surgery. The identification of evidence-based standards relevant for key performance indicators in esophageal surgery is essential for establishing monitoring systems and furthermore a requirement to enhance treatment quality. In the course of this review, we analyze the key performance indicators case volume, radicality of resection, and postoperative morbidity and mortality, leading to continuous quality improvement. Ranking systems established on this basis will gain increased relevance in highly complex procedures within the national and international comparison and furthermore improve the treatment of patients with esophageal carcinoma.

  13. Spatial patch occupancy patterns of the Lower Keys marsh rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Hughes, Phillip T.; Nichols, James D.; Morkill, Anne; Anderson, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Reliable estimates of presence or absence of a species can provide substantial information on management questions related to distribution and habitat use but should incorporate the probability of detection to reduce bias. We surveyed for the endangered Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri) in habitat patches on 5 Florida Key islands, USA, to estimate occupancy and detection probabilities. We derived detection probabilities using spatial replication of plots and evaluated hypotheses that patch location (coastal or interior) and patch size influence occupancy and detection. Results demonstrate that detection probability, given rabbits were present, was <0.5 and suggest that naïve estimates (i.e., estimates without consideration of imperfect detection) of patch occupancy are negatively biased. We found that patch size and location influenced probability of occupancy but not detection. Our findings will be used by Refuge managers to evaluate population trends of Lower Keys marsh rabbits from historical data and to guide management decisions for species recovery. The sampling and analytical methods we used may be useful for researchers and managers of other endangered lagomorphs and cryptic or fossorial animals occupying diverse habitats.

  14. Biometrics based key management of double random phase encoding scheme using error control codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Nirmala; Sinha, Aloka

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an optical security system has been proposed in which key of the double random phase encoding technique is linked to the biometrics of the user to make it user specific. The error in recognition due to the biometric variation is corrected by encoding the key using the BCH code. A user specific shuffling key is used to increase the separation between genuine and impostor Hamming distance distribution. This shuffling key is then further secured using the RSA public key encryption to enhance the security of the system. XOR operation is performed between the encoded key and the feature vector obtained from the biometrics. The RSA encoded shuffling key and the data obtained from the XOR operation are stored into a token. The main advantage of the present technique is that the key retrieval is possible only in the simultaneous presence of the token and the biometrics of the user which not only authenticates the presence of the original input but also secures the key of the system. Computational experiments showed the effectiveness of the proposed technique for key retrieval in the decryption process by using the live biometrics of the user.

  15. Key Design Considerations When Calculating Cost Savings for Population Health Management Programs in an Observational Setting.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Shannon M E; Hough, Douglas E; Sylvia, Martha L; Dunbar, Linda J; Frick, Kevin D

    2018-02-08

    To illustrate the impact of key quasi-experimental design elements on cost savings measurement for population health management (PHM) programs. Population health management program records and Medicaid claims and enrollment data from December 2011 through March 2016. The study uses a difference-in-difference design to compare changes in cost and utilization outcomes between program participants and propensity score-matched nonparticipants. Comparisons of measured savings are made based on (1) stable versus dynamic population enrollment and (2) all eligible versus enrolled-only participant definitions. Options for the operationalization of time are also discussed. Individual-level Medicaid administrative and claims data and PHM program records are used to match study groups on baseline risk factors and assess changes in costs and utilization. Savings estimates are statistically similar but smaller in magnitude when eliminating variability based on duration of population enrollment and when evaluating program impact on the entire target population. Measurement in calendar time, when possible, simplifies interpretability. Program evaluation design elements, including population stability and participant definitions, can influence the estimated magnitude of program savings for the payer and should be considered carefully. Time specifications can also affect interpretability and usefulness. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. Key components of financial-analysis education for clinical nurses.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ji Young; Noh, Wonjung

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we identified key components of financial-analysis education for clinical nurses. We used a literature review, focus group discussions, and a content validity index survey to develop key components of financial-analysis education. First, a wide range of references were reviewed, and 55 financial-analysis education components were gathered. Second, two focus group discussions were performed; the participants were 11 nurses who had worked for more than 3 years in a hospital, and nine components were agreed upon. Third, 12 professionals, including professors, nurse executive, nurse managers, and an accountant, participated in the content validity index. Finally, six key components of financial-analysis education were selected. These key components were as follows: understanding the need for financial analysis, introduction to financial analysis, reading and implementing balance sheets, reading and implementing income statements, understanding the concepts of financial ratios, and interpretation and practice of financial ratio analysis. The results of this study will be used to develop an education program to increase financial-management competency among clinical nurses. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Security mechanism based on Hospital Authentication Server for secure application of implantable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Seop

    2014-01-01

    After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs) have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient's life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician's treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance.

  18. Security Mechanism Based on Hospital Authentication Server for Secure Application of Implantable Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    After two recent security attacks against implantable medical devices (IMDs) have been reported, the privacy and security risks of IMDs have been widely recognized in the medical device market and research community, since the malfunctioning of IMDs might endanger the patient's life. During the last few years, a lot of researches have been carried out to address the security-related issues of IMDs, including privacy, safety, and accessibility issues. A physician accesses IMD through an external device called a programmer, for diagnosis and treatment. Hence, cryptographic key management between IMD and programmer is important to enforce a strict access control. In this paper, a new security architecture for the security of IMDs is proposed, based on a 3-Tier security model, where the programmer interacts with a Hospital Authentication Server, to get permissions to access IMDs. The proposed security architecture greatly simplifies the key management between IMDs and programmers. Also proposed is a security mechanism to guarantee the authenticity of the patient data collected from IMD and the nonrepudiation of the physician's treatment based on it. The proposed architecture and mechanism are analyzed and compared with several previous works, in terms of security and performance. PMID:25276797

  19. National Computer Security Conference (13th) Held in Washington, DC on 1-4 October, 1990. Procedings. Volume 1: Information Systems Security: Standards - The Key to the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-04

    methods Category 6: Cryptographic methods (hard/ software ) - Tested countermeasures and standard means - Acknowledgements As the number of antivirus ...Skulason), only our own antiviruses have been mentioned in the catalog. We hope to include the major antivirus packages in the future. The current...Center GTE SRI International Trusted Information Systems, Inc. Grumann Data Systems SRI International Software Engineering Institute Trusted

  20. Secure Hierarchical Multicast Routing and Multicast Internet Anonymity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    Multimedia, Summer 94, pages 76{79, 94. [15] David Chaum . Blind signatures for untraceable payments. In Proc. Crypto󈨖, pages 199{203, 1982. [16] David L...use of digital signatures , which consist of a cryptographic hash of the message encrypted with the private key of the signer. Digitally-signed messages... signature on the request and on the certi cate it contains. Notice that the location service need not retrieve the initiator’s public key as it is contained

  1. A Key to the New Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerryts, Egbert; Pienaar, Heila

    This paper discusses finding the key to a new library in order to ensure its future, stressing the importance of alignment between strategy and people. The first section addresses management philosophy for renewal, including replacing the inflexible hierarchical pyramidal structure by a network organization with a service and competency management…

  2. Case management: key to access, quality, and financial success.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alison P

    2003-01-01

    Several strategic, organizational, and operational variables drive successful case management programs. Organizational goals and accountability for support by administrative and medical staff leaders set the stage for a comprehensive program. The integration of utilization review, discharge planning, and other functions into the role of the case manager improves productivity and continuity. Choosing a model for assigning patients, a variable unique to the institution, should be carefully considered. Regardless of the power of strategic goals or the creative selection of a model, daily practices that promote daily review and communication will reveal all of the opportunities for improved performance. Complications are avoided one patient at a time and patients deserve vigilance. Length of stay is shortened 1 day at a time and we can no longer afford to miss these opportunities. In the period of high census, an unnecessary day for one patient at the end of his/her stay may mean another patient being diverted to another hospital away from his/her physician and past medical records. Creating constructive physician partnerships and cooperative relationships with postacute care providers can bring a case management program to higher level of performance. While many organizations have employees called "case managers," fewer have a comprehensive approach that has the potential to drive so many important indicators of performance.

  3. Socioeconomic status, family background and other key factors influence the management of head lice in Norway.

    PubMed

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Birkemoe, Tone

    2014-05-01

    How head lice infestations are managed by households is an important but generally neglected issue in head lice research. In the present study, we investigate actions taken against head lice by Norwegian households in association with socioeconomic status, family background, school-related variables and other key factors. Repeat questionnaires distributed to caretakers of the same elementary school children during a 2-year period enabled us to study both previous head lice management and any changes in this management through time. Households from 12 schools spanning the main socioeconomic variation found in Norway participated in the study. All students with active head lice infestation were treated in the four investigated periods. Most caretakers used a thorough head lice checking technique and informed others of own infestation. Checking frequency was low as most children were inspected less than monthly. The best determinant of increased checking frequency and thoroughness was personal experience with head lice. The increased awareness, however, seemed to be somewhat short-lived, as there was a decrease in checking frequency and thoroughness within 1 year after infestation. Personal experience with head lice also increased general knowledge related to the parasite. Parents born in developing countries checked their children for head lice more frequently, although less thoroughly, informed fewer contacts when infested, used pediculicides preventively more often and knew less about head lice than parents born in developed countries. Households with highly educated mothers had a lower checking frequency, but their knowledge and willingness to inform others was high. Single parents were more concerned about economic costs and kept children home from school longer while infested than other parents. As head lice management varied among socioeconomic groups and with parental background, differentiated advice should be considered in the control of head lice. The

  4. Managing the pursuit of health and wealth: the key challenges.

    PubMed

    Fidler, David P; Drager, Nick; Lee, Kelley

    2009-01-24

    This article forms part of a six-part Series on trade and health, and sets the stage for this Series by analysing key aspects of the relationship between trade and health. The Series takes stock of this relation and provides timely analysis of the key challenges facing efforts to achieve an appropriate balance between trade and health across a diverse range of issues. This introductory article reviews how trade and health have risen and expanded on global policy agendas in the past decade in unprecedented ways, describes how trade and health issues are respectively governed in international relations, examines the ongoing search for policy coherence between the two policy spheres, and highlights the topics of the remaining articles in the Series.

  5. Managing the pursuit of health and wealth: the key challenges

    PubMed Central

    Fidler, David P; Drager, Nick; Lee, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    This article forms part of a six-part Series on trade and health, and sets the stage for this Series by analysing key aspects of the relationship between trade and health. The Series takes stock of this relation and provides timely analysis of the key challenges facing efforts to achieve an appropriate balance between trade and health across a diverse range of issues. This introductory article reviews how trade and health have risen and expanded on global policy agendas in the past decade in unprecedented ways, describes how trade and health issues are respectively governed in international relations, examines the ongoing search for policy coherence between the two policy spheres, and highlights the topics of the remaining articles in the Series. PMID:19167061

  6. Operational Details of the Five Domains Model and Its Key Applications to the Assessment and Management of Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Mellor, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The Five Domains Model is a focusing device to facilitate systematic, structured, comprehensive and coherent assessment of animal welfare; it is not a definition of animal welfare, nor is it intended to be an accurate representation of body structure and function. The purpose of each of the five domains is to draw attention to areas that are relevant to both animal welfare assessment and management. This paper begins by briefly describing the major features of the Model and the operational interactions between the five domains, and then it details seven interacting applications of the Model. These underlie its utility and increasing application to welfare assessment and management in diverse animal use sectors. Abstract In accord with contemporary animal welfare science understanding, the Five Domains Model has a significant focus on subjective experiences, known as affects, which collectively contribute to an animal’s overall welfare state. Operationally, the focus of the Model is on the presence or absence of various internal physical/functional states and external circumstances that give rise to welfare-relevant negative and/or positive mental experiences, i.e., affects. The internal states and external circumstances of animals are evaluated systematically by referring to each of the first four domains of the Model, designated “Nutrition”, “Environment”, “Health” and “Behaviour”. Then affects, considered carefully and cautiously to be generated by factors in these domains, are accumulated into the fifth domain, designated “Mental State”. The scientific foundations of this operational procedure, published in detail elsewhere, are described briefly here, and then seven key ways the Model may be applied to the assessment and management of animal welfare are considered. These applications have the following beneficial objectives—they (1) specify key general foci for animal welfare management; (2) highlight the foundations of

  7. Scientific independence: A key to credibility

    Treesearch

    Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2007-01-01

    Independence and objectivity are key ingredients of scientific credibility, especially in research organizations that are part of a natural resource management agency like the Forest Service. Credibility, in turn, is essential to the utility of scientific information in socio-political processes. In order to develop this thesis further, a basic understanding of Forest...

  8. Efficient multiuser quantum cryptography network based on entanglement.

    PubMed

    Xue, Peng; Wang, Kunkun; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-04-04

    We present an efficient quantum key distribution protocol with a certain entangled state to solve a special cryptographic task. Also, we provide a proof of security of this protocol by generalizing the proof of modified of Lo-Chau scheme. Based on this two-user scheme, a quantum cryptography network protocol is proposed without any quantum memory.

  9. Efficient multiuser quantum cryptography network based on entanglement

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Peng; Wang, Kunkun; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    We present an efficient quantum key distribution protocol with a certain entangled state to solve a special cryptographic task. Also, we provide a proof of security of this protocol by generalizing the proof of modified of Lo-Chau scheme. Based on this two-user scheme, a quantum cryptography network protocol is proposed without any quantum memory. PMID:28374854

  10. Efficient multiuser quantum cryptography network based on entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Peng; Wang, Kunkun; Wang, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    We present an efficient quantum key distribution protocol with a certain entangled state to solve a special cryptographic task. Also, we provide a proof of security of this protocol by generalizing the proof of modified of Lo-Chau scheme. Based on this two-user scheme, a quantum cryptography network protocol is proposed without any quantum memory.

  11. Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Frac-tion: 10 Key Lessons

    PubMed Central

    A, Afşin Oktay; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a common clinical syndrome associated with high rates of morbidi-ty and mortality. Due to the lack of evidence-based therapies and increasing prevalence of HFpEF, clinicians are often con-fronted with these patients and yet have little guidance on how to effectively diagnose and manage them. Here we offer 10 key lessons to assist with the care of patients with HFpEF: (1) Know the difference between diastolic dysfunction, diastolic heart failure, and HFpEF; (2) diagnosing HFpEF is challenging, so be thorough and consider invasive hemodynamic testing to confirm the diagnosis; (3) a normal B-type natriuretic peptide does not exclude the diagnosis of HFpEF; (4) elevated pul-monary artery systolic pressure on echocardiography in the presence of a normal ejection fraction should prompt considera-tion of HFpEF; (5) use dynamic testing in evaluating the possibility of HFpEF in patients with unexplained dyspnea or exer-cise tolerance; (6) all patients with HFpEF should be systematically evaluated for the presence of coronary artery disease; (7) use targeted treatment for HFpEF patients based on their phenotypic classification; (8) treat HFpEF patients now by treating their comorbidities; (9) understand the importance of heart rate in HFpEF—lower is not always better; and (10) do not forget to consider rare diseases (“zebras”) as causes for HFpEF when evaluating and treating patients. Taken together, these 10 key lessons can help clinicians care for challenging patients with HFpEF while we eagerly await the results of ongoing HFpEF clinical trials and observational studies. PMID:24251461

  12. Identifying key areas of ecosystem services potential to improve ecological management in Chongqing City, southwest China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yang; Xiao, Qiang

    2018-03-29

    Because natural ecosystems and ecosystem services (ES) are both critical to the well-being of humankind, it is important to understand their relationships and congruence for conservation planning. Spatial conservation planning is required to set focused preservation priorities and to assess future ecological implications. This study uses the combined measures of ES models and ES potential to estimate and analyze all four groups of ecosystem services to generate opportunities to maximize ecosystem services. Subsequently, we identify the key areas of conservation priorities as future forestation and conservation hotspot zones to improve the ecological management in Chongqing City, located in the upper reaches of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China. Results show that ecosystem services potential is extremely obvious. Compared to ecosystem services from 2000, we determined that soil conservation could be increased by 59.11%, carbon sequestration by 129.51%, water flow regulation by 83.42%, and water purification by 84.42%. According to our prioritization results, approximately 48% of area converted to forests exhibited high improvements in all ecosystem services (categorized as hotspot-1, hotspot-2, and hotspot-3). The hotspots identified in this study can be used as an excellent surrogate for evaluation ecological engineering benefits and can be effectively applied in improving ecological management planning.

  13. Scientific information and the Tongass land management plan: key findings derived from the scientific literature, species assessments, resource analyses, workshops, and risk assessment panels.

    Treesearch

    Douglas N. Swanston; Charles G. Shaw; Winston P. Smith; Kent R. Julin; Guy A. Cellier; Fred H. Everest

    1996-01-01

    This document highlights key items of information obtained from the published literature and from specific assessments, workshops, resource analyses, and various risk assessment panels conducted as part of the Tongass land management planning process. None of this information dictates any particular decision; however, it is important to consider during decisionmaking...

  14. Interdisciplinary and participatory approaches: the key to effective groundwater management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, Roland; Foster, Stephen; Villholth, Karen G.

    2017-11-01

    The challenges of a changing world, which are progressively threatening sustainable use of groundwater resources, can only be rationally and effectively addressed through close collaboration between experts and practitioners from different disciplines. Furthermore, science and management need to build on stakeholder opinions and processes in order to generate useful knowledge and positive outcomes in terms of sustainable and equitable groundwater management. This essay provides a discussion of the status of and vision for participatory and inter-disciplinary approaches to groundwater evaluation and management as well as a conceptual framework and relevant research questions that will facilitate such approaches.

  15. Key Performance Indicators in Radiology: You Can't Manage What You Can't Measure.

    PubMed

    Harvey, H Benjamin; Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Aran, Shima; Rosenthal, Daniel I; Thrall, James H; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2016-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) is a fundamental component of every successful radiology operation. A radiology QA program must be able to efficiently and effectively monitor and respond to quality problems. However, as radiology QA has expanded into the depths of radiology operations, the task of defining and measuring quality has become more difficult. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are highly valuable data points and measurement tools that can be used to monitor and evaluate the quality of services provided by a radiology operation. As such, KPIs empower a radiology QA program to bridge normative understandings of health care quality with on-the-ground quality management. This review introduces the importance of KPIs in health care QA, a framework for structuring KPIs, a method to identify and tailor KPIs, and strategies to analyze and communicate KPI data that would drive process improvement. Adopting a KPI-driven QA program is both good for patient care and allows a radiology operation to demonstrate measurable value to other health care stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 41 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - 3-Key Points and Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION GENERAL 3-FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE... or agency management directives; (iv) The applicability of conflict of interest statutes and other... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 3-Key Points and...

  17. Polarity management: the key challenge for integrated health systems.

    PubMed

    Burns, L R

    1999-01-01

    Integrated health systems are confronted with numerous dilemmas that must be managed. Many of these dilemmas are an inherent part of the system's structure, given that multiple competing hospitals, medical groups, and (sometimes) health plans are often under one organizational roof. This article presents an analysis of these dilemmas--referred to in the management literature as polarities--as they are found in six integrated health systems in Illinois. The nine polarities that must be managed include (1) hospital systems that want to be organizations of physicians; (2) system expansion by growing the physician component; (3) system centralization and physician decentralization; (4) centripetal and centrifugal forces involving physicians; (5) system objectives and physician interests; (6) system centralization and hospital decentralization; (7) primary care physicians and specialists; (8) physician autonomy via collectivization; and (9) vertical and virtual integration. The article identifies some of the solutions to the polarities that have been enacted by systems. In general, executives and physicians in integrated health systems must attend to the processes of integration as much as or more than the structures of integration.

  18. Data standardization. The key to effective management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, C. Russell

    1991-01-01

    Effective management of the nation's water resources is dependent upon accurate and consistent hydrologic information. Before the emergence of environmental concerns in the 1960's, most hydrologic information was collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies that used fairly consistent methods and equipment. In the past quarter century, however, increased environmental awareness has resulted in an expansion of hydrologic data collection not only by Federal agencies, but also by state and municipal governments, university investigators, and private consulting firms. The acceptance and use of standard methods of collecting and processing hydrologic data would contribute to cost savings and to greater credibility of flow information vital to responsible assessment and management of the nation's water resources. This paper traces the evolution of the requirements and uses of open-channel flow information in the U.S., and the sequence of efforts to standardize the methods used to obtain this information in the future. The variable nature of naturally flowing rivers results in continually changing hydraulic properties of their channels. Those persons responsible for measurement of water flowing in open channels (streamflow) must use a large amount of judgement in the selection of appropriate equipment and technique to obtain accurate flow information. Standardization of the methods used in the measurement of streamflow is essential to assure consistency of data, but must also allow considerable latitude for individual judgement to meet constantly changing field conditions.

  19. Risk management of key issues of FPSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liping; Sun, Hai

    2012-12-01

    Risk analysis of key systems have become a growing topic late of because of the development of offshore structures. Equipment failures of offloading system and fire accidents were analyzed based on the floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) features. Fault tree analysis (FTA), and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) methods were examined based on information already researched on modules of relex reliability studio (RRS). Equipment failures were also analyzed qualitatively by establishing a fault tree and Boolean structure function based on the shortage of failure cases, statistical data, and risk control measures examined. Failure modes of fire accident were classified according to the different areas of fire occurrences during the FMEA process, using risk priority number (RPN) methods to evaluate their severity rank. The qualitative analysis of FTA gave the basic insight of forming the failure modes of FPSO offloading, and the fire FMEA gave the priorities and suggested processes. The research has practical importance for the security analysis problems of FPSO.

  20. Ineffective Healthcare Technology Management in Benin’s Public Health Sector: The Perceptions of Key Actors and Their Ability to Address the Main Problems

    PubMed Central

    Houngbo, P. Thierry; De Cock Buning, Tjard; Bunders, Joske; Coleman, Harry L. S.; Medenou, Daton; Dakpanon, Laurent; Zweekhorst, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    Background: Low-income countries face many contextual challenges to manage healthcare technologies effectively, as the majority are imported and resources are constrained to a greater extent. Previous healthcare technology management (HTM) policies in Benin have failed to produce better quality of care for the population and costeffectiveness for the government. This study aims to identify and assess the main problems facing HTM in Benin’s public health sector, as well as the ability of key actors within the sector to address these problems. Methods: We conducted 2 surveys in 117 selected health facilities. The first survey was based on 377 questionnaires and 259 interviews, and the second involved observation and group interviews at health facilities. The Temple-Bird Healthcare Technology Package System (TBHTPS), tailored to the context of Benin’s health system, was used as a conceptual framework. Results: The findings of the first survey show that 85% of key actors in Benin’s HTM sector characterized the system as failing in components of the TBHTPS framework. Biomedical, clinical, healthcare technology engineers and technicians perceived problems most severely, followed by users of equipment, managers and hospital directors, international organization officers, local and foreign suppliers, and finally policy-makers, planners and administrators at the Ministry of Health (MoH). The 5 most important challenges to be addressed are policy, strategic management and planning, and technology needs assessment and selection – categorized as major enabling inputs (MEI) in HTM by the TBHTPS framework – and installation and commissioning, training and skill development and procurement, which are import and use activities (IUA). The ability of each key actor to address these problems (the degree of political or administrative power they possess) was inversely proportional to their perception of the severity of the problems. Observational data gathered during site

  1. Dynamic Key Management Schemes for Secure Group Access Control Using Hierarchical Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Woei-Jiunn; Pai, Haw-Tyng

    2008-11-01

    The applications of group computing and communication motivate the requirement to provide group access control in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The operation in MANETs' groups performs a decentralized manner and accommodated membership dynamically. Moreover, due to lack of centralized control, MANETs' groups are inherently insecure and vulnerable to attacks from both within and outside the groups. Such features make access control more challenging in MANETs. Recently, several researchers have proposed group access control mechanisms in MANETs based on a variety of threshold signatures. However, these mechanisms cannot actually satisfy MANETs' dynamic environments. This is because the threshold-based mechanisms cannot be achieved when the number of members is not up to the threshold value. Hence, by combining the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem, self-certified public key cryptosystem and secure filter technique, we construct dynamic key management schemes based on hierarchical clustering for securing group access control in MANETs. Specifically, the proposed schemes can constantly accomplish secure group access control only by renewing the secure filters of few cluster heads, when a cluster head joins or leaves a cross-cluster. In such a new way, we can find that the proposed group access control scheme can be very effective for securing practical applications in MANETs.

  2. Leadership: The Key to Successful Implementation of Total Quality Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    the implementation of the initiative called Total Quality Management as the philosophy and guiding principles to improve organizational efficiency...where and how to start. This paper presents the critical elements, their interrelationships, and how they can be used to achieve the cultural change necessary for successful implementation of Total Quality Management .

  3. 41 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - 3-Key Points and Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 3-Key Points and Principles A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION GENERAL 3-FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE...

  4. Key Institutions in Business and Management Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornaciari, Charles J.; Arbaugh, J. B.; Asarta, Carlos J.; Bento, Regina F.; Hwang, Alvin; Lund Dean, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    The authors investigate institutional productivity in business and management education (BME) research based on the analysis of 4,464 articles published by 7,210 authors across 17 BME journals over a 10-year period, involving approximately 1,900 schools worldwide. Departing from traditional disciplinary silos, they examine the BME research field…

  5. Keeping the Best: A Practical Guide to Retaining Key Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevan, Stephen; Barber, Linda; Robinson, Dilys

    This book, which is intended to assist human resource professionals and line managers in the United Kingdom, is a practical guide to retaining key employees. Discussed in the introduction are the relationship between downsizing and retention, problems that retention difficulties pose for human resource management, and the effects of retention…

  6. Projections of change in key ecosystem indicators for planning and management of marine protected areas: An example study for European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Susan; Butenschön, Momme

    2018-02-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are widely used as tools to maintain biodiversity, protect habitats and ensure that development is sustainable. If MPAs are to maintain their role into the future it is important for managers to understand how conditions at these sites may change as a result of climate change and other drivers, and this understanding needs to extend beyond temperature to a range of key ecosystem indicators. This case study demonstrates how spatially-aggregated model results for multiple variables can provide useful projections for MPA planners and managers. Conditions in European MPAs have been projected for the 2040s using unmitigated and globally managed scenarios of climate change and river management, and hence high and low emissions of greenhouse gases and riverborne nutrients. The results highlight the vulnerability of potential refuge sites in the north-west Mediterranean and the need for careful monitoring at MPAs to the north and west of the British Isles, which may be affected by changes in Atlantic circulation patterns. The projections also support the need for more MPAs in the eastern Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea, and can inform the selection of sites.

  7. Security Protocol Verification and Optimization by Epistemic Model Checking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-05

    Three cryptographers are sitting down to dinner at their favourite restau- rant. Their waiter informs them that arrangements have been made with the...Unfortunately, the protocol cannot be expected to satisfy this: suppose that all agents manage to broadcast their mes- sage and all messages have the

  8. [Application of laboratory information system in the management of the key indicators of quality inspection].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ye; Chen, Qian; Wu, Wei; Cui, Wei

    2015-03-31

    To establish a system of monitoring the key indicator of quality for inspection (KIQI) on a laboratory information system (LIS), and to have a better management of KIQI. Clinical sample made in PUMCH were collected during the whole of 2014. Next, interactive input program were designed to accomplish data collecting of the disqualification rate of samples, the mistake rate of samples and the occasions of losing samples, etc. Then, a series moment of sample collection, laboratory sample arrived, sample test, sample check, response to critical value, namely, trajectory information left on LIS were recorded and the qualification rate of TAT, the notification rate of endangering result were calculated. Finally, the information about quality control were collected to build an internal quality control database and the KIQI, such as the out-of-control rate of quality control and the total error of test items were monitored. The inspection of the sample management shows the disqualification rates in 2014 were all below the target, but the rates in January and February were a little high and the rates of four wards were above 2%. The mistake rates of samples was 0.47 cases/10 000 cases, attaining the target (< 2 cases/10 000 cases). Also, there was no occasion of losing samples in 2014, attaining the target too. The inspection of laboratory reports shows the qualification rates of TAT was within the acceptable range (> 95%), however the rates of blood routine in November (94.75%) was out of range. We have solved the problem by optimizing the processes. The notification rate of endangering result attained the target (≥ 98%), while the rate of timely notification is needed to improve. Quality inspection shows the CV of APTT in August (5.02%) was rising significantly, beyond the accepted CV (5.0%). We have solved the problem by changing the reagent. The CV of TT in 2014 were all below the allowable CV, thus the allowable CV of the next year lower to 10%. It is an objective

  9. Waste to energy--key element for sustainable waste management.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Paul H; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-01

    Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of "protection of men and environment" and "resource conservation". Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together with prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fast Modular Exponentiation and Elliptic Curve Group Operation in Maple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, S. Y.; James, G.

    2006-01-01

    The modular exponentiation, y[equivalent to]x[superscript k](mod n) with x,y,k,n integers and n [greater than] 1; is the most fundamental operation in RSA and ElGamal public-key cryptographic systems. Thus the efficiency of RSA and ElGamal depends entirely on the efficiency of the modular exponentiation. The same situation arises also in elliptic…

  11. Media Management Education: Key Themes, Pedagogies, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Förster, Kati; Rohn, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The media sphere has changed significantly as a result of globalization, technology, and new habits of media use. Scholars in journalism and mass communication thus call on a transformation and reinvention of higher education in the field. The purpose of this article is to investigate how media management is taught across different institutions,…

  12. Key Data on Education in Europe 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranguelov, Stanislav; De Coster, Isabelle; Norani, Sogol; Paolini, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Key Data on Education in Europe 2012 is a Eurydice flagship publication tracing the main developments of European education systems over the last decade. The report combines statistical data with qualitative information to describe the organisation, management and functioning of 37 European education systems from pre-primary to higher education.…

  13. [Key content and formulation of national Chinese materia medica resources survey at county level].

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hai-Tao; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Run-Huai; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-08-01

    According to National Census for Water, National Population Census, National Land and Resources Survey, and work experience of experimental measures for national Chinese materia medica resources(CMMR) survey,the national CMMR survey at the county level is the key point of whole survey, that includes organization and management, field survey, sorting data three key links. Organization and management works of national CMMR survey needs to finish four key contents, there are definite goals and tasks, practicable crew, preparation directory, and security assurance. Field survey works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish five key contents, there are preparation works for field survey, the choice of the key survey area (samples), fill in the questionnaire, video data collection, specimen and other physical collection. Sorting data works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish tree key contents, there are data, specimen and census results.

  14. Ares Knowledge Capture: Summary and Key Themes Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Ralph H.

    2011-01-01

    This report has been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) Risk Management team in close coordination with the MSFC Chief Engineers Office. This document provides a point-in-time, cumulative, summary of actionable key lessons learned derived from the design project. Lessons learned invariably address challenges and risks and the way in which these areas have been addressed. Accordingly the risk management thread is woven throughout the document.

  15. Lean Information Management: Criteria For Selecting Key Performance Indicators At Shop Floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iuga, Maria Virginia; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile; Rosca, Liviu-Ion

    2015-07-01

    Most successful organizations worldwide use key performance indicators as an important part of their corporate strategy in order to forecast, measure and plan their businesses. Performance metrics vary in their purpose, definition and content. Therefore, the way organizations select what they think are the optimal indicators for their businesses varies from company to company, sometimes even from department to department. This study aims to answer the question of what is the most suitable way to define and select key performance indicators. More than that, it identifies the right criteria to select key performance indicators at shop floor level. This paper contributes to prior research by analysing and comparing previously researched selection criteria and proposes an original six-criteria-model, which caters towards choosing the most adequate KPIs. Furthermore, the authors take the research a step further by further steps to closed research gaps within this field of study.

  16. Managed care and total quality management: a necessary integration.

    PubMed

    Phoon, J; Corder, K; Barter, M

    1996-01-01

    The process of quality improvement/total quality management (QI/TQM) plays a key role in the delivery of health care in a managed care system. The concepts and ideas surrounding QI/TQM and managed care are interrelated, and the success of health care delivery depends on the integration and coexistence of these two philosophies. In looking more closely at these concepts, it becomes clear that the principles of QI/TQM must underlie strategic decisions involved in the implementation of a managed care system. Nurses play a key role in the success of this integration as nurse case managers, nurse practitioners, and nurse administrators. They have a direct impact on the many variables and goals of both QI/TQM and managed care.

  17. [Key informers. When and How?].

    PubMed

    Martín González, R

    2009-03-01

    When information obtained through duly designed and developed studies is not available, the solution to certain problems that affect the population or that respond to certain questions may be approached by using the information and experience provided by the so-called key informer. The key informer is defined as a person who is in contact with the community or with the problem to be studied, who is considered to have good knowledge of the situation and therefore who is considered an expert. The search for consensus is the basis to obtain information through the key informers. The techniques used have different characteristics based on whether the experts chosen meet together or not, whether they are guided or not, whether they interact with each other or not. These techniques include the survey, the Delphi technique, the nominal group technique, brainwriting, brainstorming, the Phillips 66 technique, the 6-3-5 technique, the community forum and the community impressions technique. Information provided by key informers through the search for consensus is relevant when this is not available or cannot be obtained by other methods. It has permitted the analysis of the existing neurological care model, elaboration of recommendations on visit times for the out-patient neurological care, and the elaboration of guidelines and recommendations for the management of prevalent neurological problems.

  18. Innovation & Collaboration Are Keys to Campus Water Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler-Carter, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Water, water everywhere--managing and conserving water resources is a major factor at campuses worldwide. Doing so is a challenge, since water is one of the most-used and ubiquitous resources in any environment. Water is often taken for granted and not measured by the people who use it the most, yet it might have the greatest potential for helping…

  19. Key Skills Portfolio Assessment: Good Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Martin; Wilson, Lorraine

    2007-01-01

    This guide offers advice and guidance to key skills managers, coordinators and other practitioners who are responsible for ensuring that the standards of portfolio assessment in their center are consistent across the center and with national standards. It describes and offers advice and guidance on the stages of assessment and internal moderation…

  20. Ecological thresholds: The key to successful enviromental management or an important concept with no practical application?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groffman, P.M.; Baron, Jill S.; Blett, T.; Gold, A.J.; Goodman, I.; Gunderson, L.H.; Levinson, B.M.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Paerl, H.W.; Peterson, G.D.; Poff, N.L.; Rejeski, D.W.; Reynolds, J.F.; Turner, M.G.; Weathers, K.C.; Wiens, J.

    2006-01-01

    An ecological threshold is the point at which there is an abrupt change in an ecosystem quality, property or phenomenon, or where small changes in an environmental driver produce large responses in the ecosystem. Analysis of thresholds is complicated by nonlinear dynamics and by multiple factor controls that operate at diverse spatial and temporal scales. These complexities have challenged the use and utility of threshold concepts in environmental management despite great concern about preventing dramatic state changes in valued ecosystems, the need for determining critical pollutant loads and the ubiquity of other threshold-based environmental problems. In this paper we define the scope of the thresholds concept in ecological science and discuss methods for identifying and investigating thresholds using a variety of examples from terrestrial and aquatic environments, at ecosystem, landscape and regional scales. We end with a discussion of key research needs in this area.

  1. Knowledge communication: a key to successful crisis management.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anders; Härenstam, Malin

    2013-09-01

    A winning concept of crisis management can be summarized in 2 words: knowledge communication. If decision makers, communicators, experts, and the public understand what the crisis is about and share their knowledge, the process of handling it will be optimized. Effective crisis communication implies the necessity of an unhindered but purposeful exchange of information within and between authorities, organizations, media, involved individuals, and groups before, during, and after a crisis. This article focuses on the importance of the before, or prevention, part of a crisis since it holds a rich possibility to enhance the chances for successful crisis management of a bioterrorism incident. An extended perspective on crisis communication efficiently links to a more thorough understanding of risk perception with various stakeholders and the public, which also will be helpful for situational awareness. Furthermore, the grounded baseline for the dialogue type of crisis communication suitable in modern society and to modern social media is achieved by linking to those risk communication efforts that are made. The link between risk and crisis should be afforded more attention since, especially in biosecurity, there would be no crisis without risk negligence and poor or malfunctioning preventive efforts.

  2. [Development of key indicators for nurses performance evaluation and estimation of their weights for management by objectives].

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Hwa; Ahn, Sung Hee

    2010-02-01

    This methodological research was designed to develop performance evaluation key indicators (PEKIs) for management by objectives (MBO) and to estimate their weights for hospital nurses. The PEKIs were developed by selecting preliminary indicators from a literature review, examining content validity and identifying their level of importance. Data were collected from November 14, 2007 to February 18, 2008. Data set for importance of indicators was obtained from 464 nurses and weights of PEKIs domain was from 453 nurses, who worked for at least 2 yr in one of three hospitals. Data were analyzed using X(2)-test, factor analysis, and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Based upon Content Validity Index of .8 or above, 61 indicators were selected from the 100 preliminary indicators. Finally, 40 PEKIs were developed from the 61 indicators, and categorized into 10 domains. The highest weight of the 10 domains was customer satisfaction, which was followed by patient education, direct nursing care, profit increase, safety management, improvement of nursing quality, completeness of nursing records, enhancing competence of nurses, indirect nursing care, and cost reduction, in that order. PEKIs and their weights can be utilized for impartial evaluation and MBO for hospital nurses. Further research to verify PEKIs would lead to successful implementation of MBO.

  3. 14 CFR 1216.203 - Definition of key terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Floodplain and Wetlands Management § 1216.203 Definition of key terms. (a) Action—any NASA activity including... buildings, structures and utility items, marine structures, bridges and other land development items, such... wetlands. (i) Floodproofing—the modification of individual structures and facilities, their sites, and...

  4. Capacity building in water demand management as a key component for attaining millennium development goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumbo, Bekithemba; Forster, Laura; Arntzen, Jaap

    Successful water demand management (WDM) implementation as a component of integrated water resource management (IWRM) can play a significant role in the alleviation of poverty through more efficient use of available water resources. The urban population in Southern African cities is characterised by so-called ‘water poor’ communities who typically expend a high percentage of their household income on poor quality water. Usually they have no access to an affordable alternative source. Although WDM as a component of IWRM is not a panacea for poverty, it can help alleviate poverty by facilitating water services management by municipal water supply agencies (MWSAs) in the region. WDM is a key strategy for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, as such, should be given due attention in the preparation of national IWRM and water efficiency plans. Various studies in the Southern African region have indicated that capacity building is necessary for nations to develop IWRM and water-use efficiency plans to meet the targets set out in the MDGs. WDM education and training of water professionals and end-users is particularly important in developing countries, which are resource and information-access poor. In response to these findings, The World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its consulting partners, the Training and Instructional Design Academy of South Africa (TIDASA), and Centre for Applied Research (CAR) designed, developed and presented a pilot WDM Guideline Training Module for MWSAs as part of Phase II of IUCN’s Southern Africa regional WDM project. Pilot training was conducted in July 2004 in Lusaka, Zambia for a group of 36 participants involved in municipal water supply from nine Southern African countries. This paper looks at the links between building the capacity of professionals, operational staff and other role-players in the municipal water supply chain to implement WDM as part of broader IWRM strategies, and the subsequent potential for

  5. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Public Key Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Tuey, Richard; Ma, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Security is an essential part of network communication. The advances in cryptography have provided solutions to many of the network security requirements. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is the foundation of the cryptography applications. The main objective of this research is to design a model to simulate a reliable, scalable, manageable, and high-performance public key infrastructure. We build a model to simulate the NASA public key infrastructure by using SimProcess and MatLab Software. The simulation is from top level all the way down to the computation needed for encryption, decryption, digital signature, and secure web server. The application of secure web server could be utilized in wireless communications. The results of the simulation are analyzed and confirmed by using queueing theory.

  6. Proof-of-principle test of coherent-state continuous variable quantum key distribution through turbulent atmosphere (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkach, Ivan D.; Peuntinger, Christian; Ruppert, László; Heim, Bettina; Gunthner, Kevin; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution is a practical application of quantum information theory that is aimed at generation of secret cryptographic key between two remote trusted parties and that uses multi-photon quantum states as carriers of key bits. Remote parties share the secret key via a quantum channel, that presumably is under control of of an eavesdropper, and which properties must be taken into account in the security analysis. Well-studied fiber-optical quantum channels commonly possess stable transmittance and low noise levels, while free-space channels represent a simpler, less demanding and more flexible alternative, but suffer from atmospheric effects such as turbulence that in particular causes a non-uniform transmittance distribution referred to as fading. Nonetheless free-space channels, providing an unobstructed line-of-sight, are more apt for short, mid-range and potentially long-range (using satellites) communication and will play an important role in the future development and implementation of QKD networks. It was previously theoretically shown that coherent-state CV QKD should be in principle possible to implement over a free-space fading channel, but strong transmittance fluctuations result in the significant modulation-dependent channel excess noise. In this regime the post-selection of highly transmitting sub-channels may be needed, which can even restore the security of the protocol in the strongly turbulent channels. We now report the first proof-of-principle experimental test of coherent state CV QKD protocol using different levels Gaussian modulation over a mid-range (1.6-kilometer long) free-space atmospheric quantum channel. The transmittance of the link was characterized using intensity measurements for the reference but channel estimation using the modulated coherent states was also studied. We consider security against Gaussian collective attacks, that were shown to be optimal against CV QKD protocols . We assumed a

  7. Medicaid and Managed Care: Key Data, Trends, and Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... care, child health, preventive care, and chronic disease management. Most states with MCOs and half of 3 states with PCCMs publicly report on the quality of these programs. Some states prepare a MCO ...

  8. Quantum communication and information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beals, Travis Roland

    Quantum computers enable dramatically more efficient algorithms for solving certain classes of computational problems, but, in doing so, they create new problems. In particular, Shor's Algorithm allows for efficient cryptanalysis of many public-key cryptosystems. As public key cryptography is a critical component of present-day electronic commerce, it is crucial that a working, secure replacement be found. Quantum key distribution (QKD), first developed by C.H. Bennett and G. Brassard, offers a partial solution, but many challenges remain, both in terms of hardware limitations and in designing cryptographic protocols for a viable large-scale quantum communication infrastructure. In Part I, I investigate optical lattice-based approaches to quantum information processing. I look at details of a proposal for an optical lattice-based quantum computer, which could potentially be used for both quantum communications and for more sophisticated quantum information processing. In Part III, I propose a method for converting and storing photonic quantum bits in the internal state of periodically-spaced neutral atoms by generating and manipulating a photonic band gap and associated defect states. In Part II, I present a cryptographic protocol which allows for the extension of present-day QKD networks over much longer distances without the development of new hardware. I also present a second, related protocol which effectively solves the authentication problem faced by a large QKD network, thus making QKD a viable, information-theoretic secure replacement for public key cryptosystems.

  9. Information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Wendell; Corker, Kevin

    1990-01-01

    Primary Flight Display (PFD) information management and cockpit display of information management research is presented in viewgraph form. The information management problem in the cockpit, information management burdens, the key characteristics of an information manager, the interface management system handling the flow of information and the dialogs between the system and the pilot, and overall system architecture are covered.

  10. Waste to energy – key element for sustainable waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Paul H., E-mail: paul.h.brunner@tuwien.ac.at; Rechberger, Helmut

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • First paper on the importance of incineration from a urban metabolism point of view. • Proves that incineration is necessary for sustainable waste management. • Historical and technical overview of 100 years development of MSW incineration. - Abstract: Human activities inevitably result in wastes. The higher the material turnover, and the more complex and divers the materials produced, the more challenging it is for waste management to reach the goals of “protection of men and environment” and “resource conservation”. Waste incineration, introduced originally for volume reduction and hygienic reasons, went through a long and intense development. Together withmore » prevention and recycling measures, waste to energy (WTE) facilities contribute significantly to reaching the goals of waste management. Sophisticated air pollution control (APC) devices ensure that emissions are environmentally safe. Incinerators are crucial and unique for the complete destruction of hazardous organic materials, to reduce risks due to pathogenic microorganisms and viruses, and for concentrating valuable as well as toxic metals in certain fractions. Bottom ash and APC residues have become new sources of secondary metals, hence incineration has become a materials recycling facility, too. WTE plants are supporting decisions about waste and environmental management: They can routinely and cost effectively supply information about chemical waste composition as well as about the ratio of biogenic to fossil carbon in MSW and off-gas.« less

  11. Key papers in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.

  12. Airborne Tactical Data Network Gateways: Evaluating EPLRS’ Ability to Integrate With Wireless Meshed Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Computer Memory Card International Association PHY Physical PLI Position Location Information PLRS Position Location Reporting System PoP Point of...it is widely acknowledged that the JTRS program will not be providing any sustentative operational capability prior to FY’09. This reality has...Figure 5, and a man-packed antenna (AS- 3448/PSQ-4). Back-up (cryptographic key) memory is maintained by a traditional 9v 24

  13. Exploring dementia management attitudes in primary care: a key informant survey to primary care physicians in 25 European countries.

    PubMed

    Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Vinker, Shlomo; Koskela, Tuomas H; Frese, Thomas; Buono, Nicola; Soler, Jean Karl; Ahrensberg, Jette; Asenova, Radost; Foguet Boreu, Quintí; Ceyhun Peker, Gülsen; Collins, Claire; Hanževački, Miro; Hoffmann, Kathryn; Iftode, Claudia; Kurpas, Donata; Le Reste, Jean Yves; Lichtwarck, Bjørn; Petek, Davorina; Pinto, Daniel; Schrans, Diego; Streit, Sven; Tang, Eugene Yee Hing; Tatsioni, Athina; Torzsa, Péter; Unalan, Pemra C; van Marwijk, Harm; Thulesius, Hans

    2017-09-01

    Strategies for the involvement of primary care in the management of patients with presumed or diagnosed dementia are heterogeneous across Europe. We wanted to explore attitudes of primary care physicians (PCPs) when managing dementia: (i) the most popular cognitive tests, (ii) who had the right to initiate or continue cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine treatment, and (iii) the relationship between the permissiveness of these rules/guidelines and PCP's approach in the dementia investigations and assessment. Key informant survey. Primary care practices across 25 European countries. Four hundred forty-five PCPs responded to a self-administered questionnaire. Two-step cluster analysis was performed using characteristics of the informants and the responses to the survey. Two by two contingency tables with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the association between categorical variables. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to assess the association of multiple variables (age class, gender, and perceived prescription rules) with the PCPs' attitude of "trying to establish a diagnosis of dementia on their own." Discrepancies between rules/guidelines and attitudes to dementia management was found in many countries. There was a strong association between the authorization to prescribe dementia drugs and pursuing dementia diagnostic work-up (odds ratio, 3.45; 95% CI 2.28-5.23). Differing regulations about who does what in dementia management seemed to affect PCP's engagement in dementia investigations and assessment. PCPs who were allowed to prescribe dementia drugs also claimed higher engagement in dementia work-up than PCPs who were not allowed to prescribe.

  14. Audio signal encryption using chaotic Hénon map and lifting wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Animesh; Misra, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    We propose an audio signal encryption scheme based on the chaotic Hénon map. The scheme mainly comprises two phases: one is the preprocessing stage where the audio signal is transformed into data by the lifting wavelet scheme and the other in which the transformed data is encrypted by chaotic data set and hyperbolic functions. Furthermore, we use dynamic keys and consider the key space size to be large enough to resist any kind of cryptographic attacks. A statistical investigation is also made to test the security and the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  15. Continuous-variable protocol for oblivious transfer in the noisy-storage model.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Fabian; Gehring, Tobias; Schaffner, Christian; Pacher, Christoph; Schnabel, Roman; Wehner, Stephanie

    2018-04-13

    Cryptographic protocols are the backbone of our information society. This includes two-party protocols which offer protection against distrustful players. Such protocols can be built from a basic primitive called oblivious transfer. We present and experimentally demonstrate here a quantum protocol for oblivious transfer for optical continuous-variable systems, and prove its security in the noisy-storage model. This model allows us to establish security by sending more quantum signals than an attacker can reliably store during the protocol. The security proof is based on uncertainty relations which we derive for continuous-variable systems, that differ from the ones used in quantum key distribution. We experimentally demonstrate in a proof-of-principle experiment the proposed oblivious transfer protocol for various channel losses by using entangled two-mode squeezed states measured with balanced homodyne detection. Our work enables the implementation of arbitrary two-party quantum cryptographic protocols with continuous-variable communication systems.

  16. "Untapped Potential?" Key Competency Learning and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Lorna; Penney, Dawn; Pope, Clive

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a collaborative action research project that directed attention to the opportunities Physical Education presents to develop learning associated with three of the key competencies detailed in the New Zealand Curriculum; thinking; managing self; and relating to others. Three teachers in one secondary school explored the…

  17. Key Problems in Science and Technology in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuthavong, Yongyuth; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Cites the need for promoting science/technology management and policy formation in Thailand, viewing contributions of science/technology to the socioeconomic development of the country as high priorities. Criteria for selecting priority areas and key problems are noted; they include relevance to development, availability of human resources, and…

  18. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: GIS\\KEY ENVIRONMENTAL DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    GIS/Key™ is a comprehensive environmental database management system that integrates site data and graphics, enabling the user to create geologic cross-sections; boring logs; potentiometric, isopleth, and structure maps; summary tables; and hydrographs. GIS/Key™ is menu-driven an...

  19. Key-value store with internal key-value storage interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Ting, Dennis P. J.

    A key-value store is provided having one or more key-value storage interfaces. A key-value store on at least one compute node comprises a memory for storing a plurality of key-value pairs; and an abstract storage interface comprising a software interface module that communicates with at least one persistent storage device providing a key-value interface for persistent storage of one or more of the plurality of key-value pairs, wherein the software interface module provides the one or more key-value pairs to the at least one persistent storage device in a key-value format. The abstract storage interface optionally processes one or moremore » batch operations on the plurality of key-value pairs. A distributed embodiment for a partitioned key-value store is also provided.« less

  20. Summary Letter of Key Requirements for FLM Notification Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Letter from Anna Marie Wood, Director of EPA’s Air Quality Policy Division, to Carol McCoy, Chief of the Air Resources Division of the National Park Service (NPS) summarizing the key requirements for the Federal Land Managers (FLMs) notification process.

  1. Strategies of Educational Decentralization: Key Questions and Core Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    1998-01-01

    Explains key issues and forces that shape organization and management strategies of educational decentralization, using examples from Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Nicaragua, and Spain. Core decentralization issues include national and regional goals, planning, political stress, resource distribution, infrastructure development, and job…

  2. Biodiversity in the city: key challenges for urban green space management

    Treesearch

    Myla F.J. Aronson; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Karl L. Evans; Mark A. Goddard; Susannah B. Lerman; J. Scott MacIvor; Charles H. Nilon; Timothy Vargo

    2017-01-01

    Cities play important roles in the conservation of global biodiversity, particularly through the planning and management of urban green spaces (UGS). However, UGS management is subject to a complex assortment of interacting social, cultural, and economic factors, including governance, economics, social networks, multiple stakeholders, individual preferences, and social...

  3. Key Value Considerations for Consultant Pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Lee; Perry, Ronald G; Rhodus, Susan M; Stearns, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Managing the efficiency and costs of residents' drug regimens outside the acute-care hospital and through transitions of care requires a toolbox filled with cost-control tools and careful collaboration among the pharmacy provider(s), facility staff, and the consultant/senior care pharmacist. This article will provide the reader with key long-term care business strategies that affect the profitability of the pharmacy provider in various care settings while, at the same time, ensuring optimal therapy for residents as they transition across levels of care. Readers can take away ideas on how to access critical information, what they can do with this information, and how they can improve the overall care process. Four experts in various aspects of pharmacy management share their insights on pharmacy practice issues including formulary management, performance metrics, short-cycle dispensing challenges/solutions, cost-control measures, facility surveys, billing practices, medication reconciliation, prospective medication reviews, and transitions of care.

  4. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  5. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  6. Planning and Time Management: Keys to Effective Educational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergiovanni, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    Educational administrators' concern with planning and time management results from the fragmentation of their daily activities, which research has documented, and their consequent search for order and control. Time is important because its scarcity affects productivity and its use has social-psychological effects on staffs' perceptions of…

  7. Florida Keys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-13

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West. This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03890

  8. Management Trainees in the Hotel Industry: What Do Managers Expect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of a survey of 118 United Kingdom hotel managers (53 percent response) with a similar study of 75 U.S. managers found key differences reflecting the impact of cultures on management expectations. Significant similarities support development of an internationally transferable core curriculum for hotel management. (SK)

  9. Knowing (and understanding) the key numbers for your practice.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Ted

    2013-12-01

    Most dentists see accounting and bookkeeping as a necessary evil instead of a helpful tool. Yet the most financially successful and happy dentists understand the need for good financial management. Here's an overview that will help you better-understand the key numbers in your practice.

  10. The SMS4 cryptographic system design based on dynamic partial self-reconfiguration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianxin; Gao, Xianwei; Li, Xiuying; Sui, Meili

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes SMS4 algorithm by using dynamic partial self-reconfiguration. The design is implemented on Xilinx VirtexII-Pro XC2VP30 FPGA devices. The partial self-reconfiguration encryption/decryption module data throughput is up to 50Mb/s, key expansion and encryption/decryption modules use 1606 and 1570 slices respectively, and the resource utilization ratio of the key expansion by using partial self-reconfiguration technology is less 32.03% and slices are less 757 than the non-reconfiguration technology. SMS4 implementation gets a good balance between high performance and low complexity in area. The theoretical and practical research of dynamic partial self-reconfiguration has a broad space for development and application prospect.

  11. Chapter 2. Selecting Key Habitat Attributes for Monitoring

    Treesearch

    Gregory D. Hayward; Lowell H. Suring

    2013-01-01

    The success of habitat monitoring programs depends, to a large extent, on carefully selecting key habitat attributes to monitor. The challenge of choosing a limited but sufficient set of attributes will differ depending on the objectives of the monitoring program. In some circumstances, such as managing National Forest System lands for threatened and endangered species...

  12. Return of the pulmonary nodule: the radiologist's key role in implementing the 2015 BTS guidelines on the investigation and management of pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Graham, Richard N J; Baldwin, David R; Callister, Matthew E J; Gleeson, Fergus V

    2016-01-01

    The British Thoracic Society has published new comprehensive guidelines for the management of pulmonary nodules. These guidelines are significantly different from those previously published, as they use two malignancy prediction calculators to better characterize the risk of malignancy. There are recommendations for a higher nodule size threshold for follow-up (≥5 mm or ≥80 mm(3)) and a reduction of the follow-up period to 1 year for solid pulmonary nodules; both of these will reduce the number of follow-up CT scans. PET-CT plays a crucial role in characterization also, with an ordinal scale being recommended for reporting. Radiologists will be the key in implementing these guidelines, and routine use of volumetric image-analysis software will be required to manage patients with pulmonary nodules correctly.

  13. Function key and shortcut key use in airway facilities.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-02-01

    This document provides information on the function keys and shortcut keys used by systems in the Federal Aviation Administration : Airway Facilities (AF) work environment. It includes a catalog of the function keys and shortcut keys used by each syst...

  14. 41 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - 3-Key Points and Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Principles A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... 102-3—Key Points and Principles This appendix provides additional guidance in the form of answers to frequently asked questions and identifies key points and principles that may be applied to situations not...

  15. Spatial and numerical relationships of arthropod communities associated with key pests of maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pest management largely focuses on managing individual pest species with little concern for the diverse communities that co-occur with key pests and potentially shape their population dynamics. During anthesis, we described the foliar arthropod communities on 53 maize farms throughout the region of ...

  16. An effective biometric discretization approach to extract highly discriminative, informative, and privacy-protective binary representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Meng-Hui; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin

    2011-12-01

    Biometric discretization derives a binary string for each user based on an ordered set of biometric features. This representative string ought to be discriminative, informative, and privacy protective when it is employed as a cryptographic key in various security applications upon error correction. However, it is commonly believed that satisfying the first and the second criteria simultaneously is not feasible, and a tradeoff between them is always definite. In this article, we propose an effective fixed bit allocation-based discretization approach which involves discriminative feature extraction, discriminative feature selection, unsupervised quantization (quantization that does not utilize class information), and linearly separable subcode (LSSC)-based encoding to fulfill all the ideal properties of a binary representation extracted for cryptographic applications. In addition, we examine a number of discriminative feature-selection measures for discretization and identify the proper way of setting an important feature-selection parameter. Encouraging experimental results vindicate the feasibility of our approach.

  17. Quantum random oracle model for quantum digital signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Tao; Lei, Qi; Liu, Jianwei

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this work is to provide a general security analysis tool, namely, the quantum random oracle (QRO), for facilitating the security analysis of quantum cryptographic protocols, especially protocols based on quantum one-way function. QRO is used to model quantum one-way function and different queries to QRO are used to model quantum attacks. A typical application of quantum one-way function is the quantum digital signature, whose progress has been hampered by the slow pace of the experimental realization. Alternatively, we use the QRO model to analyze the provable security of a quantum digital signature scheme and elaborate the analysis procedure. The QRO model differs from the prior quantum-accessible random oracle in that it can output quantum states as public keys and give responses to different queries. This tool can be a test bed for the cryptanalysis of more quantum cryptographic protocols based on the quantum one-way function.

  18. Managing for wildlife: a key component for social acceptance of compatible forest management.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey

    2003-01-01

    Why manage for wildlife in U.S. forests? American society demands it. Which species should be favored? The social and cultural value of individual species continue to evolve. Large changes have taken place in less than 40 years; Kimmins (2002) states that changes in societal values have produced “future shock” in the forestry profession, with foresters and their...

  19. 41 CFR Appendix A to Subpart D of... - 3-Key Points and Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Principles A Appendix A to Subpart D of Part 102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... Subpart D of Part 102-3—Key Points and Principles This appendix provides additional guidance in the form of answers to frequently asked questions and identifies key points and principles that may be applied...

  20. Defence Capability Plan 2009 (Australian Department of Defence). Public Version

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-24

    workings or Intellectual Property . > Armoured vehicles. This capability relates to the repair, maintenance and some upgrades of specialist military...cryptographic equipment. > Composite and exotic materials. This is the ability to repair specialist alloys and composite materials, to develop new...manufacture of some high usage munitions, ammunition components, propellants and explosives. > Signature management. Includes the capabilities and coatings

  1. How coaching can play a key role in the development of nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Liz

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore empirically the role that coaching plays in the development of nurse managers in order to inform further research and policy makers about the potential utility and value of this means of development. There is evidence of the importance of the role of nurse managers who are first line managers of a team of nurses within any health sector. However, there appears to be little understanding of the United Kingdom wide scope of nurse manager development across the United Kingdom and the means to increase its effectiveness. At the same time, it appears that some nurse managers receive coaching to help in their development. This is a mixed methods study, using a pragmatist paradigm. Data was gathered from a quantitative survey and qualitative interviews. This paper is reporting the results of the qualitative interviews only. Twenty-one qualitative interviews were undertaken with nurse managers, coaches and directors of nursing to draw out their own experiences of coaching for nurse managers. Thematic analysis framework was used for data interrogation, identifying new patterns and emerging themes. Themes that emerged from interviews include how nurse managers were introduced to coaching, how they balanced transitions, the role of reflection, the value of relationships and overlaps between clinical supervision, mentoring and coaching. Findings show that following coaching, nurse managers gained increased resilience, confidence and better coping mechanisms. This resulted in perceived improved team management and cohesion and appeared to lead to better quality of care for patients. This study suggests the importance of nurse managers accessing coaching, to enable transformational leadership of their teams of nurses. It suggests also the importance of organisations supporting a coaching culture, to ensure staff satisfaction, motivation and improved quality of patient care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Stress Management: Positive Thinking

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Positive thinking helps with stress management and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk ... with optimism is a key part of effective stress management. And effective stress management is associated with ...

  3. Quantum cryptography over underground optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.

    1996-05-01

    Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generated shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light whose security is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg`s uncertainty principle. In this paper the authors describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from their experimental system with which they are generating key material over 14-km of underground optical fiber. These results show that optical-fiber based quantum cryptography could allow secure,more » real-time key generation over ``open`` multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links between secure ``islands.``« less

  4. 41 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - 3-Key Points and Principles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Principles A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property.... B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 102-3—Key Points and Principles This appendix provides... principles that may be applied to situations not covered elsewhere in this subpart. The guidance follows: Key...

  5. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    PubMed

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  6. Design and Implementation of KSP on the Next Generation Cryptography API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lina, Zhang

    With good seamless connectivity and higher safety, KSP (Key Storage Providers) is the inexorable trend of security requirements and development to take the place of CSP (Cryptographic Service Provider). But the study on KSP has just started in our country, and almost no reports of its implementation can be found. Based on the analysis of function modules and the architecture of Cryptography API (Next Generation (CNG)), this paper discusses the design and implementation of KSP (key storage providers) based on smart card in detail, and an example is also presented to illustrate how to use KSP in Windows Vista.

  7. Modelling in forest management

    Treesearch

    Mark J. Twery

    2004-01-01

    Forest management has traditionally been considered management of trees for timber. It really includes vegetation management and land management and people management as multiple objectives. As such, forest management is intimately linked with other topics in this volume, most especially those chapters on ecological modelling and human dimensions. The key to...

  8. The Key Pieces of the Career Survival and Success Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonetti, Jack L.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of career-success factors identified by 5,000 managers yielded 10 key pieces: excellent performance record, communication skills, interpersonal skills, personality, skill currency, significant work experiences, power, ability to withstand pressure, ability to make difficult decisions, and having a mentor. (SK)

  9. The Introduction of Key Skills in Schools: Core or Casualty?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Derek; Gleeson, Denis; Johnson, Mike; Spencer, Pat; Watson, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Study of the introduction of generic Key Skills in two local education authorities in Britain found limited implementation. Results suggested the need for strategic district- and school-level management, clear aims and objectives, ownership by school staff, and cross-curricular application. (SK)

  10. Information management and information technologies: keys to professional and business success.

    PubMed

    Otten, K W

    1984-01-01

    Personal computers, spreadsheets, decision support software, electronic mail and video disks are just a few of the innovations of information technology which attract the attention of information professionals and managers alike: they are all concerned with the rapidly changing face of information technology and how to cope with a changing competitive environment, personally, and for the benefit of their companies. This paper is the first in a monthly series which tries to illuminate some of the factors and changes which shape our future as professionals and managers. In so doing, it guides and motivates the reader to become "information literate," a prerequisite for personal advancement in an information-based economy. This first paper outlines the relationship between technological innovations, use of information tools and information management and what to consider in order to benefit from the information revolution. It explains the risks of becoming professionally obsolete and alerts the reader to get personally involved to remain or become "information and computer literate."

  11. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Materials and Waste Management in the United States Key Facts and Figures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Each year EPA produces a report called Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures. It includes information on municipal solid waste (MSW) generation, recycling, composting, combustion with energy recovery and landfilling. The 2014 report provides information on historical tipping fees for MSW, and information on the construction and demolition debris generation, which is outside of the scope of MSW. The Facts and Figures website includes recent reports (2012 to 2014 as well as historical information on materials in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2014 (in tons). The reports for both current and historical waste prevention can be accessed at EPA's SMM website. The recent Annual Facts and Figures reports are accessible at the following link: https://www.epa.gov/smm/advancing-sustainable-materials-management-facts-and-figures-report. Historical data as well as studies and summary tables related to the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management Report are accessible here: https://www.epa.gov/smm/studies-summary-tables-and-data-related-advancing-sustainable-materials-management-report. An excel file containing the data from 1960 - 2014 is located here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/PUBLIC/OLEM/Materials_Municipal_Waste_Stream_1960_to_2014.xlsx. EPA also maintains a list of state and local waste characterization studies (reports are not available for all states). You can search for your state at https://www.epa.gov/smm/advancing-

  12. The integrated supplier: key to cost management and multi-franchise capitation contracting.

    PubMed

    Schuweiler, R C

    1996-05-01

    Capitation...most healthcare providers do not work under it, comprehend it, or even want it, yet supply capitation contracting seminars are popping up everywhere creating the feeling that the bandwagon is leaving, and it might be time to get on board. Not true. Supply capitation is not for all organizations. Capitation contracting is not easy and there are not many successful models to help the uninitiated. If a panacea is sought for reducing supply costs, capitation is only one component of a systematic strategy to reduce materiel costs. This article suggests a direction using the Group Health Materiel Management (Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, WA) experience as a point of reference. It advocates a systematic approach that focuses on expense reduction in: cost of goods, holding cost of inventory, labor cost associated with all materiel processes, distribution cost (transportation and par stock pick, pack, and replenishment), product utilization, variation in product standards, and waste stream byproducts. At Group Health (GH) these issues are primarily addressed through the use of: information systems, supplier certification/selection processes, group purchasing compliance, supply channel management, supply capitation contracting programs, standardization, and utilization management. Because of managed care organizational structure, Group Health Cooperative supply capitation contracting, as performed at GH, is discussed not as a quick fix solution but in the spirit of sharing our experience with others who may be considering it as a cost savings tactic in the context of a broad-based materiel management strategy. This article highlights the experiences of GH beginning with materiel management's business process assumptions toward multiple-franchise supply capitation.

  13. Turkish Thoracic Society asthma management and prevention guideline: key points.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Füsun; Oğuzülgen, I Kıvılcım; Dursun, Berna; Mungan, Dilşad; Gemicioğlu, Bilun; Yorgancıoğlu, Arzu

    2011-01-01

    Asthma still has high morbidity and cost despite all advances in pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment. Although asthma can be controlled with proper diagnosis and treatment, the low rates of control in our country and in the world can not be attributed to the variable course of the disease and patients' psycho-social behaviours for chronic disease. In this context, Turkish Thoracic Society (TTS) has decided to update Asthma Diagnosis and Management Guide latest published in 2000. National data were collected, compiled and prepared by authors, and final form given by the TTS Asthma and Allergy Study Group, after presenting to consultant individuals and institutions. In June 2009, the National Asthma Management and Prevention Guideline were published in Turkish. In this paper, we aimed to present the national guide in English with its basics and individual differences.

  14. Hardware device binding and mutual authentication

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-03-04

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic unit within a computing device for binding multiple hardware devices and mutually authenticating the devices. The cryptographic unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generates a binding PUF value. The cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF value during an enrollment phase and subsequent authentication phases. During a subsequent authentication phase, the cryptographic unit uses the binding PUF values of the multiple hardware devices to generate a challenge to send to the other device, and to verify a challenge received from the other device to mutually authenticate the hardware devices.

  15. Interviewing Key Informants: Strategic Planning for a Global Public Health Management Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kun, Karen E.; Kassim, Anisa; Howze, Elizabeth; MacDonald, Goldie

    2013-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Sustainable Management Development Program (SMDP) partners with low- and middle-resource countries to develop management capacity so that effective global public health programs can be implemented and better health outcomes can be achieved. The program's impact however, was variable. Hence, there…

  16. Research and Implementation of Key Technologies in Multi-Agent System to Support Distributed Workflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tianheng

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the combination of workflow management system and Multi-agent technology is a hot research field. The problem of lack of flexibility in workflow management system can be improved by introducing multi-agent collaborative management. The workflow management system adopts distributed structure. It solves the problem that the traditional centralized workflow structure is fragile. In this paper, the agent of Distributed workflow management system is divided according to its function. The execution process of each type of agent is analyzed. The key technologies such as process execution and resource management are analyzed.

  17. Efficient and anonymous two-factor user authentication in wireless sensor networks: achieving user anonymity with lightweight sensor computation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks).

  18. Efficient and Anonymous Two-Factor User Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks: Achieving User Anonymity with Lightweight Sensor Computation

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Han, Sangchul; Kim, Moonseong; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    A smart-card-based user authentication scheme for wireless sensor networks (hereafter referred to as a SCA-WSN scheme) is designed to ensure that only users who possess both a smart card and the corresponding password are allowed to gain access to sensor data and their transmissions. Despite many research efforts in recent years, it remains a challenging task to design an efficient SCA-WSN scheme that achieves user anonymity. The majority of published SCA-WSN schemes use only lightweight cryptographic techniques (rather than public-key cryptographic techniques) for the sake of efficiency, and have been demonstrated to suffer from the inability to provide user anonymity. Some schemes employ elliptic curve cryptography for better security but require sensors with strict resource constraints to perform computationally expensive scalar-point multiplications; despite the increased computational requirements, these schemes do not provide user anonymity. In this paper, we present a new SCA-WSN scheme that not only achieves user anonymity but also is efficient in terms of the computation loads for sensors. Our scheme employs elliptic curve cryptography but restricts its use only to anonymous user-to-gateway authentication, thereby allowing sensors to perform only lightweight cryptographic operations. Our scheme also enjoys provable security in a formal model extended from the widely accepted Bellare-Pointcheval-Rogaway (2000) model to capture the user anonymity property and various SCA-WSN specific attacks (e.g., stolen smart card attacks, node capture attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen verifier attacks). PMID:25849359

  19. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae)1

    PubMed Central

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I.; Clark, Lynn G.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. Methods and Results: A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). Conclusions: WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus. PMID:27144109

  20. Clinical risk management.

    PubMed

    Knowles, D

    Managing clinical risk involves all staff with clinical and managerial responsibilities. This article draws attention to some key steps in risk management and ways to deal with the problems when things do go wrong.

  1. Operations management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandli, A. E.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Kelly, C. M.; Mccandless, W.; Rue, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of an operations management system is to provide an orderly and efficient method to operate and maintain aerospace vehicles. Concepts are described for an operations management system and the key technologies are highlighted which will be required if this capability is brought to fruition. Without this automation and decision aiding capability, the growing complexity of avionics will result in an unmanageable workload for the operator, ultimately threatening mission success or survivability of the aircraft or space system. The key technologies include expert system application to operational tasks such as replanning, equipment diagnostics and checkout, global system management, and advanced man machine interfaces. The economical development of operations management systems, which are largely software, will require advancements in other technological areas such as software engineering and computer hardware.

  2. How Are You Doing? Key Performance Indicators and Benchmarking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John P.

    2011-01-01

    School business officials need to "know and show" that their operations are well managed. To do so, they ask themselves questions, such as "How are they doing? How do they compare with others? Are they making progress fast enough? Are they using the best practices?" Using key performance indicators (KPIs) and benchmarking as regular parts of their…

  3. Closing the water cycle - the key role of water and wastewater management in a circular economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Connor, Rick; Koncagul, Engin; Ortigara, Angela

    2017-04-01

    Planetary water boundaries are exceeded locally and regionally as water demand and use are escalating and per capita water availability is decreasing. However, wastewater represents an alternative yet reliable source containing for instance, nutrients (for use as fertilizer) and metals that can be extracted, and can be a source of energy. These characteristics mean that water and wastewater are set to play a key role in the circular economy. Furthermore, wastewater use can generate business opportunities and enhance water, food and energy security, therefore helping to alleviate poverty. However, to increase the collection, treatment and use of wastewater, investments in infrastructure and appropriate (low cost) technologies are needed. Ensuring the development of human and institutional capacity is also essential for proper wastewater management. The UN World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP) produces together with several UN-Water Members and Partners the annual World Water Development Report (WWDR). Its 2017 edition "Wastewater: The Untapped Resource" focuses on the critical role of wastewater management for vibrant economies, resilient societies and the maintenance of a healthy environment. Wastewater issues play also a central role in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, most notably through Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 6.3 that aims to improve water quality by reducing the proportion of untreated wastewater released to the environment and increasing its recycling and safe reuse globally. This target is interlinked with several other targets of SDG 6 ('the water goal') as well as to several other SDGs that relate to, poverty reduction, health, energy and food security, among others. The main policy-relevant messages of the WWDR 2017 will be introduced and linked to socio-hydrological approaches. These messages are an important input to the implementation of the water research agenda of the Panta Rhei initiative of IAHS.

  4. Leadership and Strategic Management: Keys to Institutional Priorities and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, James S.; de Lourdes Machado, Maria; Peterson, Marvin W.

    2008-01-01

    Allocating and managing resources have always been important cornerstones of institutional leadership. Institutional resources include financial, physical and human components. Even in the best of times, it is a challenge to do this effectively. In times of diminished and shrinking resources, distributing these precious commodities across the…

  5. Pre-Mrna Introns as a Model for Cryptographic Algorithm:. Theory and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regoli, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The RNA-Crypto System (shortly RCS) is a symmetric key algorithm to cipher data. The idea for this new algorithm starts from the observation of nature. In particular from the observation of RNA behavior and some of its properties. In particular the RNA sequences have some sections called Introns. Introns, derived from the term "intragenic regions", are non-coding sections of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) or other RNAs, that are removed (spliced out of the RNA) before the mature RNA is formed. Once the introns have been spliced out of a pre-mRNA, the resulting mRNA sequence is ready to be translated into a protein. The corresponding parts of a gene are known as introns as well. The nature and the role of Introns in the pre-mRNA is not clear and it is under ponderous researches by Biologists but, in our case, we will use the presence of Introns in the RNA-Crypto System output as a strong method to add chaotic non coding information and an unnecessary behaviour in the access to the secret key to code the messages. In the RNA-Crypto System algorithm the introns are sections of the ciphered message with non-coding information as well as in the precursor mRNA.

  6. Scalable Authenticated Tree Based Group Key Exchange for Ad-Hoc Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmedt, Yvo; Lange, Tanja; Burmester, Mike

    Task-specific groups are often formed in an ad-hoc manner within large corporate structures, such as companies. Take the following typical scenario: A director decides to set up a task force group for some specific project. An order is passed down the hierarchy where it finally reaches a manager who selects some employees to form the group. The members should communicate in a secure way and for efficiency, a symmetric encryption system is chosen. To establish a joint secret key for the group, a group key exchange (GKE) protocol is used. We show how to use an existing Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) to achieve authenticated GKE by modifying the protocol and particularly by including signatures.

  7. Hardware device to physical structure binding and authentication

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Stein, David J.; Bauer, Todd M.

    2013-08-20

    Detection and deterrence of device tampering and subversion may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a hardware device for authenticating a binding of the hardware device and a physical structure. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes an internal physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware device, which generate an internal PUF value. Binding logic is coupled to receive the internal PUF value, as well as an external PUF value associated with the physical structure, and generates a binding PUF value, which represents the binding of the hardware device and the physical structure. The cryptographic fingerprint unit also includes a cryptographic unit that uses the binding PUF value to allow a challenger to authenticate the binding.

  8. Guaranteeing Spoof-Resilient Multi-Robot Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-12

    particularly challenging attack on this assumption is the so-called “Sybil attack.” In a Sybil attack a malicious agent can generate (or spoof) a large...cybersecurity in general multi-node networks (e.g. a wired LAN), the same is not true for multi- robot networks [14, 28], leaving them largely vulnerable...key passing or cryptographic authen- tication is difficult to maintain due to the highly dynamic and distributed nature of multi-robot teams where

  9. Asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiang; Wei, Hengzheng; Zhang, Peng

    2006-12-15

    A system of asymmetric cryptography based on wavefront sensing (ACWS) is proposed for the first time to our knowledge. One of the most significant features of the asymmetric cryptography is that a trapdoor one-way function is required and constructed by analogy to wavefront sensing, in which the public key may be derived from optical parameters, such as the wavelength or the focal length, while the private key may be obtained from a kind of regular point array. The ciphertext is generated by the encoded wavefront and represented with an irregular array. In such an ACWS system, the encryption key is not identical to the decryption key, which is another important feature of an asymmetric cryptographic system. The processes of asymmetric encryption and decryption are formulized mathematically and demonstrated with a set of numerical experiments.

  10. Using Key Performance Indicators to Do More with Less in Your Practice

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Key performance indicators (KPIs) are important to managing any sustainable business. This tutorial provides audiologists, especially those with little formal business education, with a working definition of KPIs. A major theme of this article is that a relatively small group of about a dozen KPIs are an essential part of managing a successful audiology practice. The most useful KPIs for managing retail-oriented and medically oriented practices will be provided. Best practice benchmarks and how to use them to hire, coach, and train your staff also is covered. PMID:28028323

  11. Using Key Performance Indicators to Do More with Less in Your Practice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Key performance indicators (KPIs) are important to managing any sustainable business. This tutorial provides audiologists, especially those with little formal business education, with a working definition of KPIs. A major theme of this article is that a relatively small group of about a dozen KPIs are an essential part of managing a successful audiology practice. The most useful KPIs for managing retail-oriented and medically oriented practices will be provided. Best practice benchmarks and how to use them to hire, coach, and train your staff also is covered.

  12. Networking: A Key to Career Communication and Management Consulting Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Now that job security with one organization is a relic of the past and companies are outsourcing training and other "nonessential" functions, the author suggests in his career communication classes that students develop the same inventive strategies to plan their employment futures that management consultants use to market themselves in the 21st…

  13. Wildfire in the United Kingdom: status and key issues

    Treesearch

    Julia McMorrow

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of wildfire risk in the United Kingdom and examines some of the key issues in U.K. wildfire management. Wildfires challenge the resources of U.K. Fire and Rescue Services (FRSs), especially in dry years, yet FRSs are poorly equipped and trained to deal with wildfire. A brief geography of U.K. wildfires is presented using fire statistics...

  14. Key Questions in Building Defect Prediction Models in Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramler, Rudolf; Wolfmaier, Klaus; Stauder, Erwin; Kossak, Felix; Natschläger, Thomas

    The information about which modules of a future version of a software system are defect-prone is a valuable planning aid for quality managers and testers. Defect prediction promises to indicate these defect-prone modules. However, constructing effective defect prediction models in an industrial setting involves a number of key questions. In this paper we discuss ten key questions identified in context of establishing defect prediction in a large software development project. Seven consecutive versions of the software system have been used to construct and validate defect prediction models for system test planning. Furthermore, the paper presents initial empirical results from the studied project and, by this means, contributes answers to the identified questions.

  15. The importance of management information systems in a managed care environment.

    PubMed

    Porro, M R; Brill, K R

    1995-06-01

    Keys to successful information systems for home care providers are planning and control. With managed care's emphasis on data, agencies need to have information systems that can handle the demands managed care puts on agencies today--planning before hurrying to install a system will ensure control as the managed care contracts add up.

  16. Professional Development and Networking: The Keys to Managing My Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her journey serving in five school districts and finally becoming a business manager in her hometown in Wisconsin. Having become involved in professional organizations and working to share what she knows, she became recognized as a skilled business official and thus never had a problem finding a job or…

  17. Socio­-Emotional Key Competencies: Can They Be Measured and What Do They Relate To?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, E. R.; Farruggia, S. F.; Hamilton, R. J.; Brown, G. T. L.; Elley-Brown, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Four socio-emotional New Zealand Curriculum key competencies (Managing Self, Participating and Contributing, Relating to Others and Thinking) were investigated in a two-part study. The first part used a questionnaire to quantitatively model the four key competencies in a sample of 995 secondary students. The second part examined whether the key…

  18. Quantum cryptography: a view from classical cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, Johannes; Braun, Johannes; Demirel, Denise; Geihs, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Much of digital data requires long-term protection of confidentiality, for example, medical health records. Cryptography provides such protection. However, currently used cryptographic techniques such as Diffe-Hellman key exchange may not provide long-term security. Such techniques rely on certain computational assumptions, such as the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem that may turn out to be incorrect. On the other hand, quantum cryptography---in particular quantum random number generation and quantum key distribution---offers information theoretic protection. In this paper, we explore the challenge of providing long-term confidentiality and we argue that a combination of quantum cryptography and classical cryptography can provide such protection.

  19. Securing Wireless Communications of the Internet of Things from the Physical Layer, An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junqing; Duong, Trung; Woods, Roger; Marshall, Alan

    2017-08-01

    The security of the Internet of Things (IoT) is receiving considerable interest as the low power constraints and complexity features of many IoT devices are limiting the use of conventional cryptographic techniques. This article provides an overview of recent research efforts on alternative approaches for securing IoT wireless communications at the physical layer, specifically the key topics of key generation and physical layer encryption. These schemes can be implemented and are lightweight, and thus offer practical solutions for providing effective IoT wireless security. Future research to make IoT-based physical layer security more robust and pervasive is also covered.

  20. Key Parameters for Operator Diagnosis of BWR Plant Condition during a Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A.; Poore, III, Willis P.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine the key information needed from nuclear power plant instrumentation to guide severe accident management and mitigation for boiling water reactor (BWR) designs (specifically, a BWR/4-Mark I), estimate environmental conditions that the instrumentation will experience during a severe accident, and identify potential gaps in existing instrumentation that may require further research and development. This report notes the key parameters that instrumentation needs to measure to help operators respond to severe accidents. A follow-up report will assess severe accident environmental conditions as estimated by severe accident simulation model analysis for a specific US BWR/4-Markmore » I plant for those instrumentation systems considered most important for accident management purposes.« less

  1. Science advancements key to increasing management value of life stage monitoring networks for endangered Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Rachel C.; Windell, Sean; Brandes, Patricia L.; Conrad, J. Louise; Ferguson, John; Goertler, Pascale A. L.; Harvey, Brett N.; Heublein, Joseph; Isreal, Joshua A.; Kratville, Daniel W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Perry, Russell W.; Pisciotto, Joseph; Poytress, William R.; Reece, Kevin; Swart, Brycen G.

    2017-01-01

    A robust monitoring network that provides quantitative information about the status of imperiled species at key life stages and geographic locations over time is fundamental for sustainable management of fisheries resources. For anadromous species, management actions in one geographic domain can substantially affect abundance of subsequent life stages that span broad geographic regions. Quantitative metrics (e.g., abundance, movement, survival, life history diversity, and condition) at multiple life stages are needed to inform how management actions (e.g., hatcheries, harvest, hydrology, and habitat restoration) influence salmon population dynamics. The existing monitoring network for endangered Sacramento River winterrun Chinook Salmon (SRWRC, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in California’s Central Valley was compared to conceptual models developed for each life stage and geographic region of the life cycle to identify relevant SRWRC metrics. We concluded that the current monitoring network was insufficient to diagnose when (life stage) and where (geographic domain) chronic or episodic reductions in SRWRC cohorts occur, precluding within- and among-year comparisons. The strongest quantitative data exist in the Upper Sacramento River, where abundance estimates are generated for adult spawners and emigrating juveniles. However, once SRWRC leave the upper river, our knowledge of their identity, abundance, and condition diminishes, despite the juvenile monitoring enterprise. We identified six system-wide recommended actions to strengthen the value of data generated from the existing monitoring network to assess resource management actions: (1) incorporate genetic run identification; (2) develop juvenile abundance estimates; (3) collect data for life history diversity metrics at multiple life stages; (4) expand and enhance real-time fish survival and movement monitoring; (5) collect fish condition data; and (6) provide timely public access to monitoring data in open data

  2. Key articles and guidelines in the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension: 2011 update.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Samuel G; Kayser, Steven R; Attridge, Rebecca L; Duvall, Laura; Kiser, Tyree H; Moote, Rebecca; Reed, Brent N; Rodgers, Jo E; Erstad, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Pharmacotherapeutic approaches for the management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have expanded greatly in the last 10 years. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a relatively rare disease and is associated with myriad disease processes. The older term for PAH, primary PAH, has been changed to represent these differences and to distinguish it from postcapillary PAH associated with left-sided heart failure. Limitations in evaluating treatment approaches for PAH include its rarity, the small number of patients included in clinical trials, and issues regarding the use of placebo-controlled trials in a disease with such a high mortality rate if left untreated. Management options include the use of prostacyclin and prostacyclin analogues, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, as well as traditional background therapy with diuretics, digoxin, calcium channel blockers, and warfarin. Numerous drugs are under investigation to evaluate their possible roles in management. Combination therapy is increasingly becoming a standard approach to therapy, with mounting literature to document effectiveness. Current or emerging roles for the pharmacist in the management of PAH largely involves ensuring access to drug therapy, facilitating specialty pharmacy dispensing, and providing patient counseling. Newer roles may include future drug development, optimized use of investigational drugs, and specialized disease management programs. This compilation includes a series of articles identifying important literature in cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. This bibliography focuses on pharmacotherapeutic management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Most of the cited works present the results of significant human clinical studies that have shaped the management of patients with PAH. Limited primary literature is available for some topics, so in addition, consensus documents prepared by expert panels are reviewed. This compilation may serve as a

  3. Management Development from a Dutch Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paauwe, Jaap, Ed.; Williams, Roger, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Includes "Seven Key Issues for Management Development" (Paauwe, Williams); "Typology of Management Development" (Jansen, van der Velde, Mul); "Management Development at Royal Dutch/Shell" (Mahieu); "Management Development in Unilever" (Reitsma); "International Co-ordination and Management…

  4. A Comparison of Perceived Crisis Training Management and Optimum Training Management Techniques in the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-27

    Ambiguity and Time Management relating to crisis management are key issues for consideration in the development of this investigation. These concepts are...themselves to be optimum-management-oriented. The study indicates the possibility of continuing problems in the areas of time management contributing to

  5. Projecting biodiversity and wood production in future forest landscapes: 15 key modeling considerations.

    PubMed

    Felton, Adam; Ranius, Thomas; Roberge, Jean-Michel; Öhman, Karin; Lämås, Tomas; Hynynen, Jari; Juutinen, Artti; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Nilsson, Urban; Lundmark, Tomas; Nordin, Annika

    2017-07-15

    A variety of modeling approaches can be used to project the future development of forest systems, and help to assess the implications of different management alternatives for biodiversity and ecosystem services. This diversity of approaches does however present both an opportunity and an obstacle for those trying to decide which modeling technique to apply, and interpreting the management implications of model output. Furthermore, the breadth of issues relevant to addressing key questions related to forest ecology, conservation biology, silviculture, economics, requires insights stemming from a number of distinct scientific disciplines. As forest planners, conservation ecologists, ecological economists and silviculturalists, experienced with modeling trade-offs and synergies between biodiversity and wood biomass production, we identified fifteen key considerations relevant to assessing the pros and cons of alternative modeling approaches. Specifically we identified key considerations linked to study question formulation, modeling forest dynamics, forest processes, study landscapes, spatial and temporal aspects, and the key response metrics - biodiversity and wood biomass production, as well as dealing with trade-offs and uncertainties. We also provide illustrative examples from the modeling literature stemming from the key considerations assessed. We use our findings to reiterate the need for explicitly addressing and conveying the limitations and uncertainties of any modeling approach taken, and the need for interdisciplinary research efforts when addressing the conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contingency management: perspectives of Australian service providers.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jacqui; Ritter, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Given the very positive and extensive research evidence demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of contingency management, it is important that Australia explore whether contingency management has a role to play in our own treatment context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 experienced alcohol and drug practitioners, service managers and policy-makers in Victoria. Interviewees were selected to represent the range of drug treatment services types and included rural representation. A semi-structured interview schedule, covering their perceptions and practices of contingency management was used. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using N2 qualitative data analysis program. The majority of key informants were positively inclined toward contingency management, notwithstanding some concerns about the philosophical underpinnings. Concerns were raised in relation to the use of monetary rewards. Examples of the use of contingency management provided by key informants demonstrated an over-inclusive definition: all the examples did not adhere to the key principles of contingency management. This may create problems if a structured contingency management were to be introduced in Australia. Contingency management is an important adjunctive treatment intervention and its use in Australia has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. No unmanageable barriers were identified in this study.

  7. On the optimality of individual entangling-probe attacks against BB84 quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbauts, I. M.; Bettelli, S.; Hã¼bel, H.; Peev, M.

    2008-02-01

    Some MIT researchers [Phys. Rev. A 75, 042327 (2007)] have recently claimed that their implementation of the Slutsky-Brandt attack [Phys. Rev. A 57, 2383 (1998); Phys. Rev. A 71, 042312 (2005)] to the BB84 quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocol puts the security of this protocol “to the test” by simulating “the most powerful individual-photon attack” [Phys. Rev. A 73, 012315 (2006)]. A related unfortunate news feature by a scientific journal [G. Brumfiel, Quantum cryptography is hacked, News @ Nature (april 2007); Nature 447, 372 (2007)] has spurred some concern in the QKD community and among the general public by misinterpreting the implications of this work. The present article proves the existence of a stronger individual attack on QKD protocols with encrypted error correction, for which tight bounds are shown, and clarifies why the claims of the news feature incorrectly suggest a contradiction with the established “old-style” theory of BB84 individual attacks. The full implementation of a quantum cryptographic protocol includes a reconciliation and a privacy-amplification stage, whose choice alters in general both the maximum extractable secret and the optimal eavesdropping attack. The authors of [Phys. Rev. A 75, 042327 (2007)] are concerned only with the error-free part of the so-called sifted string, and do not consider faulty bits, which, in the version of their protocol, are discarded. When using the provably superior reconciliation approach of encrypted error correction (instead of error discard), the Slutsky-Brandt attack is no more optimal and does not “threaten” the security bound derived by Lütkenhaus [Phys. Rev. A 59, 3301 (1999)]. It is shown that the method of Slutsky and collaborators [Phys. Rev. A 57, 2383 (1998)] can be adapted to reconciliation with error correction, and that the optimal entangling probe can be explicitly found. Moreover, this attack fills Lütkenhaus bound, proving that it is tight (a fact which was not

  8. The maintenance of key biodiversity attributes through ecosystem restoration operations

    Treesearch

    Robert W. Gray; Bruce A. Blackwell

    2008-01-01

    The requirement to manage for key biodiversity attributes in dry forest ecosystems is mandated in the Forest Practices Code Act of British Columbia. These attributes include snags, large old trees, and large organic debris. In the Squamish Forest District dry forest restoration activities center on the use of thinning operations followed by prescribed fire to restore...

  9. Key Authors in Business and Management Education Research: Productivity, Topics, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Asarta, Carlos J.; Hwang, Alvin; Fornaciari, Charles J.; Bento, Regina F.; Dean, Kathy Lund

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of author productivity in business and management education (BME) research have focused on single disciplinary areas, and even single journals. This study is the first to examine the productivity of BME scholars across multiple disciplinary areas (i.e., accounting, economics, finance, information systems, management, marketing,…

  10. Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2014-11-07

    Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper.

  11. Continuous-variable quantum cryptography is secure against non-Gaussian attacks.

    PubMed

    Grosshans, Frédéric; Cerf, Nicolas J

    2004-01-30

    A general study of arbitrary finite-size coherent attacks against continuous-variable quantum cryptographic schemes is presented. It is shown that, if the size of the blocks that can be coherently attacked by an eavesdropper is fixed and much smaller than the key size, then the optimal attack for a given signal-to-noise ratio in the transmission line is an individual Gaussian attack. Consequently, non-Gaussian coherent attacks do not need to be considered in the security analysis of such quantum cryptosystems.

  12. SCOR based key success factors in cooking oil supply chain buyers perspective in Padang City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahara, Fatimah; Hadiguna, Rika Ampuh

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain of cooking oil is a network of companies from palm oil as raw material to retailers which work to create the value and deliver products into the end consumers. This paper is aimed to study key success factors based on consumer's perspective as the last stage in the supply chain. Consumers who are examined in this study are restaurants management or owners. Restaurant is the biggest consumption of cooking oil. The factors is studied based on Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) version 10.0. Factors used are formulated based on the third-level metrics of SCOR Model. Factors are analyzed using factors analysis. This study found factors which become key success factors in managing supply chain of cooking oil encompass reliability, responsiveness and agility. Key success factors can be applied by governments as policy making and cooking oil companies as formulation of the distribution strategies.

  13. A noise resistant symmetric key cryptosystem based on S8 S-boxes and chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Iqtadar; Anees, Amir; Aslam, Muhammad; Ahmed, Rehan; Siddiqui, Nasir

    2018-04-01

    In this manuscript, we have proposed an encryption algorithm to encrypt any digital data. The proposed algorithm is primarily based on the substitution-permutation in which the substitution process is performed by the S 8 Substitution boxes. The proposed algorithm incorporates three different chaotic maps. We have analysed the behaviour of chaos by secure communication in great length, and accordingly, we have applied those chaotic sequences in the proposed encryption algorithm. The simulation and statistical results revealed that the proposed encryption scheme is secure against different attacks. Moreover, the encryption scheme can tolerate the channel noise as well; if the encrypted data is corrupted by the unauthenticated user or by the channel noise, the decryption can still be successfully done with some distortion. The overall results confirmed that the presented work has good cryptographic features, low computational complexity and resistant to the channel noise which makes it suitable for low profile mobile applications.

  14. SPOT: Optimization Tool for Network Adaptable Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Szalachowski, Pawel; Kotulski, Zbigniew

    Recently we have observed the growth of the intelligent application especially with its mobile character, called e-anything. The implementation of these applications provides guarantee of security requirements of the cryptographic protocols which are used in the application. Traditionally the protocols have been configured with the strongest possible security mechanisms. Unfortunately, when the application is used by means of the mobile devices, the strongest protection can lead to the denial of services for them. The solution of this problem is introducing the quality of protection models which will scale the protection level depending on the actual threat level. In this article we would like to introduce the application which manages the protection level of the processes in the mobile environment. The Security Protocol Optimizing Tool (SPOT) optimizes the cryptographic protocol and defines the protocol version appropriate to the actual threat level. In this article the architecture of the SPOT is presented with a detailed description of the included modules.

  15. The reproductive potential and importance of key management aspects for successful Calluna vulgaris rejuvenation on abandoned Continental heaths.

    PubMed

    Henning, Katrin; von Oheimb, Goddert; Härdtle, Werner; Fichtner, Andreas; Tischew, Sabine

    2017-04-01

    The abandonment of traditional pastoralism as well as the use of heath areas for military purposes has had a major impact on dry heaths in the Continental biogeographical region of Europe, causing severe degradation of its key species Calluna vulgaris (L.) HULL. The reproductive potential of this species in a Continental climate is assumed to be low, although there is yet no observational or experimental evidence for this. More knowledge is also needed about cost-effective and sustainable measures to restore abandoned dry heaths in this biogeographical region, because traditional management options are often too expensive (e.g., sod-cutting) or restricted due to environmental laws and the danger of unexploded ammunition (e.g., burning). Using as an example an 800 ha Continental heathland in Germany that has been abandoned for about two decades, we studied the reproductive potential (seed production, soil seed bank, and germination ability) of degenerate C. vulgaris stands. In addition, we conducted a comprehensive field experiment to test the effects of low-intensity, year-round grazing by Heck cattle and Konik horses as well as one-time mowing and patchy exposure of bare soil on the generative rejuvenation (i.e., recruitment and survival) of degenerate C. vulgaris stands over 3 years. We used generalized linear mixed models for statistical analyses. Seed production of degenerate C. vulgaris stands was high as well as the germination ability of their seeds, being similar to Atlantic heathlands. However, soil seed-bank densities were lower than those found in managed or abandoned Atlantic heaths. Overall seedling recruitment in the field was considerably lower in comparison with Atlantic heaths. Low-intensity grazing or one-time mowing did not induce a substantial increase in C. vulgaris recruitment, whereas an additional one-time creation of bare soil patches or the one-time creation of bare soil without subsequent management significantly facilitated

  16. A practical guide to assessing clinical decision-making skills using the key features approach.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Elizabeth A; Page, Gordon

    2005-12-01

    This paper in the series on professional assessment provides a practical guide to writing key features problems (KFPs). Key features problems test clinical decision-making skills in written or computer-based formats. They are based on the concept of critical steps or 'key features' in decision making and represent an advance on the older, less reliable patient management problem (PMP) formats. The practical steps in writing these problems are discussed and illustrated by examples. Steps include assembling problem-writing groups, selecting a suitable clinical scenario or problem and defining its key features, writing the questions, selecting question response formats, preparing scoring keys, reviewing item quality and item banking. The KFP format provides educators with a flexible approach to testing clinical decision-making skills with demonstrated validity and reliability when constructed according to the guidelines provided.

  17. Communicative Management in Ambulatory Services: Prehospital Management Communication--Limits and Possibilities.

    PubMed

    Nordby, Halvor

    2015-01-01

    Poor management communication in healthcare services affects employees' motivation, commitment, and, in the final instance, organizational performance and the quality of patient care. In any area of health management, good communication is, therefore, key to successful management. This article discusses how managers of ambulance stations should secure communication with their paramedic crews. The first part uses ethical concepts to analyze communicative disagreement in interactive dialogue between managers and paramedics. The second part outlines basic communication principles that can serve as conceptual tools for avoiding misinterpretation in prehospital manager-employee interaction.

  18. The key to successful management of STS operations: An integrated production planning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. A.; Thomasen, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Space Transportation System operations managers are being confronted with a unique set of challenges as a result of increasing flight rates, the demand for flight manifest/production schedule flexibility and an emphasis on continued cost reduction. These challenges have created the need for an integrated production planning system that provides managers with the capability to plan, schedule, status and account for an orderly flow of products and services across a large, multi-discipline organization. With increased visibility into the end-to-end production flow for individual and parallel missions in process, managers can assess the integrated impact of changes, identify and measure the interrelationships of resource, schedule, and technical performance requirements and prioritize productivity enhancements.

  19. A Reporting System to Protect the Human Rights of People Living with HIV and Key Populations.

    PubMed

    Williamson, R Taylor; Fiscian, Vivian; Olson, Ryan Ubuntu; Poku, Fred Nana; Whittal, Joseph

    2017-12-01

    People living with HIV and key populations face human rights violations that affect their access to health services, relationships in their communities, housing options, and employment. To address these violations, government and civil society organizations in Ghana developed a discrimination reporting system managed by the Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice that links people living with HIV and key populations to legal services. This article presents findings on how Ghanaian stakeholders built this reporting system and discusses preliminary data on its impact. To organize our analysis, we used a conceptual framework that outlines the legal frameworks that protect human rights, the institutions that promote access to justice, and the mechanisms that link people living with HIV and key populations to legal services. Using in-depth interviews, we show that targeted technical assistance increased stakeholders' knowledge of issues that affect people living with HIV and key populations, strengthened these stakeholders' commitment to address discrimination, streamlined case management systems, and improved relationships between civil society and the government. Through case review, we find that most discrimination happens when accessing government services, inside communities and families, and in the workplace. Finally, we describe implications for other human rights commissions that are considering using a reporting system to protect human rights, including using legal frameworks, developing case management systems, and working with civil society.

  20. Independent assessment is key to financial well-being.

    PubMed

    Karling, J; Pyper, T

    1999-02-01

    Both traditional group practices and IPAs have felt the impact of changes brought about by managed care. Group practices need to ensure that their financial reporting and cost-accounting methods capture information that is key to decision making. An independent assessment of financial procedures helps identify any outstanding issues and maintain financial well-being. This assessment should be conducted at least quarterly so that potential problems can be resolved, income opportunities explored, and cost-saving measures adopted in a timely manner.

  1. Evaluation of High-Performance Rooftop HVAC Unit Naval Air Station Key West, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Howett, Daniel H.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer; Cox, Daryl

    This report documents performance of a high performance rooftop HVAC unit (RTU) at Naval Air Station Key West, FL. This report was sponsored by the Federal Energy Management Program as part of the "High Performance RTU Campaign".

  2. Optical key system

    DOEpatents

    Hagans, Karla G.; Clough, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam of light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.

  3. Cryptography for a High-Assurance Web-Based Enterprise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    2. Other Cryptographic services - Java provides many cryptographic services through the Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA) framework. The...id=2125 [7]. Miller, Sandra Kay, Fiber Optic Networks Vulnerable to Attack, Information Security Magazine, November 15, 2006, [8]. José R.C

  4. The neural bases of key competencies of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Frank; Barbey, Aron K; McCabe, Kevin; Strenziok, Maren; Zamboni, Giovanna; Solomon, Jeffrey; Raymont, Vanessa; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-12-29

    Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to a set of competencies that are essential features of human social life. Although the neural substrates of EI are virtually unknown, it is well established that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in human social-emotional behavior. We studied a unique sample of combat veterans from the Vietnam Head Injury Study, which is a prospective, long-term follow-up study of veterans with focal penetrating head injuries. We administered the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test as a valid standardized psychometric measure of EI behavior to examine two key competencies of EI: (i) Strategic EI as the competency to understand emotional information and to apply it for the management of the self and of others and (ii) Experiential EI as the competency to perceive emotional information and to apply it for the integration into thinking. The results revealed that key competencies underlying EI depend on distinct neural PFC substrates. First, ventromedial PFC damage diminishes Strategic EI, and therefore, hinders the understanding and managing of emotional information. Second, dorsolateral PFC damage diminishes Experiential EI, and therefore, hinders the perception and integration of emotional information. In conclusion, EI should be viewed as complementary to cognitive intelligence and, when considered together, provide a more complete understanding of human intelligence.

  5. The neural bases of key competencies of emotional intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Frank; Barbey, Aron K.; McCabe, Kevin; Strenziok, Maren; Zamboni, Giovanna; Solomon, Jeffrey; Raymont, Vanessa; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to a set of competencies that are essential features of human social life. Although the neural substrates of EI are virtually unknown, it is well established that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a crucial role in human social-emotional behavior. We studied a unique sample of combat veterans from the Vietnam Head Injury Study, which is a prospective, long-term follow-up study of veterans with focal penetrating head injuries. We administered the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test as a valid standardized psychometric measure of EI behavior to examine two key competencies of EI: (i) Strategic EI as the competency to understand emotional information and to apply it for the management of the self and of others and (ii) Experiential EI as the competency to perceive emotional information and to apply it for the integration into thinking. The results revealed that key competencies underlying EI depend on distinct neural PFC substrates. First, ventromedial PFC damage diminishes Strategic EI, and therefore, hinders the understanding and managing of emotional information. Second, dorsolateral PFC damage diminishes Experiential EI, and therefore, hinders the perception and integration of emotional information. In conclusion, EI should be viewed as complementary to cognitive intelligence and, when considered together, provide a more complete understanding of human intelligence. PMID:20080795

  6. Public-key quantum digital signature scheme with one-time pad private-key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng-Lin; Liu, Wan-Fang; Chen, Su-Gen; Wang, Zhi-Hua

    2018-01-01

    A quantum digital signature scheme is firstly proposed based on public-key quantum cryptosystem. In the scheme, the verification public-key is derived from the signer's identity information (such as e-mail) on the foundation of identity-based encryption, and the signature private-key is generated by one-time pad (OTP) protocol. The public-key and private-key pair belongs to classical bits, but the signature cipher belongs to quantum qubits. After the signer announces the public-key and generates the final quantum signature, each verifier can verify publicly whether the signature is valid or not with the public-key and quantum digital digest. Analysis results show that the proposed scheme satisfies non-repudiation and unforgeability. Information-theoretic security of the scheme is ensured by quantum indistinguishability mechanics and OTP protocol. Based on the public-key cryptosystem, the proposed scheme is easier to be realized compared with other quantum signature schemes under current technical conditions.

  7. Academic Economics: The Academic Dean and Financial Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Susan A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses deans' responsibilities in financial management, including budget development, budget management, broker of resources, program review, and fundraising. Describes what deans need to know: categories of income, local tax assessment, financing new construction, and key accounting terminology. Looks at key challenges for deans and offers a…

  8. 77 FR 39489 - Notice of Public Meetings for the Naval Air Station Key West Airfield Operations Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... via the U.S. Postal Service to Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, NAS Key West Air... the project Web site ( http://www.keywesteis.com ). All statements, oral or written, submitted during... Engineering Command Southeast, NAS Key West Air Operations EIS Project Manager, P.O. Box 30, Building 903, NAS...

  9. 30 Key Steps to Successful Diversity Management: Mentoring, Networking, and Sponsorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gant, Lenora Peters

    2000-01-01

    Outlines three components that are necessary for successful diversity management programs: mentoring, networking, and sponsorship. Provides 10 guidelines under each aspect to help employees feel loyalty and a personal attachment to an organization, feel included in day-to-day operations, and to help with employee retention. (LRW)

  10. Geriatric hip fracture management: keys to providing a successful program.

    PubMed

    Basu, N; Natour, M; Mounasamy, V; Kates, S L

    2016-10-01

    Hip fractures are a common event in older adults and are associated with significant morbidity, mortality and costs. This review examines the necessary elements required to implement a successful geriatric fracture program and identifies some of the barriers faced when implementing a successful program. The Geriatric Fracture Center (GFC) is a treatment model that standardizes the approach to the geriatric fracture patient. It is based on five principles: surgical fracture management; early operative intervention; medical co-management with geriatricians; patient-centered, standard order sets to employ best practices; and early discharge planning with a focus on early functional rehabilitation. Implementing a geriatric fracture program begins with an assessment of the hospital's data on hip fractures and standard care metrics such as length of stay, complications, time to surgery, readmission rates and costs. Business planning is essential along with the medical planning process. To successfully develop and implement such a program, strong physician leadership is necessary to articulate both a short- and long-term plan for implementation. Good communication is essential-those organizing a geriatric fracture program must be able to implement standardized plans of care working with all members of the healthcare team and must also be able to foster relationships both within the hospital and with other institutions in the community. Finally, a program of continual quality improvement must be undertaken to ensure that performance outcomes are improving patient care.

  11. What is strategic management?

    PubMed

    Jasper, Melanie; Crossan, Frank

    2012-10-01

    To discuss the theoretical concept of strategic management and explore its relevance for healthcare organisations and nursing management. Despite being a relatively new approach, the growth of strategic management within organisations has been consistently and increasingly promoted. However, comprehensive definitions are scarce and commonalities of interpretation are limited. This paper presents an exploratory discussion of the construct of strategic management, drawing on the literature and questioning its relevance within health-care organisations. Literature relating to strategic management across a number of fields was accessed, drawing primarily on meta-studies within management literature, to identify key concepts and attempt to present a consistent definition. The concept within health care is explored in relation to nursing management. Inconsistency in definitions and utilisation of key concepts within this management approach results in the term being loosely applied in health-care organisations without recourse to foundational principles and a deep understanding of the approach as a theory as opposed to an applied term. Nurse managers are increasingly asked to adopt the 'next-best-thing' in managerial theories, yet caution needs to be taken in nurses agreeing to use systems that lack an evidence base in terms of both efficacy and relevance of context. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Finite-key analysis for measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Curty, Marcos; Xu, Feihu; Cui, Wei; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2014-04-29

    Quantum key distribution promises unconditionally secure communications. However, as practical devices tend to deviate from their specifications, the security of some practical systems is no longer valid. In particular, an adversary can exploit imperfect detectors to learn a large part of the secret key, even though the security proof claims otherwise. Recently, a practical approach--measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution--has been proposed to solve this problem. However, so far its security has only been fully proven under the assumption that the legitimate users of the system have unlimited resources. Here we fill this gap and provide a rigorous security proof against general attacks in the finite-key regime. This is obtained by applying large deviation theory, specifically the Chernoff bound, to perform parameter estimation. For the first time we demonstrate the feasibility of long-distance implementations of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution within a reasonable time frame of signal transmission.

  13. Software Acquisition Risk Management Key Process Area (KPA) - A Guidebook Version 1.0.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-01

    Budget - Software Project Management Practices and Techniques. McGraw-Hill International (UK) Limited, 1992. [Boehm 81 ] Boehm, Barry . Software...Engineering Economics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1981. [Boehm 89] Boehm, Barry . IEEE Tutorial on Software Risk Management. New York: IEEE...95] [Mayrhauser 90] [Moran 90] [Myers 96] [NRC 89] [Osborn 53] [Paulk 95] [ Pressman 92] [Pulford 96] [Scholtes 88] [Sisti 94] [STSC 96

  14. The Keys to Managing Instruction and Behavior: Considering High Probability Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Justin T.; Scott, Terrance M.

    2017-01-01

    Academics and behavior are inextricably linked, and as such, management of behavior should be considered not as an addition to the teacher's repertoire of skills but as an integral foundational component of effective instruction. Paradoxically, teachers report that students with challenging behavior are both their greatest challenge and that…

  15. Optical key system

    SciTech Connect

    Hagans, K.G.; Clough, R.E.

    2000-04-25

    An optical key system comprises a battery-operated optical key and an isolated lock that derives both its operating power and unlock signals from the correct optical key. A light emitting diode or laser diode is included within the optical key and is connected to transmit a bit-serial password. The key user physically enters either the code-to-transmit directly, or an index to a pseudorandom number code, in the key. Such person identification numbers can be retained permanently, or ephemeral. When a send button is pressed, the key transmits a beam of light modulated with the password information. The modulated beam ofmore » light is received by a corresponding optical lock with a photovoltaic cell that produces enough power from the beam of light to operate a password-screen digital logic. In one application, an acceptable password allows a two watt power laser diode to pump ignition and timing information over a fiberoptic cable into a sealed engine compartment. The receipt of a good password allows the fuel pump, spark, and starter systems to each operate. Therefore, bypassing the lock mechanism as is now routine with automobile thieves is pointless because the engine is so thoroughly disabled.« less

  16. Ecological Knowledge Among Communities, Managers and Scientists: Bridging Divergent Perspectives to Improve Forest Management Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, Lucy; Shackleton, Charlie; Gadamus, Lily; Chapin, F. Stuart; Gowda, C. Made; Setty, Siddappa; Kannan, Ramesh; Shaanker, R. Uma

    2016-04-01

    Multiple actors are typically involved in forest management, namely communities, managers and researchers. In such cases, suboptimal management outcomes may, in addition to other factors, be symptomatic of a divergence in perspectives among these actors driven by fundamental differences in ecological knowledge. We examine the degree of congruence between the understandings of actors surrounding key issues of management concern in three case studies from tropical, subtropical and boreal forests. We identify commonly encountered points of divergence in ecological knowledge relating to key management processes and issues. We use these to formulate seven hypotheses about differences in the bodies of knowledge that frequently underlie communication and learning failures in forest management contexts where multiple actors are involved and outcomes are judged to be suboptimal. Finally, we present a set of propositions to acknowledge and narrow these differences. A more complete recognition of the full triangulation between all actors involved, and of the influence that fundamental differences in ecological knowledge can exert, may help lead to a more fruitful integration between local knowledge and practice, manager knowledge and practice, and contemporary science in forest management.

  17. Business Schools and Corporate Management Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeby, Mick; Jones, Warwick

    1997-01-01

    Responses from 97 managers in southwest England indicated the following: the marketplace is increasingly competitive and demanding; key goals of management development are competitive advantage and demonstrable return; managers need leadership and change, personal, and strategic management skills; and selection of a business school or other…

  18. Stability assessment of QKD procedures in commercial quantum cryptography systems versus quality of dark channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacak, Monika; Melniczuk, Damian; Jacak, Janusz; Jóźwiak, Ireneusz; Gruber, Jacek; Jóźwiak, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    In order to assess the susceptibility of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems to the hacking attack including simultaneous and frequent system self-decalibrations, we analyze the stability of the QKD transmission organized in two commercially available systems. The first one employs non-entangled photons as flying qubits in the dark quantum channel for communication whereas the second one utilizes the entangled photon pairs to secretly share the cryptographic key. Applying standard methods of the statistical data analysis to the characteristic indicators of the quality of the QKD communication (the raw key exchange rate [RKER] and the quantum bit error rate [QBER]), we have estimated the pace of the self-decalibration of both systems and the repeatability rate in the case of controlled worsening of the dark channel quality.

  19. Work Keys USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work Keys USA, 1998

    1998-01-01

    "Work Keys" is a comprehensive program for assessing and teaching workplace skills. This serial "special issue" features 18 first-hand reports on Work Keys projects in action in states across North America. They show how the Work Keys is helping businesses and educators solve the challenge of building a world-class work force.…

  20. Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper. PMID:25378231

  1. Reconstruction method for data protection in telemedicine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldakova, T. I.; Suyatinov, S. I.

    2015-03-01

    In the report the approach to protection of transmitted data by creation of pair symmetric keys for the sensor and the receiver is offered. Since biosignals are unique for each person, their corresponding processing allows to receive necessary information for creation of cryptographic keys. Processing is based on reconstruction of the mathematical model generating time series that are diagnostically equivalent to initial biosignals. Information about the model is transmitted to the receiver, where the restoration of physiological time series is performed using the reconstructed model. Thus, information about structure and parameters of biosystem model received in the reconstruction process can be used not only for its diagnostics, but also for protection of transmitted data in telemedicine complexes.

  2. Measurement Science for Prognostics and Health Management for Smart Manufacturing Systems: Key Findings from a Roadmapping Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Brian A.; Vogl, Gregory; Helu, Moneer; Qiao, Guixiu; Pellegrino, Joan; Justiniano, Mauricio; Raghunathan, Anand

    2017-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) hosted the Roadmapping Workshop – Measurement Science for Prognostics and Health Management for Smart Manufacturing Systems (PHM4SMS) in Fall 2014 to discuss the needs and priorities of stakeholders in the PHM4SMS technology area. The workshop brought together over 70 members of the PHM community. The attendees included representatives from small, medium, and large manufacturers; technology developers and integrators; academic researchers; government organizations; trade associations; and standards bodies. The attendees discussed the current and anticipated measurement science challenges to advance PHM methods and techniques for smart manufacturing systems; the associated research and development needed to implement condition monitoring, diagnostic, and prognostic technologies within manufacturing environments; and the priorities to meet the needs of PHM in manufacturing. This paper will summarize the key findings of this workshop, and present some of the critical measurement science challenges and corresponding roadmaps, i.e., suggested courses of action, to advance PHM for manufacturing. Milestones and targeted capabilities will be presented for each roadmap across three areas: PHM Manufacturing Process Techniques; PHM Performance Assessment; and PHM Infrastructure – Hardware, Software, and Integration. An analysis of these roadmaps and crosscutting themes seen across the breakout sessions is also discussed. PMID:28664163

  3. Complex adaptive systems (CAS): an overview of key elements, characteristics and application to management theory.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Beverley; Herbert, Stuart Ian

    2011-01-01

    To identify key elements and characteristics of complex adaptive systems (CAS) relevant to implementing clinical governance, drawing on lessons from quality improvement programmes and the use of informatics in primary care. The research strategy includes a literature review to develop theoretical models of clinical governance of quality improvement in primary care organisations (PCOs) and a survey of PCOs. Complex adaptive system theories are a valuable tool to help make sense of natural phenomena, which include human responses to problem solving within the sampled PCOs. The research commenced with a survey; 76% (n16) of respondents preferred to support the implementation of clinical governance initiatives guided by outputs from general practice electronic health records. There was considerable variation in the way in which consultation data was captured, recorded and organised. Incentivised information sharing led to consensus on coding policies and models of data recording ahead of national contractual requirements. Informatics was acknowledged as a mechanism to link electronic health record outputs, quality improvement and resources. Investment in informatics was identified as a development priority in order to embed clinical governance principles in practice. Complex adaptive system theory usefully describes evolutionary change processes, providing insight into how the origins of quality assurance were predicated on rational reductionism and linearity. New forms of governance do not neutralise previous models, but add further dimensions to them. Clinical governance models have moved from deterministic and 'objective' factors to incorporate cultural aspects with feedback about quality enabled by informatics. The socio-technical lessons highlighted should inform healthcare management.

  4. Adaptive management of natural resources: theory, concepts, and management institutions.

    Treesearch

    George H. Stankey; Roger N. Clark; Bernard T. Bormann

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews the extensive and growing literature on the concept and application of adaptive management. Adaptive management is a central element of the Northwest Forest Plan and there is a need for an informed understanding of the key theories, concepts, and frameworks upon which it is founded. Literature from a diverse range of fields including social learning...

  5. Is tretinoin still a key agent for photoaging management?

    PubMed

    Ascenso, Andreia; Ribeiro, Helena; Marques, Helena C; Oliveira, Helena; Santos, Conceicao; Simões, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & SCOPE OF THE REVIEW: This review focuses on the UV radiation effects on skin, emphasizing the photoaging process, and the photoprotection conferred by tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid or ATRA). Tretinoin is still the best tested retinoid to reverse photoaged skin. Tretinoin can be used for photoaging treatment or combined treatment by different mechanisms. It binds to and activates retinoic acid receptors, inducing changes in gene expression that leads to cell differentiation, decreased cell proliferation, and inhibition of tumourigenesis. It has been demonstrated that photoaging resulting from UV-B radiation can be treated by retinoid formulations. Pretreatment of human skin with tretinoin blocks dermal matrix degradation followed by sun exposure, inhibiting the induction of the activated protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor and AP-1 regulated matrix-degrading metalloproteinases. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE AND INTEREST: Tretinoin should be considered as a key factor as it is the most potent and best-studied retinoid. In addition, the development of advanced drug delivery systems, especially novel nanoformulations, has contributed to overpass some technical drawbacks besides the skin irritation potential. The triple combination of tretinoin, hydroquinone and corticosteroids is still considered the gold standard for melasma. Although there are other novel therapeutic approaches, more high-quality clinical trials are still needed.

  6. Finite key analysis for symmetric attacks in quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Tim; Kampermann, Hermann; Kleinmann, Matthias

    2006-10-15

    We introduce a constructive method to calculate the achievable secret key rate for a generic class of quantum key distribution protocols, when only a finite number n of signals is given. Our approach is applicable to all scenarios in which the quantum state shared by Alice and Bob is known. In particular, we consider the six state protocol with symmetric eavesdropping attacks, and show that for a small number of signals, i.e., below n{approx}10{sup 4}, the finite key rate differs significantly from the asymptotic value for n{yields}{infinity}. However, for larger n, a good approximation of the asymptotic value is found.more » We also study secret key rates for protocols using higher-dimensional quantum systems.« less

  7. A framework for engaging stakeholders on the management of alien species.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana; Shackleton, Ross; Canavan, Susan; Cybèle, Cathleen; Davies, Sarah J; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina; Fried, Jana; Gaertner, Mirijam; Geerts, Sjirk; Griffiths, Charles L; Kaplan, Haylee; Kumschick, Sabrina; Le Maitre, David C; Measey, G John; Nunes, Ana L; Richardson, David M; Robinson, Tamara B; Touza, Julia; Wilson, John R U

    2018-01-01

    Alien species can have major ecological and socioeconomic impacts in their novel ranges and so effective management actions are needed. However, management can be contentious and create conflicts, especially when stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who incur costs. Such conflicts of interests mean that management strategies can often not be implemented. There is, therefore, increasing interest in engaging stakeholders affected by alien species or by their management. Through a facilitated workshop and consultation process including academics and managers working on a variety of organisms and in different areas (urban and rural) and ecosystems (terrestrial and aquatic), we developed a framework for engaging stakeholders in the management of alien species. The proposed framework for stakeholder engagement consists of 12 steps: (1) identify stakeholders; (2) select key stakeholders for engagement; (3) explore key stakeholders' perceptions and develop initial aims for management; (4) engage key stakeholders in the development of a draft management strategy; (5) re-explore key stakeholders' perceptions and revise the aims of the strategy; (6) co-design general aims, management objectives and time frames with key stakeholders; (7) co-design a management strategy; (8) facilitate stakeholders' ownership of the strategy and adapt as required; and (9) implement the strategy and monitor management actions to evaluate the need for additional or future actions. In case additional management is needed after these actions take place, some extra steps should be taken: (10) identify any new stakeholders, benefits, and costs; (11) monitor engagement; and (12) revise management strategy. Overall, we believe that our framework provides an effective approach to minimize the impact of conflicts created by alien species management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Partially Key Distribution with Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Error Control Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavallaei, Saeed Ebadi; Falahati, Abolfazl

    Due to the low level of security in public key cryptosystems based on number theory, fundamental difficulties such as "key escrow" in Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and a secure channel in ID-based cryptography, a new key distribution cryptosystem based on Error Control Codes (ECC) is proposed . This idea is done by some modification on McEliece cryptosystem. The security of ECC cryptosystem obtains from the NP-Completeness of block codes decoding. The capability of generating public keys with variable lengths which is suitable for different applications will be provided by using ECC. It seems that usage of these cryptosystems because of decreasing in the security of cryptosystems based on number theory and increasing the lengths of their keys would be unavoidable in future.

  9. Keys to Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Up ahead, a foreboding wooden door showing wear from passage of earlier travelers is spotted. As the old porch light emits a pale yellow glow, a key ring emerges from deep inside the coat pocket. Searching for just the right key, the voyager settles on one that also shows age. As the key enters its receptacle and begins to turn, a clicking noise…

  10. Perceived Triggers of Asthma: Key to Symptom Perception and Management

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Thomas; Ritz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this paper, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targets for behavioral interventions that aim to improve the accuracy of asthma trigger identification and thereby enhance asthma control. PMID:23957335

  11. IPMA Standard Competence Scope in Project Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoška, Jan; Flégl, Martin; Jarkovská, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The authors of the paper endeavoured to find out key competences in IPMA standard for educational approaches in project management. These key competences may be used as a basis for project management university courses. An incidence matrix was set up, containing relations between IPMA competences described in IPMA competence baseline. Further,…

  12. Managing Your Endowment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. Peter

    1981-01-01

    Ways that college trustees can manage endowments are considered. It is suggested that endowment may be a key to survival for institutions facing serious financial difficulties. A frequently overlooked source of potential income is cash balances, which should be a concern of trustees, and one that should not be passed to professional managers. It…

  13. Decision Trajectories in Dementia Care Networks: Decisions and Related Key Events.

    PubMed

    Groen-van de Ven, Leontine; Smits, Carolien; Oldewarris, Karen; Span, Marijke; Jukema, Jan; Eefsting, Jan; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra

    2017-10-01

    This prospective multiperspective study provides insight into the decision trajectories of people with dementia by studying the decisions made and related key events. This study includes three waves of interviews, conducted between July 2010 and July 2012, with 113 purposefully selected respondents (people with beginning to advanced stages of dementia and their informal and professional caregivers) completed in 12 months (285 interviews). Our multilayered qualitative analysis consists of content analysis, timeline methods, and constant comparison. Four decision themes emerged-managing daily life, arranging support, community living, and preparing for the future. Eight key events delineate the decision trajectories of people with dementia. Decisions and key events differ between people with dementia living alone and living with a caregiver. Our study clarifies that decisions relate not only to the disease but to living with the dementia. Individual differences in decision content and sequence may effect shared decision-making and advance care planning.

  14. Are national policies and programs for prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage and preeclampsia adequate? A key informant survey in 37 countries.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeffrey Michael; Currie, Sheena; Cannon, Tirza; Armbruster, Deborah; Perri, Julia

    2014-08-01

    Although maternal mortality has declined substantially in recent years, efforts to address postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E) must be systematically scaled up in order for further reduction to take place. In 2012, a key informant survey was conducted to identify both national and global gaps in PPH and PE/E program priorities and to highlight focus areas for future national and global programming. Between January and March 2012, national program teams in 37 countries completed a 44-item survey, consisting mostly of dichotomous yes/no responses and addressing 6 core programmatic areas: policy, training, medication distribution and logistics, national reporting of key indicators, programming, and challenges to and opportunities for scale up. An in-country focal person led the process to gather the necessary information from key local stakeholders. Some countries also provided national essential medicines lists and service delivery guidelines for comparison and further analysis. Most surveyed countries have many elements in place to address PPH and PE/E, but notable gaps remain in both policy and practice. Oxytocin and magnesium sulfate were reported to be regularly available in facilities in 89% and 76% of countries, respectively. Only 27% of countries, however, noted regular availability of misoprostol in health facilities. Midwife scope of practice regarding PPH and PE/E is inconsistent with global norms in a number of countries: 22% of countries do not allow midwives to administer magnesium sulfate and 30% do not allow them to perform manual removal of the placenta. Most countries surveyed have many of the essential policies and program elements to prevent/manage PPH and PE/E, but absence of commodities (especially misoprostol), limitations in scope of practice for midwives, and gaps in inclusion of maternal health indicators in the national data systems have impeded efforts to scale up programs nationally.

  15. Time management: a realistic approach.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Valerie P

    2009-06-01

    Realistic time management and organization plans can improve productivity and the quality of life. However, these skills can be difficult to develop and maintain. The key elements of time management are goals, organization, delegation, and relaxation. The author addresses each of these components and provides suggestions for successful time management.

  16. Food and Beverage Control. Food and Beverage Management Module. Operational Management Programme. Increasing Opportunities for Supervisors and Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    This self-instructional unit for supervisors and managers in the British hotel and catering industry is intended to consolidate work covered in a 1-day course. The unit covers the key management functions needed to implement an effective purchasing and supply policy. The document begins with an introduction and advice on how to use the unit. The…

  17. Research on Key Technologies of Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shufen; Yan, Hongcan; Chen, Xuebin

    With the development of multi-core processors, virtualization, distributed storage, broadband Internet and automatic management, a new type of computing mode named cloud computing is produced. It distributes computation task on the resource pool which consists of massive computers, so the application systems can obtain the computing power, the storage space and software service according to its demand. It can concentrate all the computing resources and manage them automatically by the software without intervene. This makes application offers not to annoy for tedious details and more absorbed in his business. It will be advantageous to innovation and reduce cost. It's the ultimate goal of cloud computing to provide calculation, services and applications as a public facility for the public, So that people can use the computer resources just like using water, electricity, gas and telephone. Currently, the understanding of cloud computing is developing and changing constantly, cloud computing still has no unanimous definition. This paper describes three main service forms of cloud computing: SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, compared the definition of cloud computing which is given by Google, Amazon, IBM and other companies, summarized the basic characteristics of cloud computing, and emphasized on the key technologies such as data storage, data management, virtualization and programming model.

  18. Knowledge Management Analysis: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecha, Ezi I.; Desai, Mayur S.; Richards, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative for businesses to manage knowledge and stay competitive in the marketplace. Knowledge management is critical and is a key to prevent organizations from duplicating their efforts with a subsequent improvement in their efficiency. This study focuses on overview of knowledge management, analyzes the current knowledge management in…

  19. Developing Strategic Alliances in Management Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, E. Ann; Wright, Gill

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The notion of effective strategic alliances provides the basis on which this paper proposes a framework to manage the application and outcomes of management learning. The management of key partner collaboration emerges in this paper as a major success factor in determining effective management learning. A proactive structured approach to…

  20. Biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity as key drivers of ecosystem services provided by soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Rumpel, C.; Paustian, K.; Kuikman, P. J.; Elliott, J. A.; McDowell, R.; Griffiths, R. I.; Asakawa, S.; Bustamante, M.; House, J. I.; Sobocká, J.; Harper, R.; Pan, G.; West, P. C.; Gerber, J. S.; Clark, J. M.; Adhya, T.; Scholes, R. J.; Scholes, M. C.

    2015-06-01

    Soils play a pivotal role in major global biogeochemical cycles (carbon, nutrient and water), while hosting the largest diversity of organisms on land. Because of this, soils deliver fundamental ecosystem services, and management to change a soil process in support of one ecosystem service can either provide co-benefits to other services or can result in trade-offs. In this critical review, we report the state-of-the-art understanding concerning the biogeochemical cycles and biodiversity in soil, and relate these to the provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural ecosystem services which they underpin. We then outline key knowledge gaps and research challenges, before providing recommendations for management activities to support the continued delivery of ecosystem services from soils. We conclude that although there are knowledge gaps that require further research, enough is known to start improving soils globally. The main challenge is in finding ways to share knowledge with soil managers and policy-makers, so that best-practice management can be implemented. A key element of this knowledge sharing must be in raising awareness of the multiple ecosystem services underpinned by soils, and the natural capital they provide. The International Year of Soils in 2015 presents the perfect opportunity to begin a step-change in how we harness scientific knowledge to bring about more sustainable use of soils for a secure global society.