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Sample records for crystal batio3 nanotube

  1. Structure study of single crystal BaTiO3 nanotube arrays produced by the hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Xiaohui; Sun, Changku; Li, Longtu

    2009-02-01

    High aspect ratio BaTiO3 nanotube arrays with single crystal structure were fabricated by the hydrothermal method at low temperature (150 °C). Numerous structure study methods, including x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were used to investigate the structure of single crystal BaTiO3 nanotube arrays. TEM observation shows that BaTiO3 nanotubes have identical crystallographic orientation through their growth directions. EPR and XPS studies show that the obtained BaTiO3 nanotubes contain perceptible oxygen vacancies. Those oxygen vacancies are responsible for the observed green emission band at 545 nm (2.27 eV) detected by photoluminescence study.

  2. Facile synthesis of BaTiO3 nanotubes and their microwave absorption properties.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yao-Feng; Zhang, Li; Natsuki, Toshiaki; Fu, Ya-Qin; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2012-04-01

    Uniform BaTiO(3) nanotubes were synthesized via a simple wet chemical route at low temperature (50 °C). The as-synthesized BaTiO(3) nanotubes were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the BaTiO(3) nanotubes formed a cubic phase with an average diameter of ~10 nm and wall thickness of 3 nm at room temperature. The composition of the mixed solvent (ethanol and deionized water) was a key factor in the formation of these nanotubes; we discuss possible synthetic mechanisms. The microwave absorption properties of the BaTiO(3) nanotubes were studied at microwave frequencies between 0.5 and 15 GHz. The minimum reflection loss of the BaTiO(3) nanotubes/paraffin wax composite (BaTiO(3) nanotubes weight fraction = 70%) reached 21.8 dB (~99.99% absorption) at 15 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth less than -10 dB is from 13.3 to 15 GHz. The excellent absorption property of BaTiO(3) nanotubes at high frequency indicates that these nanotubes could be promising microwave-absorbing materials. PMID:22409350

  3. Nanostructural evolution of one-dimensional BaTiO3 structures by hydrothermal conversion of vertically aligned TiO2 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Tabares, J. A.; Bejtka, K.; Lamberti, A.; Garino, N.; Bianco, S.; Quaglio, M.; Pirri, C. F.; Chiodoni, A.

    2016-03-01

    The use of TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays as templates for hydrothermal conversion of one-dimensional barium titanate (BaTiO3) structures is considered a promising synthesis approach, even though the formation mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Herein we report a nanostructural study by means of XRD and (HR)TEM of high aspect ratio TiO2-NTs hydrothermally converted into BaTiO3. The nanostructure shows two different and well-defined regions: at the top the conversion involves complete dissolution of NTs and subsequent precipitation of BaTiO3 crystals by homogeneous nucleation, followed by the growth of dendritic structures by aggregation and oriented attachment mechanisms. Instead, at the bottom, the low liquid/solid ratio, due to the limited amount of Ba solution that infiltrates the NTs, leads to the rapid crystallization of such a solution into BaTiO3, thus allowing the NTs to act as a template for the formation of highly oriented one-dimensional nanostructures. The in-depth analysis of the structural transformations that take place during the formation of the rod-like arrays of BaTiO3 could help elucidate the conversion mechanism, thus paving the way for the optimization of the synthesis process in view of new applications in energy harvesting devices, where easy and low temperature processing, controlled composition, morphology and functional properties are required.The use of TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays as templates for hydrothermal conversion of one-dimensional barium titanate (BaTiO3) structures is considered a promising synthesis approach, even though the formation mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Herein we report a nanostructural study by means of XRD and (HR)TEM of high aspect ratio TiO2-NTs hydrothermally converted into BaTiO3. The nanostructure shows two different and well-defined regions: at the top the conversion involves complete dissolution of NTs and subsequent precipitation of BaTiO3 crystals by homogeneous nucleation, followed by the

  4. Strain of a BaTiO3 single crystal caused by the converse flexoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumyantseva, E. D.; Zalesskii, V. G.

    2016-04-01

    The inhomogeneous strain induced by a homogeneous external electric field (the converse flexoelectric effect) has been studied in a thin BaTiO3 single crystal slab. The type of inhomogeneous strain (cylindrical and spherical bending) has been determined via the interference method, and its dependence on the applied filed is measured, as well. The influence of the domain structure on this effect has also been shown.

  5. 3D dependence of the dielectric dispersion in a BaTiO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novik, V. K.; Lotonov, A. M.; Gavrilova, N. D.

    2013-08-01

    The 3D dependences ɛ'(log f, T) and tanδ(log f, T) of a perfect BaTiO3 single crystal grown by the Remeika method have been studied in the ranges f = 1-2 × 107 Hz and T = -80-130°C. These dependences characterize a transition from the paraelectric phase (121.5°C) as a near-antiferroelectric transition followed by the transition to the tetragonal phase at ˜79.5°C. According to a number of signs, the range 121.5-79.5°C corresponds to a metastable phase typical of first-order phase transitions. The unexpected result of this work has been discussed with invoking the hypothesis on the BaTiO3 structure in the paraelectric phase, according to which it consists of three antiferroelectric states oriented along the crystallographic axes. Using the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 as an example, the method of direct correct determination of the temperatures of the structural transformations from the anomaly of tanδ(log f, T) has also been demonstrated.

  6. Fraunhofer diffraction to determine the twin angle in single-crystal BaTiO3.

    PubMed

    Melnichuk, Mike; Wood, Lowell T

    2003-08-01

    We present a new method for determining the electrically induced twin angle alpha of a (100) bulk single crystal of barium titanate (BaTiO3) using a nondestructive optical technique based on Fraunhofer diffraction. The technique required two steps that were performed simultaneously. First, we analyzed the diffracted light intensity captured with a line camera. Second, we measured the size of the diffracting element by analyzing images of crystal's surface taken with a CCD camera. The value obtained for the twin angle is 0.67 degrees +/- 0.05 degrees, which compares favorably with the theoretical value of 0.63 degrees.

  7. Submerged arc discharge technique to explore novel non-carbon nanotubes: Syntheses of nanotubes from ZnO and BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Noriaki; Tamon, Hajime

    2014-04-01

    A unique reaction field using arc discharge in water can create novel nanostructures, where an extreme temperature drop is observed in bubbles around a hot arc plasma zone. Here, a Mo anode had a hole at its tip, into which ZnO or BaTiO3 powder was stuffed. The cathode received film products on its surface. It was revealed that BaTiO3 nanotubes were firstly synthesized as novel nanotubes when BaTiO3 powder was stuffed in the anode hole. When ZnO powder was stuffed in the anode hole, narrow ZnO nanotubes were synthesized. The diameter of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized was the smallest ever reported.

  8. Enhancement of the switched phase conjugate reflectivity in a BaTiO 3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, Sharafuddin Md.; Ogusu, Kazuhiko

    2004-10-01

    We experimentally investigated the response of the photorefractive phase conjugation to a pulsed reading beam in an undoped BaTiO 3 crystal with a four-wave mixing geometry. A single longitudinal-mode Ar + laser was used as a light source. The reading beam with a pulse width of ˜1 s was switched on after writing a steady-state grating in the crystal by two recording beams under a suitable condition and the generated phase conjugation was measured. The phase conjugate output was found to be increased by some factors of magnitude over the initial value for a given peak power and period of the reading pulses. A maximum of the enhanced reflectivity can be controlled by adjusting the interacting beam powers. An increase in the diffraction efficiency was also found with the same read-out process, which plays a key role to increase the phase conjugation as our knowledge.

  9. Temperature change effect on BaTiO3 single crystal surface potential around domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, D. Y.; Xing, X. R.; Qiao, L. J.; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2014-08-01

    Temperature dependence of the surface potential distribution on the BaTiO3 (0 0 1) single crystal ferroelectric domain walls was investigated by the scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. After decreasing the single crystal temperature below the Curie point (TC), high potential (∼600 mV) stripes were immediately observed near the 90° a-c domain wall surface. The potential stripes were not stable and decayed with time. The adjacent c domain surface screening charges and their mobility play a dominant role in this experiment. The corrugation topography at the 90° a-c domain wall acts as a natural charge trap and should not be neglected. Besides, the polarization and the strain variations across the wall induce large physical changes of the material.

  10. X-ray diffraction study of BaTiO3 single crystals before and after fast-neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stash, A. I.; Ivanov, S. A.; Stefanovich, S. Yu.; Mosunov, A. V.; Boyko, V. M.; Ermakov, V. S.; Korulin, A. V.; Kalyukanov, A. I.; Isakova, N. N.

    2015-09-01

    The neutron irradiation of ferroelectrics is efficiently used to form structural states that cannot be obtained by conventional technologies. To date, the effect of neutron irradiation on the structure and properties of BaTiO3 has been studied for only ceramic materials. We have considered the influence of fast-neutron irradiation ( F = 1 × 1017 cm-2) on the structure and properties of BaTiO3 single crystals for the first time. The structural changes occurring in irradiated BaTiO3 and their correlation with the behavior of dielectric and nonlinear optical characteristics are analyzed with the aid of a specially developed method for taking into account the experimental correction to diffuse scattering. Neutron irradiation to the aforementioned dose retains the polar structure of the material and only slightly changes atomic displacements. The radiationinduced structural changes occur according to the high-temperature type to form a structure similar to the cubic modification of unirradiated BaTiO3 crystal.

  11. Giant room-temperature barocaloric effect and pressure-mediated electrocaloric effect in BaTiO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Wei, Jie; Janolin, Pierre-Eymeric; Infante, Ingrid C.; Lou, Xiaojie; Dkhil, Brahim

    2014-04-01

    Barocaloric effect in BaTiO3 single crystal is studied by a thermodynamic phenomenological model. It is demonstrated that a giant barocaloric effect can be achieved near room temperature with an adiabatic temperature change of more than 3 K and a temperature span about 50 K. As expected, the electrocaloric peak can be shifted towards room temperature by pressure. However, a slight reduction of the electrocaloric peak is found in contrast to relaxor ferroelectrics and LiNbO3. We believe that our findings could open a potential route by combining the barocaloric effect and pressure-mediated electrocaloric effect in BaTiO3 single crystal for cooling devices.

  12. Composites of hybrids BaTiO3/carbon nanotubes/polyvinylidene fluoride with high dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Benhui; Bai, Jinbo

    2015-11-01

    High dielectric composites were prepared based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and hybrids BaTiO3-carbon nanotubes (H-BT-CNTs) with a special structure. The hybrids that BT was a core and CNTs grew outside were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition. Due to the special structure, composite’s dielectric permittivity reached 1777 at 100 Hz and 80 at 1 MHz, while loss tangent maintained as 6 at 100 Hz and 0.56 at 1 MHz, respectively. Moreover, dielectric permittivity and ac conductivity of composite were further enhanced after annealing process at moderate temperature. These improved properties were originated from the reformation of conductive network and BT-CNTs structure inside PVDF matrix.

  13. Prediction of giant elastocaloric strength and stress-mediated electrocaloric effect in BaTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Wei, Jie; Janolin, Pierre-Eymeric; Infante, Ingrid C.; Kreisel, Jens; Lou, Xiaojie; Dkhil, Brahim

    2014-09-01

    An applied stress field σ3 can reversibly change the temperature of an elastocaloric material under adiabatic conditions, and the temperature change ΔTσ_3 is usually maximized near phase transitions. Using a thermodynamic approach, we demonstrate that an elastocaloric strength α =|ΔTσ_3|/|σ3| of 0.016 K/MPa can be achieved benefiting from the full first-order phase transition in BaTiO3 single crystals, which is comparable with typical elastocaloric materials reported in the literature. The elastocaloric temperature change is found to be giant (3.2 K) under a stress of 200 MPa with a temperature span of over 50 K, which can be significantly larger than its electrocaloric counterpart (˜1 K). Moreover, it is found that the elastocaloric strength can be remarkably enhanced (2.32 K/MPa) as long as the phase transition is triggered even by a modest stress near the sharp first-order phase transition, which is two orders of magnitude larger than those accomplished by full transition. Therefore, even a low stress (<30 MPa) can induce a modest elastocaloric effect (1.3 K) comparable with the electrocaloric counterpart, which is accompanied by a reduction of the working temperature span. In addition, it is found that the electrocaloric peak under tensile stresses moves towards higher temperatures with its magnitude slightly enhanced. Hopefully, our study will stimulate further investigations on elastocaloric and stress-mediated electrocaloric effects in ferroelectrics.

  14. Growth and characterization of high-performance photorefractive BaTiO3 crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warde, C.; Garrett, M. H.; Chang, J. Y.; Jenssen, H. P.; Tuller, H. L.

    1991-01-01

    Barium titanate has been used for many nonlinear optical applications primarily because it has high grain and high self-pumped phase conjugate reflectivities. However, barium titanate has had a relatively slow response time, and thus low sensitivity. Therefore, it has not been suited to real-time operations. In this report we will describe the modifications in crystal growth, doping, reduction, and poling that have produced barium titanate crystals with the fastest photorefractive response time reported to date, approximately 21 microseconds with a beam-coupling gain coefficient of 38.7 cm(exp -1) and the highest sensitivity reported to date of 3.44 cm(exp 3)/kJ. The sensitivity of these barium titanate crystals is comparable to or greater than other photorefractive oxides. We will show, for the first time, beam-coupling in barium titanate at video frame rates. We infer from response time measurements that barium titanate has a phonon limited mobility. Also, photorefractive response time measurements as a function of the crystallographic orientation and grating wave vector for our cobalt-doped oxygen reduced crystals indicate that their faster response time arise because of an increase in the free carrier lifetime.

  15. Room temperature metastable monoclinic phase in BaTiO3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lummen, Tom; Wang, Jianjun; Holt, Martin; Kumar, Amit; Vlahos, Eftihia; Denev, Sava; Chen, Long-Qing; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2011-03-01

    Low-symmetry monoclinic phases in ferroelectric materials are of considerable interest, due to their associated enhanced electromechanical coupling. Such phases have been found in Pb-based perovskite solid solutions such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), where they form structural bridges between the rhombohedral and tetragonal ground states in compositional space. In this work, we directly image such a monoclinic phase in BaTi O3 crystals at room-temperature, using optical second harmonic generation, Raman, and X-ray microscopic imaging techniques. Phase-field modeling indicates that ferroelectric domain microstructures in BaTi O3 induce local inhomogeneous stresses in the crystals, which can effectively trap the transient intermediate monoclinic structure that occurs across the thermal orthorhombic-tetragonal phase boundary. The induced metastable monoclinic domains are ferroelectrically soft, being easily moved by electric fields as low as 0.5 kV cm-1 . Stabilizing such intermediate low-symmetry phases could very well lead to Pb-free materials with enhanced piezoelectric properties.

  16. Magnetic field tuning of polaron losses in Fe doped BaTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand Theerthan, R.; Artemenko, Alla; Maglione, Mario

    2012-10-01

    Artificial tuning of dielectric parameters can result from interface conductivity in polycrystalline materials. In ferroelectric single crystals, it has already been shown that ferroelectric domain walls can be the source of such artificial coupling. We show here that low-temperature dielectric losses can be tuned by a dc magnetic field. Since such losses were previously ascribed to polaron relaxation we suggest this results from the interaction of hopping polarons with the magnetic field. The fact that this loss alteration has no counterpart in the real part of the dielectric permittivity confirms that no interface is involved in this purely dynamical effect. The contribution of mobile charges hopping among Fe-related centers was confirmed by ESR spectroscopy, showing a maximum intensity at ca T ˜ 40 K.

  17. Defect-induced magnetism: Test of dilute magnetism in Fe-doped hexagonal BaTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tanushree; Ray, Sugata; Itoh, Mitsuru

    2011-04-01

    Single crystalline Fe-doped hexagonal BaTiO3 samples with varying oxygen content are created by specifically intended post-growth annealing treatments, in order to check the influence of defects on the unusual high temperature ferromagnetism observed in this system. The various defects have been shown to play a crucial role in dilute magnetic systems and therefore, it is important to carry out this check for the Fe-doped BaTiO3 system also, in which unusual ferromagnetism was reported even in its bulk single crystalline form. The x-ray diffraction and dielectric studies carried out here have confirmed that the Fe doping of Ti is intrinsic, while the high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) studies proved the absence of unwanted magnetic metal clusters in the sample. The transport studies show that the oxygen concentrations could be varied substantially by the thermal treatments. Finally, magnetization measurements on the samples demonstrated that ferromagnetism is stronger in samples with higher oxygen deficiency, which could interestingly be retreated under high oxygen atmosphere and reversibly be taken back to a lower magnetic state. The vacancy-induced ferromagnetism is further confirmed by EPR measurements, which is consistent with earlier studies and, consequently, put the doped BaTiO3 in the list of true dilute magnetic oxide (DMO) systems.

  18. Evolution of structure in Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 single crystals with BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wenwei; Luo, Chengtao; Zhang, Qinhui; Ren, Yang; Li, Jiefang; Luo, Haosu; Viehland, D.

    2014-10-01

    The structural, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-x mol. %BaTiO3 (NBT-x%BT) crystals have been investigated. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of NBT-x%BT were enhanced near x = 5-7. High resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction studies revealed the presence of a phase boundary between monoclinic (Cc) and tetragonal (P4bm) phases near x = 5-7, where the dielectric and piezoelectric properties were enhanced.

  19. Elastic properties of lead-free (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3 single crystals near the morphotropic phase boundary as studied by using Brillouin spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung Wan; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Li, Xiaobing; Luo, Haosu

    2015-05-01

    The elastic properties of lead-free (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3 single crystals near the morphotropic phase boundary were investigated by using Brillouin spectroscopy at room temperature. The measured longitudinal elastic constants of unpoled single crystals with a BaTiO3 content of 5% exhibited large changes depending on the scattering geometry, indicating that a substantial acoustic dispersion effect exists in this system. This was attributed to the relaxor nature due to inherent disorder in the A-site of the perovskite structure.

  20. Crystal structure and polarization hysteresis properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film capacitors on (Ba,Sr)TiO3-buffered substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Hisashi; Noguchi, Yuji; Kutsuna, Kazutoshi; Matsuo, Hiroki; Kitanaka, Yuuki; Miyayama, Masaru

    2016-10-01

    Ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BT) thin-film capacitors with a buffer layer of (Ba1- x Sr x )TiO3 (BST) have been fabricated on (001) SrTiO3 (STO) single-crystal substrates by a pulsed laser deposition method, and the crystal structure and polarization hysteresis properties have been investigated. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping shows that the BST buffer effectively reduces the misfit strain relaxation of the BT films on SrRuO3 (SRO) electrodes. The BT capacitor with the SRO electrodes on the BST (x = 0.3) buffer exhibits a well-saturated hysteresis loop with a remanent polarization of 29 µC/cm2. The hysteresis loop displays a shift toward a specific field direction, which is suggested to stem from the flexoelectric coupling between the out-of-plane polarization and the strain gradient adjacent to the bottom interface.

  1. Evolution of Polarization Vortex Pairs in a Uniaxially Compressed Single-Crystal BaTiO3 Thin Film: From Initiation to Annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiao Bao; Yang, Xin Hua; Wang, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Using the molecular dynamics method based on the shell model, a uniaxially compressed single-crystal BaTiO3 thin film with initial polarization configuration of double 90° domains has been simulated. Initiation and vertical propagation of domain switching induced by displacement loading lead to the occurrence of vortices and antivortices in pairs. However, further transverse extension results in separation between vortices and their corresponding antivortices of the same pair and the approach between vortices and antivortices of different pairs. As a result, a complete evolution process of the vortices and antivortices from initiation, to motion, then to collision, and finally to annihilation is observed. The internal mechanism of vortex- antivortex pair evolution is revealed.

  2. Preparation of BaTiO3/Cu2O and BaTiO3/Cu2O/Au Complexes: Their Photocatalytic and Antipathogenic Effect.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Woo; Nam, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Lee-Han; Jung, Dongwoon

    2016-05-01

    BaTiO3/Cu2O and BaTiO3/Cu2O/Au complexes were prepared from CuCl2, HAuCl4 solution, and BaTiO3 by the solution method. BaTiO3 particles were dispersed in a CuCl2 solution, and the BaTiO3/CuO complex was produced through crystallization of CuO onto the BaTiO3 surface by hydrolysis of CuCl2 in the first stage. After the reaction, CuO was reduced to Cu2O by treatment with glucose, thereby yielding the BaTiO3/Cu2O complex. The BaTiO3/Cu2O/Au complex was prepared by treating the BaTiO3/Cu2O particles with HAuCl4. Under visible light, the obtained BaTiO3/Cu2O0/Au complex showed higher photocatalytic activity than the Degussa P-25sample. In addition, the BaTiO3/Cu2O complex showed excellent antipathogenic effect. PMID:27483887

  3. Dielectric properties in lead-free piezoelectric (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 single crystals and ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-S.; Tu, C. S.; Chen, P.-Y.; Ting, Y.; Chiu, S.-J.; Hung, C. M.; Lee, H.-Y.; Wang, S.-F.; Anthoninappen, J.; Schmidt, V. H.; Chien, R. R.

    2014-05-01

    The 0.93(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 (BNB7T) piezoelectric single crystals and ceramics have been grown respectively by using the self-flux and solid-state-reaction methods. The real (ε‧) and imaginary (ε″) parts of the dielectric permittivity of BNB7T crystals and ceramics were investigated with and without an electric (E) poling as functions of temperature and frequency. The BNB7T crystal shows a stronger dielectric maximum at Tm~240 °C than the ceramic at Tm~300 °C. The dielectric permittivity of BNB7T ceramic shows an extra peak after poling at an electric field E=40 kV/cm in the region of 80-100 °C designated as the depolarization temperature (Td). A wide-range dielectric thermal hysteresis was observed in BNB7T crystal and ceramic, suggesting a first-order-like phase transition. The dielectric permittivity ε‧ obeys the Curie-Weiss equation, ε‧=C/(T-To), above 500 °C, which is considered as the Burns temperature (TB), below which polar nanoregions begin to develop and attenuate dielectric responses.

  4. Crystal Structural Analyses of Ferrielectric Tetragonal (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-7%BaTiO3 Powders and Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanaka, Yuuki; Ogino, Motohiro; Hirano, Kiyotaka; Noguchi, Yuji; Miyayama, Masaru; Kagawa, Yutaka; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Torii, Shuki; Kamiyama, Takeshi

    2013-09-01

    We have investigated the crystal structure of (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-7%BaTiO3 (BNT-7%BT) by high-resolution neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and high-energy synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) analyses. The NPD study revealed that the BNT-7%BT crystals have a single-phase tetragonal structure with P4bm symmetry. The crystal structure refined by the Rietveld method was found to be similar to the ferrielectric P4bm phase reported for BNT at a high temperature of 673 K. The SR-XRD analyses for single crystals of BNT-7%BT demonstrated that the P4bm phase remains as a stable phase in the crystals even after a high electric field is applied for poling, which is different from the structural analysis of ceramics by Ma et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 (2012) 107602].

  5. Acceptor-oxygen vacancy defect dipoles and fully coordinated defect centers in a ferroelectric perovskite lattice: Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis of Mn2+ in single crystal BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, R. A.; Pomorski, T. A.; Lenahan, P. M.; Randall, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    Defect dipoles are significant point defects in perovskite oxides as a result of their impact on oxygen vacancy dynamics. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used to investigate the local defect structure of single crystal BaTiO3 doped with manganese. These results, along with a re-analysis of literature data, do not support the conclusion that transition metal-oxygen vacancy nearest neighbor defect dipoles ( M nT i ″ - VO • • ) × in ferroelectric BaTiO3 are majority defect centers as previously reported. Local symmetry analysis of the zero-field splitting term of the spin Hamiltonian supports the assignment of fully coordinated defect centers as opposed to defect dipoles for resonance signals at geff ˜ 2. A newly discovered defect center with g⊥ ˜ 6 is observed in the manganese doped system, and it is argued that this defect center belongs to an associated defect complex or defect dipole. This newly reported strong axial defect center, however, is present in small, minor concentrations compared to the well-known Mn2+ center with zero-field splitting of D ˜ 645 MHz. In regard to relative concentration, it is concluded that the dominant point defect related to the Mn2+ ion doped in BaTiO3 corresponds to B-site substitution with six nearest neighbor anions in octahedral coordination.

  6. Ferroelectric nanocomposites of polyvinylidene fluoride/polymethyl methacrylate blend and BaTiO3 particles: Fabrication of β-crystal polymorph rich matrix through mechanical activation of the filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mofokeng, Tladi G.; Luyt, Adriaan S.; Pavlović, Vera P.; Pavlović, Vladimir B.; Dudić, Duško; Vlahović, Branislav; Djoković, Vladimir

    2014-02-01

    Nanocomposites of polyvinylidene fluoride/polymethyl methacrylate (PVDF/PMMA) blend and mechanically activated barium titanate (BaTiO3) particles were prepared by melt mixing. Modification of filler by means of mechanical activation has a profound effect on the crystallization of PVDF in the blend matrix. Raman analysis showed that the modified BaTiO3 particles, due to higher specific surfaces, induce, predominantly, the crystallization of the electrically active β-phase of PVDF, while the initial micron size particles induce the formation of the most common but non-polar α-crystal form. The introduction of activated particles reduces the overall crystallinity but slightly affects the crystallization and melting temperatures of the matrix. Dielectric spectroscopy revealed that at fixed filler content the dielectric constant of the blend increases with decreasing of the particle size (increasing of the activation time). A similar trend was observed for the storage moduli in dynamic mechanical analysis; the stiffness of the composite was higher when mechanically activated particles were used.

  7. Low temperature structural variations of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-7%BaTiO3 single crystal: Evidences from optical ellipsometry and Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Guo, S.; Xu, L. P.; Chen, C.; Hu, Z. G.; Luo, H. S.; Chu, J. H.

    2015-06-01

    Optical properties and structural variations of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-7%BaTiO3 (NBT-7%BT) single crystal have been studied by temperature-dependent optical ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy from 4.2 to 300 K. The second derivative of the complex dielectric functions reveals two interband transitions ( E cp 1 and E cp 2 ) located at about 3.49 and 4.25 eV, respectively. Depending on the temperature evolution of electronic transitions, structural variations appear near 60, 150, and 240 K, respectively. These anomalies are also well illustrated from the low-frequency phonon modes involving vibrations of Bi. The low-temperature structural variations of NBT-7%BT crystal can be associated with instability of the crystalline lattice driven by off-centered Bi ions, followed by the variations of polarizability of the unit cells.

  8. Crystal orientation dependent optical transmittance and band gap of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chongjun; Deng, Chenguang; Wang, Jiming; Gu, Xiaorong; Wu, Tong; Zhu, Kongjun; Liu, Youwen

    2016-02-01

    Optical transmittance spectra of lead-free ferroelectric (1-x)Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-xBaTiO3 (NBT-xBT) single crystals poled along different directions have been studied comprehensively. After poled along [001] direction, the transmittance of tetragonal NBT-8%BT crystal is about 70%, which is much higher than that of NBT-2%BT crystal with rhombohedral structure and NBT-5%BT crystal with morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) composition. However, after poled [111] direction, the transmittance of tetragonal NBT-8%BT crystal is the smallest among them. These properties are manifest in view of the crystal structure. Both direct and indirect optical energy band gaps, as well phonon energies were obtained from absorption coefficient spectra by Tauc equations. The band gaps of [001]-poled NBT-xBT crystals increase with BT content, yet the [111]-poled crystals have opposite trends.

  9. Solid-state conversion of (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3-(K1/2Na1/2)NbO3 single crystals and their piezoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Yong; Kang, Suk-Joong L.

    2014-06-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic with a composition of (94 - x)(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-6BaTiO3-x(K1/2Na1/2)NbO3 (NBT-BT-xKNN) is a promising lead-free piezoelectric material for actuator applications because of its giant electric-field-induced strains, which are comparable with that of soft Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3 (PZT) ceramics. Using the solid-state single crystal growth method, we succeeded in fabricating usable single crystals of NBT-BT-3KNN (6 mm × 6 mm × 8 mm size) with a uniform chemical composition. The room temperature piezoelectric properties of ⟨001⟩, ⟨110⟩, and ⟨111⟩ oriented single crystals were measured. Single crystals showed strong anisotropic strain characteristics. In particular, ⟨001⟩ oriented single crystals had excellent piezoelectric properties with small hysteresis and a high strain of 0.57% at 7 kV/mm. In addition, the fabricated single crystals exhibited a high converse piezoelectric constant, Smax/Emax, of over 1000 pm/V at 4 kV/mm. These values are greater than those reported for any lead-containing and lead-free ceramics and comparable with those of lead-based single crystals. Our investigation demonstrates the solid-state conversion of lead-free single crystals and their practical usability in replacement of lead-based materials.

  10. Polar nanoregions and dielectric properties in high-strain lead-free 0.93(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 piezoelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Sao; Chen, Pin-Yi; Tu, Chi-Shun

    2014-01-01

    A structural coexistence of rhombohedral (R) and tetragonal (T) phases has been revealed in the (001)c-cut lead-free 0.93(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 (BNB7T) piezoelectric crystals, which grown by the self-flux method, in the lower temperatures by high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction, reciprocal space mapping, and transmission electron microscopy. The dielectric permittivity exhibits a thermal hysteresis in the region of 120-260 °C, implying a first-order-like phase transition from R+T to T. The real part (ɛ') of dielectric permittivity begins to deviates from the Curie-Weiss equation, ɛ' = C/(T - To), from the Burns temperature TB = 460 °C, below which the polar nanoregions (or nanoclusters) develop and attenuate dielectric responses. The polar nanoregions of 5-10 nm were revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The normal piezoelectric coefficient d33 exhibits a rapid increase at E = 15-20 kV/cm and reaches a maximum of d33 ˜450 pC/N. The high piezoelectric response and E-field induced strain in BNB7T single crystals can be attributed to structural phase transitions under an E-field application.

  11. Relaxation dynamics of lead-free (Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3 single crystals studied by Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung Wan; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Li, Xiaobing; Luo, Haosu

    2016-10-01

    The acoustic properties of 0.95(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-0.05BaTiO3 (NBT-0.05BT) single crystals were investigated in a hypersonic frequency range and compared to those of archetypal relaxor Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PMN). Temperature dependences of the Brillouin frequency shift of the longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode, as well as its half width, of NBT-5%BT and PMN exhibited diffuse and broad anomalies over a wide temperature range, which were related to the softening of the sound velocity and substantial increase in the hypersonic damping toward the dielectric maximum temperature. These broad acoustic anomalies of unpoled NBT-0.05BT suggest the existence of noncentrosymmetric polar nanoregions in the paraelectric phase which do not evolve into a long-range ferroelectric order. The calculated relaxation times of NBT-0.05BT exhibited much longer values compared to those of PMN, which suggests that the size of polar nanoregions of NBT-0.05BT is larger than that of PMN.

  12. Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3-BaZrO3-CaTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P.; Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Shimamura, K.; Maglione, M.

    2014-04-01

    Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba0.850Ca0.150)(Ti0.900Zr0.100)O3 ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO3-BaZrO3-CaTiO3 pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO2-ZrO2 solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba0.857Ca0.143)(Ti0.928Zr0.072)O3 to (Ba0.953Ca0.047)(Ti0.427Zr0.573)O3. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba0.838Ca0.162)(Ti0.854Zr0.146)O3 composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d31 and k31 of 93 pC.N-1 and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T = 305 K).

  13. Wavelength dependence of refractive index in lead-free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chongjun; Yi, Xiujie; Wu, Tong; Wang, Jiming; Zhu, Kongjun; Liu, Youwen

    2014-10-01

    Refractive indices of (1-x)Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-xBaTiO3 (NBT-xBT, x = 0, 0.06 and 0.08) single crystals were measured at room temperature after poled along pseudo-cubic crystallographic direction [0 0 1]. The refractive indices decrease dramatically when the wavelength increases for all crystals. At the same wavelength, refractive indices of NBT-xBT single crystals decrease with increasing BT content. Sellmeier dispersion equations were obtained by least square fitting, which can be used to calculate the refractive indices in low absorption wavelength range. Parameters connected to the energy band structure were determined by fitting single-oscillator dispersion equation. Similar to most oxygen-octahedral ferroelectrics, NBT-xBT crystals have the same dispersion behavior described by the refractive-index dispersion parameter. Dispersion energies take on covalent crystal values.

  14. Eu-Doped BaTiO3 Powder and Film from Sol-Gel Process with Polyvinylpyrrolidone Additive

    PubMed Central

    García-Hernández, Margarita; García-Murillo, Antonieta; de J. Carrillo-Romo, Felipe; Jaramillo-Vigueras, David; Chadeyron, Geneviève; De la Rosa, Elder; Boyer, Damien

    2009-01-01

    Transparent BaTiO3:Eu3+ films were prepared via a sol-gel method and dip-coating technique, using barium acetate, titanium butoxide, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as modifier viscosity. BaTiO3:Eu3+ films ~500 nm thick, crystallized after thermal treatment at 700 ºC. The powders revealed spherical and rod shape morphology. The optical quality of films showed a predominant band at 615 nm under 250 nm excitation. A preliminary luminescent test provided the properties of the Eu3+ doped BaTiO3. PMID:19865533

  15. Atomistic Simulation of Strain-Induced Domain Evolution in a Uniaxially Compressed BaTiO3 Single-Crystal Nanofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiao Bao; Yang, Xin Hua; Cao, Wei Zhong

    2013-08-01

    A barium titanate single-crystal nanofilm subjected to a monotonically increasing uniaxial compressive strain load is simulated with the molecular dynamics method based on the shell model. A three-stage evolution process of a 180° stripe domain to a flux closure vortex-like domain consisting of four 90° stripe domains, then to a vortex-antivortex-vortex array, and finally to a new 180° stripe domain perpendicular to the initial stripe domain is observed when the strain varies from 0% to 2%. Both the stable condition and configuration of polarization vortexes in the compressed nanofilm are discussed.

  16. Numerical Evaluation of Strain Rate Effect on Mechanical and Electromechanical Coupling Responses in BaTiO3 Single-Crystal Nanofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiao Bao; Yang, Xin Hua; Cao, Wei Zhong

    2014-02-01

    The mechanical and electromechanical coupling responses of a ferroelectric single-crystal nanofilm under displacement loading at different strain rates have been simulated using the molecular dynamics method based on the shell model. While the linear stress-strain relation is independent of the strain rate, strong strain rate dependence is exhibited in the electromechanical coupling response for strain rates between 0 ns-1 and 0.5 ns-1. There is an approximate semilogarithmic linear relationship between the polarization stability strain and the strain rate. With increasing strain rate, local 180° domain switches take place sequentially from inside to outside in the stable domain structure evolution, and the number of domain walls increases. However, after the strain rate exceeds 0.5 ns-1, it has almost no effect on the␣domain structure. This work is helpful for improving ferroelectric device design and expanding ferroelectric application fields.

  17. Structural properties of composites of polyvinylidene fluoride and mechanically activated BaTiO3 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlović, V. P.; Pavlović, V. B.; Vlahović, B.; Božanić, D. K.; Pajović, J. D.; Dojčilović, R.; Djoković, V.

    2013-11-01

    Nanocomposites of electroactive ceramics and ferroelectric polymers exploit favorable features of the matrix polymer and the nanostructured filler to produce new functional materials for pressure and IR sensors. In this study, the influence of mechanical activation of barium titanate (BaTiO3) particles on the structural properties of BaTiO3/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposites was investigated. Nanocomposite films were prepared by the solution casting method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that mechanically activated fillers promote the formation of a ferroelectric β-phase during crystallization of PVDF.

  18. Lead-free BaTiO3 nanowires-based flexible nanocomposite generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwi-Il; Bae, Soo Bin; Yang, Seong Ho; Lee, Hyung Ik; Lee, Kisu; Lee, Seung Jun

    2014-07-01

    We have synthesized BaTiO3 nanowires (NWs) via a simple hydrothermal method at low temperature and developed a lead-free, flexible nanocomposite generator (NCG) device by a simple, low-cost, and scalable spin-coating method. The hydrothermally grown BaTiO3 NWs are mixed in a polymer matrix without a toxic dispersion enhancer to produce a piezoelectric nanocomposite (p-NC). During periodical and regular bending and unbending motions, the NCG device fabricated by utilizing a BaTiO3 NWs-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite successfully harvests the output voltage of ~7.0 V and current signals of ~360 nA, which are utilized to drive a liquid crystal display (LCD). We also characterized the instantaneous power (~1.2 μW) of the NCG device by calculating the load voltage and current through the connected external resistance.We have synthesized BaTiO3 nanowires (NWs) via a simple hydrothermal method at low temperature and developed a lead-free, flexible nanocomposite generator (NCG) device by a simple, low-cost, and scalable spin-coating method. The hydrothermally grown BaTiO3 NWs are mixed in a polymer matrix without a toxic dispersion enhancer to produce a piezoelectric nanocomposite (p-NC). During periodical and regular bending and unbending motions, the NCG device fabricated by utilizing a BaTiO3 NWs-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite successfully harvests the output voltage of ~7.0 V and current signals of ~360 nA, which are utilized to drive a liquid crystal display (LCD). We also characterized the instantaneous power (~1.2 μW) of the NCG device by calculating the load voltage and current through the connected external resistance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: PDF materials involve the linear superposition test results (Fig. S1) and the durability test results (Fig. S2) of BaTiO3 NWs-based NCG device. A video file (Video S1) shows the power up of an LCD screen by the NCG device without any external energy source. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr

  19. Phase composition identification and microstructure of BaTiO3-containing sodium-aluminoborosilicate glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harizanova, Ruzha; Abrashev, Miroslav; Avramova, Ivalina; Vladislavova, Liliya; Bocker, Christian; Tsutsumanova, Gichka; Avdeev, Georgi; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Bulk glasses with a composition 20.1Na2O/23.1BaO/23.0TiO2/7.6B2O3/17.4SiO2/3Al2O3/5.8Fe2O3 containing less than 30 mol% glass-forming oxides are synthesized. Information on the valency of the glass constituents is obtained by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and it is concluded that all species are predominantly present in their oxidized state. Glassy samples are annealed above the glass transition temperature which leads to the crystallization of BaTiO3 for all time-temperature applied schedules. The phase composition of the glass-ceramics is studied by x-ray diffraction and the formation of cubic BaTiO3 is suggested. Temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy confirms the presence of solely cubic BaTiO3. The microstructures of all annealed samples are similar and consist of globular interconnected particles in which nanosized BaTiO3 crystals grow randomly. The mean size of the spherical formations increases with the increasing annealing time from 200 to 600 nm. Electron microscopy suggests that during the annealing process first phase separation and then crystallization of BaTiO3 occurs.

  20. Preferentially oriented BaTiO3 thin films deposited on silicon with thin intermediate buffer layers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3) thin films are prepared by conventional 2-methoxy ethanol-based chemical solution deposition. We report highly c-axis-oriented BaTiO3 thin films grown on silicon substrates, coated with a lanthanum oxynitrate buffer layer of 8.9 nm. The influence of the intermediate buffer layer on the crystallization of BaTiO3 film is investigated. The annealing temperature and buffer layer sintering conditions are optimized to obtain good crystal growth. X-ray diffraction measurements show the growth of highly oriented BaTiO3 thin films having a single perovskite phase with tetragonal geometry. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies indicate the presence of smooth, crack-free, uniform layers, with densely packed crystal grains on the silicon surface. A BaTiO3 film of 150-nm thickness, deposited on a buffer layer of 7.2 nm, shows a dielectric constant of 270, remnant polarization (2Pr) of 5 μC/cm2, and coercive field (Ec) of 60 kV/cm. PMID:23391429

  1. Microstructure evolution and electrical characterization of Lanthanum doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billah, Masum; Ahmed, A.; Rahman, Md. Miftaur; Mahbub, Rubbayat; Gafur, M. A.; Bashar, M. Shahriar

    2016-07-01

    In the current work, we investigated the structural and dielectric properties of Lanthanum oxide (La2O3) doped Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics and established a correlation between them. Solid state sintering method was used to dope BaTiO3 with 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mole% La2O3 under different sintering parameters. The raw materials used were La2O3 nano powder of ~80nm grain size and 99.995% purity and BaTiO3 nano powder of 100nm grain size and 99.99% purity. Grain size distribution and morphology of fracture surface of sintered pellets were examined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and X-Ray Diffraction analysis was conducted to confirm the formation of desired crystal structure. The research result reveal that grain size and electrical properties of BaTiO3 ceramic significantly enhanced for small amount of doping (up to 0.5 mole% La2O3) and then decreased with increasing doping concentration. Desired grain growth (0.80-1.3 µm) and high densification (<90% theoretical density) were found by proper combination of temperature, sintering parameters and doping concentration. We found the resultant stable value of dielectric constant was 10000-12000 at 100-300 Hz in the temperature range of 30°-50° C for 0.5 mole% La2O3 with corresponding shift of curie temperature around 30° C. So overall this research showed that proper La3+ concentration can control the grain size, increase density, lower curie temperature and hence significantly improve the electrical properties of BaTiO3 ceramics.

  2. Engineered unique elastic modes at a BaTiO3/2x1-Ge(001) interface

    DOE PAGES

    Kumah, D. P.; Dogan, M.; Ngai, J. H.; Qiu, D.; Zhang, Z.; Su, D.; Specht, E. D.; Ismail-Beigi, S.; Ahn, C. H.; Walker, F. J.

    2016-03-07

    Here, the strong interaction at an interface between a substrate and thin film leads to epitaxy and provides a means of inducing structural changes in the epitaxial film. These induced material phases often exhibit technologically relevant electronic, magnetic, and functional properties. The 2×1 surface of a Ge(001) substrate applies a unique type of epitaxial constraint on thin films of the perovskite oxide BaTiO3 where a change in bonding and symmetry at the interface leads to a non-bulk-like crystal structure of the BaTiO3. While the complex crystal structure is predicted using first-principles theory, it is further shown that the details ofmore » the structure are a consequence of hidden phases found in the bulk elastic response of the BaTiO3 induced by the symmetry of forces exerted by the germanium substrate.« less

  3. Complete set of material constants of 0.95(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.05BaTiO3 lead-free piezoelectric single crystal and the delineation of extrinsic contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Limei; Yi, Xiujie; Zhang, Shantao; Jiang, Wenhua; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Rui; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-09-01

    Lead-free piezoelectric single crystal 0.95(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3 (NBT)-0.05BaTiO3 was grown by top-seeded solution growth method, which has rhombohedral symmetry with composition near morphotropic phase boundary. Full set of dielectric, piezoelectric, and elastic constants for [001]c poled domain-engineered single crystal was determined. Excellent electromechanical properties and low dielectric loss (d33 = 360 pC/N, d31 = -113 pC/N, d15 = 162 pC/N, k33 = 0.720, kt = 0.540, and tan δ = 1.1%) make it a good candidate to replace lead-based piezoelectric materials. The depolarization temperature (Td = 135 °C) is the highest among all NBT-based materials and its electromechanical coupling properties are very stable below Td. Extrinsic contributions to piezoelectric properties were investigated by Rayleigh analysis.

  4. Giant strain and electric-field-induced phase transition in lead-free (Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3-(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Zhao, Xiangyong; Wang, Yaojin; Zhang, Haiwu; Deng, Hao; Li, Xiaobing; Jiang, Xingan; Jiang, Xiangping; Luo, Haosu

    2016-01-01

    A lead-free single crystal 0.92(Na0.5Bi0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3-0.02(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (NBT-6BT-2KNN) with dimension of Φ35 mm × 10 mm is grown by a precisely controlled top seeded solution growth method. The <001> oriented single crystals have excellent piezoelectric properties with a giant strain of 0.83% at 28 kV/cm. Application of an electric-field ≥14 kV/cm leads to a phase transition from pseudocubic to coexistence of tetragonal and pseudocubic. A strong ferroelectric domain texture occurs during the phase transition. Furthermore, the variation of tetragonal phase fraction agrees well with the macroscopic strain curve, demonstrating that the induced tetragonal phase plays a critical role in the high strain property.

  5. Nanotube networks in liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanski, Martin; Lagerwall, Jan Peter F.; Scalia, Giusy

    2016-03-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) are very attractive hosts for the organization of anisotropic nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) because of the macroscopic organization resulting in properties of nanoparticles manifest at a macroscopic scale. Different types of LCs have demonstrated the ability to organize nanotubes, showing the generality of the approach, i.e., that the liquid crystallinity per se is the driving factor for the organization. Compared to standard nanotube composites (e.g. with disordered polymer hosts) the introduction of carbon nanotubes into an LC allows not only the transfer of the outstanding CNT properties to the macroscopic phase, providing strength and conductivity, but these properties also become anisotropic, following the transfer of the orientational order from the LC to the CNTs. The LC molecular structure plays an important even if ancillary role since it enters in the surface interactions, fulfilling a mediating action between the particle and the bulk of the LC. Isolated nanotubes can be obtained by optimized dispersions at lower concentrations and this process requires the use or development of tailored strategies like using solvents or even another LC for pre-dispersing CNTs. Aggregates or networks can be observed in poor dispersions and at higher nanoparticle concentrations. In those, due to surface interactions, the LC behaviour can be strongly affected with changes in phase sequences or transition temperatures and the effect is expected to be more pronounced as the concentration of nanotubes increases. We present preliminary investigations and observations on nanotube - LC systems based on a smectic LC host.

  6. Studies of local structural distortions in strained ultrathin BaTiO3 films using scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Daesung; Herpers, Anja; Menke, Tobias; Heidelmann, Markus; Houben, Lothar; Dittmann, Regina; Mayer, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Ultrathin ferroelectric heterostructures (SrTiO3/BaTiO3/BaRuO3/SrRuO3) were studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in terms of structural distortions and atomic displacements. The TiO2-termination at the top interface of the BaTiO3 layer was changed into a BaO-termination by adding an additional BaRuO3 layer. High-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging by aberration-corrected STEM revealed that an artificially introduced BaO-termination can be achieved by this interface engineering. By using fast sequential imaging and frame-by-frame drift correction, the effect of the specimen drift was significantly reduced and the signal-to-noise ratio of the HAADF images was improved. Thus, a quantitative analysis of the HAADF images was feasible, and an in-plane and out-of-plane lattice spacing of the BaTiO3 layer of 3.90 and 4.22 Å were determined. A 25 pm shift of the Ti columns from the center of the unit cell of BaTiO3 along the c-axis was observed. By spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy studies, a reduction of the crystal field splitting (CFS, ΔL3=1.93 eV) and an asymmetric broadening of the eg peak were observed in the BaTiO3 film. These results verify the presence of a ferroelectric polarization in the ultrathin BaTiO3 film.

  7. Solid-state conversion of (94-x)(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-6BaTiO3-x(K1/2Na1/2)NbO3 single crystals and their enhanced converse piezoelectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Hoon; Kang, Suk-Joong L.

    2016-01-01

    (94-x)(Na1/2Bi1/2)TiO3-6BaTiO3-x(K1/2Na1/2)NbO3 (NBT-6BT-xKNN) piezoelectric ceramics have notable potential for replacing lead containing piezoelectric ceramics in actuator applications due to their exceptionally large strain. However, a high electric field for producing a large strain and a large hysteresis are critical issues that should be resolved for practical actuator applications. In an attempt to address these issues and optimize the piezoelectric performance, we fabricated NBT-6BT-xKNN (x = 0 - 5) piezoelectric single crystals with a size of 8 x 8x 10 mm by the solid-state single crystal growth method and systematically measured their electrical properties. With increased addition of KNN to replace NBT, the ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity of the fabricated [001] NBT-6BT-xKNN single crystals decreased, but their unipolar strain and hysteresis were considerably improved. For NBT-6BT-5KNN single crystals, the largest maximum strain (Smax) was 0.57% at 6 kV/mm, showing a converse piezoelectric constant (Smax/Emax) of 950 pm/V, and their hysteresis in the unipolar S-E curve was 12% at 6kV/mm, which would be appropriate for some actuator applications. Our results demonstrate the applicability of the produced single crystals as lead-free piezoelectric actuator components.

  8. Spatial subharmonic generation of orthogonally polarized light waves in BaTiO(3) by phase-matched nonlinear mixing.

    PubMed

    Novikov, A; Odoulov, S; Jungen, R; Tschudi, T

    1991-12-15

    The development of a spatial subharmonic, i.e., of a light wave propagating at the bisector of two pump waves, with orthogonal polarizations incident upon a BaTiO(3) crystal in a plane normal to the optical axis is observed and studied. Parametric amplification of a seed wave meeting the phase-matching condition in the presence of two pump waves is shown to be the main reason for subharmonic generation in this crystal.

  9. Strain-induced magnetic domain wall control by voltage in hybrid piezoelectric BaTiO3 ferrimagnetic TbFe structures.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Olivier; Weil, Raphael; Rohart, Stanislas; Mougin, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the voltage dependence of the magnetization reversal of a thin amorphous ferromagnetic TbFe film grown on a ferroelectric and piezoelectric BaTiO3 single crystal. Magneto-optical measurements, at macroscopic scale or in a microscope, demonstrate how the ferroelectric BaTiO3 polarisation history influences the properties of the perpendicularly magnetized TbFe film. Unpolarised and twinned regions are obtained when the sample is zero voltage cooled whereas flat and saturated regions are obtained when the sample is voltage cooled through the ferroelectric ordering temperature of the BaTiO3 crystal, as supported by atomic force microscopy experiments. The two steps involved in the TbFe magnetization reversal, namely nucleation and propagation of magnetic domain walls, depend on the polarisation history. Nucleation is associated to coupling through strains with the piezoelectric BaTiO3 crystal and propagation to pinning with the ferroelastic surface patterns visible in the BaTiO3 topography. PMID:26987937

  10. Strain-induced magnetic domain wall control by voltage in hybrid piezoelectric BaTiO3 ferrimagnetic TbFe structures

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Olivier; Weil, Raphael; Rohart, Stanislas; Mougin, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the voltage dependence of the magnetization reversal of a thin amorphous ferromagnetic TbFe film grown on a ferroelectric and piezoelectric BaTiO3 single crystal. Magneto-optical measurements, at macroscopic scale or in a microscope, demonstrate how the ferroelectric BaTiO3 polarisation history influences the properties of the perpendicularly magnetized TbFe film. Unpolarised and twinned regions are obtained when the sample is zero voltage cooled whereas flat and saturated regions are obtained when the sample is voltage cooled through the ferroelectric ordering temperature of the BaTiO3 crystal, as supported by atomic force microscopy experiments. The two steps involved in the TbFe magnetization reversal, namely nucleation and propagation of magnetic domain walls, depend on the polarisation history. Nucleation is associated to coupling through strains with the piezoelectric BaTiO3 crystal and propagation to pinning with the ferroelastic surface patterns visible in the BaTiO3 topography. PMID:26987937

  11. Strain-induced magnetic domain wall control by voltage in hybrid piezoelectric BaTiO3 ferrimagnetic TbFe structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Olivier; Weil, Raphael; Rohart, Stanislas; Mougin, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports on the voltage dependence of the magnetization reversal of a thin amorphous ferromagnetic TbFe film grown on a ferroelectric and piezoelectric BaTiO3 single crystal. Magneto-optical measurements, at macroscopic scale or in a microscope, demonstrate how the ferroelectric BaTiO3 polarisation history influences the properties of the perpendicularly magnetized TbFe film. Unpolarised and twinned regions are obtained when the sample is zero voltage cooled whereas flat and saturated regions are obtained when the sample is voltage cooled through the ferroelectric ordering temperature of the BaTiO3 crystal, as supported by atomic force microscopy experiments. The two steps involved in the TbFe magnetization reversal, namely nucleation and propagation of magnetic domain walls, depend on the polarisation history. Nucleation is associated to coupling through strains with the piezoelectric BaTiO3 crystal and propagation to pinning with the ferroelastic surface patterns visible in the BaTiO3 topography.

  12. Thin film processing of photorefractive BaTiO3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, Paul R.; Potember, Richard S.

    1991-01-01

    The principle objectives of this ongoing research involve the preparation and characterization of polycrystalline single-domain thin films of BaTiO3 for photorefractive applications. These films must be continuous, free of cracks, and of high optical quality. The two methods proposed are sputtering and sol-gel related processing.

  13. Ferroelectric-like metallic state in electron doped BaTiO3

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, J.; Doi, A.; Okuyama, D.; Morikawa, D.; Arima, T.; Okada, K. N.; Kaneko, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Uchiyama, H.; Ishikawa, D.; Baron, A. Q. R.; Kato, K.; Takata, M.; Tokura, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We report that a ferroelectric-like metallic state with reduced anisotropy of polarization is created by the doping of conduction electrons into BaTiO3, on the bases of x-ray/electron diffraction and infrared spectroscopic experiments. The crystal structure is heterogeneous in nanometer-scale, as enabled by the reduced polarization anisotropy. The enhanced infrared intensity of soft phonon along with the resistivity reduction suggests the presence of unusual electron-phonon coupling, which may be responsible for the emergent ferroelectric structure compatible with metallic state. PMID:26289749

  14. High Performance Flexible Piezoelectric Nanogenerators based on BaTiO3 Nanofibers in Different Alignment Modes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Jeong, Young Gyu

    2016-06-22

    Piezoelectric nanogenerators, harvesting energy from mechanical stimuli in our living environments, hold great promise to power sustainable self-sufficient micro/nanosystems and mobile/portable electronics. BaTiO3 as a lead-free material with high piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric constant has been widely examined to realize nanogenerators, capacitors, sensors, etc. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based flexible composites including BaTiO3 nanofibers with different alignment modes were manufactured and their piezoelectric performance was examined. For the study, BaTiO3 nanofibers were prepared by an electrospinning technique utilizing a sol-gel precursor and following calcination process, and they were then aligned vertically or horizontally or randomly in PDMS matrix-based nanogenerators. The morphological structures of BaTiO3 nanofibers and their nanogenerators were analyzed by using SEM images. The crystal structures of the nanogenerators before and after poling were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the nanogenerators were investigated as a function of the nanofiber alignment mode. The nanogenerator with BaTiO3 nanofibers aligned vertically in the PDMS matrix sheet achieved high piezoelectric performance of an output power of 0.1841 μW with maximum voltage of 2.67 V and current of 261.40 nA under a low mechanical stress of 0.002 MPa, in addition to a high dielectric constant of 40.23 at 100 Hz. The harvested energy could thus power a commercial LED directly or be stored into capacitors after rectification.

  15. High Performance Flexible Piezoelectric Nanogenerators based on BaTiO3 Nanofibers in Different Alignment Modes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Jeong, Young Gyu

    2016-06-22

    Piezoelectric nanogenerators, harvesting energy from mechanical stimuli in our living environments, hold great promise to power sustainable self-sufficient micro/nanosystems and mobile/portable electronics. BaTiO3 as a lead-free material with high piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric constant has been widely examined to realize nanogenerators, capacitors, sensors, etc. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based flexible composites including BaTiO3 nanofibers with different alignment modes were manufactured and their piezoelectric performance was examined. For the study, BaTiO3 nanofibers were prepared by an electrospinning technique utilizing a sol-gel precursor and following calcination process, and they were then aligned vertically or horizontally or randomly in PDMS matrix-based nanogenerators. The morphological structures of BaTiO3 nanofibers and their nanogenerators were analyzed by using SEM images. The crystal structures of the nanogenerators before and after poling were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of the nanogenerators were investigated as a function of the nanofiber alignment mode. The nanogenerator with BaTiO3 nanofibers aligned vertically in the PDMS matrix sheet achieved high piezoelectric performance of an output power of 0.1841 μW with maximum voltage of 2.67 V and current of 261.40 nA under a low mechanical stress of 0.002 MPa, in addition to a high dielectric constant of 40.23 at 100 Hz. The harvested energy could thus power a commercial LED directly or be stored into capacitors after rectification. PMID:27237223

  16. Experimental and numerical studies of microwave properties of BaTiO3-Pt composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuga, Yasuo; Lee, Seung-Woo; Almajid, Abdulhakim; Taya, Minoru; Li, Jing-Feng; Watanabe, Ryuzo

    2002-10-01

    In this paper, we will present the experimental results of the microwave properties of BaTiO3 and BaTiO3-Pt composites. These composites materials were designed to increase the effective dielectric constant at microwave frequency. Three different platinum volume fractions were used, 3, 5 and 10%, to make BaTiO3-Pt composites, in addition to a pure BaTiO3 material. To characterize the BaTiO3-Pt composites, microwave measurements were conducted using the waveguide transmission measurements. The experimental results verify that it is possible to increase the dielectric constant using the conductor loading method.

  17. Growth of BaTiO3-PVDF composite thick films by using aerosol deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Yoon, Young Joon

    2016-01-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3)-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite thick films were grown by using aerosol deposition at room temperature with BaTiO3 and PVDF powders. To produce a uniform composition in ceramic and polymer composite films, which show a substantial difference in specific gravity, we used PVDF-coated BaTiO3 powders as the starting materials. An examination of the microstructure confirmed that the BaTiO3 were well distributed in the PVDF matrix in the form of a 0 - 3 compound. The crystallite size in the BaTiO3-PVDF composite thick films was 5 ˜ 50 times higher than that in pure BaTiO3 thick films. PVDF plays a role in suppressing the fragmentation of BaTiO3 powder during the aerosol deposition process and in controlling the relative permittivity.

  18. Polarisation dependence of Schottky barrier heights at ferroelectric BaTiO3 / RuO2 interfaces: influence of substrate orientation and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubmann, Andreas H.; Li, Shunyi; Zhukov, Sergey; von Seggern, Heinz; Klein, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed to examine the change in Schottky barrier height Δ {Φ\\text{B}} at BaTiO3/RuO2 interfaces upon polarisation reversal for [1 0 0], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1] oriented BaTiO3 single crystals. Compared to previous measurements on BaTiO3/RuO2 interfaces (Chen and Klein 2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 094105), the crystals exhibit a significantly reduced dependence of barrier height on polarisation direction. This is connected to a much higher polarisation of the present cystals, which is comparable to the accepted bulk polarisation of BaTiO3 of 26~μ \\text{C}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2} and which exhibit the expected dependence on crystal orientation. This indicates a much higher crystal quality in the present experiments, which is also confirmed by a Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi like polarisation switching dynamics. It is observed that Δ {Φ\\text{B}} is reduced for the [1 1 0] and [1 1 1] orientation and scales with polarisation as long as crystals from the same batch are used. The fact, that a poor polarisation hysteresis behaviour relates to a high polarisation dependence of Schottky barrier height, indicates that the electrode’s ability to screen ferroelectric polarisation charges depends sensitively on crystal and/or interface quality.

  19. Effects of Hexagonal BaTiO3 Addition on Textured BaTiO3 Thick Films Prepared by Screen Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yuichi; Futakuchi, Tomoaki

    2013-09-01

    The effects of hexagonal BaTiO3 addition to BaTiO3 thick films were examined. A- and c-axis-preferred BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by hexagonal BaTiO3 addition. The addition of the hexagonal Ba(Ti0.96Mn0.04)O3 was more effective for preparing the a- and c-axis-preferred thick films than the addition of the hexagonal BaTiO3 prepared by reducing BaTiO3 in a 3% H2-N2 atmosphere. According to increases in the firing time at 1370 °C, the Mn of Ba(Ti0.96Mn0.04)O3 in the Ba(Ti0.96Mn0.04)O3-added BaTiO3 thick films was diffused, and the hexagonal phase in the thick films changed to the tetragonal phase. The degree of the preferred orientation of the Ba(Ti0.96Mn0.04)O3-added BaTiO3 thick films increased with increasing firing time. The hexagonal-phase ratio of the reduced BaTiO3-added BaTiO3 thick films decreased markedly when the firing temperature was above 1000 °C. The existence of the hexagonal phase at 1370 °C in which the grain growth advanced could be important in obtaining highly oriented thick films. The tan δ values of the Ba(Ti0.96Mn0.04)O3-added BaTiO3 thick films were lower than 3%. The remanent polarizations of the thick films were greater than 7 µC/cm2.

  20. Surface reaction characteristics at low temperature synthesis BaTiO 3 particles by barium hydroxide aqueous solution and titanium tetraisopropoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Min

    2011-05-01

    Well-crystallized cubic phase BaTiO 3 particles were prepared by heating the mixture of barium hydroxide aqueous solution and titania derived from the hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) at 328 K, 348 K or 368 K for 24 h. The morphology and size of obtained particles depended on the reaction temperature and the Ba(OH) 2/TTIP molar ratio. By the direct hydrolytic reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide, the high surface area titania (TiO 2) was obtained. The surface adsorption characteristics of the titania particles had been studied with different electric charges OH - ions or H + ions. The formation mechanism and kinetics of BaTiO 3 were examined by measuring the concentration of [Ba 2+] ions in the solution during the heating process. The experimental results showed that the heterogeneous nucleation of BaTiO 3 occurred on the titania surface, according to the Avrami's equation.

  1. Nanoparticle-Sintered BaTiO3 Thin Films and Its Orientation Control by Solid Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasone, Fumi; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Suzuki, Toshimasa; Mizuno, Youichi; Chazono, Hirokazu; Imai, Hiroaki

    2008-11-01

    A novel powder-sintering thin-film process using nanocrystals of sol-gel-derived BaTiO3 without sintering additives yields a highly densified microstructure containing columnar grains at low temperatures of 800 °C. The BaTiO3 thin film fabricated on a (111)-oriented Pt/TiO2/Al2O3 substrate shows high crystallinity and a relatively high dielectric constant of 635 at 10 kHz with a low loss tangent of 0.007. Furthermore, the controllability of the crystallographic orientations of thin films by solid phase epitaxy is demonstrated on the basis of the optimization of surface nucleation and the subsequent grain growth on epitaxially grown platinum electrodes and single-crystal SrTiO3 substrates.

  2. Electrical and Optical Property of Ferroelectric BaTiO3:Eu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon; Grichener, Alexander; Jensen, Jacob; Choi, Sang H.

    2005-01-01

    We studied various electrical and optical properties of Europium (1 atomic %) incorporated BaTiO3 film on n-Si(100) substrate. The thin film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. Film thickness and optical refractive index were measured with an ellipsometer. P-E hysteresis measurement shows the remnant polarization of 37 micro C/sq cm in BaTiO3:Eu film. C-V measurements on the pure BaTiO3 film show recovery of capacitance across sweeping voltage ranges with a narrow transition zone due to the polarization change. On the other hand, C-V and I-V measurements on the BaTiO3:Eu film show that Europium incorporation increases positively charged states in the BaTiO3 layer such that BaTiO3:Eu/n-Si interface behaves like a leaky p-n junction.

  3. Modified structural and frequency dependent impedance formalism of nanoscale BaTiO3 due to Tb inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borah, Manjit; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2016-05-01

    We report the effect of Tb-doping on the structural and high frequency impedance response of the nanoscale BaTiO3 (BT) systems. While exhibiting a mixed phase crystal structure, the nano-BT systems are found to evolve with edges, and facets. The interplanar spacing of crystal lattice fringes is ~0.25 nm. The Cole-Cole plots, in the impedance formalism, have demonstrated semicircles which are the characteristic feature of grain boundary resistance of several MΩ. A lowering of ac conductivity with doping was believed to be due to the manifestation of oxygen vacancies and vacancy ordering.

  4. Voltage generation from individual BaTiO(3) nanowires under periodic tensile mechanical load.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoyu; Hu, Jie; Suryavanshi, Abhijit P; Yum, Kyungsuk; Yu, Min-Feng

    2007-10-01

    Direct tensile mechanical loading of an individual single-crystal BaTiO(3) nanowire was realized to reveal the direct piezoelectric effect in the nanowire. Periodic voltage generation from the nanowire was produced by a periodically varying tensile mechanical strain applied with a precision mechanical testing stage. The measured voltage generation from the nanowire was found to be directly proportional to the applied strain rate and was successfully modeled through the consideration of an equivalent circuit for a piezoelectric nanowire under low-frequency operation. The study, besides demonstrating a controlled experimental method for the study of direct piezoelectric effect in nanostructures, implies also the use of such perovskite piezoelectric nanowires for efficient energy-harvesting applications. PMID:17894515

  5. Characterization of LiF/CuO-Codoped BaTiO3 for Embedded Capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoungho

    2015-03-01

    Sintering additives for BaTiO3 were studied in order to facilitate the use of BaTiO3 as a material for embedded decoupling capacitors in high-density multilayered low-temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) modules for mobile communication systems and three-dimensional (3D) printing modules. Among the studied additives, the CuO/LiF mixture was the most promising sintering additive for cofiring BaTiO3 with a commercial low-permittivity ( ɛ r) LTCC sheet (MLS-22, NEG Co.). The temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of BaTiO3 was successfully controlled by adjusting the CuO/LiF amount and ratio and the sintering temperature. BaTiO3 codoped with 10 wt.% LiF/CuO (1:1 ratio) and sintered at 860°C for 30 min showed 95% sintering density. The room-temperature permittivity ( ɛ r) of LiF/CuO-codoped BaTiO3 was 1620 at 1 MHz, and the temperature coefficient of capacitance satisfied the X5R specification. After cofiring this LiF/CuO-codoped BaTiO3 ceramic with an MLS-22 sheet at 860°C, there was no crack formation at the layer boundary. Also a chemical compatibility test revealed that there were no severe reactions between the LiF/CuO-codoped BaTiO3 and an Ag electrode.

  6. Effectiveness of BaTiO3 dielectric patches on YBa2Cu3O7 thin films for MEM switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, J.; Hijazi, Y.; Noel, J.; Vlasov, Y.; Larkins, G.

    2014-05-01

    A micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) switch built on a superconducting microstrip filter will be utilized to investigate BaTiO3 dielectric patches for functional switching points of contact. Actuation voltage resulting from the MEM switch provokes static friction between the bridge membrane and BaTiO3 insulation layer. The dielectric patch crystal structure and roughness affect the ability of repetitively switching cycles and lifetime. A series of experiments have been performed using different deposition methods and RF magnetron sputtering was found to be the best deposition process for the BaTiO3 layer. The effect examination of surface morphology will be presented using characterization techniques as x-ray diffraction, SEM and AFM for an optimum switching device. The thin film is made of YBa2Cu3O7 deposited on LaAlO3 substrate by pulsed laser deposition. For this work, the dielectric material sputtering pressure is set at 9.5×10-6 Torr. The argon gas is released through a mass-flow controller to purge the system prior to deposition. RF power is 85 W at a distance of 9 cm. The behavior of Au membranes built on ultimate BaTiO3 patches will be shown as part of the results. These novel surface patterns will in turn be used in modelling other RF MEM switch devices such as distributed-satellite communication system operating at cryogenic temperatures.

  7. Dielectric response of polystyrene - BaTiO3 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotkova, Tatyana N.; Sysoev, Oleg I.; Belov, Pavel A.; Emelianov, Nikita A.; Velyaev, Yury O.; Mandalawi, Wissam M. Al; Korotkov, Leonid N.

    2016-07-01

    The series of composite materials based on polystyrene and non-ferroelectric BaTiO3 nanoparticles ((1-x)PS-xBT, where the volume concentration x = 0-1.0) was prepared. Their dielectric properties were studied within the temperature range 20-160 °C at the frequency of 100 kHz. It is found that an increase in the barium titanate concentration leads to increase of the both dielectric permittivity (ɛ) and dielectric losses (tgδ). The concentration dependence of ɛ can be described by the modified Kerner model. It was found that the glass transition in polystyrene matrix is diffused and its temperature is increased with concentration x.

  8. Multiferroic properties of nanocrystalline BaTiO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangalam, R. V. K.; Ray, Nirat; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Sundaresan, A.; Rao, C. N. R.

    2009-01-01

    Some of the Multiferroics [H. Schmid, Ferroelectrics 162 (1994) 317] form a rare class of materials that exhibit magneto-electric coupling arising from the coexistence of ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity, with potential for many technological applications [J.F. Scott, Nat. Mater. 6 (2007) 256; N.A. Spaldin, M. Fiebig, Science 309 (2005) 391]. Over the last decade, an active research on multiferroics has resulted in the identification of a few routes that lead to multiferroicity in bulk materials [C. Ederer, N.A. Spaldin, Nat. Mater. 3 (2004) 849; D.V. Efremov, J. van den Brink, D.I. Khomskii, Nat. Mater. 3 (2004) 853; N. Hur, S. Park, P.A. Sharma, J.S. Ahn, S. Guha, S.W. Cheong, Nature 429 (2004) 392]. While ferroelectricity in a classic ferroelectric such as BaTiO 3 is expected to diminish with the reducing particle size, [C.H. Ahn, K.M. Rabe, J.M. Triscone, Science 303 (2004) 488; J. Junquera, P. Ghosez, Nature 422 (2003) 506] ferromagnetism cannot occur in its bulk form [N.A. Hill, J. Phys. Chem. B 104 (2000) 6694]. Here, we use a combination of experiment and first-principles simulations to demonstrate that multiferroic nature emerges in intermediate size nanocrystalline BaTiO 3, ferromagnetism arising from the oxygen vacancies at the surface and ferroelectricity from the core. A strong coupling between a surface polar phonon and spin is shown to result in a magnetocapacitance effect observed at room temperature, which can open up possibilities of new electro-magneto-mechanical devices at the nano-scale.

  9. Photo-EPR study of light-sensitive impurity and defect centers in photorefractive BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Robert N.; Wechsler, Barry A.; McFarlane, Ross A.

    1992-08-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and photo-EPR measurements have been made on cobalt-doped BaTiO3 single crystals. Crystals illuminated at 25 K with light in the wavelength range 488-1010 nm showed an increase in concentration of the Co2+ centers relative to that observed at the same temperature in unilluminated crystals. Illumination with light of λ<690 nm produced a holelike intrinsic center that is stable below 50 K and that is assigned to O-. Following exposure to continuous laser illumination, the photo-EPR response of BaTiO3:Co was measured at low temperatures with periodically chopped laser light. It was observed that the populations of the Co2+ and O- centers were modulated reversibly and in opposite ways. A qualitative discussion linking these observations to possible photoionization and recombination and trapping channels is presented. Also presented is a detailed analysis of the kinetic equations describing the time dependence of the photo-EPR response, which permits us to derive information on important optical interactions and photoinduced space-charge effects.

  10. Consequences of Ca multisite occupation for the conducting properties of BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulueta, Y. A.; Dawson, J. A.; Leyet, Y.; Anglada-Rivera, J.; Guerrero, F.; Silva, R. S.; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2016-11-01

    In combination with the dielectric modulus formalism and theoretical calculations, a newly developed defect incorporation mode, which is a combination of the standard A- and B-site doping mechanisms, is used to explain the conducting properties in 5 mol% Ca-doped BaTiO3. Simulation results for Ca solution energies in the BaTiO3 lattice show that the new oxygen vacancy inducing mixed mode exhibits low defect energies. A reduction in dc conductivity compared with undoped BaTiO3 is witnessed for the incorporation of Ca. The conducting properties of 5 mol% Ca-doped BaTiO3 are analyzed using molecular dynamics and impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity activation energies for each incorporation mode are calculated and good agreement with experimental data for oxygen migration is observed. The likely existence of the proposed defect configuration is also analyzed on the basis of these methods.

  11. Both High Reliability and Giant Electrocaloric Strength in BaTiO3 Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Han, Xi; Zheng, Xiu-Cheng; Qiao, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    BaTiO3 has a giant electrocaloric strength, |ΔT|/|ΔE|, because of a large latent heat and a sharp phase transition. The electrocaloric strength of a new single crystal, as giant as 0.48 K·cm/kV, is twice larger than the previous best result, but it remarkably decreased to 0.18 K·cm/kV after several times of thermal cycles accompanied by alternating electric fields, because the field-induced phase transition and domain switching resulted in numerous defects such as microcracks. The ceramics prepared from nano-sized powders showed a high electrocaloric strength of 0.14 K·cm/kV, comparable to the single crystals experienced electrocaloric cycles, because of its unique microstructure after proper sintering process. Moreover, its properties did not change under the combined effects of thermal cycles and alternating electric fields, i.e. it has both large electrocaloric effect and good reliability, which are desirable for practical applications. PMID:24100662

  12. Probing the Metal-Insulator Transition in BaTiO3 by Electrostatic Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Santosh; Zhang, Jack Y.; Shoron, Omor F.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-07-01

    The metal-to-insulator transition in BaTiO3 is investigated using electrostatic doping, which avoids effects from disorder and strain that would accompany chemical doping. SmTiO3/BaTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures are doped with a constant sheet carrier density of 3 ×1014 cm-2 that is introduced via the polar SmTiO3/BaTiO3 interface. Below a critical BaTiO3 thickness, the structures exhibit metallic behavior with high carrier mobilities at low temperatures, similar to SmTiO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. Above this thickness, data indicate that the BaTiO3 layer becomes ferroelectric. The BaTiO3 lattice parameters increase to a value consistent with a strained, tetragonal unit cell, the structures are insulating below ˜125 K , and the mobility drops by more than an order of magnitude, indicating self-trapping of carriers. The results shed light on the interplay between charge carriers and ferroelectricity.

  13. On stoichiometry and intermixing at the spinel/perovskite interface in CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin films.

    PubMed

    Tileli, Vasiliki; Duchamp, Martial; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Valant, Matjaz; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Alford, Neil McN

    2015-01-01

    The performance of complex oxide heterostructures depends primarily on the interfacial coupling of the two component structures. This interface character inherently varies with the synthesis method and conditions used since even small composition variations can alter the electronic, ferroelectric, or magnetic functional properties of the system. The focus of this article is placed on the interface character of a pulsed laser deposited CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin film. Using a range of state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy methodologies, the roles of substrate morphology, interface stoichiometry, and cation intermixing are determined on the atomic level. The results reveal a surprisingly uneven BaTiO3 substrate surface formed after the film deposition and Fe atom incorporation in the top few monolayers inside the unit cell of the BaTiO3 crystal. Towards the CoFe2O4 side, a disordered region extending several nanometers from the interface was revealed and both Ba and Ti from the substrate were found to diffuse into the spinel layer. The analysis also shows that within this somehow incompatible composite interface, a different phase is formed corresponding to the compound Ba2Fe3Ti5O15, which belongs to the ilmenite crystal structure of FeTiO3 type. The results suggest a chemical activity between these two oxides, which could lead to the synthesis of complex engineered interfaces.

  14. Ultrafast magneto-optical spectroscopy of BiFeO3-BaTiO3 based structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, Brenden A.; Bishop, Michael; McGill, Stephen A.; Zhou, Yuon; Chopra, Anuj; Maurya, Deepam; Song, Hyun-Cheol; Priya, Shashank; Khodaparast, Giti A.

    2015-09-01

    Ultrafast optical spectroscopy can provide insight into fundamental microscopic interactions, dynamics and the coupling of several degrees of freedom. Pump/ probe studies can reveal the answer to questions like "What are the achievable switching speeds in multiferroics?", "What is the influence of the crystallographic orientation and domain states on the available switching states?", and "What is the effect of the hetrostructure on promoting the coupling between the varying field excitations?". In this presentation, we report on two color (400/800nm) ultrafast pump-probe differential reflectance spectroscopy of BiFeO3-BaTiO3 structures to probe the coupling between optical and acoustic phonons to spin waves. The data presented here is a combination of different transient reflectivity measurements to probe both the carrier and spin dynamics. The (001)-BiFeO3-BaTiO3 thin films were prepared using pulsed laser deposition on vicinal SrTiO3 substrates using La0.70 Sr0.30MnO3 bottom electrodes. Crystal orientation and topography were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. . Our results are important to developing devices on the basis of this material system. This work was supported by the AFOSR through grant FA9550-14-1-0376,NSF-Career Award DMR-0846834, and the Virginia Tech Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science.

  15. Properties of polycarbonate containing BaTiO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, J. F.; Fontanella, J. J.; Edmondson, C. A.; Wintersgill, M. C.; Wolak, M. A.; Westgate, M. A.; Lomax, E. A.; Lomax, P. Q.; Bogle, X.; Rúa, A.; Greenbaum, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    The real part of the relative permittivity, ɛ', and dielectric loss, tan δ, have been determined at audio frequencies at temperatures from about 5 K to 350 K for nano-composites composed of BaTiO3 nanoparticles and polycarbonate. The room temperature breakdown strength was also measured and thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning electron microscopy studies were carried out. For some films the nanoparticles were surface-treated (STNP) while for others they were not (UNP). For concentrations of UNP greater than about 3.4 vol. %, ɛ' is much larger than expected on the basis of laws of mixing. On the other hand, ɛ' for materials made using STNP is well-behaved. Correspondingly, increased loss (ɛ″ or tan δ) in the vicinity of room temperature is observed for the materials made from UNP. The anomalously large values of relative permittivity and increased loss are attributed to the presence of large aggregates in the materials made using the UNP. For both UNP-and STNP-based materials, the breakdown strength is found to decrease as nanoparticle concentration increases. The breakdown strength for the materials made using STNP is found to be larger for all concentrations than for those containing UNP despite the presence of large aggregates in some of the STNP-based materials. This shows that breakdown is strongly affected by the nanoparticle surfaces and/or the interface layer. It is also found that the breakdown strength for materials made using UNP increases as particle size increases. Finally, variable temperature and pressure proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation measurements were made to assess the effect of nanoparticle inclusion on polymer motion, and the effects were found to be very minor.

  16. Reversible electro-strain coupling in K-doped BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shi; Cohen, Ronald E.

    Ferroelectric materials that possess a spontaneous polarization have a wide range of applications. Coupled with a non-180° polarization switching, the strain of a ferroelectric crystal will change, due to the exchange of nonequal crystallographic axes. The field-induced large electro-strain coupling accompanied by non-180° domain switching, however, is usually an one-time effect, because the system lacks the driving force to recover to its original state, thus limiting its usefulness. It is suggested that defect dipoles introduced by dopant-vacancy pairs could serve as the driving force for reversible domain switching. However, there is still a lack of first-principles-supported microscopic understanding of the role of defect dipoles in reversible domain switching. In this work, we explore the intrinsic effects of K-dopants and oxygen vacancy on the 90° polarization switching in the prototypical ferroelectric BaTiO3 with density functional theory. The interplay between polar defect dipole, vacancy concentration and electromechanical properties is investigated. We find that defect dipoles could drive the system back to its original state spontaneously after the electric field is turned off. S.L. is supported by Carnegie Institution for Science and R.E.C is supported by ONR.

  17. Improved ferroelectric, piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties of dense BaTiO3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraskar, Bharat G.; Kakade, S. G.; James, A. R.; Kambale, R. C.; Kolekar, Y. D.

    2016-05-01

    The ferroelectric, piezoelectric and electrostrictive properties of BaTiO3 (BT) dense ceramic synthesized by solid-state reaction were investigated. X-ray diffraction study confirmed tetragonal crystal structure having c/a ~1.0144. The dense microstructure was evidenced from morphological studies with an average grain size ~7.8 µm. Temperature dependent dielectric measurement showed the maximum values of dielectric constant, ɛr = 5617 at Curie temperature, Tc = 125 °C. The saturation and remnant polarization, Psat. = 24.13 µC/cm2 and Pr =10.42 µC/cm2 achieved respectively for the first time with lower coercive field of Ec=2.047 kV/cm. The polarization current density-electric field measurement exhibits the peaking characteristics, confirms the saturation state of polarization for BT. The strain-electric field measurements revealed the "sprout" shape nature instead of typical "butterfly loop". This shows the excellent converse piezoelectric response with remnant strain ~ 0.212% and converse piezoelectric constant d*33 ~376.35 pm/V. The intrinsic electrostrictive coefficient was deduced from the variation of strain with polarization with electrostrictive coefficient Q33~ 0.03493m4/C2.

  18. Insulator-to-semiconductor transition of nanocrystalline BaTiO3 at temperatures ≤200 °C.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin

    2014-10-14

    As a classic dielectric material, BaTiO3 is one of the most important materials used in electronic applications. In this work, highly dense BaTiO3 ceramics with an average grain size of 35 nm were prepared, and dielectric and electrical properties were investigated. Microcrystalline BaTiO3 is an insulator at low temperatures; however, nanocrystalline BaTiO3 shows considerable semiconductivity with an activation energy of only 0.27 eV at temperatures ≤200 °C. At room temperature, the conductivity of nanocrystalline BaTiO3 is about fourteen orders of magnitude higher than that of the microcrystalline counterpart. Only by decreasing the grain size, one can transform BaTiO3 from an insulator to a semiconductor.

  19. BaTiO3 and polypropylene nanocomposites for capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Daxuan; Tang, Longxiang; Zhu, Lei; Lee, Je; Case Western Reserve University Collaboration; Agiltron, Inc Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    A novel strategy to uniformly disperse 70-nm BaTiO3 ferroelectric nanoparticles in a dielectric polypropylene (PP) matrix is developed in order to achieve high dielectric constant and high energy density for capacitor applications. By modifying BaTiO3 surface with a bis-phosphonic acid-terminated polyhedral oligomeric selsisquioxane (POSS), a nanocomposite with BaTiO3@POSS uniformly dispersed in PP matrix was achieved. The nanocomposite film containing a high nanoparticle content of 30 vol.% exhibited a high dielectric constant of 32 and a breakdown voltage of 220 MV/m, but with a high energy loss. Improvement of this nanocomposite by understanding the interfacial polarization is carried out in this work. The dielectric constant difference between BaTiO3 and PP can generate interfacial polarization and subsequent internal conduction in BaTiO3 particles upon bipolar polarization. Reduction of this internal conduction mechanism will significantly reduce the hysteresis loss in polymer nanodielectrics.

  20. Sintering and Microstructure of BaTiO3 Nano Particles Synthesized by Molten Salt Method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hyun; Shin, Hyo-Soon; Yeo, Dong-Hun; Ha, Gook-Hyun; Nahm, Sahn

    2016-05-01

    In order to establish thinner dielectric layers in thick film electronic components such as MLCC (Multilayer ceramic capacitor), BaTiO3 nanoparticles have been utilized. However, studies on the synthesis of nanoparticles smaller than 20 nm, the characteristics of the BaTiO3 powder, and the powder's sintering are lacking. Therefore, this paper aims to synthesize BaTiO3 particles smaller than 20 nm by using the molten salt method and evaluate the microstructure and dielectric properties by varying the sintering temperature from 750 degrees C to 1200 degrees C. Through the molten salt method and by using KOH-KCl mixed salt, 20 nm BaTiO3 powder was synthesized at a low temperature of 150 degrees C. Sintering the pellets formed from the synthesized 20 nm BaTiO3 nano powder led to the observation of an unusual phenomenon where the particles grew to approximate sizes below 850 degrees C where densification progressed. At sintering temperatures above 950 degrees C, particles that expanded into rod shapes were observed and these particles were identified to be unreacted TiO2 based on the results of the EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) analysis and phase analysis results.

  1. Synthesis and Microwave Absorption Properties of BaTiO3-polypyrrole Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiao-ling; Zhang, Cun-rui; Li, Jian-qiang

    2010-10-01

    BaTiO3 powders are prepared by sol-gel method by cotton template. Polypyrrole is prepared by chemical oxidation route in the emulsion polymerization system. Then BaTiO3-polypyrrole composites with different mixture ratios are prepared by as-prepared material. The structure, morphology, and properties of the composites are characterized with Infrared spectrum, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and net-wok analyzer. The complex permittivity and reflection loss of the composites are measured at different microwave frequencies in S-band and C-band (0.03-6 GHz) employing vector network analyzer model PNA 3629D vector. The effect of the mass ratio of BaTiO3 to polypyrrole on the microwave loss properties of the composites is investigated. A possible microwave absorbing mechanism of BaTiO3-polypyrrole composite is proposed. The BaTiO3-polypyrrole composite can find applications in suppression of electromagnetic interference and reduction of radar signature.

  2. Significant increase of Curie temperature in nano-scale BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yueliang; Liao, Zhenyu; Fang, Fang; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu; Zhu, Jing

    2014-11-01

    The low Curie temperature (Tc = 130 °C) of bulk BaTiO3 greatly limits its applications. In this work, the phase structures of BaTiO3 nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 2.5 nm to 10 nm were studied at various temperatures by using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with an in-situ heating holder. The results implied that each BaTiO3 nanoparticle was composed of different phases, and the ferroelectric ones were observed in the shells due to the complicated surface structure. The ferroelectric phases in BaTiO3 nanoparticles remained at 600 °C, suggesting a significant increase of Tc. Based on the in-situ TEM results and the data reported by others, temperature-size phase diagrams for BaTiO3 particles and ceramics were proposed, showing that the phase transition became diffused and the Tc obviously increased with decreasing size. The present work sheds light on the design and fabrication of advanced devices for high temperature applications.

  3. On stoichiometry and intermixing at the spinel/perovskite interface in CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tileli, Vasiliki; Duchamp, Martial; Axelsson, Anna-Karin; Valant, Matjaz; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Alford, Neil Mcn.

    2014-11-01

    The performance of complex oxide heterostructures depends primarily on the interfacial coupling of the two component structures. This interface character inherently varies with the synthesis method and conditions used since even small composition variations can alter the electronic, ferroelectric, or magnetic functional properties of the system. The focus of this article is placed on the interface character of a pulsed laser deposited CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin film. Using a range of state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy methodologies, the roles of substrate morphology, interface stoichiometry, and cation intermixing are determined on the atomic level. The results reveal a surprisingly uneven BaTiO3 substrate surface formed after the film deposition and Fe atom incorporation in the top few monolayers inside the unit cell of the BaTiO3 crystal. Towards the CoFe2O4 side, a disordered region extending several nanometers from the interface was revealed and both Ba and Ti from the substrate were found to diffuse into the spinel layer. The analysis also shows that within this somehow incompatible composite interface, a different phase is formed corresponding to the compound Ba2Fe3Ti5O15, which belongs to the ilmenite crystal structure of FeTiO3 type. The results suggest a chemical activity between these two oxides, which could lead to the synthesis of complex engineered interfaces.The performance of complex oxide heterostructures depends primarily on the interfacial coupling of the two component structures. This interface character inherently varies with the synthesis method and conditions used since even small composition variations can alter the electronic, ferroelectric, or magnetic functional properties of the system. The focus of this article is placed on the interface character of a pulsed laser deposited CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 thin film. Using a range of state-of-the-art transmission electron microscopy methodologies, the roles of substrate morphology, interface

  4. Interfacial reactions and microstructure of BaTiO 3 films prepared using fluoride precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujihara, Shinobu; Schneller, Theodor; Waser, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Interfacial reactions of BaF 2 and TiO 2 were investigated in preparing BaTiO 3 thin films using a fluoride precursor method. Trifluoroacetate solutions were prepared from barium acetate, titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA, CF 3COOH) with additives such as water and acetylacetone. The solutions were deposited on platinized Si wafers by spin-coating, were pyrolysed at 400 °C in air and were finally heated typically at 700 °C in a water vapor atmosphere. The perovskite BaTiO 3 phase was obtained although a small portion of BaF 2 remained unreacted. Thus, the films were characterized as the mixture of BaTiO 3, BaF 2, and amorphous TiO 2. Influence of the solution chemistry on the phase evolution and microstructure was examined in order to discuss the reaction pathway of the perovskite phase.

  5. Reflectance Profile of BaTiO3 on Multilayer Antireflection Coating Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaomerlioglu, Filiz

    2011-05-01

    Antireflection (AR) coating systems are very important technology for optoelectronic devices. The optical characteristics of the system can be regulated by external electric or thermal field, and designed broadband ultra low reflection coating systems. It is investigated optical properties of multilayer AR coatings based on different ferroelectric materials to reduce reflectance in other studies. In this study, reflectance profile of BaTiO3 on multilayer AR coating systems has been developed in the visible region. It has been used ZnSe and ZrO2 as multilayer AR coatings, and BaTiO3 as the substrate. Fortran program has been simulated on Fresnell equations base.

  6. Screening of ferroelectric domains on BaTiO3(001) surface by ultraviolet photo-induced charge and dissociative water adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. L.; Vilquin, B.; Barrett, N.

    2012-08-01

    The surface potential contrast between oppositely polarized ferroelectric domains of a BaTiO3(001) single crystal under ultraviolet (UV) illumination before and after the dissociative adsorption of water is measured using the transition from mirror electron microscopy to low-energy electron microscopy. Both photo-generated free charge carriers and dissociative adsorption of water are effective screening mechanisms of the surface polarization charge. The screening rate is dominated by drift, whereas the relaxation in the absence of UV light is driven by thermal diffusion. Surface chemistry plays an important role in the surface charge dynamics.

  7. Frustration of Negative Capacitance in Al2O3/BaTiO3 Bilayer Structure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Jin; Park, Min Hyuk; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Han Joon; Jeon, Woojin; Moon, Taehwan; Do Kim, Keum; Jeong, Doo Seok; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of capacitance by negative capacitance (NC) effect in a dielectric/ferroelectric (DE/FE) stacked film is gaining a greater interest. While the previous theory on NC effect was based on the Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire theory, this work adopted a modified formalism to incorporate the depolarization effect to describe the energy of the general DE/FE system. The model predicted that the SrTiO3/BaTiO3 system will show a capacitance boost effect. It was also predicted that the 5 nm-thick Al2O3/150 nm-thick BaTiO3 system shows the capacitance boost effect with no FE-like hysteresis behavior, which was inconsistent with the experimental results; the amorphous-Al2O3/epitaxial-BaTiO3 system showed a typical FE-like hysteresis loop in the polarization – voltage test. This was due to the involvement of the trapped charges at the DE/FE interface, originating from the very high field across the thin Al2O3 layer when the BaTiO3 layer played a role as the NC layer. Therefore, the NC effect in the Al2O3/BaTiO3 system was frustrated by the involvement of reversible interface charge; the highly stored charge by the NC effect of the BaTiO3 during the charging period could not be retrieved during the discharging process because integral part of the polarization charge was retained within the system as a remanent polarization. PMID:26742878

  8. Mn-Doped BaTiO3 Thin Film Sintered Using Nanocrystals and Its Dielectric Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takezawa, Yoko; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Nakasone, Fumi; Suzuki, Toshimasa; Mizuno, Youichi; Imai, Hiroaki

    2009-11-01

    BaTiO3 thin films homogeneously doped with Mn were prepared by a novel powder-sintering thin-film process. Mn-doped BaTiO3 nanocrystals 5-7 nm in diameter were synthesized by a sol-gel method and sintered to form a highly densified microstructure containing columnar grains epitaxially grown on a (111)-oriented Pt/TiO2/Al2O3 substrate at a low temperature of 800 °C. On the basis of the results of various structural analyses, Mn was suggested to act as an acceptor in the perovskite structure of BaTiO3, which was also supported by the experimental finding indicating that the leakage current density was significantly improved compared with that of a nondoped BaTiO3 thin film. Moreover, the dielectric constant of the Mn-doped BaTiO3 thin film, 728 at 10 kHz with a loss tangent of 1.3%, was higher than that of the nondoped BaTiO3 thin film, probably owing to the electrostrictive effect induced by in-plane tensile stress. These results clearly indicate the feasibility of using doped BaTiO3 nanocrystals in the powder-sintering thin-film process for improving dielectric properties.

  9. Optical Study of Liquid Crystal Doped with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharde, Rita A.; Thakare, Sangeeta Y.

    2014-11-01

    Liquid crystalline materials have been useful for display devices i.e watches, calculators, automobile dashboards, televisions, multi media projectors etc. as well as in electro tunable lasers, optical fibers and lenses. Carbon nanotube is chosen as the main experimental factor in this study as it has been observed that Carbon Nano Tube influence the existing properties of liquid crystal host and with the doping of CNT can enhance1 the properties of LC. The combination of carbon nanotube (CNT) and liquid crystal (LC) materials show considerable interest in the scientific community due to unique physical properties of CNT in liquid crystal. Dispersion of CNTs in LCs can provide us a cheap, simple, versatile and effective means of controlling nanotube orientation on macroscopic scale with no restrictions on nanotube type. LCs have the long range orientational order rendering them to be anisotropic phases. If CNTs can be well dispersed in LC matrix, they will align with their long axes along the LC director to minimize distortions of the LC director field and the free energy. In this paper, we doped liquid crystal (Cholesteryl Nonanoate) by a small amount of multiwall carbon nanotube 0.05% and 0.1% wt. We found that by adding carbon nanotube to liquid crystals the melting point of the mixture is decreased but TNI is increased. It has been also observed that with incereas in concentration of carbon nanotube into liquid crystal shows conciderable effect on LC. The prepared samples were characterized using various techniques to study structural, thermal and optical properties i.e PMS, FPSS, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR measurements, and DTA.

  10. Large electrostrain and high optical temperature sensitivity in BaTiO3-(Na0.5Ho0.5)TiO3 multifunctional ferroelectric ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Chai, Xiaona; Wang, Xusheng; Xu, Chao-Nan; Gu, Yihao; Zhao, Haifeng; Yao, Xi

    2016-08-01

    Ferroelectric (1 -x)BaTiO3-x(Na0.5Ho0.5)TiO3 ceramics with ferroelectric and up-conversion luminescent multifunctions were designed and fabricated by a solid state reaction process. Their structure, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, up-conversion photoluminescence and relative optical temperature sensing properties were investigated systematically. Crystal structure analysis and Rietveld refinements based on the powder X-ray diffraction data show that the ceramics crystallized in the tetragonal perovskite space group P4mm at room temperature. Enhanced electrical properties and strong green up-conversion luminescence with thermally coupled green emission bands centered at 523 and 553 nm were observed. For a typical sample x equals 0.05, a large electrostrain of 0.279% was obtained under a 70 kV cm(-1) electric field that is comparable to that of the PZT4. Meanwhile, the excellent optical temperature sensitivity (0.0063 K(-1) at 480 K) is higher than that of Er-doped BaTiO3 nanocrystal materials. The results suggest that the BaTiO3-(Na0.5Ho0.5)TiO3 material should be an attractive material for piezoelectric actuator and temperature sensing device applications. PMID:27244098

  11. XMCD studies of thin Co films on BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welke, M.; Gräfe, J.; Govind, R. K.; Babu, V. H.; Trautmann, M.; Schindler, K.-M.; Denecke, R.

    2015-08-01

    Different layer thicknesses of cobalt ranging from 2.6 Å (1.5 ML) up to 55 Å (30.5 ML) deposited on ferroelectric BaTiO3 have been studied regarding their magnetic behavior. The layers have been characterized using XMCD spectroscopy at remanent magnetization. After careful data analysis the magnetic moments of the cobalt could be determined using the sum rule formalism. There is a sudden and abrupt onset in magnetism starting at thicknesses of 9 Å (5 ML) of cobalt for measurements at 120 K and of 10 Å (5.5 ML) if measured at room temperature. Initial island growth and subsequent coalescence of Co on BaTiO3 is suggested to explain the sudden onset. In that context, no magnetically dead layers are observed.

  12. Grain Growth Kinetics of BaTiO3 Nanocrystals During Calcining Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiao-lan; He, Xi; Yang, Hai-ping; Qu, Yi-xin; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2008-06-01

    BaTiO3 nanocrystals were synthesized by sol-gel method using barium acetate (Ba(CH3COO)2) and tetra-butyl titanate (Ti(OC4H9)4) as raw materials. Xerogel precursors and products were characterized by means of thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The influence of the calcination temperature and duration on the lattice constant, the lattice distortion, and the grain size of BaTiO3 nanocrystals was discussed based on the XRD results. The grain growth kinetics of BaTiO3 nanocrystals during the calcination process were simulated with a conventional grain growth model which only takes into account diffusion, and an isothermal model proposed by Qu and Song, which takes into account both diffusion and surface reactions. Using these models, the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy of the rate constant were estimated. The simulation results indicate that the isothermal model is superior to the conventional one in describing the grain growth process, implying that both diffusion and surface reactions play important roles in the grain growth process.

  13. Decisive role of oxygen vacancy in ferroelectric versus ferromagnetic Mn-doped BaTiO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, Yao; Zhou, Shengqiang; Bürger, Danilo; Reuther, Helfried; Skorupa, Ilona; John, Varun; Helm, Manfred; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2011-04-01

    Single-phase perovskite 5 at. % Mn-doped and undoped polycrystalline BaTiO3 thin films have been grown under different oxygen partial pressures by pulsed laser deposition on platinum-coated sapphire substrates. Ferroelectricity is only observed for the Mn-doped and undoped BaTiO3 thin films grown under relatively high oxygen partial pressure. Compared to undoped BaTiO3, Mn-doped BaTiO3 reveals a low leakage current, increased dielectric loss, and a decreased dielectric constant. Ferromagnetism is seen on Mn-doped BaTiO3 thin films prepared under low oxygen partial pressure and is attributed to the formation of bound magnetic polarons (BMPs). This BMP formation is enhanced by oxygen vacancies. The present work confirms a theoretical work from C. Ederer and N. Spaldin on ferroelectric perovskites [Nature Mat. 3, 849 (2004)] that shows that the existence of ferroelectricity is incompatible with the existence of a spontaneous magnetization in Mn-doped BaTiO3 thin films.

  14. Effect of addition of BaTiO3 nano particles on the electrical transport properties of YBCO superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejith, P. P.; Vidya, S.; Thomas, J. K.

    2015-02-01

    The flux pinning properties of YBCO bulk superconductors synthesized by conventional solid state route and are added with different weight% (x=0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5) of nano BaTiO3 which are prepared by a modified combustion route are studied systematically. The phase analysis of the samples was done by using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Temperature-resistivity measurements, magnetic field dependence of critical current density (Jc-B Characteristics) and flux pinning force calculations were done at 77 K. From the SEM images the microstructure of the sample showed a relative uniform distribution of the nano-particles within the specimen. We found that, even though the transition temperature (Tc) does not change considerably with the BaTiO3 addition, both the critical current density (Jc) and flux pinning force (Fp) increased systematically up to 2 wt% BaTiO3 in the composite, in the presence of magnetic field ranging between 0 and 0.6 T. The Jc value in 2 wt% BaTiO3 added sample showed at least 250% larger than that of the pure YBCO. Also the flux pinning force calculated for the 2 wt% BaTiO3 added is found to be enhanced more than 9 times that of pure YBCO. These observations suggest that the BaTiO3 addition to the Y-123- compounds improve the electrical connection between superconducting grains to result in the increase in Jc.

  15. Directing peptide crystallization through curvature control of nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Gobeaux, Frédéric; Tarabout, Christophe; Fay, Nicolas; Meriadec, Cristelle; Ligeti, Melinda; Buisson, David-Alexandre; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Artzner, Franck; Paternostre, Maïté

    2014-07-01

    In the absence of efficient crystallization methods, the molecular structures of fibrous assemblies have so far remained rather elusive. In this paper, we present a rational method to crystallize the lanreotide octapeptide by modification of a residue involved in a close contact. Indeed, we show that it is possible to modify the curvature of the lanreotide nanotubes and hence their diameter. This fine tuning leads to crystallization because the radius of curvature of the initially bidimensional peptide wall can be increased up to a point where the wall is essentially flat and a crystal is allowed to grow along a third dimension. By comparing X-ray diffraction data and Fourier transform Raman spectra, we show that the nanotubes and the crystals share similar cell parameters and molecular conformations, proving that there is indeed a structural continuum between these two morphologies. These results illustrate a novel approach to crystallization and represent the first step towards the acquisition of an Å-resolution structure of the lanreotide nanotubes β-sheet assembly.

  16. Crystal orbital study on the double walls made of nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Qiao, Weiye; Li, Yuliang; Huang, Yuanhe

    2015-01-15

    The structure stabilities and electronic properties are investigated by using ab initio self-consistent-field crystal orbital method based on density functional theory for the one-dimensional (1D) double-wall nanotubes made of n-gon SiO{sub 2} nanotubes encapsulated inside zigzag carbon nanotubes. It is found that formation of the combined systems is energetically favorable when the distance between the two constituents is around the Van der Waals scope. The obtained band structures show that all the combined systems are semiconductors with nonzero energy gaps. The frontier energy bands (the highest occupied band and the lowest unoccupied band) of double-wall nanotubes are mainly derived from the corresponding carbon nanotubes. The mobilities of charge carriers are calculated to be within the range of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 4} cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} for the hybrid double-wall nanotubes. Young’s moduli are also calculated for the combined systems. For the comparison, geometrical and electronic properties of n-gon SiO{sub 2} nanotubes are also calculated and discussed. - Graphical abstract: Structures and band structures of the optimum 1D Double walls nanotubes. The optimized structures are 3-gon SiO2@(15,0), 5-gon SiO2@(17,0), 6-gon SiO2@(18,0) and 7-gon SiO2@(19,0). - Highlights: • The structure and electronic properties of the 1D n-gon SiO{sub 2}@(m,0)s are studied using SCF-CO method. • The encapsulation of 1D n-gon SiO{sub 2} tubes inside zigzag carbon nanotubes can be energetically favorable. • The 1D n-gon SiO{sub 2}@(m,0)s are all semiconductors. • The mobility of charge carriers and Young’s moduli are calculated.

  17. Composite-hydroxide-mediated approach an effective synthesis route for BaTiO3 functional nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Taj Muhammad; Zakria, M.; Shakoor, Rana. I.; Hussain, Shabbir

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes synthesis of the functional BaTiO3 (BT) nanostructures by composite-hydroxide-mediated (CHM) approach. The effect of processing temperature on the nucleation and the optical, structural properties is investigated. The nanostructures prepared at various temperatures (180, 220 and 250 °C) are thermally stable and nucleate in different morphologies, which shows a temperature-dependent mechanism of the CHM approach. The nanostructures are cubic in nature with an average particle size in the range of 97-250 nm. The local crystal structure investigated by Raman spectroscopy reveals a certain degree of tetragonality on atomic scale in the local phase structure. The micrographs of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate formation of the nanocuboids at 180 and 220 °C with larger particle size. At 250 °C, the product shows ball-like spherical morphology. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirms the existence of Ba, Ti and O elements in the product, which indicates a chemically pure product. Further signature on the formation, purity and chemical bonding is obtained from FT-IR spectroscopy. Based on these experimental results, size, morphology manipulation and possible growth mechanisms are proposed with CHM at low temperature and without surfactant.

  18. Synthesis and characterisation of cyclopentadienyl complexes of barium: precursors for atomic layer deposition of BaTiO3.

    PubMed

    Hatanpää, Timo; Vehkamäki, Marko; Mutikainen, Ilpo; Kansikas, Jarno; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku

    2004-04-21

    Cyclopentadienyl complexes Ba(C5Me5)2(THF)2 (1), Ba(C5Me5)2(A) (A = THF, dien, trien, diglyme, triglyme) (2-5), Ba(Pr(i)3C5H2)2(THF)2 (6), Ba(Bu(t)3C5H2)2(THF) (7), Ba(Me2NC2H4C5Me4)2 (8) and Ba(EtOC2H4C5Me4)2 (9) were prepared and characterised with TGA/SDTA, NMR and MS. Crystal structures of 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9 are presented. All complexes prepared sublime under reduced pressure and complexes 1, 6 and 7 showed volatility also under atmospheric pressure. Complexes 1, 6 and 7 lose the coordinated THF when evaporated while complexes 2-5 are sublimable as complete molecules under reduced pressure. Complexes with bulky cyclopentadienyl ligands (6 and 7) are the most thermally stable and volatile among the prepared barocenes. X-ray structure determinations reveal that all the complexes studied are monomeric. Complexes 1, 7 and 8 were successfully tested in BaTiO3 thin film depositions by atomic layer deposition (ALD).

  19. Novel Piezoelectric Paper‐Based Flexible Nanogenerators Composed of BaTiO3 Nanoparticles and Bacterial Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangjie; Liao, Qingliang; Zhang, Zheng; Liang, Qijie; Zhao, Yingli; Zheng, Xin

    2015-01-01

    A piezoelectric paper based on BaTiO3 (BTO) nanoparticles and bacterial cellulose (BC) with excellent output properties for application of nanogenerators (NGs) is reported. A facile and scalable vacuum filtration method is used to fabricate the piezoelectric paper. The BTO/BC piezoelectric paper based NG shows outstanding output performance with open‐circuit voltage of 14 V and short‐circuit current density of 190 nA cm−2. The maximum power density generated by this unique BTO/BC structure is more than ten times higher than BTO/polydimethylsiloxane structure. In bending conditions, the NG device can generate output voltage of 1.5 V, which is capable of driving a liquid crystal display screen. The improved performance can be ascribed to homogeneous distribution of piezoelectric BTO nanoparticles in the BC matrix as well as the enhanced stress on piezoelectric nanoparticles implemented by the unique percolated networks of BC nanofibers. The flexible BTO/BC piezoelectric paper based NG is lightweight, eco‐friendly, and cost‐effective, which holds great promises for achieving wearable or implantable energy harvesters and self‐powered electronics. PMID:27774389

  20. Conformal BaTiO3 Films with High Piezoelectric Coupling through an Optimized Hydrothermal Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi; Bowland, Christopher C; Patterson, Brendan A; Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A

    2016-08-24

    Two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric films have vast applications due to their dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties that meet the requirements of sensors, nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memory (NVFeRAM) devices, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). However, the small surface area of these 2D ferroelectric films has limited their ability to achieve higher memory storage density in NVFeRAM devices and more sensitive sensors and transducer. Thus, conformally deposited ferroelectric films have been actively studied for these applications in order to create three-dimensional (3D) structures, which lead to a larger surface area. Most of the current methods developed for the conformal deposition of ferroelectric films, such as metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and plasma-enhanced vapor deposition (PECVD), are limited by high temperatures and unstable and toxic organic precursors. In this paper, an innovative fabrication method for barium titanate (BaTiO3) textured films with 3D architectures is introduced to alleviate these issues. This fabrication method is based on converting conformally grown rutile TiO2 nanowire arrays into BaTiO3 textured films using a simple two-step hydrothermal process which allows for thickness-controlled growth of conformal films on patterned silicon wafers coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). Moreover, the processing parameters have been optimized to achieve a high piezoelectric coupling coefficient of 100 pm/V. This high piezoelectric response along with high relative dielectric constant (εr = 1600) of the conformally grown textured BaTiO3 films demonstrates their potential application in sensors, NVFeRAM, and MEMS.

  1. Conformal BaTiO3 Films with High Piezoelectric Coupling through an Optimized Hydrothermal Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi; Bowland, Christopher C; Patterson, Brendan A; Malakooti, Mohammad H; Sodano, Henry A

    2016-08-24

    Two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric films have vast applications due to their dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties that meet the requirements of sensors, nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memory (NVFeRAM) devices, and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). However, the small surface area of these 2D ferroelectric films has limited their ability to achieve higher memory storage density in NVFeRAM devices and more sensitive sensors and transducer. Thus, conformally deposited ferroelectric films have been actively studied for these applications in order to create three-dimensional (3D) structures, which lead to a larger surface area. Most of the current methods developed for the conformal deposition of ferroelectric films, such as metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and plasma-enhanced vapor deposition (PECVD), are limited by high temperatures and unstable and toxic organic precursors. In this paper, an innovative fabrication method for barium titanate (BaTiO3) textured films with 3D architectures is introduced to alleviate these issues. This fabrication method is based on converting conformally grown rutile TiO2 nanowire arrays into BaTiO3 textured films using a simple two-step hydrothermal process which allows for thickness-controlled growth of conformal films on patterned silicon wafers coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO). Moreover, the processing parameters have been optimized to achieve a high piezoelectric coupling coefficient of 100 pm/V. This high piezoelectric response along with high relative dielectric constant (εr = 1600) of the conformally grown textured BaTiO3 films demonstrates their potential application in sensors, NVFeRAM, and MEMS. PMID:27487556

  2. Crystalline structures, thermal properties and crystallizing mechanism of polyamide 6 nanotubes in confined space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoru; Peng, Zhi; Yang, Chao; Han, Ping; Song, Guojun; Cong, Longliang

    2016-09-01

    The polyamide 6 (PA6) nanotubes were prepared by infiltrating the anodic aluminum oxide templates with polymer solution. Crystalline regions in the nanotube walls were detected by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were employed to investigate crystallization, crystal faces and thermodynamics. It was found that the crystals were transformed from α-form in bulk to γ-form in nanotubes. It was made a detailed analysis in this article. Moreover, schematic diagram for the crystallizing mechanism of PA6 nanotubes was given to explain PA6 molecules how to crystallize in the nano-pores.

  3. Inverse barocaloric effects in ferroelectric BaTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern-Taulats, E.; Lloveras, P.; Barrio, M.; Defay, E.; Egilmez, M.; Planes, A.; Tamarit, J.-LI.; Mañosa, Ll.; Mathur, N. D.; Moya, X.

    2016-09-01

    We use calorimetry to identify pressure-driven isothermal entropy changes in ceramic samples of the prototypical ferroelectric BaTiO3. Near the structural phase transitions at ˜400 K (cubic-tetragonal) and ˜280 K (tetragonal-orthorhombic), the inverse barocaloric response differs in sign and magnitude from the corresponding conventional electrocaloric response. The differences in sign arise due to the decrease in unit-cell volume on heating through the transitions, whereas the differences in magnitude arise due to the large volumetric thermal expansion on either side of the transitions.

  4. Quantitative study of band structure in BaTiO3 particles with vacant ionic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshime, Norihiro; Kano, Jun; Ikeda, Naoshi; Teranishi, Takashi; Fujii, Tatsuo; Ueda, Takeji; Ohkubo, Tomoko

    2016-10-01

    Levels of the conduction band minimum and the valence band maximum in ion-deficient BaTiO3 particles were investigated with optical band gap and ionization energy measurements. Though it is known that the quantification of the band structure in an insulator is difficult, due to the poor electrical conductivity of BaTiO3, systematic variation in the band energy levels was found that correlated with the introduction of vacancies. Photoelectron yield spectroscopy provided direct observation of the occupancy level of electrons, which is altered by the presence of oxygen and barium vacancies. In addition, the conduction band deviation from the vacuum level was determined by optical reflectance spectroscopy. Our results show that: (1) Introduction of oxygen vacancies forms a donor level below the conduction band. (2) The conduction band is shifted to a lower level by a larger number of oxygen vacancies, while the valence band also shifts to a lower level, due to the reduction in the density of O 2p orbitals. (3) Introduction of barium vacancies widens the band gap. Since barium vacancies can induce a small number of oxygen vacancies with accompanying charge compensation, this behavior suppresses any large formation of donor levels in the gap states, indicating that cation vacancies can control the number of both donor and acceptor levels.

  5. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Castles, F; Isakov, D; Lui, A; Lei, Q; Dancer, C E J; Wang, Y; Janurudin, J M; Speller, S C; Grovenor, C R M; Grant, P S

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity-which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications-may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6-8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005-0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites. PMID:26940381

  6. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Castles, F; Isakov, D; Lui, A; Lei, Q; Dancer, C E J; Wang, Y; Janurudin, J M; Speller, S C; Grovenor, C R M; Grant, P S

    2016-03-04

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity-which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications-may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6-8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005-0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites.

  7. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castles, F.; Isakov, D.; Lui, A.; Lei, Q.; Dancer, C. E. J.; Wang, Y.; Janurudin, J. M.; Speller, S. C.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Grant, P. S.

    2016-03-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity—which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications—may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6–8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005–0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites.

  8. Microwave dielectric characterisation of 3D-printed BaTiO3/ABS polymer composites

    PubMed Central

    Castles, F.; Isakov, D.; Lui, A.; Lei, Q.; Dancer, C. E. J.; Wang, Y.; Janurudin, J. M.; Speller, S. C.; Grovenor, C. R. M.; Grant, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is used extensively in product prototyping and continues to emerge as a viable option for the direct manufacture of final parts. It is known that dielectric materials with relatively high real permittivity—which are required in important technology sectors such as electronics and communications—may be 3D printed using a variety of techniques. Among these, the fused deposition of polymer composites is particularly straightforward but the range of dielectric permittivities available through commercial feedstock materials is limited. Here we report on the fabrication of a series of composites composed of various loadings of BaTiO3 microparticles in the polymer acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), which may be used with a commercial desktop 3D printer to produce printed parts containing user-defined regions with high permittivity. The microwave dielectric properties of printed parts with BaTiO3 loadings up to 70 wt% were characterised using a 15 GHz split post dielectric resonator and had real relative permittivities in the range 2.6–8.7 and loss tangents in the range 0.005–0.027. Permittivities were reproducible over the entire process, and matched those of bulk unprinted materials, to within ~1%, suggesting that the technique may be employed as a viable manufacturing process for dielectric composites. PMID:26940381

  9. Emergence of Long-Range Order in BaTiO3 from Local Symmetry-Breaking Distortions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, M. S.; Keen, D. A.; Lucas, T. C. A.; Hriljac, J. A.; Goodwin, A. L.

    2016-05-01

    By using a symmetry motivated basis to evaluate local distortions against pair distribution function data, we show without prior bias, that the off-center Ti displacements in the archetypal ferroelectric BaTiO3 are zone centered and rhombohedral-like across its known ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. We construct a simple Monte Carlo model that captures our main experimental findings and demonstrate how the rich crystallographic phase diagram of BaTiO3 emerges from correlations of local symmetry-breaking distortions alone. Our results strongly support the order-disorder picture for these phase transitions, but can also be reconciled with the soft-mode theory of BaTiO3 that is supported by some spectroscopic techniques.

  10. Emergence of Long-Range Order in BaTiO_{3} from Local Symmetry-Breaking Distortions.

    PubMed

    Senn, M S; Keen, D A; Lucas, T C A; Hriljac, J A; Goodwin, A L

    2016-05-20

    By using a symmetry motivated basis to evaluate local distortions against pair distribution function data, we show without prior bias, that the off-center Ti displacements in the archetypal ferroelectric BaTiO_{3} are zone centered and rhombohedral-like across its known ferroelectric and paraelectric phases. We construct a simple Monte Carlo model that captures our main experimental findings and demonstrate how the rich crystallographic phase diagram of BaTiO_{3} emerges from correlations of local symmetry-breaking distortions alone. Our results strongly support the order-disorder picture for these phase transitions, but can also be reconciled with the soft-mode theory of BaTiO_{3} that is supported by some spectroscopic techniques. PMID:27258883

  11. Influence of nanogold additives on phase formation, microstructure and dielectric properties of perovskite BaTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonkumwong, Jeeranan; Ananta, Supon; Srisombat, Laongnuan

    2015-06-01

    The formation of perovskite phase, microstructure and dielectric properties of nanogold-modified barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramics was examined as a function of gold nanoparticle contents by employing a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, Archimedes principle and dielectric measurement techniques. These ceramics were fabricated from a simple mixed-oxide method. The amount of gold nanoparticles was found to be one of the key factors controlling densification, grain growth and dielectric response in BaTiO3 ceramics. It was found that under suitable amount of nanogold addition (4 mol%), highly dense perovskite BaTiO3 ceramics with homogeneous microstructures of refined grains (~0.5-3.1 μm) and excellence dielectric properties can be produced.

  12. Atomic structure and polarity compensation of BaTiO3 (1 1 1) surface.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueliang; Yu, Rong; Shi, Tao; Liao, Zhenyu; Song, Dongsheng; Zhou, Huihua; Cheng, Zhiying; Zhu, Jing

    2015-03-11

    Surfaces of perovskite-type oxides have been attracting increasing interest for their primary importance in various potential applications such as multiferroic thin films, interface electronics and catalysis. However, the (1 1 1) surface of BaTiO3, the most typical ferroelectric, is far from well understood. In this work, the atomic structure and polarity compensation of BaTiO3 (1 1 1) surface have been investigated combining aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy and first-principle calculations. Depending on the density of oxygen vacancies, the surface shows different degrees of atomic relaxation and electronic charge transfer, which compensates the surface polarity together with the ionic charges associated with the oxygen vacancies. The atomic relaxation and charge transfer would have a direct impact on the ferroelectric and catalytic properties of low-dimensional BaTiO3.

  13. First-principles study for vacancy-induced magnetism in nonmagnetic ferroelectric BaTiO3.

    PubMed

    Cao, D; Cai, M Q; Zheng, Yue; Hu, W Y

    2009-12-14

    The possibilities of vacancy-induced magnetism in perovskite BaTiO(3) are investigated by first-principles calculations. Calculated results show that both titanium and oxygen vacancies could induce magnetism, but the barium vacancy did not induce magnetism. New and interesting magnetic properties of half-metallic magnetism are found in BaTiO(3) induced by the Ti-vacancy. Based on the density of states and the spin charge density distribution of BaTiO(3), we discuss the different origins of magnetism induced by the partial spin-polarized O 2p states around Ti vacancies and the partially filled d-states Ti around the oxygen vacancies. The discrepancy between the magnetic moments in the cubic phase and the tetragonal phase is due to anisotropic spin polarization induced by structure distortions. Our calculations would enable exploring magneto-electric coupling in nonmagnetic ferroelectric oxides.

  14. Atomic structure and polarity compensation of BaTiO3 (1 1 1) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yueliang; Yu, Rong; Shi, Tao; Liao, Zhenyu; Song, Dongsheng; Zhou, Huihua; Cheng, Zhiying; Zhu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Surfaces of perovskite-type oxides have been attracting increasing interest for their primary importance in various potential applications such as multiferroic thin films, interface electronics and catalysis. However, the (1 1 1) surface of BaTiO3, the most typical ferroelectric, is far from well understood. In this work, the atomic structure and polarity compensation of BaTiO3 (1 1 1) surface have been investigated combining aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy and first-principle calculations. Depending on the density of oxygen vacancies, the surface shows different degrees of atomic relaxation and electronic charge transfer, which compensates the surface polarity together with the ionic charges associated with the oxygen vacancies. The atomic relaxation and charge transfer would have a direct impact on the ferroelectric and catalytic properties of low-dimensional BaTiO3.

  15. Polymer crystallization-driven, periodic patterning on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingyu; Li, Christopher Y; Ni, Chaoying

    2006-02-01

    We report herein a unique means to periodically pattern polymeric materials on individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a controlled polymer crystallization method. One-dimensional (1D) CNTs were periodically decorated with polymer lamellar crystals, resulting in nano-hybrid shish-kebab (NHSK) structures. The periodicity of the polymer lamellae varies from 20 to 150 nm. The kebabs are approximately 5-10 nm thick (along CNT direction) with a lateral size of approximately 20 nm to micrometers, which can be readily controlled by varying crystallization conditions. Both polyethylene and Nylon 66 were successfully decorated on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), as well as vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The formation mechanism was attributed to "size-dependent soft epitaxy". Because NHSK formation conditions depend on CNT structures, it further provides a unique opportunity for CNT separation. The reported method opens a gateway to periodically patterning polymers and different functional groups on individual CNTs in an ordered and controlled manner, an attractive research field that is yet to be explored.

  16. In situ templated synthesis of anatase single-crystal nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianling; Wang, Xiaohui; Sun, Tieyu; Li, Longtu

    2005-10-01

    Anatase single-crystal nanotubes were obtained using an in situ templated method. First, highly ordered titania arrays were formed through an anodization process in H(3)PO(4) electrolytes containing 0.5 wt% HF. Under optimized conditions titania nanotubes with a diameter of up to 100 nm and a length of up to 1.1 microm were prepared. Second, the crystallization and stability of the titania nanotubes were studied in air at elevated temperatures. Anatase single-crystal nanotubes were fabricated after annealing the sample in air at 450 degrees C. The anatase single-crystal structure was verified by selected area diffraction pattern and HRTEM images.

  17. Synthesis of highly strained mesostructured SrTiO(3)/BaTiO(3) composite films with robust ferroelectricity.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Norihiro; Zakaria, Mohamed B; Torad, Nagy L; Wu, Kevin C-W; Nemoto, Yoshihiro; Imura, Masataka; Osada, Minoru; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2013-04-01

    A new class of highly stable ferroelectric material, that is, a mesostructured SrTiO(3)/BaTiO(3) composite film, obtained by a surfactant-templated sol-gel method is reported. Due to the concave surface geometry and abundant hetero-interface between SrTiO(3) (ST) and BaTiO(3) (BT) phases, a large number of strains can be created in the composite film, thereby leading to dramatic enhancement of ferroelectric property (see scheme).

  18. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies.

  19. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100–270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies. PMID:26568414

  20. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies. PMID:26568414

  1. Nanostructures of Indium Gallium Nitride Crystals Grown on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Man Song, Keun; Min, Yo-Sep; Choi, Chel-Jong; Seok Kim, Yoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2015-11-01

    Nanostructure (NS) InGaN crystals were grown on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The NS-InGaN crystals, grown on a ~5-μm-long CNT/Si template, were estimated to be ~100-270 nm in size. Transmission electron microscope examinations revealed that single-crystalline InGaN NSs were formed with different crystal facets. The observed green (~500 nm) cathodoluminescence (CL) emission was consistent with the surface image of the NS-InGaN crystallites, indicating excellent optical properties of the InGaN NSs on CNTs. Moreover, the CL spectrum of InGaN NSs showed a broad emission band from 490 to 600 nm. Based on these results, we believe that InGaN NSs grown on CNTs could aid in overcoming the green gap in LED technologies.

  2. Stress-induced phase transition in ferroelectric domain walls of BaTiO3.

    PubMed

    Stepkova, V; Marton, P; Hlinka, J

    2012-05-30

    The seminal paper by Zhirnov (1958 Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 35 1175-80) explained why the structure of domain walls in ferroelectrics and ferromagnets is drastically different. Here we show that the antiparallel ferroelectric walls in rhombohedral ferroelectric BaTiO(3) can be switched between the Ising-like state (typical for ferroelectrics) and a Bloch-like state (unusual for ferroelectric walls but typical for magnetic ones). Phase-field simulations using a Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire model suggest that this symmetry-breaking transition can be induced by a compressive epitaxial stress. The strain-tunable chiral properties of these domain walls promise a range of novel phenomena in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films.

  3. Magnetic and ferroelectric properties of Zn and Mn co-doped BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshari Das, Sangram; Kumar Roul, Binod

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports an approach to obtaining multiferroic properties in co-doped (Zn:Mn) BaTiO3 near room temperature. Interestingly, an unusual magnetic hysteresis loop is observed in the co-doped compositions in which the central portion of the loop is squeezed. However, in the composition Ba0.9Zn0.1Ti0.9Mn0.1O3, a broad magnetic hysteresis loop is observed. Such a magnetic effect is attributed to the coexistence of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic exchange interactions in the system. The observation of the above type of magnetic properties is likely to be due to the presence of exchange interactions between Mn ions. A lossy-type of ferroelectric hysteresis loop is also observed in co-doped ceramic compositions near room temperature. Author S. K. Das supported financially by CSIR, New Delhi (Grant No. 09/750 (0005)/2009-EMR-I).

  4. Tuning the caloric response of BaTiO3 by tensile epitaxial strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünebohm, Anna; Marathe, Madhura; Ederer, Claude

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the effect of epitaxial strain on the electrocaloric effect (ECE) in BaTiO3 by means of ab-initio-based molecular-dynamics simulations. We show that tensile strain can be used to optimize the operation range for ferroic cooling. Strain in the range of ≤ 1% can be used to shift the operation temperature by several hundreds of kelvin both to higher and lower temperatures, depending on the direction of the external field. In addition, the transformation between multi-domain and mono-domain states, induced by an in-plane electric field, results in an additional peak of the adiabatic temperature change at lower temperatures, and a broad temperature interval where the caloric response scales linearly with the applied field strength, even up to very high fields.

  5. Imprint Control of BaTiO3 Thin Films via Chemically Induced Surface Polarization Pinning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungwoo; Kim, Tae Heon; Patzner, Jacob J; Lu, Haidong; Lee, Jung-Woo; Zhou, Hua; Chang, Wansoo; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y; Gruverman, Alexei; Eom, Chang-Beom

    2016-04-13

    Surface-adsorbed polar molecules can significantly alter the ferroelectric properties of oxide thin films. Thus, fundamental understanding and controlling the effect of surface adsorbates are crucial for the implementation of ferroelectric thin film devices, such as ferroelectric tunnel junctions. Herein, we report an imprint control of BaTiO3 (BTO) thin films by chemically induced surface polarization pinning in the top few atomic layers of the water-exposed BTO films. Our studies based on synchrotron X-ray scattering and coherent Bragg rod analysis demonstrate that the chemically induced surface polarization is not switchable but reduces the polarization imprint and improves the bistability of ferroelectric phase in BTO tunnel junctions. We conclude that the chemical treatment of ferroelectric thin films with polar molecules may serve as a simple yet powerful strategy to enhance functional properties of ferroelectric tunnel junctions for their practical applications. PMID:26901570

  6. Negative Capacitance in BaTiO3/BiFeO3 Bilayer Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ya-Fei; Li, Wei-Li; Zhang, Tian-Dong; Yu, Yang; Han, Ren-Lu; Fei, Wei-Dong

    2016-08-31

    Negative capacitances provide an approach to reduce heat generations in field-effect transistors during the switch processes, which contributes to further miniaturization of the conventional integrated circuits. Although there are many studies about negative capacitances using ferroelectric materials, the direct observation of stable ferroelectric negative capacitances has rarely been reported. Here, we put forward a dc bias assistant model in bilayer capacitors, where one ferroelectric layer with large dielectric constant and the other ferroelectric layer with small dielectric constant are needed. Negative capacitances can be obtained when external dc bias electric fields are larger than a critical value. Based on the model, BaTiO3/BiFeO3 bilayer capacitors are chosen as study objects, and negative capacitances are observed directly. Additionally, the upward self-polarization effect in the ferroelectric layer reduces the critical electric field, which may provide a method for realizing zero and/or small dc bias assistant negative capacitances.

  7. Influence of defects on ferroelectric and electrocaloric properties of BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünebohm, Anna; Nishimatsu, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    We report modifications of the ferroelectric and electrocaloric properties of BaTiO3 by defects. For this purpose, we have combined ab initio based molecular dynamics simulations with a simple model for defects. We find that different kinds of defects modify the ferroelectric transition temperatures and polarization, reduce the thermal hysteresis of the transition, and are no obstacle for a large caloric response. For a locally reduced polarization, the ferroelectric transition temperature and the adiabatic response are slightly reduced. For polar defects, an intriguing picture emerges. The transition temperature is increased by polar defects and the temperature range of the large caloric response is broadened. Even more remarkable, we find an inverse caloric effect in a broad temperature range.

  8. Negative Capacitance in BaTiO3/BiFeO3 Bilayer Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ya-Fei; Li, Wei-Li; Zhang, Tian-Dong; Yu, Yang; Han, Ren-Lu; Fei, Wei-Dong

    2016-08-31

    Negative capacitances provide an approach to reduce heat generations in field-effect transistors during the switch processes, which contributes to further miniaturization of the conventional integrated circuits. Although there are many studies about negative capacitances using ferroelectric materials, the direct observation of stable ferroelectric negative capacitances has rarely been reported. Here, we put forward a dc bias assistant model in bilayer capacitors, where one ferroelectric layer with large dielectric constant and the other ferroelectric layer with small dielectric constant are needed. Negative capacitances can be obtained when external dc bias electric fields are larger than a critical value. Based on the model, BaTiO3/BiFeO3 bilayer capacitors are chosen as study objects, and negative capacitances are observed directly. Additionally, the upward self-polarization effect in the ferroelectric layer reduces the critical electric field, which may provide a method for realizing zero and/or small dc bias assistant negative capacitances. PMID:27502999

  9. Strain mediated magnetoelectric coupling in a NiFe2O4-BaTiO3 multiferroic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorige, Venkataiah; Kati, Raju; Yoon, D. H.; Kumar, P. S. Anil

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we demonstrate significant magnetoelectric coupling in ferrimagnetic, NiFe2O4, and ferroelectric, BaTiO3, multiferroic composite bulk materials by measuring temperature dependent magnetization. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy data show that the two phases coexist with a highly crystalline and sharp interface without any detectable impurities, which enables significant magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. The temperature dependent magnetization data of the composite clearly show the jumps in magnetization curves at the structural phase transitions of BaTiO3, thereby indicating their origin in ME coupling. The change in coercivity of composite sample in different ferroelectric phases of BaTiO3 has been observed compared to the NiFe2O4 sample. The different lattice strains corresponding to different ferroelectric phases of BaTiO3 could be the driving force for modulating the magnetization and coercivity of the composite material. This is clear evidence of strain mediated ME coupling in ferrimagnetic and ferroelectric composite materials.

  10. Enhancement of ferroelectric Curie temperature in BaTiO3 films via strain-induced defect dipole alignment.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Anoop R; Breckenfeld, Eric; Chen, Zuhuang; Lee, Sungki; Martin, Lane W

    2014-09-01

    The combination of epitaxial strain and defect engineering facilitates the tuning of the transition temperature of BaTiO3 to >800 °C. Advances in thin-film deposition enable the utilization of both the electric and elastic dipoles of defects to extend the epitaxial strain to new levels, inducing unprecedented functionality and temperature stability in ferroelectrics. PMID:25099557

  11. BaTiO3 integration with nanostructured epitaxial (100), (110), and (111) germanium for multifunctional devices.

    PubMed

    Hudait, Mantu K; Zhu, Yan; Jain, Nikhil; Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Varghese, Ron; Priya, Shashank

    2013-11-13

    Ferroelectric-germanium heterostructures have a strong potential for multifunctional devices. Germanium (Ge) is attractive due to its higher electron and hole mobilities while ferroelectric BaTiO3 is promising due to its high relative permittivity, which can make next-generation low-voltage and low-leakage metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors. Here, we investigate the growth, structural, chemical, and band alignment properties of pulsed laser deposited BaTiO3 on epitaxial (100)Ge, (110)Ge, and (111)Ge layers. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy micrographs show the amorphous nature of the BaTiO3 layer and also show a sharp heterointerface between BaTiO3 and Ge. The appearance of strong Pendellösung oscillation fringes from high-resolution X-ray diffraction implies the presence of parallel and sharp heterointerfaces. The valence band offset relation of ΔEV(100) ≥ ΔEV(111) > ΔEV(110) and the conduction band offset relation of ΔE(C)(110) > ΔE(C)(111) ≥ ΔE(C)(100) on crystallographically oriented Ge offer significant advancement for designing new-generation ferroelectric-germanium-based multifunctional devices.

  12. Considerations for BaTiO3 Ceramics with High Piezoelectric Properties Fabricated by Microwave Sintering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hirofumi; Numamoto, Yoshiki; Tani, Junji; Tsurekawa, Sadahiro

    2008-11-01

    A decrease in the domain size of barium titanate (BaTiO3) improves the piezoelectric constant (d33). Other considerations suggest the high d33 of BaTiO3 may be caused by the enhanced high dielectric constant (ɛ33T/ɛ0) at room temperature due to the size effect. However, we have clarified that even a sample with a low ɛ33T/ɛ0 shows high d33 according to the optimization of microwave sintering conditions. We have verified that the d33 of BaTiO3 ceramics fabricated by microwave sintering is as high as 370 pC/N despite the ɛ33T/ɛ0 of 2100. Mechanisms affecting d33 in microwave sintering and in conventional sintering of BaTiO3 are thought to be different. The relationship between the grain size, the mechanical quality factor Qm, and the frequency constant Np, which was obtained from microwave sintering, has assumed that a decrease in grain size causes a decrease in internal stress. We suggest that a decrease in internal stress induces continuity of strain in a grain boundary, resulting in continuity of domains across a grain boundary.

  13. Enhancement of ferroelectric Curie temperature in BaTiO3 films via strain-induced defect dipole alignment.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Anoop R; Breckenfeld, Eric; Chen, Zuhuang; Lee, Sungki; Martin, Lane W

    2014-09-01

    The combination of epitaxial strain and defect engineering facilitates the tuning of the transition temperature of BaTiO3 to >800 °C. Advances in thin-film deposition enable the utilization of both the electric and elastic dipoles of defects to extend the epitaxial strain to new levels, inducing unprecedented functionality and temperature stability in ferroelectrics.

  14. Impedance spectroscopy of V2O5-Bi2O3-BaTiO3 glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-syadi, Aref M.; Yousef, El Sayed; El-Desoky, M. M.; Al-Assiri, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The glasses within composition as: (80 - x)V2O5/20Bi2O3/xBaTiO3 with x = 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mol% have been prepared. The glass transition (Tg) increases with increasing BaTiO3 content. Synthesized glasses ceramic containing BaTi4O9, Ba3TiV4O15 nanoparticles of the order of 25-35 nm and 30-46 nm, respectively were estimated using XRD. The dielectric properties over wide ranges of frequencies and temperatures were investigated as a function of BaTiO3 content by impedance spectroscopy measurements. The hopping frequency, ωh, dielectric constant, ɛ', activation energies for the DC conduction, Eσ, the relaxation process, Ec, and stretched exponential parameter β of the glasses samples have been estimated. The, ωh,β, decrease from 51.63 to 0.31 × 106 (s-1), 0.84 to 0.79 with increasing BaTiO3 respectively. Otherwise, the Eσ, increase from 0.279 to 0.306 eV with increasing BaTiO3. The value of dielectric constant equal 9.5·103 for the 2.5BaTiO3/77.5V2O5/20Bi2O3 glasses-ceramic at 330 K for 1 KHz which is ten times larger than that of same glasses composition. Finally the relaxation properties of the investigated glasses are presented in the electric modulus formalism, where the relaxation time and the respective activation energy were determined.

  15. Processing and Characterization of Carbonate-Free BaTiO3 Nanoscale Particles Obtained by a Rapid Ultrasound-Assisted Wet Chemical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashiri, Rouholah; Moghtada, Abdolmajid; Shahrouzianfar, Ali

    2015-08-01

    This work highlights an innovative one-step synthesis pathway for obtaining tailor-made carbonate-free BaTiO3 nanocrystals at low temperature. The work also tries to characterize the processing of the nanocrystals. Well-defined and stoichiometric BaTiO3 nanocrystals were prepared sonochemically at 323 K (50 °C) in only 45 minutes, which were rather easy to manipulate. The particle size distribution was rather narrow. The results indicated that the size of BaTiO3 nanocrystals can be tailored by changing the reactants concentration. The kinetic of BaTiO3 formation was more rapid for the precursor solutions with higher BaCl2 concentration. The particle size was also very sensitive to the Ba/Ti ratio of the precursor solution and ultrasonication conditions. The as-dried precipitates were generally composed of loose agglomerates resulting from the assembly of several BaTiO3 nanocrystals during drying stage of the preparation. This agglomeration can be potentially used for self-assembling of the obtained BaTiO3 nanocrystals in miniaturization of multilayer ceramic capacitors and for the development of other nano-devices organized by BaTiO3 nanocrystals.

  16. Isotactic polypropylene carbon nanotube composites -- crystallization and ordering behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Georgi; Judith, Robert; Gombos, Erin; McIntyre, Michael; Schoen, Scott; Cebe, Peggy; Mattera, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The field of Polymer Nanocomposites (PNCs) is growing steadily in recent years. We use carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to affect the crystallization behavior of the polymers. Isotactic Polypropylene (iPP) is very widely used and is a good model system to understand the physics of other similar polymers. iPP/CNT PNCs form α, β, and γ crystallographic phases under a variety of crystallization conditions: non-isothermal and isothermal melt crystallization, shear, stress, fiber extrusion, etc. The crystal growth is altered from spherulitic to α-fibrillar upon the nucleation effect of CNTs. We are studying the effect of different temperature treatment schemes and different isothermal crystallization conditions. We found also that the smectic ordering in iPP is improved by the introduction of CNTs. We use Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Wide Angle X-ray scattering, Microscopic Transmission Ellipsometry and Avrami analysis. Research supported by: Assumption College Faculty Development Grant, funding for students' stipends, instrumentation and supplies, the NSF Polymers Program of the DMR, grant (DMR-0602473) and NASA grant (NAG8-1167).

  17. Liquid crystal nanocomposites produced by mixtures of hydrogen bonded achiral liquid crystals and functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katranchev, B.; Petrov, M.; Keskinova, E.; Naradikian, H.; Rafailov, P. M.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Spassov, T.

    2014-12-01

    The liquid crystalline (LC) nature of alkyloxybenzoic acids is preserved after adding of any mesogenic or non-mesogenic compound through hydrogen bonding. However, this noncovalent interaction provokes a sizable effect on the physical properties as, e. g. melting point and mesomorphic states. In the present work we investigate nanocomposites, prepared by mixture of the eighth homologue of p-n-alkyloxybenzoic acids (8OBA) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) with the purpose to modify the optical properties of the liquid crystal. We exercise optical control on the LC system by inserting SWCNT specially functionalized by carboxylic groups. Since the liquid crystalline state combines order and mobility at the molecular (nanoscale) level, molecular modification can lead to different macroscopical nanocomposite symmetry. The thermal properties of the functionalized nanocomposite are confirmed by DSC analyses. The mechanism of the interaction between surface-treated nanoparticles (functionalized nanotubes) and the liquid crystal 8OBA bent- dimer molecules is briefly discussed.

  18. Controlled confinement of half-metallic two-dimensional electron gas in BaTiO3/Ba2FeReO6 /BaTiO3 heterostructures: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidya, Santu; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Paramekanti, Arun; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri

    2015-10-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we establish that the half-metallicity of bulk Ba2FeReO6 survives down to 1 nm thickness in BaTiO3/Ba2FeReO6 /BaTiO3 heterostructures grown along the (001) and (111) directions. The confinement of the two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in this quantum well structure arises from the suppressed hybridization between Re/Fe d states and unoccupied Ti d states, and it is further strengthened by polar fields for the (111) direction. This mechanism, distinct from the polar catastrophe, leads to an order of magnitude stronger confinement of the 2D electron gas than that at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. We further show low-energy bands of (111) heterostructure display nontrivial topological character. Our work opens up the possibility of realizing ultrathin spintronic devices.

  19. Some Aspects of the Failure Mechanisms in BaTiO3-Based Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, David Donhang; Sampson, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to gain insight into possible failure mechanisms in BaTiO3-based ceramic capacitors that may be associated with the reliability degradation that accompanies a reduction in dielectric thickness, as reported by Intel Corporation in 2010. The volumetric efficiency (microF/cm3) of a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) has been shown to not increase limitlessly due to the grain size effect on the dielectric constant of ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 material. The reliability of an MLCC has been discussed with respect to its structure. The MLCCs with higher numbers of dielectric layers will pose more challenges for the reliability of dielectric material, which is the case for most base-metal-electrode (BME) capacitors. A number of MLCCs manufactured using both precious-metal-electrode (PME) and BME technology, with 25 V rating and various chip sizes and capacitances, were tested at accelerated stress levels. Most of these MLCCs had a failure behavior with two mixed failure modes: the well-known rapid dielectric wearout, and so-called 'early failures." The two failure modes can be distinguished when the testing data were presented and normalized at use-level using a 2-parameter Weibull plot. The early failures had a slope parameter of Beta >1, indicating that the early failures are not infant mortalities. Early failures are triggered due to external electrical overstress and become dominant as dielectric layer thickness decreases, accompanied by a dramatic reduction in reliability. This indicates that early failures are the main cause of the reliability degradation in MLCCs as dielectric layer thickness decreases. All of the early failures are characterized by an avalanche-like breakdown leakage current. The failures have been attributed to the extrinsic minor construction defects introduced during fabrication of the capacitors. A reliability model including dielectric thickness and extrinsic defect feature size is proposed in this presentation. The model can be used to explain the Intel-reported reliability degradation in MLCCs with respect to the reduction of dielectric thickness. It can also be used to estimate the reliability of a MLCC based on its construction and microstructure parameters such as dielectric thickness, average grain size, and number of dielectric layers. Measures for preventing early failures are also discussed in this document.

  20. Effects of starting powder and thermal treatment on the aerosol deposited BaTiO3 thin films toward less leakage currents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To prepare high-density integrated capacitors with low leakage currents, 0.2-μm-thick BaTiO3 thin films were successfully deposited on integrated semiconductor substrates at room temperature by the aerosol deposition (AD) method. In this study, the effects of starting powder size were considered in an effort to remove macroscopic defects. A surface morphology of 25.3 nm and an interface roughness of less than 50 nm were obtained using BT-03B starting powder. The nano-crystalline thin films achieved after deposition were annealed at various temperatures to promote crystallization and densification. Moreover, the influence of rapid thermal annealing process on the surface morphology and crystal growth was evaluated. As the annealing temperature increased from room temperature to 650°C, the root mean square (RMS) roughness decreased from 25.3 to 14.3 nm. However, the surface was transformed into rough performance at 750°C, which agreed well with the surface microstructure trend. Moreover, the crystal growth also reveals the changes in surface morphology via surface energy analysis. PMID:25246860

  1. Photoluminescent study of surface-functionalized BaTiO 3 nanoparticles in a poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requena, Sebastian

    BaTiO3 nanopowders of average grain sizes 50 nm and 100 nm were functionalized by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (3APTS) and mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate)/toluene solution. Nanocomposite thin films were synthesized by solution spin-coating on to Si substrates. The nanocomposites films morphology and chemical structure were studied via AFM and FTIR. The photoluminescence spectrum of the pure nanoparticles was composed of an emission at 3.0 eV and multiple bands centered at 2.5 eV. Surface functionalization of the BaTiO3 nanoparticles via 3APTS increased overall luminescence at room temperature while only enhancing the 3.0 eV emission at low-temperature. Polymer coating of the functionalized nanoparticles significantly enhances 3.0 eV emissions while decreasing emissions associated with near-surface lattice distortions at 2.5 eV.

  2. Single-crystalline BaTiO3 films grown by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Yuya; Takahashi, Kei S.; Tokura, Yoshinori; Kawasaki, Masashi

    2014-12-01

    Thin BaTiO3 films were grown on GdScO3 (110) substrates by metalorganic gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. Titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) was used as a volatile precursor that provides a wide growth window of the supplied TTIP/Ba ratio for automatic adjustment of the film composition. Within the growth window, compressively strained films can be grown with excellent crystalline quality, whereas films grown outside of the growth window are relaxed with inferior crystallinity. This growth method will provide a way to study the intrinsic properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 films and their heterostructures by precise control of the stoichiometry, structure, and purity.

  3. BaTiO3/PVDF Nanocomposite Film with High Energy Storage Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohui

    2016-03-01

    A gradated multilayer BaTiO3/poly(vinylidenefluoride) thin film structure is presented to achieve both a higher breakdown strength and a superior energy-storage capability. Key to the process is the sequential deposition of uniform dispersions of the single component source, which generate a blended PVDF-BTO-PVDF structure prior to full evaporation of solvent, and thermal treatment of the dielectric. The result is like sandwich structure with partial 0-3 character. The central layer designed to provide the high electric displacement, is composed of high volume fraction 6-10 nm BTO nanocrystals produced by a TEG-sol method. The outer layers of the structure are predominantly PVDF, with a significantly lower volume fraction of BTO, taking advantage of the higher dielectric strength for pure PVDF at the electrode-nanocomposite interface. The film is mechanically flexible, and can be removed from the substrate, with total thicknesses in the range 1.2 - 1.5 μm. Parallel plate capacitance devices improved dielectric performances, compared to reported values for BTO-PVDF 0-3 nanocomposites, with a maximal discharged energy density of 19.4J/cm3 and dielectric breakdown strengths of up to 495 kV/mm.

  4. Interactions between Mn dopant and oxygen vacancy for insulation performance of BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikada, Shunsuke; Kubota, Teppei; Honda, Atsushi; Higai, Shin'ichi; Motoyoshi, Yasuhiro; Wada, Nobuyuki; Shiratsuyu, Kosuke

    2016-10-01

    We performed first-principles calculations and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements on Mn-doped perovskite BaTiO3 (BT) ceramics in order to investigate the interactions between Mn dopant and O vacancy (VO). We discovered the following two. First, VOs are stabilized at the nearest neighbor O site of Mn at a Ti site and this results in the suppression of VO diffusion. Second, electrons generated by the formation of VOs are trapped in unoccupied Mn-3d orbitals in the BT bandgap. This indicates that the valence state of Mn changes according to the VO density. We synthesized Mn-doped BT by varying the partial pressure of O2 gas and examined the Mn valence states with ESR measurements. We successfully observed that the majority type of Mn ions (2+, 3+, and 4+) depends on O2 gas pressure of the firing atmosphere. According to these theoretical and experimental investigations, we concluded that Mn dopants have two effects, i.e., VO and electron carrier trapping. Moreover, the mechanisms of Mn doping in BT improved the insulation resistance, and the reliability of BT-based ceramic capacitors/condensers were thoroughly examined.

  5. Symmetry, strain, defects, and the nonlinear optical response of crystalline BaTiO3/silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormondy, Kristy; Abel, Stefan; Popoff, Youri; Sousa, Marilyne; Caimi, Daniele; Siegwart, Heinz; Marchiori, Chiara; Rossell, Marta; Demkov, Alex; Fompeyrine, Jean

    Recent progress has been made towards exploiting the linear electro-optic or Pockels effect in ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) for novel integrated silicon photonics devices. In such structures, the crystalline symmetry and domain structure of BTO determine which electro-optic tensor elements are accessible under application of an external electric field. For epitaxial thin films of BTO on Si (001), the role of defects in strain relaxation can lead to very different crystalline symmetry even for films of identical thickness. Indeed, through geometric phase analysis of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images, we map changes of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice parameters across two 80-nm-thick BTO films. A corresponding 20% difference in the effective electro-optic response was measured by analyzing induced rotation of the polarization of a laser beam (λ = 1550 nm) transmitted through lithographically defined electrodes. Understanding, controlling, and modelling the role of BTO symmetry in nonlinear optics is of fundamental importance for the development of a hybrid BTO/Si photonics platform.. Work supported by the NSF (IRES-1358111), AFOSR (FA9550-12-10494), and European Commission (FP7-ICT-2013-11-619456-SITOGA).

  6. High ferroelectric polarization in c-oriented BaTiO3 epitaxial thin films on SrTiO3/Si(001)

    DOE PAGES

    Scigaj, M.; Chao, C. H.; Gázquez, J.; Fina, I.; Moalla, R.; Saint-Girons, G.; Chisholm, M. F.; Herranz, G.; Fontcuberta, J.; Bachelet, R.; et al

    2016-09-21

    The integration of epitaxial BaTiO3 films on silicon, combining c-orientation, surface flatness, and high ferroelectric polarization is of main interest towards its use in memory devices. This combination of properties has been only achieved so far by using yttria-stabilized zirconia buffer layers. Here, the all-perovskite BaTiO3/LaNiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure is grown monolithically on Si(001). The BaTiO3 films are epitaxial and c-oriented and present low surface roughness and high remnant ferroelectric polarization around 6 μC/cm2. Lastly, this result paves the way towards the fabrication of lead-free BaTiO3 ferroelectric memories on silicon platforms.

  7. Multiphase transformation and hybrid nanostructure under non-equilibrium and equilibrium condition during high-energy ball milling of BaTiO3 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Jiten; Bysakh, Sandip; Mazumder, Sujata

    2014-04-01

    BaTiO3 is a well-known technologically important electroceramic material. In the present study high-energy ball-milling processing for producing distortion in the parent thermodynamically stable tetragonal BaTiO3 has been followed. This has produced nano-sized particles as well as a reactive surface. The intention of the present work is to study (i) structural changes on mechanical activation of perovskite BaTiO3 phase and (ii) possible formation of lattice defect as a result of lattice strain generated during milling that can serve peculiar channels of enhanced diffusion of gas molecules at ambient condition. Catalytic activity of nano-sized BaTiO3 has been explained on a result of high structural distortion brought into solid by milling.

  8. High ferroelectric polarization in c-oriented BaTiO3 epitaxial thin films on SrTiO3/Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scigaj, M.; Chao, C. H.; Gázquez, J.; Fina, I.; Moalla, R.; Saint-Girons, G.; Chisholm, M. F.; Herranz, G.; Fontcuberta, J.; Bachelet, R.; Sánchez, F.

    2016-09-01

    The integration of epitaxial BaTiO3 films on silicon, combining c-orientation, surface flatness, and high ferroelectric polarization is of main interest towards its use in memory devices. This combination of properties has been only achieved so far by using yttria-stabilized zirconia buffer layers. Here, the all-perovskite BaTiO3/LaNiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure is grown monolithically on Si(001). The BaTiO3 films are epitaxial and c-oriented and present low surface roughness and high remnant ferroelectric polarization around 6 μC/cm2. This result paves the way towards the fabrication of lead-free BaTiO3 ferroelectric memories on silicon platforms.

  9. The characterization of silicone type dielectric elastomer filled with nano sized BaTiO3 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liwu; Zhang, Wei; Bo, Tao; Zhao, Wei; Lv, Xiongfei; Li, Jinrong; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the characterization and electromechanical stability behavior of nano sized BaTiO3 particle filled dielectric elastomer has been analyzed experimentally and theoretically. The free energy function involving a new dielectric energy density function and Mooney-Rivlin elastic strain energy function has been used to carry out the analysis. To give a comprehensive dielectric energy function, the influence of the BaTiO3 weight fraction on the dielectric property of the dielectric elastomer has been considered. The analytical results show that with the increasing weight fraction of BaTiO3 or the electrostrictive factor, the critical electric field of silicone elastomer decreases, i.e. the elastomer's stability is reduced. Meanwhile, with the increasing material constant ratio k which is the ratio of the two material constants appeared in the Mooney-Rivilin elastic strain energy function, the critical nominal electric field will increase. These results are useful in not only helping us to understand the influence of the filled nano-BaTiO3 particles on the electromechanical stability of silicone dielectric elastomer, but also giving great guidance to obtain specific dielectric elastomer actuators to meet the demand of users by changing the dielectric property of the elastomer.

  10. Atomic and electronic structure of the BaTiO3/Fe interface in multiferroic tunnel junctions.

    PubMed

    Bocher, Laura; Gloter, Alexandre; Crassous, Arnaud; Garcia, Vincent; March, Katia; Zobelli, Alberto; Valencia, Sergio; Enouz-Vedrenne, Shaïma; Moya, Xavier; Mathur, Neil D; Marthur, Neil D; Deranlot, Cyrile; Fusil, Stéphane; Bouzehouane, Karim; Bibes, Manuel; Barthélémy, Agnès; Colliex, Christian; Stéphan, Odile

    2012-01-11

    Artificial multiferroic tunnel junctions combining a ferroelectric tunnel barrier of BaTiO(3) with magnetic electrodes display a tunnel magnetoresistance whose intensity can be controlled by the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. This effect, called tunnel electromagnetoresistance (TEMR), and the corollary magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms at the BaTiO(3)/Fe interface were recently reported through macroscopic techniques. Here, we use advanced spectromicroscopy techniques by means of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to probe locally the nanoscale structural and electronic modifications at the ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interface. Atomically resolved real-space spectroscopic techniques reveal the presence of a single FeO layer between BaTiO(3) and Fe. Based on this accurate description of the studied interface, we propose an atomistic model of the ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interface further validated by comparing experimental and simulated STEM images with atomic resolution. Density functional theory calculations allow us to interpret the electronic and magnetic properties of these interfaces and to understand better their key role in the physics of multiferroics nanostructures. PMID:22191458

  11. Electroactive superelongation of carbon nanotube aggregates in liquid crystal medium.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seok Jin; Park, Kyung Ah; Jeong, Seok Ho; Jeong, Hee Jin; An, Kay Hyeok; Nah, Chang Woon; Pribat, Didier; Lee, Seung Hee; Lee, Young Hee

    2007-08-01

    We report an effect of superelongation of carbon nanotube (CNT) aggregates driven by the electric field in a liquid crystal (LC) medium. The CNT aggregates started to elongate above a certain threshold field and sustained the elongation up to nearly 400% in the linear region with a large electroactive constant of 70 (V/microm)-1. The original morphology of the CNT aggregates was restored upon removal of the field. The elongation was fully reversible below a certain breakdown field, irrespective of the nematic or isotropic phase of the LC medium. The overall process involved (i) the alignment of CNT aggregates to increase the dipole energy of aggregates in the presence of the bias voltage, (ii) stretching of the CNTs by sliding-out from the bundles, and (iii) the entropic elasticity that restores the randomly entangled CNT network of the original aggregates after suppression of the bias voltage.

  12. Large piezoelectric response of BiFeO3/BaTiO3 polycrystalline films induced by the low-symmetry phase.

    PubMed

    Hou, Y F; Li, W L; Zhang, T D; Wang, W; Cao, W P; Liu, X L; Fei, W D

    2015-05-01

    BaTiO3, BiFeO3 and BiFeO3/BaTiO3 polycrystalline films were prepared by the radio frequency magnetron sputtering on the Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate. The phase structure, converse piezoelectric coefficient and domain structure of BaTiO3, BiFeO3 and BiFeO3/BaTiO3 thin films are characterized by XRD and PFM, respectively. The converse piezoelectric coefficient d33 of BiFeO3/BaTiO3 thin films is 119.5 pm V(-1), which is comparable to that of lead-based piezoelectric films. The large piezoelectric response of BiFeO3/BaTiO3 thin films is ascribed to the low-symmetry T-like phase BiFeO3, because the spontaneous polarization vector of T-like phase (with monoclinic symmetry) BiFeO3 can rotate easily under external field. In addition, the reduced leakage current and major domains with upward polarization are also attributed to the large piezoelectricity.

  13. Spin-Coating and Characterization of Multiferroic MFe2O4 (M=Co, Ni) / BaTiO3 Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quandt, Norman; Roth, Robert; Syrowatka, Frank; Steimecke, Matthias; Ebbinghaus, Stefan G.

    2016-01-01

    Bilayer films of MFe2O4 (M=Co, Ni) and BaTiO3 were prepared by spin coating of N,N-dimethylformamide/acetic acid solutions on platinum coated silicon wafers. Five coating steps were applied to get the desired thickness of 150 nm for both the ferrite and perovskite layer. XRD, IR and Raman spectroscopy revealed the formation of phase-pure ferrite spinels and BaTiO3. Smooth surfaces with roughnesses in the order of 3 to 5 nm were found in AFM investigations. Saturation magnetization of 347 emu cm-3 for the CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 and 188 emu cm-3 for the NiFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayer, respectively were found. For the CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayer a strong magnetic anisotropy was observed with coercivity fields of 5.1 kOe and 3.3 kOe (applied magnetic field perpendicular and parallel to film surface), while for the NiFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayer this effect is less pronounced. Saturated polarization hysteresis loops prove the presence of ferroelectricity in both systems.

  14. Pseudo Jahn-Teller origin of ferroelectric instability in BaTiO3 type perovskites: The Green's function approach and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polinger, V.; Garcia-Fernandez, P.; Bersuker, I. B.

    2015-01-01

    The local origin of dipolar distortions in ABO3 perovskite crystals is reexamined by means of a novel approach, the Green's function method augmented by DFT computations. The ferroelectric distortions are shown to be induced by the pseudo Jahn-Teller effect (PJTE). The latter involves vibronic hybridization (admixture) of the ground state to same-spin opposite-parity excited electronic bands. Similar to numerous molecular calculations, the PJT approach provides a deeper insight into the nature of chemical bonding in the octahedral cluster [BO6] and, in particular, reveals the local origin of its polar instability. This allows predicting directly which transition ions can create ferroelectricity. In particular, the necessary conditions are established when an ABO3 perovskite crystal with an electronic dn configuration of the complex ion [BO6] can possess both proper ferroelectric and magnetic properties. Distinguished from the variety of cluster approaches to local properties, the Green's function method includes the influence of the local vibronic-coupling perturbation on the whole crystal via the inter-cell interaction responsible for creation of electronic and vibrational bands. Calculated Green's functions combined with the corresponding numeric estimates for the nine electronic bands, their density of states, and the local adiabatic potential energy surface (APES) confirm the eight-minimum form of this surface and feasibility of the PJT origin of the polar instability in BaTiO3. We show also that multicenter long-range dipole-dipole interactions critically depend on the PJTE largely determining the magnitude of the local dipoles. DFT calculations for the bulk crystal and its clusters confirm that the dipolar distortions are of local origin, but become possible only when their influence on (relaxation of) the whole lattice is taken into account. The results are shown to be in full qualitative and semiquantitative agreement with the experimental data for this

  15. Enhancement of the Electrical Properties in BaTiO3/PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 Ferroelectric Superlattices.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Wang, Zhanjie

    2016-03-01

    In this study, BaTiO3/Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (BTO/PZT) ferroelectric superlattices have been grown on the Nb-doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) single-crystal substrate by pulsed laser deposition, and their electrical properties were investigated in detail. The leakage current was reduced significantly in the BTO/PZT superlattices, and the conduction mechanism could be interpreted as the bulk-limited mechanism. In addition, a more symmetric hysteresis loop was observed in the BTO/PZT superlattices compared with the pure PZT and BTO films. The BTO/PZT superlattices with the modulation thickness of 9.8 nm showed remarkably improved dielectric properties with dielectric constant and loss of 684 and 0.02, respectively, measured at the frequency of 10 kHz. Based on these experimental results, it can be considered that the BTO/PZT interfaces play a very important role for the enhanced electrical properties of the BTO/PZT superlattices. PMID:26913563

  16. Characterization of Fe-doped SrTiO3/BaTiO3 multilayer films and their ethanol sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supasai, Thidarat; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Hodak, Satreerat

    2010-03-01

    Fe-doped SrTiO3/BaTiO3 multilayer films have been deposited on alumina substrate using a sol-gel spin coating technique. The field effect scanning electron microscope photographs revealed a mixture of round and facet-shaped crystals in the undoped films. This microstructure disappeared in Fe-doped films which adopted a more porous sponge-like structure. The grain size of the films decreased from 300 nm for undoped films to 100 nm and 70 nm with Fe doping concentrations of 4 and 8 wt%, respectively. The absorption edge energy for X-rays by Fe was found to be about 7121 eV consistent with Fe^2+ oxidation state. Interdigitated electrodes were applied on these films for ethanol gas sensing application. A sensitivity figure of merit based on the relative change in the resistance of the Fe-doped films 8 wt% film was found to be in the 1-3 range for ethanol doses of 100-1000 ppm when operating at 250 C and in the range of 3-10 when the operating temperature was 350 C.

  17. Shrinkage Behavior and Diffusion in Ni-based Internal Electrodes with Additional Amount and Particle Size of BaTiO3 Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ji-Hun; Joo, Dongwon; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Paik, Ungyu

    2008-02-01

    The effect of additional amount and particle size of BaTiO3 additive on shrinkage behavior and inter-diffusion in Ni-based internal electrodes has been investigated, in order to reduce the large shrinkage mismatch between the internal electrode and the dielectric layer and to control the thermal and/or residual stresses in multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs). Ni powder of 100-500 nm and two kinds of BaTiO3 powders of 100 and 200 nm were used as matrix and additive, respectively. The Ni and BaTiO3 powders were mixed with volume ratios of 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, respectively, and then cold-isostatic pressed. The shrinkage of starting materials and each composite was measured in a range of 700-1300 °C with 150 °C interval in H2/Ar atmosphere, using ASTM standard method. Diffusion phenomena at interface of Ni/BaTiO3 composites with 85:15 and 90:10 volume ratios were investigated using SEM, EDX, and TEM. The particle size affects the shrinkage behavior in relatively low temperatures below 1000 °C, showing a turning point at that temperature. The final shrinkage of composites is matched with that of bulk BaTiO3 of smaller particle size, independent of additional amount of BaTiO3 additive. A reaction layer of about 1000 nm wide is observed at the interface between the Ni and BaTiO3 powders in the composite of 85:15 volume ratio. The quantitative amount of elemental Ni diffused into the BaTiO3 is about 9.7 mass% in the composite of 90:10 volume ratio, without another phase seen in the Ni.

  18. Effect of BaTiO3 impurity on the NaNO2 structure in (0.9)NaNO2 + (0.1)BaTiO3 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naberezhnov, A. A.; Alekseeva, O. A.; Stukova, E. V.; Borisov, S. A.; Simkin, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    The temperature evolution of the crystalline structure of the composite based on the ferroelectric mixture 0.9NaNO2 + 0.1BaTiO3 is analyzed using the neutron diffraction method. It is shown that the values of the order parameter of NaNO2 in the composite in the temperature range 360-430 K is smaller as compared to the bulk substance, which may indicate the coexistence of the ferroelectric and incommensurate phases of sodium nitrite in this interval.

  19. Hierarchical interfaces induce high dielectric permittivity in nanocomposites containing TiO2@BaTiO3 nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Chen, Weiwei; Wang, Jianjun; Shen, Yang; Gu, Lin; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2014-06-21

    Interface issues are common and crucial in nanocomposites or nanohybrid systems since the interface area is enormous on the nanoscale. In the 0-3 dimensional polymer nanocomposites, in which nano-inclusions (0-dimension) are embedded in a 3-dimensionally connected polymer matrix, enhanced dielectric permittivity could be induced by the interfacial polarization at the interfaces between the nano-inclusions and the polymer matrix. In this contribution, we propose and demonstrate that the topological structure of the interface plays an equally important role as the area of the interface in determining the dielectric polarization of polymer nanocomposites. TiO2 nanofibers embedded with BaTiO3 nanoparticles are prepared via electrospinning and then fused with polyvinyl difluoride (PVDF) into polymer nanocomposite films. Modulation of hierarchical interfaces is thus achieved for these nanocomposites. The confinement of these additional interfaces inside the TiO2 nanofibers leads to percolated networks formed by the interfacial regions. The dielectric permittivity of the polymer nanocomposites is thus enhanced by ∼300% over the PVDF matrix at a low filler loading of 11 vol%. A phase-field simulation study indicates that the enhanced dielectric permittivity could be attributed to the increased polarization in the percolated interfacial regions inside the TiO2 nanofibers. The instantaneous electrical breakdown of the TiO2@BaTiO3 nanofibers studied by the in situ transmission electron microscopy method further reveals the striking feature that the breakdown behavior of the nanofibers changes from semiconductive to metallic with the incorporation of insulating BaTiO3 nanoparticles.

  20. Motion, collision and annihilation of polarization vortex pair in single crystalline BaTiO3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xianbao; Yang, Xinhua; Wang, Peng; Peng, Di

    2013-12-01

    Domain evolution of a single crystalline BaTiO3 thin film, initially possessing two vortex-antivortex pairs, placed under compressive displacement loading with a constant strain rate, is simulated using a molecular dynamics method based on the shell model. The evolution details, including the relative motion and collision between the vortices and antivortices and their annihilation, are carefully observed, and both the movement velocity and the equilibrium time after annihilation are estimated. When the vortex-antivortex pairs annihilate, the polarization configuration evolves into a 180° domain structure. These distinctive domain evolution characteristics could open up opportunities for designing ferroelectric nanodevices.

  1. Correlation of lattice defects and thermal processing in the crystallization of titania nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinpour, Pegah M.; Yung, Daniel; Panaitescu, Eugen; Heiman, Don; Menon, Latika; Budil, David; Lewis, Laura H.

    2014-12-01

    Titania nanotubes have the potential to be employed in a wide range of energy-related applications such as solar energy-harvesting devices and hydrogen production. As the functionality of titania nanostructures is critically affected by their morphology and crystallinity, it is necessary to understand and control these factors in order to engineer useful materials for green applications. In this study, electrochemically-synthesized titania nanotube arrays were thermally processed in inert and reducing environments to isolate the role of post-synthesis processing conditions on the crystallization behavior, electronic structure and morphology development in titania nanotubes, correlated with the nanotube functionality. Structural and calorimetric studies revealed that as-synthesized amorphous nanotubes crystallize to form the anatase structure in a three-stage process that is facilitated by the creation of structural defects. It is concluded that processing in a reducing gas atmosphere versus in an inert environment provides a larger unit cell volume and a higher concentration of Ti3+ associated with oxygen vacancies, thereby reducing the activation energy of crystallization. Further, post-synthesis annealing in either reducing or inert atmospheres produces pronounced morphological changes, confirming that the nanotube arrays thermally transform into a porous morphology consisting of a fragmented tubular architecture surrounded by a network of connected nanoparticles. This study links explicit data concerning morphology, crystallization and defects, and shows that the annealing gas environment determines the details of the crystal structure, the electronic structure and the morphology of titania nanotubes. These factors, in turn, impact the charge transport and consequently the functionality of these nanotubes as photocatalysts.

  2. Enhanced hydrogen storage properties of the 2LiBH4-MgH2 composite with BaTiO3 as an additive.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiasheng; Han, Shumin; Wang, Zhibin; Ke, Dandan; Liu, Jingjing; Ma, Mingzhen

    2016-04-28

    The 2LiBH4-MgH2 + 20 wt% BaTiO3 composite was prepared by ball-milling LiBH4, MgH2 and BaTiO3, and the effect of BaTiO3 on the hydrogen storage properties of the composite was investigated. TG-DSC results show that the onset dehydrogenation temperature of the composite is 299 °C, which is 124 °C lower than that of 2LiBH4-MgH2, and the dehydrogenation amount of the composite increases from 6.86 wt% to 7.48 wt% at 500 °C. Kinetic tests show that the dehydrogenation amount of 2LiBH4-MgH2 + 20 wt% BaTiO3 reaches 1.5 wt% within 400 seconds, almost 10 times that of 2LiBH4-MgH2. BaTiO3 reacts with LiBH4 during the dehydrogenation of the composite and generates BaB6 and TiO2. BaB6 is beneficial to lower the stability of LiBH4, while TiO2 has a catalytic effect in improving the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics of the reaction between Mg and LiBH4.

  3. Study of the electronic structure and half-metallicity of CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Jun-Nan; Huang, Jian-Qi

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the electronic structure, magnetic properties and half-metallicity of the CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice are investigated by employing the first-principle calculation based on density functional theory within the GGA or GGA + U exchange-correlation functional. The CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice is constructed by the cubic CaMnO3 and the tetragonal ferroelectric BaTiO3 growing alternately along (0 0 1) direction. The cubic CaMnO3 presents a robust half-metallicity and a metastable ferromagnetic phase. Its magnetic moment is an integral number of 3.000 μB per unit cell. However, the CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice has a stable ferromagnetic phase, for which the magnetic moment is 12.000 μB per unit cell. It also retains the robust half-metallicity which mainly results from the strong hybridization between Mn and O atoms. The results show that the constructed CaMnO3/BaTiO3 superlattice exhibits superior magnetoelectric properties. It may provide a theoretical reference for the design and preparation of new multiferroic materials.

  4. Controlled Confinement of Half-metallic 2D Electron Gas in BaTiO3/Ba2FeReO6/BaTiO3 Heterostructures: A First-principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri; Baidya, Santu; Waghmare, Umesh; Paramekanti, Arun

    Using density functional theory calculations, we establish that the half-metallicity of bulk Ba2FeReO6 survives down i to 1 nm thickness in BaTiO3/Ba2FeReO6/BaTiO3 heterostructures grown along the (001) and (111) directions. The confinement of the two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in this quantum well structure arises from the suppressed hybridization between Re/Fe d states and unoccupied Ti d states, and it is further strengthened by polar fields for the (111) direction. This mechanism, distinct from the polar catastrophe, leads to an order of magnitude stronger confinement of the 2D electron gas than that at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. We further show low-energy bands of (111) heterostructure display nontrivial topological character. Our work opens up the possibility of realizing ultra-thin spintronic devices. Journal Ref: Phys. Rev. B 92, 161106(R) (2015) S.B. and T.S.D thank Department of Science and Technology, India for the support through Thematic Unit of Excellence. AP was supported by NSERC (Canada).

  5. Confinement effects on the crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Maiz, Jon; Martin, Jaime; Mijangos, Carmen

    2012-08-21

    In this work, we show the effects of nanoconfinement on the crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanotubes embedded in anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The morphological characteristics of the hollow 1D PEO nanostructures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallization of the PEO nanostructures and bulk was studied with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The crystallization of PEO nanotubes studied by DSC is strongly influenced by the confinement showing a strong reduction in the crystallization temperature of the polymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments confirmed the isothermal crystallization results obtained by DSC, and studies carried out at low temperatures showed the absence of crystallites oriented with the extended chains perpendicular to the pore wall within the PEO nanotubes, which has been shown to be the typical crystal orientation for one-dimensional polymer nanostructures. In contrast, only planes oriented 33, 45, and 90° with respect to the plane (120) are arranged parallel to the pore's main axis, indicating preferential crystal growth in the direction of the radial component. Calculations based on classical nucleation theory suggest that heterogeneous nucleation prevails in the bulk PEO whereas for the PEO nanotubes a surface nucleation mechanism is more consistent with the obtained results. PMID:22834683

  6. Confinement effects on the crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Maiz, Jon; Martin, Jaime; Mijangos, Carmen

    2012-08-21

    In this work, we show the effects of nanoconfinement on the crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) nanotubes embedded in anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The morphological characteristics of the hollow 1D PEO nanostructures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallization of the PEO nanostructures and bulk was studied with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The crystallization of PEO nanotubes studied by DSC is strongly influenced by the confinement showing a strong reduction in the crystallization temperature of the polymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments confirmed the isothermal crystallization results obtained by DSC, and studies carried out at low temperatures showed the absence of crystallites oriented with the extended chains perpendicular to the pore wall within the PEO nanotubes, which has been shown to be the typical crystal orientation for one-dimensional polymer nanostructures. In contrast, only planes oriented 33, 45, and 90° with respect to the plane (120) are arranged parallel to the pore's main axis, indicating preferential crystal growth in the direction of the radial component. Calculations based on classical nucleation theory suggest that heterogeneous nucleation prevails in the bulk PEO whereas for the PEO nanotubes a surface nucleation mechanism is more consistent with the obtained results.

  7. Two dimensional growth of ultrathin Fe films on BaTiO3 with sharp chemical interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radaelli, G.; Cantoni, M.; Lijun, Li; Espahbodi, M.; Bertacco, R.

    2014-02-01

    The Fe/BaTiO3 interface is a prototypical artificial multiferroic system displaying purely electronic magnetoelectric effects at room temperature. As magneto-electric coupling is essentially localized at the interface, the properties of the very first Fe layers in contact with BaTiO3 play a major role. In this paper, we investigate, by using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and photoelectron diffraction, the in-situ growth, by molecular beam epitaxy, of ultrathin Fe films (˜7 monolayers) on a BaTiO3/SrTiO3(001) template. We found that growing the Fe films above room temperature (373 K) is essential in order to avoid island growth and obtain a continuous film. Post-annealing up to 473 K improves the film crystallinity but prevents chemical interdiffusion and roughening. Just an interfacial monolayer of oxidized iron is detected in these conditions, which appears as an unavoidable consequence of the Fe/BaTiO3 chemical interaction. Its active role in magnetoelectric coupling must be carefully taken into account to correlate theoretical predictions and experiments.

  8. High calcination of ferroelectric BaTiO3 doped Fe nanoceramics prepared by a solid-state sintering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuvel, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of the combination of starting materials on the properties of solid-state reacted BaTiO3 using two different types of BaCO3 and TiO2. In addition, the effect of mechanochemical activation by high energy milling and the Ba/Ti molar ratio on the reaction temperature, particle size and tetragonality were investigated. The TiO2 phase and size plays a major role in increasing the reaction temperature and particle size. With the optimum selection of starting materials and processing conditions, BaTiO3 with a particle size <200 nm (Scherrer's formula) and a tetragonality c/a of approximately 1.007 was obtained. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is applied to investigate the electrical properties of disordered perovskite-like ceramics in a wide temperature range. From the X-ray diffraction analysis it was found that the newly obtained BaTi0.5Fe0.5O3 ceramics consist of two chemically different phases. The electric modulus M∗ formalism used in the analysis enabled us to distinguish and separate the relaxation processes, dominated by marked conductivity in the ε∗(ω) representation. Interfacial effects on the dielectric properties of the samples have been understood by Cole-Cole plots in complex impedance and modulus formalism. Modulus formalism has identified the effects of both grain and grain boundary microstructure on the dielectric properties, particularly in solid state routed samples.

  9. Properties of barium titanate (BaTiO3) thin films grown on silicon by rf magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelou, E. K.; Konofaos, N.; Thomas, C. B.

    2000-03-01

    Thin films of BaTiO3 were deposited on p-Si substrates by rf magnetron sputtering in order to investigate their suitability for use in ac thin film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) devices and dynamic RAM (DRAM) applications. Post-growth annealing at 700oC and the subsequent deposition of Al contacts resulted in the creation of Al/BaTiO3/p-Si metal-insulator-semiconductor devices. The electronic and structural properties of the films were examined by admittance spectroscopy, current-voltage and transient current measurements, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization. Analysis of the XRD spectra showed the polycrystalline nature of the films but also the presence of an amorphous phase. The electrical measurements revealed a high dielectric constant, around 60, a charge storage capacity exceeding 3muC cm-2 and a total charge trapped inside the oxide of around 50nCcm-2 while the density of traps at the BaTiO3/p-Si interface was found to be as high as 1 x 1012 cm-2eV-1. These results indicate that the films are suitable for both DRAM and ACTFEL applications.

  10. Strain-induced insulator-metal transition in ferroelectric BaTiO3 (001) surface: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yang; Chang-An, Wang; Cong, Liu; Ming-Hui, Qin; Xu-Bing, Lu; Xing-Sen, Gao; Min, Zeng; Jun-Ming, Liu

    2016-07-01

    The electronic properties of TiO2-terminated BaTiO3 (001) surface subjected to biaxial strain have been studied using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The Ti ions are always inward shifted either at compressive or tension strains, while the inward shift of the Ba ions occurs only for high compressive strain, implying an enhanced electric dipole moment in the case of high compressive strain. In particular, an insulator-metal transition is predicted at a compressive biaxial strain of 0.0475. These changes present a very interesting possibility for engineering the electronic properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 (001) surface. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 1574091, 51272078, and 51431006), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province of China (Grant No. 2015A030313375), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province of China (Grant No. 2015B090927006), and the Program for International Innovation Cooperation Platform of Guangzhou City, China (Grant No. 2014J4500016).

  11. Magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 composite nanofibers via electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bi; Lu, Ruie; Gao, Kun; Yang, Yaodong; Wang, Yaping

    2015-07-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in Pb-based multiferroic composites has been widely investigated due to the excellent piezoelectric property of lead zirconate titanate (PZT). In this letter, we report a strategy to create a hybrid Pb-free ferroelectric and ferromagnetic material and detect its ME coupling at the nanoscale. Hybrid Pb-free multiferroic BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 (BTO-CFO) composite nanofibers (NFs) were generated by sol-gel electrospinning. The perovskite structure of BTO and the spinel structure of CFO nanograins were homogenously distributed in the composite NFs and verified by bright-field transmission electron microscopy observations along the perovskite [111] zone axis. Multiferroicity was confirmed by amplitude-voltage butterfly curves and magnetic hysteresis loops. ME coupling was observed in terms of a singularity on a dM/dT curve at the ferroelectric Curie temperature (TC) of BaTiO3. The lateral ME coefficient was investigated by the evolution of the piezoresponse under an external magnetic field of 1000 Oe and was estimated to be α31 =0.78× 104 \\text{mV cm}-1 \\text{Oe}-1 . These findings could enable the creation of nanoscale Pb-free multiferroic composite devices.

  12. Enhanced piezoelectricity in plastically deformed nearly amorphous Bi12TiO20-BaTiO3 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dan; Zhao, Minglei; Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Lihai; Su, Wenbin; Gai, Zhigang; Wang, Chunming; Li, Jichao; Zhang, Jialiang

    2016-07-01

    Bulk Bi12TiO20-BaTiO3 (BTO-BT) nanocomposites are fabricated through the high-temperature interfacial reaction between nanometer-sized BaTiO3 particles and melting Bi12TiO20. Although the obtained BTO-BT nanocomposites are nearly amorphous and display very weak ferroelectricity, they exhibit relatively strong piezoelectricity without undergoing the electrical poling process. The volume fraction of crystalline Bi12TiO20 is reduced to less than 10%, and the piezoelectric constant d33 is enhanced to 13 pC/N. Only the presence of the macroscopic polar amorphous phases can explain this unusual thermal stable piezoelectricity. Combining the results from X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal annealing, it can be confirmed that the formation of macroscopic polar amorphous phases is closely related to the inhomogeneous plastic deformation of the amorphous Bi12TiO20 during the sintering process. These results highlight the key role of plastically deformed amorphous Bi12TiO20 in the Bi12TiO20-based polar composites, and the temperature gradient driven coupling between the plastic strain gradient and polarization in amorphous phases is the main poling mechanism for this special type of bulk polar material.

  13. Strain-induced insulator–metal transition in ferroelectric BaTiO3 (001) surface: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yang; Chang-An, Wang; Cong, Liu; Ming-Hui, Qin; Xu-Bing, Lu; Xing-Sen, Gao; Min, Zeng; Jun-Ming, Liu

    2016-07-01

    The electronic properties of TiO2-terminated BaTiO3 (001) surface subjected to biaxial strain have been studied using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The Ti ions are always inward shifted either at compressive or tension strains, while the inward shift of the Ba ions occurs only for high compressive strain, implying an enhanced electric dipole moment in the case of high compressive strain. In particular, an insulator–metal transition is predicted at a compressive biaxial strain of 0.0475. These changes present a very interesting possibility for engineering the electronic properties of ferroelectric BaTiO3 (001) surface. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 1574091, 51272078, and 51431006), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province of China (Grant No. 2015A030313375), the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province of China (Grant No. 2015B090927006), and the Program for International Innovation Cooperation Platform of Guangzhou City, China (Grant No. 2014J4500016).

  14. Influence of substrate microstructure on the high field dielectric properties of BaTiO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levi, R. D.; Samantaray, M. M.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Randall, C. A.

    2008-11-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical leakage current density of chemical solution deposited BaTiO3 films on high purity Ni foils was investigated as function of the underlying Ni microstructure. Depending on the Ni heat treatment prior to BaTiO3 deposition, it was found that pores in the dielectric followed the profiles of the underlying Ni grain boundary grooves. The electrical properties were then characterized on capacitors with and without the presence of Ni grain boundaries. When a Ni grain boundary from the substrate was present in the capacitor used during the electrical measurements, the loss tangent of the capacitor rose rapidly for dc biases exceeding ˜25 kV/cm. The critical bias increases to ˜100 kV/cm when no substrate grain boundaries are included in the capacitor. In addition, the capacitance-voltage curves are much more symmetric when grain boundaries are absent. This disparity in the electrical behavior was analyzed in terms of the mechanisms of charge conduction across the Ni-dielectric interface. While a reverse biased Schottky emission mechanism dominates the current in areas free of Ni grain boundaries, the barrier at the cathode is ineffective when Ni grain boundaries are present in the substrate. This, in turn, leads to a larger leakage current dominated by the forward biased Schottky barrier at the anode. The results are important to both embedded and surface mount capacitors.

  15. Controlled extrinsic magnetoelectric coupling in BaTiO3/Ni nanocomposites: Effect of compaction pressure on interfacial anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosseau, C.; Castel, V.; Potel, M.

    2010-07-01

    The dynamical control of the dielectric response in magnetoelectric (ME) nanocomposites (NCs) renders an entire additional degree of freedom to the functionality of miniaturized magnetoelectronics and spintronics devices. In composite materials, the ME effect is realized by using the concept of product properties. Through the investigation of the microwave properties of a series of BaTiO3/Ni NCs fabricated by compaction of nanopowders, we present experimental evidence that the compaction (uniaxial) pressure in the range 33-230 MPa affects significantly the ME features. The Ni loading was varied from zero (BaTiO3 only) to 63 vol %. Our findings revealed that the ME coupling coefficient exhibits a large enhancement for specific values of the Ni volume fraction and compaction pressure. The coupling effects in the NCs were studied by looking at the relationships among the crystallite orientation and the magnetic properties. The magnetization curves for different directions of the applied magnetic field cannot be superimposed. We suggest that the average magnetization measurements on these NCs under compressive stress are dominated by strain anisotropy rather than magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Overall, these observations are considered to be evidence of stress-induced microstructural changes under pressure which strongly affect the elastic interaction between the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases in these NCs. These results have a potential technological impact for designing precise tunable ME NCs for microwave devices such as tunable phase shifters, resonators, and delay lines.

  16. Structural evolution across the insulator-metal transition in oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-δ studied using neutron total scattering and Rietveld analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Jeong, I.-K.; Lee, Seunghun; Jeong, Se-Young; Won, C. J.; Hur, N.; Llobet, A.

    2011-08-29

    Oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-δ exhibits an insulator-metal transition with increasing δ. We performed neutron total scattering measurements to study structural evolution across an insulator-metal transition in BaTiO3-δ. Despite its significant impact on resistivity, slight oxygen reduction (δ=0.09) caused only a small disturbance on the local doublet splitting of Ti-O bond. This finding implies that local polarization is well preserved under marginal electric conduction. In the highly oxygen-deficient metallic state (δ=0.25), however, doublet splitting of the Ti-O bond became smeared. The smearing of the local Ti-O doublet is complemented with long-range structural analysis and demonstrates that the metallic conduction in the highly oxygen-reducedmore » BaTiO3-δ is due to the appearance of nonferroelectric cubic lattice.« less

  17. Resistive switching properties of epitaxial BaTiO(3-δ) thin films tuned by after-growth oxygen cooling pressure.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yooun; Kan, Daisuke; Shimakawa, Yuichi; Seidel, Jan

    2016-01-01

    BaTiO3-δ, i.e. oxygen-deficient barium titanate (BaTiO3), thin films grown on GdScO3(110) substrates with SrRuO3 conductive electrodes by pulsed laser deposition are studied by X-ray diffraction and conductive AFM to characterize their structure and nanoscale electronic properties. Bias- and time-dependent resistive switching measurements reveal a strong dependence on the oxygen vacancy concentration, which can be tuned by after-growth oxygen cooling conditions of thin films. The results indicate that the resistive switching properties of BaTiO3-δ can be enhanced by controlling oxygen deficiency and provide new insight for potential non-volatile resistive random-access memory (RRAM) applications.

  18. Magneto-transport studies in (1-X) YBa2Cu3O7-δ+X BaTiO3 superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujur, A.; Behera, D.

    2015-03-01

    The magneto-resistance of bulk polycrystalline (1-x) YBCO+x BaTiO3 superconductor is reported. The onset of global superconductivity and transition temperature decreases with BaTiO3 incorporation as well as on magnetic field application. Below the onset of superconductivity (T

  19. AES study on the chemical composition of ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin films RF sputter-deposited on silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharmadhikari, V. S.; Grannemann, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    AES depth profiling data are presented for thin films of BaTiO3 deposited on silicon by RF sputtering. By profiling the sputtered BaTiO3/silicon structures, it was possible to study the chemical composition and the interface characteristics of thin films deposited on silicon at different substrate temperatures. All the films showed that external surface layers were present, up to a few tens of angstroms thick, the chemical composition of which differed from that of the main layer. The main layer had stable composition, whereas the intermediate film-substrate interface consisted of reduced TiO(2-x) oxides. The thickness of this intermediate layer was a function of substrate temperature. All the films showed an excess of barium at the interface. These results are important in the context of ferroelectric phenomena observed in BaTiO3 thin films.

  20. Influence of tetragonal platelets on the dielectric permittivity of 0.964 Na1 /2Bi1 /2TiO3-0.036 BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pforr, Florian; Major, Márton; Donner, Wolfgang; Stuhr, Uwe; Roessli, Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    We study the temperature-dependent evolution of the octahedral tilt order in a lead-free relaxor ferroelectric and its impact on the ferroelectric properties. Using diffuse neutron scattering on a 0.964 Na1 /2Bi1 /2TiO3-0.036 BaTiO3 single crystal, we suggest a model for the temperature-dependent nanostructure of this perovskite that features chemically pinned tetragonal platelets embedded in the rhombohedral matrix, often separated by a cubic intermediate phase. Our results show a clear correlation between the squared thickness of the tetragonal platelets and the dielectric permittivity. This is interpreted as a sign for increased polarizability of the strained and distorted lattice at the center of the tetragonal platelets.

  1. Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José Francisco; Quintana, Xabier; Otón, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of nanoparticles modifies a number of fundamental properties of many materials. Doping of nanoparticles in self-organized materials such as liquid crystals may be of interest for the reciprocal interaction between the matrix and the nanoparticles. Elongated nanoparticles and nanotubes can be aligned and reoriented by the liquid crystal, inducing noticeable changes in their optical and electrical properties. In this work, cells of liquid crystal doped with high aspect ratio multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared, and their characteristic impedance has been studied at different frequencies and excitation voltages. The results demonstrate alterations in the anisotropic conductivity of the samples with the applied electric field, which can be followed by monitoring the impedance evolution with the excitation voltage. Results are consistent with a possible electric contact between the coated substrates of the LC cell caused by the reorientation of the nanotubes. The reversibility of the doped system upon removal of the electric field is quite low.

  2. Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José Francisco; Quintana, Xabier; Otón, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of nanoparticles modifies a number of fundamental properties of many materials. Doping of nanoparticles in self-organized materials such as liquid crystals may be of interest for the reciprocal interaction between the matrix and the nanoparticles. Elongated nanoparticles and nanotubes can be aligned and reoriented by the liquid crystal, inducing noticeable changes in their optical and electrical properties. In this work, cells of liquid crystal doped with high aspect ratio multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared, and their characteristic impedance has been studied at different frequencies and excitation voltages. The results demonstrate alterations in the anisotropic conductivity of the samples with the applied electric field, which can be followed by monitoring the impedance evolution with the excitation voltage. Results are consistent with a possible electric contact between the coated substrates of the LC cell caused by the reorientation of the nanotubes. The reversibility of the doped system upon removal of the electric field is quite low. PMID:25821679

  3. The peculiar electrical response of liquid crystal-carbon nanotube systems as seen by impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-García, A.; Vergaz, R.; Algorri, J. F.; Geday, M. A.; Otón, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    Conductive nanoparticles, especially elongated ones such as carbon nanotubes, dramatically modify the electrical behavior of liquid crystal cells. These nanoparticles are known to reorient with liquid crystals in electric fields, causing significant variations of conductivity at minute concentrations of tens or hundreds ppm. The above notwithstanding, impedance spectroscopy of doped cells in the frequency range customarily employed by liquid crystal devices, 100 Hz-10 kHz, shows a relatively simple resistor/capacitor response where the components of the cell can be univocally assigned to single components of the electrical equivalent circuit. However, widening the frequency range up to 1 MHz or beyond reveals a complex behavior that cannot be explained with the same simple EEC. Moreover, the system impedance varies with the application of electric fields, their effect remaining after removing the field. Carbon nanotubes are reoriented together with liquid crystal reorientation when applying voltage, but barely reoriented back upon liquid crystal relaxation once the voltage is removed. Results demonstrate a remarkable variation in the impedance of the dielectric blend formed by liquid crystal and carbon nanotubes, the irreversible orientation of the carbon nanotubes and possible permanent contacts between electrodes.

  4. Deformation-induced crystallization and associated morphology development of carbon nanotube-PVDF nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Mago, Gaurav; Fisher, Frank T; Kalyon, Dilhan M

    2009-05-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a semicrystalline thermoplastic polymer that is of interest for sensor, actuator and biomedical applications because of its piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties, as well as outstanding mechanical and chemical properties. Although it is known that the shear-induced crystallization behavior of nanocomposites can be significantly affected by the presence of nanoparticles, the effects of the incorporation of carbon nanotubes on the deformation-induced crystallization and associated morphology development of PVDF have not been previously investigated. Here the dynamics of the shear-induced crystallization of carbon nanotubes incorporated in PVDF were investigated using simple shear flow. The shear-induced crystallization behavior was affected by the deformation rate, temperature, and the concentration of the carbon nanotubes. Time-dependence of linear viscoelastic properties indicated that the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in PVDF greatly altered the shear-induced crystallization kinetics of PVDF, while no significant changes in crystallization behavior were observed for pure PVDF samples sheared under similar conditions. Upon increase of the concentration of the MWNTs the crystal size of PVDF decreased while its rate of crystallization increased in conjunction with an increase of the beta phase crystallization. Overall, these findings suggest that the shear-induced crystallization of PVDF nanocomposites (and in general flow-induced crystallization effects associated with the thermo-mechanical history experienced by the nanocomposite during processing) should be integral parts of attempts to generate a comprehensive understanding of the development of the microstructural distributions and the coupled ultimate properties of polymer nanocomposites.

  5. Ultrafast Room-Temperature Crystallization of TiO2 Nanotubes Exploiting Water-Vapor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, Andrea; Chiodoni, Angelica; Shahzad, Nadia; Bianco, Stefano; Quaglio, Marzia; Pirri, Candido F.

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript a near-room temperature crystallization process of anodic nanotubes from amorphous TiO2 to anatase phase with a fast 30 minutes treatment is reported for the first time. This method involves the exposure of as-grown TiO2 nanotubes to water vapor flow in ambient atmosphere. The water vapor-crystallized samples are deeply investigated in order to gain a whole understanding of their structural, physical and chemical properties. The photocatalytic activity of the converted material is tested by dye degradation experiment and the obtained performance confirms the highly promising properties of this low-temperature processed material. PMID:25589038

  6. Mode sequence, frequency change of nonsoft phonons, and LO-TO splitting in strained tetragonal BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeliarijaona, Aldo; Fu, Huaxiang

    2015-09-01

    Ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy revealed the existence of an unusual large-frequency shift occurring to a nonsoft mode of E (TO4 ) when BaTiO3 is strained to a SrTiO3 substrate [D. Tenne et al., Science 313, 1614 (2006), 10.1126/science.1130306]. It raised two interesting questions: (i) whether there are other nonsoft modes that possess similar or even larger strain-induced frequency shifts and (ii) how the mode sequence is altered by these shifts in frequency. Note that mode sequence is also pivotal in correctly indexing and assigning the spectroscopy peaks observed in all Raman experiments. By mapping out the evolutions of individual phonon modes as a function of strain using first-principles density functional perturbation calculations, we determine the mode sequence and strain-induced phonon frequency shifts in prototypical BaTiO3. Our study reveals that the mode sequence is drastically different when BaTiO3 is strained to SrTiO3 compared to that in the unstrained structure, caused by multiple mode crossings. Furthermore, we predict that three other nonsoft modes, A1(TO2), E (LO4 ), and A1(TO3), display even larger strain-induced frequency shifts than E (TO4 ). The strain responses of individual modes are found to be highly mode specific, and a mechanism that regulates the magnitude of the frequency shift is provided. As another key outcome of this study, we tackle a long-standing problem of LO-TO splitting in ferroelectrics. A rigorous definition for the LO-TO splitting is formulated, which allows this critical quantity to be calculated quantitatively. The definition immediately reveals a new finding; that is, a large LO-TO splitting not only exists for E (LO4 ), which is previously known and originates from a soft mode, it also occurs for a nonsoft A1(LO3) mode. The LO-TO splitting is shown to decrease drastically with compressive strain, and this decrease cannot be explained by the Born effective charges and high-frequency dielectric constants.

  7. Single crystals of single-walled carbon nanotubes formed by self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Schlittler, R R; Seo, J W; Gimzewski, J K; Durkan, C; Saifullah, M S; Welland, M E

    2001-05-11

    We report the self-assembly of single crystals of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) using thermolysis of nano-patterned precursors. The synthesis of these perfectly ordered, single crystals of SWCNTs results in extended structures with dimension on the micrometer scale. Each crystal is composed of an ordered array of tubes with identical diameters and chirality, although these properties vary between crystals. The results show that SWCNTs can be produced as a perfect bulk material on the micrometer scale and point toward the synthesis of bulk macroscopic crystalline material.

  8. Tunable scattering from liquid crystal devices using carbon nanotubes network electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ammar A.; Dabera, G. Dinesha M. R.; Butt, Haider; Qasim, Malik M.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Silva, S. Ravi P.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.

    2014-11-01

    Liquid crystals are of technological interest as they allow for optical effects which can be electrically controlled. In this paper we present an electro-optical device consisting of nematic liquid crystals addressed by an electrode structure consisting of thin films of polymer wrapped single walled carbon nanotubes (nanohybrids). Thin films of nanohybrids display excellent optical transmission and electrical conduction properties. Due to the randomly organised nanohybrids these composite films produce interesting director profile arrangements within the liquid crystal layers. As a result, enhanced scattering of laser and white light was observed from these liquid crystal cells which bend themselves as electrically controllable optical diffusers and beam shapers.

  9. Growing and characterizing one-dimensional crystals within single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, John L; Sloan, Jeremy; Kirkland, Angus I; Green, Malcolm L H

    2004-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been used as growth templates for spatially confined crystal growth. The comparative crystallization and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging properties of simple binary halides formed by the alkali iodides MI (M = Li, K, Na, Rb and Cs) within SWNTs are described. The most common structure type observed within SWNTs was the rocksalt archetype, although CsI was observed to form both body-centred cubic (bcc) and rocksalt structure types. ThCl4 was found to form a chain structure of Th[Cl]8 polyhedra. HgI2 crystallized within nanotubes with ultra-narrow (i.e. 0.8 nm) capillaries was observed to form helical 2 x 1 layer crystals.

  10. Effects of A-site nonstoichiometry on oxide ion conduction in 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasertpalichat, Sasiporn; Schmidt, Whitney; Cann, David P.

    2016-06-01

    Lead free 0.94(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state mixed oxide route with the A-site stoichiometry modified to incorporate donor-doping (through Bi-excess) and acceptor-doping (through Na-excess). Both stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric ceramics exhibited a single perovskite phase with pseudo-cubic symmetry. A significant improvement in the dielectric properties was observed in Bi-excess compositions and a deterioration in the dielectric properties was observed in Na-excess compositions. Impedance spectroscopy was utilized to analyze the effects of A-site nonstoichiometry on conduction mechanisms. Compositions with Bi-excess resulted in an electrically homogeneous microstructure with an increase in resistivity by ˜3-4 orders of magnitude and an associated activation energy of 1.57eV which was close to half of the optical bandgap. In contrast, an electrically heterogeneous microstructure was observed in both the stoichiometric and Na-excess compositions. In addition, the Na-excess compositions exhibited low resistivities (ρ˜103Ω-cm) with characteristic peaks in the impedance data comparable to the recent observations of oxide ion conduction in (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3. Long term annealing studies were also conducted at 800∘C to identify changes in crystal structure and electrical properties. The results of this study demonstrates that the dielectric and electrical properties of 0.94(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramics are very sensitive to Bi/Na stoichiometry.

  11. Influence of interfacial coherency on ferroelectric switching of superlattice BaTiO3/SrTiO3

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Pingping; Ma, Xingqiao; Li, Yulan; Eom, C.B.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Chen, Long-Qing

    2015-04-11

    Switching behavior of (BaTiO3)8/ (SrTiO3)4 heterostructure superlattice grown on SrTiO3 substrate was studied by employing the phase field method. To investigate the constraint effect of the substrate on switching, three types of superlattice/substrate interface mechanical relaxation conditions were considered, i.e. the fully ommensurate, partially relaxed and fully relaxed. Our simulation results demonstrated that the hysteresis loops under the three types of constraints were very different. The interfacial coherency affects dramatically the coercivity and remanence of the superlattice films. The mechanism of the hysteresis loop varying with interfacial coherency was analyzed by the ferroelectric domain configuration and its evolution during the switching process. The hysteresis loop of fully relaxed superlattice shows application potential on ferroelectric energy storage materials.

  12. Multiferroic properties of microwave sintered BaTiO3-SrFe12O19 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katlakunta, Sadhana; Raju, Pantagani; Meena, Sher Singh; Srinath, Sanyadanam; Sandhya, Reddigari; Kuruva, Praveena; Murthy, Sarabu Ramana

    2014-09-01

    The composites of xSrFe12O19-(1-x) BaTiO3 where x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 and 1were prepared by Sol-gel method and consequently densified at 1100 °C/90 min using microwave sintering method. The phase formation and diphase microstructure of the composite samples was examined by X-ray diffraction and field emission electron microscope (FESEM), respectively. The effects of constituent phase variation on the ferroelectric, dielectric and magnetic properties were examined. It was observed that with a decrease of x, the Curie temperature shifted towards low temperature side.

  13. Vacancy-induced magnetism in BaTiO3(001) thin films based on density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dan; Cai, Meng-Qiu; Hu, Wang-Yu; Yu, Ping; Huang, Hai-Tao

    2011-03-14

    The origin of magnetism induced by vacancies on BaTiO(3)(001) surfaces is investigated systematically by first-principles calculations within density-functional theory. The calculated results show that O vacancy is responsible for the magnetism of the BaO-terminated surface and the magnetism of the TiO(2)-terminated surface is induced by Ti vacancy. For the BaO-terminated surface, the magnetism mainly arises from the unpaired electrons that are localized in the O vacancy basin. In contrast, for the TiO(2)-terminated surface, the magnetism mainly originates from the partially occupied O-2p states of the first nearest neighbor O atoms surrounding the Ti vacancy. These results suggest the possibility of implementing magneto-electric coupling in conventional ferroelectric materials.

  14. Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Multilayered BaTiO3/(Ba,Ca)TiO3/CaTiO3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Na; Gao, Ting Ting; Xu, Xing; Liang, Wei Zheng; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Chonglin; Chen, Xiang Ming

    2016-08-31

    Highly oriented multilayered BaTiO3-(Ba,Ca)TiO3-CaTiO3 thin films were fabricated on Nb-doped (001) SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The configurations of multilayered BaTiO3-(Ba,Ca)TiO3-CaTiO3 thin films are designed with the thickness ratio of 1:1:1 and 2:1:1 and total thickness ∼300 nm. Microstructural characterization by X-ray diffraction indicates that the as-deposited thin films are highly c-axis oriented and large in-plane strain is determined in BaTiO3 and CaTiO3 layers. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) studies reveal an intense in-plane polarization component, whereas the out-of-plane shows inferior phase contrast. The optimized combination is found to be the BaTiO3-(Ba0.85Ca0.15)TiO3-CaTiO3 structure with combination ratio 2:1:1, which displays the largest domain switching amplitude under DC electric field, the largest room-temperature dielectric constant ∼646, a small dielectric loss of 0.03, and the largest dielectric tunability of ∼50% at 400 kV/cm. These results suggest that the enhanced dielectric and tunability performance are greatly associated with the large in-plane polarization component and domain switching.

  15. Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Multilayered BaTiO3/(Ba,Ca)TiO3/CaTiO3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Na; Gao, Ting Ting; Xu, Xing; Liang, Wei Zheng; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Chonglin; Chen, Xiang Ming

    2016-08-31

    Highly oriented multilayered BaTiO3-(Ba,Ca)TiO3-CaTiO3 thin films were fabricated on Nb-doped (001) SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The configurations of multilayered BaTiO3-(Ba,Ca)TiO3-CaTiO3 thin films are designed with the thickness ratio of 1:1:1 and 2:1:1 and total thickness ∼300 nm. Microstructural characterization by X-ray diffraction indicates that the as-deposited thin films are highly c-axis oriented and large in-plane strain is determined in BaTiO3 and CaTiO3 layers. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) studies reveal an intense in-plane polarization component, whereas the out-of-plane shows inferior phase contrast. The optimized combination is found to be the BaTiO3-(Ba0.85Ca0.15)TiO3-CaTiO3 structure with combination ratio 2:1:1, which displays the largest domain switching amplitude under DC electric field, the largest room-temperature dielectric constant ∼646, a small dielectric loss of 0.03, and the largest dielectric tunability of ∼50% at 400 kV/cm. These results suggest that the enhanced dielectric and tunability performance are greatly associated with the large in-plane polarization component and domain switching. PMID:27514235

  16. Mechanism of high dielectric performance of polymer composites induced by BaTiO3-supporting Ag hybrid fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Yang, Wenhu; Yu, Shuhui; Luo, Suibin; Sun, Rong

    2014-03-01

    BaTiO3-supporting Ag hybrid particles (BT-Ag) with varied fraction of Ag were synthesized by reducing silver nitrate in the glycol solution containing BaTiO3 (BT) suspensions. The Ag nano particles with a size of about 20 nm were discretely grown on the surface of the BT. The dielectric performance of the composites containing the BT-Ag as fillers in the matrix of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) was investigated. The relative permittivity (ɛr) of the BT-Ag/PVDF composites increased prominently with the increase of BT-Ag loading amount, and the typical conductive path of the conductor/polymer system was not observed even with a high loading of BT-Ag. The ɛr at 100 Hz for the three BT-(0.31, 0.49, 0.61)Ag/PVDF composites at room temperature were 283, 350, and 783, respectively. The ɛr of the composites was enhanced by more than 3 times compared with that of the composite containing untreated BT nanoparticles at frequencies over 1 kHz and the loss tangent (tan δ) was less than 0.1 which should be attributed to the low conductivity of the composites. Theoretical calculations based on the effective medium percolation theory model and series-parallel model suggested that the enhanced permittivity of BT-Ag/PVDF composites should arise from the ultrahigh permittivity of BT-Ag fillers, which was over 104 and associated with the content of Ag deposited on the surface of BT.

  17. Photoluminescence microscopy on air-suspended carbon nanotubes coupled to photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, R.; Imamura, S.; Shimada, T.; Ohta, R.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y.; Kato, Y. K.

    2014-03-01

    Because carbon nanotubes are room-temperature telecom-band emitters and can be grown on silicon substrates, they are ideal for coupling to silicon photonic cavities.[2,3 In particular, as-grown air-suspended carbon nanotubes show excellent optical properties, but cavity modes with large fields in the air are needed in order to achieve efficient coupling. Here we investigate individual air-suspended nanotubes coupled to photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. We utilize cavities that confine air-band modes which have large fields in the air. Dielectric mode cavities are also prepared for comparison. We fabricate the devices from silicon-on-insulator substrates by using electron beam lithography and dry etching to form the nanobeam structure. The buried oxide layer is removed by wet etching, and carbon nanotubes are grown onto the cavities by chemical vapor deposition. We perform photoluminescence imaging and excitation spectroscopy to find the positions of the nanotubes and identify their chiralities. For both types of devices, cavity modes with quality factors of ~3000 are observed within the nanotube emission peak. Work supported by SCOPE, KAKENHI, The Telecommunications Advancement Foundation, The Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute, Project for Developing Innovation Systems of MEXT, Japan and the Photon Frontier Network Program of MEXT, Japan.

  18. Structure and Crystallization Behavior of Nylong 66/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites at Low Carbon Nanotube Contents

    SciTech Connect

    Li,L.; Li, C.; Ni, C.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were modified with poly(hexamethylene adipamide) (also known as Nylon 66) via a controlled polymer solution crystallization method. A 'nanohybrid shish kebab' (NHSK) structure was found wherein the MWNT resembled the shish while Nylon 66 lamellar crystals formed the kebabs. These Nylon 66-functionalized MWNTs were used as precursors to prepare polymer/MWNT nanocomposites. Excellent dispersion was revealed by optical and electron microscopies. Nitric acid etching of the nanocomposites showed that MWNT formed a robust network in Nylon 66. Non-isothermal DSC results showed multiple melting peaks, which can be attributed to lamellar thickness changes upon heating. The crystallite sizes L{sub 100} and L{sup 010} of Nylon 66, determined by WAXD, decreased with increasing MWNT contents. Isothermal DSC results showed that crystallization kinetics increased first and then decreased with increasing MWNT contents in Nylon 66. This study showed that the effect of MWNTs on Nylon 66 crystallization is twofold: MWNTs provide heterogeneous nucleation sites for Nylon 66 crystallization while the tube network structure hinders large crystal growth.

  19. Optical properties of dimeric liquid crystals doped with single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, M.; Katranchev, B.; Rafailov, P. M.; Naradikian, H.; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U.; Keskinova, E.

    2012-12-01

    Well oriented distinct local single crystals were grown in smectic C liquid crystal (LC) (heptyloxybenzoic acid - 7OBA) using predefined orientation of the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The SWCNT/SiOx/ITO/glass surface is found to cause a substantial enlargement of the smectic C distinct local single crystals and to reinforce both surface memory effect and surface anchoring. We synthesized and examined a set of nanocomposites, built of LC with hydrogen-bonded in dimers molecules (7OBA) and SWCNT. We found that the surface orientation strength and the interaction of the dimeric molecules with the carbon nanotubes play a decisive role for the type (symmetry), thermal stability and chirality of the LC states induced in the nanocomposites. As a result, a set of phase transitions and new phases (chiral smectic C, reentrant nematic, reentrant chiral nematic and a unique low-temperature chiral biaxial fluid smectic phase CG) not typical for pristine 7OBA were found.

  20. Multi walled carbon nanotubes as sorbent for removal of crystal violet.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Umar, Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess high surface active site to volume ratio as well as controlled pore size distribution that make them high profile material with an exceptional sorption capability and high sorption efficiency compared to conventional adsorbents. In the present paper, multi walled carbon nanotubes were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and were further used for the removal of dye crystal violet. Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques were used for characterization. The systematic assessments of the pH and effect of adsorbent on different concentrations of dye with respect to contact time were examined. Langmuir and Temkin models were used to describe the isotherm studies. PMID:25924370

  1. Ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in Fe doped BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Bipul; Ravi, S.; Perumal, A.; Pamu, D.

    2014-09-01

    We report the investigation of crystal structure, magnetic and dielectric properties of BaTi1-xFexO3 samples for x=0.0-0.3. The parent compound is found to crystallize in tetragonal structure while Fe doped samples are found to crystallize in the mixture of tetragonal and hexagonal phases but they are free from any impurity phase. Room temperature ferromagnetism with the transition temperature (Tc) of 462 K was observed for x=0.3 sample. Fe doped samples exhibit ferroelectric transition with transition temperature (TcF) in the range of 390 K for x=0.0-312 K for x=0.2. The dielectric constant, ε‧ is found to decrease with the increase in doping concentrations.

  2. Exploring the alignment of carbon nanotubes dispersed in a liquid crystal matrix using coplanar electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Volpati, D.; Massey, M. K.; Kotsialos, A.; Qaiser, F.; Pearson, C.; Tiburzi, G.; Zeze, D. A.; Petty, M. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Coleman, K. S.

    2015-03-28

    We report on the use of a liquid crystalline host medium to align single-walled carbon nanotubes in an electric field using an in-plane electrode configuration. Electron microscopy reveals that the nanotubes orient in the field with a resulting increase in the DC conductivity in the field direction. Current versus voltage measurements on the composite show a nonlinear behavior, which was modelled by using single-carrier space-charge injection. The possibility of manipulating the conductivity pathways in the same sample by applying the electrical field in different (in-plane) directions has also been demonstrated. Raman spectroscopy indicates that there is an interaction between the nanotubes and the host liquid crystal molecules that goes beyond that of simple physical mixing.

  3. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field.

    PubMed

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José F; Zito, Gianluigi; Cacace, Teresa; Marino, Antigone; Otón, José M; Geday, Morten A

    2016-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules.

  4. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field.

    PubMed

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José F; Zito, Gianluigi; Cacace, Teresa; Marino, Antigone; Otón, José M; Geday, Morten A

    2016-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules. PMID:27547599

  5. Reorientation of single-wall carbon nanotubes in negative anisotropy liquid crystals by an electric field

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José F; Zito, Gianluigi; Cacace, Teresa; Marino, Antigone; Otón, José M

    2016-01-01

    Summary Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are anisotropic nanoparticles that can cause modifications in the electrical and electro-optical properties of liquid crystals. The control of the SWCNT concentration, distribution and reorientation in such self-organized fluids allows for the possibility of tuning the liquid crystal properties. The alignment and reorientation of CNTs are studied in a system where the liquid crystal orientation effect has been isolated. Complementary studies including Raman spectroscopy, microscopic inspection and impedance studies were carried out. The results reveal an ordered reorientation of the CNTs induced by an electric field, which does not alter the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules. Moreover, impedance spectroscopy suggests a nonnegligible anchoring force between the CNTs and the liquid crystal molecules. PMID:27547599

  6. Crystallization and recrystallization behavior study on biopolymer composites with polymer grafted halloysite nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ting; Kojio, Ken; Takahara, Atsushi

    We study the crystallization and recrystallization behavior of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) in PLA/halloysite composites. Specifically, we are interested in finding the additional effect of interface properties variation in composites except for enhancing filler dispersion. Halloysite nanotubes are grafted with polymer to create different surface properties at their surface. These polymer grafted halloysite nanotubes are then spread into PLA via solvent mixing. Using differential scanning calorimeter, we track and analyze the influence of halloysite surface properties on the crystallization and recrystallization behavior of PLA composites under several conditions. We also present investigations of polarizing optical microscopy, in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements. The investigations provide insight into interface effect on PLA composites. The synchrotron WAXD measurements were performed on BL02B2 beamline at Spring-8 with the approval of the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Institute (JASRI) (Proposal No. 2015B1541).

  7. Electric field effects in nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cîrtoaje, Cristina; Petrescu, Emil; Moţoc, Cornelia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate electric field induced effects in mixtures of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) with positive electric anisotropies (MCL 6601 Merck) with carbon nanotubes (MWCNT from Aldrich). In planar alignment, the current-electric field dependence and the current-temperature dependence were explained by assuming a Poole-Frenkel effect (i.e. a tunnelling mechanism) and good agreement with the experimental data was obtained. Within this high field range it resulted that in planar aligned NLC-CNTs mixture the conductivity decreases when the temperature was increased. In homeotropic aligned mixture, the conduction mechanism is similar to the one occurring in a semiconductor: the conductivity increases when increasing temperature. This happens because in thin liquid crystal cells there is a possibility to realize an inner contact between nanotubes and electrodes so the mixture behaves like a semiconductor.

  8. Direct approach for flexoelectricity from first-principles calculations: cases for SrTiO3 and BaTiO3.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Wang, Jie; Shimada, Takahiro; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2013-10-16

    Understanding the nature of flexoelectricity, which is the linear response of electric polarization to a strain gradient, has recently become crucial for nanostructured dielectrics and ferroelectrics because of their complicated strain distribution. This paper presents a direct and full approach at the atomic level to predict flexoelectricity for dielectrics based on first-principles calculations. The flexoelectric coefficients of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 are directly calculated as the representatives of ferroelectric and paraelectric materials, respectively. For SrTiO3, the flexoelectric coefficients predicted from our approach are in good agreement with the experimental measurements. For BaTiO3, our predictions have a large discrepancy from the experimental measurements. In a practical situation, defect and surface effects are inevitable, and have a significant influence on the flexoelectricity. Direct methods have the advantage of including the extrinsic contributions from surface and defect effects.

  9. Fabrication of BaTiO3-Based Dielectrics for Ultrathin-Layer Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor Application by a Modified Coating Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhibin; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yichi; Song, Tae-Ho; Hur, Kang Heon; Li, Longtu

    2011-02-01

    The development of multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) with base metal electrode (BME) requires precise controlling of the microstructure in a very thin dielectric layer (<1 µm). In this paper, a modified coating approach for high coverage of BaTiO3 powder for further MLCC application has been developed. The well dispersed and coated BaTiO3 powders are prepared and the relative mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, the ultrafine grained X7R dielectric ceramics were produced by both conventional mixing and modified coating methods. Compared with the conventional mixing method, the ceramics prepared by the coating approach exhibited better TCC (the temperature coefficient of capacitance) performance, with dielectric constant over 2000 and grain size below 150 nm. In addition, it is found through the coating method the content of additives can be reduced to a relatively smaller amount than that required in conventional mixing method.

  10. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and dielectric evolution of BaTiO3. Part II—insulation resistance degradation under applied dc bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G. Y.; Lian, G. D.; Dickey, E. C.; Randall, C. A.; Barber, D. E.; Pinceloup, P.; Henderson, M. A.; Hill, R. A.; Beeson, J. J.; Skamser, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    The microchemical and microstructural origins of insulation-resistance degradation in BaTiO3-based capacitors are studied by complementary impedance spectroscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy. The degradation under dc-field bias involves electromigration and accumulation of oxygen vacancies at interfaces. The nonstoichiometric BaTiO3-δ becomes locally more conducting through increased oxygen vacancy concentration and Ti ion reduction. The symmetry across the dielectric layer and locally across each grain is broken during the degradation process. Locally, the nonstoichiometry becomes so severe that metastable lattice structures are formed. The degradation in insulation resistance at the grain boundaries and electrode interfaces is associated with the double Schottky-barrier potential lowering and narrowing. This may correlate with an effective decrease in net acceptor charge density at the grain boundaries.

  11. Orientation control of liquid crystals using carbon-nanotube-magnetic particle hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeon Su; Youn, Sang Cheon; Kim, Yun Ho; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2013-06-28

    We have developed a simple yet versatile method for aligning liquid crystals (LCs) by using magnetic-field oriented single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) that were modified with magnetic particles. A high degree of homeotropic/planar LC alignment was achieved by SWNTs being exposed to a very low strength magnetic field, combined with strong π-π interactions between the biphenyl group in the LCs and the wall of the SWNTs. PMID:23676827

  12. Vacuum filtration based formation of liquid crystal films of semiconducting carbon nanotubes and high performance transistor devices.

    PubMed

    King, Benjamin; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report ultra-thin liquid crystal films of semiconducting carbon nanotubes using a simple vacuum filtration process. Vacuum filtration of nanotubes in aqueous surfactant solution formed nematic domains on the filter membrane surface and exhibited local ordering. A 2D fast Fourier transform was used to calculate the order parameters from scanning electron microscopy images. The order parameter was observed to be sensitive to the filtration time demonstrating different regions of transformation namely nucleation of nematic domains, nanotube accumulation and large domain growth.Transmittance versus sheet resistance measurements of such films resulted in optical to dc conductivity of σ(opt)/σ(dc) = 9.01 indicative of purely semiconducting nanotube liquid crystal network.Thin films of nanotube liquid crystals with order parameters ranging from S = 0.1-0.5 were patterned into conducting channels of transistor devices which showed high I(on)/I(off) ratios from 10-19,800 and electron mobility values μ(e) = 0.3-78.8 cm(2) (V-s)(-1), hole mobility values μ(h) = 0.4-287 cm(2) (V-s)(-1). High I on/I off ratios were observed at low order parameters and film mass. A Schottky barrier transistor model is consistent with the observed transistor characteristics. Electron and hole mobilities were seen to increase with order parameters and carbon nanotube mass fractions. A fundamental tradeoff between decreasing on/off ratio and increasing mobility with increasing nanotube film mass and order parameter is therefore concluded. Increase in order parameters of nanotubes liquid crystals improved the electronic transport properties as witnessed by the increase in σ(dc)/σ(opt) values on macroscopic films and high mobilities in microscopic transistors. Liquid crystal networks of semiconducting nanotubes as demonstrated here are simple to fabricate, transparent, scalable and could find wide ranging device applications.

  13. Vacuum filtration based formation of liquid crystal films of semiconducting carbon nanotubes and high performance transistor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Benjamin; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report ultra-thin liquid crystal films of semiconducting carbon nanotubes using a simple vacuum filtration process. Vacuum filtration of nanotubes in aqueous surfactant solution formed nematic domains on the filter membrane surface and exhibited local ordering. A 2D fast Fourier transform was used to calculate the order parameters from scanning electron microscopy images. The order parameter was observed to be sensitive to the filtration time demonstrating different regions of transformation namely nucleation of nematic domains, nanotube accumulation and large domain growth.Transmittance versus sheet resistance measurements of such films resulted in optical to dc conductivity of σ opt/σ dc = 9.01 indicative of purely semiconducting nanotube liquid crystal network.Thin films of nanotube liquid crystals with order parameters ranging from S = 0.1-0.5 were patterned into conducting channels of transistor devices which showed high I on/I off ratios from 10-19 800 and electron mobility values μ e = 0.3-78.8 cm2 (V-s)-1, hole mobility values μ h = 0.4-287 cm2 (V-s)-1. High I on/I off ratios were observed at low order parameters and film mass. A Schottky barrier transistor model is consistent with the observed transistor characteristics. Electron and hole mobilities were seen to increase with order parameters and carbon nanotube mass fractions. A fundamental tradeoff between decreasing on/off ratio and increasing mobility with increasing nanotube film mass and order parameter is therefore concluded. Increase in order parameters of nanotubes liquid crystals improved the electronic transport properties as witnessed by the increase in σ dc/σ opt values on macroscopic films and high mobilities in microscopic transistors. Liquid crystal networks of semiconducting nanotubes as demonstrated here are simple to fabricate, transparent, scalable and could find wide ranging device applications.

  14. NIR to blue light upconversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped BaTiO3 tellurite glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Astha; Rai, Vineet Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Upconversion is an interesting optical property, generally shown by rare-earth doped materials. This unusual optical behavior shown by these rare-earths doped materials are due to their peculiar atomic configuration and electronic transitions. Here, the Tm3+-Yb3+ codoped BaTiO3 glass with TeO2 as former has been prepared by conventional melt and quench technique and the upconversion property has been investigated with the help of near infrared (NIR) to Visible UC study. The generation of the visible UC bands around ˜ 476 nm, ˜ 653 nm, ˜ 702 nm and one NIR UC band at ˜795 nm are assigned due to the 1G4→ 3H6, 1G4→ 3F4, 3F2→ 3H6 and 3H4→ 3H6 transitions respectively. The generations of these upconversion bands have been discussed in detail with the help of energy level diagram. The colour coordinates corresponding to the prepared material have been shown with the help of CIE chromaticity diagram. These glasses can be very appropriately used in the fabrication of solid state laser and as NIR to blue light upconverter.

  15. Phase-field modeling of switchable diode-like current-voltage characteristics in ferroelectric BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Y.; Shen, J.; Randall, C. A.; Chen, L. Q.

    2014-05-01

    A self-consistent model has been proposed to study the switchable current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in Cu/BaTiO3/Cu sandwiched structure combining the phase-field model of ferroelectric domains and diffusion equations for ionic/electronic transport. The electrochemical transport equations and Ginzburg-Landau equations are solved using the Chebyshev collocation algorithm. We considered a single parallel plate capacitor configuration which consists of a single layer BaTiO3 containing a single tetragonal domain orientated normal to the plate electrodes (Cu) and is subject to a sweep of ac bias from -1.0 to 1.0 V at 25 °C. Our simulation clearly shows rectifying I-V response with rectification ratios amount to 102. The diode characteristics are switchable with an even larger rectification ratio after the polarization direction is flipped. The effects of interfacial polarization charge, dopant concentration, and dielectric constant on current responses were investigated. The switchable I-V behavior is attributed to the polarization bound charges that modulate the bulk conduction.

  16. Relating Electronic and Geometric Structure of Atomic Layer Deposited BaTiO3 to its Electrical Properties

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition allows the fabrication of BaTiO3 (BTO) ultrathin films with tunable dielectric properties, which is a promising material for electronic and optical technology. Industrial applicability necessitates a better understanding of their atomic structure and corresponding properties. Through the use of element-specific X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, O K-edge of BTO as a function of cation composition and underlying substrate (RuO2 and SiO2) is revealed. By employing density functional theory and multiple scattering simulations, we analyze the distortions in BTO’s bonding environment captured by the XANES spectra. The spectral weight shifts to lower energy with increasing Ti content and provides an atomic scale (microscopic) explanation for the increase in leakage current density. Differences in film morphologies in the first few layers near substrate–film interfaces reveal BTO’s homogeneous growth on RuO2 and its distorted growth on SiO2. This work links structural changes to BTO thin-film properties and provides insight necessary for optimizing future BTO and other ternary metal oxide-based thin-film devices. PMID:27009677

  17. Effects of substrate materials on piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3 thick films deposited by aerosol deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Masato; Arai, Ken-Ichi; Sugimoto, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    Piezoelectric properties were evaluated for annealed BaTiO3 (BT) films formed by aerosol deposition on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and Fe-Cr-Al-based heat-resistant stainless steel (SS). The piezoelectric constants d 31 of BT films annealed at 1200 °C formed on YSZ and SS were -71 and -41 pm/V, respectively. The effects of different substrates on piezoelectric properties were investigated. The grain sizes of the films formed on YSZ and SS were 1.5 and 1.0 µm, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis using a two-dimensional stress method revealed that the respective residual stresses of the films formed on YSZ and SS were -55 ± 8 and -32 ± 7 MPa, respectively, as compressive stresses. The c-domain structure was formed preferentially in the films on SS because of its larger compressive stress. These results suggest that differences in piezoelectric properties attributable to substrates result from differences in compressive stress magnitude and the volume fraction between the c- and a-domains.

  18. Relating electronic and geometric structure of atomic layer deposited BaTiO3 to its electrical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Torgersen, Jan; Acharya, Shinjita; Dadlani, Anup Lal; Petousis, Ioannis; Kim, Yongmin; Trejo, Orlando; Nordlund, Dennis; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2016-03-24

    Atomic layer deposition allows the fabrication of BaTiO3 (BTO) ultrathin films with tunable dielectric properties, which is a promising material for electronic and optical technology. Industrial applicability necessitates a better understanding of their atomic structure and corresponding properties. Through the use of element-specific X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, O K-edge of BTO as a function of cation composition and underlying substrate (RuO2 and SiO2) is revealed. By employing density functional theory and multiple scattering simulations, we analyze the distortions in BTO’s bonding environment captured by the XANES spectra. The spectral weight shifts to lower energy with increasing Timore » content and provides an atomic scale (microscopic) explanation for the increase in leakage current density. Differences in film morphologies in the first few layers near substrate–film interfaces reveal BTO’s homogeneous growth on RuO2 and its distorted growth on SiO2. As a result, this work links structural changes to BTO thin-film properties and provides insight necessary for optimizing future BTO and other ternary metal oxide-based thin-film devices.« less

  19. Relating Electronic and Geometric Structure of Atomic Layer Deposited BaTiO3 to its Electrical Properties.

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Jan; Acharya, Shinjita; Dadlani, Anup Lal; Petousis, Ioannis; Kim, Yongmin; Trejo, Orlando; Nordlund, Dennis; Prinz, Fritz B

    2016-04-21

    Atomic layer deposition allows the fabrication of BaTiO3 (BTO) ultrathin films with tunable dielectric properties, which is a promising material for electronic and optical technology. Industrial applicability necessitates a better understanding of their atomic structure and corresponding properties. Through the use of element-specific X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, O K-edge of BTO as a function of cation composition and underlying substrate (RuO2 and SiO2) is revealed. By employing density functional theory and multiple scattering simulations, we analyze the distortions in BTO's bonding environment captured by the XANES spectra. The spectral weight shifts to lower energy with increasing Ti content and provides an atomic scale (microscopic) explanation for the increase in leakage current density. Differences in film morphologies in the first few layers near substrate-film interfaces reveal BTO's homogeneous growth on RuO2 and its distorted growth on SiO2. This work links structural changes to BTO thin-film properties and provides insight necessary for optimizing future BTO and other ternary metal oxide-based thin-film devices.

  20. Junction size dependence of ferroelectric properties in e-beam patterned BaTiO3 ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. V.; Althammer, M.; Rott, K.; Reiss, G.; Gupta, A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the switching characteristics in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric tunnel junctions patterned in a capacitive geometry with circular Ru top electrode with diameters ranging from ˜430 to 2300 nm. Two different patterning schemes, viz., lift-off and ion-milling, have been employed to examine the variations in the ferroelectric polarization, switching, and tunnel electro-resistance resulting from differences in the pattering processes. The values of polarization switching field are measured and compared for junctions of different diameter in the samples fabricated using both patterning schemes. We do not find any specific dependence of polarization switching bias on the size of junctions in both sample stacks. The junctions in the ion-milled sample show up to three orders of resistance change by polarization switching and the polarization retention is found to improve with increasing junction diameter. However, similar switching is absent in the lift-off sample, highlighting the effect of patterning scheme on the polarization retention.

  1. Time-Dependent Negative Capacitance Effects in Al2O3/BaTiO3 Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Jin; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Moon, Taehwan; Kwon, Young Jae; An, Cheol Hyun; Kim, Han Joon; Kim, Keum Do; Lee, Young Hwan; Hyun, Seung Dam; Park, Min Hyuk; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2016-07-13

    The negative capacitance (NC) effects in ferroelectric materials have emerged as the possible solution to low-power transistor devices and high-charge-density capacitors. Although the steep switching characteristic (subthreshold swing < sub-60 mV/dec) has been demonstrated in various devices combining the conventional transistors with ferroelectric gates, the actual applications of the NC effects are still some way off owing to the inherent hysteresis problem. This work reinterpreted the hysteretic properties of the NC effects within the time domain and demonstrated that capacitance (charge) boosting could be achieved without the hysteresis from the Al2O3/BaTiO3 bilayer capacitors through short-pulse charging. This work revealed that the hysteresis phenomenon in NC devices originated from the dielectric leakage of the dielectric layer. The suppression of charge injection via the dielectric leakage, which usually takes time, inhibits complete ferroelectric polarization switching during a short pulse time. It was demonstrated that a nonhysteretic NC effect can be achieved only within certain limited time and voltage ranges, but that these are sufficient for critical device applications. PMID:27231754

  2. Relating Electronic and Geometric Structure of Atomic Layer Deposited BaTiO3 to its Electrical Properties.

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Jan; Acharya, Shinjita; Dadlani, Anup Lal; Petousis, Ioannis; Kim, Yongmin; Trejo, Orlando; Nordlund, Dennis; Prinz, Fritz B

    2016-04-21

    Atomic layer deposition allows the fabrication of BaTiO3 (BTO) ultrathin films with tunable dielectric properties, which is a promising material for electronic and optical technology. Industrial applicability necessitates a better understanding of their atomic structure and corresponding properties. Through the use of element-specific X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis, O K-edge of BTO as a function of cation composition and underlying substrate (RuO2 and SiO2) is revealed. By employing density functional theory and multiple scattering simulations, we analyze the distortions in BTO's bonding environment captured by the XANES spectra. The spectral weight shifts to lower energy with increasing Ti content and provides an atomic scale (microscopic) explanation for the increase in leakage current density. Differences in film morphologies in the first few layers near substrate-film interfaces reveal BTO's homogeneous growth on RuO2 and its distorted growth on SiO2. This work links structural changes to BTO thin-film properties and provides insight necessary for optimizing future BTO and other ternary metal oxide-based thin-film devices. PMID:27009677

  3. Light-induced absorption in BaTiO 3 and KNbO 3 generated with high intensity laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buse, K.; Krätzig, E.

    1992-09-01

    Light-induced absorption generated with nanosecond laser pulses (wavelength 532 nm, intensities up to 500 GWm -2) is investigated in BaTiO 3 and KNbO 3. The measurements strongly support the two-center model for absorption processes in these materials. Comparison with the results of cw experiments clearly indicates that at high light intensities additional shallow traps become active.

  4. The elimination of deviations of the mean-field Landau-type theory from the fancy size effect experiment in nanoscale ferroelectric BaTiO 3 capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-Long; Wang, Xing-Yuan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Bao-Ting; Fu, Guang-Sheng

    2010-11-01

    A time-dependent mean-field Landau-type model is established based on the dipole energies in epitaxial film in order to investigate thickness dependence of the remanent polarization. It is found that the deviations of the mean-field Landau-type theoretical prediction from the experimental data for size effect can be eliminated in SrRuO 3/BaTiO 3/SrRuO 3 capacitor.

  5. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) polymer based nanocomposites with significantly reduced energy loss by filling with core-shell structured BaTiO3/SiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ke; Niu, Yujuan; Bai, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yongcun; Wang, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Homogeneous ceramics-polymer nanocomposites comprising core-shell structured BaTiO3/SiO2 nanoparticles and a poly(vinylidene fluoride) polymer matrix have been prepared. The nanocomposite of 2 vol. % BaTiO3/SiO2 nanoparticles exhibits 46% reduced energy loss compared to that of BaTiO3 nanoparticles, and an energy density of 6.28 J/cm3, under an applied electric field of 340 MV/m. Coating SiO2 layers on the surface of BaTiO3 nanoparticles significantly reduces the energy loss of the nanocomposites under high applied electric field via reducing the Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization and space charge polarization.

  6. Electrical response of liquid crystal cells doped with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Amanda; Vergaz, Ricardo; Algorri, José Francisco; Quintana, Xabier

    2015-01-01

    Summary The inclusion of nanoparticles modifies a number of fundamental properties of many materials. Doping of nanoparticles in self-organized materials such as liquid crystals may be of interest for the reciprocal interaction between the matrix and the nanoparticles. Elongated nanoparticles and nanotubes can be aligned and reoriented by the liquid crystal, inducing noticeable changes in their optical and electrical properties. In this work, cells of liquid crystal doped with high aspect ratio multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared, and their characteristic impedance has been studied at different frequencies and excitation voltages. The results demonstrate alterations in the anisotropic conductivity of the samples with the applied electric field, which can be followed by monitoring the impedance evolution with the excitation voltage. Results are consistent with a possible electric contact between the coated substrates of the LC cell caused by the reorientation of the nanotubes. The reversibility of the doped system upon removal of the electric field is quite low. PMID:25821679

  7. Local manifestations of a static magnetoelectric effect in nanostructured BaTiO3-BaFe12O9 composite multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Harsh; Shvartsman, Vladimir V.; Lupascu, Doru C.; Medeiros, Marco S. A.; Pullar, Robert C.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Zelenovskiy, Pavel; Sosnovskikh, Andrey; Shur, Vladimir Ya.

    2015-02-01

    A study on magnetoelectric phenomena in the barium titanate-barium hexaferrite (BaTiO3-BaFe12O19) composite system, using high resolution techniques including switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy (SSPFM) and spatially resolved confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), is presented. It is found that both the local piezoelectric coefficient and polarization switching parameters change on the application of an external magnetic field. The latter effect is rationalized by the influence of magnetostrictive stress on the domain dynamics. Processing of the Raman spectral data using principal component analysis (PCA) and self-modelling curve resolution (SMCR) allowed us to achieve high resolution phase distribution maps along with separation of average and localized spectral components. A significant effect of the magnetic field on the Raman spectra of the BaTiO3 phase has been revealed. The observed changes are comparable with the classical pressure dependent studies on BaTiO3, confirming the strain mediated character of the magnetoelectric coupling in the studied composites.

  8. The Importance of the Solids Loading on Confirming the Dielectric Nanosize Dependence of BaTiO3 Powders by Slurry Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Nie, Yi Mei; Li, Shu Jing; Liang, Hai Yan

    2013-01-01

    The dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO3 powders was investigated by the slurry method, where two series of BaTiO3 slurries with 10 vol% and 30 vol% solids loadings were prepared as model samples. Applying the Bruggeman-Hanai equation, the high-frequency limiting permittivity (εh) of the slurries was extracted from the dielectric spectra. The εh of the 10 vol% slurry showed abnormal size independence in the range from 100 nm to 700 nm, and the εh of the 30 vol% slurry exhibited good agreement with the previous prediction. Through analysing quantitatively the response of εh to the changing permittivity of the powders under different solids loading, it was found that the εh of the slurry with lower solids loading is more inclined to be interfered by the systematic and random errors. Furthermore, a high permittivity value was found in the BaTiO3 powders with 50 nm particle size. PMID:23844376

  9. Temperature-induced orbital selective localization and coherent-incoherent crossover in single-layer FeSe /Nb :BaTiO3/KTaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Y. J.; Huang, Z. C.; Xu, H. C.; Xu, D. F.; Song, Q.; Wen, C. H. P.; Peng, R.; Feng, D. L.

    2016-09-01

    Iron chalcogenide superconductors are multiorbital materials with strong electron correlations. Here we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study orbital dependent correlation effects in single-layer FeSe /Nb :BaTiO3/KTaO3, an iron chalcogenide superconductor with high interfacial superconductivity, nondegenerate electron pockets, and varied electron correlation compared with single-layer FeSe /SrTiO3. Signatures of polaronic behavior are observed over the whole temperature range, suggesting electron-boson interactions. Moreover, the nondegeneracy of the electron bands helps to resolve the temperature dependent evolution of different bands. The coherent spectral weight of one electron band significantly decreases above 115 K and is completely depleted at 200 K while that of the other one remains finite, giving direct evidence of an orbital selective Mott crossover. Correspondingly, the weight of the incoherent photoemission spectra is enhanced, indicating a coherent-incoherent crossover during the Mott crossover process. Compared with that in single-layer FeSe /SrTiO3, the depletion temperature of the dx y band is higher in single-layer FeSe /Nb :BaTiO3/KTaO3 due to the decreased correlation of the dx y band in FeSe /Nb :BaTiO3. These phenomena help to construct a more complete picture of electron correlations in the FeSe family.

  10. Direct observation of oxygen-vacancy-enhanced polarization in a SrTiO3-buffered ferroelectric BaTiO3 film on GaAs

    DOE PAGES

    Qiao, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Contreras-Guerrero, Rocio; Droopad, Ravi; Pantelides, S. T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Ogut, Serdar; Klie, Robert F.

    2015-11-16

    The integration of functional oxide thin-films on compound semiconductors can lead to a class of reconfigurable spin-based optoelectronic devices if defect-free, fully reversible active layers are stabilized. However, previous first-principles calculations predicted that SrTiO3 thin filmsgrown on Si exhibit pinned ferroelectric behavior that is not switchable, due to the presence of interfacial vacancies. Meanwhile, piezoresponse force microscopy measurements have demonstrated ferroelectricity in BaTiO3 grown on semiconductor substrates. The presence of interfacial oxygen vacancies in such complex-oxide/semiconductor systems remains unexplored, and their effect on ferroelectricity is controversial. We also use a combination of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and first-principles densitymore » functional theory modeling to examine the role of interfacial oxygen vacancies on the ferroelectricpolarization of a BaTiO3 thin filmgrown on GaAs. Moreover, we demonstrate that interfacial oxygen vacancies enhance the polar discontinuity (and thus the single domain, out-of-plane polarization pinning in BaTiO3), and propose that the presence of surface charge screening allows the formation of switchable domains.« less

  11. Influence of Ga-concentration on the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetoelectric CoGaxFe2-xO4/BaTiO3 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Nlebedim, Cajetan I.; Jiles, David C.

    2015-05-01

    Multiferroic materials exhibit magnetoelectric (ME) coupling and promise new device applications including magnetic sensors, generators, and filters. An effective method for developing ME materials with enhanced ME effect is achieved by the coupling through the interfacial strain between piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials. In this study, the electrical and magnetic properties of Ga doped magnetoelectric CoGaxFe2-xO4/BaTiO3 composite are studied systematically. It is found that Ga doping improves the sensitivity of magnetoelastic response and stabilizes the magnetic phase of the composites. More importantly, Ga doping reduces the electrical conductivity of composite, as well as the dielectric loss. An enhancement of the electrostrain with doping Ga is also observed. Quantitative estimation indicates that magnetoelectric coupling is enhanced for Ga-doped CoGaxFe2-xO4/BaTiO3 composites. Thus, the present work is beneficial to the practical application of composite CoFe2O4/BaTiO3-based multiferroic materials.

  12. Carbon nanotube doped liquid crystal OCB cells: physical and electro-optical properties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shin-Ying; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2008-08-18

    We report single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) doped liquid crystal materials which show significant improvement in the response time for optical controlled birefringence (OCB) cells. Four different types of liquid crystals (LCs) were chosen to mix with CNTs and they demonstrated similar results in improving the response time. Experimental results show that the anchoring energy at alignment layers has been changed by CNT doping. CNTs were attracted to the alignment layer and modified the property of the surface. The anchoring enhancement is due to the pi-pi electron stacking between the CNTs, LC molecules and alignment layers. PMID:18711517

  13. Dispersion of multi walled carbon nanotubes in a hydrogen bonded liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, V. N.; Madhu Mohan, M. L. N.

    2010-11-01

    In a newly synthesized self assembled system, namely, hydrogen bonded liquid crystal, multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are dispersed. This self assembly system of liquid crystal is realized by formation of hydrogen bond between levo tartaric acid and undecyloxy benzoic acid. The proposed structure is confirmed by FTIR and P-NMR studies. Thermal and electrical properties of this system dispersed with MWCNT are studied. Alignment of carbon nanotubes in the nematic phase of the self assembled system is responsible for the observation of bistable electrical states namely ON and OFF. Optical textural observations of these two states are recorded and the light intensity complexly decays and unwinding of the helix with the application of external field indicates an optical shuttering action. It is interesting to note that a small threshold value of 3.5 V/μm is sufficient to realize an optical shutter. DSC studied reveals that the enthalpy values pertaining to liquid crystal dispersed with MWCNT is approximately two fold to that of the pure liquid crystal. Results of conductance relating to the liquid crystal with MWCNT dispersion are discussed.

  14. Nanoconfinement induced crystal orientation and large piezoelectric coefficient in vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array.

    PubMed

    Liew, Weng Heng; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Chen, Shuting; Yao, Kui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2015-05-12

    Vertically aligned piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array comprising nanotubes embedded in anodized alumina membrane matrix without entanglement has been fabricated. It is found that the crystallographic polar axes of the P(VDF-TrFE) nanotubes are oriented along the nanotubes long axes. Such a desired crystal orientation is due to the kinetic selection mechanism for lamellae growth confined in the nanopores. The preferred crystal orientation in nanotubes leads to huge piezoelectric coefficients of the P(VDF-TrFE). The piezoelectric strain and voltage coefficients of P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array are observed to be 1.97 and 3.40 times of those for conventional spin coated film. Such a significant performance enhancement is attributed to the well-controlled polarization orientation, the elimination of the substrate constraint, and the low dielectric constant of the nanotube array. The P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array exhibiting the unique structure and outstanding piezoelectric performance is promising for wide applications, including various electrical devices and electromechanical sensors and transducers.

  15. Nanoconfinement induced crystal orientation and large piezoelectric coefficient in vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Weng Heng; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Chen, Shuting; Yao, Kui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array comprising nanotubes embedded in anodized alumina membrane matrix without entanglement has been fabricated. It is found that the crystallographic polar axes of the P(VDF-TrFE) nanotubes are oriented along the nanotubes long axes. Such a desired crystal orientation is due to the kinetic selection mechanism for lamellae growth confined in the nanopores. The preferred crystal orientation in nanotubes leads to huge piezoelectric coefficients of the P(VDF-TrFE). The piezoelectric strain and voltage coefficients of P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array are observed to be 1.97 and 3.40 times of those for conventional spin coated film. Such a significant performance enhancement is attributed to the well-controlled polarization orientation, the elimination of the substrate constraint, and the low dielectric constant of the nanotube array. The P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array exhibiting the unique structure and outstanding piezoelectric performance is promising for wide applications, including various electrical devices and electromechanical sensors and transducers. PMID:25966301

  16. Nanoconfinement induced crystal orientation and large piezoelectric coefficient in vertically aligned P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array.

    PubMed

    Liew, Weng Heng; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Chen, Shuting; Yao, Kui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2015-01-01

    Vertically aligned piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array comprising nanotubes embedded in anodized alumina membrane matrix without entanglement has been fabricated. It is found that the crystallographic polar axes of the P(VDF-TrFE) nanotubes are oriented along the nanotubes long axes. Such a desired crystal orientation is due to the kinetic selection mechanism for lamellae growth confined in the nanopores. The preferred crystal orientation in nanotubes leads to huge piezoelectric coefficients of the P(VDF-TrFE). The piezoelectric strain and voltage coefficients of P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array are observed to be 1.97 and 3.40 times of those for conventional spin coated film. Such a significant performance enhancement is attributed to the well-controlled polarization orientation, the elimination of the substrate constraint, and the low dielectric constant of the nanotube array. The P(VDF-TrFE) nanotube array exhibiting the unique structure and outstanding piezoelectric performance is promising for wide applications, including various electrical devices and electromechanical sensors and transducers. PMID:25966301

  17. Single-crystal, Si nanotubes, and their mechanical resonant properties.

    PubMed

    Quitoriano, Nathaniel J; Belov, Miro; Evoy, Stephane; Kamins, Theodore I

    2009-04-01

    Single-crystalline Si nanotubes (NTs) were fabricated using vapor-liquid-solid grown, Ge nanowires (NWs) as a template upon which a Si shell was deposited to first grow Ge-core, Si-shell NWs. The tips of these NWs were removed, enabling exposure of the Ge core to H(2)SO(4) and H(2)O(2). After removing the Ge core, single-crystalline Si NTs remained. In addition to growing these Ge-core, Si-shell NWs from a Si (111) substrate, these NWs were also grown horizontally from a vertical Si surface to enable the fabrication of horizontal NTs after focused ion-beam cutting and etching steps. The resonant properties of the Ge-core, Si-shell NW, and the Si NT after the cutting and etching steps were measured and found to have a quality factor, Q, of approximately 1800. PMID:19271766

  18. Comprehensive dielectric performance of bismuth acceptor doped BaTiO3 based nanocrystal thin film capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, SY; Zhang, HN; Sviridov, L; Huang, LM; Liu, XH; Samson, J; Akins, D; Li, J; O'Brien, S

    2012-11-07

    We present a novel approach to preparing bismuth acceptor doped barium titanate nanocrystal formulations that can be deposited in conjunction with polymers in order to prepare a thin film nanocomposite dielectric that exhibits desirable capacitor characteristics. Exploring the limits of dielectric function in nanocomposites is an important avenue of materials research, while paying strict attention to the overall device quality, namely permittivity, loss and equivalent series resistance (ESR). Pushing capacitor function to higher frequencies, a desirable goal from an electrical engineering point of view, presents a new set of challenges in terms of minimizing interfacial, space charge and polarization effects within the dielectric. We show the ability to synthesize BaTi0.96Bi0.04O3 or BaTi0.97Bi0.03O3 depending on nominal molar concentrations of bismuth at the onset. The low temperature solvothermal route allows for substitution at the titanium site (strongly supported by Rietveld and Raman analysis). Characterization is performed by XRD with Rietveld refinement, Raman Spectroscopy, SEM and HRTEM. A mechanism is proposed for bismuth acceptor substitution, based on the chemical reaction of the alkoxy-metal precursors involving nucleophilic addition. Dielectric analysis of the nanocrystal thin films is performed by preparing nanocrystal/PVP 2-2 nanocomposites (no annealing) and comparing BaTi0.96Bi0.04O3 and BaTi0.97Bi0.03O3 with undoped BaTiO3. Improvements of up to 25% in capacitance (permittivity) are observed, with lower loss and dramatically improved ESR, all to very high frequency ranges (>10 MHz).

  19. Preparation and Characterization of BaTiO3-PbZrTiO3 Coating for Pyroelectric Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavendra, R. M.; Praneeth, K. P. S. S.; Dutta, Soma

    2016-08-01

    Harvesting energy from waste heat is a promising field of research as there are significant energy recovery opportunities from various waste thermal energy sources. The present study reports pyroelectric energy harvesting using thick film prepared from a (x)BaTiO3-(1 - x)PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (BT-PZT) solid solution. The developed BT-PZT system is engineered to tune the ferro to paraelectric phase transition temperature of it in-between the phase transition temperature of BaTiO3 (393 K) and PbZrTiO3 (573 K) with higher pyroelectric figure-of-merit (FOM). The temperature-dependent dielectric behavior of the material has revealed the ferro- to paraelectric phase transition at 427 K with a maximum dielectric constant of 755. The room-temperature (298 K) pyroelectric coefficient (Pi) of the material was obtained as 738.63 μC/m2K which has yielded a significantly high FOM of 1745.8 J m-3 K-2. The enhancement in pyroelectric property is attributed to the morphotopic phase transition between tetragonal and rhombohedral PZT phases in the BT-PZT system. The developed BT-PZT system is capable of generating a power output of 1.3 mW/m2 near the Curie temperature with a constant rate (0.11 K/s) of heating. A signal conditioning circuit has been developed to rectify the time-varying current and voltage signals obtained from the harvester during heating cycles. The output voltage generated by the pyroelectric harvester has been stored in a capacitor for powering wearable electronics.

  20. Multiferroic approach for Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Cu substituted BaTiO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Kuldeep Chand; Kotnala, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Multiferroic magnetoelectric (ME) at room temperature is significant for new design nano-scale spintronic devices. We have given a comparative study to report multiferroicity in BaTM0.01Ti0.99O3 [TM = Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Cu (1 mol% each) substituted BaTiO3 (BTO)] nanoparticles. The TM ions influenced both nano-size and lattice distortion of Ti-O6 octahedra to the BTO. X ray diffraction study indicates that the dopant TM could influence lattice constants, distortion, tetragonal splitting of diffraction peaks (002/200) as well as peak shifting of diffraction angle in the BTO lattice. This can induce lattice strain which responsible to oxygen defects formation to mediate ferromagnetism. Also, the lattice strain effect could responsible to reduce the depolarization field of ferroelectricity and provide piezoelectric and magnetostrictive strains to enhance ME coupling. The size of BTO nanoparticles is varied in 13-51 nm with TM doping. The room temperature magnetic measurement indicates antiferromagnetic exchange interactions in BTO lattice with TM ions. The zero-field cooling and field cooling magnetic measurement at 500 Oe indicates antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition. It also confirms that the substitution of Cr, Fe and Co into BTO could induce strong antiferromagnetic behavior. However, the substitutions of Mn, Ni and Cu have weak antiferromagnetic character. The temperature dependent dielectric measurements indicates polarization enhancement that influenced with both nano-size as well TM ions and exhibits ferroelectric phase transition with relaxor-like characteristics. Dynamic ME coupling is investigated, and the longitudinal ME voltage coefficient, α ME is equivalent to linear ME coupling coefficient, α (={\\varepsilon }{{o}}{\\varepsilon }{{r}}{α }{{ME}}) is also calculated.

  1. Fabrication of single-crystal silicon nanotubes with sub-10 nm walls using cryogenic inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiqin; Chen, Yiqin; Zhu, Xupeng; Zheng, Mengjie; Dong, Fengliang; Chen, Peipei; Xu, Lihua; Chu, Weiguo; Duan, Huigao

    2016-09-01

    Single-crystal silicon nanostructures have attracted much attention in recent years due in part to their unique optical properties. In this work, we demonstrate direct fabrication of single-crystal silicon nanotubes with sub-10 nm walls which show low reflectivity. The fabrication was based on a cryogenic inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching process using high-resolution hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures as the hard mask. Two main etching parameters including substrate low-frequency power and SF6/O2 flow rate ratio were investigated to determine the etching mechanism in the process. With optimized etching parameters, high-aspect-ratio silicon nanotubes with smooth and vertical sub-10 nm walls were fabricated. Compared to commonly-used antireflection silicon nanopillars with the same feature size, the densely packed silicon nanotubes possessed a lower reflectivity, implying possible potential applications of silicon nanotubes in photovoltaics.

  2. Fabrication of single-crystal silicon nanotubes with sub-10 nm walls using cryogenic inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqin; Chen, Yiqin; Zhu, Xupeng; Zheng, Mengjie; Dong, Fengliang; Chen, Peipei; Xu, Lihua; Chu, Weiguo; Duan, Huigao

    2016-09-01

    Single-crystal silicon nanostructures have attracted much attention in recent years due in part to their unique optical properties. In this work, we demonstrate direct fabrication of single-crystal silicon nanotubes with sub-10 nm walls which show low reflectivity. The fabrication was based on a cryogenic inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching process using high-resolution hydrogen silsesquioxane nanostructures as the hard mask. Two main etching parameters including substrate low-frequency power and SF6/O2 flow rate ratio were investigated to determine the etching mechanism in the process. With optimized etching parameters, high-aspect-ratio silicon nanotubes with smooth and vertical sub-10 nm walls were fabricated. Compared to commonly-used antireflection silicon nanopillars with the same feature size, the densely packed silicon nanotubes possessed a lower reflectivity, implying possible potential applications of silicon nanotubes in photovoltaics.

  3. Crystallization of Polymers at liquid/liquid interface templated by single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenda; Li, Christopher

    2012-02-01

    Nanosized single-walled carbon nanotube rings were fabricated by using a Pickering emulsion-based method. By tuning a water/oil/SWNT miniemulsion system, SWNT rings with a diameter of ˜200 nm can be readily achieved. The formation mechanism is attributed to the bending force induced by the curved liquid/liquid interface. Crystallization of polyethylene homo- and copolymers using this unique SWNT rings as the nucleation agent was conducted at the curved liquid/liquid interface. Crystal structure, hybrid morphology and crystallization kinetics were systematically studied. The structure of controlled alternating patterns on SWNT rings has great potential in various applications in large-scale integrated circuits and single-electron devices.

  4. Carbon-nanotube electron-beam (C-beam) crystallization technique for silicon TFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Su Woong; Kang, Jung Su; Park, Kyu Chang

    2016-02-01

    We introduced a carbon-nanotube (CNT) electron beam (C-beam) for thin film crystallization and thin film transistor (TFT) applications. As a source of electron emission, a CNT emitter which had been grown on a silicon wafer with a resist-assisted patterning (RAP) process was used. By using the C-beam exposure, we successfully crystallized a silicon thin film that had nano-sized crystalline grains. The distribution of crystalline grain size was about 10 ˜ 30 nm. This nanocrystalline silicon thin film definitely had three crystalline directions which are (111), (220) and (311), respectively. The silicon TFTs crystallized by using a C-beam exposure showed a field effect mobility of 20 cm2/Vs and an on/off ratio of more than 107. The C-beam exposure can modify the bonding network of amorphous silicon with its proper energy.

  5. Nanotube

    2007-09-13

    This is a source code to calculate the current-voltage characteristics, the charge distribution and the electrostatic potential in carbon nanotube devices. The code utilizes the non-equilibrium Green's function method, implemented in a tight-binding scheme, to calculate the charge distribution and the energy-dependent transmission function, from which the current or the conductance are obtained. The electrostatic potential is obtained by solving Poisson's equation on a grid with boundary conditions on the electrodes, and at other interfaces.more » Self-consistency between the charge and the electrostatic potential is achieved using a linear mixing method. Different versions of the code allow the modeling of different types of nanotube devices: Version 1.0: Modeling of carbon nanotube electronic devices with cylindrical symmetry Version 1.1: Modeling of planar carbon nanotube electronic devices Version 1.2: Modeling of photocurrent in carbon nanotube devices« less

  6. Biodegradable poly(butylene succinate)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite at low carbon nanotubes loading: morphology, crystallization and mechanical property.

    PubMed

    Song, Liang; Qiu, Zhaobin

    2010-02-01

    Biodegradable nanocomposite based on poly(butylene succinate) (PBSU) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was prepared by solution blending method at 1 wt% MWNTs loading. Scanning electron microscopic observation illustrates a homogeneous distribution of MWNTs in the PBSU matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, and wide angle X-ray diffraction were used to study the nonisothermal crystallization, isothermal crystallization kinetics, spherulitic morphology, and crystal structure of neat PBSU and its nanocomposite. The presence of MWNTs enhances the crystallization of PBSU in the nanocomposite due to the heterogeneous nucleation effect while the crystallization mechanism and crystal structure of PBSU do not change. Moreover, the incorporation of a small quantity of MWNTs has improved significantly the mechanical property of PBSU in the nanocomposite compared with that of neat PBSU.

  7. Unexpected adsorption of oxygen on TiO2 nanotube arrays: influence of crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Funk, S; Hokkanen, B; Burghaus, U; Ghicov, A; Schmuki, P

    2007-04-01

    We present kinetics data of O2, n/iso-butane, CO2, and CO adsorbed at ultrahigh vacuum conditions on TiO2 nanotube (TiNTs) arrays produced by electrochemical anodization; amorphous and polycrystalline (anatase and mixed anatase/rutile) TiNTs have been studied addressing structure-activity relationships. Oxygen distinctly interacts with the TiNTs, whereas this process is not observed on fully oxidized TiO2 single crystals. Both molecularly and atomically bonded oxygen have been observed. Variations in the binding energies of alkanes were also detected.

  8. Computational method for the long time propagation of quantum channeled particles in crystals and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćosić, M.; Petrović, S.; Nešković, N.

    2014-07-01

    This work reports on the computational method for the long time propagation of the quantum channeled particles in infinite and finite harmonic interaction wells and in a realistic carbon nanotube interaction potential well. This method is based on the Chebyshev global propagation method for solving of the corresponding time dependent Schrödinger equation. For comparison, the computational method based on the Crank-Nicolson propagation method is also presented. In the case of quantum particle motion in infinite harmonic potential well, when the analytical solution of the corresponding time-dependent Schrödinger equation exists, we show that the obtained propagation method is efficient, very accurate and numerically stable. It is superior with respect to the method based on the Crank-Nicolson propagation method. A detailed study of the long time quantum particle motion in the finite harmonic interaction potential well shows that the obtained computational method based on the Chebyshev global propagation method can be successfully applied for following of the channeled quantum particle in crystals and carbon nanotubes. This is demonstrated in the case of quantum particle motion in a realistic carbon nanotube interaction potential well.

  9. Dipole spring ferroelectrics in superlattice SrTiO3/BaTiO3 thin films exhibiting constricted hysteresis loops

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Pingping; Ma, Xingqiao; Li, Yulan; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Chen , L.Q.

    2012-03-01

    Ferroelectric superlattice heterostructures have recently been explored for potential applications in electronic devices. In this letter we employed the phase-field approach to simulate the domain structure and switching of a (BaTiO3)8/(SrTiO3)3 superlattice film constrained by a GdScO3 substrate. A constricted ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed with a high saturation polarization but a small coercive field. The shape of the hysteresis loop is understood by analyzing the ferroelectric polarization distributions during switching. It is demonstrated that the constricted loop show a similar mechanism to the exchange coupling effect in magnetic multilayers.

  10. Monolithic integration of room-temperature multifunctional BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 epitaxial heterostructures on Si(001).

    PubMed

    Scigaj, Mateusz; Dix, Nico; Gázquez, Jaume; Varela, María; Fina, Ignasi; Domingo, Neus; Herranz, Gervasi; Skumryev, Vassil; Fontcuberta, Josep; Sánchez, Florencio

    2016-01-01

    The multifunctional (ferromagnetic and ferroelectric) response at room temperature that is elusive in single phase multiferroic materials can be achieved in a proper combination of ferroelectric perovskites and ferrimagnetic spinel oxides in horizontal heterostructures. In this work, lead-free CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayers are integrated with Si(001) using LaNiO3/CeO2/YSZ as a tri-layer buffer. They present structural and functional properties close to those achieved on perovskite substrates: the bilayers are fully epitaxial with extremely flat surface, and exhibit robust ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity at room temperature. PMID:27550543

  11. Monolithic integration of room-temperature multifunctional BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 epitaxial heterostructures on Si(001)

    PubMed Central

    Scigaj, Mateusz; Dix, Nico; Gázquez, Jaume; Varela, María; Fina, Ignasi; Domingo, Neus; Herranz, Gervasi; Skumryev, Vassil; Fontcuberta, Josep; Sánchez, Florencio

    2016-01-01

    The multifunctional (ferromagnetic and ferroelectric) response at room temperature that is elusive in single phase multiferroic materials can be achieved in a proper combination of ferroelectric perovskites and ferrimagnetic spinel oxides in horizontal heterostructures. In this work, lead-free CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayers are integrated with Si(001) using LaNiO3/CeO2/YSZ as a tri-layer buffer. They present structural and functional properties close to those achieved on perovskite substrates: the bilayers are fully epitaxial with extremely flat surface, and exhibit robust ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity at room temperature. PMID:27550543

  12. Monolithic integration of room-temperature multifunctional BaTiO3-CoFe2O4 epitaxial heterostructures on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scigaj, Mateusz; Dix, Nico; Gázquez, Jaume; Varela, María; Fina, Ignasi; Domingo, Neus; Herranz, Gervasi; Skumryev, Vassil; Fontcuberta, Josep; Sánchez, Florencio

    2016-08-01

    The multifunctional (ferromagnetic and ferroelectric) response at room temperature that is elusive in single phase multiferroic materials can be achieved in a proper combination of ferroelectric perovskites and ferrimagnetic spinel oxides in horizontal heterostructures. In this work, lead-free CoFe2O4/BaTiO3 bilayers are integrated with Si(001) using LaNiO3/CeO2/YSZ as a tri-layer buffer. They present structural and functional properties close to those achieved on perovskite substrates: the bilayers are fully epitaxial with extremely flat surface, and exhibit robust ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity at room temperature.

  13. Modifying the response of a polymer-based quartz crystal microbalance hydrocarbon sensor with functionalized carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Pejcic, Bobby; Myers, Matthew; Ranwala, Nilukshi; Boyd, Leigh; Baker, Murray; Ross, Andrew

    2011-09-15

    This report compares the performance of polymer and carbon nanotube-polymer composite membranes on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor for the detection of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and naphthalene) in aqueous solutions. Several different polymers (polystyrene, polystyrene-co-butadiene, polyisobutylene and polybutadiene) and types of functionalized carbon nanotubes (multi-walled and single-walled carbon nanotubes) were investigated at varying carbon nanotube (CNT) loading levels and film thicknesses. In a majority of instances, the difference in response between membranes comprising pure polymer and membranes containing 10% (w/w) carbon nanotubes were not statistically significant. However, a notable exception is the decreasing sensitivity towards p-xylene with increasing carbon nanotube content in a polybutadiene film. This variation in sensitivity can be attributed to a change in the sorption mechanism from absorption into the polymer phase to adsorption onto the carbon nanotube sidewalls. With much thicker coatings of 10% (w/w) carbon nanotube in polybutadiene, the sensitivity towards toluene was higher compared to the pure polymer. The increased toluene sensitivity may be partially attributed to an increase in the sorption capacity of a carbon nanotube polymer composite film relative to its corresponding pure polymer film. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) measurements were performed to understand the mechanism of sorption and these studies showed that the addition of functionalized CNT to the polymer increases the absorption of certain types of hydrocarbons. This study demonstrates that carbon nanotubes can be incorporated into a polymer-coated QCM sensor and that composite films may be used to modify the QCM response and selectivity during the analysis of complex hydrocarbon mixtures.

  14. Plasmonic Crystals for Strong Light–Matter Coupling in Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Their high oscillator strength and large exciton binding energies make single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) highly promising materials for the investigation of strong light–matter interactions in the near infrared and at room temperature. To explore their full potential, high-quality cavities—possibly with nanoscale field localization—are required. Here, we demonstrate the room temperature formation of plasmon–exciton polaritons in monochiral (6,5) SWCNTs coupled to the subdiffraction nanocavities of a plasmonic crystal created by a periodic gold nanodisk array. The interaction strength is easily tuned by the number of SWCNTs that collectively couple to the plasmonic crystal. Angle- and polarization resolved reflectivity and photoluminescence measurements combined with the coupled-oscillator model confirm strong coupling (coupling strength ∼120 meV). The combination of plasmon–exciton polaritons with the exceptional charge transport properties of SWCNTs should enable practical polariton devices at room temperature and at telecommunication wavelengths. PMID:27661764

  15. Synthesis of flower-like BaTiO3/Fe3O4 hierarchically structured particles and their electrorheological and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baoxiang; Yin, Yichao; Liu, Chenjie; Yu, Shoushan; Chen, Kezheng

    2013-07-21

    Flower-like BaTiO3/Fe3O4 hierarchically structured particles composed of nano-scale structures on micro-scale materials were synthesized by a simple solvothermal approach and characterized by the means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), magnetic testing and rotary viscometer. The influences on the morphology and structure of solvothermal times, type and amount of surfactant, EG : H2O ratio, etc. were studied. Magnetic testing results show that the samples have strong magnetism and they exhibit superparamagnetic behavior, as evidenced by no coercivity and the remanence at room temperature, due to their very small sizes, observed on the M-H loop. The saturation magnetization (M(s)) value can achieve 18.3 emu g(-1). The electrorheological (ER) effect was investigated using a suspension of the flower-like BaTiO3/Fe3O4 hierarchically structured particles dispersed in silicone oil. We can observe a slight shear-thinning behavior of shear viscosity at a low shear rate region even at zero applied electric field and a Newtonian fluid behavior at high shear rate regions. PMID:23714846

  16. Nano Ag-deposited BaTiO3 hybrid particles as fillers for polymeric dielectric composites: toward high dielectric constant and suppressed loss.

    PubMed

    Luo, Suibin; Yu, Shuhui; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Nano Ag-deposited BaTiO3 (BT-Ag) hybrid particles usable as fillers for flexible polymeric composites to obtain high dielectric constant, low conductivity, and low dielectric loss were developed. BT-Ag hybrid particles were synthesized via a seed-mediated growing process by a redox reaction between silver nitrate and ethylene glycol. Nano Ag particles with a size less than 20 nm were discretely grown on the surface of the 100 nm BaTiO3. The similar lattice spacing of the (1 1 1) planes of BT and Ag led to the hetero-epitaxial growth of Ag on the BT surface. The thickness of the coherent interface was about 3 nm. The adhesion of Ag to BT efficiently prevented the continuous contact between Ag particles in the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) matrix and suppressed the formation of the conducting path in the composite. As a result, with a filler loading of 43.4 vol %, the composite exhibited a dielectric constant (Dk) value of 94.3 and dielectric loss (tan δ) of 0.06 at 1 kHz. An even higher Dk value of 160 at 1 kHz (16 times larger than that of PVDF) was obtained when the content of BT-Ag was further increased, with low conductivity (σ < 10(-5) S m(-1)) and low dielectric loss (tan δ = 0.11), demonstrating promising applications in the electronic devices. PMID:24320940

  17. Overcoming the Fundamental Barrier Thickness Limits of Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions through BaTiO3/SrTiO3 Composite Barriers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingfei; Cho, Myung Rae; Shin, Yeong Jae; Kim, Jeong Rae; Das, Saikat; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Chung, Jin-Seok; Noh, Tae Won

    2016-06-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) have attracted increasing research interest as a promising candidate for nonvolatile memories. Recently, significant enhancements of tunneling electroresistance (TER) have been realized through modifications of electrode materials. However, direct control of the FTJ performance through modifying the tunneling barrier has not been adequately explored. Here, adding a new direction to FTJ research, we fabricated FTJs with BaTiO3 single barriers (SB-FTJs) and BaTiO3/SrTiO3 composite barriers (CB-FTJs) and reported a systematic study of FTJ performances by varying the barrier thicknesses and compositions. For the SB-FTJs, the TER is limited by pronounced leakage current for ultrathin barriers and extremely small tunneling current for thick barriers. For the CB-FTJs, the extra SrTiO3 barrier provides an additional degree of freedom to modulate the barrier potential and tunneling behavior. The resultant high tunability can be utilized to overcome the barrier thickness limits and enhance the overall CB-FTJ performances beyond those of SB-FTJ. Our results reveal a new paradigm to manipulate the FTJs through designing multilayer tunneling barriers with hybrid functionalities.

  18. Structure and electrical properties of 0.80 Na0.5 Bi0.5 TiO3-0.16 K0.5 Bi0.5 TiO3-0.04 BaTiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravinth, K.; Muneeswaran, M.; Babu, G. Anandha; Giridharan, N. V.; Ramasamy, P.

    2016-05-01

    Lead free pervoskite 0.80 Na0.5 Bi0.5 TiO3-0.16 K0.5 Bi0.5 TiO3-0.04 BaTiO3 (NKBBT) ceramics were fabricated via conventional solid state processing technique sintered at 1200 °C and their crystal structures and electrical properties were systematically studied. Structure of the prepared NKBBT ceramics was confirmed by Powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The dependence of dielectric constant on temperature for various frequencies (100 Hz-100 KHz) has been determined. The diffuse transition is observed in the variation of dielectric constant and it provides evidence for the relaxor characteristics. The ferroelectric response of the NKBBT ceramics with different frequency was studied. Polarisation electric field hysteresis loops revealed that the remnant polarization is 6.88 µC/cm2 and coercive electric field is 66.42 kV/cm.

  19. Cation-Deficient Perovskite-Related (Ba,La) nTi n- δO 3 n ( n≥4 δ) Microphases in the La 4Ti 3O 12-BaTiO 3 System: An HRTEM Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trolliard, G.; Harre, N.; Mercurio, D.; Frit, B.

    1999-07-01

    The large nonstoichiometric domain, observed in the La4Ti3O12-rich part of the La4Ti3O12-BaTiO3 system, has been shown to correspond to a continuous series of cation-deficient perovskite-related (Ba,La)nTin-δO3n (n≥4δ) microphases. The crystal structures of these microphases have been analyzed by electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. They can be described as coherent intergrowths of P-perovskite-like blocks La4Ti3O12 and Q-perovskite-like blocks BaLa4Ti4O15, respectively, constitutive of the simple basic terms n=4 and n=5 of the previously identified (Ba,La)nTin-1O3n series. The corresponding BaQLa4(P+Q)Ti3P+4QO12P+15Q microphases can thus be denoted by 4P5Q in a compact form. In fact, only the 4P51 intergrowth sequences have been observed. Eight of these are clearly shown by direct imaging. No intergrowth terms were observed for compositions ranging from BaLa4Ti4O15 (n=5) to Ba2La4Ti5O18 (n=6). The ability of the system to develop coherent intergrowths has been discussed in the light of information provided by an accurate analysis of crystal structures of the basic members of the series: La4Ti3O12 (n=4), BaLa4Ti4O15 (n=5), and Ba2La4Ti5O18 (n=6).

  20. Dielectric and electro-optic measurements of nematic liquid crystals doped with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Matthew; Georgiev, Georgi; Atherton, Timothy; Cebe, Peggy

    We studied the effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the dielectric and electro-optic properties of nematic 5CB liquid crystals (LCs). Samples containing 0.01%, 0.10% and 1.00% CNTs by weight were prepared. Anti- parallel rubbed cells with a nominal thickness of 10 μm were prepared using indium tin oxide coated glass cells and a polyimide alignment layer. The capacitance and dissipation factor were measured using an Agilent 4284A precision LCR meter. From these measurements, the complex dielectric permittivity was determined as a function of frequency. Analysis of the low frequency regime (f <1000 Hz) indicates that 5CB samples containing CNTs have a higher conductance than neat samples. The Fréedericksz transition critical voltage was noted by a sharp increase in capacitance after an initial plateau. Numerical simulations of CNT-facilitated switching show that polarization induced on the nanotubes from capacitive effects can significantly reduce the critical voltage in DC electric fields, in agreement with experimental results. Measurements of the critical voltage over a range of frequencies will also be presented. Research was supported by the National Science Foundation, DMR1206010.

  1. Crystal orbital studies on the 1D silic-diyne nanoribbons and nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Bai, Hongcun; Huang, Yuanhe

    2016-02-01

    This work presents crystal orbital studies on novel one-dimensional (1D) nanoscale materials derived from a Si-diyne sheet, based on the density functional theory. The two-dimensional (2D) Si-diyne layer is observed to be carbo-merized silicene, with a similar structure to graphdiyne. The 2D Si-diyne and its 1D ribbons and tubes, of different size and chirality, have been addressed systematically. The low dimensional Si-diyne materials studied exhibit relatively high stability, according to phonon-frequency calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. With comparable diameters, the Si-diyne tubes have lower strain energies than silicene and silicon carbide nanotubes. The Si-diyne layer and its 1D derivatives are all semiconductors, regardless of the size and chirality of the strips and tubes. In addition, the band gaps of the 1D Si-diyne nanoribbons and nanotubes with different chirality, always monotonically decrease as their sizes increases. A quantitative relationship between the band gap and the size of the ribbons and tubes was obtained. The mobility of charge carriers for the 1D Si-diyne structures was also investigated. It was found that both hole and electron mobility of the ribbons and tubes exhibit linear increase with increasing size. The electrons have greater mobility than the holes for each strip and tube. In addition, the mechanical properties of the Si-diyne nanostructures were also investigated by calculation of the Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio. PMID:26744378

  2. Organic Light Emitting Diodes with Opal Photonic Crystal Layer and Carbon Nanotube Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovalle Robles, Raquel; Del Rocio Nava, Maria; Williams, Christopher; Zhang, Mei; Fang, Shaoli; Lee, Sergey; Baughman, Ray; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2007-03-01

    We report electroluminescence intensity and spectral changes in light emission from organic light emitting diode (OLEDs) structures, which have thin transparent films of opal photonic crystal (PC). The anode in such PC-OLED is laminated on opal layer from free standing optically transparent multiwall carbon nanotubes (T-CNT) sheets made by dry spinning from CVD grown forests. Silica and polystyrene opal films were grown on glass substrates by vertical sedimentation in colloids in thermal baths and the particle size of opal spheres ranges from 300 nm to 450 nm. The use of T-CNTs, (coated by PEDOT-PSS to avoid shorting) as hole injector, allows to eliminate the use of vacuum deposition of metals and permits to achieve tunneling hole injection regime from CNT tips into Alq^3 emission layer

  3. Catalytic action of gold and copper crystals in the growth of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Pawan K; Janowska, Izabela; Cretu, Ovidu; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Banhart, Florian

    2011-04-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes are grown in a chemical vapor deposition process by using bulk gold and copper substrates as catalysts. Nanotube growth starts from a nanometer-sized roughness on the metal surfaces and occurs in a mechanism where the catalyst particle is either at the tip (Au) or root (Cu) of the growing nanotube. Whereas Au leads to nanotubes with good structural perfection, nanotubes grown from Cu show a higher density of defects. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows the bonding between Au and carbon at the metal-nanotube interface whereas no bonds between Cu and carbon occur. Highly mobile Au or Cu atoms adsorb at the growing edge of a carbon nanotube from where diffusion along the nanotube wall can lead to the formation of Au or Cu nanowires inside the central hollow of carbon nanotubes.

  4. Catalytic action of gold and copper crystals in the growth of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Pawan K; Janowska, Izabela; Cretu, Ovidu; Pham-Huu, Cuong; Banhart, Florian

    2011-04-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes are grown in a chemical vapor deposition process by using bulk gold and copper substrates as catalysts. Nanotube growth starts from a nanometer-sized roughness on the metal surfaces and occurs in a mechanism where the catalyst particle is either at the tip (Au) or root (Cu) of the growing nanotube. Whereas Au leads to nanotubes with good structural perfection, nanotubes grown from Cu show a higher density of defects. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy shows the bonding between Au and carbon at the metal-nanotube interface whereas no bonds between Cu and carbon occur. Highly mobile Au or Cu atoms adsorb at the growing edge of a carbon nanotube from where diffusion along the nanotube wall can lead to the formation of Au or Cu nanowires inside the central hollow of carbon nanotubes. PMID:21776744

  5. Critical interparticle distance for the remarkably enhanced dielectric constant of BaTiO3-Ag hybrids filled polyvinylidene fluoride composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Suibin; Yu, Shuhui; Fang, Fang; Lai, Maobai; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Discrete nano Ag-deposited BaTiO3 (BT-Ag) hybrids with varied Ag content were synthesized, and the hybrids filled polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composites were prepared. The effect of Ag content on the dielectric properties of the composites were analyzed based on the diffused electrical double layer theory. Results showed that with a higher Ag content in BT-Ag hybrids, the dielectric constant of BT-Ag/PVDF composites increases fast with the filler loading, while the dielectric loss and conductivity showed a suppressed and moderate increase. The dielectric constant of BT-0.61Ag/PVDF (61 wt. % of Ag in BT-Ag hybrid) composites reached 613, with the dielectric loss of 0.29 at 1 kHz. It was deduced that remarkably enhanced dielectric constant appeared when the interparticle distance decreased to a critical value of about 20 nm.

  6. Dipole spring ferroelectrics in superlattice SrTiO3/BaTiO3 thin films exhibiting constricted hysteresis loops

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Pingping; Ma, Xingqiao; Li, Yulan; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Chen , L.Q.

    2012-03-01

    Ferroelectric superlattice heterostructures have recently been explored for potential applications in electronic devices. In this letter we employed the phase-field approach to simulate the domain structure and switching of a (BaTiO3)8/(SrTiO3)3 superlattice film constrained by a GdScO3 substrate. A constricted ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed with a high saturation polarization but a small coercive field. The shape of the hysteresis loop is understood by analyzing the ferroelectric polarization distributions during switching. It is demonstrated that the multilayers stack behave as dipole spring ferroelectric, named in analogy to exchange spring magnets in magnetic multilayers that show similar loops.

  7. Optical/ferroelectric characterization of BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 colloidal nanoparticles and their applications in hybrid materials technologies.

    PubMed

    Garbovskiy, Yuriy; Glushchenko, Anatoliy

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we will explore how optical and ferroelectric properties of the stressed ferroelectric nanoparticles prepared through ball milling set a limit on the performance of optical and electro-optical devices based on such materials. It was found that suspensions of BaTiO3 nanoparticles exhibit a blue shift in the optical band gap with a decrease in particle size. The optical band gap of PbTiO3 nanoparticles is not affected by the milling time. Polarization switching is composed of slow and fast components. A slow component is threshold-less and is caused by the particle reorientation while a fast component has a threshold, and its rise time is inversely proportional to the electric field. The absorption edge of these suspensions accounts for the applications in the near UV range, while kinetics of the polarization switching governs the speed of electro-optical devices.

  8. Studies on resistive hysteresis characteristics of metal organic decomposition-derived BaTiO3 thin films prepared under various annealing conditions and related switching endurance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugie, Toshiyuki; Maejima, So; Yamashita, Kaoru; Noda, Minoru

    2016-10-01

    We have prepared metal organic decomposition (MOD)-derived BaTiO3 (BT) thin films under various annealing conditions, especially in nitrogen, and investigated the properties of bipolar-type resistive switching, focusing on the relation between oxygen vacancies and the behavior of resistive hysteresis. BT thin film with both pre annealing and final annealing in nitrogen (layer-by-layer annealing) showed the resistive hysteresis of bipolar-type switching with current ON/OFF ratios of 2 orders of magnitude for both bias polarities. Moreover, it showed the endurance property with the 104 switching cycles. It is possible that the non-filament bipolar-type resistive switching has origins not only at the metal electrode/oxide interface but also the inside of the oxide films, that is, the presence of the oxygen vacancies inside of BT thin films would play an important role in the bipolar-type resistive switching and in improving the switching endurance properties.

  9. Induced Ti magnetization at La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and BaTiO3 interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yaohua; Tornos, J.; te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Freeland, J. W.; Zhou, H.; Steadman, P.; Bencok, P.; Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.

    2016-04-01

    In artificial multiferroics hybrids consisting of ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and ferroelectric BaTiO3 epitaxial layers, net Ti moments are found from polarized resonant soft x-ray reflectivity and absorption. Moreover, the Ti dichroic reflectivity follows the Mn signal during the magnetization reversal, indicating exchange coupling between the Ti and Mn ions. But, the Ti dichroic reflectivity shows stronger temperature dependence than the Mn dichroic signal. Besides a reduced ferromagnetic exchange coupling in the interfacial LSMO layer, this may also be attributed to a weak Ti-Mn exchange coupling that is insufficient to overcome the thermal energy at elevated temperatures.

  10. The effect of Ta2O5- and ZnO-doping on the Curie temperature of BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Yaseen; Jamal, Asad

    2012-07-01

    The phase, microstructure and Curie temperature of Ba1-2xTa2xTi1-xZnxO3 (0.005 <= x <= 0.1) have been investigated in an attempt to widen its temperature stable region. The compositions formed dense, single-phase, fine-grained BaTiO3 ceramics at x<=0.01 and multiphase ceramics at x >= 0.015. The dielectric constant decreased with an increase in the dopant concentration due to second phase formation. The Curie temperature increased from ~123°C at x = 0.005 to ~148°C at x = 0.1 and the optimum sintering temperature decreased from ~1430°C at x = 0.005 to 1276°C at x = 0.1.

  11. First-principles determination of free energies of ferroelectric phase transitions and domains in BaTiO3 and PbTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2010-03-01

    We present a powerful method based on a combination of (a) constrained polarization molecular dynamics and (b) thermodynamic integration to determine the free energy landscape relevant to structural phase transitions and related phenomena in ferroelectric materials, bridging the gap between first-principles calculations and phenomenological Landau-like theories. We illustrate it using first-principles effective Hamiltonians of BaTiO3 and PbTiO3 to (a) uncover the quantitative features of the free energy function that are responsible for its first-order ferroelectric transitions, and (b) calculate the minimum free energy pathway for the polarization switching and (c) evaluate temperature dependent domain wall free energy and pathways of the formation of domains. Our method can be readily generalized to any classical microscopic Hamiltonian and ensembles characterized with a given constraint. We show that certain terms have to be added to the phenomenological Landau-Devonshire free energy functions to capture the physics of ferroelectric materials.

  12. Effect of solution combusted TiO2 nanopowder within commercial BaTiO3 dielectric layer on the photoelectric properties for AC powder electroluminescence devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung; Choi, Gil Rak; Kim, Youn Cheol; Lee, Jae Chun; Lee, Ju Hyeon

    2013-05-01

    A unique synthesis method was developed, which is called solution combustion method (SCM). TiO2 nanopowder was synthesized by this method. This SCM TiO2 nanopowder (-35 nm) was added to the dielectric layer of AC powder electroluminescence (EL) device. The dielectric layer was made of commercial BaTiO3 powder (-1.2 microm) and binding polymer. 0, 5, 10 and 15 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added to the dielectric layer during fabrication of AC powder EL device respectively. Dielectric constant of these four kinds of dielectric layers was measured. The brightness and current density of AC powder EL device were also measured. When 10 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added, dielectric constant and brightness were increased by 30% and 101% respectively. Furthermore, the current density was decreased by 71%. This means that the brightness was double and the power consumption was one third.

  13. Reduced energy loss in poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposites by filling with a small loading of core-shell structured BaTiO3/SiO2 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaohui; Xue, Shuangxi; Shen, Bo; Zhai, Jiwei

    2015-07-01

    Homogeneous ceramic-polymer nanocomposites consisting of core-shell structured BaTiO3/SiO2 nanofibers and a p oly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer matrix have been prepared. The correlation between the energy discharged density and interfacial polarization is studied in PVDF nanocomposites by the measurements of the discharge performance and impedance spectroscopy. According to the results of dielectric constant, breakdown strength, and complex impedance analysis, coating SiO2 layers on the surface of BaTiO3 nanofibers can block the movement of charge carriers through the nanocomposites by playing a shielding role on the charge-rich inter layer, which resulted in weak Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization and thus reduces the energy loss and improved the energy discharged density of the nanocomposites. The energy discharged density in the nanocomposite with 2.5 vol. % BaTiO3/SiO2 core-shell nanofibers is 6.28 J/cm3 at 3.3 MV/cm, which is over 11.94% higher than that of nanocomposite with BaTiO3 nanofibers at the same electric field.

  14. Comparative ab initio calculations of SrTiO3/BaTiO3 and SrZrO3/PbZrO3 (0 0 1) heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, Sergei; Eglitis, Roberts I.

    2016-05-01

    Using a B3PW hybrid exchange-correlation functional within the density functional theory (DFT) we calculated from the first principles the electronic structure of BaTiO3/SrTiO3 and PbZrO3/SrZrO3 (0 0 1) interfaces. The optical band gap of both BaTiO3/SrTiO3 and PbZrO3/SrZrO3 (0 0 1) interfaces depends mostly from BaO or TiO2 and SrO or ZrO2 termination of the upper layer, respectively. Based on the results of our calculations we predict increase of the Ti-O and Zr-O chemical bond covalency near the SrTiO3/BaTiO3 and SrZrO3/PbZrO3 (0 0 1) interfaces as compared to the BaTiO3 and PbZrO3 bulk.

  15. Phase separation enhanced magneto-electric coupling in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 ultra-thin films.

    PubMed

    Alberca, A; Munuera, C; Azpeitia, J; Kirby, B; Nemes, N M; Perez-Muñoz, A M; Tornos, J; Mompean, F J; Leon, C; Santamaria, J; Garcia-Hernandez, M

    2015-12-09

    We study the origin of the magnetoelectric coupling in manganite films on ferroelectric substrates. We find large magnetoelectric coupling in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 ultra-thin films in experiments based on the converse magnetoelectric effect. The magnetization changes by around 30-40% upon applying electric fields on the order of 1 kV/cm to the BaTiO3 substrate, corresponding to magnetoelectric coupling constants on the order of α = (2-5) · 10(-7) s/m. Magnetic anisotropy is also affected by the electric field induced strain, resulting in a considerable reduction of coercive fields. We compare the magnetoelectric effect in pre-poled and unpoled BaTiO3 substrates. Polarized neutron reflectometry reveals a two-layer behavior with a depressed magnetic layer of around 30 Å at the interface. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) shows a granular magnetic structure of the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3. The magnetic granularity of the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 film and the robust magnetoelastic coupling at the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 interface are at the origin of the large magnetoelectric coupling, which is enhanced by phase separation in the manganite.

  16. Phase separation enhanced magneto-electric coupling in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 ultra-thin films.

    PubMed

    Alberca, A; Munuera, C; Azpeitia, J; Kirby, B; Nemes, N M; Perez-Muñoz, A M; Tornos, J; Mompean, F J; Leon, C; Santamaria, J; Garcia-Hernandez, M

    2015-01-01

    We study the origin of the magnetoelectric coupling in manganite films on ferroelectric substrates. We find large magnetoelectric coupling in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 ultra-thin films in experiments based on the converse magnetoelectric effect. The magnetization changes by around 30-40% upon applying electric fields on the order of 1 kV/cm to the BaTiO3 substrate, corresponding to magnetoelectric coupling constants on the order of α = (2-5) · 10(-7) s/m. Magnetic anisotropy is also affected by the electric field induced strain, resulting in a considerable reduction of coercive fields. We compare the magnetoelectric effect in pre-poled and unpoled BaTiO3 substrates. Polarized neutron reflectometry reveals a two-layer behavior with a depressed magnetic layer of around 30 Å at the interface. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) shows a granular magnetic structure of the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3. The magnetic granularity of the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 film and the robust magnetoelastic coupling at the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 interface are at the origin of the large magnetoelectric coupling, which is enhanced by phase separation in the manganite. PMID:26648002

  17. Phase separation enhanced magneto-electric coupling in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 ultra-thin films

    PubMed Central

    Alberca, A.; Munuera, C.; Azpeitia, J.; Kirby, B.; Nemes, N. M.; Perez-Muñoz, A. M.; Tornos, J.; Mompean, F. J.; Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.; Garcia-Hernandez, M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the origin of the magnetoelectric coupling in manganite films on ferroelectric substrates. We find large magnetoelectric coupling in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 ultra-thin films in experiments based on the converse magnetoelectric effect. The magnetization changes by around 30–40% upon applying electric fields on the order of 1 kV/cm to the BaTiO3 substrate, corresponding to magnetoelectric coupling constants on the order of α = (2–5)·10−7 s/m. Magnetic anisotropy is also affected by the electric field induced strain, resulting in a considerable reduction of coercive fields. We compare the magnetoelectric effect in pre-poled and unpoled BaTiO3 substrates. Polarized neutron reflectometry reveals a two-layer behavior with a depressed magnetic layer of around 30 Å at the interface. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) shows a granular magnetic structure of the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3. The magnetic granularity of the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 film and the robust magnetoelastic coupling at the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 interface are at the origin of the large magnetoelectric coupling, which is enhanced by phase separation in the manganite. PMID:26648002

  18. Structure-Curie temperature relationships in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric perovskites: Anomalous behavior of (Ba ,Cd )TiO3 from DFT, statistical inference, and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Lookman, Turab

    2016-04-01

    One of the key impediments to the development of BaTiO3-based materials as candidates to replace toxic-Pb-based solid solutions is their relatively low ferroelectric Curie temperature (TC). Among many potential routes that are available to modify TC, ionic substitutions at the Ba and Ti sites remain the most common approach. Here, we perform density functional theory (DFT) calculations on a series of A TiO3 and Ba B O3 perovskites, where A =Ba , Ca, Sr, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Mg and B =Ti , Zr, Hf, and Sn. Our objective is to study the relative role of A and B cations in impacting the TC of the tetragonal (P 4 m m ) and rhombohedral (R 3 m ) ferroelectric phases in BaTiO3-based solid solutions, respectively. Using symmetry-mode analysis, we obtain a quantitative description of the relative contributions of various divalent (A ) and tetravalent (B ) cations to the ferroelectric distortions. Our results show that Ca, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Mg have large mode amplitudes for ferroelectric distortion in the tetragonal phase relative to Ba, whereas Sr suppresses the distortions. On the other hand, Zr, Hf, and Sn tetravalent cations severely suppress the ferroelectric distortion in the rhombohedral phase relative to Ti. In addition to symmetry modes, our calculated unit-cell volume also agrees with the experimental trends. We subsequently utilize the symmetry modes and unit-cell volumes as features within a machine learning approach to learn TC via an inference model and uncover trends that provide insights into the design of new high-TCBaTiO3 -based ferroelectrics. The inference model predicts CdTiO3-BaTiO3 solid solutions to have a higher TC and, therefore, we experimentally synthesized these solid solutions and measured their TC. Although the calculated mode strength for CdTiO3 in the tetragonal phase is even larger than that for PbTiO3, the TC of CdTiO3-BaTiO3 solid solutions in the tetragonal phase does not show any appreciable enhancement. Thus, CdTiO3-BaTiO3 does not follow the inference model, which is based on established data and trends for A TiO3 . Rather, our experimental phase diagram for CdTiO3-BaTiO3 suggests that it behaves markedly differently from any other BaTiO3-based systems studied so far.

  19. The evaluation of the impact of titania nanotube covers morphology and crystal phase on their biological properties.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Żaneta; Piszczek, Piotr; Radtke, Aleksandra; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Kozak, Wiesław; Sadowska, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube coatings were produced under various electrochemical conditions on the surface of titanium foil. The anodization voltage changes proved to be a main factor which directly affects the nanotube morphology, structure, and wettability. Moreover we have noticed a significant dependence between the size and crystallinity of TiO2 layers and the adhesion/proliferation of fibroblasts and antimicrobial properties. Cellular functionality were investigated for up to 3 days in culture using a cell viability assay and scanning electron microscopy. In general, results of our studies revealed that fibroblasts adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation on the titania nanotube coatings is clearly higher than on the surface of the pure titanium foil. The formation of crystallic islands in the nanotubes structure induced a significant acceleration in the growth rate of fibroblasts cells by as much as ~200 %. Additionally, some types of TiO2 layers revealed the ability to the reduce of the staphylococcal aggregates/biofilm formation. The nanotube coatings formed during the anodization process using the voltage 4 V proved to be the stronger S. aureus aggregates/biofilm inhibitor in comparison to the uncovered titanium substrate. That accelerated eukaryotic cell growth and anti-biofilm activity is believed to be advantageous for faster cure of dental and orthopaedic patients, and also for a variety of biomedical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube coatings were produced under various electrochemical conditions on the surface of titanium foil. The anodization voltage changes proved to be a main factor which directly affects the nanotube morphology, structure, and wettability. Moreover we have noticed a significant dependence between the size and crystallinity of TiO2 layers and the adhesion/proliferation of fibroblasts and antimicrobial properties.

  20. The evaluation of the impact of titania nanotube covers morphology and crystal phase on their biological properties.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Żaneta; Piszczek, Piotr; Radtke, Aleksandra; Jędrzejewski, Tomasz; Kozak, Wiesław; Sadowska, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube coatings were produced under various electrochemical conditions on the surface of titanium foil. The anodization voltage changes proved to be a main factor which directly affects the nanotube morphology, structure, and wettability. Moreover we have noticed a significant dependence between the size and crystallinity of TiO2 layers and the adhesion/proliferation of fibroblasts and antimicrobial properties. Cellular functionality were investigated for up to 3 days in culture using a cell viability assay and scanning electron microscopy. In general, results of our studies revealed that fibroblasts adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation on the titania nanotube coatings is clearly higher than on the surface of the pure titanium foil. The formation of crystallic islands in the nanotubes structure induced a significant acceleration in the growth rate of fibroblasts cells by as much as ~200 %. Additionally, some types of TiO2 layers revealed the ability to the reduce of the staphylococcal aggregates/biofilm formation. The nanotube coatings formed during the anodization process using the voltage 4 V proved to be the stronger S. aureus aggregates/biofilm inhibitor in comparison to the uncovered titanium substrate. That accelerated eukaryotic cell growth and anti-biofilm activity is believed to be advantageous for faster cure of dental and orthopaedic patients, and also for a variety of biomedical diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The highly ordered titanium dioxide nanotube coatings were produced under various electrochemical conditions on the surface of titanium foil. The anodization voltage changes proved to be a main factor which directly affects the nanotube morphology, structure, and wettability. Moreover we have noticed a significant dependence between the size and crystallinity of TiO2 layers and the adhesion/proliferation of fibroblasts and antimicrobial properties. PMID:25791457

  1. Phases and properties of nanocomposites of hydrogen-bonded liquid crystals and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Petrov, M; Katranchev, B; Rafailov, P M; Naradikian, H; Dettlaff-Weglikowska, U; Keskinova, E; Spassov, T

    2013-10-01

    We investigated a series of nanocomposites, built of the hydrogen-bonded liquid crystal (LC) p-n-heptyloxybenzoic acid (7OBA) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by optical microtexture analysis and other complementary methods. The surface orientation strength of the LC cell and the bulk interaction of the dimeric LC molecules with the SWCNTs turn out to mainly govern the type (symmetry), thermal stability, and chirality of the LC states induced in these nanocomposites. As a result, a cascade of phase transitions and phases not typical for pristine 7OBA were observed and additionally confirmed by temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The most effective SWCNT concentrations in the LC matrix, ensuring both the necessary conformability between these materials and induction of liquid crystal phases with unique optical and electro-optical properties, were found to be in the range of 0.01-0.007 wt%. Reversal of smectic phases into reentrant nematic states as well as induction of chirality in all LC phases were observed in the SWCNT-7OBA nanocomposite, even though pure 7OBA is typically achiral. However, our most intriguing result is the detection below the reentrant nematic of a triclinic smectic-C(G) phase, which is chiral and biaxial, and exhibits bulk ferroelectricity. PMID:24229197

  2. Encapsulation of Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals in multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yahya, Noorhana; Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Koziol, Krzysztof

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles in the hollow region of carbon nanotubes have attraction due to their changing physical electrical and magnetic properties. Nickel zinc ferrite plays an important role in many applications due to its superior magnetic properties. Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals were encapsulated in multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The magnetic nano crystals were prepared using a sol-gel self combustion method at the sintering temperature of 750 degrees C and were characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM and VSM. Initial permeability, Q-factor and relative loss factor were measured by impedance vector network analyzer. XRD patterns were used for the phase identification. FESEM images show morphology and dimensions of the grains of Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals and Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals in MWCNTs. TEM images were used to investigate single crystal and encapsulation of Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals in the MWCNTs. VSM results confirmed super paramagnetic behaviour of encapsulated Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals. It was also attributed that encapsulated Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals in MWCNTs showed a higher initial permeability (51.608), Q-factor (67.069), and low loss factor (0.0002) as compared to Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals. The new encapsulated Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals in the MWCNTs may have potential applications in electronic and medical industries.

  3. Studies of nanocomposites of carbon nanotubes and a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Kalakonda, P; Basu, R; Nemitz, I R; Rosenblatt, C; Iannacchione, G S

    2014-03-14

    It has been widely recognized that the combination of carbon nanotube (CNT) and liquid crystals (LCs) not only provides a useful way to align CNTs, but also dramatically enhances the order in the LC phases, which is especially useful in liquid crystal display (LCD) technology. As the measure of this phase behavior, the complex specific heat is presented over a wide temperature range for a negative dielectric anisotropy alkoxyphenylbenzoate liquid crystal (9OO4) and CNT composites as a function of CNT concentration. The calorimetric scans were performed under near-equilibrium conditions between 25 and 95 °C, first cooling and then followed by heating for CNT weight percent ranging from ϕ(w) = 0 to 0.2. All 9OO4/CNT mesophases have transition temperatures ~1 K higher and a crystallization temperature 4 K higher than that of the pure 9OO4. The crystal phase superheats until a strongly first-order specific heat feature is observed, 0.5 K higher than in the pure 9OO4. The transition enthalpy for the nanocomposite mesophases is 10% lower than that observed in the pure 9OO4. The strongly first-order crystallization and melting transition enthalpies are essentially constant over this range of ϕ(w). Complementary electroclinic measurement on a 0.05 wt. % sample, cooling towards the smectic-C phase from the smectic-A, indicates that the SmA-SmC transition remains mean-field-like in the presence of the CNTs. Given the homogeneous and random distribution of CNTs in these nanocomposites, we interpret these results as arising from the LC-CNT surface interaction pinning the orientational order uniformly along the CNT, without pinning the position of the 9OO4 molecule, leading to a net ordering effect for all phases. These effects of incorporating CNTs into LCs are likely due to "anisotropic orientational" coupling between CNT and LC, the change in the elastic properties of composites and thermal anisotropic properties of the CNTs. PMID:24628206

  4. Studies of nanocomposites of carbon nanotubes and a negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalakonda, P.; Basu, R.; Nemitz, I. R.; Rosenblatt, C.; Iannacchione, G. S.

    2014-03-01

    It has been widely recognized that the combination of carbon nanotube (CNT) and liquid crystals (LCs) not only provides a useful way to align CNTs, but also dramatically enhances the order in the LC phases, which is especially useful in liquid crystal display (LCD) technology. As the measure of this phase behavior, the complex specific heat is presented over a wide temperature range for a negative dielectric anisotropy alkoxyphenylbenzoate liquid crystal (9OO4) and CNT composites as a function of CNT concentration. The calorimetric scans were performed under near-equilibrium conditions between 25 and 95 °C, first cooling and then followed by heating for CNT weight percent ranging from ϕw = 0 to 0.2. All 9OO4/CNT mesophases have transition temperatures ˜1 K higher and a crystallization temperature 4 K higher than that of the pure 9OO4. The crystal phase superheats until a strongly first-order specific heat feature is observed, 0.5 K higher than in the pure 9OO4. The transition enthalpy for the nanocomposite mesophases is 10% lower than that observed in the pure 9OO4. The strongly first-order crystallization and melting transition enthalpies are essentially constant over this range of ϕw. Complementary electroclinic measurement on a 0.05 wt. % sample, cooling towards the smectic-C phase from the smectic-A, indicates that the SmA-SmC transition remains mean-field-like in the presence of the CNTs. Given the homogeneous and random distribution of CNTs in these nanocomposites, we interpret these results as arising from the LC-CNT surface interaction pinning the orientational order uniformly along the CNT, without pinning the position of the 9OO4 molecule, leading to a net ordering effect for all phases. These effects of incorporating CNTs into LCs are likely due to "anisotropic orientational" coupling between CNT and LC, the change in the elastic properties of composites and thermal anisotropic properties of the CNTs.

  5. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observation of sub-nano-sized molybdenum carbide crystals in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Ryusuke; Kurushima, Kosuke; Otsuka, Yuji; Takai, Yoshizo

    2013-06-01

    Cross-sectional observation of molybdenum carbide nanocrystals inside carbon nanotubes was successfully conducted in this study. The nanocrystals were generated by irradiating as-synthesized encapsulated molybdenum oxide crystals with an intense electron beam; the most probable composition of the crystals was determined to be α-MoC1-x by electron diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thinning processes using a focused ion beam and an Ar-ion mill enabled cross-sectional observations along the tube axis. As a result, it became clear that the molybdenum carbide crystals show translational symmetry with a parallelogram configuration having preferred {111} facets when observed from the [110] direction, despite the sub-nanometer order of the crystals.

  6. Properties of reinforced carbon nanotube and laser-crystallized silicon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semler, Matthew Roy

    Flexible electronics are anticipated to be one of the next technological advancements of electronic devices. The enhanced durability, light-weight nature, and conformity of flexible electronics are desired properties in a variety of fields and are anticipated to reduce production costs. Two promising materials for use in flexible electronics are carbon nanotube (CNT) films and laser-crystallized thin silicon films. CNTs are in their infancy in respect to their presence in electronic devices; however their superb mechanical and electronic properties make them ideal candidates for flexible electronics. Thin silicon films are a natural transition from bulk silicon as bulk silicon has been the preferred material in electronics since the dawn of the transistor. Thin-film silicon retains the well-studied electronic properties of bulk silicon; however, it becomes flexible as it is thinned. Obstacles to the application of both these materials in flexible electronics nonetheless exist. Compressed CNT films undergo strain softening---a mechanism in which the CNT film restructures itself in response to an applied strain, which reduces the Young's modulus and electronic conductivity. In this dissertation, thin CNT films are capped with a thin polymer layer, with the aim to mitigate strain softening through excluded volume interactions in a bilayer format that serves as a paradigm for more sophisticated device relevant settings. More specifically, metallic and semiconducting CNT films of different thicknesses are capped with a polystyrene film of comparable thickness, and the mechanical and electronic strain response of the capped CNT film is examined and discussed. Ultrathin silicon films cannot be grown as monocrystalline silicon, so amorphous silicon films must be deposited and crystallized. Laser crystallization is an alternative to oven annealing and has a faster throughput. In this dissertation, amorphous silicon films of various thicknesses were deposited on several

  7. Hierarchical Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Mesostructures by Crystallization-Driven Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Petretic, Amy; Molev, Gregory; Guerin, Gerald; Manners, Ian; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2015-11-24

    Multistep crystallization-driven self-assembly has great potential to enable the construction of sophisticated hybrid mesostructures. During the assembly procedure, each step modifies the properties of the overall structure. Here, we demonstrate the flexibility and efficiency of this approach by preparing polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid mesostructures. We started by growing polyferrocenyldimethylsilane (PFS) homopolymer crystals onto multiwalled CNTs. This first step facilitated the redispersion of the coated CNTs in both polar (2-propanol) and nonpolar (decane) solvents. In the second step of hybrid construction, a unimer solution of a PFS block copolymer was added into the PFS-CNT solution. The PFS coating on the CNT initiated the growth of elongated micelles, resulting in structures that resembled hairy caterpillars. PFS-b-P2VP (P2VP = poly-2-vinylpyridine) micelles were grown from the surface of PFS-CNT hybrids in 2-propanol, and PFS-b-PI (PI = polyisoprene) micelles were grown from these hybrids in decane. These micelles, by transmission electron microscopy were seen to have an unusual wavy kinked structure, very different from the uniform smooth structures normally formed by both block copolymers. For hybrids with PFS-b-PI micelles, cross-linking of the micelle coronas locked the whole structure in place and allowed us to use the partial oxidation of PFS components to grow metal nanoparticles in the core of these micelles. We finally investigated the influence of the corona-forming block used to grow the micelles on the wettability of films made from these mesostructures. Films formed with CNT hybrids grafted with PFS-b-PI micelles were superhydrophobic (contact angle, 152°). In contrast, the surface of the films was much more hydrophilic (contact angle, 54°) when they were prepared from CNT hybrids grafted with PFS-b-P2VP micelles.

  8. Hierarchical Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Mesostructures by Crystallization-Driven Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lin; Petretic, Amy; Molev, Gregory; Guerin, Gerald; Manners, Ian; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2015-11-24

    Multistep crystallization-driven self-assembly has great potential to enable the construction of sophisticated hybrid mesostructures. During the assembly procedure, each step modifies the properties of the overall structure. Here, we demonstrate the flexibility and efficiency of this approach by preparing polymer-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid mesostructures. We started by growing polyferrocenyldimethylsilane (PFS) homopolymer crystals onto multiwalled CNTs. This first step facilitated the redispersion of the coated CNTs in both polar (2-propanol) and nonpolar (decane) solvents. In the second step of hybrid construction, a unimer solution of a PFS block copolymer was added into the PFS-CNT solution. The PFS coating on the CNT initiated the growth of elongated micelles, resulting in structures that resembled hairy caterpillars. PFS-b-P2VP (P2VP = poly-2-vinylpyridine) micelles were grown from the surface of PFS-CNT hybrids in 2-propanol, and PFS-b-PI (PI = polyisoprene) micelles were grown from these hybrids in decane. These micelles, by transmission electron microscopy were seen to have an unusual wavy kinked structure, very different from the uniform smooth structures normally formed by both block copolymers. For hybrids with PFS-b-PI micelles, cross-linking of the micelle coronas locked the whole structure in place and allowed us to use the partial oxidation of PFS components to grow metal nanoparticles in the core of these micelles. We finally investigated the influence of the corona-forming block used to grow the micelles on the wettability of films made from these mesostructures. Films formed with CNT hybrids grafted with PFS-b-PI micelles were superhydrophobic (contact angle, 152°). In contrast, the surface of the films was much more hydrophilic (contact angle, 54°) when they were prepared from CNT hybrids grafted with PFS-b-P2VP micelles. PMID:26418346

  9. Utilizing carbon nanotube electrodes to improve charge injection and transport in bis(trifluoromethyl)-dimethyl-rubrene ambipolar single crystal transistors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L; Nakayama, Yasuo; McGarry, Kathryn A; Geier, Michael L; Uragami, Yuki; Mase, Kazuhiko; Douglas, Christopher J; Ishii, Hisao; Hersam, Mark C; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2013-11-26

    We have examined the significant enhancement of ambipolar charge injection and transport properties of bottom-contact single crystal field-effect transistors (SC-FETs) based on a new rubrene derivative, bis(trifluoromethyl)-dimethyl-rubrene (fm-rubrene), by employing carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes. The fundamental challenge associated with fm-rubrene crystals is their deep-lying HOMO and LUMO energy levels, resulting in inefficient hole injection and suboptimal electron injection from conventional Au electrodes due to large Schottky barriers. Applying thin layers of CNT network at the charge injection interface of fm-rubrene crystals substantially reduces the contact resistance for both holes and electrons; consequently, benchmark ambipolar mobilities have been achieved, reaching 4.8 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for hole transport and 4.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for electron transport. We find that such improved injection efficiency in fm-rubrene is beneficial for ultimately unveiling its intrinsic charge transport properties so as to exceed those of its parent molecule, rubrene, in the current device architecture. Our studies suggest that CNT electrodes may provide a universal approach to ameliorate the charge injection obstacles in organic electronic devices regardless of charge carrier type, likely due to the electric field enhancement along the nanotube located at the crystal/electrode interface.

  10. Utilizing carbon nanotube electrodes to improve charge injection and transport in bis(trifluoromethyl)-dimethyl-rubrene ambipolar single crystal transistors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L; Nakayama, Yasuo; McGarry, Kathryn A; Geier, Michael L; Uragami, Yuki; Mase, Kazuhiko; Douglas, Christopher J; Ishii, Hisao; Hersam, Mark C; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2013-11-26

    We have examined the significant enhancement of ambipolar charge injection and transport properties of bottom-contact single crystal field-effect transistors (SC-FETs) based on a new rubrene derivative, bis(trifluoromethyl)-dimethyl-rubrene (fm-rubrene), by employing carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes. The fundamental challenge associated with fm-rubrene crystals is their deep-lying HOMO and LUMO energy levels, resulting in inefficient hole injection and suboptimal electron injection from conventional Au electrodes due to large Schottky barriers. Applying thin layers of CNT network at the charge injection interface of fm-rubrene crystals substantially reduces the contact resistance for both holes and electrons; consequently, benchmark ambipolar mobilities have been achieved, reaching 4.8 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for hole transport and 4.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for electron transport. We find that such improved injection efficiency in fm-rubrene is beneficial for ultimately unveiling its intrinsic charge transport properties so as to exceed those of its parent molecule, rubrene, in the current device architecture. Our studies suggest that CNT electrodes may provide a universal approach to ameliorate the charge injection obstacles in organic electronic devices regardless of charge carrier type, likely due to the electric field enhancement along the nanotube located at the crystal/electrode interface. PMID:24175573

  11. Optical transmission of nematic liquid crystal 5CB doped by single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lisetski, L N; Fedoryako, A P; Samoilov, A N; Minenko, S S; Soskin, M S; Lebovka, N I

    2014-08-01

    Comparative studies of optical transmission of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), dispersed in nematic liquid crystal matrix 5CB, were carried out. The data evidence violations of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer (BLB) law both in cell thickness and concentration dependencies. The most striking is the fact that optical transmission dependencies for SWCNTs and MWCNTs were quite different in the nematic phase, but they were practically indistinguishable in the isotropic phase. Monte Carlo simulations of the impact of aggregation on direct transmission and violation of BLB law were also done. The results were discussed accounting for the tortuous shape of CNTs, their physical properties and aggregation, as well as strong impact of perturbations of the nematic 5CB structure inside coils and in the vicinity of CNT aggregates. PMID:25106504

  12. Piezoelectric properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3-BaTiO3 lead-free ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Tian-Lu; Yao, Fang-Zhou; Zhu, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Ke; Li, Jing-Feng

    2016-07-01

    (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN)-based lead-free piezoceramics have been the spotlight in search for practically viable candidates to replace the hazardous but dominating lead-containing counterparts. In this work, BaTiO3 (BT) modified KNN ceramics were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and the influence of BT content as well as sintering temperature on the phase structure, microstructure, and electrical properties were investigated. It was found that the 0.96(Na0.5K0.5)NbO3-0.04BaTiO3 (BT4) ceramics sintered at 1000∘C have the optimal performance. Additionally, in-depth analysis of the electrical hysteresis revealed that the internal bias field originating from accumulation of space charges at grain boundaries is responsible for the asymmetry in the hysteresis loops.

  13. Microwave dielectric properties of BaTiO3 and Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films on (001) MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alldredge, L. M. B.; Chang, Wontae; Kirchoefer, Steven W.; Pond, Jeffrey M.

    2009-11-01

    The microwave properties of BaTiO3 and Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films were characterized as a function of in-plane film strain, crystallographic direction, film distortion, and dc bias. The strain dependence of BaTiO3 and Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films showed an opposite pattern at room temperature, going from compression to tension, or vice versa. At zero bias, the dielectric constant and dielectric loss showed little dependence on direction ([100] and [110]). However, the tunability was consistently smaller along the [110] direction than along [100]. These observations agreed well with our previous work on how polarizations (both ionic and spontaneous) form and contribute to the nonlinear dielectric behavior.

  14. Ferroelectric Polarization-Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting in TiO2-BaTiO3 Core-Shell Nanowire Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiguang; Yu, Yanhao; Starr, Matthew B; Yin, Xin; Li, Zhaodong; Kvit, Alexander; Wang, Shifa; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Xudong

    2015-11-11

    The performances of heterojunction-based electronic devices are extremely sensitive to the interfacial electronic band structure. Here we report a largely enhanced performance of photoelectrochemical (PEC) photoanodes by ferroelectric polarization-endowed band engineering on the basis of TiO2/BaTiO3 core/shell nanowires (NWs). Through a one-step hydrothermal process, a uniform, epitaxial, and spontaneously poled barium titanate (BTO) layer was created on single crystalline TiO2 NWs. Compared to pristine TiO2 NWs, the 5 nm BTO-coated TiO2 NWs achieved 67% photocurrent density enhancement. By numerically calculating the potential distribution across the TiO2/BTO/electrolyte heterojunction and systematically investigating the light absorption, charge injection and separation properties of TiO2 and TiO2/BTO NWs, the PEC performance gain was proved to be a result of the increased charge separation efficiency induced by the ferroelectric polarization of the BTO shell. The ferroelectric polarization could be switched by external electric field poling and yielded PEC performance gain or loss based on the direction of the polarization. This study evidence that the piezotronic effect (ferroelectric or piezoelectric potential-induced band structure engineering) holds great promises in improving the performance of PEC photoelectrodes in addition to chemistry and structure optimization.

  15. Visible light absorption in La, Cr co-doped SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 for ferroelectric photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comes, Ryan; McBriarty, Martin; Ong, Phuong-Vu; Heald, Steve; Carroll, Gerard; Gamelin, Daniel; Freedy, Keren; Smolin, Sergey; Baxter, Jason; Kaspar, Tiffany; Bowden, Mark; Sushko, Peter; Chambers, Scott

    Ferroelectric materials offer intriguing possibilities as photovoltaic materials, as their built-in electric field is ideal for separation of optically-excited electron-hole pairs without the need for a p-n junction. However, the majority of ferroelectrics suffer from a wide optical band gap outside the visible range. By co-doping La and Cr into epitaxial SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 (SLTCO/BLTCO) thin films, we show that absorption in the visible light regime can be achieved with a band gap of ~2.3 eV while preserving ideal stoichiometry. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoconductivity and ultrafast pump-probe transient reflectance measurements, we show that visible light excitation of Cr 3d valence electrons into the Ti 3d conduction band produces optical carriers. Using piezoresponse force microscopy and polarized x-ray absorption fine structure measurements, we measure the ferroelectric polarization of the doped BLTCO films. These results are compared to density functional theory models to understand the optical and structural properties of the materials.

  16. Correlated rattling-ion origins of dielectric properties in reentrant dipole glasses BaTiO3-BiScO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krayzman, Victor; Levin, Igor; Woicik, Joseph C.; Bridges, Frank

    2015-11-01

    The local structure of the pseudo-cubic solid solution 0.6BaTiO3-0.4BiScO3, which exhibits reentrant dipole-glass behavior, has been determined using the Reverse Monte Carlo method to simultaneously fit (1) neutron and X-ray total scattering data (including the corresponding real-space pair-distribution functions), (2) Bi and Sc extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and (3) patterns of diffuse scattering in electron diffraction. These structural refinements revealed the multi-site probability density distributions for both Bi (14-sites) and Ti (8 sites), whereas Ba and Sc featured normal unimodal distributions. Bi atoms are displaced along both the <111> and <100> directions, while Ti atoms are shifted along <111>. Correlated dynamic hopping of Bi and Ti over their corresponding split sites combined with chemical disorder is proposed as the origin of the strong frequency dispersion observed in dielectric measurements. The existence of split sites also explains the reentrant dipole-glass behavior reported for this system.

  17. Improved Dielectric Properties and Energy Storage Density of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Nanocomposite with Hydantoin Epoxy Resin Coated BaTiO3.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hang; Zhang, Dou; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Xi; Chen, Chao; Zhou, Kechao

    2015-04-22

    Energy storage materials are urgently demanded in modern electric power supply and renewable energy systems. The introduction of inorganic fillers to polymer matrix represents a promising avenue for the development of high energy density storage materials, which combines the high dielectric constant of inorganic fillers with supernal dielectric strength of polymer matrix. However, agglomeration and phase separation of inorganic fillers in the polymer matrix remain the key barriers to promoting the practical applications of the composites for energy storage. Here, we developed a low-cost and environmentally friendly route to modifying BaTiO3 (BT) nanoparticles by a kind of water-soluble hydantoin epoxy resin. The modified BT nanoparticles exhibited homogeneous dispersion in the ferroelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) matrix and strong interfacial adhesion with the polymer matrix. The dielectric constants of the nanocomposites increased significantly with the increase of the coated BT loading, while the dielectric loss of the nanocomposites was still as low as that of the pure P(VDF-HFP). The energy storage density of the nanocomposites was largely enhanced with the coated BT loading at the same electric field. The nanocomposite with 20 vol % BT exhibited an estimated maximum energy density of 8.13 J cm(-3), which was much higher than that of pure P(VDF-HFP) and other dielectric polymers. The findings of this research could provide a feasible approach to produce high energy density materials for practical application in energy storage. PMID:25822911

  18. Ferroelectric Polarization-Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting in TiO2-BaTiO3 Core-Shell Nanowire Photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiguang; Yu, Yanhao; Starr, Matthew B; Yin, Xin; Li, Zhaodong; Kvit, Alexander; Wang, Shifa; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Xudong

    2015-11-11

    The performances of heterojunction-based electronic devices are extremely sensitive to the interfacial electronic band structure. Here we report a largely enhanced performance of photoelectrochemical (PEC) photoanodes by ferroelectric polarization-endowed band engineering on the basis of TiO2/BaTiO3 core/shell nanowires (NWs). Through a one-step hydrothermal process, a uniform, epitaxial, and spontaneously poled barium titanate (BTO) layer was created on single crystalline TiO2 NWs. Compared to pristine TiO2 NWs, the 5 nm BTO-coated TiO2 NWs achieved 67% photocurrent density enhancement. By numerically calculating the potential distribution across the TiO2/BTO/electrolyte heterojunction and systematically investigating the light absorption, charge injection and separation properties of TiO2 and TiO2/BTO NWs, the PEC performance gain was proved to be a result of the increased charge separation efficiency induced by the ferroelectric polarization of the BTO shell. The ferroelectric polarization could be switched by external electric field poling and yielded PEC performance gain or loss based on the direction of the polarization. This study evidence that the piezotronic effect (ferroelectric or piezoelectric potential-induced band structure engineering) holds great promises in improving the performance of PEC photoelectrodes in addition to chemistry and structure optimization. PMID:26492362

  19. Multiferroic Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4-BaTiO3 nanostructures: Magnetoelectric coupling, dielectric, and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Kuldeep Chand; Singh, Sukhdeep; Tripathi, S. K.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Multiferroic nanostructures of Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4-BaTiO3 (NZF/BT) have been prepared by two synthesis routes, i.e., chemical combustion (CNZF/BT) and hydrothermal (HNZF/BT). The synthesis of CNZF/BT results in nanoparticles of average size 4 nm at 500 °C annealing. However, the synthesis of HNZF/BT with hydrolysis temperature 180 °C/48 h shows nanowires of diameter 3 nm and length >150 nm. A growth mechanism in the fabrication of nanoparticles and wires is given. X-ray diffraction is used to identify the crystalline phase. The transmission electron microscopy shows the dimensions of NZF/BT nanostructures. The ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, and magnetoelectric coupling show more enhancements in HNZF/BT nanowires than CNZF/BT nanoparticles. The observed polarization depends upon shape of nanostructures, tetragonal phase, and epitaxial strain. The tension induced by the surface curvature of nanowire counteracts the near-surface depolarizing effect and meanwhile leads to unusual enhancement of polarization. The ferromagnetism depends upon superficial spin canting, spin pinning of nanocomposite, and oxygen vacancy clusters. The magnetoelectric coefficient as the function of applied dc magnetizing field under ac magnetic field 5 Oe and frequency 1093 Hz is measured. The nanodimensions of NZF/BT are observed dielectric constant up to 120 MHz. The optical activity of NZF/BT nanostructures is shown by Fluorescence spectra.

  20. First-principles free energies and Ginzburg-Landau theory of domains and ferroelectric phase transitions in BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anil; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2010-08-01

    We present a method based on combination of (a) constrained polarization molecular dynamics and (b) thermodynamic integration to determine the free-energy landscape relevant to structural phase transitions and related phenomena in ferroelectric materials, bridging the gap between first-principles calculations and phenomenological Landau-type theories. We illustrate it using a first-principles effective Hamiltonian of BaTiO3 to (a) uncover the quantitative features of the free-energy function that are responsible for its first-order ferroelectric transitions, (b) calculate the minimum free-energy pathways for the polarization switching and (c) evaluate temperature-dependent free energy of domain walls, and a minimum free-energy pathway to formation of ferroelectric domains. We use our method within a variational mean-field theory to connect with Landau theory and show through comparison with numerically exact simulations that (a) the state constrained to have vanishing order (away from the equilibrium) below the transition temperature is highly degenerate due to fluctuations that drive the phase transition first order, and (b) certain terms need to be added to the phenomenological Landau-Devonshire free-energy functions to capture the physics of spatial fluctuation in order parameter. Our method can be readily generalized to any classical microscopic Hamiltonian and ensembles characterized with a given constraint.

  1. Polarization switching dynamics in thin-film BaTiO3/PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 bilayer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salev, Pavel; Grigoriev, Alexei

    2013-03-01

    In this work, we compare polarization switching and dielectric properties of single- (PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 (PZT)) and bi-layer (BaTiO3/PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 (BTO/PZT)) ferroelectric thin-film materials. The ferroelectric films were grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering on SrRuO3/SrTiO3 (001) substrates. Pt top electrodes ranging in diameter from 50 um to 200 um were fabricated on top of ferroelectric films. Electrical measurements of switching dynamics and dielectric response revealed a significant difference in polarization switching between single- and bi-layer capacitors. Average remnant polarization in the bilayer was reduced to 60 uC/cm2 from 90 uC/cm2 polarization in a single layer capacitor, and the switching speed was reduced significantly. In this presentation, we will discuss effects of interfaces and polarization coupling on polarization dynamics and on the dielectric response in ferroelectric multilayers.

  2. High rate capability of a BaTiO3-decorated LiCoO2 cathode prepared via metal organic decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teranishi, Takashi; Katsuji, Naoto; Yoshikawa, Yumi; Yoneda, Mika; Hayashi, Hidetaka; Kishimoto, Akira; Yoda, Koji; Motobayashi, Hidefumi; Tasaki, Yuzo

    2016-10-01

    Metal organic decomposition (MOD) using octylic acid salts was applied to synthesize a BaTiO3-LiCoO2 (BT-LC) composite powder. The Ba and Ti octylates were utilized as metal precursors, in an attempt to synthesize homogeneous BT nanoparticles on the LC matrix. The BT-LC composite, having a phase-separated composite structure without any impurity phase, was successfully obtained by optimizing the MOD procedure. The composite prepared using octylate precursors exhibited a sharper distribution and better dispersibility of decorated BT particles. Additionally, the average particle size of the decorated BTs using metal octylate was reduced to 23.3 nm, compared to 44.4 nm from conventional processes using Ba acetate as well as Ti alkoxide as precursors. The composite cathode displayed better cell performance than its conventional counterpart; the discharge capacity of the metal octylate-derived specimen was 55.6 mAh/g at a 50C rate, corresponding to 173% of the capacity of the conventional specimen (32.2 mAh/g). The notable improvement in high rate capability obtained in this study, compared with the conventional route, was attributed to the higher density of the triple junction formed by the BT-LC-electrolyte interface.

  3. Phase Structure, Piezoelectric and Multiferroic Properties of SmCoO3-Modified BiFeO3-BaTiO3 Lead-Free Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Na; Tian, Mijie; Luo, Lingling; Zheng, Qiaoji; Shi, Dongliang; Lam, Kwok Ho; Xu, Chenggang; Lin, Dunmin

    2016-01-01

    (0.75- x)BiFeO3-0.25BaTiO3- xSmCoO3 + 1 mol.% MnO2 lead-free multiferroic ceramics were synthesized by a conventional ceramic fabrication technique. The effects of SmCoO3 on phase structure, piezoelectricity and multiferroicity of the ceramics were studied. All the ceramics can be well sintered at a low sintering temperature of 960°C. The crystalline structure of the ceramics is transformed from rhombohedral to tetragonal symmetry with increasing the amount of SmCoO3. A morphotropic phase boundary of rhombohedral and tetragonal phases is formed at x = 0.01-0.04. A small amount of SmCoO3 is shown to improve the ferroelectric, piezoelectric and magnetoelectric properties of the ceramics. For the ceramics with x = 0.01-0.03, enhanced resistivity ( R ˜ 1.2 × 109 Ω cm to 2.1 × 109 Ω cm), piezoelectricity ( d 33 ˜ 65 pC/N to 106 pC/N) and ferroelectricity ( P r ˜ 6.38 μC/cm2 to 22.89 μC/cm2) are obtained. The ferromagnetism of the materials is greatly enhanced by the doping of SmCoO3 such that a very high magnetoelectric coefficient of ˜742 mV/(cm Oe) is obtained at x = 0.01, suggesting a promising potential in multiferroic devices.

  4. Improved Dielectric Properties and Energy Storage Density of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Nanocomposite with Hydantoin Epoxy Resin Coated BaTiO3.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hang; Zhang, Dou; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Xi; Chen, Chao; Zhou, Kechao

    2015-04-22

    Energy storage materials are urgently demanded in modern electric power supply and renewable energy systems. The introduction of inorganic fillers to polymer matrix represents a promising avenue for the development of high energy density storage materials, which combines the high dielectric constant of inorganic fillers with supernal dielectric strength of polymer matrix. However, agglomeration and phase separation of inorganic fillers in the polymer matrix remain the key barriers to promoting the practical applications of the composites for energy storage. Here, we developed a low-cost and environmentally friendly route to modifying BaTiO3 (BT) nanoparticles by a kind of water-soluble hydantoin epoxy resin. The modified BT nanoparticles exhibited homogeneous dispersion in the ferroelectric polymer poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-HFP)) matrix and strong interfacial adhesion with the polymer matrix. The dielectric constants of the nanocomposites increased significantly with the increase of the coated BT loading, while the dielectric loss of the nanocomposites was still as low as that of the pure P(VDF-HFP). The energy storage density of the nanocomposites was largely enhanced with the coated BT loading at the same electric field. The nanocomposite with 20 vol % BT exhibited an estimated maximum energy density of 8.13 J cm(-3), which was much higher than that of pure P(VDF-HFP) and other dielectric polymers. The findings of this research could provide a feasible approach to produce high energy density materials for practical application in energy storage.

  5. In-plane strain modulated magnetization and magnetoelectric effect in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-BaTiO3 and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-BaTiO3-BiFeO3 multilayer's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Virendra; Gaur, Anurag; Chaudhury, Ram Janay; Kumar, Dileep

    2016-10-01

    La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-BaTiO3(LSMO/BTO) and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-BaTiO3-BiFeO3 (LSMO/BTO/BFO) multilayer thin films are deposited on STO (100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition. In-plane lattice mismatch induced strain is thoroughly investigated with the conclusion, that upper BTO layer of bilayer resides in high strained state, while upper BFO layer of trilayer remains under partially relaxed state. Significantly higher value (∼20) of dielectric constant is observed for LSMO/BTO bilayer in compliance with its higher (12.28 μC/cm2) in-plane strain induced interfacial polarization, which exceeds (2.06 μC/cm2), the observed value of polarization for LSMO/BTO/BFO trilayer. In LSMO/BTO bilayer, antiferromagnetic LSMO phase coexists due to the existence of strong tensile strain between the interfaces, which causes the reduction in value of saturation magnetization up to 50.76 emu/cm3 in comparison to 145.01 emu/cm3 for LSMO/BTO/BFO trilayer. The maximum value of linear magnetoelectric coefficient (α31) observed for LSMO/BTO bilayer is 24.77 mV/cm-Oe, which is higher in comparison to 19.54 mV/cm-Oe for LSMO/BTO/BFO trilayer, where the upper layer undergoes less strain in comparison to the bilayer.

  6. Influence of Ga-concentration on the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetoelectric CoGaxFe2–xO4/BaTiO3 composite

    DOE PAGES

    Ni, Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Nlebedim, Cajetan I.; Jiles, David C.

    2015-03-20

    Multiferroic materials exhibit magnetoelectric (ME) coupling and promise new device applications including magnetic sensors, generators, and filters. An effective method for developing ME materials with enhanced ME effect is achieved by the coupling through the interfacial strain between piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials. In this study, the electrical and magnetic properties of Ga doped magnetoelectric CoGaxFe2–xO4/BaTiO3 composite are studied systematically. It is found that Ga doping improves the sensitivity of magnetoelastic response and stabilizes the magnetic phase of the composites. More importantly, Ga doping reduces the electrical conductivity of composite, as well as the dielectric loss. An enhancement of the electrostrainmore » with doping Ga is also observed. Quantitative estimation indicates that magnetoelectric coupling is enhanced for Ga-doped CoGaxFe2–xO4/BaTiO3 composites. As a result, the present work is beneficial to the practical application of composite CoFe2O4/BaTiO3-based multiferroic materials.« less

  7. Interactions of carbon nanotubes in a nematic liquid crystal. I. Theory.

    PubMed

    Galerne, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Elongated and rodlike objects such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are studied when immersed in a nematic liquid crystal. Their interaction energy in a uniform nematic field depends on their orientation relative to the director n, and its minimum determines if they stabilize parallel or perpendicular to n. Using free energy calculations, we deduce the orientation at equilibrium that they choose in a uniform director field n or when they are in contact with a splay-bend disclination line. Naturally, the CNT orientations also depend on the anchoring conditions at their surface. Essentially, three types of anchorings are considered, planar, homeotropic, and Janus anchorings in the cases of weak and strong anchoring strengths. In the presence of a splay-bend disclination line, they are attracted toward it and ultimately, they get out of the colloidal dispersion to stick on it. Their orientation relative to the line is found to be parallel or perpendicular to it, again depending on the anchoring conditions. When a sufficient number of particles are deposited on a disclination line, we finally obtain a micro- or nanonecklace in the shape of a thin thread or of a bottle brush, according to the CNTs being oriented parallel or perpendicular to the disclination line, respectively. The system exhibits a rich versatility even if up to now the weak anchorings appear to be difficult to control. As discussed in the associated experimental paper, these necklaces could be a step toward interesting applications for realizing nanowires self-connected in three dimensions to predesignated electrodes. This method could provide a way to increase the number of transistors that may be connected together on a small volume. PMID:27176361

  8. Interactions of carbon nanotubes in a nematic liquid crystal. I. Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galerne, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Elongated and rodlike objects such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are studied when immersed in a nematic liquid crystal. Their interaction energy in a uniform nematic field depends on their orientation relative to the director n , and its minimum determines if they stabilize parallel or perpendicular to n . Using free energy calculations, we deduce the orientation at equilibrium that they choose in a uniform director field n or when they are in contact with a splay-bend disclination line. Naturally, the CNT orientations also depend on the anchoring conditions at their surface. Essentially, three types of anchorings are considered, planar, homeotropic, and Janus anchorings in the cases of weak and strong anchoring strengths. In the presence of a splay-bend disclination line, they are attracted toward it and ultimately, they get out of the colloidal dispersion to stick on it. Their orientation relative to the line is found to be parallel or perpendicular to it, again depending on the anchoring conditions. When a sufficient number of particles are deposited on a disclination line, we finally obtain a micro- or nanonecklace in the shape of a thin thread or of a bottle brush, according to the CNTs being oriented parallel or perpendicular to the disclination line, respectively. The system exhibits a rich versatility even if up to now the weak anchorings appear to be difficult to control. As discussed in the associated experimental paper, these necklaces could be a step toward interesting applications for realizing nanowires self-connected in three dimensions to predesignated electrodes. This method could provide a way to increase the number of transistors that may be connected together on a small volume.

  9. Aperiodic TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal: full-visible-spectrum solar light harvesting in photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-09-23

    Bandgap engineering of a photonic crystal is highly desirable for photon management in photonic sensors and devices. Aperiodic photonic crystals (APCs) can provide unprecedented opportunities for much more versatile photon management, due to increased degrees of freedom in the design and the unique properties brought about by the aperiodic structures as compared to their periodic counterparts. However, many efforts still remain on conceptual approaches, practical achievements in APCs are rarely reported due to the difficulties in fabrication. Here, we report a simple but highly controllable current-pulse anodization process to design and fabricate TiO2 nanotube APCs. By coupling an APC into the photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we demonstrate the concept of using APC to achieve nearly full-visible-spectrum light harvesting, as evidenced by both experimental and simulated results. It is anticipated that this work will lead to more fruitful practical applications of APCs in high-efficiency photovoltaics, sensors and optoelectronic devices.

  10. Vortices of polarization in BaTiO3 core-shell nanoceramics: Calculations based on ab initio derived Hamiltonian versus Landau theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anoufa, M.; Kiat, J. M.; Kornev, I.; Bogicevic, C.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we want to emphasize the fact that many experimental properties of ceramics can be explained by the existence of a core-shell structure of the grains, particularly at small sizes. In this framework, we have studied BaTiO3 (BT) ceramics constituted of core-shell nanoparticles, nanowires, or nanoplanes by using ab initio derived effective Hamiltonian calculations whose application range is for large values of shell thickness and low values of shell permittivity. Many differences and new features compared to the situation of nanodots are induced by the core-shell structure. For instance, phase sequences are different; there is also a coexistence of vortices found by Naumov, Bellaiche, and Fu [I. I. Naumov, L. Bellaiche, and H. Fu, Nature (London)10.1038/nature03107 432, 737 (2004)] in the case of isolated dots with a homogeneous polarization, a transition from cubic paraelectric phase towards nonpolar rhombohedral phase, anomalies in dielectric permittivity associated with the onset of toroidal moments, etc. Afterwards, we compare these results with those obtained by the Landau theory of core-shell ceramics we have recently published. However, the ab initio calculations fail to capture the physics at small shell thickness and/or high shell permittivity, whereas the Landau theory fails to predict the peculiar properties of the phases in which vortices exist. Therefore, in a tentative way to build a global theory, we have constructed a Landau potential using both the polarization and the toroidal moment as competing order parameters, which allows us to propose a phase diagram, whatever the thickness and permittivity of the shell are.

  11. The effects of donor dopant concentration on the grain boundary layer characteristics in n-doped BaTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Allak, H. M.; Illingsworth, J.; Brinkman, A. W.; Russell, G. J.; Woods, J.

    1988-12-01

    Positive temperature coefficient of resistance BaTiO3 specimens containing different donor dopant concentrations of Ho ranging from 0.05 to 1.8 at. % were investigated. The intergranular barrier layer capacitance per unit area, C'L, measured at a constant frequency of 30 kHz at both 40 and 160 °C was found to be proportional to the donor concentration up to 0.55 at. %, but then began to decrease as the donor concentration was increased beyond this. This indicated that both the density of acceptor states at the grain surfaces, Ns, and the relative permittivity ɛL of the material within the barrier layer were not affected by donor impurity concentrations below 0.55 at. % Ho. However, above this level of Ho concentration, the decrease in C'L appears to be related mainly to an increase in the value of Ns although it is possible that there were changes in ɛL. Initially both the maximum resistance and the room-temperature resistance (normalized per grain boundary per unit area), ρ'max and ρcold, respectively, were found to decrease sharply with donor concentration towards a broad minimum between ˜0.5 and ˜1.5 at. %, followed thereafter by a gradual increase. The temperature Tmax at which ρ'max occurred was also affected by the donor concentration; initially Tmax was found to increase with donor concentration followed by a reduction forming a broad maximum between about the same donor concentration limits corresponding to the minima in ρcold and ρ'max. These results are interpreted in terms of the well-established Heywang model.

  12. The influence of Mn on the grain-boundary potential barrier characteristics of donor-doped BaTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingsworth, J.; Al-Allak, H. M.; Brinkman, A. W.; Woods, J.

    1990-02-01

    Two compositions of BaTiO3 positive temperature coefficient of resistance ceramics, prepared identically except for the fact that a small addition of Mn (0.04 at. %) was made to one of them, were studied. The samples were sintered simultaneously in air at 1400 °C for 1 h and then annealed at 1200 ° for 5 h, using a muffle furnace. Room-temperature dielectric measurements in the audio- and radio-frequency ranges confirmed that Mn has a negligible effect on the bulk resistance. Arrhenius plots of resistivity vs 1/[Tɛ'm(T)] were found to give straight lines for Tc

  13. One-dimensional SnF{sub 2} single crystals in the inner channels of single-wall carbon nanotubes: I. Preparation and basic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zakalyukin, R. M. Demyanets, L. N.; Kiselev, N. A.; Kumskov, A. S.; Kislov, M. B.; Krestinin, A. V.; Hutchison, J. L.

    2010-05-15

    One-dimensional (1D) SnF{sub 2} single crystals have been obtained by crystallization from melt in the inner channels of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). SWCNTs with an inner diameter of 1.02-1.4 nm, synthesized by electric-arc discharge and chemically purified, were used for incorporation. The synthesized 1D SnF{sub 2} single crystal-SWCNT composites are basically characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive analysis, electron microscopy, and chemical analysis. The characteristic motifs of tin cation distribution in the SWCNT inner channel confirm the formation of SnF{sub 2} single crystals.

  14. Interactions of carbon nanotubes in a nematic liquid crystal. II. Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agha, Hakam; Galerne, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) colloids with different anchoring conditions are dispersed in pentyl-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), a thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) that exhibits a room-temperature nematic phase. The experiments make use of CNTs treated for strong planar, homeotropic, or Janus anchorings. Observations with a polarizing microscope show that the CNTs placed in a uniform nematic field stabilize parallel or perpendicular to n depending on their anchoring conditions. In the presence of a splay-bend disclination line, they are first attracted toward it and ultimately, they get trapped on it. Their orientation relative to the line is then found to be parallel or perpendicular to it, again depending on the anchoring conditions. When a sufficient number of particles are deposited on a disclination line, they form a micro- or nanonecklace in the shape of a thin thread or of a bottle brush, with the CNTs being oriented parallel or perpendicular to the disclination line according to the anchoring treatment. The system exhibits a rich versatility, even if until now the weak anchorings appear to be difficult to control. In a next step, the necklaces may be glued by means of pyrrole electropolymerization. In this manner, we realize a true materialization of the disclination lines, and we obtain nanowires capable of conducting the electricity in the place of the initial disclinations that just worked as templates. The advantage of the method is that it finally provides nanowires that are automatically connected to predesignated three-dimensional (3D) electrodes. Such a 3D nanowiring could have important applications, as it could allow one to develop electronic circuits in the third dimension. They could thus help with increasing the transistor density per surface unit, although downsizing of integrated circuits will soon be limited to atomic sizes or so. In other words, the predicted limitation to Moore's law could be avoided. For the moment, the nanowires that we obtain

  15. Interactions of carbon nanotubes in a nematic liquid crystal. II. Experiment.

    PubMed

    Agha, Hakam; Galerne, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) colloids with different anchoring conditions are dispersed in pentyl-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), a thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) that exhibits a room-temperature nematic phase. The experiments make use of CNTs treated for strong planar, homeotropic, or Janus anchorings. Observations with a polarizing microscope show that the CNTs placed in a uniform nematic field stabilize parallel or perpendicular to n depending on their anchoring conditions. In the presence of a splay-bend disclination line, they are first attracted toward it and ultimately, they get trapped on it. Their orientation relative to the line is then found to be parallel or perpendicular to it, again depending on the anchoring conditions. When a sufficient number of particles are deposited on a disclination line, they form a micro- or nanonecklace in the shape of a thin thread or of a bottle brush, with the CNTs being oriented parallel or perpendicular to the disclination line according to the anchoring treatment. The system exhibits a rich versatility, even if until now the weak anchorings appear to be difficult to control. In a next step, the necklaces may be glued by means of pyrrole electropolymerization. In this manner, we realize a true materialization of the disclination lines, and we obtain nanowires capable of conducting the electricity in the place of the initial disclinations that just worked as templates. The advantage of the method is that it finally provides nanowires that are automatically connected to predesignated three-dimensional (3D) electrodes. Such a 3D nanowiring could have important applications, as it could allow one to develop electronic circuits in the third dimension. They could thus help with increasing the transistor density per surface unit, although downsizing of integrated circuits will soon be limited to atomic sizes or so. In other words, the predicted limitation to Moore's law could be avoided. For the moment, the nanowires that we obtain

  16. Interactions of carbon nanotubes in a nematic liquid crystal. II. Experiment.

    PubMed

    Agha, Hakam; Galerne, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) colloids with different anchoring conditions are dispersed in pentyl-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), a thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) that exhibits a room-temperature nematic phase. The experiments make use of CNTs treated for strong planar, homeotropic, or Janus anchorings. Observations with a polarizing microscope show that the CNTs placed in a uniform nematic field stabilize parallel or perpendicular to n depending on their anchoring conditions. In the presence of a splay-bend disclination line, they are first attracted toward it and ultimately, they get trapped on it. Their orientation relative to the line is then found to be parallel or perpendicular to it, again depending on the anchoring conditions. When a sufficient number of particles are deposited on a disclination line, they form a micro- or nanonecklace in the shape of a thin thread or of a bottle brush, with the CNTs being oriented parallel or perpendicular to the disclination line according to the anchoring treatment. The system exhibits a rich versatility, even if until now the weak anchorings appear to be difficult to control. In a next step, the necklaces may be glued by means of pyrrole electropolymerization. In this manner, we realize a true materialization of the disclination lines, and we obtain nanowires capable of conducting the electricity in the place of the initial disclinations that just worked as templates. The advantage of the method is that it finally provides nanowires that are automatically connected to predesignated three-dimensional (3D) electrodes. Such a 3D nanowiring could have important applications, as it could allow one to develop electronic circuits in the third dimension. They could thus help with increasing the transistor density per surface unit, although downsizing of integrated circuits will soon be limited to atomic sizes or so. In other words, the predicted limitation to Moore's law could be avoided. For the moment, the nanowires that we obtain

  17. Inducing injection barrier by covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes acting as Moiré crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Roméo; Barraud, Clément; Martin, Pascal; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Lafarge, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Covalent functionalization of multiwall carbon nanotubes is a direct method to suppress the conduction of the outermost shell, subject to interactions with the environment. The rehybridized sp3 external shell of the functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes becomes naturally a hybrid injection barrier allowing the control of the contact resistances and the study of quantum transport in the more protected inner shells. Charge transport measurements performed on isolated multiwall carbon nanotubes of large diameter show an increase of the contact resistance and stabilization in the MΩ range. Electronic quantum properties of the inner shells are highlighted by the observation of superlattice structures in the conductance, recently attributed to the formation of a one-dimensional Moiré pattern.

  18. Electric field induced lattice strain in pseudocubic Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-modified BaTiO3-BiFeO3 piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Ichiro; Iizuka, Ryo; Nakahira, Yuki; Sunada, Yuya; Ueno, Shintaro; Nakashima, Kouichi; Magome, Eisuke; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Wada, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Contributions to the piezoelectric response in pseudocubic 0.3BaTiO3-0.1Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-0.6BiFeO3 ceramics were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction under electric fields. All of the lattice strain determined from the 110, 111, and 200 pseudocubic diffraction peaks showed similar lattice strain hysteresis that was comparable to the bulk butterfly-like strain curve. It was suggested that the hysteresis of the lattice strain and the lack of anisotropy were related to the complex domain structure and the phase boundary composition.

  19. Helical crystallization on nickel-lipid nanotubes: perfringolysin O as a model protein.

    PubMed

    Dang, Thanh X; Milligan, Ronald A; Tweten, Rodney K; Wilson-Kubalek, Elizabeth M

    2005-11-01

    To facilitate purification and subsequent structural studies of recombinant proteins the most widely used genetically encoded tag is the histidine tag (His-tag) which specifically binds to N-nitrilotriacetic-acid-chelated nickel ions. Lipids derivatized with a nickel-chelating head group can be mixed with galactosylceramide glycolipids to prepare lipid nanotubes that bind His-tagged proteins. In this study, we use His-tagged perfringolysin O (PFO), a soluble toxin secreted by the bacterial pathogen Clostridium perfringens, as a model protein to test the utility of nickel-lipid nanotubes as a tool for structural studies of His-tagged proteins. PFO is a member of the cholesterol dependent cytolysin family (CDC) of oligomerizing, pore-forming toxins found in a variety of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. CDC pores have been difficult to study by X-ray crystallography because they are membrane associated and vary in size. We demonstrate that both a wild-type and a mutant form of PFO form helical arrays on nickel-lipid containing nanotubes. Cryo-electron microscopy and image analysis of the helical arrays were used to reconstruct a 3D density map of wild-type PFO. This study suggests that the use of nickel-lipid nanotubes may offer a general approach for structural studies of recombinant proteins and may provide insights into the molecular interactions of proteins that have a natural affinity for a membrane surface.

  20. Incorporation of carbon nanotubes into a lyotropic liquid crystal by phase separation in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer.

    PubMed

    Xin, Xia; Li, Hongguang; Wieczorek, Stefan A; Szymborski, Tomasz; Kalwarczyk, Ewelina; Ziebacz, Natalia; Gorecka, Ewa; Pociecha, Damian; Hołyst, Robert

    2010-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were incorporated into a lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) matrix formed by n-dodecyl octaoxyethene monoether (C(12)E(6)) at room temperature through spontaneous phase separation induced by nonionic hydrophilic polymer poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The quality of SWNTs/LLC composite was evaluated by polarized microscopy observations and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. The results obtained clearly indicated that SWNTs have been successfully incorporated into the LLC matrix up to a considerable high content without destroying the LLC matrix, although interesting changes of the LLC matrix were also induced by SWNTs incorporation. By varying the ratio of PEG to C(12)E(6), the type of LLC matrix can be controlled from hexagonal phase to lamellar phase. Temperature was found to have a significant influence on the quality of SWNTs/LLC composite, and tube aggregation can be induced at higher temperature. When SWNTs were changed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), they became difficult to be incorporated into LLC matrix because of an increase in the average tube diameter.

  1. Amorphization and Directional Crystallization of Metals Confined in Carbon Nanotubes Investigated by in Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dai-Ming; Ren, Cui-Lan; Lv, Ruitao; Yu, Wan-Jing; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Wei, Xianlong; Xu, Zhi; Kawamoto, Naoyuki; Bando, Yoshio; Mitome, Masanori; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Golberg, Dmitri

    2015-08-12

    The hollow core of a carbon nanotube (CNT) provides a unique opportunity to explore the physics, chemistry, biology, and metallurgy of different materials confined in such nanospace. Here, we investigate the nonequilibrium metallurgical processes taking place inside CNTs by in situ transmission electron microscopy using CNTs as nanoscale resistively heated crucibles having encapsulated metal nanowires/crystals in their channels. Because of nanometer size of the system and intimate contact between the CNTs and confined metals, an efficient heat transfer and high cooling rates (∼10(13) K/s) were achieved as a result of a flash bias pulse followed by system natural quenching, leading to the formation of disordered amorphous-like structures in iron, cobalt, and gold. An intermediate state between crystalline and amorphous phases was discovered, revealing a memory effect of local short-to-medium range order during these phase transitions. Furthermore, subsequent directional crystallization of an amorphous iron nanowire formed by this method was realized under controlled Joule heating. High-density crystalline defects were generated during crystallization due to a confinement effect from the CNT and severe plastic deformation involved. PMID:26114583

  2. Amorphization and Directional Crystallization of Metals Confined in Carbon Nanotubes Investigated by in Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dai-Ming; Ren, Cui-Lan; Lv, Ruitao; Yu, Wan-Jing; Hou, Peng-Xiang; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Wei, Xianlong; Xu, Zhi; Kawamoto, Naoyuki; Bando, Yoshio; Mitome, Masanori; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Golberg, Dmitri

    2015-08-12

    The hollow core of a carbon nanotube (CNT) provides a unique opportunity to explore the physics, chemistry, biology, and metallurgy of different materials confined in such nanospace. Here, we investigate the nonequilibrium metallurgical processes taking place inside CNTs by in situ transmission electron microscopy using CNTs as nanoscale resistively heated crucibles having encapsulated metal nanowires/crystals in their channels. Because of nanometer size of the system and intimate contact between the CNTs and confined metals, an efficient heat transfer and high cooling rates (∼10(13) K/s) were achieved as a result of a flash bias pulse followed by system natural quenching, leading to the formation of disordered amorphous-like structures in iron, cobalt, and gold. An intermediate state between crystalline and amorphous phases was discovered, revealing a memory effect of local short-to-medium range order during these phase transitions. Furthermore, subsequent directional crystallization of an amorphous iron nanowire formed by this method was realized under controlled Joule heating. High-density crystalline defects were generated during crystallization due to a confinement effect from the CNT and severe plastic deformation involved.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of melting and crystallization processes of polyethylene clusters confined in armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhou; Wang, Jinjian; Zhu, Xiaolei; Lu, Xiaohua; Guan, Wenwen; Yang, Yuchen

    2015-01-01

    The confined interaction is important to understand the melting and crystallization of polymers within single-wall carbon tube (SWNT). However, it is difficult for us to observe this interaction. In the current work, the structures and behaviors of melting and crystallization for polyethylene (PE) clusters confined in armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes ((n,n)-SWNTs) are investigated and examined based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The nonbonded energies, structures, Lindemman indices, radial density distributions, and diffusion coefficients are used to demonstrate the features of melting phase transition for PE clusters confined in (n,n)-SWNTs. The chain end-to-end distance (R(n)) and chain end-to-end distribution are used to examine the flexibility of the PE chain confined in SWNT. The global orientational order parameter (P2) is employed to reveal the order degree of whole PE polymer. The effect of polymerization degree on melting temperature and the influence of SWNT chirality on structure of PE cluster are examined and discussed. Results demonstrate that within the confined environment of SWNT, PE clusters adopt novel co-axial crystalline layer structure, in which parallel chains of each layer are approximately vertical to tube axis. The disordered-ordered transformation of PE chains in each layer is an important structural feature for crystallization of confined PE clusters. SWNTs have a considerable effect on the structures and stabilities of the confined PE clusters.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of novel composite membranes composed of photonic crystals and TiO2 nanotube array films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Junjie; Zhu, Huili; Wang, Aijun; Chen, Sheng-Li; Yuan, Yao

    2016-05-01

    Novel composite membranes composed of photonic crystals (PCs) and TiO2 nanotube array (TNA) films have been fabricated by combining the room temperature floating self-assembly (RTFSA) method, recently developed by our research group, and the liquid-phase deposition technique. By applying this combined procedure, polystyrene (PS) opal PC/TNA and TiO2 inverse opal PC/TNA composite membranes were prepared. Scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy analyses showed that the membrane samples possessed very high crystalline quality. Notably, the ordered packing of the PS microspheres from the top to the bottom of the opal PC film was not affected by the surface roughness of the porous TNA substrate. This is attributed to the self-assembly mechanism of the colloidal particles, which produces a three-dimensional ordered structure in the RTFSA method. Herein, the crystallization of the colloidal particles occurred at the surface of the colloidal suspension, and the crystal growth proceeded downward from the surface of the suspension to the substrate.

  5. Charge carrier mobility of zigzag carbon nanotubes with monovacancy defects from a first-principle crystal orbital view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yujia; Yin, Bing; Bai, Hongcun; Ding, Xin; Cao, Yu; Li, Qiang; Ji, Yongqaing

    2016-05-01

    This work presents first-principle investigations into the charge carrier mobility of carbon nanotubes containing monovacancy or related defects. The pristine and defective zigzag (10, 0) tubes were selected to explore the role of defects on the charge carrier mobility. It was found that the electron mobility of one defective structure was unexpectedly increased, while most others were decreased upon the appearance of the defect. To further understand the modification of the carrier mobility induced by monovacancy or related defects, crystal orbital analysis was performed. It was observed that the vacancy defect plays an important role in the case of both increased and decreased mobility. The unusual increased carrier mobility was mainly derived from the weaker acoustic scattering due to the modified wave-function induced by the defect. As for the decreased carrier mobilities, the heavier carrier determined by localized wave-functions, caused by the defects, is the most important factor.

  6. High efficiency self-pumped phase conjugation at 633 nm in cerium-doped barium titanate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changxi; Zhu, Yong; Hui, Mengjun; Niu, Xiaojuan; Liu, Hongbing; Wu, Xing

    1994-07-01

    Photorefractive self-pumped phase conjugation (SPPC) behavoir is examined at 633 nm in cerium-doped barium titane crystals. A reflectivity as high as 86.8% is reported. The buildup times are an order of magnitude faster than the corresponding values in Co: BaTiO 3 and Cu: KNSBN crystals with input powers. A possible mechanism responsible for the high self-pumped phase conjugation reflectivities in the negative incident angle range is discussed.

  7. Structural, dielectric and ferroelectric studies of (x) Mg0.25Cu0.25Zn0.5Fe2O4 + (1-x) BaTiO3 magnetoelectric nano-composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khader, S. Abdul; Muneeswaran, M.; Giridharan, N. V.; Sankarappa, T.

    2016-05-01

    The Particulate nano-composites of ferrite and ferroelectric phases having the general formula (x) Mg0.25Cu0.25Zn0.5Fe2O4 + (1-x) BaTiO3 (x=15%, 30% and 45%) were synthesized by sintering mixtures of highly ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BT) and highly magneto-strictive magnetic component Mg0.25Cu0.25Zn0.5Fe2O4(MCZF). The presence of constituent phases of ferrite, ferroelectric and their composites were probed and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. Surface morphology of the samples has been investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The variation of dielectric constant and dissipation factor as a function of frequency from 100 Hz to 1 MHz at room temperature were carried out using a Hioki LCR Hi-Tester. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were found to decrease rapidly in the low frequency region and became almost constant in the high frequency region. The electrical conductivity deduced from the measured dielectric data has been thoroughly analyzed and found that the conduction mechanism in these composites is in conformity with small polaron hopping model. The ferroelectric properties of synthesized magneto-electric nano-composites were measured using P-E loop tracer.

  8. Octonary resistance states in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 multiferroic tunnel junctions

    DOE PAGES

    Yue -Wei Yin; Tao, Jing; Huang, Wei -Chuan; Liu, Yu -Kuai; Yang, Sheng -Wei; Dong, Si -Ning; Zhu, Yi -Mei; Li, Qi; Li, Xiao -Guang

    2015-10-06

    General drawbacks of current electronic/spintronic devices are high power consumption and low density storage. A multiferroic tunnel junction (MFTJ), employing a ferroelectric barrier layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers, presents four resistance states in a single device and therefore provides an alternative way to achieve high density memories. Here, an MFTJ device with eight nonvolatile resistance states by further integrating the design of noncollinear magnetization alignments between the ferromagnetic layers is demonstrated. Through the angle-resolved tunneling magnetoresistance investigations on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 junctions, it is found that, besides collinear parallel/antiparallel magnetic configurations, the MFTJ shows at least two other stable noncollinear (45°more » and 90°) magnetic configurations. As a result, combining the tunneling electroresistance effect caused by the ferroelectricity reversal of the BaTiO3 barrier, an octonary memory device is obtained, representing potential applications in high density nonvolatile storage in the future.« less

  9. Structural and dielectric properties of BaTiO3-Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 thin films fabricated by chemical solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moki, Shota; Kimura, Junichi; Kaneko, Noriyuki; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Thin films of the BaTiO3-Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 (BT-BMT) solid-solution system were fabricated with the aim of achieving a stable temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) favorable for high-temperature electronics. A single perovskite phase with pseudocubic symmetry was obtained for the films fabricated by chemical solution deposition on (111)Pt/TiO2/(100)Si substrates in the composition range of x = 0-0.80 for (1 - x)BT-xBMT. BMT added to the BaTiO3-based films enhanced the crystallinity of the perovskite phase and resulted in saturated P-E hysteresis behavior with remanent polarization of up to 13 µC/cm2. BMT addition led to gradual dielectric relaxation, which also resulted in stable TCC behavior with a relative dielectric constant of approximately 400 in the temperature range of RT - 400 °C, especially for the BT-BMT films with x = 0.20-0.40.

  10. Functional properties of BaTiO3-Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 magnetoelectric ceramics prepared from powders with core-shell structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curecheriu, L. P.; Buscaglia, M. T.; Buscaglia, V.; Mitoseriu, L.; Postolache, P.; Ianculescu, A.; Nanni, P.

    2010-05-01

    In the present work, diphasic ceramic composites with core-shell nanostructures formed by Ni0.50Zn0.50Fe2O4 core and BaTiO3 shell were investigated. Their properties were compared with those of composites prepared by coprecipitation. The core-shell structure was confirmed by microstructural powder analysis. Homogeneous microstructures with a good phase mixing and percolated dielectric phase by the magnetic one were obtained from coprecipitated powders. Less homogeneous microstructures resulted in ceramics produced from the powder prepared by core-shell method, with isolated small ferrite grains besides large ferrite aggregates embedded into the BaTiO3 matrix. Both the ferroelectric and magnetic phases preserve their basic properties in bulk composite form. However, important differences in the dielectric relaxation and conduction mechanisms were found as result of the microstructural difference. Extrinsic contributions play important roles in modifying the electric properties in both ceramics, causing space charge effect, Maxwell-Wagner relaxations and hopping conductivity, mainly due to the ferrite low resistivity phase. The conductivity and dielectric modulus spectra analysis allowed to identify different polaron contributions associated with the microstructural differences. It results that by using the core-shell method, improved dielectric properties and limited hopping contributions can be realized.

  11. Structural, dielectric and magnetic studies of (x) Ni0.7Co0.1Cu0.2Fe2O4 + (1-x) BaTiO3 magnetoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khader, S. Abdul; Parveez, Asiya; Giridharan, N. V.; Sankarappa, T.

    2016-05-01

    The Magneto-electric composites (x) Ni0.7Co0.1Cu0.2Fe2O4 + (1-x) BaTiO3 (x=10%, 20% and 30%) were synthesized by sintering mixtures of highly ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BT) and highly magneto-strictive component Ni0.7Co0.1Cu0.2Fe2O4 (NCCF). The presences of constituent phases in magneto-electric composites were probed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The peaks observed in the XRD spectrum indicated spinel cubic structure for NCCF ferrite phase and tetragonal perovskite structure for BT and, both spinel and pervoskite structures for synthesized ME composites. Surface morphology of the samples has been investigated using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Frequency and composition dependent dielectric properties of synthesized composites were measured from 100 Hz to 1 MHz at room temperature using Hioki LCR Hi-TESTER. The dielectric dispersion is observed at lower frequencies for the synthesized ME composites. The hysteresis behavior was studied to understand the magnetic ordering in the synthesized composites using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). It is observed that the values of saturation magnetization increases along with the ferrite content.

  12. Modeling tunable bulk acoustic resonators based on induced piezoelectric effect in BaTiO3 and Ba0.25Sr0.75TiO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vendik, Irina B.; Turalchuk, Pavel A.; Vendik, Orest G.; Berge, John

    2008-01-01

    A model for tunable thin film bulk acoustic resonators (TFBARs) based on ferroelectric films is proposed. The model is based on electromechanical equations taking into account piezoelectric effect and electrostriction effect induced by the dc electric field. The dc field induced shift of the resonant frequency is explained by the high-order nonlinear effects in the ferroelectric material. The main contribution to the tunability of the resonant frequency under dc electric field can be attributed to electrostriction, which is nonlinear with respect to the mechanical deformation. It is shown that the upward or downward shift in the resonant frequency is given by the sign of the nonlinear component of the electrostriction tensor M. The model is verified by comparing the results with the measured microwave input impedance of BaTiO3 and Ba0.25Sr0.75TiO3 based TFBARs. For a positive sign of the nonlinear coefficient of electrostriction M, the model predicts an upward shift of the resonant frequencies (resonance and antiresonance) under dc biasing in case of the TFBAR based on BaTiO3, whereas a negative sign of the nonlinear coefficient of electrostriction M predicts downward shift of the resonant frequencies for TFBAR based on Ba0.25Sr0.75TiO3 films.

  13. An integral equation and simulation study of hydrogen inclusions in a molecular crystal of short-capped nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomba, Enrique; Bores, Cecilia; Notario, Rafael; Sánchez-Gil, V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we have assessed the ability of a recently proposed three-dimensional integral equation approach to describe the explicit spatial distribution of molecular hydrogen confined in a crystal formed by short-capped nanotubes of C50 H10. To that aim we have resorted to extensive molecular simulation calculations whose results have been compared with our three-dimensional integral equation approximation. We have first tested the ability of a single C50 H10 nanocage for the encapsulation of H2 by means of molecular dynamics simulations, in particular using targeted molecular dynamics to estimate the binding Gibbs energy of a host hydrogen molecule inside the nanocage. Then, we have investigated the adsorption isotherm of the nanocage crystal using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations in order to evaluate the maximum load of molecular hydrogen. For a packing close to the maximum load explicit hydrogen density maps and density profiles have been determined using molecular dynamics simulations and the three-dimensional Ornstein–Zernike equation with a hypernetted chain closure. In these conditions of extremely tight confinement the theoretical approach has shown to be able to reproduce the three-dimensional structure of the adsorbed fluid with accuracy down to the finest details.

  14. An integral equation and simulation study of hydrogen inclusions in a molecular crystal of short-capped nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Lomba, Enrique; Bores, Cecilia; Notario, Rafael; Sánchez-Gil, V

    2016-09-01

    In this work we have assessed the ability of a recently proposed three-dimensional integral equation approach to describe the explicit spatial distribution of molecular hydrogen confined in a crystal formed by short-capped nanotubes of C50 H10. To that aim we have resorted to extensive molecular simulation calculations whose results have been compared with our three-dimensional integral equation approximation. We have first tested the ability of a single C50 H10 nanocage for the encapsulation of H2 by means of molecular dynamics simulations, in particular using targeted molecular dynamics to estimate the binding Gibbs energy of a host hydrogen molecule inside the nanocage. Then, we have investigated the adsorption isotherm of the nanocage crystal using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations in order to evaluate the maximum load of molecular hydrogen. For a packing close to the maximum load explicit hydrogen density maps and density profiles have been determined using molecular dynamics simulations and the three-dimensional Ornstein-Zernike equation with a hypernetted chain closure. In these conditions of extremely tight confinement the theoretical approach has shown to be able to reproduce the three-dimensional structure of the adsorbed fluid with accuracy down to the finest details. PMID:27367179

  15. An integral equation and simulation study of hydrogen inclusions in a molecular crystal of short-capped nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomba, Enrique; Bores, Cecilia; Notario, Rafael; Sánchez-Gil, V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we have assessed the ability of a recently proposed three-dimensional integral equation approach to describe the explicit spatial distribution of molecular hydrogen confined in a crystal formed by short-capped nanotubes of C50 H10. To that aim we have resorted to extensive molecular simulation calculations whose results have been compared with our three-dimensional integral equation approximation. We have first tested the ability of a single C50 H10 nanocage for the encapsulation of H2 by means of molecular dynamics simulations, in particular using targeted molecular dynamics to estimate the binding Gibbs energy of a host hydrogen molecule inside the nanocage. Then, we have investigated the adsorption isotherm of the nanocage crystal using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations in order to evaluate the maximum load of molecular hydrogen. For a packing close to the maximum load explicit hydrogen density maps and density profiles have been determined using molecular dynamics simulations and the three-dimensional Ornstein-Zernike equation with a hypernetted chain closure. In these conditions of extremely tight confinement the theoretical approach has shown to be able to reproduce the three-dimensional structure of the adsorbed fluid with accuracy down to the finest details.

  16. Aperiodic TiO2 Nanotube Photonic Crystal: Full-Visible-Spectrum Solar Light Harvesting in Photovoltaic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Bandgap engineering of a photonic crystal is highly desirable for photon management in photonic sensors and devices. Aperiodic photonic crystals (APCs) can provide unprecedented opportunities for much more versatile photon management, due to increased degrees of freedom in the design and the unique properties brought about by the aperiodic structures as compared to their periodic counterparts. However, many efforts still remain on conceptual approaches, practical achievements in APCs are rarely reported due to the difficulties in fabrication. Here, we report a simple but highly controllable current-pulse anodization process to design and fabricate TiO2 nanotube APCs. By coupling an APC into the photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we demonstrate the concept of using APC to achieve nearly full-visible-spectrum light harvesting, as evidenced by both experimental and simulated results. It is anticipated that this work will lead to more fruitful practical applications of APCs in high-efficiency photovoltaics, sensors and optoelectronic devices. PMID:25245854

  17. Tailoring polyacrylonitrile interfacial morphological structure by crystallization in the presence of single-wall carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiying; Song, Kenan; Meng, Jiangsha; Minus, Marilyn L

    2013-02-01

    In order to improve stress transfer between polymer matrixes and nanofillers, controlling the structure development in the interphase region during composite processing is a necessity. For polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) composites, the formation of the PAN interphase in the presence of the SWNT as a function of processing conditions is studied. Under these conditions, three distinct interfacial coating morphologies of PAN are observed on SWNT. In the semidilute polymer concentration regime subjected to shearing, PAN extended-chain tubular coatings are formed on SWNT. Dilute PAN/SWNT quiescent solutions subjected to cooling yields hybrid periodic shish-kebab structures (first observation for PAN polymer), and dilute PAN/SWNT quiescent solutions subjected to rapid cooling results in the formation of an irregular PAN crystalline coating on the SWNT. PMID:23286387

  18. Applications in crystal engineering: The designed topochemical polymerization of 1,3-butadienes and the construction of organic nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinkelmeyer, Brian Douglas

    1999-10-01

    The macroscopic properties of all materials are determined by the molecules from which it is composed and also by the relative orientation of these molecular constituents relative to one another. To rationally design materials with specific properties it is essential that the relative orientation of molecules in the solid be controlled. This is generally not possible at the current state of technology. How a molecule's structure effects and controls its packing in the solid state structure is poorly understood. The crystal structures of even the simplest organic molecules cannot be reliably predicted at the current level of technology. The use of strong directional interactions such as hydrogen bonding interactions however, has been successfully used as a strategy in constructing low dimensional solids. The true test of these designs is in their application in constructing materials with specific properties. Two goals of this group are the design of new topochemical polymerizations and the construction of porous solids. Previous research performed in this group has demonstrated that ureylene and oxalamide functionality predictable and persistently form one-dimensional hydrogen bonded alpha-networks. These functionality have been used previously by this group in constructing layered solids, organizing transition metals and in organizing diacetylenes for topochemical polymerizations. The current work is concerned with using urylene and oxalamide functionality to organize molecules in the solid state for topochemical polymerizations and to construct organic nanotubes. The topochemical reaction of interest is that of 1,3-butadienes. When 1,3-butadienes are irradiated in the solid state they may undergo [2+2] cycloadditions or 1,4-addition polymerization with neighboring molecules. In order to control the reaction it is essential to bring desired reactive centers into close contact while isolating reactive centers that would lead to unwanted products. A general strategy

  19. Super-fast switching of twisted nematic liquid crystals with a single-wall-carbon-nanotube-doped alignment layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Lim, Young Jin; Kundu, Sudarshan; Lee, Seung Hee; Lee, Gi-Dong

    2015-03-01

    The application of a single-wall carbon-nanotube (SWCNT) and polyimide (PI) composite thin film on an indium tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrate, working as the command surface in a twisted nematic liquid crystal display (LCD), is described. SWCNTs were chopped and oxidized in a strong acid medium to make them more miscible in a polyimide solution. A film of this newly-developed PISWCNT composite was rubbed to determine the director direction for the LC molecules. The newlyfabricated command surface was examined using a laser beam profiler and atomic force microscopy. Sizes of shortened SWCNTs were characterized by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Finally, small-sized test panels were fabricated from this composite-coated ITO glass, and their electro-optic performances were measured. Although the operating voltage to switch a cell was increased by around 41%, the switching speed was improved remarkably. The rise time of the test cells was found to be improved by around 10.12% and the decay time by around 29.77%. Thus, an overall improvement of around 16.12% in the total switching time was achieved. The change in the surface morphology of the newly-developed composite materials was found to be one of the factors responsible for the faster switching of the device. Detailed discussions are given in this report to explain the faster switching of the newly-developed twisted nematic liquid crystal display (TN-LCD). The device can be useful for practical applications.

  20. Light-induced scattering in photorefractive crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, R. A.; Drees, F. W.

    1986-04-01

    Light-induced scattering features in LiNbO3- and BaTiO3-crytals are compared with theories on holographic writing in photorefractive crystals. It is shown that they describe the experimental facts concerning the expected main scattering directions for a given incident polarization, the time development, the thickness and the wavelength dependence. Time records of the transmission offer a useful alternative for the determination of the photoconductivity. Furthermore, a new method for birefringence measurements is established. The high accuracy of this method is based on the automatic fulfillment of a phase matching condition by the anisotropically scattered radiation.

  1. Effects of carbon nanotubes on liquid crystal order parameter and Freedericksz transition in electro-optic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Georgi; Gombos, Erin; McIntyre, Michael; Mattera, Michael; Gati, Peter; Cabrera, Yaniel; Cebe, Peggy

    2010-03-01

    We studied the effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCTs) at low concentrations (0.01 wt %) on the Freedericksz transition of a 4-Cyano-4'-pentylbipenyl (5CB) liquid crystal using transmission ellipsometry. In addition, we calibrated the altitudinal angle of CNTs as a function of the electric field and directed the azimuthal angle which gave us complete control of the 3D orientation of the CNTs. Our results show that in the presence of CNTs the voltage and width for the Freedericksz transition are reduced by a factor of 1.8 as compared to the control electro-optic cell without CNTs. The shift in transition voltage correlates with increase in order parameter of the electro-optic cell as measured by our polarized UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy results. Research supported by: Assumption College Faculty Development Grant, funding for students' stipends, instrumentation and supplies, the NSF Polymers Program of the DME, grant (DMR-0602473) and NASA grant (NAG8-1167).

  2. Hybrid nanoparticle architecture for cellular uptake and bioimaging: direct crystallization of a polymer immobilized with magnetic nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depan, D.; Misra, R. D. K.

    2012-09-01

    We describe here the success of an innovative approach of direct immobilization of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The approach involved functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles and consequent covalent linkage to a copolymer (PE-b-PEG). Next, the immobilized magnetic nanoparticles on the copolymer were directly crystallized on the long axis of CNTs, where the interfacial adhesion comes from electrostatic and van der Waals interaction. The intracellular trafficking of a hybrid nanoparticle system [(PE-b-PEG)-MNP-CNT-FITC] in HeLa cells was monitored using a fluorescent marker, FITC, conjugated to the nanoparticle system. The distribution of the nanoparticle system inside cells was studied by fluorescence microscopy in a time and dose dependent manner, and it was observed that the nanoparticles are located in the cytoplasm and no apparent cell death was observed at the concentration studied. Also, the effect of an externally applied magnetic field on actin cytoskeleton, cell morphology and intracellular uptake of iron was studied. The approach described here is promising for simultaneous imaging and monitoring intracellular uptake.

  3. Ultrasensitive Detection of Cymbidium Mosaic Potexvirus Using a Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Functionalized Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Shiun; Hung, Yao-Ching; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Wang, Hui-Liang; Huang, Hung-Shu; Huang, Li-Chia; Huang, Guewha Steven

    2010-10-01

    We have developed an ultrasensitive, convenient, real-time platform for detecting Cymbidium mosaic potexvirus (CymMV) based on single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-functionalized quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensors. Functionalization was achieved by coating the QCM electrode with SWNTs, followed by 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole-activated Tween 20 (CDI-Tween 20) modification and conjugation of antibodies. Sensitivity was enhanced from 2.18 to 11.5 Hz ng-1 when 0.1 µg mL-1 CymMV was applied. The low limit of detection of SWNT-functionalized QCM sensors was improved from 2.08 to 0.502 ng. The SWNT-functionalized QCM sensor was successfully used to quantify the amount of CymMV contained in infected orchid leaves. Compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), SWNT-functionalized QCM sensors are fast, economical, and ultra-sensitive, with comparable sensitivities. The current study demonstrates the application of QCM sensors as a convenient platform to detect and quantify CymMV.

  4. Hybrid nanoparticle architecture for cellular uptake and bioimaging: direct crystallization of a polymer immobilized with magnetic nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Depan, D; Misra, R D K

    2012-10-21

    We describe here the success of an innovative approach of direct immobilization of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The approach involved functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles and consequent covalent linkage to a copolymer (PE-b-PEG). Next, the immobilized magnetic nanoparticles on the copolymer were directly crystallized on the long axis of CNTs, where the interfacial adhesion comes from electrostatic and van der Waals interaction. The intracellular trafficking of a hybrid nanoparticle system [(PE-b-PEG)-MNP-CNT-FITC] in HeLa cells was monitored using a fluorescent marker, FITC, conjugated to the nanoparticle system. The distribution of the nanoparticle system inside cells was studied by fluorescence microscopy in a time and dose dependent manner, and it was observed that the nanoparticles are located in the cytoplasm and no apparent cell death was observed at the concentration studied. Also, the effect of an externally applied magnetic field on actin cytoskeleton, cell morphology and intracellular uptake of iron was studied. The approach described here is promising for simultaneous imaging and monitoring intracellular uptake.

  5. Effects of site substitutions and concentration on the structural, optical and visible photoluminescence properties of Er doped BaTiO3 thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maneeshya, L. V.; Thomas, P. V.; Joy, K.

    2015-08-01

    The structural, optical and visible photoluminescence of the Erbium (Er) doped BaTiO3 (BT:Er) thin films were studied in terms of Er3+ substitutions for Ba and Ti sites with different Er3+ doping concentrations (0, 1, 3 and 5 wt%). X-ray diffraction pattern of BT:Er films with different Er3+ concentration showed tetragonal phase with preferred orientation along (1 0 1) plane. The lattice constant of BT:Er film of 1 wt% Er3+ shrank and then expanded for higher concentration. This indicates that Er3+ ions are completely incorporated into the host lattice by substituting for Ba2+ sites for 1 wt% Er3+ and then Ti4+ sites for higher Er3+ concentration in the BaTiO3 host. The crystallite size decreased for 1 wt% and then increased for higher Er (3 and 5 wt%) concentrations. The Scanning electron microscopy images revealed well patterned arrangement of larger spherical grains with neck formation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of barium, titanium, erbium and oxygen in BT:Er films. An average transmittance >80% in visible region were observed for all the films. Optical band gap energy of BT:Er films were found to vary with increase in Er3+ concentration. The high refractive index >2 of these films can be used in optical application and anti-reflection coatings. Photoluminescence spectra of the films exhibited an increase in the emission intensity up to 3 wt% of Er3+ and then a decrease, due to self quenching. The improved optical properties of BT:Er films makes suitable for optical applications.

  6. Ceramic synthesis of 0.08BiGaO3-0.90BaTiO3-0.02LiNbO3 under high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Jin; Yong, Li; Mou-Sheng, Song; Lin, Chen; Xiao-Peng, Jia; Hong-An, Ma

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the preparation of 0.08BiGaO3-0.90BaTiO3-0.02LiNbO3 is investigated at pressure 3.8 GPa and temperature 1100-1200 °C. Experimental results indicate that not only is the sintered rate more effective, but also the sintered temperature is lower under high pressure and high temperature than those of under normal pressure. It is thought that the adscititious pressure plays the key role in this process, which is discussed in detail. The composition and the structure of the as-prepared samples are recorded by XRD patterns. The result shows that the phases of BaTiO3, BaBiO2.77, and Ba2Bi4Ti5O18 with piezoelectric ceramic performance generate in the sintered samples. Furthermore, the surface morphology characteristics of the typical samples are also investigated using a scanning electron microscope. It indicates that the grain size and surface structure of the samples are closely related to the sintering temperature and sintering time. It is hoped that this study can provide a new train of thought for the preparation of lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with excellent performance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51172089), the Natural Science Foundation of Education Department of Guizhou Province, China (Grant Nos. KY [2013]183 and LH [2015]7232), and the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Tongren University, China (Grant No. DS1302).

  7. Strain actuation of barium titanate single crystals under electromechanical loading in the non-polar [110] direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shieh, Jay; Lin, Yen-Nan; Tsou, Nien-Ti; Shu, Yi-Chung

    2013-09-01

    The switching characteristics of BaTiO3 single crystals subjected to uniaxial electromechanical loading in the non-polar [110] direction at room temperature and 55 ° C were investigated. Polarization and strain hysteresis measurements in the [110] direction revealed that under the combination of large in-plane switching coercivities and a strong out-of-plane depolarization field (induced by the shape irregularity and large unshielded surfaces of the crystal sample), strain-inducing 90° in-plane to out-of-plane (or vice versa) switching was the dominant switching behavior even in the absence of mechanical bias. By lowering the in-plane switching coercivities, which was achieved by increasing the loading temperature from room temperature to 55 ° C, a contrasting non-strain-inducing switching behavior characterized by 90° and/or 180° switches between the in-plane variants was observed instead. The contrasting switching behavior at two different temperatures indicates that apart from the bias stress magnitude, the combined effect of the depolarization field and switching coercivity is another critical factor governing the strain actuation of BaTiO3 single crystals. The [110] electromechanical loading responses reveal the possibility of increasing the strain capacity of BaTiO3 single crystals by introducing accompanying depolarization fields which promote strain-inducing 90° switching. Such an approach could be potentially useful when bias stress-activated ferroelastic switching is not attainable.

  8. In situ and fast detection of single-walled carbon nanotubes by using DNA mediated aggregation method and quartz crystal microbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Kuewhan; Park, Jinsung; Lee, Sangmyung; You, Juneseok; Park, Chanho; Lee, Jaeryung; Park, Woonghwi; Yun, Jinsu; Ahn, Sanghyun; Na, Sungsoo

    2015-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted great interest from scientific interest to industrial areas. Due to the toxicity effect of CNTs, assessment methods for CNTs are one of the noticeable issues. In this work, we report the in situ and fast detection of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by using a quartz crystal microbalance. The detection is based on DNA hybridization between the DNA on a quartz electrode and the DNA of aggregated SWCNTs. It is shown that our detection tool is capable of the in situ and fast detection of 5 min with the limit of detection (LOD) of 10 ng ml-1 in distilled water. Furthermore, our detection tool is able to detect SWCNTs in a real practical sample of tap water with the LOD of 100 ng ml-1. Our work sheds light on a direct monitoring tool that could detect and assess the toxicity of SWCNTs in a real environment.

  9. Self-pumped phase conjugation and four-wave mixing in 0- and 45-deg-cut n-type BaTiO3:Co

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, M. H.; Chang, J. Y.; Jenssen, H. P.; Warde, C.

    1993-01-01

    Relatively fast self-pumped phase-conjugate and four-wave-mixing rise times are reported in n-type cobalt-doped barium titanate. With the crystal oriented in a 45-deg cut as compared with the same crystal in a 0-deg cut we find a factor of 3 decrease in the 0-90-percent rise time to 800 ms with 25-mW input power at 514.5 nm. Also, the self-pumped phase-conjugate reflectivity increases from 20 to 40 percent. We deduce that the phase conjugation is from internally seeded stimulated photorefractive backscattering. The four-wave-mixing rise time of the 45-deg-cut crystal is 4 ms with a reflectivity of 48 percent when the pumping beams are derived from self-pumped phase conjugation that has an input power of 25 mW.

  10. Preparation and Basic Properties of BaTiO3-BaPbO3 Multilayer Thin Films by Metal-Alkoxides Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, Takahiro; Takahashi, Sheiji; Kuwabara, Makoto

    1993-09-01

    Preferentially oriented barium titanate (BTO)-barium metaplumbate (BPO) multilayer thin films were prepared by the metal-alkoxides method on MgO single crystals. The BPO layer is an electrode for the BTO layer. Thin films were deposited on cleaved MgO (100) substrates by spin coating. A BTO film of 0.4 μm thickness on the BPO layer shows a dielectric constant of about 400 at room temperature. No formation of reaction phases between BTO and BPO, fired at 800°C to yield a well-crystallized BTO film, was detected in X-ray diffraction analysis.

  11. Plasmonic gold nanocrystals coupled with photonic crystal seamlessly on TiO2 nanotube photoelectrodes for efficient visible light photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonghai; Zhang, Lianbin; Hedhili, Mohamed Nejib; Zhang, Hongnan; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    A visible light responsive plasmonic photocatalytic composite material is designed by rationally selecting Au nanocrystals and assembling them with the TiO(2)-based photonic crystal substrate. The selection of the Au nanocrystals is so that their surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) wavelength matches the photonic band gap of the photonic crystal and thus that the SPR of the Au receives remarkable assistance from the photonic crystal substrate. The design of the composite material is expected to significantly increase the Au SPR intensity and consequently boost the hot electron injection from the Au nanocrystals into the conduction band of TiO(2), leading to a considerably enhanced water splitting performance of the material under visible light. A proof-of-concept example is provided by assembling 20 nm Au nanocrystals, with a SPR peak at 556 nm, onto the photonic crystal which is seamlessly connected on TiO(2) nanotube array. Under visible light illumination (>420 nm), the designed material produced a photocurrent density of ~150 μA cm(-2), which is the highest value ever reported in any plasmonic Au/TiO(2) system under visible light irradiation due to the photonic crystal-assisted SPR. This work contributes to the rational design of the visible light responsive plasmonic photocatalytic composite material based on wide band gap metal oxides for photoelectrochemical applications.

  12. One-dimensional SnF{sub 2} single crystals in the inner channels of single-wall carbon nanotubes: II. Structure and nanocomposite construction modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zakalyukin, R. M. Demyanets, L. N.; Kiselev, N. A.

    2010-07-15

    A structural model of the nanocomposite consisting of one-dimensional (1D) {alpha}-SnF{sub 2} single crystals and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is proposed. The main cationic motif is revealed in the structure of monoclinic modification: two-layer packing of tin cations along the [283] direction. Four theoretical structural projections of a 1D crystal on the plane parallel to the [283] direction are determined and described. A fragment of the {alpha}-SnF{sub 2} structure in an SWCNT (with a channel diameter of 1.02 nm) is calculated. High-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images are modeled. These images correspond to the actually observed HREM patterns.

  13. Self-formation of highly aligned metallic, semiconducting and single chiral single-walled carbon nanotubes assemblies via a crystal template method

    SciTech Connect

    Kawai, Hideki; Hasegawa, Kai; Yanagi, Kazuhiro; Oyane, Ayako; Naitoh, Yasuhisa

    2014-09-01

    The fabrication of an aligned array of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a single chiral state has been a significant challenge for SWCNT applications as well as for basic science research. Here, we developed a simple, unique technique to produce assemblies in which metallic, semiconducting, and single chiral state SWCNTs were densely and highly aligned. We utilized a crystal of surfactant as a template on which mono-dispersed SWCNTs in solution self-assembled. Micro-Raman measurements and scanning electron microscopy measurements clearly showed that the SWCNTs were highly and densely aligned parallel to the crystal axis, indicating that approximately 70% of the SWCNTs were within 7° of being parallel. Moreover, the assemblies exhibited good field effect transistor characteristics with an on/off ratio of 1.3 × 10{sup 5}.

  14. Thermal, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of 0.925BaTiO3-0.075Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchanicz, J.; Nogas-Ćwikiel, E.; Sitko, D.; Handke, B.; Jelen, P.; Klimczyk, P.

    2015-08-01

    New low-lead content 0.925BaTiO3-0.075PbZn1/3Nb2/3O3 (0.925BT-0.075PZN) ceramic was fabricated by the spark-plasma-sintering method. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the obtained specimen possesses a pure perovskite structure. The microstructure investigation indicated a dense ceramic structure with 95% relative density determined by the Archimedes method. Composition undergoes a sequence of phase transitions as pure barium titanate (BT). Dielectric study revealed that the electric permittivity decreases at its maximum and the phase transition shifts to a higher temperature after lead zinc niobate doping of BT. Besides, the dielectric dispersion and polarization increases and decreases, respectively. Obtained results were discussed in term of the difference between ionic size and its mass and local elastic and electric fields. The results show that investigated ceramic is one of the promising low-lead materials for electronic applications.

  15. Multilayer ceramic capacitors based on relaxor BaTiO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 for temperature stable and high energy density capacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nitish; Ionin, Aleksey; Ansell, Troy; Kwon, Seongtae; Hackenberger, Wesley; Cann, David

    2015-06-01

    The need for miniaturization without compromising cost and performance continues to motivate research in advanced capacitor devices. In this report, multilayer ceramic capacitors based on relaxor BaTiO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 (BT-BZT) were fabricated and characterized. In bulk ceramic embodiments, BT-BZT has been shown to exhibit relative permittivities greater than 1000, high resistivities (ρ > 1 GΩ-cm at 300 °C), and negligible saturation up to fields as high as 150 kV/cm. Multilayer capacitor embodiments were fabricated and found to exhibit similar dielectric and resistivity properties. The energy density for the multilayer ceramics reached values of ˜2.8 J/cm3 at room temperature at an applied electric field of ˜330 kV/cm. This represents a significant improvement compared to commercially available multilayer capacitors. The dielectric properties were also found to be stable over a wide range of temperatures with a temperature coefficient of approximately -2000 ppm/K measured from 50 to 350 °C, an important criteria for high temperature applications. Finally, the compatibility of inexpensive Ag-Pd electrodes with these ceramics was also demonstrated, which can have implications on minimizing the device cost.

  16. Large enhancement of magnetic anisotropy and laser induced resistive switching effect in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 films due to strain from BaTiO3 substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalappattil, V.; Das, R.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H.; Moya, X.

    Multifunctional oxide materials are interesting for their fundamental physical properties and technological applications. Epitaxial films of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) on BaTiO3 (BTO) show intriguing properties such as a giant magnetoelectric effect due to strain from BTO substrate. The LSMO film shows sharp jumps in magnetization M(T) and resistance R(T) at first-order structural phase transitions of BTO (TR-O 200K and TO-T 270 K) due to strain coupling from BTO. A temperature evolution of effective in-plane anisotropy field (HK) measured using the radio-frequency transverse susceptibility (TS) shows a sharp increase in HK around TR-O, which vanishes around TO-T.The in-plane magnetic anisotropy plays an important role in changing the magnetic and resistive states around TO-T. A switchable laser-induced resistive change of up to 300 %, which is about 10 times greater than those of conventional oxide systems, has been achieved in LSMO films using a 0.5 W violet laser just below the TO-T.The repeatability and stability of the laser-induced resistive switching effect reveal potential applications of LSMO/BTO heterostructures in developing new type of temperature sensors and memory devices. Work at USF supported by ARO Grant No. W911NF-15-1-0626.

  17. Visible Light-Induced Photocatalytic and Antibacterial Activity of Li-Doped Bi0.5Na0.45K0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 Ferroelectric Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, H. S.; Halder, Aditi; Jain, D.; Vaish, Rahul

    2015-11-01

    The visible light-active ferroelectric photocatalyst Bi0.5Na0.45Li0.05K0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 (BNKLBT) was synthesized by a solid-state method and its photocatalytic, photoelectrochemical, and antibacterial properties were investigated. In a chronoamperometric study the current density under visible light was 30 μA/cm2, which is three times more than that observed under dark conditions. The compound's visible light photocatalytic activity was investigated for degradation of an organic dye (methyl orange) and an estrogenic pollutant (estriol).The kinetic rate constants calculated for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and estriol were 0.007 and 0.056 min-1, respectively. High photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activity was a result of effective separation of photo-generated charge carriers, because of the ferroelectric nature of the catalyst. The effect of different charge-trapping agents on photocatalytic degradation was studied to investigate the effect of active species and the degradation pathway. Antimicrobial activity was investigated for Escherichia coli and Aspergillus flavus. The anti-bacterial action of BNKLBT was compared with that of the commercial antibiotic kanamycin (k30).

  18. Dielectric and impedance spectroscopic studies of 0.8BaTiO3-0.2Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 lead-free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, M. N. V.; Ramesh, K. V.

    2015-06-01

    0.8BaTiO3-0.2Bi0.5K0.5TiO3 (BT-BKT20) lead-free ceramics were prepared by conventional solid state reaction method followed by high energy ball milling. The formation of a single phase tetragonal structure in the material was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Frequency and temperature-dependent dielectric studies show relaxor behavior in the BT-BKT20 which was found to obey modified Curie-Weiss law with degree of diffuseness 1.573. Complex impedance and electric modulus spectroscopy studies reveal temperature-dependent relaxation process in the material. The Cole-Cole plots were measured at high temperatures at which grain effect was observed. Impedance and electric modulus spectroscopy studies show non-Debye kind of conductivity relaxation process in the present material. Activation energies were calculated from impedance and electric modulus spectroscopy and the values of activation energy indicated that the conduction is ionic in nature. AC and DC conductivity have been measured and studied at different temperatures.

  19. Effect of Cooling Rate on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu-0.2BaTiO3 Composite Solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Ge, Jinguo; Liu, Haixiang; Xu, Liufeng; Bo, Anbing

    2015-11-01

    The microstructure, interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) layer, microhardness, tensile properties, and fracture surfaces of Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu-0.2BaTiO3 composite solder were explored under three different cooling conditions (water-, air-, and furnace-cooled) during solidification. The average grain size was refined and the volume fraction of primary β-Sn dendrites increased with increasing cooling rate. The thickness of the IMC layer increased as the cooling rate was decreased, and the morphology also transformed from scallop shaped, for a rapid cooling rate, to irregular shaped for slower cooling; a Cu3Sn IMC layer was detected between the Cu6Sn5 IMC and copper substrate under the furnace-cooled condition, but not in water- or air-cooled specimens. The mechanical properties, including the microhardness and tensile properties, improved with rapid solidification due to the combined effects of grain refinement and a secondary strengthening mechanism. Fracture surfaces after tensile tests showed that the amount of dimples decreased and a cleavage-like pattern increased as the cooling rate was decreased from the water-cooled to furnace-cooled condition, so the fracture process transformed from ductile to mixed-mode fracture. A refined microstructure and excellent mechanical properties were obtained for the rapidly cooled sample.

  20. Unusually enhanced upconversion photoluminescence in ferroelectric composite Er:0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3/xZnO (x = 0-0.4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Ji; Zhu, Xue-Yi; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Gao, Zhi-Peng; Zeng, Tao; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Shan-Tao

    2016-09-01

    Lanthanide ions possess fascinating optical properties and have received great attention due to their widespread technological applications. However, enhancing and in-situ tuning the photoluminescence is still a challenging subject. The paper shows that in 0-3 type lead-free ferroelectric composites constructed by ZnO and 1.0 mol. % Er-doped 0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3, the up-conversion photoluminescence of Er3+ ion can be unusually increased by 4.5 times after introducing 40 mol. % ZnO, and then further enhanced by 1.2 times with electrical poling. The mechanism is attributed to the ZnO-mediated energy transfer and the electric field-induced phase transition. The composites also show excellent electrical properties and improved temperature stability. These results not only provide a hybrid method to significantly enhance and in-situ tune the photoluminescence but also are helpful for developing multifunctional materials with excellent optical and electrical properties simultaneously.

  1. Broadband Tunable, Polarization-Selective and Directional Emission of (6,5) Carbon Nanotubes Coupled to Plasmonic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate broadband tunability of light emission from dense (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotube thin films via efficient coupling to periodic arrays of gold nanodisks that support surface lattice resonances (SLRs). We thus eliminate the need to select single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with different chiralities to obtain narrow linewidth emission at specific near-infrared wavelengths. Emission from these hybrid films is spectrally narrow (20–40 meV) yet broadly tunable (∼1000–1500 nm) and highly directional (divergence <1.5°). In addition, SLR scattering renders the emission highly polarized, even though the SWNTs are randomly distributed. Numerical simulations are applied to correlate the increased local electric fields around the nanodisks with the observed enhancement of directional emission. The ability to control the emission properties of a single type of near-infrared emitting SWNTs over a wide range of wavelengths will enable application of carbon nanotubes in multifunctional photonic devices. PMID:27105249

  2. Broadband Tunable, Polarization-Selective and Directional Emission of (6,5) Carbon Nanotubes Coupled to Plasmonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Zakharko, Yuriy; Graf, Arko; Schießl, Stefan P; Hähnlein, Bernd; Pezoldt, Jörg; Gather, Malte C; Zaumseil, Jana

    2016-05-11

    We demonstrate broadband tunability of light emission from dense (6,5) single-walled carbon nanotube thin films via efficient coupling to periodic arrays of gold nanodisks that support surface lattice resonances (SLRs). We thus eliminate the need to select single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with different chiralities to obtain narrow linewidth emission at specific near-infrared wavelengths. Emission from these hybrid films is spectrally narrow (20-40 meV) yet broadly tunable (∼1000-1500 nm) and highly directional (divergence <1.5°). In addition, SLR scattering renders the emission highly polarized, even though the SWNTs are randomly distributed. Numerical simulations are applied to correlate the increased local electric fields around the nanodisks with the observed enhancement of directional emission. The ability to control the emission properties of a single type of near-infrared emitting SWNTs over a wide range of wavelengths will enable application of carbon nanotubes in multifunctional photonic devices.

  3. Influence of non-covalent modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes on the crystallization behaviour of binary blends of polypropylene and polyamide 6.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Nabaneeta; Panwar, Ajay S; Kumar, Gulshan; Samajdar, I; Bhattacharyya, Arup R

    2015-02-14

    Blends of polypropylene (PP) and polyamide 6 (PA6) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were prepared using different processing strategies in a twin-screw micro-compounder. The effect of MWNTs on the crystallization behaviour of the PP phase and the PA6 phase of the blend has been investigated through non-isothermal crystallization studies by differential scanning calorimetric analysis. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of the compatibilizer (PP-g-MA) and the modification of MWNTs (m-MWNTs) with a non-covalent organic modifier (Li-salt of 6 amino hexanoic acid, Li-AHA) has also been studied in context to the crystallization behaviour of the PP and PA6 phase in the blend. The crystallization studies have indicated a significant increase in bulk crystallization temperature of the PP phase in the blend in the presence of MWNTs. Moreover, the formation of 'trans-lamellar crystalline' structure consisting of PA6 'trans-crystalline lamellae' on MWNTs surface was facilitated in the case of blends prepared via 'protocol 2' as compared to the corresponding blends prepared via 'protocol 1'. Wide angle X-ray diffraction analysis has showed the existence of a β-polymorph of the PP phase due to incorporation of the PA6 phase in the blend. Addition of MWNTs in the blends has facilitated further β-crystalline structure formation of the PP phase. In the presence of m-MWNTs, a higher β-fraction was observed in the PP phase as compared to the blend with pristine MWNTs. Addition of PP-g-MA has suppressed the β-phase formation in the PP phase in the blend. X-ray bulk texture analysis revealed that incorporation of PA6 as well as pristine/modified MWNTs has influenced the extent of orientation of the PP chains towards specific crystalline planes in various blend compositions of PP and PA6. PMID:25574831

  4. Improvement of the relaxation time and the order parameter of nematic liquid crystal using a hybrid alignment mixture of carbon nanotube and polyimide

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyojin; Yang, Seungbin; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Soo Park, Young

    2014-05-12

    We examined the electrooptical properties of a nematic liquid crystal (LC) sample whose substrates were coated with a mixture of carbon nanotube (CNT) and polyimide (PI). The relaxation time of the sample coated with 1.5 wt. % CNT mixture was about 35% reduced compared to the pure polyimide sample. The elastic constant and the order parameter of the CNT-mixture sample were increased and the fast relaxation of LC could be approximated to the mean-field theory. We found the CNT-mixed polyimide formed more smooth surface than the pure PI from atomic force microscopy images, indicating the increased order parameter is related to the smooth surface topology of the CNT-polyimide mixture.

  5. Strongly enhanced flux pinning in the YBa2Cu3O7 -x films with the co-doping of BaTiO3 nanorod and Y2O3 nanoparticles at 65 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Yan; Ding, Fa-Zhu; Gu, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Teng

    2015-09-01

    YBa2Cu3O7 - x (YBCO) films with co-doping BaTiO3 (BTO) and Y2O3 nanostructures were prepared by metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD). The properties of the BTO/Y2O3 co-doped YBCO films with different excess yttrium have been systematically studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The optimized content of yttrium excess in the BTO/Y2O3 co-doped YBCO films is 10 mol.%, and the critical current density is as high as ˜17 mA/cm2 (self-field, 65 K) by the magnetic signal. In addition, the Y2Cu2O5 was formed when the content of yttrium excess increases to 24 mol.%, which may result in the deterioration of the superconducting properties and the microstructure. The unique combination of the different types of nanostructures of BTO and Y2O3 in the doped YBCO films, compared with the pure YBCO films and BTO doped YBCO films, enhances the critical current density (JC) not only at the self-magnetic field, but also in the applied magnetic field. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51272250), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00105), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032702), and the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing, China (Grant No. 2152035).

  6. Carbon nanotubes on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA; Liu, Jun [West Richland, WA

    2002-03-26

    The present invention includes carbon nanotubes whose hollow cores are 100% filled with conductive filler. The carbon nanotubes are in uniform arrays on a conductive substrate and are well-aligned and can be densely packed. The uniformity of the carbon nanotube arrays is indicated by the uniform length and diameter of the carbon nanotubes, both which vary from nanotube to nanotube on a given array by no more than about 5%. The alignment of the carbon nanotubes is indicated by the perpendicular growth of the nanotubes from the substrates which is achieved in part by the simultaneous growth of the conductive filler within the hollow core of the nanotube and the densely packed growth of the nanotubes. The present invention provides a densely packed carbon nanotube growth where each nanotube is in contact with at least one nearest-neighbor nanotube. The substrate is a conductive substrate coated with a growth catalyst, and the conductive filler can be single crystals of carbide formed by a solid state reaction between the substrate material and the growth catalyst. The present invention further provides a method for making the filled carbon nanotubes on the conductive substrates. The method includes the steps of depositing a growth catalyst onto the conductive substrate as a prepared substrate, creating a vacuum within a vessel which contains the prepared substrate, flowing H2/inert (e.g. Ar) gas within the vessel to increase and maintain the pressure within the vessel, increasing the temperature of the prepared substrate, and changing the H2/Ar gas to ethylene gas such that the ethylene gas flows within the vessel. Additionally, varying the density and separation of the catalyst particles on the conductive substrate can be used to control the diameter of the nanotubes.

  7. Supercritical-assistant liquid crystal template approach to synthesize mesoporous titania/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites with high visible-light driven photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chen; Li, Youji Xu, Peng; Li, Ming; Huo, Pingxiang

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: We investigate the influence of mesoporous titania content upon the visible-light driven photocatalytic performance of MPT/MWCNTs in phenol degradation. - Highlights: • MPT/MWCNTs were fabricated by liquid-crystal template in supercritical CO{sub 2}. • MPT/MWCNTs show high visible-light driven photoactivity for phenol degradation. • MPT/MWCNTs also show high reusable photoactivity under visible irradiation. • MPT content can control visible-light driven photoactivity of MPT/MWCNTs. • MPT is not easily broken away from from MPT/MWCNT composites. - Abstract: Mesoporous titania (MPT) was deposited onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by deposition of titanium sol containing liquid-crystal template with assistant of supercritical CO{sub 2}. The products were characterized with various analytical techniques to determine their structural, morphological, optical absorption and photocatalytic properties. The results indicate that in photocatalytic degradation of phenol under visible light, the mixtures or composites of MPT and MWCNT show the high efficiency because of synergies between absorbing visible light, releasing electrons and facilitating transfer of charge carriers of MWCNTs and providing activated centers of MPT. Because of the mutual constraint between MPT and MWCNTs on the photocatalytic efficiency, the optimal loading of MPT in MPT/MWCNT-3 for phenol degradation is 48%. Because the intimate contact between MWCNTs and MPT is more beneficial to electron transformation, photoactivity of mixture is lower than that of composites with high reusable performance. The optimum conditions of phenol degradation were obtained.

  8. Magnetic nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Matsui, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2010-11-16

    A magnetic nanotube includes bacterial magnetic nanocrystals contacted onto a nanotube which absorbs the nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are contacted on at least one surface of the nanotube. A method of fabricating a magnetic nanotube includes synthesizing the bacterial magnetic nanocrystals, which have an outer layer of proteins. A nanotube provided is capable of absorbing the nanocrystals and contacting the nanotube with the nanocrystals. The nanotube is preferably a peptide bolaamphiphile. A nanotube solution and a nanocrystal solution including a buffer and a concentration of nanocrystals are mixed. The concentration of nanocrystals is optimized, resulting in a nanocrystal to nanotube ratio for which bacterial magnetic nanocrystals are immobilized on at least one surface of the nanotubes. The ratio controls whether the nanocrystals bind only to the interior or to the exterior surfaces of the nanotubes. Uses include cell manipulation and separation, biological assay, enzyme recovery, and biosensors.

  9. Liquid phase sintering of 20Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O 3-80BaTiO3 dielectrics with bismuth-zinc-borate and bismuth borosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahin, David I.

    Dielectrics in the Bi(Zn0.5Ti0.5)O3-BaTiO 3 system (specifically 20BZT-80BT, in mol%) are promising candidates for high energy density capacitor applications due to broad temperature-dependent dielectric constant maxima and a relatively field-independent permittivity. Bulk samples require sintering temperatures of greater than 1180°C to reach useful densities. Due to incompatibility of Bi with low-pO2 processing, BZT-BT-based multilayer capacitors must utilize noble metal electrodes that resist oxidation during sintering. Sintering temperatures must be reduced to allow use of less expensive electrode materials (Cu, etc.). This work studies the reduced temperature sintering behavior and dielectric properties of BZT-BT sintered with 30Bi2O3-30ZnO-40B 2O3 and 50Bi2O3-25B2O 3-25SiO2 (mol%) liquid phase formers. Dielectrics sintered with 1v% borate additions and 5v% additions of either the borate or borosilicate achieved relative densities greater than 95% after sintering at 1000°C for four hours. All compositions retained the relaxor behavior exhibited by pure 20BZT-80BT. Increased borate additions led to greater dielectric constant reductions, while increased borosilicate additions yielded no clear trend in the dielectric constant reduction. Energy densities were estimated between 0.3-0.5 J/cm3; smaller glass additions typically led to larger energy densities. Dielectrics sintered with 1v% borate additions are of interest due to their high relative densities (approx. 96%) and energy densities of approximately 0.5 J/cm3 under 100kV/cm electric fields. Studies of BZT-BT/glass interfaces revealed the formation of crystalline interfacial layers less than 10 microns thick. The borate formed a bismuth titanate phase (likely Bi4Ti3O12) during heating to 700°C, whereas the borosilicate formed a barium silicate phase (likely BaSiO3) during processing to 800°C. Similar phases are expected to be present in the liquid phase sintered dielectrics and likely affect the BZT-BT sintering and dielectric behavior.

  10. Effects of ferroelectric nanoparticles on ion-transport in a liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Alfred; Basu, Rajratan

    2015-03-01

    A small quantity of BaTiO3 ferroelectric nanoparticles (FNPs) of 50 nm diameter was doped in a nematic liquid crystal (LC), and the free ion concentration was found to be significantly reduced in the LC +FNP hybrid compared to that of the pure LC. The strong electric fields, due to the permanent dipole moment of the FNPs, trapped some mobile ions, reducing the free ion concentration in the LC media. The reduction of free ions was found to have coherent impacts on the LC's conductivity, rotational viscosity, and electric field-induced nematic switching.

  11. Effects of ferroelectric nanoparticles on ion transport in a liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Rajratan; Garvey, Alfred

    2014-10-01

    A small quantity of BaTiO3 ferroelectric nanoparticles (FNPs) of 50 nm diameter was doped in a nematic liquid crystal (LC), and the free ion concentration was found to be significantly reduced in the LC + FNP hybrid compared to that of the pure LC. The strong electric fields, due to the permanent dipole moment of the FNPs, trapped some mobile ions, reducing the free ion concentration in the LC media. The reduction of free ions was found to have coherent impacts on the LC's conductivity, rotational viscosity, and electric field-induced nematic switching.

  12. Size effects on thin film ferroelectrics: Experiments on isolated single crystal sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L. W.; McMillen, M.; Morrison, F. D.; Scott, J. F.; Gregg, J. M.

    2008-09-01

    Thin lamellae were cut from bulk single crystal BaTiO3 using a focused ion beam microscope. They were then removed and transferred onto single crystal MgO substrates, so that their functional properties could be measured independent of the original host bulk ferroelectric. The temperature dependence of the capacitance of these isolated single crystal films was found to be strongly bulklike, demonstrating a sharp Curie anomaly, as well as Curie-Weiss behavior. In addition, the sudden change in the remanent polarization as a function of temperature at TC was characteristic of a first order phase change. The work represents a dramatic improvement on that previously published by Saad et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, L451 (2004)], as critical shortcomings in the original specimen geometry, involving potential signal contributions from bulk BaTiO3, have now been obviated. That the functional properties of single crystal thin film lamellae are comparable to bulk, and not like those of conventionally deposited heterogeneous thin film systems, has therefore been confirmed.

  13. Towards TiO2 nanotubes modified by WO3 species: influence of ex situ crystallization of precursor on the photocatalytic activities of WO3/TiO2 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hui; Dong, Bohua; Su, Ge; Gao, Rongjie; Liu, Wei; Song, Liang; Cao, Lixin

    2015-09-01

    TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) crystallized at different temperatures were loaded with WO3 hydrate through the reaction between (NH4)6W7O24·6H2O and an aqueous solution of HCl. The photocatalytic activities of nanocomposites firstly increase and then decrease as a function of the crystallized temperature of the TNT precursor. The structural, morphologic and optical properties of WO3/TiO2 nanocomposites were also investigated in this study. The samples, initially anatase titania (573 K-773 K), presented phase transition to rutile titania at 873 K. With the crystallized temperature increasing, an evolution of samples morphology changing from nanotube-like structure to nanorod-like structure was observed. Meanwhile, the absorption edge of samples exhibited a red shift, and correspondingly their band gap decreased. Consistent with x-ray diffraction diffractograms, the existence of rutile titania as an impurity in the precursor TNT, crystallized at higher than 873 K, depressed photocatalytic activity evidently. As a result, the degradation rate of methyl orange (MO) increased with the samples crystallinity firstly, and then reduced due to the appearance of rutile titania. In our experimental conditions, the optimal photocatalytic activity was achieved for the sample crystalized at 773 K. Its degradation rate could reach 98.76% after 90 min UV light irradiation.

  14. High Piezoelectric Response in (Li0.5Sm0.5)2+-Modified 0.93Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 Near the Nonergodic-Ergodic Relaxor Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiwen; Li, Qinglin; Zhou, Changrong; Zeng, Weidong; Xiao, Jianrong; Ma, Jiafeng; Yuan, Changlai; Chen, Guohua; Rao, Guanghui; Li, Xuqiong

    2016-06-01

    The (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3-BaTiO3 system is a promising Pb-free piezoelectric material to substitute for environmentally undesirable Pb-based ferroelectrics. However, understanding the origin of its high piezoelectric response is a fundamental issue that has remained unclear for decades. Here, complex ions (Li0.5Sm0.5)2+ were introduced to dictate the stability of the electrically-induced ferroelectric state in 0.93(Bi0.5Na0.5)1- x (Li0.5Sm0.5) x TiO3-0.07BaTiO3 relaxor ceramics. The applied electric field induces a phase transition from a non-ergodic state to a ferroelectric state as well as the realignment of ferroelectric domains. The non-ergodic relaxor state with x = 0-0.02 is accompanied by relatively high piezoelectric activity and the strongest piezoelectricity is observed near the crossover from the nonergodic to the ergodic state. The stable␣ferroelectric state cannot survive after the removal of the application electric field for the high doping level due to the enhancement of the random field, which is responsible for the rapid decrease of piezoelectric properties for x > 0.02 compositions.

  15. A theory of triple hysteresis in ferroelectric crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, George J.

    2009-10-01

    In the vicinity of the transition temperature between two ferroelectric states, a ferroelectric crystal could exhibit a triple hysteresis under an ac field. For a BaTiO3 with the "c-plate" configuration slightly below this temperature, the middle loop is caused by the 0°→180° domain switch in the orthorhombic phase, whereas the upper and lower loops are the result of orthorhombic-to-tetragonal phase transition, and vice versa. In this article we first develop a micromechanics-based thermodynamic model to determine the thermodynamic driving force for phase transition and for domain switch as a function of electric field and temperature, and in the latter case, further supplement it with a kinetic equation and a homogenization scheme. The dependence of dielectric constant of the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases on temperature and electric field are also established. The developed theory is then applied to calculate the triple hysteresis loops of BaTiO3 at several levels of temperature. The calculated results for the triple loops, and for the variation of dielectric constant, are found to be in full accord with the test data of Huibregtse and Young [Phys. Rev. 103, 1705 (1956)].

  16. ILQINS hexapeptide, identified in lysozyme left-handed helical ribbons and nanotubes, forms right-handed helical ribbons and crystals.

    PubMed

    Lara, Cecile; Reynolds, Nicholas P; Berryman, Joshua T; Xu, Anqiu; Zhang, Afang; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2014-03-26

    Amyloid fibrils are implicated in over 20 neurodegenerative diseases. The mechanisms of fibril structuring and formation are not only of medical and biological importance but are also relevant for material science and nanotechnologies due to the unique structural and physical properties of amyloids. We previously found that hen egg white lysozyme, homologous to the disease-related human lysozyme, can form left-handed giant ribbons, closing into nanotubes. By using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry analysis, we here identify a key component of such structures: the ILQINS hexapeptide. By combining atomic force microscopy and circular dichorism, we find that this fragment, synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis, also forms fibrillar structures in water at pH 2. However, all fibrillar structures formed possess an unexpected right-handed twist, a rare chirality within the corpus of amyloid experimental observations. We confirm by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations that these fibrils are composed of conventional left-handed β-sheets, but that packing stresses between adjacent sheets create this twist of unusual handedness. We also show that the right-handed fibrils represent a metastable state toward β-sheet-based microcrystals formation.

  17. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies. PMID:27546174

  18. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    PubMed

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies.

  19. A living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor for continuous monitoring of cytotoxic responses of macrophages to single-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) exist and new ENMs are being developed. A challenge to nanotoxicology and environmental health and safety is evaluating toxicity of ENMs before they become widely utilized. Cellular assays remain the predominant test platform yet these methods are limited by using discrete time endpoints and reliance on organic dyes, vulnerable to interference from ENMs. Label-free, continuous, rapid response systems with biologically meaningful endpoints are needed. We have developed a device to detect and monitor in real time responses of living cells to ENMs. The device, a living cell quartz crystal microbalance biosensor (QCMB), uses macrophages adherent to a quartz crystal. The communal response of macrophages to treatments is monitored continuously as changes in crystal oscillation frequency (Δf). We report the ability of this QCMB to distinguish benign from toxic exposures and reveal unique kinetic information about cellular responses to varying doses of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Results We analyzed macrophage responses to additions of Zymosan A, polystyrene beads (PBs) (benign substances) or SWCNT (3-150 μg/ml) in the QCMB over 18 hrs. In parallel, toxicity was monitored over 24/48 hrs using conventional viability assays and histological stains to detect apoptosis. In the QCMB, a stable unchanging oscillation frequency occurred when cells alone, Zymosan A alone, PBs alone or SWCNTs without cells at the highest dose alone were used. With living cells in the QCMB, when Zymosan A, PBs or SWCNTs were added, a significant decrease in frequency occurred from 1-6 hrs. For SWCNTs, this Δf was dose-dependent. From 6-18 hrs, benign substances or low dose SWCNT (3-30 μg/ml) treatments showed a reversal of the decrease of oscillation frequency, returning to or exceeding pre-treatment levels. Cell recovery was confirmed in conventional assays. The lag time to see the Δf reversal in QCMB plots was linearly SWCNT

  20. Improved Process for Fabricating Carbon Nanotube Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, R.; Nguyen, C.; Cassell, A.; Delzeit, L.; Meyyappan, M.; Han, Jie

    2003-01-01

    An improved process has been developed for the efficient fabrication of carbon nanotube probes for use in atomic-force microscopes (AFMs) and nanomanipulators. Relative to prior nanotube tip production processes, this process offers advantages in alignment of the nanotube on the cantilever and stability of the nanotube's attachment. A procedure has also been developed at Ames that effectively sharpens the multiwalled nanotube, which improves the resolution of the multiwalled nanotube probes and, combined with the greater stability of multiwalled nanotube probes, increases the effective resolution of these probes, making them comparable in resolution to single-walled carbon nanotube probes. The robust attachment derived from this improved fabrication method and the natural strength and resiliency of the nanotube itself produces an AFM probe with an extremely long imaging lifetime. In a longevity test, a nanotube tip imaged a silicon nitride surface for 15 hours without measurable loss of resolution. In contrast, the resolution of conventional silicon probes noticeably begins to degrade within minutes. These carbon nanotube probes have many possible applications in the semiconductor industry, particularly as devices are approaching the nanometer scale and new atomic layer deposition techniques necessitate a higher resolution characterization technique. Previously at Ames, the use of nanotube probes has been demonstrated for imaging photoresist patterns with high aspect ratio. In addition, these tips have been used to analyze Mars simulant dust grains, extremophile protein crystals, and DNA structure.

  1. Exfoliation in ecstasy: liquid crystal formation and concentration-dependent debundling observed for single-wall nanotubes dispersed in the liquid drug γ-butyrolactone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergin, Shane D.; Nicolosi, Valeria; Giordani, Silvia; de Gromard, Antoine; Carpenter, Leslie; Blau, Werner J.; Coleman, Jonathan N.

    2007-11-01

    Large-scale debundling of single-walled nanotubes has been demonstrated by dilution of nanotube dispersions in the solvent γ-butyrolactone. This liquid, sometimes referred to as 'liquid ecstasy', is well known for its narcotic properties. At high concentrations the dispersions form an anisotropic, liquid crystalline phase which can be removed by mild centrifugation. At lower concentrations an isotropic phase is observed with a biphasic region at intermediate concentrations. By measuring the absorbance before and after centrifugation, as a function of concentration, the relative anisotropic and isotropic nanotube concentrations can be monitored. The upper limit of the pure isotropic phase was CNT~0.004 mg ml-1, suggesting that this can be considered the nanotube dispersion limit in γ-butyrolactone. After centrifugation, the dispersions are stable against sedimentation and further aggregation for a period of 8 weeks at least. Atomic-force-microscopy studies on films deposited from the isotropic phase reveal that the bundle diameter distribution decreases dramatically as concentration is decreased. Detailed data analysis suggests the presence of an equilibrium bundle number density. A population of individual nanotubes is always observed which increases with decreasing concentration until almost 40% of all dispersed objects are individual nanotubes at a concentration of 6 × 10-4 mg ml-1. The number density of individual nanotubes peaks at a concentration of ~6 × 10-3 mg ml-1 where almost 10% of the nanotubes by mass are individualized.

  2. Nanotube junctions

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Vincent Henry; Cohen, Marvin Lou; Louie, Steven Gwon; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalte

    2004-12-28

    The present invention comprises a new nanoscale metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, or metal-metal junction, designed by introducing topological or chemical defects in the atomic structure of the nanotube. Nanotubes comprising adjacent sections having differing electrical properties are described. These nanotubes can be constructed from combinations of carbon, boron, nitrogen and other elements. The nanotube can be designed having different indices on either side of a junction point in a continuous tube so that the electrical properties on either side of the junction vary in a useful fashion. For example, the inventive nanotube may be electrically conducting on one side of a junction and semiconducting on the other side. An example of a semiconductor-metal junction is a Schottky barrier. Alternatively, the nanotube may exhibit different semiconductor properties on either side of the junction. Nanotubes containing heterojunctions, Schottky barriers, and metal-metal junctions are useful for microcircuitry.

  3. Nanotube junctions

    DOEpatents

    Crespi, Vincent Henry; Cohen, Marvin Lou; Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng; Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter

    2003-01-01

    The present invention comprises a new nanoscale metal-semiconductor, semiconductor-semiconductor, or metal-metal junction, designed by introducing topological or chemical defects in the atomic structure of the nanotube. Nanotubes comprising adjacent sections having differing electrical properties are described. These nanotubes can be constructed from combinations of carbon, boron, nitrogen and other elements. The nanotube can be designed having different indices on either side of a junction point in a continuous tube so that the electrical properties on either side of the junction vary in a useful fashion. For example, the inventive nanotube may be electrically conducting on one side of a junction and semiconducting on the other side. An example of a semiconductor-metal junction is a Schottky barrier. Alternatively, the nanotube may exhibit different semiconductor properties on either side of the junction. Nanotubes containing heterojunctions, Schottky barriers, and metal-metal junctions are useful for microcircuitry.

  4. Giant strain with ultra-low hysteresis and high temperature stability in grain oriented lead-free K0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 piezoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yaojin; Yan, Yongke; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Priya, Shashank

    2015-02-26

    We synthesized grain-oriented lead-free piezoelectric materials in (K0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-xNa0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (KBT-BT-NBT) system with high degree of texturing along the [001]c (c-cubic) crystallographic orientation. We demonstrate giant field induced strain (~0.48%) with an ultra-low hysteresis along with enhanced piezoelectric response (d33 ~ 190pC/N) and high temperature stability (~160°C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) results demonstrate smaller size highly ordered domain structure in grain-oriented specimen relative to the conventional polycrystalline ceramics. The grain oriented specimens exhibited a high degree of non-180° domain switching, in comparison to the randomly axed ones. These results indicate the effective solution to the lead-free piezoelectric materials.

  5. Giant strain with ultra-low hysteresis and high temperature stability in grain oriented lead-free K0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 piezoelectric materials

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yaojin; Yan, Yongke; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight; Priya, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    We synthesized grain-oriented lead-free piezoelectric materials in (K0.5Bi0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-xNa0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (KBT-BT-NBT) system with high degree of texturing along the [001]c (c-cubic) crystallographic orientation. We demonstrate giant field induced strain (~0.48%) with an ultra-low hysteresis along with enhanced piezoelectric response (d33 ~ 190pC/N) and high temperature stability (~160°C). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) results demonstrate smaller size highly ordered domain structure in grain-oriented specimen relative to the conventional polycrystalline ceramics. The grain oriented specimens exhibited a high degree of non-180° domain switching, in comparison to the randomly axed ones. These results indicate the effective solution to the lead-free piezoelectric materials. PMID:25716551

  6. Field emission and growth of fullerene nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rinzler, A.G.; Hafner, J.H.; Nilolaev, P.; Colbert, D.T.; Smalley, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    Efforts to control the growth of individual carbon nanotubes from nanotube seed crystals have led to a characterization of their field-induced electron emission behavior. The application of a bias voltage in the growth apparatus was motivated by the prolific formation of nanotubes in the carbon are growth method, in which the electric field appears to play a central role. The authors report here the ability to achieve various tube tip configurations by the controlled application of voltage, heat and chemicals to an individual nanotube, and that these states are well characterized by the emission currents they induce.

  7. Silicon/Carbon Nanotube/BaTiO₃ Nanocomposite Anode: Evidence for Enhanced Lithium-Ion Mobility Induced by the Local Piezoelectric Potential.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Yoon, Jihyun; Jung, Changhoon; Kim, Dong Young; Jeon, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Ki-Hong; Park, Jun-Ho; Park, Hosang; Lee, Kang Hee; Kang, Yoon-Sok; Park, Jin-Hwan; Jung, Heechul; Yu, Woong-Ryeol; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2016-02-23

    We report on the synergetic effects of silicon (Si) and BaTiO3 (BTO) for applications as the anode of Li-ion batteries. The large expansion of Si during lithiation was exploited as an energy source via piezoelectric BTO nanoparticles. Si and BTO nanoparticles were dispersed in a matrix consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a high-energy ball-milling process. The mechanical stress resulting from the expansion of Si was transferred via the CNT matrix to the BTO, which can be poled, so that a piezoelectric potential is generated. We found that this local piezoelectric potential can improve the electrochemical performance of the Si/CNT/BTO nanocomposite anodes. Experimental measurements and simulation results support the increased mobility of Li-ions due to the local piezoelectric potential.

  8. Dielectric behavior of a flexible three-phase polyimide/BaTiO3/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junli; Qi, Shengli; Sun, Yiyi; Tian, Guofeng; Wu, Dezhen

    2016-11-01

    A three-phase composite film was produced by inserting multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and BaTiO3 nanoparticles into polyimide (PI). The combination of in-situ polymerization and water-based preparation involved in the experiment ensured fillers’ homogeneous dispersion in the matrix, which led to flexible shape of the composite films. The dielectric properties of composite films as a function of the frequency and the volume fraction of MWCNTs were studied. Such composite film displayed a high dielectric constant (314.07), low dielectric loss and excellent flexibility at 100Hz in the neighborhood of percolation threshold (9.02 vol%) owing to the special microcapacitor structure. The experimental results were highly consistent with the power law of percolation theory.

  9. Soft memory in a ferroelectric nanoparticle-doped liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Basu, Rajratan

    2014-02-01

    A small quantity of BaTiO(3) ferroelectric nanoparticles (FNP) was doped in a liquid crystal (LC), and the LC + FNP hybrid was found to exhibit a nonvolatile electromechanical memory effect in the isotropic phase. The permanent dipole moment of the FNPs causes the LC molecule to form short-range pseudonematic domains surrounding the FNPs. The FNP-induced short-range orders become more prominent in the isotropic phase when the global nematic order is absent. These short-range domains, being anisotropic in nature, interact with an external electric field, exhibiting a Fréedericksz-type transition. When the field is turned off, these domains stay oriented, showing a hysteresis effect due to the absence of any long-range order and restoring forces in the isotropic phase. The hysteresis graph for this memory effect shows a significant pretransitional behavior on approaching the nematic phase from the isotropic phase.

  10. Soft memory in a ferroelectric nanoparticle-doped liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Rajratan

    2014-02-01

    A small quantity of BaTiO3 ferroelectric nanoparticles (FNP) was doped in a liquid crystal (LC), and the LC + FNP hybrid was found to exhibit a nonvolatile electromechanical memory effect in the isotropic phase. The permanent dipole moment of the FNPs causes the LC molecule to form short-range pseudonematic domains surrounding the FNPs. The FNP-induced short-range orders become more prominent in the isotropic phase when the global nematic order is absent. These short-range domains, being anisotropic in nature, interact with an external electric field, exhibiting a Fréedericksz-type transition. When the field is turned off, these domains stay oriented, showing a hysteresis effect due to the absence of any long-range order and restoring forces in the isotropic phase. The hysteresis graph for this memory effect shows a significant pretransitional behavior on approaching the nematic phase from the isotropic phase.

  11. Hexagonal photonic crystal waveguide based on barium titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianheng; Liu, Zhifu; Wessels, Bruce W.; Tu, Yongming; Ho, Seng-Tiong; Joshi-Imre, Alexandra; Ocola, Leonidas E.

    2011-03-01

    The simulation, fabrication and measurement of nonlinear photonic crystals (PhCs) with hexagonal symmetry in epitaxial BaTiO3 were investigated. The optical transmission properties of a PhC were simulated by a 2-D finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. A complete bandgap exists for both the TE and TM optical modes. The fabricated PhC has a well-defined stop band over the spectral region of 1525 to 1575 nm. A microcavity structure was also fabricated by incorporation of a line defect in the PhC. Transmission of the microcavity structure over the spectral region from 1456 to 1584nm shows a well-defined 5 nm wide window at 1495nm. Simulations indicate that the phase velocity matched PhC microcavity device of 0.5 mm long can potentially serve as modulator with a 3 dB bandwidth of 4 THz.

  12. Liquid crystal self-assembly of halloysite nanotubes in ionic liquids: a novel soft nanocomposite ionogel electrolyte with high anisotropic ionic conductivity and thermal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ningning; Liu, Yulin; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Song, Hongzan

    2016-01-01

    We report a novel class of liquid crystalline (LC) nanohybrid ionogels fabricated via self-assembly of natural halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in ionic liquids (ILs). The obtained ionogels are very stable and nonvolatile and show LC phases over a wide temperature range. Remarkably, the nanocomposite ionogels exhibit high anisotropic ionic conductivity after shear, and their room temperature ionic conductivity can reach 3.8 × 10-3 S cm-1 for aligned nanotubes perpendicular to the electrode even when the HNTs content increases to 40 wt%, which is 380 times higher than that obtained for aligned nanotubes parallel to the electrode, which is 1.0 × 10-5 S cm-1. Crucially, the obtained LC nanocomposite ionogels have very high thermal stability, which can sustain 400 °C thermal treatment. The findings will promote the development of novel nanocomposite ionogel electrolytes with faster ion transport and larger anisotropic conductivity.We report a novel class of liquid crystalline (LC) nanohybrid ionogels fabricated via self-assembly of natural halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in ionic liquids (ILs). The obtained ionogels are very stable and nonvolatile and show LC phases over a wide temperature range. Remarkably, the nanocomposite ionogels exhibit high anisotropic ionic conductivity after shear, and their room temperature ionic conductivity can reach 3.8 × 10-3 S cm-1 for aligned nanotubes perpendicular to the electrode even when the HNTs content increases to 40 wt%, which is 380 times higher than that obtained for aligned nanotubes parallel to the electrode, which is 1.0 × 10-5 S cm-1. Crucially, the obtained LC nanocomposite ionogels have very high thermal stability, which can sustain 400 °C thermal treatment. The findings will promote the development of novel nanocomposite ionogel electrolytes with faster ion transport and larger anisotropic conductivity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06888f

  13. Controlling the quantity of α-Fe inside multiwall carbon nanotubes filled with Fe-based crystals: The key role of vapor flow-rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boi, Filippo S.; Maugeri, Serena; Guo, Jian; Lan, Mu; Wang, Shanling; Wen, Jiqiu; Mountjoy, Gavin; Baxendale, Mark; Nevill, George; Wilson, Rory M.; He, Yi; Zhang, Sijie; Xiang, Gang

    2014-12-01

    The growth control of α-Fe inside multiwall carbon nanotubes has challenged researchers for more than a decade owing to the coexistence of this phase with Fe3C and γ-Fe. Previously, long heating treatments of 20 h have been used to decompose the encapsulated Fe-phases in C and Fe; however, these methods were limited by an unusual oxidation process leading to nanotube decomposition. In this letter, we report an alternative chemical vapour deposition approach that through an accurate control of the ferrocene-vapour flow-rate allows to achieve the direct encapsulation of 95% of α-Fe without additional heating treatments.

  14. Heteroporphyrin nanotubes and composites

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.; Wang, Zhongchun

    2006-11-07

    Heteroporphyrin nanotubes, metal nanostructures, and metal/porphyrin-nanotube composite nanostructures formed using the nanotubes as photocatalysts and structural templates, and the methods for forming the nanotubes and composites.

  15. Heteroporphyrin nanotubes and composites

    DOEpatents

    Shelnutt, John A.; Medforth, Craig J.; Wang, Zhongchun

    2007-05-29

    Heteroporphyrin nanotubes, metal nanostructures, and metal/porphyrin-nanotube composite nanostructures formed using the nanotubes as photocatalysts and structural templates, and the methods for forming the nanotubes and composites.

  16. High-Energy Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction for In Situ Diffuse Scattering Studies of Bulk Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, John E.; Jo, Wook; Donner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    High-energy synchrotron x-ray scattering offers a powerful technique for investigation of single-crystal material structures. Large, mm-sized crystals can be used, allowing complex in situ sample environments to be employed. Here, we demonstrate how this technique can be applied for the collection of single-crystal diffuse scattering volumes from the electro-active material 96%Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-4%BaTiO3 while electric fields are applied in situ. The data obtained allow correlation of the atomic and nanoscale structures with the observed macroscopic electro-active properties of interest. This article presents a recent study relating the nanoscale stacking fault structure in BNT-BT to the relaxor-ferroelectric nature of the material [Daniels et al. in Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 252904 (2011)], and extends this study with further experimental description and analysis.

  17. Tailoring crystallinity and configuration of silica nanotubes by electron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Tomitsugu; Yamaguchi, Kenji

    2015-05-01

    SiO2 nanotubes show potential in applications such as nanoscale electronic and optical devices, bioseparation, biocatalysis, and nanomedicine. As-grown SiO2 nanotubes in the previous studies always have an amorphous wall, and here we demonstrate the successful synthesis of single-crystal nanotubes for the first time by the heat treatment of SiC nanotubes at 1300 °C for 10 h under low-vacuum conditions. According to TEM observations, the single-crystal SiO2 was α-cristobalite. We also demonstrate that single-crystal SiO2 nanotubes can be transformed into amorphous SiO2 nanotubes by electron beam irradiation. Moreover, we synthesized a crystalline/amorphous SiO2 composite nanotube, in which crystalline and amorphous SiO2 coexisted in different localized regions. In addition, for biomedical applications such as drug delivery systems, controlling the configuration of the open end, the diameter, and capsulation of SiO2 nanotubes is crucial. We can also obturate, capsulate, and cut a SiO2 nanotube, as well as modify the inner diameter of the nanotube at a specific, nanometer-sized region using the focused electron beam irradiation technique.

  18. Silicon Carbide Nanotube Synthesized

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lienhard, Michael A.; Larkin, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have generated a great deal of scientific and commercial interest because of the countless envisioned applications that stem from their extraordinary materials properties. Included among these properties are high mechanical strength (tensile and modulus), high thermal conductivity, and electrical properties that make different forms of single-walled CNTs either conducting or semiconducting, and therefore, suitable for making ultraminiature, high-performance CNT-based electronics, sensors, and actuators. Among the limitations for CNTs is their inability to survive in high-temperature, harsh-environment applications. Silicon carbon nanotubes (SiCNTs) are being developed for their superior material properties under such conditions. For example, SiC is stable in regards to oxidation in air to temperatures exceeding 1000 C, whereas carbon-based materials are limited to 600 C. The high-temperature stability of SiCNTs is envisioned to enable high-temperature, harsh-environment nanofiber- and nanotube-reinforced ceramics. In addition, single-crystal SiC-based semiconductors are being developed for hightemperature, high-power electronics, and by analogy to CNTs with silicon semiconductors, SiCNTs with single-crystal SiC-based semiconductors may allow high-temperature harsh-environment nanoelectronics, nanosensors, and nanoactuators to be realized. Another challenge in CNT development is the difficulty of chemically modifying the tube walls, which are composed of chemically stable graphene sheets. The chemical substitution of the CNTs walls will be necessary for nanotube self-assembly and biological- and chemical-sensing applications. SiCNTs are expected to have a different multiple-bilayer wall structure, allowing the surface Si atoms to be functionalized readily with molecules that will allow SiCNTs to undergo self-assembly and be compatible with a variety of materials (for biotechnology applications and high-performance fiber-reinforced ceramics).

  19. Engineering molecular chains in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Thomas W.; Pfeiffer, Rudolf; Howells, Jonathan; Peterlik, Herwig; Kuzmany, Hans; Kräutler, Bernhard; da Ros, Tatiana; Melle-Franco, Manuel; Zerbetto, Francesco; Milić, Dragana; Khlobystov, Andrei N.

    2012-11-01

    A range of mono- and bis-functionalised fullerenes have been synthesised and inserted into single-walled carbon nanotubes. The effect of the size and shape of the functional groups of the fullerenes on the resultant 1D arrays formed within the nanotubes was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The addition of non-planar, sterically bulky chains to the fullerene cage results in highly ordered 1D structures in which the fullerenes are evenly spaced along the internal nanotube cavity. Theoretical calculations reveal that the functional groups interact with neighbouring fullerene cages to space the fullerenes evenly within the confines of the nanotube. The addition of two functional groups to opposite sides of the fullerene cages results in a further increase in the separation of the fullerene cages within the nanotubes at the cost of lower nanotube filling rates.A range of mono- and bis-functionalised fullerenes have been synthesised and inserted into single-walled carbon nanotubes. The effect of the size and shape of the functional groups of the fullerenes on the resultant 1D arrays formed within the nanotubes was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The addition of non-planar, sterically bulky chains to the fullerene cage results in highly ordered 1D structures in which the fullerenes are evenly spaced along the internal nanotube cavity. Theoretical calculations reveal that the functional groups interact with neighbouring fullerene cages to space the fullerenes evenly within the confines of the nanotube. The addition of two functional groups to opposite sides of the fullerene cages results in a further increase in the separation of the fullerene cages within the nanotubes at the cost of lower nanotube filling rates. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: HRTEM images of 4@SWNT, space filling models of 1-6@SWNT structures and crystal packing

  20. Effect of the Yb3+ Concentration in Up-Conversion and Electrical Properties of Ho3+/Yb3+ Co-doped (0.94Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3) Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qian; Li, Yanxia; Li, Jun; Chai, Xiaona; Zhao, Haifeng; Wang, Xusheng; Yao, Xi

    2016-07-01

    Ho3+/Yb3+ co-doped 0.94Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 (NBT-BT:Ho3+/Yb3+) ceramics were synthesized by solid-state reaction and characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), luminescent, dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric measurements. The XRD diffraction data showed that all the ceramics were single phase with a perovskite structure. Bright green up-conversion (UC) emission bands (545 nm) and weak red UC emission bands (660 nm) corresponded to the transitions from (5F4, 5S2) → 5I8 and 4I5 → 5I8, respectively. Furthermore, optimized UC emission intensity was observed in the NBT-BT:0.005Ho3+/0.03Yb3+ samples. The thermal behavior of UC emission in the ceramics was also investigated and the maximum sensitivity based on fluorescence intensity ratio (FIR) technology was approximately 0.0042 K-1 at 100 K. Moreover, relatively good dielectric properties ( ɛ = 4475) and ferroelectric properties ( P r = 32 μ/cm2 and E c = 37 kV) were obtained in NBT-BT:0.005Ho3+/0.005Yb3+. As a multi-functional material, NBT-BT:Ho3+/Yb3+ ceramics may be useful in electro-optical devices.

  1. Dielectric and AC conductivity studies of Nd substituted 0.8BaTiO3-0.2(Bi0.5(1-x)Nd0.5xK0.5)TiO3 lead free ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, M. N. V.; Ramesh, K. V.

    2016-05-01

    0.8BaTiO3 - 0.2(Bi0.5(1-x)Nd0.5xK0.5)TiO3 (0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.06) lead free ceramic materials have been prepared by solid state reaction method and followed by high energy ball milling process. X-ray diffraction studies confirm the tetragonal structure of the materials at room temperature. Lattice parameters and density are decreasing with increase of Nd substitution. Microstructure studies were done by using Scanning electron microscope and it found that grain size is decreasing with increase of Nd substitution. Temperature and frequency dependent dielectric studies reveal relaxor behaviour of the materials. Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and Curie temperature are decreasing with Nd substitution. Maximum Curie temperature of 195°C was observed at 1MHz for x=0.01 Nd substituted sample. Degree of diffuseness was calculated from the modified Curie-Weiss law and it is increasing with Nd substitution. AC conductivity is increasing with increase of Nd substitution and observed maximum activation energy of 0.52 eV for x=0.02 Nd substituted sample.

  2. Nanotube cathodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Siegal, Michael P.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes have shown promise for applications in many diverse areas of technology. In this report we describe our efforts to develop high-current cathodes from a variety of nanotubes deposited under a variety of conditions. Our goal was to develop a one-inch-diameter cathode capable of emitting 10 amperes of electron current for one second with an applied potential of 50 kV. This combination of current and pulse duration significantly exceeds previously reported nanotube-cathode performance. This project was planned for two years duration. In the first year, we tested the electron-emission characteristics of nanotube arrays fabricated under a variety of conditions. In the second year, we planned to select the best processing conditions, to fabricate larger cathode samples, and to test them on a high-power relativistic electron beam generator. In the first year, much effort was made to control nanotube arrays in terms of nanotube diameter and average spacing apart. When the project began, we believed that nanotubes approximately 10 nm in diameter would yield sufficient electron emission properties, based on the work of others in the field. Therefore, much of our focus was placed on measured field emission from such nanotubes grown on a variety of metallized surfaces and with varying average spacing between individual nanotubes. We easily reproduced the field emission properties typically measured by others from multi-wall carbon nanotube arrays. Interestingly, we did this without having the helpful vertical alignment to enhance emission; our nanotubes were randomly oriented. The good emission was most likely possible due to the improved crystallinity, and therefore, electrical conductivity, of our nanotubes compared to those in the literature. However, toward the end of the project, we learned that while these 10-nm-diameter CNTs had superior crystalline structure to the work of others studying field emission from multi-wall CNT arrays, these nanotubes still

  3. Defect-Free Carbon Nanotube Coils.

    PubMed

    Shadmi, Nitzan; Kremen, Anna; Frenkel, Yiftach; Lapin, Zachary J; Machado, Leonardo D; Legoas, Sergio B; Bitton, Ora; Rechav, Katya; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Galvão, Douglas S; Jorio, Ado; Novotny, Lukas; Kalisky, Beena; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2016-04-13

    Carbon nanotubes are promising building blocks for various nanoelectronic components. A highly desirable geometry for such applications is a coil. However, coiled nanotube structures reported so far were inherently defective or had no free ends accessible for contacting. Here we demonstrate the spontaneous self-coiling of single-wall carbon nanotubes into defect-free coils of up to more than 70 turns with identical diameter and chirality, and free ends. We characterize the structure, formation mechanism, and electrical properties of these coils by different microscopies, molecular dynamics simulations, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical and magnetic measurements. The coils are highly conductive, as expected for defect-free carbon nanotubes, but adjacent nanotube segments in the coil are more highly coupled than in regular bundles of single-wall carbon nanotubes, owing to their perfect crystal momentum matching, which enables tunneling between the turns. Although this behavior does not yet enable the performance of these nanotube coils as inductive devices, it does point a clear path for their realization. Hence, this study represents a major step toward the production of many different nanotube coil devices, including inductors, electromagnets, transformers, and dynamos.

  4. Sacrificial template method of fabricating a nanotube

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; He, Rongrui; Goldberger, Joshua; Fan, Rong; Wu, Yi-Ying; Li, Deyu; Majumdar, Arun

    2007-05-01

    Methods of fabricating uniform nanotubes are described in which nanotubes were synthesized as sheaths over nanowire templates, such as using a chemical vapor deposition process. For example, single-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are utilized as templates over which gallium nitride (GaN) is epitaxially grown. The ZnO templates are then removed, such as by thermal reduction and evaporation. The completed single-crystalline GaN nanotubes preferably have inner diameters ranging from 30 nm to 200 nm, and wall thicknesses between 5 and 50 nm. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that the resultant nanotubes are single-crystalline with a wurtzite structure, and are oriented along the <001> direction. The present invention exemplifies single-crystalline nanotubes of materials with a non-layered crystal structure. Similar "epitaxial-casting" approaches could be used to produce arrays and single-crystalline nanotubes of other solid materials and semiconductors. Furthermore, the fabrication of multi-sheath nanotubes are described as well as nanotubes having multiple longitudinal segments.

  5. Defect-Free Carbon Nanotube Coils.

    PubMed

    Shadmi, Nitzan; Kremen, Anna; Frenkel, Yiftach; Lapin, Zachary J; Machado, Leonardo D; Legoas, Sergio B; Bitton, Ora; Rechav, Katya; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Galvão, Douglas S; Jorio, Ado; Novotny, Lukas; Kalisky, Beena; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2016-04-13

    Carbon nanotubes are promising building blocks for various nanoelectronic components. A highly desirable geometry for such applications is a coil. However, coiled nanotube structures reported so far were inherently defective or had no free ends accessible for contacting. Here we demonstrate the spontaneous self-coiling of single-wall carbon nanotubes into defect-free coils of up to more than 70 turns with identical diameter and chirality, and free ends. We characterize the structure, formation mechanism, and electrical properties of these coils by different microscopies, molecular dynamics simulations, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical and magnetic measurements. The coils are highly conductive, as expected for defect-free carbon nanotubes, but adjacent nanotube segments in the coil are more highly coupled than in regular bundles of single-wall carbon nanotubes, owing to their perfect crystal momentum matching, which enables tunneling between the turns. Although this behavior does not yet enable the performance of these nanotube coils as inductive devices, it does point a clear path for their realization. Hence, this study represents a major step toward the production of many different nanotube coil devices, including inductors, electromagnets, transformers, and dynamos. PMID:26708150

  6. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Deposition on Model Environmental Surfaces

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deposition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on model environmental surfaces was investigated using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Deposition behaviors of MWNTs on positively and negatively charged surfaces were in good agreement with Der...

  7. Method of making carbon nanotubes on a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Gao, Yufei; Liu, Jun

    2006-03-14

    The present invention includes carbon nanotubes whose hollow cores are 100% filled with conductive filler. The carbon nanotubes are in uniform arrays on a conductive substrate and are well-aligned and can be densely packed. The uniformity of the carbon nanotube arrays is indicated by the uniform length and diameter of the carbon nanotubes, both which vary from nanotube to nanotube on a given array by no more than about 5%. The alignment of the carbon nanotubes is indicated by the perpendicular growth of the nanotubes from the substrates which is achieved in part by the simultaneous growth of the conductive filler within the hollow core of the nanotube and the densely packed growth of the nanotubes. The present invention provides a densely packed carbon nanotube growth where each nanotube is in contact with at least one nearest-neighbor nanotube. The substrate is a conductive substrate coated with a growth catalyst, and the conductive filler can be single crystals of carbide formed by a solid state reaction between the substrate material and the growth catalyst. The present invention further provides a method for making the filled carbon nanotubes on the conductive substrates. The method includes the steps of depositing a growth catalyst onto the conductive substrate as a prepared substrate, creating a vacuum within a vessel which contains the prepared substrate, flowing H2/inert (e.g. Ar) gas within the vessel to increase and maintain the pressure within the vessel, increasing the temperature of the prepared substrate, and changing the H2/Ar gas to ethylene gas such that the ethylene gas flows within the vessel. Additionally, varying the density and separation of the catalyst particles on the conductive substrate can be used to control the diameter of the nanotubes.

  8. Nanorods and nanotubes: Synthesis, manipulation and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Eric Warren

    Nanorods and nanotubes represent idealized structures for investigating phenomena associated with reduced dimensionality and are potential building blocks for nanostructured materials. Understanding their synthesis as well as physical properties is crucial if they are to form the basis for future devices. The synthesis of carbide nanotubes and nanorods is described. Also presented is a general method that combines micropatterning techniques with scanning force microscopy (SFM) to probe individual quasi-one-dimensional materials. Polycrystalline TiC and NbC nanorods, with 20-30 nm diameters and lengths exceeding 1 mum, were synthesized by reacting gaseous Ti-I or Nb-I at 550-1100sp°C with carbon nanotubes which served as structural templates. Template growth from nanotubes appears general since polycrystalline BCsb{x} and amorphous Fesb3C nanorods were produced from Bsb2Osb2 and FeClsb3, respectively. However, reaction of Si-I precursors with nanotubes or graphite above 1050sp°C resulted in single crystal SiC nanorods, with 1-20 nm diameters and 1-20 mum lengths, that grew catalytically from MoSisb2 nanoparticles by a vapor-solid mechanism. Above 1200sp°C, single crystal TiC nanorods grew from nanotubes and Ti-I or TiO by an undetermined mechanism. To probe electrical transport in carbon nanotubes, a method was devised where a static gold contact was lithographically formed with one end of a nanotube while a second dynamic contact was made by a conducting SFM probe. The conducting SFM tip can simultaneously map the topography and conductance of the nanotube. The transport properties of a series of structurally distinct nanotubes were studied and shown to sensitively depend on their structure, the presence of defects causing dramatic increases in resistivity. The mechanics of SiC nanorods and carbon nanotubes were studied using an analogous technique. An SFM tip was used to measure the forces required to bend nanobeams. The SiC nanorods had elastic moduli in close

  9. Nanotube phonon waveguide

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2013-10-29

    Disclosed are methods and devices in which certain types of nanotubes (e.g., carbon nanotubes and boron nitride nanotubes conduct heat with high efficiency and are therefore useful in electronic-type devices.

  10. Electromechanical memory effect in a ferroelectric nanoparticle-suspended liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Rajratan

    2014-03-01

    A small quantity of BaTiO3 ferroelectric nanoparticles (FNP) was doped in a liquid crystal (LC), and the LC +FNP hybrid was found to exhibit an electromechanical memory effect in the isotropic phase. The permanent dipole moment of the FNPs causes the LC molecule to form short-range order surrounding the FNPs. This FNP-induced short-range order becomes more prominent in the isotropic phase when the global nematic order is absent. These short-range domains, being anisotropic in nature, interact with the external electric field. When the field goes off, these domains stay oriented due to the absence of the long range order in the isotropic phase, showing a hysteresis effect. The area under the hysteresis graph shows a significant pretransitional behavior on approaching the nematic phase from the isotropic phase.

  11. Recent Progress in the Study of Inorganic Nanotubes and Fullerene-Like Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenne, R.; Seifert, G.

    2009-08-01

    The synthesis of WS2 inorganic nanotubes (INT) and inorganic fullerene-like (IF) structures in 1992 signified the opening of a fertile and challenging field of scientific endeavor. These structures were the first of a long and ever-expanding series of INT and IF structures. Although initially much of the effort concentrated on the synthesis of INT and IF from compounds with layered structures, recently there has been a surge of efforts to synthesize crystalline and polycrystalline nanotubular structures from compounds with quasi-isotropic structures, like spinels, BaTiO3, SiO2, TiO2, and many others. The present review summarizes some of the progress in this field in recent years. Much of the progress in this field was achieved through strong interaction between theoretical and experimental work. This article has four themes: (a) new synthetic approaches leading to new kinds of IF and INT; (b) study of the molecular structure of such nanoparticles with new tools, such as aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF); (c) recent progress in the investigation of the properties of such nanostructures; and (d) examples of applications for which clear progress has been accomplished, in particular in solid lubrication and high-strength nanocomposites.

  12. Carbon Nanotubes as High-Pressure Cylinders and Nanoextruders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Banhart, F.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.; Rodríguez-Manzo, J. A.; Terrones, M.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2006-05-01

    Closed-shell carbon nanostructures, such as carbon onions, have been shown to act as self-contracting high-pressure cells under electron irradiation. We report that controlled irradiation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes can cause large pressure buildup within the nanotube cores that can plastically deform, extrude, and break solid materials that are encapsulated inside the core. We further showed by atomistic simulations that the internal pressure inside nanotubes can reach values higher than 40 gigapascals. Nanotubes can thus be used as robust nanoscale jigs for extruding and deforming hard nanomaterials and for modifying their properties, as well as templates for the study of individual nanometer-sized crystals under high pressure.

  13. Nanotube News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Smaller, faster computers, bullet-proof t-shirts, and itty-bitty robots--such are the promises of nanotechnology and the cylinder-shaped collection of carbon molecules known as nanotubes. But for these exciting ideas to become realities, scientists must understand how these miracle molecules perform under all sorts of conditions. This brief…

  14. Peptide nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hamley, Ian W

    2014-07-01

    The self-assembly of different classes of peptide, including cyclic peptides, amyloid peptides and surfactant-like peptides into nanotube structures is reviewed. The modes of self-assembly are discussed. Additionally, applications in bionanotechnology and synthetic materials science are summarized.

  15. Graphite polyhedral crystals.

    PubMed

    Gogotsi, Y; Libera, J A; Kalashnikov, N; Yoshimura, M

    2000-10-13

    Polyhedral nano- and microstructures with shapes of faceted needles, rods, rings, barrels, and double-tipped pyramids, which we call graphite polyhedral crystals (GPCs), have been discovered. They were found in pores of glassy carbon. They have nanotube cores and graphite faces, and they can exhibit unusual sevenfold, ninefold, or more complex axial symmetry. Although some are giant radially extended nanotubes, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy suggest GPCs have a degree of perfection higher than in multiwall nanotubes of similar size. The crystals are up to 1 micrometer in cross section and 5 micrometers in length, and they can probably be grown in much larger sizes. Preliminary results suggest a high electrical conductivity, strength, and chemical stability of GPC.

  16. Synthesis of Cerium-Doped Titania Nanoparticles and Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Suzuki, Takuya; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M

    2015-03-01

    Cerium-doped titania nanoparticles and nanotubes were synthesized via hydrothermal processes. X-Ray Diffraction revealed that cerium-doped titania nanoparticles have an anatase crystal structure, while cerium-doped titania nanotubes have an H2Ti3O7-type structure. Scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that both types of titania are well crystallized with relatively uniform size distribution. The photocatalytic degradation of methylthioninium chloride known as methylene blue dye was tested and both cerium-doped titania nanoparticles and nanotubes. The preliminary photocatalytic degradation of Methylene Blue data showed significantly improved visible light photocatalytic activities as compared to commercial titania powders.

  17. Modifications of multi-wall carbon nanotubes with B-containing vapor and their effects on the properties of boron carbide matrix nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Herth, S; Miranda, D; Doremus, R H; Siegel, R W

    2008-06-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes were modified by heating them together with elemental boron powder. B4C crystals grew on the surfaces of the nanotubes, and electron diffraction patterns showed an orientation dependence of the surface B4C and the underlying carbon in the nanotubes. There was no reaction of the nanotubes with solid B2O3 alone. Composites of the modified nanotubes in a B4C matrix showed a small increase of density over sintered B4C.

  18. Optical properties of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelmoula, Mohamed; Sokoloff, Jeffrey; Lu, Wen-Tao; Menon, Latika; Close, Thomas; Richter, Christiaan

    2014-01-07

    We present experimental measurements and a theoretical analysis of the near UV to NIR optical properties of free standing titania nanotube arrays. An improved understanding of the optical physics of this type of nanostructure is important to several next generation solar energy conversion technologies. We measured the transmission, reflection, and absorption of the electromagnetic spectrum from 300 nm to 1000 nm (UV to NIR) of titania nanotube arrays. We measured the total, specular, and diffuse reflection and transmission using both single point detection and an integrating sphere spectrometer. We find that the transmission, but not the reflection, of light (UV to NIR) through the nanotube array is well-explained by classic geometric optics using an effective medium model taking into account the conical geometry of the nanotubes. For wavelengths shorter than ∼500 nm, we find the surprising result that the reflection coefficient for light incident on the open side of the nanotube array is greater than the reflection coefficient for light incident on the closed “floor” of the nanotube array. We consider theoretical models based on the eikonal approximation, photonic crystal band theory, and a statistical treatment of scattering to explain the observed data. We attribute the fact that light with wavelengths shorter than 500 nm is more highly reflected from the open than the closed tube side as being due to disorder scattering inside the nanotube array.

  19. Synthesis of single-crystal α-MnO2 nanotubes-loaded Ag@C core-shell matrix and their application for electrochemical sensing of nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-10-01

    A nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor was fabricated by combing the crystal α-MnO2 nanotubes and Ag@C core-shell matrix with their own superior characteristics. The morphology, size and electrochemical of the sensing interface materials and the relationship between the electrical catalytic properties and sensor response performance were also studied, established a new method for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The structure and morphology of hollow tubular-like MnO2 and MnO2-Ag@C film were characterized by scanning electron micrograph (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the sensor were explored by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. The investigation showed that the MnO2-Ag@C at the sensor exhibited a high electrocatalytic activity towards electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide; and under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges of hydrogen peroxide were 0.5μM to 5.7mM with a low detection limit of 0.17μM (S/N=3) and high sensitivity of 127.2μAmM(-1)cm(-2). Compared with other nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor, the fabricated sensor own lower detection limit, demonstrating that MnO2-Ag@C nanocomposite film will be a new promising platform for the construction of hydrogen peroxide sensors.

  20. Synthesis of single-crystal α-MnO2 nanotubes-loaded Ag@C core-shell matrix and their application for electrochemical sensing of nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Zheng, Jianbin

    2016-10-01

    A nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor was fabricated by combing the crystal α-MnO2 nanotubes and Ag@C core-shell matrix with their own superior characteristics. The morphology, size and electrochemical of the sensing interface materials and the relationship between the electrical catalytic properties and sensor response performance were also studied, established a new method for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The structure and morphology of hollow tubular-like MnO2 and MnO2-Ag@C film were characterized by scanning electron micrograph (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical properties of the sensor were explored by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. The investigation showed that the MnO2-Ag@C at the sensor exhibited a high electrocatalytic activity towards electroreduction of hydrogen peroxide; and under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges of hydrogen peroxide were 0.5μM to 5.7mM with a low detection limit of 0.17μM (S/N=3) and high sensitivity of 127.2μAmM(-1)cm(-2). Compared with other nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor, the fabricated sensor own lower detection limit, demonstrating that MnO2-Ag@C nanocomposite film will be a new promising platform for the construction of hydrogen peroxide sensors. PMID:27474303

  1. Manifestations of electron interactions in photogalvanic effect in chiral nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Raphael; Agam, Oded; Andreev, Anton; Spivak, Boris

    2012-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes provide one of the most accessible experimental realizations of one-dimensional electron systems. In the experimentally relevant regime of low doping, the Luttinger liquid formed by electrons may be approximated by a Wigner crystal. The crystal-like electronic order suggests that nanotubes exhibit effects similar to the Mössbauer effect where the momentum of an emitted photon is absorbed by the whole crystal. We show that the circular photovoltaic effect in chiral nanotubes is of the same nature. We obtain the frequency dependence of the photovoltage and characterize its singularities in a broad frequency range where the electron correlations are essential. Our predictions provide a basis for using the photogalvanic effect as a new experimental probe of electron correlations in nanotubes.

  2. Strain incompatibility and residual strains in ferroelectric single crystals

    PubMed Central

    Pramanick, A.; Jones, J. L.; Tutuncu, G.; Ghosh, D.; Stoica, A. D.; An, K.

    2012-01-01

    Residual strains in ferroelectrics are known to adversely affect the material properties by aggravating crack growth and fatigue degradation. The primary cause for residual strains is strain incompatibility between different microstructural entities. For example, it was shown in polycrystalline ferroelectrics that residual strains are caused due to incompatibility between the electric-field-induced strains in grains with different crystallographic orientations. However, similar characterization of cause-effect in multidomain ferroelectric single crystals is lacking. In this article, we report on the development of plastic residual strains in [111]-oriented domain engineered BaTiO3 single crystals. These internal strains are created due to strain incompatibility across 90° domain walls between the differently oriented domains. The average residual strains over a large crystal volume measured by in situ neutron diffraction is comparable to previous X-ray measurements of localized strains near domain boundaries, but are an order of magnitude lower than electric-field-induced residual strains in polycrystalline ferroelectrics. PMID:23226595

  3. Membrane Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derényi, I.; Koster, G.; van Duijn, M. M.; Czövek, A.; Dogterom, M.; Prost, J.

    There is a growing pool of evidence showing the biological importance of membrane nanotubes (with diameter of a few tens of nanometers and length upto tens of microns) in various intra- and intercellular transport processes. These ubiquitous structures are often formed from flat membranes by highly localized forces generated by either the pulling of motor proteins or the pushing of polymerizing cytoskeletal filaments. In this chapter we give an overview of the theory of membrane nanotubes, their biological relevance, and the most recent experiments designed for the study of their formation and dynamics. We also discuss the effect of membrane proteins or lipid composition on the shape of the tubes, and the effect of antagonistic motor proteins on tube formation.

  4. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOEpatents

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    Filho, R Saito, G Dresselhaus and M S Dresselhaus FTIR-luminescence mapping of dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes Sergei Lebedkin, Katharina Arnold, Frank Hennrich, Ralph Krupke, Burkhard Renker and Manfred M Kappes Structural properties of Haeckelite nanotubes Ph Lambin and L P Biró Structural changes in single-walled carbon nanotubes under non-hydrostatic pressures: x-ray and Raman studies Sukanta Karmakar, Surinder M Sharma, P V Teredesai, D V S Muthu, A Govindaraj, S K Sikka and A K Sood Novel properties of 0.4 nm single-walled carbon nanotubes templated in the channels of AlPO4-5 single crystals Z K Tang, N Wang, X X Zhang, J N Wang, C T Chan and Ping Sheng Lattice dynamics and symmetry of double wall carbon nanotubes M Damnjanovic, E Dobardzic, I Milosevic, T Vukovic and B Nikolic Optical characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic decomposition of alcohol Shigeo Maruyama, Yuhei Miyauchi, Yoichi Murakami and Shohei Chiashi Christian Thomsen, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany Hiromichi Kataura, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    .4 nm single-walled carbon nanotubes templated in the channels of AlPO4-5 single crystals Z K Tang, N Wang, X X Zhang, J N Wang, C T Chan and Ping Sheng Lattice dynamics and symmetry of double wall carbon nanotubes M Damnjanovic, E Dobardzic, I Milosevic, T Vukovic and B Nikolic Optical characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic decomposition of alcohol Shigeo Maruyama, Yuhei Miyauchi, Yoichi Murakami and Shohei Chiashi Christian Thomsen, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany Hiromichi Kataura, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan

  7. Electric fields can control the transport of water in carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Ritos, Konstantinos; Borg, Matthew K.; Mottram, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of water confined inside nanotubes are of considerable scientific and technological interest. We use molecular dynamics to investigate the structure and average orientation of water flowing within a carbon nanotube. We find that water exhibits biaxial paranematic liquid crystal ordering both within the nanotube and close to its ends. This preferred molecular ordering is enhanced when an axial electric field is applied, affecting the water flow rate through the nanotube. A spatially patterned electric field can minimize nanotube entrance effects and significantly increase the flow rate. PMID:26712640

  8. Combined ellipsometry and refractometry technique for characterisation of liquid crystal based nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Warenghem, Marc; Henninot, Jean François; Blach, Jean François; Buchnev, Oleksandr; Kaczmarek, Malgosia; Stchakovsky, Michel

    2012-03-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is a technique especially well suited to measure the effective optical properties of a composite material. However, as the sample is optically thick and anisotropic, this technique loses its accuracy for two reasons: anisotropy means that two parameters have to be determined (ordinary and extraordinary indices) and optically thick means a large order of interference. In that case, several dielectric functions can emerge out of the fitting procedure with a similar mean square error and no criterion to discriminate the right solution. In this paper, we develop a methodology to overcome that drawback. It combines ellipsometry with refractometry. The same sample is used in a total internal reflection (TIR) setup and in a spectroscopic ellipsometer. The number of parameters to be determined by the fitting procedure is reduced in analysing two spectra, the correct final solution is found by using the TIR results both as initial values for the parameters and as check for the final dielectric function. A prefitting routine is developed to enter the right initial values in the fitting procedure and so to approach the right solution. As an example, this methodology is used to analyse the optical properties of BaTiO(3) nanoparticles embedded in a nematic liquid crystal. Such a methodology can also be used to analyse experimentally the validity of the mixing laws, since ellipsometry gives the effective dielectric function and thus, can be compared to the dielectric function of the components of the mixture, as it is shown on the example of BaTiO(3)/nematic composite.

  9. Peculiarities of electro-optic properties of the ferroelectric particles-liquid crystal colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibragimov, T. D.; Imamaliyev, A. R.; Bayramov, G. M.

    2016-04-01

    Influence of ferroelectric barium titanate particles on electro-optic properties of the liquid crystal (LC) 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) with positive dielectric anisotropy and the LC mixture (H37) consisting of 4-methoxybezylidene-4'-butylaniline and 4-ethoxybezylidene-4'-butylaniline with negative dielectric anisotropy was investigated. It was shown that a presence of particles (1 wt%) in 5CB and H37 decreased the clearing temperature from 35.2 °C to 32.4°C and from 61.2°C to 60.1°C, respectively. The threshold voltage of the Freedericksz effect became 0.3 V for the BaTiO3-5CB colloid while the beginning of this effect for the pure 5CB was observed at 2.1 V. The threshold voltage of the Freedericksz effect increased from 2.8 V to up 3.1 V at additive of particles in H37. A rise time of the BaTiO3-5CB colloid improved while a decay time worsened in comparison with the pure 5CB at all applied voltages. The inverse trends were observed for the H37 matrix, namely, a rise time worsened and a decay time improved. Among other things, the pecularities of Williams' domain formation (WDF) were also investigated in the colloid based on the H37 matrix. It was established that the WDF voltage decreased, a rise time increased and a decay time decreased in comparison with the pure H37. Experimental results are explained by appearance of local electric fields near the polarized ferroelectric particles at application of external electric field and an existence of the additional obstacles (particles) for movement of ions.

  10. Gallium-assisted growth of flute-like MgO nanotubes, Ga2O3-filled MgO nanotubes, and MgO/Ga2O3 co-axial nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Jie, Jiansheng; Wu, Chunyan; Yu, Yongqiang; Wang, Li; Hu, Zhizhong

    2009-02-18

    Flute-like MgO nanotubes were successfully synthesized via a simple thermal evaporation method by using Mg(3)N(2) and Ga(2)O(3) as the source materials. The nanotubes are single-crystal cubic MgO, and have [100] orientation. In contrast to conventional nanotubes with intact walls, the flute-like MgO nanotubes possess a unique porous structure. On the nanotubes there are series of holes aligned along the nanotube length with approximate equidistance. Ga(2)O(3)-filled MgO nanotubes and MgO/Ga(2)O(3) co-axial nanotubes were also found in the product. Further investigation confirms that the inner beta-Ga(2)O(3) has an epitaxial growth relation with the outer MgO nanotube due to their perfect lattice matching. A gallium-assisted growth mechanism was proposed to interpret the growth of the flute-like MgO nanotubes. The thermal expansion and evaporation of the filled liquid gallium in MgO nanotubes are likely responsible for the formation of the hole structures on the side walls.

  11. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  12. Tunneling nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Austefjord, Magnus Wiger; Gerdes, Hans-Hermann; Wang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are recently discovered thin membranous tubes that interconnect cells. During the last decade, research has shown TNTs to be diverse in morphology and composition, varying between and within cell systems. In addition, the discovery of TNT-like extracellular protrusions, as well as observations of TNTs in vivo, has further enriched our knowledge on the diversity of TNT-like structures. Considering the complex molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of TNTs, as well as their different functions in intercellular communication, it is important to decipher how heterogeneity of TNTs is established, and to address what roles the compositional elements have in the execution of various functions. Here, we review the current knowledge on the morphological and structural diversity of TNTs, and address the relation between the formation, the structure, and the function of TNTs. PMID:24778759

  13. Carbon nanotube photo-thermo-mechanical actuator.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rupali; Teki, Ranganath; Srivastava, Iti; Singh, Jitendra P; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes show a remarkable tendency for direct (rapid) temperature increase of the order of hundreds of degrees when exposed to near infra-red light. The reason is local confinement of the heat wave in their 1D structure which generates rapid temperature rise. Here we demonstrate that these high temperatures can be exploited to generate large deformation and force output by anchoring the nanotubes to a substrate. We report energy density (i.e., work done per unit mass) of the nanotube actuator as approximately 4268 J/Kg which is significantly larger than piezoceramic (approximately 4.25 J/Kg), magnetostrictive (approximately 21.6 J/Kg), lead-zinc-niobate/lead-titanate single-crystals (approximately 131 J/Kg), polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoro-ethylene copolymers (approximately 160 J/Kg) and shape memory alloys (approximately 1337 J/Kg).

  14. Nonmagnetic carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipert, Kamil; Kretzschmar, Florian; Ritschel, Manfred; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Klingeler, Rüdiger; Büchner, Bernd

    2009-03-01

    We have synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) single-, double-, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes without magnetic impurities. In particular, we have applied a rhenium-based CVD technique yielding nonmagnetic carbon nanotubes with diamagnetic Re particles. In addition, carbon nanotubes prepared with iron as catalyst particles are annealed at very high temperatures in which the catalyst material is completely vaporized, while the carbon nanotubes are structurally preserved. Detailed magnetic studies show for both approaches a clear diamagnetic behavior typical for pure carbon nanotubes but no indication of ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material.

  15. Structure of boron nitride nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Buranova, Yu. S. Kulnitskiy, B. A.; Perezhogin, I. A.; Blank, V. D.

    2015-01-15

    The crystallographic structure of boron nitride nanotubes has been investigated. Various defects that may arise during nanotube synthesis are revealed by electron microscopy. Nanotubes with different numbers of walls and different diameters are modeled by molecular dynamics methods. Structural features of single-wall nanotubes are demonstrated. The causes of certain defects in multiwall nanotubes are indicated.

  16. Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Mintz, Eric; Meador, Michael A.; Hull, David R.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Willis, Peter; Smalley, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have created a great deal of excitement in the Materials Science community because of their outstanding mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Use of carbon nanotubes as reinforcements for polymers could lead to a new class of composite materials with properties, durability, and performance far exceeding that of conventional fiber reinforced composites. Organized arrays of carbon nanotubes, e.g., nanotube monolayers, could find applications as thermal management materials, light emitting devices, and sensor arrays. Carbon nanotubes could also be used as templates upon which nanotubes from other materials could be constructed. Successful use of carbon nanotubes in any of these potential applications requires the ability to control the interactions of nanotubes with each other and with other materials, e.g., a polymer matrix. One approach to achieving this control is to attach certain chemical groups to the ends and/or side-walls of the nanotubes. The nature of these chemical groups can be varied to achieve the desired result, such as better adhesion between the nanotubes and a polymer. Under a joint program between NASA Glenn, Clark Atlanta University, and Rice University researchers are working on developing a chemistry "tool-kit" that will enable the functionalization of carbon nanotubes with a variety of chemical groups. Recent results of this effort will be discussed.

  17. High frequency nanotube oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Haibing; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-02-21

    A tunable nanostructure such as a nanotube is used to make an electromechanical oscillator. The mechanically oscillating nanotube can be provided with inertial clamps in the form of metal beads. The metal beads serve to clamp the nanotube so that the fundamental resonance frequency is in the microwave range, i.e., greater than at least 1 GHz, and up to 4 GHz and beyond. An electric current can be run through the nanotube to cause the metal beads to move along the nanotube and changing the length of the intervening nanotube segments. The oscillator can operate at ambient temperature and in air without significant loss of resonance quality. The nanotube is can be fabricated in a semiconductor style process and the device can be provided with source, drain, and gate electrodes, which may be connected to appropriate circuitry for driving and measuring the oscillation. Novel driving and measuring circuits are also disclosed.

  18. Microwave Frequency Ferroelectric Domain Imaging of Deuterated Triglycine Sulfate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauer, David E.; Anlage, Steven M.

    2001-03-01

    We have used a near-field scanning microwave microscope(D. E. Steinhauer, C. P. Vlahacos, F. C. Wellstood, Steven M. Anlage, C. Canedy, R. Ramesh, A. Stanishevsky, and J. Melngailis, "Quantitative Imaging of Dielectric Permittivity and Tunability with a Near-Field Scanning Microwave Microscope," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71), 2751-2758 (2000). to image domain structure and quantitatively measure dielectric permittivity and nonlinearity in ferroelectric crystals at 8.1 GHz with a spatial resolution of 1 μm. We imaged ferroelectric domains in periodically-poled LiNbO_3, BaTiO_3, and deuterated triglycine sulfate (DTGS) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7. Measurement of the permittivity and nonlinearity of DTGS in the temperature range 300--400 K shows a peak at the Curie temperature, TC ≈ 340 K, as well as reasonable agreement with thermodynamic theory. In addition, the domain growth relaxation time shows a minimum near T_C. We observe coarsening of ferroelectric domains in DTGS after a temperature quench from 360 K to 330 K, and evaluate the structure factor.

  19. One-dimensional carbon nanotube@barium titanate@polyaniline multiheterostructures for microwave absorbing application.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Yao-Feng; Yu, Lu-Jun; Fu, Ya-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-phase nanocomposites filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been developed for their significant potential in microwave attenuation. The introduction of other phases onto the CNTs to achieve CNT-based heterostructures has been proposed to obtain absorbing materials with enhanced microwave absorption properties and broadband frequency due to their different loss mechanisms. The existence of polyaniline (PANI) as a coating with controllable electrical conductivity can lead to well-matched impedance. In this work, a one-dimensional CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite was fabricated. The fabrication processes involved coating of an acid-modified CNT with BaTiO3 (CNT@BaTiO3) through a sol-gel technique followed by combustion and the formation of CNT@BaTiO3@PANI nanohybrids by in situ polymerization of an aniline monomer in the presence of CNT@BaTiO3, using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant and HCl as a dopant. The as-synthesized CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with heterostructures were confirmed by various morphological and structural characterization techniques, as well as conductivity and microwave absorption properties. The measured electromagnetic parameters showed that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites exhibited excellent microwave absorption properties. The minimum reflection loss of the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with 20 wt % loadings in paraffin wax reached -28.9 dB (approximately 99.87% absorption) at 10.7 GHz with a thickness of 3 mm, and a frequency bandwidth less than -20 dB was achieved from 10 to 15 GHz. This work demonstrated that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite can be potentially useful in electromagnetic stealth materials, sensors, and electronic devices. PMID:25977651

  20. One-dimensional carbon nanotube@barium titanate@polyaniline multiheterostructures for microwave absorbing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Yao-Feng; Yu, Lu-Jun; Fu, Ya-Qin

    2015-04-01

    Multiple-phase nanocomposites filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been developed for their significant potential in microwave attenuation. The introduction of other phases onto the CNTs to achieve CNT-based heterostructures has been proposed to obtain absorbing materials with enhanced microwave absorption properties and broadband frequency due to their different loss mechanisms. The existence of polyaniline (PANI) as a coating with controllable electrical conductivity can lead to well-matched impedance. In this work, a one-dimensional CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite was fabricated. The fabrication processes involved coating of an acid-modified CNT with BaTiO3 (CNT@BaTiO3) through a sol-gel technique followed by combustion and the formation of CNT@BaTiO3@PANI nanohybrids by in situ polymerization of an aniline monomer in the presence of CNT@BaTiO3, using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant and HCl as a dopant. The as-synthesized CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with heterostructures were confirmed by various morphological and structural characterization techniques, as well as conductivity and microwave absorption properties. The measured electromagnetic parameters showed that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites exhibited excellent microwave absorption properties. The minimum reflection loss of the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI composites with 20 wt % loadings in paraffin wax reached -28.9 dB (approximately 99.87% absorption) at 10.7 GHz with a thickness of 3 mm, and a frequency bandwidth less than -20 dB was achieved from 10 to 15 GHz. This work demonstrated that the CNT@BaTiO3@PANI heterostructure composite can be potentially useful in electromagnetic stealth materials, sensors, and electronic devices.

  1. Bone cell proliferation on carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zanello, Laura P; Zhao, Bin; Hu, Hui; Haddon, Robert C

    2006-03-01

    We explored the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as suitable scaffold materials for osteoblast proliferation and bone formation. With the aim of controlling cell growth, osteosarcoma ROS 17/2.8 cells were cultured on chemically modified single-walled (SW) and multiwalled (MW) CNTs. CNTs carrying neutral electric charge sustained the highest cell growth and production of plate-shaped crystals. There was a dramatic change in cell morphology in osteoblasts cultured on MWNTs, which correlated with changes in plasma membrane functions.

  2. On the structural and mechanical properties of Fe-filled carbon nanotubes: a computer simulation approach.

    PubMed

    Soldano, G; Mariscal, M M

    2009-04-22

    The structural and mechanical properties of single-and multi-walled carbon nanotubes filled with iron nanowires are studied using a recent parameterization of the modified embedded atom model. We have analyzed the effect of different crystal structures of iron (bcc and fcc) inside carbon nanotubes of different topographies. We have computed strain energy versus strain curves for pure systems: Fe nanowires, carbon and Fe-filled carbon nanotubes. A noticeable difference is found when these monatomic systems are joined to form iron-capped nanowires and where multi-layers of graphite are added to the nanotubes.

  3. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Zhou, Otto Z.

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted the fancy of many scientists worldwide. The small dimensions, strength and the remarkable physical properties of these structures make them a very unique material with a whole range of promising applications. In this review we describe some of the important materials science applications of carbon nanotubes. Specifically we discuss the electronic and electrochemical applications of nanotubes, nanotubes as mechanical reinforcements in high performance composites, nanotube-based field emitters, and their use as nanoprobes in metrology and biological and chemical investigations, and as templates for the creation of other nanostructures. Electronic properties and device applications of nanotubes are treated elsewhere in the book. The challenges that ensue in realizing some of these applications are also discussed from the point of view of manufacturing, processing, and cost considerations.

  4. Morphological and mechanical properties of carbon-nanotube-reinforced semicrystalline and amorphous polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadek, M.; Coleman, J. N.; Barron, V.; Hedicke, K.; Blau, W. J.

    2002-12-01

    In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were investigated as potential mechanical reinforcement agents in two hosts, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly(9-vinyl carbazole) (PVK). It was found that, by adding various concentrations of nanotubes, both Young's modulus and hardness increased by factors of 1.8 and 1.6 at 1 wt % in PVA and 2.8 and 2.0 at 8 wt % in PVK, in reasonable agreement with the Halpin-Tsai theory. Furthermore, the presence of the nanotubes was found to nucleate crystallization of the PVA. This crystal growth is thought to enhance matrix-nanotube stress transfer. In addition, microscopy studies suggest extremely strong interfacial bonding in the PVA-based composite. This is manifested by the fracture of the polymer rather that the polymer-nanotube interface.

  5. Giant electric-field induced strain in ferroelectric crystals by point-defect mediated reversible domain switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaobing

    2004-03-01

    Ferroelectric crystals are characterized by their asymmetric or polar structures. In electric field, ions undergo asymmetric displacement and result in a small change in crystal dimension, which is proportional to the applied field. Such electric-field induced strain (or piezoelectricity) has found extensive applications in actuators and sensors. However, the effect is generally very small and thus limits its usefulness. Here I show that with a different mechanism, an aged BaTiO3 single crystal can generate a large recoverable non-linear strain of 0.75% at a low field of 200V/mm. At the same field this value is about 40 times higher than piezoelectric PZT ceramics and more than 10 times higher than the high strain PZN-PT single crystals. This giant electro-strain stems from an unusual reversible domain switching (most importantly the switching of non-180^o domains) in which the restoring force is provided by a general symmetry-conforming property of point defects. This mechanism provides a general method to achieve large electro-strain effect in a wide range of ferroelectric systems and the effect may lead to novel applications in ultra large stroke and non-linear actuators.

  6. Large electric-field-induced strain in ferroelectric crystals by point-defect-mediated reversible domain switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaobing

    2004-02-01

    Ferroelectric crystals are characterized by their asymmetric or polar structures. In an electric field, ions undergo asymmetric displacement and result in a small change in crystal dimension, which is proportional to the applied field. Such electric-field-induced strain (or piezoelectricity) has found extensive applications in actuators and sensors. However, the effect is generally very small and thus limits its usefulness. Here I show that with a different mechanism, an aged BaTiO3 single crystal can generate a large recoverable nonlinear strain of 0.75% at a low field of 200 V mm-1. At the same field this value is about 40 times higher than piezoelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) ceramics and more than 10 times higher than the high-strain Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PZN-PT) single crystals. This large electro-strain stems from an unusual reversible domain switching (most importantly the switching of non-180° domains) in which the restoring force is provided by a general symmetry-conforming property of point defects. This mechanism provides a general method to achieve large electro-strain effect in a wide range of ferroelectric systems and the effect may lead to novel applications in ultra-large stroke and nonlinear actuators.

  7. Temperature dependence of Young's modulus of titanium dioxide (TIO2) nanotubes: Molecular mechanics modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanov, S. I.; Bandura, A. V.; Evarestov, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature dependence of the Young's modulus of cylindrical single-wall nanotubes with zigzag and armchair chiralities and consolidated-wall nanotubes has been studied by the molecular mechanics method with the use of the atom-atom potential. The nanotubes have been obtained by rolling up of crystal layers (111) of TiO2 with fluorite structure. Calculations have been performed for isothermal conditions on the basis of calculating the Helmholtz free energy of the system. The dependence of the Helmholtz free energy of nanotubes on the period has been calculated in the quasi-harmonic approximation as a result of calculation of phonon frequencies. It has been shown that the temperature dependence of the stiffness of nanotubes is determined by their chirality, and some nanotubes exibit anomalous behavior of both the Young's modulus and the period of unit cell with variation in temperature.

  8. Atomic Step-Templated Formation of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joselevich, Ernesto; Jorio, Ado; Son, Hyungbin

    2005-03-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes catalytically produced on miscut C-plane sapphire wafers grow along the 0.2nm-high atomic steps of the vicinal α-Al2O3 (0001) surfaces, yielding highly aligned, dense arrays of discrete nanotubes on a dielectric material [1]. The nanotubes reproduce the atomic features of the surface, including steps, facets and kinks. Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and single-nanotube Raman spectroscopy [2] shed light into the possible structure and mechanism of the step-templated carbon nanotube growth. The orientation, density and morphology of the atomic steps can be macroscopically controlled by the crystal cutting process. Hence, these findings open up the possibility of assembling nanotube architectures by atomic-scale surface engineering. [1] A. Ismach, et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 6140. [2] M. Souza, et al., Phys. Rev. B 2004, 241403R.

  9. Synthesis of titanium dioxide nanotubes from electrospun fiber templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yejun; Yu, Jie

    2008-12-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2) nanotubes were synthesized by impregnating stabilized electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers with titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4) solution and subsequent calcination. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were used to characterize the structure and composition of the products. The resulting TiO 2 nanotubes are of high purity with anatase structure. The average diameter of the nanotubes is 220 nm with very thin walls about 20 nm. The tube walls are composed of many nanoparticles of about 10 nm. Due to the increased surface area and small crystal size, the present TiO 2 nanotubes may possess high catalytic properties.

  10. Gallium nitride nanotube lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Hurtado, Antonio; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Xu, Huiwen; Luk, Ting Shan; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, Steven R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2015-01-01

    Lasing is demonstrated from gallium nitride nanotubes fabricated using a two-step top-down technique. By optically pumping, we observed characteristics of lasing: a clear threshold, a narrow spectral, and guided emission from the nanotubes. In addition, annular lasing emission from the GaN nanotube is also observed, indicating that cross-sectional shape control can be employed to manipulate the properties of nanolasers. The nanotube lasers could be of interest for optical nanofluidic applications or application benefitting from a hollow beam shape.

  11. Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2005-06-28

    The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  12. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; He, Rongrui; Goldberger, Joshua; Fan, Rong; Wu, Yiying; Li, Deyu; Majumdar, Arun

    2008-04-08

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  13. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; He, Rongrui; Goldberger, Joshua; Fan, Rong; Wu, Yiying; Li, Deyu; Majumdar, Arun

    2010-01-10

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  14. Hemotoxicity of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Bussy, Cyrill; Methven, Laura; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2013-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes may enter into the bloodstream and interact with blood components indirectly via translocation following unintended exposure or directly after an intended administration for biomedical purposes. Once introduced into systemic circulation, nanotubes will encounter various proteins, biomolecules or cells which have specific roles in the homeostasis of the circulatory system. It is therefore essential to determine whether those interactions will lead to adverse effects or not. Advances in the understanding of how carbon nanotubes interact with blood proteins, the complement system, red blood cells and the hemostatic system are reviewed in this article. While many studies on carbon nanotube health risk assessment and their biomedical applications have appeared in the last few years, reports on the hemocompatibility of these nanomaterials remain surprisingly limited. Yet, defining the hemotoxicological profile is a mandatory step toward the development of clinically-relevant medications or contrast agents based on carbon nanotubes.

  15. Photonics with multiwall carbon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Lidorikis, Elefterios; Ferrari, Andrea C

    2009-05-26

    We investigate the photonic properties of two-dimensional nanotube arrays for photon energies up to 40 eV and unveil the physics of two distinct applications: deep-UV photonic crystals and total visible absorbers. We find three main regimes: for small intertube spacing of 20-30 nm, we obtain strong Bragg scattering and photonic band gaps in the deep-UV range of 25 approximately 35 eV. For intermediate spacing of 40-100 nm, the photonic bands anticross with the graphite plasmon bands resulting into a complex photonic structure, and a generally reduced Bragg scattering. For large spacing >150 nm, the Bragg gap moves into the visible and decreases due to absorption. This leads to nanotube arrays behaving as total optical absorbers. Our results can guide the design of photonic applications in the visible and deep UV ranges.

  16. Microstrain in hydroxyapatite carbon nanotube composites.

    PubMed

    Kealley, Catherine; Elcombe, Margaret; van Riessen, Arie

    2008-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation diffraction data were collected from hydroxyapatite-carbon nanotube bioceramic composites to determine the crystallite size and to measure changes in non-uniform strain. Estimates of crystallite size and strain were determined by line-profile fitting of discrete peaks and these were compared with a Rietveld whole-pattern analysis. Overall the two analysis methods produced very similar numbers. In the commercial hydroxyapatite material, one reflection in particular, (0 2 3), has higher crystallite size and lower strain values in comparison with laboratory-synthesized material. This could indicate preferential crystal growth in the [0 2 3] direction in the commercial material. From the measured strains in the pure material and the composite, there was a degree of bonding between the matrix and strengthening fibres. However, increasing the amount of carbon nanotubes in the composite has increased the strain in the material, which is undesirable for biomedical implant applications.

  17. Titania nanotube arrays as interfaces for neural prostheses.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Jonathan A; Hughes, Stephen; Soares, Paulo; Popat, Ketul C

    2015-04-01

    Neural prostheses have become ever more acceptable treatments for many different types of neurological damage and disease. Here we investigate the use of two different morphologies of titania nanotube arrays as interfaces to advance the longevity and effectiveness of these prostheses. The nanotube arrays were characterized for their nanotopography, crystallinity, conductivity, wettability, surface mechanical properties and adsorption of key proteins: fibrinogen, albumin and laminin. The loosely packed nanotube arrays fabricated using a diethylene glycol based electrolyte, contained a higher presence of the anatase crystal phase and were subsequently more conductive. These arrays yielded surfaces with higher wettability and lower modulus than the densely packed nanotube arrays fabricated using water based electrolyte. Further the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of the C17.2 neural stem cell line was investigated on the nanotube arrays. The proliferation ratio of the cells as well as the level of neuronal differentiation was seen to increase on the loosely packed arrays. The results indicate that loosely packed nanotube arrays similar to the ones produced here with a DEG based electrolyte, may provide a favorable template for growth and maintenance of C17.2 neural stem cell line.

  18. Titania nanotube arrays as interfaces for neural prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Sorkin, Jonathan A.; Hughes, Stephen; Soares, Paulo; Popat, Ketul C.

    2015-01-01

    Neural prostheses have become ever more acceptable treatments for many different types of neurological damage and disease. Here we investigate the use of two different morphologies of titania nanotube arrays as interfaces to advance the longevity and effectiveness of these prostheses. The nanotube arrays were characterized for their nanotopography, crystallinity, conductivity, wettability, surface mechanical properties and adsorption of key proteins: fibrinogen, albumin and laminin. The loosely packed nanotube arrays fabricated using a diethylene glycol based electrolyte, contained a higher presence of the anatase crystal phase and were subsequently more conductive. These arrays yielded surfaces with higher wettability and lower modulus than the densely packed nanotube arrays fabricated using water based electrolyte. Further the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of the C17.2 neural stem cell line was investigated on the nanotube arrays. The proliferation ratio of the cells as well as the level of neuronal differentiation was seen to increase on the loosely packed arrays. The results indicate that loosely packed nanotube arrays similar to the ones produced here with a DEG based electrolyte, may provide a favorable template for growth and maintenance of C17.2 neural stem cell line. PMID:25687003

  19. Analytical solutions for elastic binary nanotubes of arbitrary chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lai; Guo, Wanlin

    2016-09-01

    Analytical solutions for the elastic properties of a variety of binary nanotubes with arbitrary chirality are obtained through the study of systematic molecular mechanics. This molecular mechanics model is first extended to chiral binary nanotubes by introducing an additional out-of-plane inversion term into the so-called stick-spiral model, which results from the polar bonds and the buckling of binary graphitic crystals. The closed-form expressions for the longitudinal and circumferential Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of chiral binary nanotubes are derived as functions of the tube diameter. The obtained inversion force constants are negative for all types of binary nanotubes, and the predicted tube stiffness is lower than that by the former stick-spiral model without consideration of the inversion term, reflecting the softening effect of the buckling on the elastic properties of binary nanotubes. The obtained properties are shown to be comparable to available density functional theory calculated results and to be chirality and size sensitive. The developed model and explicit solutions provide a systematic understanding of the mechanical performance of binary nanotubes consisting of III-V and II-VI group elements.

  20. Titania nanotube arrays as interfaces for neural prostheses.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Jonathan A; Hughes, Stephen; Soares, Paulo; Popat, Ketul C

    2015-04-01

    Neural prostheses have become ever more acceptable treatments for many different types of neurological damage and disease. Here we investigate the use of two different morphologies of titania nanotube arrays as interfaces to advance the longevity and effectiveness of these prostheses. The nanotube arrays were characterized for their nanotopography, crystallinity, conductivity, wettability, surface mechanical properties and adsorption of key proteins: fibrinogen, albumin and laminin. The loosely packed nanotube arrays fabricated using a diethylene glycol based electrolyte, contained a higher presence of the anatase crystal phase and were subsequently more conductive. These arrays yielded surfaces with higher wettability and lower modulus than the densely packed nanotube arrays fabricated using water based electrolyte. Further the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of the C17.2 neural stem cell line was investigated on the nanotube arrays. The proliferation ratio of the cells as well as the level of neuronal differentiation was seen to increase on the loosely packed arrays. The results indicate that loosely packed nanotube arrays similar to the ones produced here with a DEG based electrolyte, may provide a favorable template for growth and maintenance of C17.2 neural stem cell line. PMID:25687003

  1. Nanotube composite carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, R.; Jacques, D.; Rao, A. M.; Rantell, T.; Derbyshire, F.; Chen, Y.; Chen, J.; Haddon, R. C.

    1999-08-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were dispersed in isotropic petroleum pitch matrices to form nanotube composite carbon fibers with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties. We find that the tensile strength, modulus, and electrical conductivity of a pitch composite fiber with 5 wt % loading of purified SWNTs are enhanced by ˜90%, ˜150%, and 340% respectively, as compared to the corresponding values in unmodified isotropic pitch fibers. These results serve to highlight the potential that exits for developing a spectrum of material properties through the selection of the matrix, nanotube dispersion, alignment, and interfacial bonding.

  2. Nanotube resonator devices

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Zettl, Alexander K; Weldon, Jeffrey A

    2014-05-06

    A fully-functional radio receiver fabricated from a single nanotube is being disclosed. Simultaneously, a single nanotube can perform the functions of all major components of a radio: antenna, tunable band-pass filter, amplifier, and demodulator. A DC voltage source, as supplied by a battery, can power the radio. Using carrier waves in the commercially relevant 40-400 MHz range and both frequency and amplitude modulation techniques, successful music and voice reception has been demonstrated. Also disclosed are a radio transmitter and a mass sensor using a nanotube resonator device.

  3. Naturally produced carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco-Santos, C.; Martínez-Hernández, A. L.; Consultchi, A.; Rodríguez, R.; Castaño, V. M.

    2003-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes represent an impressive kind of materials with diverse unexpected properties, and different methods to artificially produce them have been developed. Recently, they have also been synthesized at low temperatures, demonstrating that these materials might exist in fluids or carbon rocks of the Earth's crust. A new type of natural encapsulated carbon nanotubes found in a coal-petroleum mix is presented. These findings show that all allotropic carbon forms known up to date can be produced in Nature, where pressure, catalysts particles, shear stress and parameters other than exclusively very high temperature, seem to play an important role for producing nanotubes.

  4. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Zettl, Alex K.; Jensen, Kenneth J.; Girit, Caglar; Mickelson, William E.; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2011-03-29

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  5. Tunable multiwalled nanotube resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Girit, Caglar O; Mickelson, William E; Zettl, Alexander K; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2013-11-05

    A tunable nanoscale resonator has potential applications in precise mass, force, position, and frequency measurement. One embodiment of this device consists of a specially prepared multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) suspended between a metal electrode and a mobile, piezoelectrically controlled contact. By harnessing a unique telescoping ability of MWNTs, one may controllably slide an inner nanotube core from its outer nanotube casing, effectively changing its length and thereby changing the tuning of its resonance frequency. Resonant energy transfer may be used with a nanoresonator to detect molecules at a specific target oscillation frequency, without the use of a chemical label, to provide label-free chemical species detection.

  6. Non-equilibrium Dynamics of DNA Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariadi, Rizal Fajar

    Can the fundamental processes that underlie molecular biology be understood and simulated by DNA nanotechnology? The early development of DNA nanotechnology by Ned Seeman was driven by the desire to find a solution to the protein crystallization problem. Much of the later development of the field was also driven by envisioned applications in computing and nanofabrication. While the DNA nanotechnology community has assembled a versatile tool kit with which DNA nanostructures of considerable complexity can be assembled, the application of this tool kit to other areas of science and technology is still in its infancy. This dissertation reports on the construction of non-equilibrium DNA nanotube dynamic to probe molecular processes in the areas of hydrodynamics and cytoskeletal behavior. As the first example, we used DNA nanotubes as a molecular probe for elongational flow measurement in different micro-scale flow settings. The hydrodynamic flow in the vicinity of simple geometrical objects, such as a rigid DNA nanotube, is amenable to rigorous theoretical investigation. We measured the distribution of elongational flows produced in progressively more complex settings, ranging from the vicinity of an orifice in a microfluidic chamber to within a bursting bubble of Pacific ocean water. This information can be used to constrain theories on the origin of life in which replication involves a hydrodynamically driven fission process, such as the coacervate fission proposed by Oparin. A second theme of this dissertation is the bottom-up construction of a de novo artificial cytoskeleton with DNA nanotubes. The work reported here encompasses structural, locomotion, and control aspects of non-equilibrium cytoskeletal behavior. We first measured the kinetic parameters of DNA nanotube assembly and tested the accuracy of the existing polymerization models in the literature. Toward recapitulation of non-equilibrium cytoskeletal dynamics, we coupled the polymerization of DNA

  7. Thermal-structural relationship of individual titania nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmi, Hatem; Katwal, Giwan; Khodadadi, Mohammad; Chen, Shuo; Paulose, Maggie; Varghese, Oomman K.; Mavrokefalos, Anastassios

    2015-11-01

    The thermal properties of nano-scale materials are largely influenced by their geometry. The zero, one and quasi one dimensional forms of the same material could exhibit unique thermal transport properties depending upon the shape and nano-scale feature size. In order to gain a clear understanding of the contributions from geometrical scattering effects on thermal transport, it is required to study these nano-materials in a single isolated form rather than in clusters or films. In the past decade, titanium dioxide nanotube arrays fabricated by anodic oxidation of titanium emerged as a useful semiconductor architecture for a variety of applications, particularly for solar energy conversion. Nonetheless, the thermal properties of individual nanotubes that are important for their use in high temperature applications have not been clearly understood. Here we report the thermal transport properties of individual titania nanotubes as revealed by our preliminary study using a suspended microdevice that facilitates the thermal conductivity measurements and crystal structure investigation on the same nanotube. The nanotubes were prepared by anodic oxidation of a titanium foil in HF-DMSO electrolyte at 60 V, having outer diameters in the range of 200 to 300 nm and wall thicknesses of ~30 to 70 nm in either amorphous or polycrystalline anatase phase. The thermal conductivity of single nanotubes was found to be very close to that of the amorphous phase (1.5 W mK-1 and 0.85 W mK-1 respectively) and it was only half of the thermal conductivity of the nanotube arrays in the film form. The thermal conductivity of bulk TiO2 is known to be almost six times higher. The observed thermal conductivity suppression in single nanotubes was explained using a transport model developed by considering diffuse phonon-surface scattering and scattering of phonons by ionized impurities of concentrations in the order of 1018-1019 cm-3.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Memory Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are among the most cited prototypical materials for nanoelectronics and information storage devices, a dominant position that originates from their intrinsic structural and electronic properties. In this chapter we review the developments in memory elements that directly exploit the unique properties of carbon nanotubes. Fundamental operational principles and characteristics are examined for the different types of carbon nanotube-based memory devices along with the current status of experimental fabrication and scalability. These include memory elements based on carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNFET), nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and electromigration. Many of these devices show tremendous promise for providing enhanced densities, lower power requirements, more efficient read/write processes, and non-volatility of data.

  9. Transport in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datta, S.; Xue, Yong-Qinag; Anantram, M. P.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses coupling between carbon nanotubes (CNT), simple metals (FEG) and a graphene sheet. The graphene sheet did not couple well with FEG, but the combination of a graphene strip and CNT did couple well with most simple metals.

  10. Carbon nanotubes: Fibrillar pharmacology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostarelos, Kostas

    2010-10-01

    The mechanisms by which chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes flow in blood and are excreted through the kidneys illustrate the unconventional behaviour of these fibrillar nanostructures, and the opportunities they offer as components for the design of advanced delivery vehicles.

  11. Polymer composites containing nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bley, Richard A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to polymer composite materials containing carbon nanotubes, particularly to those containing singled-walled nanotubes. The invention provides a polymer composite comprising one or more base polymers, one or more functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers and carbon nanotubes. The invention also relates to functionalized m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers, particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having side chain functionalization, and more particularly to m-phenylenevinylene-2,5-disubstituted-p-phenylenevinylene polymers having olefin side chains and alkyl epoxy side chains. The invention further relates to methods of making polymer composites comprising carbon nanotubes.

  12. Observation of the urbach tail in the effective density of States in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Jones, David A; Lee, Ji Ung

    2011-10-12

    While a number of studies have reported evidence of localized states in carbon nanotube devices, the density distribution of these states has not been reported until now. By measuring trap emission current in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors, we observe a prominent exponential tail in the density of states near the band edge. Since continuous distributions of localized states are typically associated with highly disordered systems, this observation was quite unexpected in carbon nanotubes, which are nearly ideal crystals. This continuum of localized states may explain a variety of phenomena in carbon nanotube systems, including the nearly universal lack of n-type conduction in strongly gated field-effect transistors. While our focus is on carbon nanotubes, this phenomenon may be ubiquitous to low-dimensional semiconductors in nonvacated environments.

  13. Synthesis of Ge-imogolite: influence of the hydrolysis ratio on the structure of the nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Levard, C; Masion, A; Rose, J; Doelsch, E; Borschneck, D; Olivi, L; Chaurand, P; Dominici, C; Ziarelli, F; Thill, A; Maillet, P; Bottero, J Y

    2011-08-28

    The synthesis protocol for Ge-imogolite (aluminogermanate nanotubes) consists of 3 main steps: base hydrolysis of a solution of aluminum and germanium monomers, stabilization of the suspension and heating at 95 °C. The successful synthesis of these nanotubes was found to be sensitive to the hydrolysis step. The impact of the hydrolysis ratio (from n(OH)/n(Al) = 0.5 to 3) on the final product structure was examined using a combination of characterization tools. Thus, key hydrolysis ratios were identified: n(OH)/n(Al) = 1.5 for the formation of nanotubes with structural defects, n(OH)/n(Al) = 2 for the synthesis of a well crystallized Ge imogolite and n(OH)/n(Al) > 2.5 where nanotube formation is hindered. The capability of controlling the degree of the nanotube's crystallinity opens up interesting opportunities in regard to new potential applications.

  14. Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  15. Boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin; Park, Cheol

    2012-06-06

    Boron nitride nanotubes are prepared by a process which includes: (a) creating a source of boron vapor; (b) mixing the boron vapor with nitrogen gas so that a mixture of boron vapor and nitrogen gas is present at a nucleation site, which is a surface, the nitrogen gas being provided at a pressure elevated above atmospheric, e.g., from greater than about 2 atmospheres up to about 250 atmospheres; and (c) harvesting boron nitride nanotubes, which are formed at the nucleation site.

  16. The structure and electronic properties of copper iodide 1D nanocrystals within single walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, N. A.; Kumskov, A. S.; Zhigalina, V. G.; Verbitskiy, N. I.; Yashina, L. V.; Chuvilin, A. L.; Vasiliev, A. L.; Eliseev, A. A.

    2013-11-01

    Copper iodide one-dimensional nanocrystals within single walled carbon nanotubes (1D CuI@SWCNTs), i.e. meta-nanotubes [1], were investigated by high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM). In meta-nanotubes of diameter Dm = 1.3-1.4 nm produced by arc-discharge (AD) method close-packed hexagonal or deformed cubic 1D crystal anion sublattices were observed with cations in octahedral or tetrahedral positions. These two sublattices reversibly transform to one another. In catalysed chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) meta-nanotubes of diameters Dm = 1.5-2.0 nm cubic anion sublattices are formed. For diameters >=2.0 nm three-dimensional (3D) crystallization is observed.

  17. Cutting and sharpening carbon nanotubes using a carbon nanotube 'nanoknife'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xian Long; Chen, Qing; Liu, Yang; Mao Peng, Lian

    2007-05-01

    A new method has been developed to precisely cut and to sharpen carbon nanotubes using a 'nanoknife', which is a short carbon nanotube adhered to a metal tip. The mechanism for the cutting and the sharpening was proposed to be local vaporization of carbon caused by Joule heating. The 'nanoknife' was also found useful to cut other nanotubes and nanowires. The cutting process was also found useful to construct complex carbon nanotube structures.

  18. Carbon nanotube filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Talapatra, S.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.

    2004-09-01

    Over the past decade of nanotube research, a variety of organized nanotube architectures have been fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. The idea of using nanotube structures in separation technology has been proposed, but building macroscopic structures that have controlled geometric shapes, density and dimensions for specific applications still remains a challenge. Here we report the fabrication of freestanding monolithic uniform macroscopic hollow cylinders having radially aligned carbon nanotube walls, with diameters and lengths up to several centimetres. These cylindrical membranes are used as filters to demonstrate their utility in two important settings: the elimination of multiple components of heavy hydrocarbons from petroleum-a crucial step in post-distillation of crude oil-with a single-step filtering process, and the filtration of bacterial contaminants such as Escherichia coli or the nanometre-sized poliovirus (~25 nm) from water. These macro filters can be cleaned for repeated filtration through ultrasonication and autoclaving. The exceptional thermal and mechanical stability of nanotubes, and the high surface area, ease and cost-effective fabrication of the nanotube membranes may allow them to compete with ceramic- and polymer-based separation membranes used commercially.

  19. Synthesis, characterization and field emission properties of nanotubes and nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lifeng

    2005-11-01

    with different work functions and explore new emitter candidates, nanowires with various compositions (CdS, ZnO, SiOx, WOx, and WS 2), diameters, morphologies and crystal structures were synthesized on tungsten substrates. In comparison to carbon nanotubes, these nanowires exhibit higher turn-on fields and threshold fields, but demonstrate similar noise power spectral of a 1/f3/2 characteristic from 1 Hz to 6 KHz.

  20. Nitrogen doping in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ewels, C P; Glerup, M

    2005-09-01

    Nitrogen doping of single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes is of great interest both fundamentally, to explore the effect of dopants on quasi-1D electrical conductors, and for applications such as field emission tips, lithium storage, composites and nanoelectronic devices. We present an extensive review of the current state of the art in nitrogen doping of carbon nanotubes, including synthesis techniques, and comparison with nitrogen doped carbon thin films and azofullerenes. Nitrogen doping significantly alters nanotube morphology, leading to compartmentalised 'bamboo' nanotube structures. We review spectroscopic studies of nitrogen dopants using techniques such as X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and Raman studies, and associated theoretical models. We discuss the role of nanotube curvature and chirality (notably whether the nanotubes are metallic or semiconducting), and the effect of doping on nanotube surface chemistry. Finally we review the effect of nitrogen on the transport properties of carbon nanotubes, notably its ability to induce negative differential resistance in semiconducting tubes.

  1. All-fiber nonlinearity- and dispersion-managed dissipative soliton nanotube mode-locked laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Popa, D. Wittwer, V. J.; Milana, S.; Hasan, T.; Jiang, Z.; Ferrari, A. C.; Ilday, F. Ö.

    2015-12-14

    We report dissipative soliton generation from an Yb-doped all-fiber nonlinearity- and dispersion-managed nanotube mode-locked laser. A simple all-fiber ring cavity exploits a photonic crystal fiber for both nonlinearity enhancement and dispersion compensation. The laser generates stable dissipative solitons with large linear chirp in the net normal dispersion regime. Pulses that are 8.7 ps long are externally compressed to 118 fs, outperforming current nanotube-based Yb-doped fiber laser designs.

  2. Facile formation of branched titanate nanotubes to grow a three-dimensional nanotubular network directly on a solid substrate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haimin; Liu, Porun; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hua; Zhang, Shanqing; Zhu, Huaiyong; Peng, Feng; Zhao, Huijun

    2010-02-01

    The hydrothermal formation of branched titanate nanotubes that grow a 3D nanotubular network directly onto a titanium substrate is reported. The resultant 3D nanotubular network exhibits a unique all-dimensional uniform porous structure. The inner and outer tubular diameters of branched titanate nanotubes were found to be approximately 6 and 12 nm, respectively. For the majority of the nanotubes, the wall is formed from three layers of titanate with an approximate 7.7 A interlayer space. In terms of individual nanotubes, these characteristics are quantitatively similar to those of previously reported nonbranched nanotubes. However, in terms of how nanotubes are arranged in the film, the all-dimensional uniform nanotubular network structure obtained here is distinctively different from those of previously reported structures. The 3D nanotubular network structure was formed by the jointing of branched nanotubes. In contrast, the previously reported nanotubes tend to grow vertically on the substrate, and the resultant tubular films are formed by interwoven nonbranched nanotubes. The branched titanate nanotubes can be readily formed on titanium substrates but not in solution suspension forms. A continuous seed formation-oriented crystal growth mechanism was proposed for the branched titanate nanotubular network formation. Such a network structure could be useful for applications such as photocatalysis, membrane separation, field emission, and photovoltaic devices. PMID:20039654

  3. Carbon nanotube array based sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Christopher L.; Noy, Aleksandr; Swierkowski, Stephan P.; Fisher, Karl A.; Woods, Bruce W.

    2005-09-20

    A sensor system comprising a first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and a second electrode. The first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode are positioned to produce an air gap between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode. A measuring device is provided for sensing changes in electrical capacitance between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode.

  4. Templated Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochik Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of growing carbon nanotubes uses a synthesized mesoporous si lica template with approximately cylindrical pores being formed there in. The surfaces of the pores are coated with a carbon nanotube precu rsor, and the template with the surfaces of the pores so-coated is th en heated until the carbon nanotube precursor in each pore is convert ed to a carbon nanotube.

  5. Lipid nanotube or nanowire sensor

    DOEpatents

    Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica; Letant, Sonia; Stadermann, Michael; Artyukhin, Alexander B.

    2009-06-09

    A sensor apparatus comprising a nanotube or nanowire, a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire, and a sensing element connected to the lipid bilayer. Also a biosensor apparatus comprising a gate electrode; a source electrode; a drain electrode; a nanotube or nanowire operatively connected to the gate electrode, the source electrode, and the drain electrode; a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire, and a sensing element connected to the lipid bilayer.

  6. Lipid nanotube or nanowire sensor

    DOEpatents

    Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica; Letant, Sonia; Stadermann, Michael; Artyukhin, Alexander B.

    2010-06-29

    A sensor apparatus comprising a nanotube or nanowire, a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire, and a sensing element connected to the lipid bilayer. Also a biosensor apparatus comprising a gate electrode; a source electrode; a drain electrode; a nanotube or nanowire operatively connected to the gate electrode, the source electrode, and the drain electrode; a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire, and a sensing element connected to the lipid bilayer.

  7. In situ Raman monitoring of single-walled carbon nanotube filling with copper chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Timofei V.; Tonkikh, Alexander A.; Kudryashova, Ekaterina M.

    2016-03-01

    In situ characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes during their gas-phase filling with copper chloride (CuCl) was performed with Raman spectroscopy. The time dependence of positions and intensities of G, 2D, and radial breathing modes was investigated. It was demonstrated that the adsorption of copper chloride from gas phase on the external and internal surfaces of nanotubes leads to the Raman mode shifting. However, this effect is weaker than in case of formation of one-dimensional CuCl crystals inside nanotubes.

  8. MoS{sub 2} nanotube field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Strojnik, M. E-mail: dragan.mihailovic@ijs.si; Mrzel, A.; Buh, J.; Strle, J.; Kovic, A.; Mihailovic, D. E-mail: dragan.mihailovic@ijs.si

    2014-09-15

    We report on electric field effects on electron transport in multi-walled MoS{sub 2} nanotubes (NTs), fabricated using a two-step synthesis method from Mo{sub 6}S{sub x}I{sub 9-x} nanowire bundle precursors. Transport properties were measured on 20 single nanotube field effect transistor (FET) devices, and compared with MoS{sub 2} layered crystal devices prepared using identical fabrication techniques. The NTs exhibited mobilities of up to 0.014 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} and an on/off ratio of up to 60. As such they are comparable with previously reported WS{sub 2} nanotube FETs, but materials defects and imperfections apparently limit their performance compared with multilayer MoS{sub 2} FETs with similar number of layers.

  9. Indium telluride nanotubes: Solvothermal synthesis, growth mechanism, and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Liyan; Yan, Shancheng; Lu, Tao; Shi, Yi; Wang, Jianyu; Yang, Fan

    2014-03-15

    A convenient solvothermal approach was applied for the first time to synthesize In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes. The morphology of the resultant nanotubes was studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Nanotubes with a relatively uniform diameter of around 500 nm, tube wall thickness of 50–100 nm, and average length of tens of microns were obtained. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were used to study the crystal structures, composition, and optical properties of the products. To understand the growth mechanism of the In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes, we studied the influences of temperature, reaction time, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ethylene diamine (EDA) dosages on the final products. Based on the experimental results, a possible growth mechanism of In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes was proposed. In this mechanism, TeO{sub 3}{sup −2} is first reduced to allow nucleation. Circumferential edges of these nucleated molecules attract further deposition, and nanotubes finally grow rapidly along the c-axis and relatively slowly along the circumferential direction. The surface area of the products was determined by BET and found to be 137.85 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. This large surface area indicates that the nanotubes may be suitable for gas sensing and hydrogen storage applications. The nanotubes also showed broad light detection ranging from 300 nm to 1100 nm, which covers the UV–visible–NIR regions. Such excellent optical properties indicate that In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes may enable significant advancements in new photodetection and photosensing applications. -- Graphical abstract: A convenient solvothermal approach was applied to synthesize In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanotubes, which has not been reported in the literature for our knowledge. Surface area of this material is 137.85 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} from the BET testing, and such a high value makes it probably suitable for gas sensing and

  10. Preparation of polyaniline nanotubes array based on anodic aluminum oxide template

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Shanxin; Wang Qi; Xia Hesheng

    2004-08-03

    In this article, the highly ordered polyaniline (PANI) nanotubes array was prepared by in situ polymerization using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as template. Polymerization of aniline was confined in the one-dimensional nanochannel of AAO template. The aniline was adsorbed and polymerized preferentially on the pore walls of template. The structure of PANI nanotubes array was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and dynamic force microscope (DFM). The results show that PANI nanotubes are synthesized successfully in the nanopores of template, the diameter and length of PANI nanotubes are closed to the pore diameter and thickness of AAO template, respectively, the arrangement of PANI nanotubes is very regular and uniform, the crystal form of PANI nanotubes is hexagonal, different from pseudo-orthorhombic crystal form of PANI bulk sample, and cell parameters a and b are 0.5008 nm. The change of crystal form is due to the confinement of AAO template, which makes the molecular chain of PANI arrange more ordered.

  11. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes and nanotube forests on copper catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruszka, Bartosz; Terzyk, Artur P.; Wiśniewski, Marek; Gauden, Piotr A.; Szybowicz, Mirosław

    2014-09-01

    The growth of carbon nanotubes on bulk copper is studied. We show for the first time, that super growth chemical vapor deposition method can be successfully applied for preparation of nanotubes on copper catalyst, and the presence of hydrogen is necessary. Next, different methods of copper surface activation are studied, to improve catalyst efficiency. Among them, applied for the first time for copper catalyst in nanotubes synthesis, sulfuric acid activation is the most promising. Among tested samples the surface modified for 10 min is the most active, causing the growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests. Obtained results have potential importance in application of nanotubes and copper in electronic chips and nanodevices.

  12. Enhanced electroactive and mechanical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) by controlling crystallization and interfacial interactions with low loading polydopamine coated BaTiO₃.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Xing, Qian; Liu, Xu; Sun, Jing; Xia, Guangmei; Huang, Wei; Song, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a semi-crystalline polymer and the polar β-phase of PVDF shows superb electroactive properties. In order to enhance the β-phase of PVDF, extreme low content of BaTiO3 nanoparticles (BT-NPs) coated with polydopamine (Pdop) were incorporated into PVDF matrix by solution casting. The β-phase of the resulting PVDF nanocomposites film was dramatically increased and the d33 value reached 34.3±0.4 pCN(-1). It is found that the Pdop layer could improve the dispersibility and stability of the BT NPs in solution and endow the BT NPs good dispersity in the PVDF matrix. Moreover, the interfacial interaction between PVDF chains and the surface of BT-Pdop nanoparticles (BT-Pdop NPs) were revealed, in which the CF2 groups on PVDF could interact with the electron-rich plane of aromatic ring of Pdop moiety. This interaction, led to the increase of the crystallization activation energy as derived from the DSC nonisothermal crystallization measurement. The α-β crystal transformation, organization of interfacial interactions as well as the prevention of agglomeration of BT-NPs confer the improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of PVDF, such as toughness, tensile strength, elongation at break, and thermal conductivity. PMID:25985420

  13. An efficient growth of silver and copper nanoparticles on multiwalled carbon nanotube with enhanced antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Raja; Shanmugharaj, A M; Sung Hun, Ryu

    2011-01-01

    Transition metal nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) have been grafted onto carbon nanotube surface through wet chemical approach leading to the development of densely packed NP decorated carbon nanotubes. Chemically active surface and high-temperature stability are the basic attributes to use carbon nanotubes as the template for the growth of NPs. Ag NP-grafted carbon nanotubes (Ag-MWCNT) are prepared by complexing Ag ion with acid functionalized carbon nanotubes followed by the reduction method. Alternatively, Cu-grafted carbon nanotubes (Cu-MWCNT) are prepared by simple chemical reduction method. X-ray diffraction results reveal that the Ag or Cu NPs formed on the surface of carbon nanotubes are determined to be face centered cubic crystals. The morphology and chemical structure of NP-grafted carbon nanotubes are investigated using transmission electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The antimicrobial properties of acid-treated MWCNT (MWCNT-COOH), Ag-MWCNT, and Cu-MWCNT are investigated against gram negative Escherichia coli bacteria. Ag-MWCNT and Cu-MWCNT (97% kill vs. 75% kill), whereas MWCNT-COOH only killed 20% of this bacteria. Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the higher antimicrobial activity by NP-coated MWCNT. These findings suggest that Ag-MWCNT and Cu-MWCNT may be used as effective antimicrobial materials that find applications in biomedical devices and antibacterial controlling system.

  14. Inorganic nanotube nanofluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rong

    The ability to manipulate charge carriers (electrons and holes) in metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) has revolutionized how information is processed and stored, and created the modern digital age. Introducing direct field effect modulation in fluidic systems would enable the manipulation of ionic and molecular species at a similar level and even logic operation. Due to strong Debye screening in aqueous solutions, field effect manipulation of ion transport arises only in systems whose dimensions are comparable to the critical Debye Length, i.e. in nanofluidic systems. Nanofluidics has already been explored in various cases, e.g. biological channel proteins and artificial solid-state nanopores. All these two terminal systems usually transport the ions the same way as passive electron conduction in a resistor. My work is aimed at developing nanotube nanofluidic units with a third terminal that can electrically turn on/off and control ion and biomolecule transport. Moreover, the systematic study on "doping" and transient phenomena can provide rich information to assess the electrokinetics theory and fluidic physics in nanoscale. Silica nanotubes were synthesized by oxidation/etching approach using vertical silicon nanowires as templates. A single nanotube was integrated into a metal-oxide-solution field effect transistor (MOSolFET) by interfacing with two microfluidic channels and a metallic gate electrode. Concentration dependence of ionic conductance through single nanotubes revealed the emergence of unipolar environment at low ionic strength regime. In this case, ionic conductance is only associated with majority ions and governed by surface potentials and charge densities. By applying a gate voltage, the ionic conductance can be quickly modulated. The gate voltages alter the surface potential of the silica nanotubes via capacitive coupling through the nanotube wall and the electrical double layer. In a negatively charged silica nanotube

  15. Carbon Nanotube Purification and Functionalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Mintz, Eric; Smalley, Richard E.; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have the potential to significantly enhance the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of polymers. However, dispersion of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix is hindered by the electrostatic forces that cause them to agglomerate. Chemical modification of the nanotubes is necessary to minimize these electrostatic forces and promote adhesion between the nanotubes and the polymer matrix. In a collaborative research program between Clark Atlanta University, Rice University, and NASA Glenn Research Center several approaches are being explored to chemically modify carbon nanotubes. The results of this research will be presented.

  16. Cerium phosphate nanotubes: synthesis, characterization and biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Ling; Yang, Lige; Zhou, Bo; Cai, Chenxin

    2009-01-01

    Cerium phosphate (CeP) nanotubes have been synthesized and confirmed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The 1D nanomaterial has a monoclinic crystal structure with a mean width of 15-20 nm and a length up to several micrometers. The nanotubes have been employed as electrode substrates for immobilization and direct electrochemistry of heme proteins/enzymes with myoglobin (Mb) as a model. The electrochemical characteristics of the Mb-CeP/GC electrode were studied by voltammetry. After being immobilized on the nanotubes, Mb can keep its natural structure and undergo effective direct electron transfer reaction with a pair of well-defined redox peaks at -(367 ± 3) mV (pH 7.5). The apparent electron transfer rate constant is (9.1 ± 1.4) s-1. The electrode displays good features in the electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2, and thus can be used as a biosensor for detecting the substrate with a low detection limit (0.5 ± 0.05 µM), a wide linear range (0.01-2 mM), high sensitivity (14.4 ± 1.2 µA mM-1), as well as good stability and reproducibility. CeP nanotubes can become a simple and effective biosensing platform for the integration of heme proteins/enzymes and electrodes, which can provide analytical access to a large group of enzymes for a wide range of bioelectrochemical applications.

  17. Mesoporous metal and semiconductor nanowires and nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hongmei

    Nanowires and nanotubes are central elements in nanoscience and nanotechnology for applications such as nanoelectronic devices, chemical sensors, and high-density data storage. Among various synthesis methods, the template assisted electrodeposition is particularly attractive because it provides an efficient route to fabricate arrays of nanomatenals of desired composition, size, and aspect ratio. Advanced applications need morphological control. Mesoporous materials with uniform and arranged pores with pore diameters between 2 and 50 nm have attracted much attention due to their unique structures and applications. This dissertation presents the fabrication, structure, and property investigation of magnetic, superconducting metal, and semiconductor nanostructures. We will report three-dimensional (3D) macroporous magnetic and superconducting metal films using opal templates, 2D hexagonal and 3D cubic metal nanowire thin films with tunable 3-10 nm wire diameters using mesoporous silica as templates, mesoporous cobalt and nickel films with hexagonal and lamellar structures direct templated by lyotropic liquid crystal phases. Compared with bulk and dense films, the porous magnetic films show higher coercivities. The cobalt nanowire thin films exhibit enhanced coercivities and controllable magnetic anisotropy through tuning the mesostructure and dimension of the nanowires. We will present a novel method, confined-assembly-template assisted (CATA) electrodeposition, by combination of nanoconfinement, supramolecular templating and electrodeposition technique to prepare mesoporous metal and semiconductor nanowires and nanotubes. Mesoporous palladium and cobalt nanowires are obtained by electrodeposition of hexagonal liquid crystal in porous membranes, mesoporous platinum and nickel nanotubes with controlled length are obtained by electrodeposition of lamellar liquid crystal, mesoporous zinc oxide nanowires are obtained by electrodeposition of interfacial SDS surfactant

  18. Copper-philic carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belgamwar, Sachin U.; Sharma, Niti Nipun

    2016-04-01

    Carbon nanotube is having poor wet-ability with copper metal. Wet-ability of carbon nanotube was improved by exposing and creating more active sites on the surface of carbon nanotube. Carbon nanotubes were subjected to the prolong ultrasonication treatment of 20×103 Hz and 500W, which helped in disentanglement of carbon nanotube agglomerates and in breaking the weak bonds like pentagonal or heptagonal structure on the surface and on the CNT cap. Disentanglement of the carbon nanotube, resulted in exposing the defective sites on the surface and breaking of weak bonds, which assisted in creating the new defects on the surface. This process results in generates more active sites on the surface and it helps in improving the wet-ability of the carbon nanotube in copper.

  19. Fabrication of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays using organic electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoriya, Sorachon

    to ~2 microm. In comparison to DMSO electrolyte, the electrochemical anodization rates are relatively slower in DEG electrolyte; as a result, the nanotube length is typically less than 10 microm. Pore size of nanotubes grown in DEG has been extended from 150 nm up to approximately 400 nm. The approach to pore widening could be achieved by using a specific condition of low HF concentration and prolonged anodization time. The study of evolution of nanotubes grown in DEG electrolytes showed that a fibrous layer was formed in the early growth stages and then was chemically and gradually removed after a long duration, leaving behind the nanotubes with large pore size. In DEG electrolyte, the closer spacing between Ti and Pt electrodes resulted in the larger nanotube morphological parameters due to the enhanced electrode kinetics facilitating the electrode reactions. Furthermore, this dissertation showed possibilities to crystallize the titania nanotube array films at room temperature via anodization in either DMSO or DEG electrolytes. The partially crystallized films could be achieved specifically in the optimum slow growth process conditions. Due to partial crystallization of the as-anodized samples, the high temperature annealing study revealed that the temperatures of phase transformation are 260 ºC and 430°C for respectively amorphous to anatase and anatase to rutile, which are accounted as the lowest phase transformation temperatures reported to date (2010). Finally, the photoelectrochemical properties of the DMSO fabricated nanotubes were investigated. The maximum photocurrent density of ~ 11 mA cm--2 was achieved by using the 46-microm long nanotube array sample with completely open pores, and photoconversion efficiencies of 5.425 % (+/- 0.087) (under UV light) and 0.197 % (+/- 0.001) (under solar spectrum AM 1.5) have been demonstrated. Biomedical applications of the DEG fabricated nanotube arrays films such as blood clotting, hemocompatibility, and drug

  20. Nanotechnology with Carbon Nanotubes: Mechanics, Chemistry, and Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Nanotechnology of carbon nanotubes. The contents include: 1) Nanomechanics examples; 2) Experimental validation of nanotubes in composites; 3) Anisotropic plastic collapse; 4) Spatio-temporal scales, yielding single-wall nanotubes; 5) Side-wall functionalization of nanotubes; 6) multi-wall Y junction carbon nanotubes; 7) Molecular electronics with Nanotube junctions; 8) Single-wall carbon nanotube junctions; welding; 9) biomimetic dendritic neurons: Carbon nanotube, nanotube electronics (basics), and nanotube junctions for Devices,