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Sample records for crystal diamond devices

  1. Diamond Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isberg, J.

    2010-11-01

    For high-power and high-voltage applications, silicon is by far the dominant semiconductor material. However, silicon has many limitations, e.g. a relatively low thermal conductivity, electric breakdown occurs at relatively low fields and the bandgap is 1.1 eV which effectively limits operation to temperatures below 175° C. Wide-bandgap materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN) and diamond offer the potential to overcome both the temperature and power handling limitations of silicon. Diamond is the most extreme in this class of materials. By the fundamental material properties alone, diamond offers the largest benefits as a semiconductor material for power electronic applications. On the other hand, diamond has a problem with a large carrier activation energy of available dopants which necessitates specialised device concepts to allow room temperature (RT) operation. In addition, the role of common defects on the charge transport properties of diamond is poorly understood. Notwithstanding this, many proof-of-principle two-terminal and three-terminal devices have been made and tested. Two-terminal electronic diamond devices described in the literature include: p-n diodes, p-i-n diodes, various types of radiation detectors, Schottky diodes and photoconductive or electron beam triggered switches. Three terminal devices include e.g. MISFETs and JFETs. However, the development of diamond devices poses great challenges for the future. A particularly interesting way to overcome the doping problem, for which there has been some recent progress, is to make so-called delta doped (or pulse-doped) devices. Such devices utilise very thin (˜1 nm) doped layers in order to achieve high RT activation.

  2. A procedure for diamond turning KDP crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Montesanti, R.C.; Thompson, S.L.

    1995-07-07

    A procedure and the equipment necessary for single-point diamond flycutting (loosely referred to as diamond turning) potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are described. It is based on current KDP diamond turning activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), drawing upon knowledge from the Nova crystal finishing development during the 1980`s and incorporating refinements from our efforts during 1995. In addition to describing a step-by-step process for diamond turning KDP, specific discussions are included on the necessary diamond tool geometry and edge sharpness, cutting fluid, and crystal preparation, handling, cleaning, and inspection. The authors presuppose that the reader is already familiar with diamond turning practices.

  3. Ultratough single crystal boron-doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Hemley, Russell J; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Yan, Chih-Shiue; Liang, Qi

    2015-05-05

    The invention relates to a single crystal boron doped CVD diamond that has a toughness of at least about 22 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a method of manufacturing single crystal boron doped CVD diamond. The growth rate of the diamond can be from about 20-100 .mu.m/h.

  4. Diamond MEMS: wafer scale processing, devices, and technology insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlisle, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Diamond has long held the promise of revolutionary new devices: impervious chemical barriers, smooth and reliable microscopic machines, and tough mechanical tools. Yet it's been an outsider. Laboratories have been effectively growing diamond crystals for at least 25 years, but the jump to market viability has always been blocked by the expense of diamond production and inability to integrate with other materials. Advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes have given rise to a hierarchy of carbon films ranging from diamond-like carbon (DLC) to vapor-deposited diamond coatings, however. All have pros and cons based on structure and cost, but they all share some of diamond's heralded attributes. The best performer, in theory, is the purest form of diamond film possible, one absent of graphitic phases. Such a material would capture the extreme hardness, high Young's modulus and chemical inertness of natural diamond. Advanced Diamond Technologies Inc., Romeoville, Ill., is the first company to develop a distinct chemical process to create a marketable phase-pure diamond film. The material, called UNCD® (for ultrananocrystalline diamond), features grain sizes from 3 to 300 nm in size, and layers just 1 to 2 microns thick. With significant advantages over other thin films, UNCD is designed to be inexpensive enough for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, microelectromechanical machines (MEMS), cell phone circuitry, radio frequency devices, and even biosensors.

  5. Design and production of diamond devices

    SciTech Connect

    Haenni, W.; Dan, J.P.; Perret, A.

    1995-12-31

    The outstanding properties of thin diamond films (hardness, chemical inertness, high thermal conductivity, high transparency, etc.) make them a good candidate for sensors, electronic or micromechanical devices, either self-standing or as part of microsystems. The structuring of diamond films and production of devices based on their properties has been described several times in the literature. Intrinsic as well as p-type doped diamond layers are now routinely deposited by different suppliers. To make full use of these layers in microtechnical products, it is necessary to further master suitable structuring techniques. Two methods have been developed and tested namely, selective area deposition (SAD) and direct etching of blanket-deposited diamond films. Both of these complementary approaches are described here, aiming at the production of thin diamond film structures suitable for example, to manufacture chemical sensors, cantilever beams or electrodes.

  6. Dynamic actuation of single-crystal diamond nanobeams

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Young-Ik; Burek, Michael J.; Lončar, Marko; Kara, Vural; Kearns, Ryan

    2015-12-14

    We show the dielectrophoretic actuation of single-crystal diamond nanomechanical devices. Gradient radio-frequency electromagnetic forces are used to achieve actuation of both cantilever and doubly clamped beam structures, with operation frequencies ranging from a few MHz to ∼50 MHz. Frequency tuning and parametric actuation are also studied.

  7. Liquid Crystal Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Madeline J.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of liquid crystals and several important liquid crystal devices are described. Ideas for practical experiments to illustrate the properties of liquid crystals and their operation in devices are also described. (Author/JN)

  8. Polycrystalline diamond photoconductive device with high UV-visible discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeag, Robert D.; Chan, Simon S. M.; Jackman, Richard B.

    1995-10-01

    Planar metal-diamond-metal photoconductive devices have been fabricated from free standing large grain (20-30 μm) polycrystalline thin film diamond. An interdigitated electrode design with spacings of 20 μm was used to produce effective UV photodetecting devices at bias values in the range 0.1-10 V. A methane-air treatment has been used to modify the structures such that unprecedented performance characteristics have been recorded (106 higher response to 200 nm than visible wavelengths, <0.1 nA dark currents); spectral features similar to those observed in natural diamond crystals have been observed indicating that the treatment used led to near ideal electronic characteristics from polycrystalline material.

  9. Characterization of single-crystal diamond grown from the vapor phase on substrates of natural diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Altukhov, A. A.; Vikharev, A. L.; Gorbachev, A. M.; Dukhnovsky, M. P.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Ziablyuk, K. N.; Mitenkin, A. V.; Muchnikov, A. B. Radishev, D. B.; Ratnikova, A. K.; Fedorov, Yu. Yu.

    2011-03-15

    The results of studies of single-crystal diamond layers with orientation (100) grown on substrates of IIa-type natural diamond by chemical-vapor deposition and of semiconductor diamond obtained subsequently by doping by implantation of boron ions are reported. Optimal conditions of postimplantation annealing of diamond that provide the hole mobility of 1150 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} (the highest mobility obtained so far for semiconductor diamond after ion implantation) are given.

  10. Ultratough CVD single crystal diamond and three dimensional growth thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Yan, Chih-shiue

    2009-09-29

    The invention relates to a single-crystal diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition that has a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention also relates to a method of producing a single-crystal diamond with a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a process for producing a single crystal CVD diamond in three dimensions on a single crystal diamond substrate.

  11. Phononic crystal devices

    DOEpatents

    El-Kady, Ihab F.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2012-01-10

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  12. Single crystal CVD diamond membranes for betavoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfaure, C.; Pomorski, M.; de Sanoit, J.; Bergonzo, P.; Saada, S.

    2016-06-01

    A single crystal diamond large area thin membrane was assembled as a p-doped/Intrinsic/Metal (PIM) structure and used in a betavoltaic configuration. When tested with a 20 keV electron beam from a high resolution scanning electron microscope, we measured an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.85 V, a charge collection efficiency (CCE) of 98%, a fill-factor of 80%, and a total conversion efficiency of 9.4%. These parameters are inherently linked to the diamond membrane PIM structure that allows full device depletion even at 0 V and are among the highest reported up to now for any other material tested for betavoltaic devices. It enables to drive a high short-circuit current Isc up to 7.12 μA, to reach a maximum power Pmax of 10.48 μW, a remarkable value demonstrating the high-benefit of diamond for the realization of long-life radioisotope based micro-batteries.

  13. Characterization of interfaces in mosaic CVD diamond crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchnikov, Anatoly B.; Radishev, Dmitry B.; Vikharev, Anatoly L.; Gorbachev, Alexei M.; Mitenkin, Anatoly V.; Drozdov, Mikhail N.; Drozdov, Yuri N.; Yunin, Pavel A.

    2016-05-01

    Detailed description of a way to accrete diamond single crystals in one plate using the CVD method is presented. It was found that each region of the mosaic CVD diamond crystal grown over a certain seed substrate "inherits" the crystallographic orientation of its substrate. No correlation was found between the value of misorientation of the accreted crystals and entrance of hydrogen to the boundary. It is shown that successful accretion of single crystal diamond plates in a single mosaic crystal occurs even in the case of great misorientation of crystals. The mechanical stresses appear during the fabrication of the mosaic CVD diamond crystal. Stresses accumulate during accretion of the regions, which grow over substrates with different orientations, in a common structure.

  14. Diamond device architectures for UV laser monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatori, S.; Girolami, M.; Oliva, P.; Conte, G.; Bolshakov, A.; Ralchenko, V.; Konov, V.

    2016-08-01

    The paper reviews the status of diamond detectors for UV laser monitoring and imaging. Single pixel detectors, position sensitive architectures, optically activated switches and sensor arrays for beam positioning and imaging are analyzed. The performances of natural diamond and synthetic diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition are compared to evaluate the suitability of such an outstanding material for the described applications.

  15. Thermal diffusion boron doping of single-crystal natural diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung-Hun; Wu, Henry; Mikael, Solomon; Mi, Hongyi; Blanchard, James P.; Venkataramanan, Giri; Zhou, Weidong; Gong, Shaoqin; Morgan, Dane; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-05-01

    With the best overall electronic and thermal properties, single crystal diamond (SCD) is the extreme wide bandgap material that is expected to revolutionize power electronics and radio-frequency electronics in the future. However, turning SCD into useful semiconductors requires overcoming doping challenges, as conventional substitutional doping techniques, such as thermal diffusion and ion implantation, are not easily applicable to SCD. Here we report a simple and easily accessible doping strategy demonstrating that electrically activated, substitutional doping in SCD without inducing graphitization transition or lattice damage can be readily realized with thermal diffusion at relatively low temperatures by using heavily doped Si nanomembranes as a unique dopant carrying medium. Atomistic simulations elucidate a vacancy exchange boron doping mechanism that occurs at the bonded interface between Si and diamond. We further demonstrate selectively doped high voltage diodes and half-wave rectifier circuits using such doped SCD. Our new doping strategy has established a reachable path toward using SCDs for future high voltage power conversion systems and for other novel diamond based electronic devices. The novel doping mechanism may find its critical use in other wide bandgap semiconductors.

  16. Nanocrystalline diamond photonics platform with high quality factor photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checoury, X.; Néel, D.; Boucaud, P.; Gesset, C.; Girard, H.; Saada, S.; Bergonzo, P.

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate a diamond photonics platform with integrated suspended waveguide-cavity structures and two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) cavities. PhC cavities with quality factors exceeding 2800 have been fabricated using a top-down approach from thin nanocrystalline diamond films. The developed technological process allows one to access these cavities in a fully planar geometry, including light injection and collection from the outside using lensed-fibers. This diamond platform opens the road to large scale fabrication of photonics devices including optical sensor chips.

  17. Ultrananocrystalline diamond contacts for electronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Smedley, John; Muller, Erik

    2016-11-01

    A method of forming electrical contacts on a diamond substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The mixture of gases include a source of a p-type or an n-type dopant. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the diamond substrate. The diamond substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the diamond substrate for a first time, and a UNCD film, which is doped with at least one of a p-type dopant and an n-type dopant, is disposed on the diamond substrate. The doped UNCD film is patterned to define UNCD electrical contacts on the diamond substrate.

  18. Synthetic single crystal diamond dosimeters for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaviva, S.; Ciancaglioni, I.; Consorti, R.; De Notaristefani, F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Petrucci, A.; Prestopino, G.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2009-09-01

    A synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diode, in a p-type/intrinsic/metal structure, deposited by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) and operating in photovoltaic regime, with no external bias voltage applied, was tested as a dosimeter for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) applications. The device response was compared with dose measurements from two commercial ionization chambers and a 2D diode array in an IMRT prostate cancer treatment plan. The obtained results indicate that CVD synthetic single crystal diamond-based dosimeters can successfully be used for highly conformed radiotherapy and IMRT dosimetry, due to their small size and high sensitivity per unit volume.

  19. EDITORIAL: Photonic Crystal Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Pallab K.

    2007-05-01

    The engineering of electromagnetic modes at optical frequencies in artificial dielectric structures with periodic and random variation of the refractive index, enabling control of the radiative properties of the materials and photon localization, was first proposed independently by Yablonovitch and John in 1987. It is possible to control the flow of light in the periodic dielectric structures, known as photonic crystals (PC). As light waves scatter within the photonic crystal, destructive interference cancels out light of certain wavelengths, thereby forming a photonic bandgap, similar to the energy bandgap for electron waves in a semiconductor. Photons whose energies lie within the gap cannot propagate through the periodic structure. This property can be used to make a low-loss cavity. If a point defect, such as one or more missing periods, is introduced into the periodic structure a region is obtained within which the otherwise forbidden wavelengths can be locally trapped. This property can be used to realize photonic microcavities. Similarly, a line of defects can serve as a waveguide. While the realization of three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals received considerable attention initially, planar two-dimensional (2D) structures are currently favoured because of their relative ease of fabrication. 2D photonic crystal structures provide most of the functionality of 3D structures. These attributes have generated worldwide research and development of sub-μm and μm size active and passive photonic devices such as single-mode and non- classical light sources, guided wave devices, resonant cavity detection, and components for optical communication. More recently, photonic crystal guided wave devices are being investigated for application in microfludic and biochemical sensing. Photonic crystal devices have been realized with bulk, quantum well and quantum dot active regions. The Cluster of articles in this issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics provides a

  20. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source

    PubMed Central

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Purcell, Stephen T.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2–0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics. PMID:27731379

  1. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Purcell, Stephen T.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-10-01

    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2–0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics.

  2. Metal films on the surfaces and within diamond crystals from Arkhangelskaya and Yakutian diamond provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, A. B.; Kriulina, G. Yu.

    2012-12-01

    Representative samples of diamonds from five kimberlite pipes (Lomonosovskaya, Archangel'sk, Snegurochka, XXIII Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and Internationalnaya) of the Arkhangelskaya and Yakutian diamond provinces in Russia have been studied. Thirty-three varieties of metal films have been identified as syngenetic associated minerals. The films consist of 15 chemical elements that occur in the form of native metals and their natural alloys. Remnants of metal films were detected within diamond crystals. The metal films coating diamonds are a worldwide phenomenon. To date, these films have been described from Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Native metals, their alloys, and intermetallides are actual companion minerals of diamond.

  3. Free-standing nanomechanical and nanophotonic structures in single-crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burek, Michael John

    Realizing complex three-dimensional structures in a range of material systems is critical to a variety of emerging nanotechnologies. This is particularly true of nanomechanical and nanophotonic systems, both relying on free-standing small-scale components. In the case of nanomechanics, necessary mechanical degrees of freedom require physically isolated structures, such as suspended beams, cantilevers, and membranes. For nanophotonics, elements like waveguides and photonic crystal cavities rely on light confinement provided by total internal reflection or distributed Bragg reflection, both of which require refractive index contrast between the device and surrounding medium (often air). Such suspended nanostructures are typically fabricated in a heterolayer structure, comprising of device (top) and sacrificial (middle) layers supported by a substrate (bottom), using standard surface nanomachining techniques. A selective, isotropic etch is then used to remove the sacrificial layer, resulting in free-standing devices. While high-quality, crystalline, thin film heterolayer structures are readily available for silicon (as silicon-on-insulator (SOI)) or III-V semiconductors (i.e. GaAs/AlGaAs), there remains an extensive list of materials with attractive electro-optic, piezoelectric, quantum optical, and other properties for which high quality single-crystal thin film heterolayer structures are not available. These include complex metal oxides like lithium niobate (LiNbO3), silicon-based compounds such as silicon carbide (SiC), III-V nitrides including gallium nitride (GaN), and inert single-crystals such as diamond. Diamond is especially attractive for a variety of nanoscale technologies due to its exceptional physical and chemical properties, including high mechanical hardness, stiffness, and thermal conductivity. Optically, it is transparent over a wide wavelength range (from 220 nm to the far infrared), has a high refractive index (n ~ 2.4), and is host to a vast

  4. Structural peculiarities of single crystal diamond needles of nanometer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orekhov, Andrey S.; Tuyakova, Feruza T.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Loginov, Artem B.; Chuvilin, Andrey L.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-11-01

    Diamond is attractive for various applications due to its unique mechanical and optical properties. In particular, single crystal diamond needles with high aspect ratios and sharp apexes of nanometer size are demanded for different types of optical sensors including optically sensing tip probes for scanning microscopy. This paper reports on electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy characterization of the diamond needles having geometrically perfect pyramidal shapes with rectangular atomically flat bases with (001) crystallography orientation, 2–200 nm sharp apexes, and with lengths from about 10–160 μm. The needles were produced by selective oxidation of (001) textured polycrystalline diamond films grown by chemical vapor deposition. Here we study the types and distribution of defects inside and on the surface of the single crystal diamond needles. We show that sp3 type point defects are incorporated into the volume of the diamond crystal during growth, while the surface of the lateral facets is enriched by multiple extended defects. Nitrogen addition to the reaction mixture results in increase of the growth rate on {001} facets correlated with the rise in the concentration of sp3 type defects.

  5. Free-standing nanomechanical and nanophotonic structures in single-crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burek, Michael John

    Realizing complex three-dimensional structures in a range of material systems is critical to a variety of emerging nanotechnologies. This is particularly true of nanomechanical and nanophotonic systems, both relying on free-standing small-scale components. In the case of nanomechanics, necessary mechanical degrees of freedom require physically isolated structures, such as suspended beams, cantilevers, and membranes. For nanophotonics, elements like waveguides and photonic crystal cavities rely on light confinement provided by total internal reflection or distributed Bragg reflection, both of which require refractive index contrast between the device and surrounding medium (often air). Such suspended nanostructures are typically fabricated in a heterolayer structure, comprising of device (top) and sacrificial (middle) layers supported by a substrate (bottom), using standard surface nanomachining techniques. A selective, isotropic etch is then used to remove the sacrificial layer, resulting in free-standing devices. While high-quality, crystalline, thin film heterolayer structures are readily available for silicon (as silicon-on-insulator (SOI)) or III-V semiconductors (i.e. GaAs/AlGaAs), there remains an extensive list of materials with attractive electro-optic, piezoelectric, quantum optical, and other properties for which high quality single-crystal thin film heterolayer structures are not available. These include complex metal oxides like lithium niobate (LiNbO3), silicon-based compounds such as silicon carbide (SiC), III-V nitrides including gallium nitride (GaN), and inert single-crystals such as diamond. Diamond is especially attractive for a variety of nanoscale technologies due to its exceptional physical and chemical properties, including high mechanical hardness, stiffness, and thermal conductivity. Optically, it is transparent over a wide wavelength range (from 220 nm to the far infrared), has a high refractive index (n ~ 2.4), and is host to a vast

  6. Mechanism for diamond nucleation and growth on single crystal copper surfaces implanted with carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, T. P.; Xiong, Fulin; Chang, R. P. H.; White, C. W.

    1992-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of diamond crystals on single-crystal copper surfaces implanted with carbon ions is studied. Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition is used for diamond growth. The single-crystal copper substrates were implanted either at room or elevated temperature with carbon ions prior to diamond nucleation. This procedure leads to the formation of a graphite film on the copper surface which greatly enhances diamond crystallite nucleation. A simple lattice model is constructed for diamond growth on graphite as 111 line (diamond) parallel to 0001 line (graphite) and 110 line (diamond) parallel to 1 1 -2 0 (graphite).

  7. Self-assembling hybrid diamond-biological quantum devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, A.; Koplovitz, G.; Retzker, A.; Jelezko, F.; Yochelis, S.; Porath, D.; Nevo, Y.; Shoseyov, O.; Paltiel, Y.; Plenio, M. B.

    2014-09-01

    The realization of scalable arrangements of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond remains a key challenge on the way towards efficient quantum information processing, quantum simulation and quantum sensing applications. Although technologies based on implanting NV-centers in bulk diamond crystals or hybrid device approaches have been developed, they are limited by the achievable spatial resolution and by the intricate technological complexities involved in achieving scalability. We propose and demonstrate a novel approach for creating an arrangement of NV-centers, based on the self-assembling capabilities of biological systems and their beneficial nanometer spatial resolution. Here, a self-assembled protein structure serves as a structural scaffold for surface functionalized nanodiamonds, in this way allowing for the controlled creation of NV-structures on the nanoscale and providing a new avenue towards bridging the bio-nano interface. One-, two- as well as three-dimensional structures are within the scope of biological structural assembling techniques. We realized experimentally the formation of regular structures by interconnecting nanodiamonds using biological protein scaffolds. Based on the achievable NV-center distances of 11 nm, we evaluate the expected dipolar coupling interaction with neighboring NV-centers as well as the expected decoherence time. Moreover, by exploiting these couplings, we provide a detailed theoretical analysis on the viability of multiqubit quantum operations, suggest the possibility of individual addressing based on the random distribution of the NV intrinsic symmetry axes and address the challenges posed by decoherence and imperfect couplings. We then demonstrate in the last part that our scheme allows for the high-fidelity creation of entanglement, cluster states and quantum simulation applications.

  8. Surface-sensitive diamond photonic crystals for high-performance gas detection.

    PubMed

    Blin, C; Han, Z; Girard, H A; Bergonzo, P; Boucaud, P; El Kurdi, M; Saada, S; Sauvage, S; Checoury, X

    2016-09-15

    Diamond slotted photonic crystal (PhC) cavities were fabricated and used for gas detection. They exhibit wavelength sensitivity reaching a 350 nm per unit change of the refractive index of the gaseous environment of the PhC. With a simple oxidized surface termination, diamond PhCs display an ultrahigh sensitivity to the surface adsorption of polar molecules. Gaseous concentrations as low as 80 parts per million (ppm) of hexanol vapor in nitrogen are probed, and a detection limit in the ppm range is inferred, demonstrating a high interest of such devices for trace sensing. PMID:27628397

  9. Single crystal diamond for infrared sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majdi, S.; Kolahdouz, M.; Moeen, M.; Kovi, K. K.; Balmer, R. S.; Radamson, H. H.; Isberg, J.

    2014-10-01

    The synthesis of new materials for thermal infrared (IR) detection has been an intensive research area in recent years. Among new semiconductor materials, synthetic diamond has the ability to function even under very high temperature and high radiation conditions. In the present work, diamond Schottky diodes with boron concentrations in the range of 1014 < B < 1017 cm-3 are presented as candidates for IR thermal sensors with an excellent temperature coefficient of resistance (-8.42%/K) and very low noise levels around 6.6 × 10-15 V2/Hz. This enables huge performance enhancements for a wide variety of systems, e.g., automotive and space applications.

  10. Locally stable diamond colloidal crystal formed in a cholesteric liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Mackay, F E; Denniston, C

    2014-07-01

    We use a Landau de Gennes free energy approach to model a diamond colloidal crystal immersed in a cholesteric liquid crystal. The pitch in our cholesteric is chosen in order to give rise to the most energetically favourable colloid-defect structure, commensurate with the diamond lattice. This structure corresponds to defect lines travelling along symmetry axes in the diamond crystal. By adding noise to the liquid crystal phase we are able to measure the phonon spectrum of our colloidal crystal, which we find to be consistent with a locally stable configuration. Therefore, although it may not correspond to the global minimum energy structure, once formed our diamond lattice should be stable against thermal fluctuations.

  11. Dichroism and birefringence of natural violet diamond crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinova, A. F. Titkov, S. V.; Imangazieva, K. B.; Evdishchenko, E. A.; Sergeev, A. M.; Zudin, N. G.; Orekhova, V. P.

    2006-05-15

    Investigation of the optical properties of natural violet diamonds from the Yakutian kimberlites is performed. A red shift of the absorption edge is revealed in the absorption spectra of these crystals. This shift is indicative of the presence of a high concentration of nitrogen in the diamonds studied. Along with the strong band at 0.550 {mu}m, weaker bands at 0.390, 0.456 and 0.496 {mu}m are revealed. It is shown that violet diamond crystals have birefringence and dichroism of about 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -6}, respectively. When a light beam propagates perpendicularly to colored lamellas, the dichroism is much larger and the birefringence is smaller than in the case where the beam direction is parallel to lamellas.

  12. Radiation-induced diamond crystallization: Origin of carbonados and its implications on meteorite nano-diamonds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ozima, M.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1997-01-01

    Ten carbonados from Central Africa were studied for U-Th-Pb systematics. To extract U, Th, and Pb from the samples, we developed a cold combustion technique wherein diamond was burnt in liquid oxygen. The technique gave low blanks; 25-50 pg for Pb, 3 pg for U, and 5 pg for Th. After very thorough acid treatments of the carbonados with hot HNO3, HF, and HCl over one week, most of U, Th, and Pb were removed from the samples. Lead in the acid-leached diamonds was highly radiogenic (206Pb/204Pb up to 470). However, the amounts of U and Th in the acid-leached diamonds are too low to account for the radiogenic Pb even if we assume 4.5 Ga for the age of the diamonds. Therefore, we conclude that the radiogenic Pb was implanted into the diamonds from surroundings by means of recoil energy of radioactive decays of U and Th. From the radiogenic lead isotopic composition, we estimate a minimum age of 2.6 Ga and a maximum age of 3.8 Ga for the formation of the carbonados. The above findings of the implantation of recoiled radiogenic Pb into carbonados is consistent with the process of radiation-induced crystallization which was proposed for carbonado by Kaminsky (1987). We show from some theoretical considerations that when highly energetic particles, such as those emitted from radioactive decay of U and Th, interact with carbonaceous materials, they give rise to cascades of atomic disturbance (over regions of about a few nanometer), and the disturbed atoms are likely to recrystallize to form micro-diamonds because of increasing surface energy due to small size. The radiation-induced diamond formation mechanism may be relevant to the origin of nano-diamonds in primitive meteorites. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  13. The boron doping of single crystal diamond for high power diode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicley, Shannon Singer

    Diamond has the potential to revolutionize the field of high power and high frequency electronic devices as a superlative electronic material. The realization of diamond electronics depends on the control of the growth process of both lightly and heavily boron doped diamond. This dissertation work is focused on furthering the state of the art of boron doped diamond (BDD) growth toward the realization of high power diamond Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs). The achievements of this work include the fabrication of a new dedicated reactor for lightly boron doped diamond deposition, the optimization of growth processes for both heavily and lightly boron doped single crystal diamond (SCD), and the proposal and realization of the corner architecture SBD. Boron doped SCD is grown in microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD) plasma disc bell-jar reactors, with feedgas mixtures including hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and diborane. Characterization methods for the analysis of BDD are described, including Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) and temperature-dependent four point probe conductivity for activation energy. The effect of adding carbon dioxide to the plasma feedgas for lightly boron doped diamond is investigated. The effect of diborane levels and other growth parameters on the incorporated boron levels are reported, and the doping efficiency is calculated over a range of boron concentrations. The presence of defects is shown to affect the doping uniformity. The substrate growth temperature dependence of the plasma gas-phase to solid-phase doping efficiency in heavily boron doped SCD deposition is investigated. The substrate temperature during growth is shown to have a significant effect on the grown sample defect morphology, and a temperature dependence of the doping efficiency is also shown. The effect of the growth rate on the doping efficiency is discussed, and the ratio of the boron

  14. Single crystal diamond for infrared sensing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Majdi, S. Kovi, K. K.; Isberg, J.; Kolahdouz, M.; Moeen, M.; Radamson, H. H.; Balmer, R. S.

    2014-10-20

    The synthesis of new materials for thermal infrared (IR) detection has been an intensive research area in recent years. Among new semiconductor materials, synthetic diamond has the ability to function even under very high temperature and high radiation conditions. In the present work, diamond Schottky diodes with boron concentrations in the range of 10{sup 14 }< B < 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} are presented as candidates for IR thermal sensors with an excellent temperature coefficient of resistance (−8.42%/K) and very low noise levels around 6.6 × 10{sup −15} V{sup 2}/Hz. This enables huge performance enhancements for a wide variety of systems, e.g., automotive and space applications.

  15. Diamond turning of Si and Ge single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, P.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single-point diamond turning studies have been completed on Si and Ge crystals. A new process model was developed for diamond turning which is based on a critical depth of cut for plastic flow-to-brittle fracture transitions. This concept, when combined with the actual machining geometry for single-point turning, predicts that {open_quotes}ductile{close_quotes} machining is a combined action of plasticity and fracture. Interrupted cutting experiments also provide a meant to directly measure the critical depth parameter for given machining conditions.

  16. Transient current electric field profiling of single crystal CVD diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isberg, J.; Gabrysch, M.; Tajani, A.; Twitchen, D. J.

    2006-08-01

    The transient current technique (TCT) has been adapted for profiling of the electric field distribution in intrinsic single crystal CVD diamond. It was found that successive hole transits do not appreciably affect the electric field distribution within the sample. Transits of holes can therefore be used to probe the electric field distribution and also the distribution of trapped charge. Electron transits, on the other hand, cause an accumulation of negative charge in the sample. Illumination with blue or green light was shown to lead to accumulation of positive charge. Low concentrations of trapped charge can be detected in diamond using TCT, corresponding to an ionized impurity concentration below N = 1010 cm-3.

  17. Spontaneous synthesis of diamond crystals from graphite irradiated by {gamma} rays

    SciTech Connect

    Dutov, A. G.; Azarko, I. I. Kozlova, E. I.; Komar, V. A.; Kurilovich, N. F.; Shipilo, V. B.; Shipilo, N. V.

    2006-01-15

    The model of martensite transition of graphite to diamond (specifically, the mechanism of inheritance of the properties of radiation-modified graphite by synthesized diamond crystals) is confirmed experimentally.

  18. Sonic crystal acoustic switch device.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Serkan; Alagoz, Baris Baykant

    2013-06-01

    This study reports a wave-controlled sonic crystal switch device that exhibits a destructive interference-based wave to wave reverse switching effect. By applying control waves, this acoustic device, composed of a two-dimensional square lattice sonic crystal block, reduces acoustic wave transmission from input to output. The finite difference time domain simulation and experimental results confirm the wave-to-wave reverse switching effect at the peak frequencies of the second band. The proposed sonic crystal switch prototype provides a contrast rate of 86% at 11.3 kHz frequency. This wave-to-wave switching effect is useful for controlling wave propagation for smart structure applications.

  19. Analysis of synthetic diamond single crystals by X-ray topography and double-crystal diffractometry

    SciTech Connect

    Prokhorov, I. A.; Ralchenko, V. G.; Bolshakov, A. P.; Polskiy, A. V.; Vlasov, A. V.; Subbotin, I. A.; Podurets, K. M.; Pashaev, E. M.; Sozontov, E. A.

    2013-12-15

    Structural features of diamond single crystals synthesized under high pressure and homoepitaxial films grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been analyzed by double-crystal X-ray diffractometry and topography. The conditions of a diffraction analysis of diamond crystals using Ge monochromators have been optimized. The main structural defects (dislocations, stacking faults, growth striations, second-phase inclusions, etc.) formed during crystal growth have been revealed. The nitrogen concentration in high-pressure/high-temperature (HPHT) diamond substrates is estimated based on X-ray diffraction data. The formation of dislocation bundles at the film-substrate interface in the epitaxial structures has been revealed by plane-wave topography; these dislocations are likely due to the relaxation of elastic macroscopic stresses caused by the lattice mismatch between the substrate and film. The critical thicknesses of plastic relaxation onset in CVD diamond films are calculated. The experimental techniques for studying the real diamond structure in optimizing crystal-growth technology are proven to be highly efficient.

  20. Scalable fabrication of high-quality, ultra-thin single crystal diamond membrane windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piracha, Afaq Habib; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Lau, Desmond W. M.; Stacey, Alastair; McGuinness, Liam P.; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Prawer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    High quality, ultra-thin single crystal diamond (SCD) membranes that have a thickness in the sub-micron range are of extreme importance as a materials platform for photonics, quantum sensing, nano/micro electro-mechanical systems (N/MEMS) and other diverse applications. However, the scalable fabrication of such thin SCD membranes is a challenging process. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method which enables high quality, large size (~4 × 4 mm) and low surface roughness, low strain, ultra-thin SCD membranes which can be fabricated without deformations such as breakage, bowing or bending. These membranes are easy to handle making them particularly suitable for fabrication of optical and mechanical devices. We demonstrate arrays of single crystal diamond membrane windows (SCDMW), each up to 1 × 1 mm in dimension and as thin as ~300 nm, supported by a diamond frame as thick as ~150 μm. The fabrication method is robust, reproducible, scalable and cost effective. Microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition is used for in situ creation of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers into the thin SCDMW. We have also developed SCD drum head mechanical resonator composed of our fully clamped and freely suspended membranes.High quality, ultra-thin single crystal diamond (SCD) membranes that have a thickness in the sub-micron range are of extreme importance as a materials platform for photonics, quantum sensing, nano/micro electro-mechanical systems (N/MEMS) and other diverse applications. However, the scalable fabrication of such thin SCD membranes is a challenging process. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method which enables high quality, large size (~4 × 4 mm) and low surface roughness, low strain, ultra-thin SCD membranes which can be fabricated without deformations such as breakage, bowing or bending. These membranes are easy to handle making them particularly suitable for fabrication of optical and mechanical devices. We demonstrate arrays of single crystal diamond

  1. Modeling liquid crystal polymeric devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimenez Pinto, Vianney Karina

    The main focus of this work is the theoretical and numerical study of materials that combine liquid crystal and polymer. Liquid crystal elastomers are polymeric materials that exhibit both the ordered properties of the liquid crystals and the elastic properties of rubbers. Changing the order of the liquid crystal molecules within the polymer network can induce shape change. These materials are very valuable for applications such as actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, haptic displays, etc. In this work we apply finite element elastodynamics simulations to study the temperature induced shape deformation in nematic elastomers with complex director microstructure. In another topic, we propose a novel numerical method to model the director dynamics and microstructural evolution of three dimensional nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals. Numerical studies presented in this work are in agreement with experimental observations and provide insight into the design of application devices.

  2. Multi-technique analysis of high quality HPHT diamond crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lorenzo, C.; Araújo, D.; González-Mañas, M.; Martín, J.; Navas, J.; Alcántara, R.; Villar, M. P.; Bagriantsev, D.

    2012-08-01

    Fabrication of high quality diamond either for gemmological or for technological applications, is still a challenge. The control of impurity incorporation for doping or to modify the crystal colour should be still improved. The present contribution reports availability of nearly defect free HPHT (high pressure high temperature) diamond in terms of dislocations and point defects. Cathodoluminescence (CL) transitions related to point defects or dislocations (A-band) are not observed and only some individual dislocations are revealed by X-ray topography (topo-X). CL spectra are dominated by the excitonic-related transistions and the boron incorporation, estimated from the phonon-replica relative intensities, is around 1016 cm-3 that corroborate the values estimated by FTIR. Such amount of B gives a pale blue colour to the diamond sintetized monocrystal. The latter crystals are grown at the Instituto de Monocristales S.L. for jewellery applications, but their use for semiconducting applications is also envisaged after the highlights of the present study.

  3. Very High Efficiency, Miniaturized, Long-Lived Alpha Particle Power Source Using Diamond Devices for Extreme Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, Elizabeth A. (Inventor); Patel, Jagdishbhai U. (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A power source that converts a-particle energy into electricity by coulomb collision in doped diamond films is described. Alpha particle decay from curium-244 creates electron-hole pairs by free- ing electrons and holes inside the crystal lattice in N- and P-doped diamond films. Ohmic contacts provide electrical connection to an electronic device. Due to the built-in electric field at the rectifying junction across the hT- and P-doped diamond films, the free electrons are constrained to traveling in generally one direction. This one direction then supplies electrons in a manner similar to that of a battery. The radioactive curium layer may be disposed on diamond films for even distribution of a-particle radiation. The resulting power source may be mounted on a diamond substrate that serves to insulate structures below the diamond substrate from a-particle emission. Additional insulation or isolation may be provided in order to prevent damage from a-particle collision. N-doped silicon may be used instead of N-doped diamond.

  4. Super-thin single crystal diamond membrane radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Pomorski, Michal; Caylar, Benoit; Bergonzo, Philippe

    2013-09-09

    We propose to use the non-electronic grade (nitrogen content 5 ppb < [N] < 5 ppm) single crystal (sc) chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond as a thin-membrane radiation detector. Using deep Ar/O{sub 2} plasma etching it is possible to produce self-supported few micrometres thick scCVD membranes of a size approaching 7 mm × 7 mm, with a very good surface quality. After metallization and contacting, electrical properties of diamond membrane detectors were probed with 5.486 MeV α-particles as an ionization source. Despite nitrogen impurity, scCVD membrane detectors exhibit stable operation, charge collection efficiency close to 100%, with homogenous response, and extraordinary dielectric strength up to 30 V/μm.

  5. Brilliant camouflage: photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis

    PubMed Central

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; Kuipers, Jeroen; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The neotropical diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is marked by rows of brilliant spots on the overall black elytra. The spots are concave pits with intricate patterns of structural-coloured scales, consisting of large domains of three-dimensional photonic crystals that have a diamond-type structure. Reflectance spectra measured from individual scale domains perfectly match model spectra, calculated with anatomical data and finite-difference time-domain methods. The reflections of single domains are extremely directional (observed with a point source less than 5°), but the special arrangement of the scales in the concave pits significantly broadens the angular distribution of the reflections. The resulting virtually angle-independent green coloration of the weevil closely approximates the colour of a foliaceous background. While the close-distance colourful shininess of E. imperialis may facilitate intersexual recognition, the diffuse green reflectance of the elytra when seen at long-distance provides cryptic camouflage. PMID:22378806

  6. Multi-scale studies on diamond crystal and carbon microtubular growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhimarasetti, Gopinath

    Diamond and one-dimensional carbon tubular structures are two of the most technologically important materials today. Electronic devices utilizing the extreme properties of diamond could not be fully realized due to the lack of processes for large single crystals. The traditional methods for producing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) lack the ability to tune the internal diameters and morphologies essential for nano/microfluidics. In the case of diamond, limited understanding on the origin of defects during homoepitaxy on {100} surfaces or during growth on {100} facets of individual crystals limits our ability to grow large single crystals (or wafers). In this dissertation, it is hypothesized that the inconsistency in producing defect free diamond layers could be due to the role of gas phase impurities or the initial substrate surface topography. In this dissertation, multi-scale studies comprising zero-dimensional gas phase computations, interrupted growth experiments at different time scales and topographic characterization at different length scales are performed to provide insight into the role of gas phase impurities (such as sulfur) and the role of initial surface topography of diamond substrates on the origin and propagation of defects. A C-H-O ternary diagram is constructed based on steady state gas phase calculations and the role of sulfur on diamond deposition is studied using this diagram. Based on these studies, it is determined that sulfur increases the compositional window for diamond deposition by altering the gas phase compositions significantly even at concentrations as low as 50 ppm. It is also determined experimentally that sulfur addition affects the quality of diamond crystals by altering the surface chemistry at the growth interface. Based on the interrupted homoepitaxial growth experiments on diamond {100} substrates, the origin of defects have been identified to be the polishing grooves in the <110> direction present on a well polished substrate (<1

  7. Single crystal diamond detectors grown by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuvè, C.; Angelone, M.; Bellini, V.; Balducci, A.; Donato, M. G.; Faggio, G.; Marinelli, M.; Messina, G.; Milani, E.; Morgada, M. E.; Pillon, M.; Potenza, R.; Pucella, G.; Russo, G.; Santangelo, S.; Scoccia, M.; Sutera, C.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2007-01-01

    The detection properties of heteropitaxial (polycrystalline, pCVD) and homoepitaxial (single crystal, scCVD) diamond films grown by microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in the Laboratories of Roma "Tor Vergata" University are reported. The pCVD diamond detectors were tested with α-particles from different sources and 12C ions produced by 15 MV Tandem accelerator at Southern National Laboratories (LNS) in Catania (Italy). pCVDs were also used to monitor 14 MeV neutrons produced by the D-T plasma at Joint European Torus (JET), Culham, U.K. The limit of pCVDs is the poor energy resolution. To overcome this problem, we developed scCVD diamonds using the same reactor parameters that optimized pCVD diamonds. scCVD were grown on a low cost (1 0 0) HPHT single crystal substrate. A detector 110 μm thick was tested under α-particles and under 14 MeV neutron irradiation. The charge collection efficiency spectrum measured under irradiation with a triple α-particle source shows three clearly resolved peaks, with an energy resolution of about 1.1%. The measured spectra under neutron irradiation show a well separated C(n,α0)9Be12 reaction peak with an energy spread of 0.5 MeV for 14.8 MeV neutrons and 0.3 MeV for 14.1 MeV neutrons, which are fully compatible with the energy spread of the incident neutron beams.

  8. Fabrication and electrical characterization of three-dimensional graphitic microchannels in single crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picollo, F.; Gatto Monticone, D.; Olivero, P.; Fairchild, B. A.; Rubanov, S.; Prawer, S.; Vittone, E.

    2012-05-01

    We report on the systematic characterization of conductive micro-channels fabricated in single-crystal diamond with direct ion microbeam writing. Focused high-energy (˜MeV) helium ions are employed to selectively convert diamond with micrometric spatial accuracy to a stable graphitic phase upon thermal annealing, due to the induced structural damage occurring at the end-of-range. A variable-thickness mask allows the accurate modulation of the depth at which the microchannels are formed, from several μm deep up to the very surface of the sample. By means of cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we demonstrate that the technique allows the direct writing of amorphous (and graphitic, upon suitable thermal annealing) microstructures extending within the insulating diamond matrix in the three spatial directions, and in particular, that buried channels embedded in a highly insulating matrix emerge and electrically connect to the sample surface at specific locations. Moreover, by means of electrical characterization at both room temperature and variable temperature, we investigate the conductivity and the charge-transport mechanisms of microchannels obtained by implantation at different ion fluences and after subsequent thermal processes, demonstrating that upon high-temperature annealing, the channels implanted above a critical damage density convert into a stable graphitic phase. These structures have significant impact for different applications, such as compact ionizing radiation detectors, dosimeters, bio-sensors and more generally diamond-based devices with buried three-dimensional all-carbon electrodes.

  9. Dedicated multichannel readout ASIC coupled with single crystal diamond for dosimeter application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, A.; Falco, M. D.; De Notaristefani, F.; Galasso, M.; Marinelli, M.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; Tortora, L.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports on the tests of a low-noise, multi-channel readout integrated circuit used as a readout electronic front-end for a diamond multi-pixel dosimeter. The system is developed for dose distribution measurement in radiotherapy applications. The first 10-channel prototype chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.18 um CMOS process. Every channel includes a charge integrator with a 10 pF capacitor and a double slope A/D converter. The diamond multi-pixel detector, based on CVD synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diodes, is made by a 3 × 3 sensor matrix. The overall device has been tested under irradiation with 6 MeV radio therapeutic photon beams at the Policlinico ``Tor Vergata'' (PTV) hospital. Measurements show a 20 fA RMS leakage current from the front-end input stage and a negligible dark current from the diamond detector, a stable temporal response and a good linear behaviour as a function of both dose and dose rate. These characteristics were common to each tested channel.

  10. Synthetic single crystal diamond as a fission reactor neutron flux monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Angelone, M.; Lattanzi, D.; Pillon, M.; Rosa, R.; Santoro, E.

    2007-04-01

    Thermal neutron flux monitors were fabricated using chemical vapor deposited single crystal diamond in a p-type/intrinsic/metal/Li6F layered structure. They were placed 80cm above the core midplane of a 1MW research fission reactor, where the maximum neutron flux is 2.2×109neutrons/cm2s. Good stability and reproducibility of the device response were observed over the whole reactor power range. A 150000counts/s count rate was measured at the maximum reactor power with no degradation of the detector signal. As the multiple pile-up process due to the slow readout electronics is accounted for, an excellent linearity of the diamond response is observed.

  11. Fast response liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yung-Hsun

    Liquid crystal (LC) has been widely used for displays, spatial light modulators, variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and other tunable photonic devices. The response time of these devices is mainly determined by the employed liquid crystal material. The response time of a LC device depends on the visco-elastic coefficient (gamma1/K11), LC cell gap (d), and applied voltage. Hence, low visco-elastic coefficient LC materials and thinner cell gap are favorable for reducing the response time. However, low visco-elastic coefficient LCs are usually associated with a low birefringence because of shorter molecular conjugation. For display applications, such as LCD TVs, low birefringence (Deltan<0.1) LCs are commonly used. However, for optical communications at 1550 nm, low birefringence requires to a thick cell gap which, in turn, increases the response time. How to obtain fast response for the LC devices is a fundamentally important and technically challenging task. In this dissertation, we investigate several methods to improve liquid crystal response time, for examples, using dual-frequency liquid crystals, polymer stabilized liquid crystals, and sheared polymer network liquid crystals. We discover a new class of material, denoted as sheared polymer network liquid crystal (SPNLC) which exhibits a submillisecond response time. Moreover, this response time is insensitive to the LC cell gap. This is the first LC device exhibiting such an interesting property. Chapters 1 and 2 describe the motivation and background of this dissertation. From chapter 3 to chapter 6, dual-frequency liquid crystals and polymer network methods are demonstrated as examples for the variable optical attenuators. Variable optical attenuator (VOA) is a key component in optical communications. Especially, the sheared PNLC VOA shows the best result; its dynamic range reaches 43 dB while the response time is in the submillisecond range at 1550 nm wavelength, which is 50 times faster than the commercial

  12. Synthetic diamond devices for radio-oncology applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descamps, C.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Nesládek, M.; Bergonzo, P.; Benabdesselam, M.

    2006-09-01

    Diamond exhibits a range of outstanding properties that make it a material of interest for radiation detection and particularly in the field of dosimetry applications. In fact, its crystallographic structure makes it chemically inert and radiation hard. Moreover, its atomic number (carbon Z = 6) close to the equivalent effective atomic number of human soft tissues (Z = 7.4) and of water (reference material in radiotherapy) enables a direct evaluation of the deposited dose without requiring corrections for material nature or energy. Finally, as a bio-compatible material, it can be sterilised, and it is non-toxic thus giving strong advantages for medical uses. Natural diamonds are expensive, rare and their use implies a severe gem selection to fabricate reproducible and reliable devices. The emergence of synthetic samples from the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique offers new possibilities in the fabrication of ionisation chamber for the particular field of radiotherapy. Previous studies have shown that defect levels present in material clearly influence the device response under irradiation. Therefore, in order to optimise dosimetric characteristics needed in radiotherapy applications, various low and precisely nitrogen concentrations were incorporated in the material during growth. Influence of these incorporations on ionisation chamber response under medical cobalt irradiator is presented in this paper.

  13. Investigations of high mobility single crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond for radiotherapy photon beam monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromson, D.; Descamps, C.; Tranchant, N.; Bergonzo, P.; Nesladek, M.; Isambert, A.

    2008-03-01

    The intrinsic properties of diamond make this material theoretically very suitable for applications in medical physics. Until now ionization chambers have been fabricated from natural stones and are commercialized by PTW, but their fairly high costs and long delivery times have often limited their use in hospital. The properties of commercialized intrinsic polycrystalline diamond were investigated in the past by many groups. The results were not completely satisfactory due to the nature of the polycrystalline material itself. In contrast, the recent progresses in the growth of high mobility single crystal synthetic diamonds prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique offer new alternatives. In the framework of the MAESTRO project (Methods and Advanced Treatments and Simulations for Radio Oncology), the CEA-LIST is studying the potentialities of synthetic diamond for new techniques of irradiation such as intensity modulated radiation therapy. In this paper, we present the growth and characteristics of single crystal diamond prepared at CEA-LIST in the framework of the NoRHDia project (Novel Radiation Hard CVD Diamond Detector for Hadrons Physics), as well as the investigations of high mobility single crystal CVD diamond for radiotherapy photon beam monitoring: dosimetric analysis performed with the single crystal diamond detector in terms of stability and repeatability of the response signal, signal to noise ratio, response speed, linearity of the signal versus the absorbed dose, and dose rate. The measurements performed with photon beams using radiotherapy facilities demonstrate that single crystal CVD diamond is a good alternative for air ionization chambers for beam quality control.

  14. Tunable liquid crystal photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yun-Hsing

    2005-07-01

    Liquid crystal (LC)-based adaptive optics are important for information processing, optical interconnections, photonics, integrated optics, and optical communications due to their tunable optical properties. In this dissertation, we describe novel liquid crystal photonic devices. In Chap. 3, we demonstrate a novel electrically tunable-efficiency Fresnel lens which is devised for the first time using nanoscale PDLC. The tunable Fresnel lens is very desirable to eliminate the need of external spatial light modulator. The nanoscale LC devices are polarization independent and exhibit a fast response time. Because of the small droplet sizes, the operating voltage is higher than 100 Vrms. To lower the driving voltage, in Chap. 2 and Chap. 3, we have investigated tunable Fresnel lens using polymer-network liquid crystal (PNLC) and phase-separated composite film (PSCOF). The operating voltage is below 12 Vrms. The PNLC and PSCOF devices are polarization dependent. To overcome this shortcoming, stacking two cells with orthogonal alignment directions is a possibility. Using PNLC, we also demonstrated LC blazed grating. The diffraction efficiency of these devices is continuously controlled by the electric field. We also develop a system with continuously tunable focal length. A conventional mechanical zooming system is bulky and power hungry. In Chap. 4, we developed an electrically tunable-focus flat LC spherical lens and microlens array. A huge tunable range from 0.6 m to infinity is achieved by the applied voltage. In Chap. 5, we describe a LC microlens array whose focal length can be switched from positive to negative by the applied voltage. The fast response time feature of our LC microlens array will be very helpful in developing 3-D animated images. In Chap. 6, we demonstrate polymer network liquid crystals for switchable polarizers and optical shutters. The use of dual-frequency liquid crystal and special driving scheme leads to a sub-millisecond response time. In

  15. Rarefaction shock waves in shock-compressed diamond <110> crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perriot, Romain; Lin, You; Zhakhovsky, Vasily; White, Carter; Oleynik, Ivan

    2013-03-01

    Piston-driven shock compression of diamond <110> crystal was simulated by molecular dynamics using the REBO potential. At piston velocities between 2 and 5 km/s and corresponding pressures 117 GPA < P < 278 GPa, diamond sample undergoes a polymorphic phase transition, characterized by the coexistence of two elastically compressed phases, low-pressure phase A and high-pressure phase B. This phase transition results in the splitting of the shock wave into two elastic shock waves, composed of pure phase A and a mixture of phases A and B. Upon removal of the piston, a release wave is observed at the rear of the sample, turning into a rarefaction shock wave where the material undergoes the reverse phase transition from coexisting phases to the original low-pressure phase. For strong plastic waves induced by larger piston velocities the release wave propagates as a rarefaction wave without any phase transition corresponding to the adiabatic expansion along the plastic branch of the Hugoniot.

  16. Diamond bio electronics.

    PubMed

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  17. Diamond bio electronics.

    PubMed

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions. PMID:19745488

  18. Extreme ultraviolet single-crystal diamond detectors by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balducci, A.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Morgada, M. E.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.

    2005-05-01

    High-quality single-crystal diamond films, homoepitaxially grown by microwave chemical vapor deposition, have been used to produce diamond-based photodetectors. Such devices were tested over a very wide spectral range, from the extreme ultraviolet (UV) (20 nm) up to the near IR region (2400 nm). An optical parametric oscillator tunable laser was used to investigate the 210-2400 nm spectral range in pulse mode. In this region, the spectral response shows a UV to visible contrast of about 6 orders of magnitude. A time response shorter than 5 ns, i.e., the laser pulse duration, was observed. By integrating the pulse shape, a minor slow component was evidenced, which can be explained in terms of trapping-detrapping effects. Extreme UV gas sources and a toroidal grating vacuum monochromator were used to measure the device response down to 20 nm in continuous mode. In particular, the extreme UV He spectrum was measured and the He II m, 30.4 nmand He I 58.4 nm emission lines were clearly detected. The measured time response of 0.2 s is totally due to the instrumental readout time constants. In both experimental setups an extremely good stability and reproducibility of the device response were obtained, whereas no persistent photoconductivity nor undesirable pumping effects were observed.

  19. Cooling device featuring thermoelectric and diamond materials for temperature control of heat-dissipating devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, Ian W. (Inventor); Ewell, Richard (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Lyon, Hylan B. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A cooling device for lowering the temperature of a heat-dissipating device. The cooling device includes a heat-conducting substrate (composed, e.g., of diamond or another high thermal conductivity material) disposed in thermal contact with the heat-dissipating device. During operation, heat flows from the heat-dissipating device into the heat-conducting substrate, where it is spread out over a relatively large area. A thermoelectric cooling material (e.g., a Bi.sub.2 Te.sub.3 -based film or other thermoelectric material) is placed in thermal contact with the heat-conducting substrate. Application of electrical power to the thermoelectric material drives the thermoelectric material to pump heat into a second heat-conducting substrate which, in turn, is attached to a heat sink.

  20. Recent Advances in High-Growth Rate Single-Crystal CVD Diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Q.; Yan, C; Meng, Y; Lai, J; Krasnicki, S; Mao, H; Hemley, R

    2009-01-01

    There have been important advances in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) of large single-crystal CVD diamond at high growth rates and applications of this diamond. The types of gas chemistry and growth conditions, including microwave power, pressure, and substrate surface temperatures, have been varied to optimize diamond quality and growth rates. The diamond has been characterized by a variety of spectroscopic and diffraction techniques. We have grown single-crystal CVD diamond over ten carats and above 1 cm in thickness at growth rates of 50-100 {micro}m/h. Colorless and near colorless single crystals up to two carats have been produced by further optimizing the process. The nominal Vickers fracture toughness of this high-growth rate diamond can be tuned to exceed 20 MPa m{sup 1/2} in comparison to 5-10 MPa m{sup 1/2} for conventional natural and CVD diamond. Post-growth high-pressure/high-temperature (HPHT) and low-pressure/high-temperature (LPHT) annealing have been carried out to alter the optical, mechanical, and electronic properties. Most recently, single-crystal CVD diamond has been successfully annealed by LPHT methods without graphitization up to 2200 C and < 300 Torr for periods of time ranging from a fraction of minute to a few hours. Significant changes observed in UV, visible, infrared, and photoluminescence spectra are attributed to changes in various vacancy centers and extended defects.

  1. Method to fabricate micro and nano diamond devices

    DOEpatents

    Morales, Alfredo M; Anderson, Richard J; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Skinner, Jack L; Rye, Michael J

    2014-10-07

    A method including forming a diamond material on the surface of a substrate; forming a first contact and a separate second contact; and patterning the diamond material to form a nanowire between the first contact and the second contact. An apparatus including a first contact and a separate second contact on a substrate; and a nanowire including a single crystalline or polycrystalline diamond material on the substrate and connected to each of the first contact and the second contact.

  2. Crystallization of diamond from a silicate melt of kimberlite composition in high-pressure and high-temperature experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Arima, Makoto; Nakayama, Kazuhiro ); Akaishi, Minoru; Yamaoka, Shinobu; Kanda, Hisao )

    1993-11-01

    In high-pressure and high-temperature experiments (1800-2200[degrees]C and 7.0-7.7 GPa), diamond crystallized and grew in a volatile-rich silicate melt of kimberlite composition. This diamond has well-developed [111] faces, and its morphologic characteristics resemble those of natural diamond but differ from those of synthetic diamond grown from metallic solvent-catalysts. The kimberlite melt has a strong solvent-catalytic effect on diamond formation, supporting the view that some natural diamonds crystallized from volatile-rich melts in the upper mantle. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Single-crystal diamond pyramids: synthesis and application for atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuyakova, Feruza T.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Ismagilov, Rinat R.

    2016-03-01

    Here we present the results of investigations aimed at the development and testing of robust, chemically inert single-crystal diamond probes for atomic force microscopy (AFM). The probes were prepared by assembling common silicon probes with micrometer-sized pyramid-shaped single-crystal diamonds (SCD). The SCD were obtained by the selective thermal oxidation of the polycrystalline films grown by chemical vapor deposition. Electrostatic spray of adhesive coating onto silicon probes was used to attach individual SCD. Geometrical parameters of produced AFM SCD probes were revealed with transmission electron microscopy: the apex angle of the pyramidal diamond crystallite was ˜10 deg, and the curvature radius at the apex was ˜2 to 10 nm. The diamond AFM probes were used for surface imaging of deoxyribonucleic acid deposited on graphite substrate. Obtained results demonstrate high efficiency of the diamond AFM probes, allowing improvement of the image quality compared to standard silicon probes.

  4. GaN-on-diamond electronic device reliability: Mechanical and thermo-mechanical integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Dong; Sun, Huarui; Pomeroy, James W.; Kuball, Martin; Francis, Daniel; Faili, Firooz; Twitchen, Daniel J.

    2015-12-21

    The mechanical and thermo-mechanical integrity of GaN-on-diamond wafers used for ultra-high power microwave electronic devices was studied using a micro-pillar based in situ mechanical testing approach combined with an optical investigation of the stress and heat transfer across interfaces. We find the GaN/diamond interface to be thermo-mechanically stable, illustrating the potential for this material for reliable GaN electronic devices.

  5. Braze bonding of diamond, CBN, sapphire and other non-metallic hard materials for industrial devices

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, A.

    1995-12-31

    The nature of braze bonding by chemical redox reactions causing a diffusion zone on the surface of the nonmetal with the braze alloy is explained briefly. Some technical and economic advantages for tool and device manufacturing are discussed. Samples of monocrystal devices and grinding tools with braze bonded diamond grit demonstrate the potential of this technology particularly for miniaturization. New applications with other hard materials are shown. Wearing tests have proved that the lifetime of tools with brazed on diamonds is several times as long as of conventional ones with formlocked diamonds. The reason for this is explained.

  6. Electron Microscopy of Natural and Epitaxial Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posthill, J. B.; George, T.; Malta, D. P.; Humphreys, T. P.; Rudder, R. A.; Hudson, G. C.; Thomas, R. E.; Markunas, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Semiconducting diamond films have the potential for use as a material in which to build active electronic devices capable of operating at high temperatures or in high radiation environments. Ultimately, it is preferable to use low-defect-density single crystal diamond for device fabrication. We have previously investigated polycrystalline diamond films with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and homoepitaxial films with SEM-based techniques. This contribution describes some of our most recent observations of the microstructure of natural diamond single crystals and homoepitaxial diamond thin films using TEM.

  7. Liquid crystal device and method thereof

    DOEpatents

    Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Gu, Mingxia; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2012-10-23

    The invention provides a liquid crystal device and method thereof. Subsequent to applying a first electrical voltage on a liquid crystal to induce a reorientation of the liquid crystal, a second electrical voltage with proper polarity is applied on the liquid crystal to assist the relaxation of the reorientation that was induced by the first electrical voltage. The "switch-off" phase of the liquid crystal can therefore be accelerated or temporally shortened, and the device can exhibit better performance such as fast response to on/off signals. The invention can be widely used LCD, LC shutter, LC lens, spatial light modulator, telecommunication device, tunable filter, beam steering device, and electrically driven LC device, among others.

  8. Influence of diamond turning and surface cleaning processes on the degradation of KDP crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, Mark R.; Thomas, Ian M.; Edwards, Gary J.; Stanion, Kenneth A.; Fuchs, Baruch A.; Latanich, L.

    1991-12-01

    One factor influencing the efficiency of KDP frequency conversion arrays on the Nova laser system at LLNL has been environmental degradation, or `fogging,' of the crystal surfaces. Decreases in array transmission by as much as 20% have been attributed to crystal fogging. The surfaces of the 27 cm square Nova array crystals are prepared by a wet diamond-turning process. The rate of surface fogging has been associated with several parameters of the diamond turning and subsequent cleaning processes. High humidity during diamond turning, storage, and use on the laser tends to accelerate the fogging. We suspect that some of the additives present in the diamond turning oil increase the fogging rate and have found a machining oil which minimizes this surface degradation. Efficient removal of the machining oils from the crystal surface also minimizes the fogging problem. Care must be taken to use cleaning solvents which do not cause additional surface degradation. The fogging rate is sensitive to the crystallographic orientation of the material as well as to surface roughness related to the diamond turning process. Accelerated fogging at diamond turning artifacts may increase crystal surface roughness causing increased beam modulation and scattering losses.

  9. Influence of diamond turning and surface cleaning processes on the degradation of KDP crystal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, M.R.; Thomas, I.; Edwards, G.; Stanion, K.; Fuchs, B.

    1991-06-24

    One factor influencing the efficiency of KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) frequency conversion arrays on the Nova laser system at LLNL has been environmental degradation, or fogging'', of the crystal surfaces. Decreases in array transmission by as much as 20% have been attributed to crystal fogging. The surfaces of the 27-cm square Nova array crystals are prepared by a wet diamond-turning process. The rate of surface fogging has been associated with several parameters of the diamond turning and subsequent cleaning processes. High humidity during diamond turning, storage, and use on the laser tends to accelerate the fogging. We suspect that some of the additives present in the diamond turning oil increase the fogging rate and have found a machining oil which minimizes this surface degradation. Efficient removal of the machining oils from the crystal surface also minimizes the fogging problem. Care must be taken to use cleaning solvents which do not cause additional surface degradation. The fogging rate is sensitive to the crystallographic orientation of the material as well as to surface roughness related to the diamond turning process. Accelerated fogging at diamond turning artifacts may increase crystal surface roughness causing increased beam modulation and scattering losses. 5 refs. 5 figs.

  10. EBS/C proton spectra from a virgin diamond crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erich, M.; Kokkoris, M.; Fazinić, S.; Petrović, S.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work, elastic backscattering channeling spectra, EBS/C, of protons in a <1 0 0> diamond crystal were experimentally and theoretically studied via a new computer simulation code. Proton incident energies for EBS/C spectra were in the energy range from 1.0 MeV to 1.9 MeV. The energy range was chosen in order to explore a distinct strong resonance of the 12C(p,p0)12C elastic scattering at 1737 keV. The computer simulation code applied for the fitting of the experimental spectra in the random mode was compared with the corresponding SIMNRA results. In the channeling mode, it assumes a Gompertz type sigmoidal dechanneling function, which has two fitting parameters, xc and k, the dechanneling range and rate, respectively. It also uses α, ratio of the channeling to random energy losses, as a fitting parameter. It was observed that xc increases, k decreases and α stays relatively constant with the proton incident energy. These observations confirm the physical interpretation of the fitting parameters. Also, they constitute the basics for the further development of the code for the quantification of induced amorphization and depth profiling of implanted ions.

  11. The mechanical properties of various chemical vapor deposition diamond structures compared to the ideal single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The structural and electronic properties of the diamond lattice, leading to its outstanding mechanical properties, are discussed. These include the highest elastic moduli and fracture strength of any known material. Its extreme hardness is strongly connected with the extreme shear modulus, which even exceeds the large bulk modulus, revealing that diamond is more resistant to shear deformation than to volume changes. These unique features protect the ideal diamond lattice also against mechanical failure and fracture. Besides fast heat conduction, the fast vibrational movement of carbon atoms results in an extreme speed of sound and propagation of crack tips with comparable velocity. The ideal mechanical properties are compared with those of real diamond films, plates, and crystals, such as ultrananocrystalline (UNC), nanocrystalline, microcrystalline, and homo- and heteroepitaxial single-crystal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, produced by metastable synthesis using CVD. Ultrasonic methods have played and continue to play a dominant role in the determination of the linear elastic properties, such as elastic moduli of crystals or the Young's modulus of thin films with substantially varying impurity levels and morphologies. A surprising result of these extensive measurements is that even UNC diamond may approach the extreme Young's modulus of single-crystal diamond under optimized deposition conditions. The physical reasons for why the stiffness often deviates by no more than a factor of two from the ideal value are discussed, keeping in mind the large variety of diamond materials grown by various deposition conditions. Diamond is also known for its extreme hardness and fracture strength, despite its brittle nature. However, even for the best natural and synthetic diamond crystals, the measured critical fracture stress is one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the ideal value obtained by ab initio calculations for the ideal cubic lattice. Currently

  12. Kelvin probe characterization of buried graphitic microchannels in single-crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, E. Battiato, A.; Olivero, P.; Vittone, E.; Picollo, F.

    2015-01-14

    In this work, we present an investigation by Kelvin Probe Microscopy (KPM) of buried graphitic microchannels fabricated in single-crystal diamond by direct MeV ion microbeam writing. Metal deposition of variable-thickness masks was adopted to implant channels with emerging endpoints and high temperature annealing was performed in order to induce the graphitization of the highly-damaged buried region. When an electrical current was flowing through the biased buried channel, the structure was clearly evidenced by KPM maps of the electrical potential of the surface region overlying the channel at increasing distances from the grounded electrode. The KPM profiling shows regions of opposite contrast located at different distances from the endpoints of the channel. This effect is attributed to the different electrical conduction properties of the surface and of the buried graphitic layer. The model adopted to interpret these KPM maps and profiles proved to be suitable for the electronic characterization of buried conductive channels, providing a non-invasive method to measure the local resistivity with a micrometer resolution. The results demonstrate the potential of the technique as a powerful diagnostic tool to monitor the functionality of all-carbon graphite/diamond devices to be fabricated by MeV ion beam lithography.

  13. Radial mosaic internal structure of rounded diamond crystals from alluvial placers of Siberian platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragozin, A. L.; Zedgenizov, D. A.; Kuper, K. E.; Shatsky, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The specific gray to almost black diamonds of rounded morphology are especially typical in alluvial placers of the northeastern part of the Siberian platform. The results of study of internal structure of these diamonds are presented. X-ray topography and birefringence patterns of polished plates of studied diamonds show their radial mosaic structure. Diamonds consists of slightly misorientated (up to 20') subindividuals which are combined to mosaic wedge-shaped sectors. Electron back-scatter diffraction technique has demonstrated that subindividuals are often combined in the single large blocks (subgrains). The whole crystals commonly consist of several large subgrains misoriented up to 5° to one another. The total nitrogen content of these diamonds vary in the range 900-3300 ppm and nitrogen aggregation state (NB/(NB + NA)*100) from 25 to 64 %. Rounded diamond crystals of variety V are suggested to have been formed at the high growth rate caused by the high oversaturation of carbon in the crystallization medium. It may result in the splitting of growing crystal and their radial mosaic structure as a sequence. High content of structural nitrogen defects and the great number of mechanical impurities - various mineral and fluid inclusions may also favor to generation of this structure.

  14. Formation of metastable graphite inclusions during diamond crystallization in model systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaev, D. V.; Khokhryakov, A. F.

    2014-03-01

    Metastable graphite inclusions have been studied in diamond, forsterite, and orthopyroxene synthesized in silicate-carbonate-fluid and aqueous chloride systems at 6.3-7.5 GPa and 1400-1600°C. The graphite inclusions were studied using optic microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It has been established that graphite in diamond and liquidus silicate minerals is represented by a highly ordered variety. Depending on parameters of runs, the graphite inclusions are hexagonal, irregular polygonal, or rounded in shape. The morphology of graphite inclusions involving metastable graphite in run products is compared with previously established crystallization sequence of carbon phases. It has been revealed that the protogenetic graphite inclusions in diamond are rounded, and this shape was caused by dissolution of the newly formed graphite. Polygonal graphite inclusions are syngenetic and represented by metastable graphite that crystallized contemporaneously with diamond.

  15. Single crystal chemical vapor deposit diamond detector for energetic plasma measurement in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, K.; Broiles, T. W.; Coulter, K. E.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.; Livi, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Walther, B. C.

    2015-03-01

    This study reports the performance of single crystal chemical vapor deposit diamond detectors for measuring space plasma and energetic particles: ~7 keV energy resolution for protons with a 14 keV threshold level, and good response linearity for ions and electrons as expected from Monte-Carlo calculations of primary particle energy loss. We investigated that these diamond detectors are able to operate at high temperature (> 70 ° C) and have fast response times (< 1 ns rise time). While silicon detectors have proven capability over this energy range for space plasma measurements, diamond detectors offer a faster response, higher temperature operation, greater radiation tolerance, and immunity to light.

  16. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy method and studies of implant damage in single crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, D.P.; Kuryliw, E.; Siebein, K.; Jones, K.S.; Chodelka, R.; Elliman, R.

    2006-07-15

    Few transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of single crystal diamond have been reported, most likely due to the time and difficulty involved in sample preparation. A method is described for creating a TEM cross section of single crystal diamond using a focused ion beam and in situ lift-out. The method results in samples approximately 10 {mu}m long by 3 {mu}m deep with an average thickness of 100-300 nm. The total time to prepare a cross-sectional TEM sample of diamond is less than 5 h. The method also allows for additional thinning to facilitate high resolution TEM imaging, and can be applied to oddly shaped diamond samples. This sample preparation technique has been applied to the study of ion implantation damage in single crystal diamond and its evolution upon annealing. High-pressure-high-temperature diamonds were implanted with Si{sup +} at an energy of 1 MeV and a temperature of 30 deg. C. One sample, with a (110) surface, was implanted with a dose of 1x10{sup 14} Si cm{sup -2} and annealed at 950 deg. C for 10 and 40 min. No significant defect formation or evolution was discernible by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Another sample, with a (100) orientation, was implanted with 1 MeV at 1x10{sup 15} Si cm{sup -2} and annealed at 1050 deg. C for 10 min. Prior to annealing, a heavily damaged but still crystalline region was observed. Upon annealing, the sample showed no signs of conversion either to an amorphous form of carbon or to graphite. This is unexpected as the energy and dose are above the previously reported graphitization threshold for diamond. Higher annealing temperatures and possibly a high vacuum will be required for future study of defect formation, evolution, and phase transformations in ion-implanted single crystal diamond.

  17. Patterning of nanocrystalline diamond films for diamond microstructures useful in MEMS and other devices

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Busmann, Hans-Gerd; Meyer, Eva-Maria; Auciello, Orlando; Krauss, Alan R.; Krauss, Julie R.

    2004-11-02

    MEMS structure and a method of fabricating them from ultrananocrystalline diamond films having average grain sizes of less than about 10 nm and feature resolution of less than about one micron . The MEMS structures are made by contacting carbon dimer species with an oxide substrate forming a carbide layer on the surface onto which ultrananocrystalline diamond having average grain sizes of less than about 10 nm is deposited. Thereafter, microfabrication process are used to form a structure of predetermined shape having a feature resolution of less than about one micron.

  18. Heteroepitaxial growth of cubic boron nitride single crystal on diamond seed under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, T.; Yamaoka, S.

    1997-07-01

    Single crystal cubic boron nitride (cBN) was heteroepitaxially grown on a seed crystal of diamond under static high pressure and high temperature at 5.5GPa and 1,600--1,700 C, respectively, for 10--100 hour. A temperature gradient method was employed for the crystal growth by using lithium boron nitride as a solvent. Initial growth feature of cBN crystal was found on the diamond seed surface after the growing time of 10 minutes. The nucleation sites of the crystals seem to be near the etch pits on the diamond surface which were introduced by the surface dissolution by the solvent for cBN growth. Two types of growth features, island and step growth were typically shown on the surface. It can be seen that grown crystal appearing as a (111) nitrogen face was exhibited with the step growth feature, while the (11n) face exhibited the island growth feature. Considering the growth process under constant P-T growing condition, growth rate of cBN crystal was significantly small as compared to that of diamond.

  19. Science and technology of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films for multifunctional devices

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Jayatissa, A.; Sumant, A.; Tucek, J.; Mancini, D.; Molodvan, N.; Erdemir, A.; Ersoy, D.; Gardos, M. N.; Busman, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.

    2000-08-24

    MEMS devices are currently fabricated primarily in silicon because of the available surface machining technology. However, Si has poor mechanical and tribological properties, and practical MEMS devices are currently limited primarily to applications involving only bending and flexural motion, such as cantilever accelerometers and vibration sensors. However, because of the poor flexural strength and fracture toughness of Si, and the tendency of Si to adhere to hydrophyllic surfaces, even these simple devices have limited dynamic range. Future MEMS applications that involve significant rolling or sliding contact will require the use of new materials with significantly improved mechanical and tribological properties, and the ability to perform well in harsh environments. Diamond is a superhard material of high mechanical strength, exceptional chemical inertness, and outstanding thermal stability. The brittle fracture strength is 23 times that of Si, and the projected wear life of diamond MEMS moving mechanical assemblies (MEMS-MMAs) is 10,000 times greater than that of Si MMAs. However, as the hardest known material, diamond is notoriously difficult to fabricate. Conventional CVD thin film deposition methods offer an approach to the fabrication of ultra-small diamond structures, but the films have large grain size, high internal stress, poor intergranular adhesion, and very rough surfaces, and are consequently ill-suited for MEMS-MMA applications. A thin film deposition process has been developed that produces phase-pure nanocrystalline diamond with morphological and mechanical properties that are ideally suited for MEMS applications in general, and MMA use in particular. The authors have developed lithographic techniques for the fabrication of diamond microstructure including cantilevers and multi-level devices, acting as precursors to micro-bearings and gears, making nanocrystalline diamond a promising material for the development of high performance MEMS devices.

  20. Diamond crystallization in a CO2-rich alkaline carbonate melt with a nitrogen additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhryakov, Alexander F.; Palyanov, Yuri N.; Kupriyanov, Igor N.; Nechaev, Denis V.

    2016-09-01

    Diamond crystallization was experimentally studied in a CO2-bearing alkaline carbonate melt with an increased content of nitrogen at pressure of 6.3 GPa and temperature of 1500 °C. The growth rate, morphology, internal structure of overgrown layers, and defect-impurity composition of newly formed diamond were investigated. The type of growth patterns on faces, internal structure, and nitrogen content were found to be controlled by both the crystallographic orientation of the growth surfaces and the structure of the original faces of diamond seed crystals. An overgrown layer has a uniform structure on the {100} plane faces of synthetic diamond and a fibrillar (fibrous) structure on the faceted surfaces of a natural diamond cube. The {111} faces have a polycentric vicinal relief with numerous twin intergrowths and micro twin lamellae. The stable form of diamond growth under experimental conditions is a curved-face hexoctahedron with small cube faces. The nitrogen impurity concentration in overgrown layers varies depending on the growth direction and surface type, from 100 to 1100 ppm.

  1. Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Diling Feng, Yiping; Lemke, Henrik T.; Fritz, David M.; Chollet, Matthieu; Glownia, J. M.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien; Robert, Aymeric; Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvyd'ko, Yuri V.; Terentyev, Sergey A.; Blank, Vladimir D.; Driel, Tim B. van

    2014-06-15

    A double-crystal diamond monochromator was recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source. It enables splitting pulses generated by the free electron laser in the hard x-ray regime and thus allows the simultaneous operations of two instruments. Both monochromator crystals are High-Pressure High-Temperature grown type-IIa diamond crystal plates with the (111) orientation. The first crystal has a thickness of ∼100 μm to allow high reflectivity within the Bragg bandwidth and good transmission for the other wavelengths for downstream use. The second crystal is about 300 μm thick and makes the exit beam of the monochromator parallel to the incoming beam with an offset of 600 mm. Here we present details on the monochromator design and its performance.

  2. A photoemission study of the diamond and the single crystal C{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jin

    1994-03-01

    This report studied the elctronic structure of diamond (100) and diamond/metal interface and C{sub 60}, using angle-resolved and core level photoemission. The C(100)-(2X1) surface electronic structure was studied using both core level and angle resolved valence band photoemission spectroscopy. The surface component of the C 1s core level spectrum agrees with theoretical existence of only symmetrical dimers. In the case of metal/diamond interfaces, core level and valence photoelectron spectroscopy and LEED studies WERE MADE OF B and Sb on diamond (100) and (111) surfaces. In the case of single-crystal C{sub 60}, photoemission spectra show sharp molecular features, indicating that the molecular orbitals are relatively undisturbed in solid C{sub 60}.

  3. TH-C-19A-06: Measurements with a New Commercial Synthetic Single Crystal Diamond Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Laub, W; Crilly, R

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: A commercial version of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector in a Scottky diode configuration was recently released as the new type 60019 microDiamond detector (PTW-Freiburg). In this study we investigate the dosimetric properties of this detector and explore if the use of the microDiamond detector can be expanded to high energy photon beams of up to 15MV and to large field measurements. Methods: Energy dependency was investigated. Photon and electron depth-dose curves were measured. Photon PDDs were measured with the Semiflex type 31010, microLion type 31018, P-Diode type 60016, SRS Diode type 60018, and the microDiamond type 60019 detector. Electron depth-dose curves were measured with a Markus chamber type 23343, an E Diode type 60017 and the microDiamond type 60019 detector (all PTW-Freiburg). Profiles were measured with the E-Diode and microDiamond at dose maximum depths. Results: The microDiamond detector shows no energy dependence in high energy photon or electron dosimetry. Electron PDD measurements with the E-Diode and microDiamond are in good agreement except for the bremsstrahlungs region, where values are about 0.5 % lower with the microDiamond detector. Markus detector measurements agree with E-Diode measurements in this region. For depths larger than dmax, depth-dose curves of photon beams measured with the microDiamond detector are in close agreement to those measured with the microLion detector for small fields and with those measured with a Semiflex 0.125cc ionization chamber for large fields. For profile measurements, microDiamond detector measurements agree well with microLion and P-Diode measurements in the high-dose region and the penumbra region. For areas outside the open field, P-Diode measurements are about 0.5–1.0% higher than microDiamond and microLion measurements. Conclusion: The investigated diamond detector is suitable for a wide range of applications in high energy photon and electron dosimetry and is interesting

  4. Science and technology of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films for multifunctional devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Gruen, D. M.; Krauss, A. R.; Jayatissa, A.; Sumant, A.; Tucek, J.; Mancini, D.; Moldovan, N.; Erdemir, A.; Ersoy, D.; Gardos, M. N.; Busmann, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.

    2000-11-15

    MEMS devices are currently fabricated primarily in silicon because of the available surface machining technology. However, Si has poor mechanical and tribological properties, and practical MEMS devices are currently limited primarily to applications involving only bending and flexural motion, such as cantilever accelerometers and vibration sensors, However, because of the poor flexural strength and fracture toughness of Si, and the tendency of Si to adhere to hydrophyllic surfaces, even these simple devices have limited dynamic range. Future MEMS applications that involve significant rolling or sliding contact will require the use of new materials with significantly improved mechanical and tribological properties, and the ability to perform well in harsh environments. Diamond is a superhard material of high mechanical strength, exceptional chemical inertness, and outstanding thermal stability. The brittle fracture strength is 23 times that of Si, and the projected wear life of diamond MEMS moving mechanical assemblies (MEMS-MMAS) is 10,000 times greater than that of Si MMAs. However, as the hardest known material, diamond is notoriously difficult to fabricate. Conventional CVD thin film deposition methods offer an approach to the fabrication of ultra-small diamond structures, but the films have large grain size, high internal stress, poor intergranular adhesion, and very rough surfaces, and are consequently ill-suited for MEMS-MMA applications. A thin film deposition process has been developed that produces phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) with morphological and mechanical properties that are ideally suited for MEMS applications in general, and MMA use in particular. We have developed lithographic techniques for the fabrication of diamond microstructure including cantilevers and multi-level devices, acting as precursors to micro-bearings and gears, making UNCD a promising material for the development of high performance MEMS devices.

  5. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanowire Tips for Ultrasensitive Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Y; Degen, C L

    2015-12-01

    We report the fabrication, integration, and assessment of sharp diamond tips for ultrasensitive force microscopy experiments. Two types of tips, corresponding to the upper and lower halves of a diamond nanowire, were fabricated by top-down plasma etching from a single-crystalline substrate. The lower, surface-attached halves can be directly integrated into lithographically defined nanostructures, like cantilevers. The upper, detachable halves result in diamond nanowires with a tunable diameter (50-500 nm) and lengths of a few microns. Tip radii were around 10 nm and tip apex angles around 15°. We demonstrate the integration of diamond nanowires for use as scanning tips onto ultrasensitive pendulum-style silicon cantilevers. We find the noncontact friction and frequency jitter to be exceptionally low, with no degradation in the intrinsic mechanical quality factor (Q ≈ 130,000) down to tip-to-surface distances of about 10 nm. Our results are an encouraging step toward further improvement of the sensitivity and resolution of force-detected magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26517172

  6. Optical excitation and quenching of photocurrent in single-crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeson; Lourette, Sean; Rezai, Kristine; Kehayias, Pauli; Lake, Michael; Jarmola, Andrey; Nesladek, Milos; Bouchard, Louis; Hemmer, Philip; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-01

    Diamond has found important applications in optoelectronics including electron emitters, windows for high power devices, and x-ray photon detectors, thanks to its unique properties, such as a wide bandgap, high thermal conductance and broadband optical transmittance. It is thus of paramount importance to investigate the photoelectric properties of diamond in greater details. Here we report the observation of optical quenching of photocurrent in diamond using simultaneous illumination of pulsed and continuous wave lasers at the same wavelength and different wavelengths. The quenched photocurrent shows a recovery related to the external bias voltage, pulsed optical power and wavelength. The recovery of the quenched photocurrent provides information on the nature of the electron trap states in diamond. Current: Academia Sinica, Taiwan.

  7. Optical and paramagnetic properties of synthetic diamond crystals irradiated with electrons and annealed

    SciTech Connect

    Poklonski, N. A. Gusakov, G. A.; Bayev, V. G. Lapchuk, N. M.

    2009-05-15

    The optical and paramagnetic properties of single crystals of synthetic diamond grown by the temperature-gradient method in high-pressure apparatuses with the systems of catalytic solvents (Co, Fe) and (Ni, Fe) are studied at room temperature. The optical absorption spectra (in the wavelength range {lambda} = 400-800 nm) and the spectra of electron spin resonance are registered for the initial diamond crystals, the crystals irradiated with 6 MeV electrons (the fluence 1.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}), and the irradiated diamonds subjected to isochronous thermal annealing in vacuum (for 60 min). It is shown that, with such treatment, the diamond crystals synthesized with different metal catalysts (Co or Ni) exhibit similar optical properties, but different paramagnetic properties. The data obtained by infrared spectroscopy and electron spin resonance spectroscopy are coincident for radiation defects and different for nitrogen centers (the P1 centers and exchange-coupled pairs of nitrogen atoms). The spectra of the electron spin resonance of the samples annealed at temperatures below 1273 K (in the case of the Co-containing catalyst) and 1073 K (in the case of Ni-containing catalyst) exhibited broad lines produced by residual impurities of the catalyst metal and were accompanied by a distortion of the spectrum of paramagnetic nitrogen in the form of a tilt of the ESR spectra with respect to the zero line.

  8. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, Harris; Kass, Richard; Gan, K. K.

    2014-01-23

    With the LHC upgrades in 2013, and further LHC upgrades scheduled in 2018, most LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require more radiation hard technologies than presently available. At present all LHC experiments now have some form of diamond detector. As a result Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. Moreover CVD diamond is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the HL-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications. Our accomplishments include: • Developed a two U.S.companies to produce electronic grade diamond, • Worked with companies and acquired large area diamond pieces, • Performed radiation hardness tests using various proton energies: 70 MeV (Cyric, Japan), 800 MeV (Los Alamos), and 24 GeV (CERN).

  9. Scalable Fabrication of Integrated Nanophotonic Circuits on Arrays of Thin Single Crystal Diamond Membrane Windows.

    PubMed

    Piracha, Afaq H; Rath, Patrik; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Kühn, Stefan; Pernice, Wolfram H P; Prawer, Steven

    2016-05-11

    Diamond has emerged as a promising platform for nanophotonic, optical, and quantum technologies. High-quality, single crystalline substrates of acceptable size are a prerequisite to meet the demanding requirements on low-level impurities and low absorption loss when targeting large photonic circuits. Here, we describe a scalable fabrication method for single crystal diamond membrane windows that achieves three major goals with one fabrication method: providing high quality diamond, as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy; achieving homogeneously thin membranes, enabled by ion implantation; and providing compatibility with established planar fabrication via lithography and vertical etching. On such suspended diamond membranes we demonstrate a suite of photonic components as building blocks for nanophotonic circuits. Monolithic grating couplers are used to efficiently couple light between photonic circuits and optical fibers. In waveguide coupled optical ring resonators, we find loaded quality factors up to 66 000 at a wavelength of 1560 nm, corresponding to propagation loss below 7.2 dB/cm. Our approach holds promise for the scalable implementation of future diamond quantum photonic technologies and all-diamond photonic metrology tools. PMID:27111636

  10. Graphene-based liquid crystal device.

    PubMed

    Blake, Peter; Brimicombe, Paul D; Nair, Rahul R; Booth, Tim J; Jiang, Da; Schedin, Fred; Ponomarenko, Leonid A; Morozov, Sergey V; Gleeson, Helen F; Hill, Ernie W; Geim, Andre K; Novoselov, Kostya S

    2008-06-01

    Graphene is only one atom thick, optically transparent, chemically inert, and an excellent conductor. These properties seem to make this material an excellent candidate for applications in various photonic devices that require conducting but transparent thin films. In this letter, we demonstrate liquid crystal devices with electrodes made of graphene that show excellent performance with a high contrast ratio. We also discuss the advantages of graphene compared to conventionally used metal oxides in terms of low resistivity, high transparency and chemical stability.

  11. Wettability of ultrananocrystalline diamond and graphite nanowalls films: a comparison with their single crystal analogs.

    PubMed

    Ostrovskaya, L Y u; Ralchenko, V G; Bolshakov, A P; Saveliev, A V; Dzbanovsky, N N; Shmegera, S V

    2009-06-01

    Dramatic changes in wettability of diamond and graphite are observed when these materials are prepared in nanostructured forms--undoped and nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films, and graphite nanowalls (GNW), respectively. The nanostructured carbon films were deposited on Si by microwave plasma CVD processes. The advancing contact angle theta for water on hydrogenated undoped UNCD films increases to 106 +/- 3 degrees compared to hydrogenated single crystal diamond (theta = 92 degrees). Nitrogen doping (N2 addition to plasma) during UNCD growth makes the film more hydrophilic. The GNW films exhibited superhydrophobic behavior with theta = 144 +/- 3 degrees for water, which is higher than the contact angle of monocrystalline graphite (the basal plane) by a factor of 1.8. No chemical surface treatment is necessary to achieve such high hydrophobicity, it is accomplished solely by a specific (nanoporous, high aspect ratio) surface morphology with very low free surface energy inherent in it. The wetting behaviour of nanostructured films can be described with the Cassie-Baxter equation for heterophase nanoporous surfaces. Oxidation and hydrogenation of UNCD films make it possible to control theta over a much wider range as compared to a single crystal diamond. The influence of diamond grain size on wetting is considered taking into account the surface treatment. The corresponding variation in surface energy has been determined by the modified Young's equation.

  12. Effects of catalyst height on diamond crystal morphology under high pressure and high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ya-Dong, Li; Xiao-Peng, Jia; Bing-Min, Yan; Ning, Chen; Chao, Fang; Yong, Li; Hong-An, Ma

    2016-04-01

    The effect of the catalyst height on the morphology of diamond crystal is investigated by means of temperature gradient growth (TGG) under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions with using a Ni-based catalyst in this article. The experimental results show that the morphology of diamond changes from an octahedral shape to a cub-octahedral shape as the catalyst height rises. Moreover, the finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the temperature field of the melted catalyst/solvent. The results show that the temperature at the location of the seed diamond continues to decrease with the increase of catalyst height, which is conducive to changing the morphology of diamond. This work provides a new way to change the diamond crystal morphology. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51172089), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, the Natural Science Foundation of Guizhou Provincial Education Department (Grant No. KY[2013]183), and the Collaborative Fund of Science and Technology Office of Guizhou Province, China (Grant No. LH[2015]7232).

  13. Characterization of a synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diode for radiotherapy electron beam dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Di Venanzio, C.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Falco, M. D.; Bagala, P.; Santoni, R.; Pimpinella, M.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric properties of synthetic single crystal diamond based Schottky diodes under irradiation with therapeutic electron beams from linear accelerators. Methods: A single crystal diamond detector was fabricated and tested under 6, 8, 10, 12, and 15 MeV electron beams. The detector performances were evaluated using three types of commercial detectors as reference dosimeters: an Advanced Markus plane parallel ionization chamber, a Semiflex cylindrical ionization chamber, and a p-type silicon detector. Preirradiation, linearity with dose, dose rate dependence, output factors, lateral field profiles, and percentage depth dose profiles were investigated and discussed. Results: During preirradiation the diamond detector signal shows a weak decrease within 0.7% with respect to the plateau value and a final signal stability of 0.1% (1{sigma}) is observed after about 5 Gy. A good linear behavior of the detector response as a function of the delivered dose is observed with deviations below {+-}0.3% in the dose range from 0.02 to 10 Gy. In addition, the detector response is dose rate independent, with deviations below 0.3% in the investigated dose rate range from 0.17 to 5.45 Gy/min. Percentage depth dose curves obtained from the diamond detector are in good agreement with the ones from the reference dosimeters. Lateral beam profile measurements show an overall good agreement among detectors, taking into account their respective geometrical features. The spatial resolution of solid state detectors is confirmed to be better than that of ionization chambers, being the one from the diamond detector comparable to that of the silicon diode. A good agreement within experimental uncertainties was also found in terms of output factor measurements between the diamond detector and reference dosimeters. Conclusions: The observed dosimetric properties indicate that the tested diamond detector is a suitable candidate for clinical electron beam dosimetry.

  14. Electrocatalytic processes promoted by diamond nanoparticles in enzymatic biosensing devices.

    PubMed

    Briones, M; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Parra-Alfambra, A M; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E; Casero, E

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a biosensing platform for lactate determination based on gold electrodes modified with diamond nanoparticles of 4nm of nominal diameter, employing the enzyme lactate oxidase and (hydroxymethyl)ferrocene (HMF) as redox mediator in solution. This system displays a response towards lactate that is completely different to those typically observed for lactate biosensors based on other nanomaterials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles or even diamond nanoparticles of greater size. We have observed by cyclic voltammetry that, under certain experimental conditions, an irreversible wave (E(0)=+0.15V) appears concomitantly with the typical Fe(II)/Fe(III) peaks (E(0)=+0.30V) of HMF. In this case, the biosensor response to lactate shows simultaneous electrocatalytic peaks at +0.15V and +0.30V, indicating the concurrence of different feedback mechanisms. The achievement of a biosensor response to lactate at +0.15V is very convenient in order to avoid potential interferences. The developed biosensor presents a linear concentration range from 0.02mM to 1.2mM, a sensitivity of 6.1μAmM(-1), a detection limit of 5.3μM and excellent stability. These analytical properties compare well with those obtained for other lactate-based biosensors that also include nanomaterials and employ HMF as redox mediator. PMID:27261566

  15. Electrocatalytic processes promoted by diamond nanoparticles in enzymatic biosensing devices.

    PubMed

    Briones, M; Petit-Domínguez, M D; Parra-Alfambra, A M; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E; Casero, E

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a biosensing platform for lactate determination based on gold electrodes modified with diamond nanoparticles of 4nm of nominal diameter, employing the enzyme lactate oxidase and (hydroxymethyl)ferrocene (HMF) as redox mediator in solution. This system displays a response towards lactate that is completely different to those typically observed for lactate biosensors based on other nanomaterials, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles or even diamond nanoparticles of greater size. We have observed by cyclic voltammetry that, under certain experimental conditions, an irreversible wave (E(0)=+0.15V) appears concomitantly with the typical Fe(II)/Fe(III) peaks (E(0)=+0.30V) of HMF. In this case, the biosensor response to lactate shows simultaneous electrocatalytic peaks at +0.15V and +0.30V, indicating the concurrence of different feedback mechanisms. The achievement of a biosensor response to lactate at +0.15V is very convenient in order to avoid potential interferences. The developed biosensor presents a linear concentration range from 0.02mM to 1.2mM, a sensitivity of 6.1μAmM(-1), a detection limit of 5.3μM and excellent stability. These analytical properties compare well with those obtained for other lactate-based biosensors that also include nanomaterials and employ HMF as redox mediator.

  16. High crystalline quality single crystal chemical vapour deposition diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martineau, P. M.; Gaukroger, M. P.; Guy, K. B.; Lawson, S. C.; Twitchen, D. J.; Friel, I.; Hansen, J. O.; Summerton, G. C.; Addison, T. P. G.; Burns, R.

    2009-09-01

    Homoepitaxial chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthetic diamond substrates allows the production of diamond material with controlled point defect content. In order to minimize the extended defect content, however, it is necessary to minimize the number of substrate extended defects that reach the initial growth surface and the nucleation of dislocations at the interface between the CVD layer and its substrate. X-ray topography has indicated that when type IIa HPHT synthetic substrates are used, the density of dislocations nucleating at the interface can be less than 400 cm-2. X-ray topography, photoluminescence imaging and birefringence microscopy of HPHT grown synthetic type IIa diamond clearly show that the extended defect content is growth sector dependent. lang111rang sectors contain the highest concentration of both stacking faults and dislocations but lang100rang sectors are relatively free of both. It has been shown that HPHT treatment of such material can significantly reduce the area of stacking faults and cause dislocations to move. This knowledge, coupled with an understanding of how growth sectors develop during HPHT synthesis, has been used to guide selection and processing of substrates suitable for CVD synthesis of material with high crystalline perfection and controlled point defect content.

  17. White electroluminescence of n-ZnO:Al/p-diamond heterostructure devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Can; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Li-Jun; Pan, Xiu-Fang; Li, Song-Kun; Jing, Long-Wei

    2013-08-01

    An n-ZnO:Al/p-boron-doped diamond heterostructure electroluminescent device is produced, and a rectifying behavior can be observed. The electroluminescence spectrum at room temperature exhibits two visible bands centred at 450 nm-485 nm (blue emission) and 570 nm-640 nm (yellow emission). Light emission with a luminance of 15 cd/m2 is observed from the electroluminescent device at a forward applied voltage of 85 V, which is distinguished from white light by the naked eye.

  18. Ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films for MEMS and moving mechanical assembly devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Jayatissa, A.; Sumant, A.; Tucek, J.; Auciello, O.; Mancini, D.; Moldovan, N.; Erdemir, A.; Ersoy, D.; Gardos, M. N.; Busmann, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.; Ding, M. Q.; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Raytheon Electronic Systems Comp.; Fraunhofer Inst. for Applied Materials Science; Univ. of Bremen; Beijing Inst. of Electronics

    2001-11-01

    MEMS devices are currently fabricated primarily in silicon because of the available surface machining technology. A major problem with the Si-based MEMS technology is that Si has poor mechanical and tribological properties [J.J. Sniegowski, in: B. Bushan (Ed.), Tribology Issues and Opportunities in MEMS, Kluwer Academic Publisher, The Netherlands, 1998, p. 325; A.P. Lee, A.P. Pisano, M.G. Lim, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 276 (1992) 67.], and practical MEMS devices are currently limited primarily to applications involving only bending and flexural motion, such as cantilever accelerometers and vibration sensors. However, because of the poor flexural strength and fracture toughness of Si, and the tendency of Si to adhere to hydrophilic surfaces, even these simple devices have limited dynamic range. Future MEMS applications that involve significant rolling or sliding contact will require the use of new materials with significantly improved mechanical and tribological properties, and the ability to perform well in harsh environments, Diamond is a superhard material of high mechanical strength, exceptional chemical inertness, and outstanding thermal stability. The brittle fracture strength is 23 times that of Si, and the projected wear life of diamond MEMS moving mechanical assemblies (MEMS MMAs) is 10 000 times greater than that of Si MMAs. However, as the hardest known material, diamond is notoriously difficult to fabricate. Conventional CVD thin film deposition methods offer an approach to the fabrication of ultra-small diamond structures, but the films have large grain size, high internal stress, poor intergranular adhesion, and very rough surfaces, and are consequently ill-suited for MEMS MMA applications. Diamond-like films are also being investigated for application to MEMS devices. However, they involve mainly physical vapor deposition methods that are not suitable for good conformal deposition on high aspect ratio features, and generally they do not exhibit the

  19. Optical properties of epitaxial single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turri, Giorgio; Chen, Ying; Bass, Michael; Orchard, David; Butler, James E.; Magana, Sally; Feygelson, Tatayana; Thiel, Derrick; Fourspring, Kevin; Pentony, Joni; Hawkins, Samantha; Baronowski, Meghan; Dewees, Randle V.; Seltzer, Michael D.; Guenthner, Andrew; Harris, Daniel C.; Stickley, C. Martin

    2007-04-01

    Epitaxial single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond was obtained from Element Six Ltd. (Ascot, UK) and from Apollo Diamond (Boston, MA). Both companies provided 5 x 5 mm squares with thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 mm. In addition, Element Six provided 10-mm-diameter disks with a thickness of 1.0 mm. The absorptance of all specimens at 1064 nm was measured by laser calorimetry, with good agreement between independent measurements at the University of Central Florida and at QinetiQ (Malvern, UK). Depolarization at 1064 nm and ultraviolet absorption properties are also reported.

  20. Quasi-two-dimensional diamond crystals: Deposition from a gaseous phase and structural-morphological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, A. M.; Ismagilov, R. R.; Ashkinazi, E. E.; Orekhov, A. S.; Malykhin, S. A.; Obraztsov, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    Diamond films predominantly consisting of plane micrometer-size crystallites with a thickness of several dozen nanometers have been deposited from a methane-hydrogen gas mixture activated by a dc gas discharge. The crystallite structure has been studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and diffraction. A possible mechanism of formation of plane crystallites during deposition of diamond from the gas phase has been discussed. It has been shown that the results agree with the theoretical concepts of formation of crystals with a face-centered cubic lattice.

  1. Diamond single micro-crystals and graphitic micro-balls’ formation in plasmoids under atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Kartaschew, Konstantin; Bibinov, Nikita; Havenith, Martina; Awakowicz, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Plasmoids are produced in the argon filamentary discharge. By going through hydrocarbon gas, the plasmoids collect carbon material. These plasmoids produce diamond single micro-crystals upon contact on the inner surface of cavity in air atmosphere. When the plasmoid’s contact point on the substrate is in inert atmosphere, they deposit their material as micro-balls with a graphite core. The dimension and nature of the micro-materials deposited by the plasmoids are analysed using scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy. The compressive residual stress in the deposited micro-diamonds varies in the range -7 to -21 GPa.

  2. Single-crystal CVD diamonds as small-angle X-ray scattering windows for high-pressure research

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Suntao; Meng, Yu-fei; Ando, Nozomi; Tate, Mark; Krasnicki, Szczesny; Yan, Chih-shiue; Liang, Qi; Lai, Joseph; Mao, Ho-kwang; Gruner, Sol M.; Hemley, Russell J.

    2012-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was performed on single-crystal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamonds with low nitrogen concentrations, which were fabricated by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition at high growth rates. High optical quality undoped 500 µm-thick single-crystal CVD diamonds grown without intentional nitrogen addition proved to be excellent as windows on SAXS cells, yielding parasitic scattering no more intense than a 7.5 µm-thick Kapton film. A single-crystal CVD diamond window was successfully used in a high-pressure SAXS cell. PMID:22675230

  3. Thermoelectric devices and diamond films for temperature control of high density electronic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersande, Jan W.; Ewell, Richard; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Lyon, Hylan B.

    1994-08-01

    The increased speeds of integrated circuits is accompanied by increased power levels and the need to package the IC chips very close together. Combined, these spell very high power densities and severe thermal problems at the package level. Conventional packaging materials have difficulty dealing with these thermal management problems. However, it is possible to combine both active and passive cooling by using thin film bismuth-telluride thermoelectric coolers (microcoolers) and diamond substrates for the temperature control of these high density electronic circuits. The highest power components would be mounted directly onto thin film thermoelectric elements, which would maintain the temperature of these components from a few degrees to tens of degrees below that of the diamond substrate. This allows these components to operate within their required temperature range, effectively manage temperature spikes and junction temperatures, and increase clockspeed. To optimize the design of the thermoelectric cooler and operate at maximum efficiency, diamond films acting as thermal lenses would also be used to spread the heat from the small power device to the larger coolers. In those instances where the devices are all operating above ambient temperature, high thermal conductivity diamond films alone are sufficient to cool these devices, by effectively conducting the heat throughout the board.

  4. Liquid crystal devices for photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigrinov, Vladimir G.

    2007-11-01

    Liquid crystal (LC) devices for Photonics applications is a hot topic of research. Such elements begin to appear in Photonics market. Passive elements for fiber optical communication systems (DWDM components) based on LC cells can successfully compete with the other elements used for the purpose, such as micro electromechanical (MEM), thermo-optical, opto-mechanical or acousto-optical devices. Application of nematic and ferroelectric LC for high speed communication systems, producing elements that are extremely fast, stable, durable, of low loss, operable over a wide temperature range, and that require small operating voltages and extremely low power consumption. The known LC applications in fiber optics enable to produce switches, filters, attenuators, equalizers, polarization controllers, phase emulators and other fiber optical components. Good robustness due to the absence of moving parts and compatibility with VLSI technology, excellent parameters in a large photonic wavelength range, whereas the complexity of the design and the cost of the device are equivalent to regular passive matrix LC displays makes LC fiber optical devices very attractive for mass production. We have already successfully fabricated certain prototypes of the optical switches based on ferroelectric and nematic LC materials. The electrooptical modes used for the purpose included the light polarization rotation, voltage controllable diffraction and fast switching of the LC refractive index. We used the powerful software to optimize the LC modulation characteristics. Use of photo-alignment technique pioneered by us makes it possible to develop new LC fiber components. Almost all the criteria of perfect LC alignment are met in case of azo-dye layers. We have already used azo-dye materials to align LC in superthin photonic holes, curved and 3D surfaces and as cladding layers in microring silicon based resonators. The prototypes of new LC efficient Photonics devices are envisaged. Controllable

  5. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer Wallny

    2012-10-15

    Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

  6. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harris Kagan; K.K. Gan; Richard Kass

    2009-03-31

    Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2013, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

  7. Time Dependent DD Neutrons Measurement Using a Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond Detector on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tengfei; Peng, Xingyu; Chen, Zhongjing; Hu, Zhimeng; Ge, Lijian; Hu, Liqun; Zhong, Guoqiang; Pu, Neng; Chen, Jinxiang; Fan, Tieshuan

    2016-09-01

    A single crystal chemical vapor deposition (scCVD) diamond detector has been successfully employed for neutron measurements in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) plasmas. The scCVD diamond detector coated with a 5 μm 6LiF (95% 6Li enriched) layer was placed inside a polyethylene moderator to enhance the detection efficiency. The time-dependent neutron emission from deuteron plasmas during neutral beam injection (NBI) heating was obtained. The measured results are compared with that of fission chamber detectors, which always act as standard neutron flux monitors. The scCVD diamond detector exhibits good reliability, stability and the capability to withstand harsh radiation environments despite its low detection efficiency due to the small active volume. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB106004 and 2012GB101003) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 91226102)

  8. Science and technology of piezoelectric/diamond heterostructures for monolithically integrated high performance MEMS/NEMS/CMOS devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Sumant, A. V.; Hiller, J.; Kabius, B.; Ma, Z.; Srinivasan, S.

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes the fundamental and applied science performed to integrate piezoelectric PbZr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O{sub 3} and AlN films with a novel mechanically robust ultrananocrystalline diamond layer to enable a new generation of low voltage/high-performance piezoactuated hybrid piezoelectric/diamond MEMS/NEMS devices.

  9. N-type control of single-crystal diamond films by ultra-lightly phosphorus doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Masahiko; Makino, Toshiharu; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    A wide impurity doping range of p- and n-type diamond semiconductors will facilitate the development of various electronics. This study focused on producing n-type diamond with ultra-lightly impurity doping concentrations. N-type single-crystal diamond films were grown on (111)-oriented diamond substrates by phosphorus doping using the optimized doping conditions based on microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with a high magnetron output power of 3600 W. The surface morphology was investigated by an optical microscopy using the Nomarski prism and confocal laser microscopy, and the phosphorus concentration was estimated by a secondary ion mass spectrometry. The phosphorus concentration was reproducibly controlled to between 2 × 1015 and 3 × 1017 cm-3 using a standard mass flow controller, and the average incorporation efficiency was around 0.1%. The electrical properties of the films were characterized by the Hall effect measurements as a function of temperature over a wide range from 220 to 900 K. N-type conductivity with thermal activation from a phosphorus donor level at around 0.57 eV was clearly observed for all the phosphorus-doped diamond films. The electron mobility of the film with a phosphorus concentration of 2 × 1015 cm-3 was recorded at 1060 cm2/V s at 300 K and 1500 cm2/V s at 225 K.

  10. Topology and bistability in liquid crystal devices

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, A.; Newton, C. J. P.; Robbins, J. M.; Zyskin, M.

    2007-05-15

    We study nematic liquid crystal configurations in a prototype bistable device--the post aligned bistable nematic (PABN) cell. Working within the Oseen-Frank continuum model, we describe the liquid crystal configuration by a unit-vector field n, in a model version of the PABN cell. First, we identify four distinct topologies in this geometry. We explicitly construct trial configurations with these topologies which are used as initial conditions for a numerical solver, based on the finite-element method. The morphologies and energetics of the corresponding numerical solutions qualitatively agree with experimental observations and suggest a topological mechanism for bistability in the PABN cell geometry.

  11. First in-situ single-crystal structure refinement of a garnet included in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestola, Fabrizio; Nimis, Paolo; Longo, Micaela; Kopylova, Maya; de Stefano, Andrea; Marzoli, Andrea; Fedortchouk, Yana; Manghnani, Murli; Harris, Jeff W.

    2010-05-01

    The study of mineral inclusions in diamond is providing invaluable insight into the geodynamics of the Earth's mantle. A complete characterization of inclusions in diamond is fundamental in order to evaluate the P-T-ƒO2 conditions and thus they represent a real "Earth's ultra-deep microprobe". The in-situ investigation of the inclusions using non-destructive techniques remains challenging. One of the potentially most powerful non-destructive methods is single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The application of such technique on inclusions in diamond is hampered by the complicated centering of the X-ray beam on the inclusion single-crystal (Kunz et al. 2002). Because of this experimental problem, in-situ single-crystal structure refinements of inclusions in diamond have never been carried out. In this work we investigated by X-ray diffraction a diamond-hosted garnet single-crystal from the Jericho kimberlite (Slave Craton, Canada). The garnet, not clearly visible under the microscope due to the irregular shape of the diamond host, had the largest size not greater than 100 microns. We used two STADI-IV STOE single-crystal diffractometers: the first instrument, equipped with a CCD detector, allowed us to collect a large number of diffraction reflections and to obtain an approximate orientation matrix for the garnet. Using this matrix, we mounted the diamond on the second instrument, equipped with a point detector and the software SINGLE (Angel et al. 2000), capable of obtaining an accurate X-ray beam centering through the 8-position centering method (this method is often used in high-pressure, in-situ X-ray studies). Such a procedure allowed us to measure with very high accuracy and precision the unit-cell edge (a = 11.5826(2)Å). Then we mounted back the diamond with the perfectly centered garnet on the first diffractometer and collected a complete X-ray intensity dataset in order to obtain complete structural information. We collected 410 unique reflections up to 2theta

  12. Diamond fiber field emitters

    DOEpatents

    Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B.; Coates, Don M.; Devlin, David J.; Eaton, David F.; Silzars, Aris K.; Valone, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.

  13. Numerical modeling of thermal loading of diamond crystal in X-ray FEL oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mei-Qi; Zhang, Qing-Min; Guo, Yu-Hang; Li, Kai; Deng, Hai-Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Due to high reflectivity and high resolution of X-ray pulses, diamond is one of the most popular Bragg crystals serving as the reflecting mirror and mono–chromator in the next generation of free electron lasers (FELs). The energy deposition of X-rays will result in thermal heating, and thus lattice expansion of the diamond crystal, which may degrade the performance of X-ray FELs. In this paper, the thermal loading effect of diamond crystal for X-ray FEL oscillators has been systematically studied by combined simulation with Geant4 and ANSYS, and its dependence on the environmental temperature, crystal size, X-ray pulse repetition rate and pulse energy are presented. Our results show that taking the thermal loading effects into account, X-ray FEL oscillators are still robust and promising with an optimized design. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175240, 11205234, 11322550) and Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT1280)

  14. Numerical modeling of thermal loading of diamond crystal in X-ray FEL oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mei-Qi; Zhang, Qing-Min; Guo, Yu-Hang; Li, Kai; Deng, Hai-Xiao

    2016-04-01

    Due to high reflectivity and high resolution of X-ray pulses, diamond is one of the most popular Bragg crystals serving as the reflecting mirror and mono-chromator in the next generation of free electron lasers (FELs). The energy deposition of X-rays will result in thermal heating, and thus lattice expansion of the diamond crystal, which may degrade the performance of X-ray FELs. In this paper, the thermal loading effect of diamond crystal for X-ray FEL oscillators has been systematically studied by combined simulation with Geant4 and ANSYS, and its dependence on the environmental temperature, crystal size, X-ray pulse repetition rate and pulse energy are presented. Our results show that taking the thermal loading effects into account, X-ray FEL oscillators are still robust and promising with an optimized design. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175240, 11205234, 11322550) and Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (IRT1280)

  15. Electroluminescence from a diamond device with ion-beam-micromachined buried graphitic electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forneris, J.; Battiato, A.; Gatto Monticone, D.; Picollo, F.; Amato, G.; Boarino, L.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Enrico, E.; Genovese, M.; Moreva, E.; Traina, P.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.; Olivero, P.

    2015-04-01

    Focused MeV ion microbeams are suitable tools for the direct writing of conductive graphitic channels buried in an insulating diamond bulk, as demonstrated in previous works with the fabrication of multi-electrode ionizing radiation detectors and cellular biosensors. In this work we investigate the suitability of the fabrication method for the electrical excitation of color centers in diamond. Differently from photoluminescence, electroluminescence requires an electrical current flowing through the diamond sub-gap states for the excitation of the color centers. With this purpose, buried graphitic electrodes with a spacing of 10 μm were fabricated in the bulk of a detector-grade CVD single-crystal diamond sample using a scanning 1.8 MeV He+ micro-beam. The current flowing in the gap region between the electrodes upon the application of a 450 V bias voltage was exploited as the excitation pump for the electroluminescence of different types of color centers localized in the above-mentioned gap. The bright light emission was spatially mapped using a confocal optical microscopy setup. The spectral analysis of electroluminescence revealed the emission from neutrally-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV0, λZPL = 575 nm), as well as from cluster crystal dislocations (A-band, λ = 400-500 nm). Moreover, an electroluminescence signal with appealing spectral features (sharp emission at room temperature, low phonon sidebands) from He-related defects was detected (λZPL = 536.3 nm, λZPL = 560.5 nm); a low and broad peak around λ = 740 nm was also observed and tentatively ascribed to Si-V or GR1 centers. These results pose interesting future perspectives for the fabrication of electrically-stimulated single-photon emitters in diamond for applications in quantum optics and quantum cryptography.

  16. Optical emission diagnostics of plasmas in chemical vapor deposition of single-crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Hemawan, Kadek W. Hemley, Russell J.

    2015-11-15

    A key aspect of single crystal diamond growth via microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition is in-process control of the local plasma–substrate environment, that is, plasma gas phase concentrations of activated species at the plasma boundary layer near the substrate surface. Emission spectra of the plasma relative to the diamond substrate inside the microwave plasma reactor chamber have been analyzed via optical emission spectroscopy. The spectra of radical species such as CH, C{sub 2}, and H (Balmer series) important for diamond growth were identified and analyzed. The emission intensities of these electronically excited species were found to be more dependent on operating pressure than on microwave power. Plasma gas temperatures were calculated from measurements of the C{sub 2} Swan band (d{sup 3}Π → a{sup 3}Π transition) system. The plasma gas temperature ranges from 2800 to 3400 K depending on the spatial location of the plasma ball, microwave power and operating pressure. Addition of Ar into CH{sub 4}+H{sub 2} plasma input gas mixture has little influence on the Hα, Hβ, and Hγ intensities and single-crystal diamond growth rates.

  17. Design and fabrication of nano-scale single crystal diamond cutting tool by focused ion beam (FIB) milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung-Yub

    2015-07-01

    Micro/nanoscale diamond cutting tools used in ultra-precision machining can be fabricated by precision grinding, but it is hard to fabricate a tool with a nanometric cutting edge and complex configurations. High-precision geometry accuracy and special shapes for microcutting tools with sharp edges can be achieved by FIB milling. Because the FIB milling method induces much smaller machining stress compared with conventional precision grinding methods. In this study, the FIB milling characteristics of single-crystal diamond were investigated, along with methods for decreasing the FIB-induced damage on diamond tools. Lift-off process method and Pt(Platinum) coating process method with FIB milling were investigated to reduce the damage layer on diamond substrate and quadrilateral-shaped single-crystal diamond cutting tool with cutting edge width under 500 nm were obtained.

  18. Cryptic iridescence in a fossil weevil generated by single diamond photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria E; Saranathan, Vinod; Locatelli, Emma R; Noh, Heeso; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Cao, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Nature's most spectacular colours originate in integumentary tissue architectures that scatter light via nanoscale modulations of the refractive index. The most intricate biophotonic nanostructures are three-dimensional crystals with opal, single diamond or single gyroid lattices. Despite intense interest in their optical and structural properties, the evolution of such nanostructures is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of data from the fossil record. Here, we report preservation of single diamond (Fd-3m) three-dimensional photonic crystals in scales of a 735,000 year old specimen of the brown Nearctic weevil Hypera diversipunctata from Gold Run, Canada, and in extant conspecifics. The preserved red to green structural colours exhibit near-field brilliancy yet are inconspicuous from afar; they most likely had cryptic functions in substrate matching. The discovery of pristine fossil examples indicates that the fossil record is likely to yield further data on the evolution of three-dimensional photonic nanostructures and their biological functions.

  19. The world's first high voltage GaN-on-Diamond power semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltynov, Turar; Unni, Vineet; Narayanan, E. M. Sankara

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the detailed fabrication method and extensive electrical characterisation results of the first-ever demonstrated high voltage GaN power semiconductor devices on CVD Diamond substrate. Fabricated circular GaN-on-Diamond HEMTs with gate-to-drain drift length of 17 μm and source field plate length of 3 μm show an off-state breakdown voltage of ∼1100 V. Temperature characterisation of capacitance-voltage characteristics and on-state characteristics provides insight on the temperature dependence of key parameters such as threshold voltage, 2DEG sheet carrier concentration, specific on-state resistance, and drain saturation current in the fabricated devices.

  20. Cholesteric liquid crystal devices with nanoparticle aggregation.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Shie-Chang; Hwang, Shug-June; Hung, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Sheng-Chieh

    2010-10-11

    A broadband cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) device with a multi-domain structure is demonstrated by using an aggregation of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles in the CLC layer. The aggregation pattern of the self-assembled POSS nanoparticles depends on the concentration of POSS doped in the mixture of POSS/CLC and the cooling rate of the mixture from a temperature higher than the clear point. POSS-induced changes in the bulk and surface properties of the cholesteric cells, such as a promotion of homeotropic alignment, help to form a cholesteric structure with a broadband reflection of light; the latter can be used for improvement of bistable CLC devices. A higher POSS concentration and a higher cooling rate both improve the appearance of the black-white CLC device. PMID:20941154

  1. Nanoimplantation and Purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedrich-Möller, Janine; Pezzagna, Sébastien; Meijer, Jan; Pauly, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Markham, Matthew; Edmonds, Andrew M.; Becher, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    We present the controlled creation of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers via ion implantation at the center of a photonic crystal cavity which is fabricated in an ultrapure, single crystal diamond membrane. High-resolution placement of NV centers is achieved using collimation of a 5 keV-nitrogen ion beam through a pierced tip of an atomic force microscope. We demonstrate coupling of the implanted NV centers' broad band fluorescence to a cavity mode and observe Purcell enhancement of the spontaneous emission. The results are in good agreement with a master equation model for the cavity coupling.

  2. Nanoimplantation and Purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Riedrich-Möller, Janine; Becher, Christoph; Pezzagna, Sébastien; Meijer, Jan; Pauly, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Markham, Matthew; Edmonds, Andrew M.

    2015-06-01

    We present the controlled creation of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers via ion implantation at the center of a photonic crystal cavity which is fabricated in an ultrapure, single crystal diamond membrane. High-resolution placement of NV centers is achieved using collimation of a 5 keV-nitrogen ion beam through a pierced tip of an atomic force microscope. We demonstrate coupling of the implanted NV centers' broad band fluorescence to a cavity mode and observe Purcell enhancement of the spontaneous emission. The results are in good agreement with a master equation model for the cavity coupling.

  3. Observations on the crystallization of spodumene from aqueous solutions in a hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, Jianking; Chou, I-Ming; Yuan, Shunda; Burruss, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Crystallization experiments were conducted in a new type of hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC; type V) using LiAlSi2O6 (S) gel and H2O (W) as starting materials. A total of 21 experiments were performed at temperatures up to 950°C and pressures up to 788 MPa. In the samples with relatively low W/S ratios, many small crystals formed in the melt phase during cooling. In those with high W/S ratios, only a few crystals with smooth surfaces crystallized from the aqueous fluid in the presence of melt droplets, which were gradually consumed during crystal growth, indicating rapid transfer of material from the melt to the crystals through the aqueous fluid. The nucleation of crystals started at 710 (±70)°C and 520 (±80) MPa, and crystal growth ended at 570 (±40)°C and 320 (±90) MPa, with the cooling P-T path within the stability field of spodumene + quartz in the S-W system. The observed linear crystal growth rates in the aqueous phase, calculated by dividing the maximum length of a single crystal by the duration of the entire growth step, were 4.7 × 10−6 and 5.7 × 10−6 cm s−1 for the cooling rates of 0.5 and 1°C min−1, respectively. However, a rapid crystal growth rate of 3.6 × 10−5 cm s−1 in the aqueous fluid was observed when the components were supplied by nearby melt droplets. Our results show that when crystals nucleate in the aqueous fluid instead of the melt phase, there are fewer nuclei formed, and they grow much faster due to the low viscosity of the aqueous fluid, which accelerates diffusion of components for the growth of crystals. Therefore, the large crystals in granitic pegmatite can crystallize directly from aqueous fluids rather than hydrosilicate melt.

  4. Hybrid Quantum Device with Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond Coupled to Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng-Bo; Xiang, Ze-Liang; Rabl, Peter; Nori, Franco

    2016-07-01

    We show that nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond interfaced with a suspended carbon nanotube carrying a dc current can facilitate a spin-nanomechanical hybrid device. We demonstrate that strong magnetomechanical interactions between a single NV spin and the vibrational mode of the suspended nanotube can be engineered and dynamically tuned by external control over the system parameters. This spin-nanomechanical setup with strong, intrinsic, and tunable magnetomechanical couplings allows for the construction of hybrid quantum devices with NV centers and carbon-based nanostructures, as well as phonon-mediated quantum information processing with spin qubits.

  5. Hybrid Quantum Device with Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond Coupled to Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Bo; Xiang, Ze-Liang; Rabl, Peter; Nori, Franco

    2016-07-01

    We show that nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond interfaced with a suspended carbon nanotube carrying a dc current can facilitate a spin-nanomechanical hybrid device. We demonstrate that strong magnetomechanical interactions between a single NV spin and the vibrational mode of the suspended nanotube can be engineered and dynamically tuned by external control over the system parameters. This spin-nanomechanical setup with strong, intrinsic, and tunable magnetomechanical couplings allows for the construction of hybrid quantum devices with NV centers and carbon-based nanostructures, as well as phonon-mediated quantum information processing with spin qubits. PMID:27419577

  6. Fabrication of triangular nanobeam waveguide networks in bulk diamond using single-crystal silicon hard masks

    SciTech Connect

    Bayn, I.; Mouradian, S.; Li, L.; Goldstein, J. A.; Schröder, T.; Zheng, J.; Chen, E. H.; Gaathon, O.; Englund, Dirk; Lu, M.; Stein, A.; Ruggiero, C. A.; Salzman, J.; Kalish, R.

    2014-11-24

    A scalable approach for integrated photonic networks in single-crystal diamond using triangular etching of bulk samples is presented. We describe designs of high quality factor (Q = 2.51 × 10{sup 6}) photonic crystal cavities with low mode volume (V{sub m} = 1.062 × (λ/n){sup 3}), which are connected via waveguides supported by suspension structures with predicted transmission loss of only 0.05 dB. We demonstrate the fabrication of these structures using transferred single-crystal silicon hard masks and angular dry etching, yielding photonic crystal cavities in the visible spectrum with measured quality factors in excess of Q = 3 × 10{sup 3}.

  7. Microfluidics based on ZnO/nanocrystalline diamond surface acoustic wave devices

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Y. Q.; Garcia-Gancedo, L.; Pang, H. F.; Porro, S.; Gu, Y. W.; Luo, J. K.; Zu, X. T.; Placido, F.; Wilson, J. I. B.; Flewitt, A. J.; Milne, W. I.

    2012-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with 64 μm wavelength were fabricated on a zinc oxide (ZnO) film deposited on top of an ultra-smooth nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) layer. The smooth surface of the UNCD film allowed the growth of the ZnO film with excellent c-axis orientation and low surface roughness, suitable for SAW fabrication, and could restrain the wave from significantly dissipating into the substrate. The frequency response of the fabricated devices was characterized and a Rayleigh mode was observed at ∼65.4 MHz. This mode was utilised to demonstrate that the ZnO/UNCD SAW device can be successfully used for microfluidic applications. Streaming, pumping, and jetting using microdroplets of 0.5 and 20 μl were achieved and characterized under different powers applied to the SAW device, focusing more on the jetting behaviors induced by the ZnO SAW. PMID:22655016

  8. Single-crystal diamond refractive lens for focusing X-rays in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Antipov, S; Baryshev, S V; Butler, J E; Antipova, O; Liu, Z; Stoupin, S

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication and performance evaluation of single-crystal diamond refractive X-ray lenses of which the surfaces are paraboloids of revolution for focusing X-rays in two dimensions simultaneously are reported. The lenses were manufactured using a femtosecond laser micromachining process and tested using X-ray synchrotron radiation. Such lenses were stacked together to form a standard compound refractive lens (CRL). Owing to the superior physical properties of the material, diamond CRLs could become indispensable wavefront-preserving primary focusing optics for X-ray free-electron lasers and the next-generation synchrotron storage rings. They can be used for highly efficient refocusing of the extremely bright X-ray sources for secondary optical schemes with limited aperture such as nanofocusing Fresnel zone plates and multilayer Laue lenses. PMID:26698059

  9. Effect of nitrogen on the growth of boron doped single crystal diamond

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Karna, Sunil; Vohra, Yogesh

    2013-11-18

    Boron-doped single crystal diamond films were grown homoepitaxially on synthetic (100) Type Ib diamond substrates using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. A modification in surface morphology of the film with increasing boron concentration in the plasma has been observed using atomic force microscopy. Use of nitrogen during boron doping has been found to improve the surface morphology and the growth rate of films but it lowers the electrical conductivity of the film. The Raman spectra indicated a zone center optical phonon mode along with a few additional bands at the lower wavenumber regions. The change in the peak profilemore » of the zone center optical phonon mode and its downshift were observed with the increasing boron content in the film. Furthermore, sharpening and upshift of Raman line was observed in the film that was grown in presence of nitrogen along with diborane in process gas.« less

  10. Response function stability of single crystal diamond detectors to 14 MeV neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zbořil, Miroslav Zimbal, Andreas

    2014-11-15

    Detectors based on single crystal synthetic diamond show promise as neutron spectrometers for the ITER project. In this work, the stability of the response function of two diamond detectors was tested at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) accelerator using a 14 MeV neutron field and a method of time-resolved fluence monitoring. In addition, measurements at the PTB ion-microbeam were made to investigate the charge collection properties of the detectors in more detail. The {sup 12}C(n,α){sup 9}Be peak response of one of the detectors was found to be stable within 1% after irradiation with a neutron fluence of 8 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2}. The absolute value of the peak response of this detector was determined as 8.65(26) × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}.

  11. Single-crystal diamond refractive lens for focusing X-rays in two dimensions.

    PubMed

    Antipov, S; Baryshev, S V; Butler, J E; Antipova, O; Liu, Z; Stoupin, S

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication and performance evaluation of single-crystal diamond refractive X-ray lenses of which the surfaces are paraboloids of revolution for focusing X-rays in two dimensions simultaneously are reported. The lenses were manufactured using a femtosecond laser micromachining process and tested using X-ray synchrotron radiation. Such lenses were stacked together to form a standard compound refractive lens (CRL). Owing to the superior physical properties of the material, diamond CRLs could become indispensable wavefront-preserving primary focusing optics for X-ray free-electron lasers and the next-generation synchrotron storage rings. They can be used for highly efficient refocusing of the extremely bright X-ray sources for secondary optical schemes with limited aperture such as nanofocusing Fresnel zone plates and multilayer Laue lenses.

  12. Single-crystal diamond refractive lens for focusing X-rays in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, S.; Baryshev, Sergey; Butler, J. E.; Antipova, O.; Liu, Zunping; Stoupin, S.

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication and performance evaluation of single-crystal diamond refractive X-ray lenses of which the surfaces are paraboloids of revolution for focusing X-rays in two dimensions simultaneously are reported. The lenses were manufactured using a femtosecond laser micromachining process and tested using X-ray synchrotron radiation. Such lenses were stacked together to form a standard compound refractive lens (CRL). Owing to the superior physical properties of the material, diamond CRLs could become indispensable wavefront-preserving primary focusing optics for X-ray free-electron lasers and the next-generation synchrotron storage rings. They can be used for highly efficient refocusing of the extremely bright X-ray sources for secondary optical schemes with limited aperture such as nanofocusing Fresnel zone plates and multilayer Laue lenses.

  13. Effect of nitrogen on the growth of boron doped single crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Karna, Sunil; Vohra, Yogesh

    2013-11-18

    Boron-doped single crystal diamond films were grown homoepitaxially on synthetic (100) Type Ib diamond substrates using microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. A modification in surface morphology of the film with increasing boron concentration in the plasma has been observed using atomic force microscopy. Use of nitrogen during boron doping has been found to improve the surface morphology and the growth rate of films but it lowers the electrical conductivity of the film. The Raman spectra indicated a zone center optical phonon mode along with a few additional bands at the lower wavenumber regions. The change in the peak profile of the zone center optical phonon mode and its downshift were observed with the increasing boron content in the film. Furthermore, sharpening and upshift of Raman line was observed in the film that was grown in presence of nitrogen along with diborane in process gas.

  14. Parabolic single-crystal diamond lenses for coherent x-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentyev, Sergey; Blank, Vladimir; Polyakov, Sergey; Zholudev, Sergey; Snigirev, Anatoly; Polikarpov, Maxim; Kolodziej, Tomasz; Qian, Jun; Zhou, Hua; Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate parabolic single-crystal diamond compound refractive lenses designed for coherent x-ray imaging resilient to extreme thermal and radiation loading expected from next generation light sources. To ensure the preservation of coherence and resilience, the lenses are manufactured from the highest-quality single-crystalline synthetic diamond material grown by a high-pressure high-temperature technique. Picosecond laser milling is applied to machine lenses to parabolic shapes with a ≃ 1 μ m precision and surface roughness. A compound refractive lens comprised of six lenses with a radius of curvature R = 200 μ m at the vertex of the parabola and a geometrical aperture A = 900 μ m focuses 10 keV x-ray photons from an undulator source at the Advanced Photon Source facility to a focal spot size of ≃ 20 × 90 μ m 2 with a gain factor of ≃ 50 - 100 .

  15. Nanocrystalline diamond micro-anvil grown on single crystal diamond as a generator of ultra-high pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Moore, Samuel L.; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Baker, Paul A.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2016-09-01

    By combining mask-less lithography and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques, a novel two-stage diamond anvil has been fabricated. A nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) micro-anvil 30 μ m in diameter was grown at the center of a [100]-oriented, diamond anvil by utilizing microwave plasma CVD method. The NCD micro-anvil has a diamond grain size of 115 nm and micro-focused Raman and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicate sp3-bonded diamond content of 72%. These CVD grown NCD micro-anvils were tested in an opposed anvil configuration and the transition metals osmium and tungsten were compressed to high pressures of 264 GPa in a diamond anvil cell.

  16. Enhancing the plasma illumination behaviour of microplasma devices using microcrystalline/ultra-nanocrystalline hybrid diamond materials as cathodes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tinghsun; Lou, Shiucheng; Chen, Huangchin; Chen, Chulung; Lee, Chiyoung; Tai, Nyanhwa; Lin, Inan

    2013-08-21

    The properties of capacity-type microplasma devices were significantly enhanced due to the utilisation of hybrid diamond films as cathodes. The performance of the microplasma devices was closely correlated with the electron field emission (EFE) properties of the diamond cathode materials. The nanoemitters, which were prepared by growing duplex-structured diamond films [microcrystalline diamond (MCD)/ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD)] on Si-pyramid templates via a two-step microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (MPE-CVD) process, exhibited improved EFE properties (E0 = 5.99 V μm(-1), J(e) = 1.10 mA cm(-2) at 8.50 V μm(-1) applied field), resulting in superior microplasma device performance (with a lower threshold field of 200 V mm(-1) and a higher plasma current density of 7.80 mA cm(-2)) in comparison with UNCD film devices prepared using a single-step MPE-CVD process. The superior EFE properties of the duplex-structured MCD-UNCD films relative to those of the UNCD films can be attributed to the unique granular structure of the diamond films. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the MCD-UNCD films consisted of abundant graphitic phases located at the periphery of large diamond aggregates and at the boundaries between the ultra-small diamond grains. The presence of the graphite phase is presumed to be the prime factor that renders these films more conductive and causes these films to exhibit higher EFE properties, thus resulting in the improved plasma illumination properties of the microplasma devices.

  17. Mechanical and optical response of diamond crystals shock compressed along different orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, John Michael, Jr.

    To determine the mechanical and optical response of diamond crystals at high stresses and to evaluate anisotropy effects, single crystals (Type IIa) were shock compressed along the [100], [110], and [111] orientations to ~120 GPa peak elastic stresses. Particle velocity histories and shock velocities, measured using laser interferometry, were used to examine nonlinear elasticity, refractive indices, and Hugoniot elastic limits of shocked diamond. Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy was used to measure the shock compression induced frequency shifts of the triply degenerate 1332.5 cm-1 Raman line. Longitudinal stress-density states for elastic compression along different orientations were determined from the measured particle velocity histories and elastic shock wave velocities. The complete set of third-order elastic constants was determined from the stress-density states and published acoustic data. Several of these constants differed significantly from those calculated using theoretical models. The refractive index of diamond shocked along [100] and [111] was determined from changes in the optical path length along the direction of uniaxial strain. Linear photoelasticity theory predicted the measured refractive index along [111]. In contrast, the refractive index along [100] was nonlinear. The refractive indices for [110] compression were not determined, but the data showed evidence of birefringence. The splitting and frequency shifts of the diamond Raman line were measured for shock compression along [111] and were in good agreement with predictions from prior shock work. Frequency shifts were also measured along [100] and [110] up to ~60 GPa, extending previous measurements. The anharmonic force constants determined from all shock compression measurements agree with the previous shock compression determinations. Hugoniot elastic limits for diamond shock compressed along different orientations were determined from the measured wave profiles. The elastic limits for

  18. Thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, L.

    1993-01-01

    The mirage-effect/thermal wave technique as a modern technique for thermal property characterization is described. The thermal diffusivity of a material is determined by measuring the time and space varying temperature distribution (thermal wave) in the material generated by an intensity modulated heating laser beam. These thermal waves are detected through the deflection of a probe laser beam due to modulation of gradient of the index of refraction (mirage effect) either in the air above the specimens (the in-air technique) or in the specimen itself (the in-solid technique). Three-dimensional theories, for both in-air and in-solid mirage techniques, are represented. In order to extract the material parameters by comparing the theory with experimental data, an extensive data analysis procedure based on multiparameter-least-squares has been developed. The experimental and data analysis details are discussed. Topics concerns with the quality and reliability of the measurements are addressed. This technique has been successfully applied to the thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotope contents. The results showed a 50% enhancement in the thermal conductivity by removal of C[sup 13] content from 1.1% to 0.1% in diamond at room temperature. The technique has also been adapted to function in cryogenic temperatures. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in the temperature range 80-378K for natural IIA specimen and 187-375K for isotopically enriched specimen are obtained, the former results agree with previous works and the latter results demonstrate the isotope effect on the thermal conductivity of single crystal diamond consistently in a large temperature range. The physical source of this enhancement in diffusivity due to the isotope effect in diamond is discussed. The discussion is based on the full Callaway's theory with emphasizing the role of N-processes in the phonon scattering mechanism.

  19. Fast ion energy distribution from third harmonic radio frequency heating measured with a single crystal diamond detector at the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Nocente, M.; Rebai, M.; Gorini, G.; Cazzaniga, C.; Tardocchi, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Muraro, A.; Binda, F.; Eriksson, J.; Sharapov, S.; Collaboration:

    2015-10-15

    Neutron spectroscopy measurements with a single crystal diamond detector have been carried out at JET, for the first time in an experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to MeV energies with radio frequency heating at the third harmonic. Data are interpreted by means of the expected response function of the detector and are used to extract parameters of the highly non-Maxwellian distribution function generated in this scenario. A comparison with observations using a time of flight and liquid scintillator neutron spectrometers is also presented. The results demonstrate the capability of diamond detectors to contribute to fast ion physics studies at JET and are of more general relevance in view of the application of such detectors for spectroscopy measurements in the neutron camera of next step tokamak devices.

  20. The local crystallization in nanoscale diamond-like carbon films during annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Kolpakov, A. Ya. Poplavsky, A. I.; Galkina, M. E.; Gerus, J. V.; Manokhin, S. S.

    2014-12-08

    The local crystallization during annealing at 600 °C in nanoscale diamond-like carbon coatings films grown by pulsed vacuum-arc deposition method was observed using modern techniques of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The crystallites formed by annealing have a face-centred cubic crystal structure and grow in the direction [01{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}] as a normal to the film surface. The number and size of the crystallites depend on the initial values of the intrinsic stresses before annealing, which in turn depend on the conditions of film growth. The sizes of crystallites are 10 nm for films with initial compressive stresses of 3 GPa and 17 nm for films with initial compressive stresses of 12 GPa. Areas of local crystallization arising during annealing have a structure different from the graphite. Additionally, the investigation results of the structure of nanoscale diamond-like carbon coatings films using Raman spectroscopy method are presented, which are consistent with the transmission electron microscopy research results.

  1. Micro and nano-patterning of single-crystal diamond by swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, G.; Preda, I.; Díaz-Híjar, M.; Tormo-Márquez, V.; Peña-Rodríguez, O.; Olivares, J.; Bosia, F.; Pugno, N. M.; Picollo, F.; Giuntini, L.; Sordini, A.; Olivero, P.; López-Mir, L.; Ocal, C.

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents experimental data and analysis of the structural damage caused by swift-heavy ion irradiation of single-crystal diamond. The patterned buried structural damage is shown to generate, via swelling, a mirror-pattern on the sample surface, which remains largely damage-free. While extensive results are available for light ion implantations, this effect is reported here for the first time in the heavy ion regime, where a completely different range of input parameters (in terms of ion species, energy, stopping power, etc.) is available for customized irradiation. The chosen ion species are Au and Br, in the energy range 10-40 MeV. The observed patterns, as characterized by profilometry and atomic force microscopy, are reported in a series of model experiments, which show swelling patterns ranging from a few nm to above 200 nm. Moreover, a systematic phenomenological modelling is presented, in which surface swelling measurements are correlated to buried crystal damage. A comparison is made with data for light ion implantations, showing good compatibility with the proposed models. The modelling presented in this work can be useful for the design and realization of micropatterned surfaces in single crystal diamond, allowing to generate highly customized structures by combining appropriately chosen irradiation parameters and masks.

  2. Enhancing the stability of microplasma device utilizing diamond coated carbon nanotubes as cathode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Tinghsun; Sankaran, Kamatchi Jothiramalingam; Tai, Nyanhwa E-mail: inanlin@mail.tku.edu.tw; Kunuku, Srinivasu; Leou, Keh-Chyang; Lin, I-Nan E-mail: inanlin@mail.tku.edu.tw

    2014-06-02

    This paper reports the enhanced stability of a microplasma device by using hybrid-granular-structured diamond (HiD) film coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as cathode, which overcomes the drawback of short life time in the CNTs-based one. The microplasma device can be operated more than 210 min without showing any sign of degradation, whereas the CNTs-based one can last only 50 min. Besides the high robustness against the Ar-ion bombardment, the HiD/CNTs material also possesses superior electron field emission properties with low turn-on field of 3.2 V/μm, which is considered as the prime factor for the improved plasma illumination performance of the devices.

  3. The characterization of strain, impurity content, and crush strength of synthetic diamond crystals

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, T.L.; Jackson, W.E.; Nemanich, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses the correlation of the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of synthetic diamond crystals produced by high pressure, high temperature conditions. Microscopic properties were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, birefringence, and photoluminescence (PL). Macroscopic properties characterized included inclusion content and crush force. Raman measurements detected measurable stress shifts in only two samples. The PL measurements indicated an increased presence of the H3 center in areas of high strain. The absence of the H3 center and the presence of the N-V PL center was correlated to lower average crush force. A hierarchy has been developed that relates microscopic properties to average crush force. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  4. Feasibility of tunable MEMS photonic crystal devices.

    PubMed

    Rajic, S; Corbeil, J L; Datskos, P G

    2003-01-01

    Periodic photonic crystal structures channel electromagnetic waves much as semiconductors/quantum wells channel electrons. Photonic bandgap crystals (PBC) are fabricated by arranging sub-wavelength alternating materials with high and low dielectric constants to produce a desired effective bandgap. Photons with energy within this bandgap cannot propagate through the structure. This property has made these structures useful for microwave applications such as frequency-selective surfaces, narrowband filters, and antenna substrates when the dimensions are on the order of millimeters. They are also potentially very useful, albeit much more difficult to fabricate, in the visible/near-infrared region for various applications when the smallest dimensions are at the edge of current micro-lithography fabrication tools. We micro-fabricated suspended free standing micro-structure bridge waveguides to serve as substrates for PBC features. These micro-bridges were fabricated onto commercial silicon-on-insulator wafers. Nanoscale periodic features were fabricated onto these micro-structure bridges to form a tunable system. When this combined structure is perturbed, such as mechanical deflection of the suspended composite structure at resonance, there can be a realtime shift in the material effective bandgap due to slight geometric alterations due to the induced mechanical stress. Extremely high resonance frequencies/device speeds are possible with these very small dimension MEMS.

  5. Characterization of a new commercial single crystal diamond detector for photon- and proton-beam dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Akino, Yuichi; Gautam, Archana; Coutinho, Len; Würfel, Jan; Das, Indra J.

    2015-01-01

    A synthetic single crystal diamond detector (SCDD) is commercially available and is characterized for radiation dosimetry in various radiation beams in this study. The characteristics of the commercial SCDD model 60019 (PTW) with 6- and 15-MV photon beams, and 208-MeV proton beams, were investigated and compared with the pre-characterized detectors: Semiflex (model 31010) and PinPoint (model 31006) ionization chambers (PTW), the EDGE diode detector (Sun Nuclear Corp) and the SFD Stereotactic Dosimetry Diode Detector (IBA). To evaluate the effects of the pre-irradiation, the diamond detector, which had not been irradiated on the day, was set up in the water tank, and the response to 100 MU was measured every 20 s. The depth–dose and profiles data were collected for various field sizes and depths. For all radiation types and field sizes, the depth–dose data of the diamond chamber showed identical curves to those of the ionization chambers. The profile of the diamond detector was very similar to those of the EDGE and SFD detectors, although the Semiflex and PinPoint chambers showed volume-averaging effects in the penumbrae region. The temperature dependency was within 0.7% in the range of 4–41°C. A dose of 900 cGy and 1200 cGy was needed to stabilize the chamber to the level within 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. The PTW type 60019 SCDD detector showed suitable characteristics for radiation dosimetry, for relative dose, depth–dose and profile measurements for a wide range of field sizes. However, at least 1000 cGy of pre-irradiation will be needed for accurate measurements. PMID:26268483

  6. Presentation of a research project addressed to the realisation of a diamond-based cellular biosensing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boarino, Luca; Carabelli, Valentina; Carbone, Emilio; Genovese, Marco; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Picollo, Federico; Traina, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    In this proceedings we will present a research project financed by Piedmont regional government (Italy; finalized to the realization and commercialization of functional devices for cellular bio-sensing based on diamond. Partners of the project are: Crisel Instruments, Torino University, Torino Polytechnic, INRIM, Politronica, Bionica Tech, Ulm University Here the main features of the final devices will be briefly summarized. We envisage an active diamond-based cellular substrate that can simultaneously stimulate and detect a variety of signals (chemical, optical, electrical) to and from neuroendocrine cells, in a fully biocompatible environment for the cellular system under test. Such a device can be realized by fully exploiting the peculiar properties of diamond: optical transparency, biocompatibility, chemical inertness, accessibility to a conductive graphite-like phase; properties that will be further explored and tested during the project.

  7. Turnbuckle diamond anvil cell for high-pressure measurements in a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Giriat, Gaétan; Wang, Weiwei; Attfield, J Paul; Huxley, Andrew D; Kamenev, Konstantin V

    2010-07-01

    We have developed a miniature diamond anvil cell for magnetization measurements in a widely used magnetic property measurement system commercial magnetometer built around a superconducting quantum interference device. The design of the pressure cell is based on the turnbuckle principle in which force can be created and maintained by rotating the body of the device while restricting the counterthreaded end-nuts to translational movement. The load on the opposed diamond anvils and the sample between them is generated using a hydraulic press. The load is then locked by rotating the body of the cell with respect to the end-nuts. The dimensions of the pressure cell have been optimized by use of finite element analysis. The cell is approximately a cylinder 7 mm long and 7 mm in diameter and weighs only 1.5 g. Due to its small size the cell thermalizes rapidly. It is capable of achieving pressures in excess of 10 GPa while allowing measurements to be performed with the maximum sensitivity of the magnetometer. The performance of the pressure cell is illustrated by a high pressure magnetic study of Mn(3)[Cr(CN)(6)](2) x xH(2)O Prussian blue analog up to 10.3 GPa.

  8. Turnbuckle diamond anvil cell for high-pressure measurements in a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giriat, Gaétan; Wang, Weiwei; Attfield, J. Paul; Huxley, Andrew D.; Kamenev, Konstantin V.

    2010-07-01

    We have developed a miniature diamond anvil cell for magnetization measurements in a widely used magnetic property measurement system commercial magnetometer built around a superconducting quantum interference device. The design of the pressure cell is based on the turnbuckle principle in which force can be created and maintained by rotating the body of the device while restricting the counterthreaded end-nuts to translational movement. The load on the opposed diamond anvils and the sample between them is generated using a hydraulic press. The load is then locked by rotating the body of the cell with respect to the end-nuts. The dimensions of the pressure cell have been optimized by use of finite element analysis. The cell is approximately a cylinder 7 mm long and 7 mm in diameter and weighs only 1.5 g. Due to its small size the cell thermalizes rapidly. It is capable of achieving pressures in excess of 10 GPa while allowing measurements to be performed with the maximum sensitivity of the magnetometer. The performance of the pressure cell is illustrated by a high pressure magnetic study of Mn3[Cr(CN)6]2ṡxH2O Prussian blue analog up to 10.3 GPa.

  9. Cholesteric liquid crystal photonic crystal lasers and photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying

    This dissertation discusses cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) and polymers based photonic devices including one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal lasers and broadband circular polarizers. CLCs showing unique self-organized chiral structures have been widely used in bistable displays, flexible displays, and reflectors. However, the photonic band gap they exhibit opens a new way for generating laser light at the photonic band edge (PBE) or inside the band gap. When doped with an emissive laser dye, cholesteric liquid crystals provide distributed feedback so that mirrorless lasing is hence possible. Due to the limited surface anchoring, the thickness of gain medium and feedback length is tens of micrometers. Therefore lasing efficiency is quite limited and laser beam is highly divergent. To meet the challenges, we demonstrated several new methods to enhance the laser emission while reducing the beam divergence from a cholesteric liquid crystal laser. Enhanced laser emission is demonstrated by incorporating a single external CLC reflector as a polarization conserved reflector. Because the distributed feedback from the active layer is polarization selective, a CLC reflector preserves the original polarization of the reflected light and a further stimulated amplification ensues. As a result of virtually doubled feedback length, the output is dramatically enhanced in the same circular polarization state. Meanwhile, the laser beam divergence is dramatically reduced due to the increased cavity length from micrometer to millimeter scale. Enhanced laser emission is also demonstrated by the in-cell metallic reflector because the active layer is pumped twice. Unlike a CLC reflector, the output from a mirror-reflected CLC laser is linearly polarized as a result of coherent superposition of two orthogonal circular polarization states. The output linear polarization direction can be well controlled and fine tuned by varying the operating temperature and cell gap. Enhanced laser

  10. Cryptic iridescence in a fossil weevil generated by single diamond photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Maria E; Saranathan, Vinod; Locatelli, Emma R; Noh, Heeso; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Cao, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Nature's most spectacular colours originate in integumentary tissue architectures that scatter light via nanoscale modulations of the refractive index. The most intricate biophotonic nanostructures are three-dimensional crystals with opal, single diamond or single gyroid lattices. Despite intense interest in their optical and structural properties, the evolution of such nanostructures is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of data from the fossil record. Here, we report preservation of single diamond (Fd-3m) three-dimensional photonic crystals in scales of a 735,000 year old specimen of the brown Nearctic weevil Hypera diversipunctata from Gold Run, Canada, and in extant conspecifics. The preserved red to green structural colours exhibit near-field brilliancy yet are inconspicuous from afar; they most likely had cryptic functions in substrate matching. The discovery of pristine fossil examples indicates that the fossil record is likely to yield further data on the evolution of three-dimensional photonic nanostructures and their biological functions. PMID:25185581

  11. Electron-beam induced diamond-like-carbon passivation of plasmonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaur, Eugeniu; Sadatnajafi, Catherine; Langley, Daniel; Lin, Jiao; Kou, Shan Shan; Abbey, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Engineered materials with feature sizes on the order of a few nanometres offer the potential for producing metamaterials with properties which may differ significantly from their bulk counterpart. Here we describe the production of plasmonic colour filters using periodic arrays of nanoscale cross shaped apertures fabricated in optically opaque silver films. Due to its relatively low loss in the visible and near infrared range, silver is a popular choice for plasmonic devices, however it is also unstable in wet or even ambient conditions. Here we show that ultra-thin layers of Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) can be used to prevent degradation due to oxidative stress, ageing and corrosion. We demonstrate that DLC effectively protects the sub-micron features which make up the plasmonic colour filter under both atmospheric conditions and accelerated aging using iodine gas. Through a systematic study we confirm that the nanometre thick DLC layers have no effect on the device functionality or performance.

  12. Nano-Crystals of c-Diamond, n-Diamond and i-Carbon Grown in Carbon-Ion Implanted Fused Quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, J. L.; Orwa, J. O.; Jiang, B.; Prawer, S.; Bursill, L. A.

    Combined high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy are used to characterise carbon nano-phases found embedded in fused quartz. These appear after implantation of 1 MeV carbon ions, followed by annealing in argon, oxygen and forming gas for 1 hour at 1100°C. For Ar, virtually all of the carbon diffuses out of the substrate with no observable carbon clusters for all doses studied. After annealing in oxygen, a crystalline COx phase is identified at the end of range, following a dose of 5×1017 C/cm2. Three nano-crystalline carbon phases, including diamond, appear after annealing in forming gas: these form a layer 170 nm beneath the fused quartz surface for all ion doses. The average size of these clusters and the corresponding phases depend on the ion dose; the smallest size of 5-7 nm diameter crystallise as fcc Fd¯ {3}m diamond following a dose of 0.5× 1017 C/cm2, whereas clusters of 8-13 nm diameter, for a higher dose of 2× 1017 C/cm2, have a Fm¯ {3}m modified phase of diamond known as n-diamond. The largest clusters, diameter 15-40 nm, for a dose of 5× 1017 C/cm2, have the cubic P213 (or P4232) structure known as i-carbon. These buried layered diamond and diamond-related materials may have applications for field emission and optical waveguide type devices.

  13. A new single crystal diamond dosimeter for small beam: comparison with different commercial active detectors.

    PubMed

    Marsolat, F; Tromson, D; Tranchant, N; Pomorski, M; Le Roy, M; Donois, M; Moignau, F; Ostrowsky, A; De Carlan, L; Bassinet, C; Huet, C; Derreumaux, S; Chea, M; Cristina, K; Boisserie, G; Bergonzo, P

    2013-11-01

    Recent developments of new therapy techniques using small photon beams, such as stereotactic radiotherapy, require suitable detectors to determine the delivered dose with a high accuracy. The dosimeter has to be as close as possible to tissue equivalence and to exhibit a small detection volume compared to the size of the irradiation field, because of the lack of lateral electronic equilibrium in small beam. Characteristics of single crystal diamond (tissue equivalent material Z = 6, high density) make it an ideal candidate to fulfil most of small beam dosimetry requirements. A commercially available Element Six electronic grade synthetic diamond was used to develop a single crystal diamond dosimeter (SCDDo) with a small detection volume (0.165 mm(3)). Long term stability was studied by irradiating the SCDDo in a (60)Co beam over 14 h. A good stability (deviation less than ± 0.1%) was observed. Repeatability, dose linearity, dose rate dependence and energy dependence were studied in a 10 × 10 cm(2) beam produced by a Varian Clinac 2100 C linear accelerator. SCDDo lateral dose profile, depth dose curve and output factor (OF) measurements were performed for small photon beams with a micro multileaf collimator m3 (BrainLab) attached to the linac. This study is focused on the comparison of SCDDo measurements to those obtained with different commercially available active detectors: an unshielded silicon diode (PTW 60017), a shielded silicon diode (Sun Nuclear EDGE), a PinPoint ionization chamber (PTW 31014) and two natural diamond detectors (PTW 60003). SCDDo presents an excellent spatial resolution for dose profile measurements, due to its small detection volume. Low energy dependence (variation of 1.2% between 6 and 18 MV photon beam) and low dose rate dependence of the SCDDo (variation of 1% between 0.53 and 2.64 Gy min(-1)) are obtained, explaining the good agreement between the SCDDo and the efficient unshielded diode (PTW 60017) in depth dose curve

  14. Bistable liquid crystal device fabricated via microscale liquid crystal alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Michinori; Toyoshima, Wataru; Nose, Toshiaki

    2016-10-01

    Bistable liquid crystal (LC) molecular orientation properties in micropatterned LC cells were investigated experimentally and theoretically. When an LC cell was heated to the phase-transition temperature and then cooled, an LC orientation with ±π/2-twist domains (±π/2-twist mode) was obtained. Furthermore, a different LC orientation with ±π-twist domains (±π-twist mode) was observed when a 10-V potential was applied across a sample LC cell. Both orientation states were stably retained over a long period. Herein, cross-sectional LC orientation models in the ±π/2- and ±π-twist modes are proposed to explain the generation and behavior of two different disclination lines. The total energies within one period in the ±π/2- and ±π-twist modes (F±π/2 and F±π, respectively) were estimated theoretically. These energies were found to depend on the LC layer thickness and to cross over at a certain thickness; this indicates that F±π is equal to F±π/2 at this equilibrium thickness. The best temporal stability is likely attained at this equilibrium thickness. We demonstrated a bistable color-switching device by combining a full-wave plate and crossed polarizers. When these optical components were configured properly, stable bistable switching between two colors was achieved.

  15. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1983-01-01

    GaAs device technology has recently reached a new phase of rapid advancement, made possible by the improvement of the quality of GaAs bulk crystals. At the same time, the transition to the next generation of GaAs integrated circuits and optoelectronic systems for commercial and government applications hinges on new quantum steps in three interrelated areas: crystal growth, device processing and device-related properties and phenomena. Special emphasis is placed on the establishment of quantitative relationships among crystal growth parameters-material properties-electronic properties and device applications. The overall program combines studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor material (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; and investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance.

  16. Processing of Diamond for Integrated Optic Devices Using Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser at Different Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer, S. K.; Pillai, V. P. Mahadevan; Nayar, V. U.

    In the present investigation, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to study the various aspects of diamond processing for fabricating integrated optic and UV optoelectronic devices. Diamond is a better choice of substrate compared to silicon and gallium arsenide for the fabrication of waveguides to perform operations such as modulation, switching, multiplexing, and filtering, particularly in the ultraviolet spectrum. The experimental setup of the present investigation consists of two Q-Switched Nd:YAG lasers capable of operating at wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm. The diamond cutting is performed using these two wavelengths by making the "V"-shaped groove with various opening angle. The variation of material loss of diamond during cutting is noted for the two wavelengths. The cut surface morphology and elemental and structural analysis of graphite formed during processing in both cases are compared using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser Raman spectroscopy. Both the Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser systems (at 1064 nm and 532 nm) show very good performance in terms of peak-to-peak output stability, minimal spot diameter, smaller divergence angle, higher peak power in Q-switched mode, and good fundamental TEM00 mode quality for processing natural diamond stones. Less material loss and minimal micro cracks are achieved with wavelength 532 nm whereas a better diamond cut surface is achieved with processing at 1064 nm with minimum roughness.

  17. Photonic crystal devices formed by a charged-particle beam

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Koops, Hans W. P.

    2000-01-01

    A photonic crystal device and method. The photonic crystal device comprises a substrate with at least one photonic crystal formed thereon by a charged-particle beam deposition method. Each photonic crystal comprises a plurality of spaced elements having a composition different from the substrate, and may further include one or more impurity elements substituted for spaced elements. Embodiments of the present invention may be provided as electromagnetic wave filters, polarizers, resonators, sources, mirrors, beam directors and antennas for use at wavelengths in the range from about 0.2 to 200 microns or longer. Additionally, photonic crystal devices may be provided with one or more electromagnetic waveguides adjacent to a photonic crystal for forming integrated electromagnetic circuits for use at optical, infrared, or millimeter-wave frequencies.

  18. Integration of piezoelectric aluminum nitride and ultrananocrystalline diamond films for implantable biomedical microelectromechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalazar, M.; Gurman, P.; Park, J.; Kim, D.; Hong, S.; Stan, L.; Divan, R.; Czaplewski, D.; Auciello, O.

    2013-03-01

    The physics for integration of piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) films with underlying insulating ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), and electrically conductive grain boundary nitrogen-incorporated UNCD (N-UNCD) and boron-doped UNCD (B-UNCD) layers, as membranes for microelectromechanical system implantable drug delivery devices, has been investigated. AlN films deposited on platinum layers on as grown UNCD or N-UNCD layer (5-10 nm rms roughness) required thickness of ˜400 nm to induce (002) AlN orientation with piezoelectric d33 coefficient ˜1.91 pm/V at ˜10 V. Chemical mechanical polished B-UNCD films (0.2 nm rms roughness) substrates enabled (002) AlN film 200 nm thick, yielding d33 = 5.3 pm/V.

  19. A 3D diamond detector for particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bergonzo, P.; Caylar, B.; Forcolin, G.; Haughton, I.; Hits, D.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Li, L.; Oh, A.; Phan, S.; Pomorski, M.; Smith, D. S.; Tyzhnevyi, V.; Wallny, R.; Whitehead, D.

    2015-06-01

    A novel device using single-crystal chemical vapour deposited diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk forming a 3D diamond detector is presented. The electrodes of the device were fabricated with laser assisted phase change of diamond into a combination of diamond-like carbon, amorphous carbon and graphite. The connections to the electrodes of the device were made using a photo-lithographic process. The electrical and particle detection properties of the device were investigated. A prototype detector system consisting of the 3D device connected to a multi-channel readout was successfully tested with 120 GeV protons proving the feasibility of the 3D diamond detector concept for particle tracking applications for the first time.

  20. Single-crystal Diamond Detector for DT and DD plasmas diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebai, M.; Cazzaniga, C.; Tardocchi, M.; Grosso, G.; Croci, G.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Calvani, P.; Girolami, M.; Trucchi, D. M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-11-01

    Single-crystal Diamond Detectors (SDD) are good candidates as high-energy neutron detectors in the extreme conditions of the next generation thermonuclear fusion facilities like the ITER experiment, due to their high radiation hardness, fast response time and small size. Neutron detection in SDDs is based on the collection of electron-hole pairs produced by charged particles generated by neutron interaction on 12 C . In this work the SDD response to neutrons with energies between 2.8 and 3.8MeV was determined at the Legnaro CN accelerator at the INFN Laboratories in Legnaro (PD, Italy). This work is relevant for the characterization of SDDs response functions, which are key points for Deuterium-Deuterium and Deuterium-Tritium plasma diagnostic.

  1. Amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal in the feather barbs of the scarlet macaw

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhan, Tianrong; Shi, Lei; Zi, Jian; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2012-01-01

    Noniridescent coloration by the spongy keratin in parrot feather barbs has fascinated scientists. Nonetheless, its ultimate origin remains as yet unanswered, and a quantitative structural and optical description is still lacking. Here we report on structural and optical characterizations and numerical simulations of the blue feather barbs of the scarlet macaw. We found that the sponge in the feather barbs is an amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal with only short-range order. It possesses an isotropic photonic pseudogap that is ultimately responsible for the brilliant noniridescent coloration. We further unravel an ingenious structural optimization for attaining maximum coloration apparently resulting from natural evolution. Upon increasing the material refractive index above the level provided by nature, there is an interesting transition from a photonic pseudogap to a complete bandgap. PMID:22615350

  2. A Bayesian method to estimate the neutron response matrix of a single crystal CVD diamond detector

    SciTech Connect

    Reginatto, Marcel; Araque, Jorge Guerrero; Nolte, Ralf; Zbořil, Miroslav; Zimbal, Andreas; Gagnon-Moisan, Francis

    2015-01-13

    Detectors made from artificial chemical vapor deposition (CVD) single crystal diamond are very promising candidates for applications where high resolution neutron spectrometry in very high neutron fluxes is required, for example in fusion research. We propose a Bayesian method to estimate the neutron response function of the detector for a continuous range of neutron energies (in our case, 10 MeV ≤ E{sub n} ≤ 16 MeV) based on a few measurements with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons. This method is needed because a complete set of measurements is not available and the alternative approach of using responses based on Monte Carlo calculations is not feasible. Our approach uses Bayesian signal-background separation techniques and radial basis function interpolation methods. We present the analysis of data measured at the PTB accelerator facility PIAF. The method is quite general and it can be applied to other particle detectors with similar characteristics.

  3. Amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal in the feather barbs of the scarlet macaw.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhan, Tianrong; Shi, Lei; Zi, Jian; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2012-07-01

    Noniridescent coloration by the spongy keratin in parrot feather barbs has fascinated scientists. Nonetheless, its ultimate origin remains as yet unanswered, and a quantitative structural and optical description is still lacking. Here we report on structural and optical characterizations and numerical simulations of the blue feather barbs of the scarlet macaw. We found that the sponge in the feather barbs is an amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal with only short-range order. It possesses an isotropic photonic pseudogap that is ultimately responsible for the brilliant noniridescent coloration. We further unravel an ingenious structural optimization for attaining maximum coloration apparently resulting from natural evolution. Upon increasing the material refractive index above the level provided by nature, there is an interesting transition from a photonic pseudogap to a complete bandgap.

  4. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, S.D.; Marshall, K.L.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1991-10-08

    Composite optical devices are disclosed using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T[sub g]) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device. 7 figures.

  5. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Stephen D.; Marshall, Kenneth L.; Cerqua, Kathleen A.

    1991-01-01

    Composite optical devices using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T.sub.g) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device.

  6. Single Crystal Preparation for High-Pressure Experiments in the Diamond Anvil Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Aracne, C; Farber, D; Benterou, J; Occelli, F; Krisch, M; Antonangeli, D; Requardt, H; Fiquet, G

    2003-07-01

    Most research conducted in diamond anvil cells (DAC) is performed on polycrystalline samples. While data from polycrystalline samples are sufficient for determining the bulk properties, high-pressure experiments on single crystals allow for measurements on a range of tensor properties such as: thermal and electrical conductivity; magnetic susceptibility; elasticity; and plasticity. However, in order to achieve pressures above 1 Mbar in a DAC, single crystal samples must be <50 m in diameter and <15 m thick while maintaining a high degree of crystallinity. Thus, we have developed new procedures for producing extremely high-quality micro single crystal samples from commercially available material. Our sample preparation steps include cutting, classical metallographic polishing, and laser ablation. The key to our new process is the preservation of crystallinity during cutting and thinning. We have been successful in maintaining orientation, along with an extremely high degree of crystallinity in completed metal samples. To date, we have analyzed cobalt and molybdenum samples with both white-light interferometry and synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and are in the process of extending these methods to other metals and ceramics.

  7. Fabrication of high density, adherent films of five-fold symmetric diamond crystals by hot filament chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qiuping; Ashfold, M. N. R.; Yu, Z. M.; Ma, Li; Yin, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    Five-fold symmetric diamond crystals (FSDCs) have been grown on a large variety of substrates by hot filament chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods. High density, adherent films of FSDCs have been prepared on carbon steel with a thermal sprayed WC-Co interlayer, and their quality, adhesion and tribological behaviour were investigated. The diamond films show excellent adhesion under Rockwell indentation testing and when subjected to high-speed, high-load, long-time reciprocating dry sliding ball-on-flat wear tests against a Si 3N 4 counter-face in ambient air.

  8. Fine Structure in the Secondary Electron Emission Peak for Diamond Crystal with (100) Negative Electron Affinity Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asnin, V. M.; Krainsky, I. L.

    1998-01-01

    A fine structure was discovered in the low-energy peak of the secondary electron emission spectra of the diamond surface with negative electron affinity. We studied this structure for the (100) surface of the natural type-IIb diamond crystal. We have found that the low-energy peak consists of a total of four maxima. The relative energy positions of three of them could be related to the electron energy minima near the bottom of the conduction band. The fourth peak, having the lowest energy, was attributed to the breakup of the bulk exciton at the surface during the process of secondary electron emission.

  9. Demonstration of a three-dimensional photonic crystal nanocavity in a 〈110〉-layered diamond structure

    SciTech Connect

    Tajiri, T.; Takahashi, S.; Ota, Y.; Tatebayashi, J.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y.

    2015-08-17

    We experimentally demonstrate a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3D PC) nanocavity in a 〈110〉-layered diamond structure with a quality factor (Q-factor) of 12 800 at a wavelength of 1.1 μm. The observed Q is 1.2 times higher than that of a 3D PC nanocavity in a woodpile structure with the same in-plane size and the same number of stacked layers. This result indicates the potential importance of the 〈110〉-layered diamond structure for getting high Q 3D PC nanocavities within a limited in-plane space.

  10. Fluorinated diamond-like carbon as antithrombogenic coating for blood-contacting devices.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Terumitsu; Shimada, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Matsuoka, Yoshiaki; Saito, Toshiya; Yohena, Satoshi; Kamijo, Aki; Shiraga, Nobuyuki; Higuchi, Mutsumi; Kimura, Kanako; Yoshimura, Hirokuni; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2006-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is being considered for widespread clinical use as a surface coating for cardiovascular devices. We synthesized fluorinated DLC (F-DLC) coatings in order to create a more hydrophobic surface with improved antithrombogenicity and flexibility when compared with conventional DLC coatings by combining the inertness of DLC films with the advantage of fluorination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemocompatibility and in vivo biocompatibility of the F-DLC coating for medical devices. The in vitro whole blood model confirmed that platelet loss was lower in the F-DLC group than in the noncoated group (SUS316L), which suggests the adhesion of a smaller number of platelets to F-DLC-coated materials. Furthermore, the biomarkers of mechanically induced platelet activation (beta-thromboglobulin) and activated coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin-three complex) were markedly reduced in the F-DLC-coated group. In vivo rat implant model studies revealed no excessive local and systemic inflammatory responses in the F-DLC group. The thickness of the fibrous tissue capsule surrounding the F-DLC-coated disk was almost equal to that of the noncoated SUS316L disk, which has the favorable biocompatibility for metallic implant materials. F-DLC coating thus appears to be a promising candidate for use as a coating material in blood-contacting devices.

  11. Generation and detection of the polarization of multi-GeV photons by use of two diamond crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsebom, K.; Kononets, Yu. V.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Elsener, K.; Biino, C.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Avakian, R. O.; Ispirian, K. A.; Taroian, S. P.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Vilakazi, Z. Z.

    1999-07-01

    Presented are experimental results for the difference in pair production probability (the asymmetry) for 5-150 GeV photons polarized parallel and perpendicular to a (110) plane in a 1.5 mm thick diamond <100> crystal. The photons are produced by interaction of 150 GeV electrons with an aligned diamond <100> crystal of 0.5 mm thickness. A significant asymmetry is found over the whole energy range, which corresponds to a high degree of linear polarization of the photons as well as a difference in the refractive index. This proof-of-principle result gives the possibility of producing high energy photons with circular polarization by use of a crystal. This might open for several opportunities in high energy physics like for instance the investigation of the contribution of the gluons to the spin of the nucleon.

  12. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    The crystal growth, device processing and device related properties and phenomena of GaAs are investigated. Our GaAs research evolves about these key thrust areas. The overall program combines: (1) studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); (2) investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; (3) investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance. The ground based program is developed which would insure successful experimentation with and eventually processing of GaAs in a near zero gravity environment.

  13. Sites of the N1 nitrogen paramagnetic centers in natural diamond crystals: Dissymmetrization of the structure as a result of plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titkov, S. V.; Mineeva, R. M.; Ryabchikov, I. D.; Speransky, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Using the method of EPR spectroscopy, it is shown that the N1 nitrogen centers (N-C-N+) are unevenly distributed over possible sites in natural brown crystals of plastically deformed diamonds. The influence of deformational dissymmetrization of the structure on the anisotropy of some physical properties of natural diamonds is discussed.

  14. Multiple delta doping of single crystal cubic boron nitride films heteroepitaxially grown on (001)diamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, H.; Ziemann, P.

    2014-06-23

    Phase pure cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films have been epitaxially grown on (001) diamond substrates at 900 °C. The n-type doping of c-BN epitaxial films relies on the sequential growth of nominally undoped (p-) and Si doped (n-) layers with well-controlled thickness (down to several nanometer range) in the concept of multiple delta doping. The existence of nominally undoped c-BN overgrowth separates the Si doped layers, preventing Si dopant segregation that was observed for continuously doped epitaxial c-BN films. This strategy allows doping of c-BN films can be scaled up to multiple numbers of doped layers through atomic level control of the interface in the future electronic devices. Enhanced electronic transport properties with higher hall mobility (10{sup 2} cm{sup 2}/V s) have been demonstrated at room temperature as compared to the normally continuously Si doped c-BN films.

  15. Bandgap properties of diamond structure photonic crystal heterostructures with inclined and curved interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Haitao; Li, Yong; Wang, Hong

    2014-06-14

    The 3D (dimensional) diamond structure photonic crystal heterostructures with different lattice constants were prepared using rapid prototyping and gel casting with alumina. In this paper, heterostructures with inclined and curved interfaces were designed and its bandgap properties were studied. The normalized resonant intensity of electromagnetic wave in heterostructure with inclined and curved interface is stronger than that in the ordinary heterostructure without modified interface. The influence of curved interface on transmission properties of electromagnetic wave was investigated with the radius of curvature ranging from 17 mm to 37 mm at 5 mm interval. The results show that two resonant modes appear in the photonic band gap, being similar to the band gap characteristics of the photonic crystals with two defects inside. With the increasing of the radius of curvature, the resonant mode shift to higher frequency. In the structure with a radius of curvature of 32 mm, a guiding band appears in the photonic band gap. Further increase in the radius of curvature, the guiding band will split into two resonant modes again and the two resonant modes shift to lower frequencies.

  16. Lithium niobate single-crystal and photo-functional device

    DOEpatents

    Gopalan, Venkatraman; Mitchell, Terrence E.; Kitamura, Kenji; Furukawa, Yasunori

    2001-01-01

    Provided are lithium niobate single-crystal that requires a low voltage of not larger than 10 kV/nm for its ferroelectric polarization inversion and of which the polarization can be periodically inverted with accuracy even at such a low voltage, and a photo-functional device comprising the crystal. The crystal has a molar fraction of Li.sub.2 O/(Nb.sub.2 O.sub.5 +Li.sub.2 O) of falling between 0.49 and 0.52. The photo-functional device can convert a laser ray being incident thereon.

  17. Design and fabrication of high-performance diamond triple-gate field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiangwei; Ohsato, Hirotaka; Wang, Xi; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo

    2016-10-01

    The lack of large-area single-crystal diamond wafers has led us to downscale diamond electronic devices. Here, we design and fabricate a hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond) triple-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to extend device downscaling and increase device output current. The device’s electrical properties are compared with those of planar-type MOSFETs, which are fabricated simultaneously on the same substrate. The triple-gate MOSFET’s output current (174.2 mA mm‑1) is much higher than that of the planar-type device (45.2 mA mm‑1), and the on/off ratio and subthreshold swing are more than 108 and as low as 110 mV dec‑1, respectively. The fabrication of these H-diamond triple-gate MOSFETs will drive diamond electronic device development forward towards practical applications.

  18. Design and fabrication of high-performance diamond triple-gate field-effect transistors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangwei; Ohsato, Hirotaka; Wang, Xi; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    The lack of large-area single-crystal diamond wafers has led us to downscale diamond electronic devices. Here, we design and fabricate a hydrogenated diamond (H-diamond) triple-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to extend device downscaling and increase device output current. The device’s electrical properties are compared with those of planar-type MOSFETs, which are fabricated simultaneously on the same substrate. The triple-gate MOSFET’s output current (174.2 mA mm−1) is much higher than that of the planar-type device (45.2 mA mm−1), and the on/off ratio and subthreshold swing are more than 108 and as low as 110 mV dec−1, respectively. The fabrication of these H-diamond triple-gate MOSFETs will drive diamond electronic device development forward towards practical applications. PMID:27708372

  19. Device for isolation of seed crystals during processing of solution

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, K.E.; Zaitseva, N.P.; Deyoreo, J.J.; Vital, R.L.

    1999-05-18

    A device is described for isolation of seed crystals during processing of solutions. The device enables a seed crystal to be introduced into the solution without exposing the solution to contaminants or to sources of drying and cooling. The device constitutes a seed protector which allows the seed to be present in the growth solution during filtration and overheating operations while at the same time preventing the seed from being dissolved by the under saturated solution. When the solution processing has been completed and the solution cooled to near the saturation point, the seed protector is opened, exposing the seed to the solution and allowing growth to begin. 3 figs.

  20. Device for isolation of seed crystals during processing of solution

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.; Zaitseva, Natalia P.; Deyoreo, James J.; Vital, Russell L.

    1999-01-01

    A device for isolation of see crystals during processing of solutions. The device enables a seed crystal to be introduced into the solution without exposing the solution to contaminants or to sources of drying and cooling. The device constitutes a seed protector which allows the seed to be present in the growth solution during filtration and overheating operations while at the same time preventing the seed from being dissolved by the under saturated solution. When the solution processing has been completed and the solution cooled to near the saturation point, the seed protector is opened, exposing the seed to the solution and allowing growth to begin.

  1. Charge multiplication effect in thin diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skukan, N.; Grilj, V.; Sudić, I.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Makino, T.; Kambayashi, Y.; Andoh, Y.; Onoda, S.; Sato, S.; Ohshima, T.; Kamiya, T.; Jakšić, M.

    2016-07-01

    Herein, we report on the enhanced sensitivity for the detection of charged particles in single crystal chemical vapour deposition (scCVD) diamond radiation detectors. The experimental results demonstrate charge multiplication in thin planar diamond membrane detectors, upon impact of 18 MeV O ions, under high electric field conditions. Avalanche multiplication is widely exploited in devices such as avalanche photo diodes, but has never before been reproducibly observed in intrinsic CVD diamond. Because enhanced sensitivity for charged particle detection is obtained for short charge drift lengths without dark counts, this effect could be further exploited in the development of sensors based on avalanche multiplication and radiation detectors with extreme radiation hardness.

  2. Nano-inclusions in diamond: Evidence of diamond genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, R.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Focused Ion Beam technology (FIB) for TEM sample preparation introduced approximately 15 years ago revolutionized the application of TEM in Geosciences. For the first time, FIB enabled cutting samples for TEM use from exactly the location we are interested in. Applied to diamond investigation, this technique revealed the presence of nanometre-sized inclusions in diamond that have been simply unknown before. Nanoinclusions in diamond from different location and origin such as diamonds from the Lower and Upper Mantle, metamorphic diamonds (Kazakhstan, Erzgebirge, Bohemia), diamonds from ophiolites (Tibet, Mongolia, Xinjiang, Ural Mountains), diamonds from igneous rocks (Hawaii, Kamchatka) and impact diamonds (Popigai Crater, Siberia) have been investigated during the last 15 years. The major conclusion of all these TEM studies is, that the nanoinclusions, their phases and phase composition together with the micro- and nanostructure evidence the origin of diamond and genesis of diamond. We can discriminate Five different mechanisms of diamond genesis in nature are observed: Diamond crystallized from a high-density fluid (Upper mantle and metamorphic diamond). Diamond crystallized from carbonatitic melt (Lower mantle diamond). Diamond precipitates from a metal alloy melt (Diamond from ophiolites). Diamond crystallized by gas phase condensation or chemical vapour condensation (CVD) (Lavas from Kamchatka, xenoliths in Hawaiian lavas). Direct transformation of graphite into diamond.

  3. Evaluation of the dosimetric properties of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector in high energy clinical proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Mandapaka, A. K.; Ghebremedhin, A.; Patyal, B.; Marinelli, Marco; Prestopino, G.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric properties of a synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diode for accurate relative dose measurements in large and small field high-energy clinical proton beams.Methods: The dosimetric properties of a synthetic single crystal diamond detector were assessed by comparison with a reference Markus parallel plate ionization chamber, an Exradin A16 microionization chamber, and Exradin T1a ion chamber. The diamond detector was operated at zero bias voltage at all times. Comparative dose distribution measurements were performed by means of Fractional depth dose curves and lateral beam profiles in clinical proton beams of energies 155 and 250 MeV for a 14 cm square cerrobend aperture and 126 MeV for 3, 2, and 1 cm diameter circular brass collimators. ICRU Report No. 78 recommended beam parameters were used to compare fractional depth dose curves and beam profiles obtained using the diamond detector and the reference ionization chamber. Warm-up/stability of the detector response and linearity with dose were evaluated in a 250 MeV proton beam and dose rate dependence was evaluated in a 126 MeV proton beam. Stem effect and the azimuthal angle dependence of the diode response were also evaluated.Results: A maximum deviation in diamond detector signal from the average reading of less than 0.5% was found during the warm-up irradiation procedure. The detector response showed a good linear behavior as a function of dose with observed deviations below 0.5% over a dose range from 50 to 500 cGy. The detector response was dose rate independent, with deviations below 0.5% in the investigated dose rates ranging from 85 to 300 cGy/min. Stem effect and azimuthal angle dependence of the diode signal were within 0.5%. Fractional depth dose curves and lateral beam profiles obtained with the diamond detector were in good agreement with those measured using reference dosimeters.Conclusions: The observed dosimetric properties of the synthetic single

  4. Large-surface-area diamond (111) crystal plates for applications in high-heat-load wavefront-preserving X-ray crystal optics.

    PubMed

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Antipov, Sergey; Butler, James E; Kolyadin, Alexander V; Katrusha, Andrey

    2016-09-01

    Fabrication and results of high-resolution X-ray topography characterization of diamond single-crystal plates with large surface area (10 mm × 10 mm) and (111) crystal surface orientation for applications in high-heat-load X-ray crystal optics are reported. The plates were fabricated by laser-cutting of the (111) facets of diamond crystals grown using high-pressure high-temperature methods. The intrinsic crystal quality of a selected 3 mm × 7 mm crystal region of one of the studied samples was found to be suitable for applications in wavefront-preserving high-heat-load crystal optics. Wavefront characterization was performed using sequential X-ray diffraction topography in the pseudo plane wave configuration and data analysis using rocking-curve topography. The variations of the rocking-curve width and peak position measured with a spatial resolution of 13 µm × 13 µm over the selected region were found to be less than 1 µrad. PMID:27577765

  5. Large-surface-area diamond (111) crystal plates for applications in high-heat-load wavefront-preserving X-ray crystal optics.

    PubMed

    Stoupin, Stanislav; Antipov, Sergey; Butler, James E; Kolyadin, Alexander V; Katrusha, Andrey

    2016-09-01

    Fabrication and results of high-resolution X-ray topography characterization of diamond single-crystal plates with large surface area (10 mm × 10 mm) and (111) crystal surface orientation for applications in high-heat-load X-ray crystal optics are reported. The plates were fabricated by laser-cutting of the (111) facets of diamond crystals grown using high-pressure high-temperature methods. The intrinsic crystal quality of a selected 3 mm × 7 mm crystal region of one of the studied samples was found to be suitable for applications in wavefront-preserving high-heat-load crystal optics. Wavefront characterization was performed using sequential X-ray diffraction topography in the pseudo plane wave configuration and data analysis using rocking-curve topography. The variations of the rocking-curve width and peak position measured with a spatial resolution of 13 µm × 13 µm over the selected region were found to be less than 1 µrad.

  6. Quartz Crystal Micro-Balance Gas Sensor with Ink-Jet Printed Nano-Diamond Sensitive Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulha, Pavel; Kroutil, Jiří; Laposa, Alexandr; Procházka, Václav; Husák, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    the paper presents fabrication and characterization of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance based gas sensor with a diamond powder sensitive layer deposited using the ink-jet printing technique. The sensor was exposed to a low concentration of ammonia, acetone vapors and different levels of humidity. Impedance characteristics close to the natural resonant frequency of 10 MHz were examined. The sensor exhibits significant shifts in serial resonant frequency under different gas environments.

  7. Diamond/aluminium nitride composites for efficient thermal management applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cervenka, J.; Dontschuk, N.; Prawer, S.; Ladouceur, F.; Duvall, S. G.

    2012-07-30

    Synthetic diamond/AlN composite materials have been fabricated by a combination of microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and molecular beam epitaxy. These wide band gap semiconductor heterojunctions show promises for many applications, including thermal management, deep ultraviolet light emitting devices, and high power and high temperature electronics. Here, we report results of an interface study of polycrystalline diamond layers grown on single crystal AlN(0001). High resolution transmission microscopy revealed atomically sharp interfaces between diamond and AlN. Temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy measurements showed reduced thermal resistance on diamond-coated AlN substrates compared to uncoated AlN at temperatures above 330 K.

  8. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1994-01-11

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device (10) including a photorefractive crystal (26) and a laser (12). The laser (12 ) produces a coherent light beam (14) which is split by a beam splitter (18) into a first laser beam (20) and a second laser beam (22). After passing through the crystal (26) the first laser beam (20) is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror (32), creating a third laser beam (30). The laser beams (20, 22, 30) are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal (26) by vibration of the crystal (30). In the third laser beam (30), modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector (34) into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal (26).

  9. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Kalibjian, R.

    1994-08-09

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device including a photorefractive crystal and a laser is disclosed. The laser produces a coherent light beam which is split by a beam splitter into a first laser beam and a second laser beam. After passing through the crystal the first laser beam is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror, creating a third laser beam. The laser beams are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal by vibration of the crystal. In the third laser beam, modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal. 3 figs.

  10. Studies on a novel structure of ZnO/AlN/ diamond for SAW device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qingkai; Wang, Linjun; Huang, Jian; Tang, Ke; Xia, Yiben

    2010-10-01

    The highly c-axis-oriented AlN buffer layers were successfully deposited on the nucleation sides of free-standing diamond (FD) films by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering method. The influence of the sputtering parameters, such as the gas pressure and the sputtering plasma composition of Ar-to-N2, on the properties of AlN thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that when the gas pressure was 0.2 Pa and the plasma composition of Ar-to-N2 was 3:1, the higher intensity of the (002) diffraction peak and the narrower full width at half maximum (FWHM) were detected, which meant high c-axis orientation and high quality of AlN films. At last, a ZnO thin film was deposited on this buffer layer. The XRD and AFM results indicated that the sandwich structure can satisfy the application of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.

  11. Studies on a novel structure of ZnO/AlN/ diamond for SAW device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qingkai; Wang, Linjun; Huang, Jian; Tang, Ke; Xia, Yiben

    2011-02-01

    The highly c-axis-oriented AlN buffer layers were successfully deposited on the nucleation sides of free-standing diamond (FD) films by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering method. The influence of the sputtering parameters, such as the gas pressure and the sputtering plasma composition of Ar-to-N2, on the properties of AlN thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that when the gas pressure was 0.2 Pa and the plasma composition of Ar-to-N2 was 3:1, the higher intensity of the (002) diffraction peak and the narrower full width at half maximum (FWHM) were detected, which meant high c-axis orientation and high quality of AlN films. At last, a ZnO thin film was deposited on this buffer layer. The XRD and AFM results indicated that the sandwich structure can satisfy the application of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.

  12. High-resolution magnetic field imaging with a nitrogen-vacancy diamond sensor integrated with a photonic-crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Fedotov, I V; Blakley, S M; Serebryannikov, E E; Hemmer, P; Scully, M O; Zheltikov, A M

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate high-resolution magnetic field imaging with a scanning fiber-optic probe which couples nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond to a high-numerical-aperture photonic-crystal fiber integrated with a two-wire microwave transmission line. Magnetic resonance excitation of NV centers driven by the microwave field is read out through optical interrogation through the photonic-crystal fiber to enable high-speed, high-sensitivity magnetic field imaging with sub 30 μm spatial resolution. PMID:26907400

  13. Modeling of Optical Aberration Correction using a Liquid Crystal Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xinghua, Wang; Bin, Wang; McManamon, Paul F.; Pouch, John J.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2006-01-01

    Gruneisen (sup 1-3), has shown that small, light weight, liquid crystal based devices can correct for the optical distortion caused by an imperfect primary mirror in a telescope and has discussed the efficiency of this correction. In this paper we expand on that work and propose a semi-analytical approach for quantifying the efficiency of a liquid crystal based wavefront corrector for this application.

  14. Small liquid-crystal display device for projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, Akira; Morokawa, Shigeru; Yamada, Osamu; Arai, Motonao

    1990-08-01

    In recent years, LCDs have drawn the attention of persons who present data such as sentences and patterns on the screen. This paper describes a new type of the device for projection using the LCD. CITIZEN has developed a multi-pixel, high-density and small-sized liquid crystal cell, using the Chip on Glass method. Driver ICs are directly connected to glass substrates. CITIZEN has developed a small liquid crystal display device, which is located between the light source and the lens of a conventional slide projector so that an image on the LCD is projected.

  15. Studies of phase composition of contact sites of diamond crystals and the surrounding rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsova, V. L.; Samoylovich, M. I.; Belyanin, A. F.

    2015-11-01

    The composition, structure, and morphology of iron-containing diamond-kimberlite contact sites were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The data obtained confirm the hypothesis of the similarity of mechanisms of diamond formation in nature and in experiments.

  16. Dynamic Diamond Anvil Cell (dDAC): A novel device for studying the dynamic-pressure properties of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, W J; Yoo, C; Lee, G W; Cynn, H; Lipp, M J; Visbeck, K

    2007-02-23

    We have developed a unique device, a dynamic diamond anvil cell (dDAC), which repetitively applies a time-dependent load/pressure profile to a sample. This capability allows studies of the kinetics of phase transitions and metastable phases at compression (strain) rates of up to 500 GPa/sec ({approx}0.16 s{sup -1} for a metal). Our approach adapts electromechanical piezoelectric actuators to a conventional diamond anvil cell design, which enables precise specification and control of a time-dependent applied load/pressure. Existing DAC instrumentation and experimental techniques are easily adapted to the dDAC to measure the properties of a sample under the varying load/pressure conditions. This capability addresses the sparsely studied regime of dynamic phenomena between static research (diamond anvil cells and large volume presses) and dynamic shock-driven experiments (gas guns, explosive and laser shock). We present an overview of a variety of experimental measurements that can be made with this device.

  17. The effect of substrate temperature and growth rate on the doping efficiency of single crystal boron doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Demlow, SN; Rechenberg, R; Grotjohn, T

    2014-10-01

    The substrate growth temperature dependence of the plasma gas-phase to solid-phase doping efficiency in single crystal, boron doped diamond (BDD) deposition is investigated. Single crystal diamond (SCD) is grown by microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPACVD) on high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) type Ib substrates. Samples are grown at substrate temperatures of 850-950 degrees C for each of five doping concentration levels, to determine the effect of the growth temperature on the doping efficiency and defect morphology. The substrate temperature during growth is shown to have a significant effect on the grown sample defect morphology, and a temperature dependence of the doping efficiency is also shown. The effect of the growth rate on the doping efficiency is discussed, and the ratio of the boron concentration in the gas phase to the flux of carbon incorporated into the solid diamond phase is shown to be a more predictive measure of the resulting boron concentration than the gas phase boron to carbon ratio that is more commonly reported. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal devices with graphene electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seok-Hwan; Noh, Hee Yeon

    2015-12-14

    Although polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) devices have considerable potential application in smart windows, the high material cost of the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes conventionally used in these devices hinders their wide usage. In this work, we explore the use of graphene electrodes as a potential substitute for ITO electrodes in PDLC devices. The fabricated PDLC devices with graphene electrodes exhibit higher contrast and faster response than PDLC devices with ITO electrodes fabricated using the same chemical formulation and polymerization process. However, they also exhibit higher operation voltage and haze, which is primarily attributed to the inherently large resistance and inhomogeneity of the large-area graphene sheets initially transferred onto the transparent substrates. PDLC devices with graphene electrodes are robust under standard operating conditions and also have the advantage of flexibility and stretchability, unlike PDLCs with ITO electrodes. PMID:26699005

  19. Use of a miniature diamond-anvil cell in high-pressure single-crystal neutron Laue diffraction.

    PubMed

    Binns, Jack; Kamenev, Konstantin V; McIntyre, Garry J; Moggach, Stephen A; Parsons, Simon

    2016-05-01

    The first high-pressure neutron diffraction study in a miniature diamond-anvil cell of a single crystal of size typical for X-ray diffraction is reported. This is made possible by modern Laue diffraction using a large solid-angle image-plate detector. An unexpected finding is that even reflections whose diffracted beams pass through the cell body are reliably observed, albeit with some attenuation. The cell body does limit the range of usable incident angles, but the crystallographic completeness for a high-symmetry unit cell is only slightly less than for a data collection without the cell. Data collections for two sizes of hexamine single crystals, with and without the pressure cell, and at 300 and 150 K, show that sample size and temperature are the most important factors that influence data quality. Despite the smaller crystal size and dominant parasitic scattering from the diamond-anvil cell, the data collected allow a full anisotropic refinement of hexamine with bond lengths and angles that agree with literature data within experimental error. This technique is shown to be suitable for low-symmetry crystals, and in these cases the transmission of diffracted beams through the cell body results in much higher completeness values than are possible with X-rays. The way is now open for joint X-ray and neutron studies on the same sample under identical conditions.

  20. Use of a miniature diamond-anvil cell in high-pressure single-crystal neutron Laue diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Binns, Jack; Kamenev, Konstantin V.; McIntyre, Garry J.; Moggach, Stephen A.; Parsons, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The first high-pressure neutron diffraction study in a miniature diamond-anvil cell of a single crystal of size typical for X-ray diffraction is reported. This is made possible by modern Laue diffraction using a large solid-angle image-plate detector. An unexpected finding is that even reflections whose diffracted beams pass through the cell body are reliably observed, albeit with some attenuation. The cell body does limit the range of usable incident angles, but the crystallographic completeness for a high-symmetry unit cell is only slightly less than for a data collection without the cell. Data collections for two sizes of hexamine single crystals, with and without the pressure cell, and at 300 and 150 K, show that sample size and temperature are the most important factors that influence data quality. Despite the smaller crystal size and dominant parasitic scattering from the diamond-anvil cell, the data collected allow a full anisotropic refinement of hexamine with bond lengths and angles that agree with literature data within experimental error. This technique is shown to be suitable for low-symmetry crystals, and in these cases the transmission of diffracted beams through the cell body results in much higher completeness values than are possible with X-rays. The way is now open for joint X-ray and neutron studies on the same sample under identical conditions. PMID:27158503

  1. Soft x-ray measurements using photoconductive type-IIa and single-crystal chemical vapor deposited diamond detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A. S.; Bentley, C. D.; Foster, J. M.; Goedhart, G.; Graham, P.; Taylor, M. J.; Hellewell, E.

    2008-10-15

    Photoconductive detectors (PCDs) are routinely used alongside vacuum x-ray diodes (XRDs) to provide an alternative x-ray flux measurement at laser facilities such as HELEN at AWE Aldermaston, UK, and Omega at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. To evaluate diamond PCDs as an alternative to XRD arrays, calibration measurements made at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory are used to accurately calculate the x-ray flux from a laser-heated target. This is compared to a flux measurement using the Dante XRD diagnostic. Estimates indicate that the photoinduced conductivity from measurements made at Omega are too large, and calculations using the radiometric calibrations made at the NSLS agree with this hypothesis. High-purity, single-crystal, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond samples are compared to natural type-IIa PCDs and show promising high resistivity effects, the corollary of which preliminary results show is a slower response time.

  2. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Seals, R.D.; Price, R.E.

    1997-06-03

    A method and composition is disclosed for the deposition of a thick layer of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate. The softened or molten composition crystallizes on the substrate to form a thick deposition layer comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent and may include at least one secondary constituent. Preferably, the secondary constituents are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) powder and mixtures thereof. 9 figs.

  3. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  4. SU-F-BRE-02: Characterization of a New Commercial Single Crystal Diamond Detector in Photon, Electron and Proton Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Akino, Y; Das, I

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Diamond detectors even with superior characteristics have become obsolete due to poor design, selection of crystal and cost. Recently, microDiamond using synthetic single crystal diamond detector (SCDD) is commercially available which is characterized in various radiation beams in this study. Methods: The characteristics of a commercial SCDD model 60019 (PTW) to a 6- and 15-MV photon beams, 6- and 20-MeV electron beams, and 208 MeV proton beams were investigated and compared to the pre-characterized detectors: TN31010 (0.125 cm{sup 3}) and TN30006 (pinpoint) ionization chambers (PTW), EDGE detector (Sun Nuclear Corp), and SFD Stereotactic Dosimetry Diode Detector (IBA). The depth-dose and profiles data were collected for various field sizes and depths. The dose linearity and dose rate dependency were also evaluated. To evaluate the effects of the preirradiation, the diamond detector which had not been irradiated on the day was set up in the water tank and the response to 100 MU was measured every 20 s. The temperature dependency was tested for the range of 4–60 °C. Angular dependency was evaluated in water phantom by rotating the SCDD. Results: For all radiation types and field sizes, the depth-dose data of the diamond chamber showed identical curve to those of ionization chambers. The profile of the diamond detector was very similar to those of the Edge and SFD detectors, although the 0.125 cm{sup 3} and pinpoint chambers showed averaging effects in the penumbrae region. The temperature dependency was within 0.7% in the range of 4–41°C. A dose of 900 cGy and 1200 cGy were needed to stabilize the chamber to the level within 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The type 60019 SCDD detector showed suitable characteristics for depth-dose and profile measurements for wide range of field sizes. However, at least 1000 cGy of pre-irradiation is needed for accurate measurements.

  5. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1985-01-01

    The present program has been aimed at solving the fundamental and technological problems associated with Crystal Growth of Device Quality in Space. The initial stage of the program was devoted strictly to ground-based research. The unsolved problems associated with the growth of bulk GaAs in the presence of gravitational forces were explored. Reliable chemical, structural and electronic characterization methods were developed which would permit the direct relation of the salient materials parameters (particularly those affected by zero gravity conditions) to the electronic characteristics of single crystal GaAs, in turn to device performance. These relationships are essential for the development of optimum approaches and techniques. It was concluded that the findings on elemental semiconductors Ge and Si regarding crystal growth, segregation, chemical composition, defect interactions, and materials properties-electronic properties relationships are not necessarily applicable to GaAs (and to other semiconductor compounds). In many instances totally unexpected relationships were found to prevail.

  6. Diamond single crystal-surface modification under high- fluence ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikin, V. A.; Borisov, A. M.; Kazakov, V. A.; Mashkova, E. S.; Palyanov, Yu N.; Popov, V. P.; Shmytkova, E. A.; Sigalaev, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    The modification of (111) face of synthetic diamond has been studied experimentally for high-fluence 30 keV argon bombardment. It has been found that ion irradiation leads to the electrically conductive layer formation the sheet resistance of which decreases more than 100 times while changing the temperature of the irradiated diamond from 70 to 400 oC. This effect, as well as significant changes of optical transmittance after ion irradiation are associated with ion-induced structural changes of irradiated diamond obtained by the methods of Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Diamond nanophotonics

    PubMed Central

    Beha, Katja; Wolfer, Marco; Becker, Merle C; Siyushev, Petr; Jamali, Mohammad; Batalov, Anton; Hinz, Christopher; Hees, Jakob; Kirste, Lutz; Obloh, Harald; Gheeraert, Etienne; Naydenov, Boris; Jakobi, Ingmar; Dolde, Florian; Pezzagna, Sébastien; Twittchen, Daniel; Markham, Matthew; Dregely, Daniel; Giessen, Harald; Meijer, Jan; Jelezko, Fedor; Nebel, Christoph E; Bratschitsch, Rudolf; Leitenstorfer, Alfred; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Summary We demonstrate the coupling of single color centers in diamond to plasmonic and dielectric photonic structures to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Nanometer spatial control in the creation of single color centers in diamond is achieved by implantation of nitrogen atoms through high-aspect-ratio channels in a mica mask. Enhanced broadband single-photon emission is demonstrated by coupling nitrogen–vacancy centers to plasmonic resonators, such as metallic nanoantennas. Improved photon-collection efficiency and directed emission is demonstrated by solid immersion lenses and micropillar cavities. Thereafter, the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the guided modes of micropillar resonators is discussed along with experimental results. Finally, we present a gas-phase-doping approach to incorporate color centers based on nickel and tungsten, in situ into diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The fabrication of silicon–vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is discussed in addition. PMID:23365803

  8. Boron Arsenide and Boron Phosphide for High Temperature and Luminescent Devices. [semiconductor devices - crystal growth/crystal structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    The crystal growth of boron arsenide and boron phosphide in the form of bulk crystals and epitaxial layers on suitable substrates is discussed. The physical, chemical, and electrical properties of the crystals and epitaxial layers are examined. Bulk crystals of boron arsenide were prepared by the chemical transport technique, and their carrier concentration and Hall mobility were measured. The growth of boron arsenide crystals from high temperature solutions was attempted without success. Bulk crystals of boron phosphide were also prepared by chemical transport and solution growth techniques. Techniques required for the fabrication of boron phosphide devices such as junction shaping, diffusion, and contact formation were investigated. Alloying techniques were developed for the formation of low-resistance ohmic contacts to boron phosphide. Four types of boron phosphide devices were fabricated: (1) metal-insulator-boron phosphide structures, (2) Schottky barriers; (3) boron phosphide-silicon carbide heterojunctions; and (4) p-n homojunctions. Easily visible red electroluminescence was observed from both epitaxial and solution grown p-n junctions.

  9. Hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal light scattering device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Kostanyan, A.; Kidambi, P. R.; Cabrero-Vilatela, A.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Gardiner, D. J.; Hofmann, S.; Wilkinson, T. D.

    2015-08-01

    A hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal (LC) light scattering device is presented. This device exploits the inherent poly-crystallinity of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene films to induce directional anchoring and formation of LC multi-domains. This thereby enables efficient light scattering without the need for crossed polarisers or separate alignment layers/additives. The hybrid LC device exhibits switching thresholds at very low electric fields (< 1 V μm-1) and repeatable, hysteresis free characteristics. This exploitation of LC alignment effects on CVD graphene films enables a new generation of highly efficient nematic LC scattering displays as well as many other possible applications.A hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal (LC) light scattering device is presented. This device exploits the inherent poly-crystallinity of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene films to induce directional anchoring and formation of LC multi-domains. This thereby enables efficient light scattering without the need for crossed polarisers or separate alignment layers/additives. The hybrid LC device exhibits switching thresholds at very low electric fields (< 1 V μm-1) and repeatable, hysteresis free characteristics. This exploitation of LC alignment effects on CVD graphene films enables a new generation of highly efficient nematic LC scattering displays as well as many other possible applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04094a

  10. Diamond detector - material science, design and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaowei, Mengjia

    Modern synchrotrons, such as the NSLS-II, will enable unprecedented science by having extremely high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. These capabilities create a harsh and demanding environment for measuring the characteristics of the x-ray beam. In many cases, existing measurement techniques fail completely, requiring the development of new detectors which can meet the demands of the synchrotron. The combination of diamond properties ranked diamond an appealing candidate in the field of radiation detection in extreme conditions and it has been used as x-ray sensor material for decades. However, only until the development of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in the synthesis of diamond that has it been considered for wider applications in the state-of-art synchrotron light sources as part of beamline diagnostics, including the detection of x-ray beam flux and position. While defects and dislocations in CVD grown single crystal diamonds are inevitable, there are solutions in other aspects of a device fabrication to compensate this technological downside, including improving device performance in engineering diamond surface electrode materials and patterns and slicing and polishing diamond plates into thinner pieces. The content of this dissertation summarizes our effort in addressing several problems we encounter in the process of design and fabrication of single crystal CVD diamond based electronic devices. In order to study the generation of post-anneal photoconductive gain in our devices we have discussed in section 3 and 4 the two criteria for the observation of photoconductive current. In section 3 we reveal the correlation between structural defects in diamond and the post-anneal photoconductive regions. Section 4 introduces the measurements of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) we applied to investigate the diamond-metal Schottky barrier height for several metals and diamond surface terminations. The position of the

  11. Device and method for screening crystallization conditions in solution crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A device and method for detecting optimum protein crystallization conditions and for growing protein crystals in either 1g or microgravity environments comprising a housing, defining at least one pair of chambers for containing crystallization solutions is presented. The housing further defines an orifice therein for providing fluid communication between the chambers. The orifice is adapted to receive a tube which contains a gelling substance for limiting the rate of diffusive mixing of the crystallization solutions. The solutions are diffusively mixed over a period of time defined by the quantity of gelling substance sufficient to achieve equilibration and to substantially reduce density driven convection disturbances therein. The device further includes endcaps to seal the first and second chambers. One of the endcaps includes a dialysis chamber which contains protein solution in which protein crystals are grown. Once the endcaps are in place, the protein solution is exposed to the crystallization solutions wherein the solubility of the protein solution is reduced at a rate responsive to the rate of diffusive mixing of the crystallization solutions. This allows for a controlled approach to supersaturation and allows for screening of crystal growth conditions at preselected intervals.

  12. Device and Method for Screening Crystallization Conditions in Solution Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A device and method for detecting optimum protein crystallization conditions and for growing protein crystals in either 1 g or microgravity environments comprising a housing defining at least one pair of chambers for containing crystallization solutions. The housing further defines an orifice therein for providing fluid communication between the chambers. The orifice is adapted to receive a tube which contains a gelling substance for limiting the rate of diffusive mixing of the crystallization solutions. The solutions are diffusively mixed over a period of time defined by the quantity of gelling substance sufficient to achieve equilibration and to substantially reduce density driven convection disturbances therein. The device further includes endcaps to seal the first and second chambers. One of the endcaps includes a dialysis chamber which contains protein solution in which protein crystals are grown. Once the endcaps are in place. the protein solution is exposed to the crystallization solutions wherein the solubility of the protein solution is reduced at a rate responsive to the rate of diffusive mixing of the crystallization solutions. This allows for a controlled approach to supersaturation and allows for screening of crystal growth conditions at preselected intervals.

  13. Nanomedicine crystals-inspired optoelectronic device materials and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yan; Wang, Fangzhang; Wu, Rong

    2012-02-01

    Aim: Organic, biological materials and soft matters with optoelectronic donors and acceptors are postulated to be novel optoelectronic device materials. Methods: Molecular self-assemblies of nanomedicine crystals are employed by inelastic electron tunneling interaction force, which is a quantum force to make basic units of organic, biological and soft matter with optoelectronic donors and acceptors to be enlarged from nanometers to micrometers on silicon chips. Results: Self-assembled topographic structures and corresponding conducting with kondo effects and photoluminescence properties of self-assembled nanomedicine crystal building blocks are demonstrated by conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) images and current-voltage curves, and laser micro- photoluminescence (PL) spectra. By contrast to top-down processing, the bottom-up processing of molecular self-assembly is low cost on large scale industrial manufacturing. Conclusion: The self-assembled nanomedicine crystal building blocks with optoelectronic donors and acceptors are candidates of novel optoelectronic device materials to be in the emerging discipline of information technology (IT) in its broadest sense, i.e. bioelectronics & biosensors, optoelectronic devices, data storage devices; simple to complex quantum entanglements and superposition for quantum bits computing, a novel strategy for 2020 IT and beyond.

  14. Nanomedicine crystals-inspired optoelectronic device materials and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yan; Wang, Fangzhang; Wu, Rong

    2011-11-01

    Aim: Organic, biological materials and soft matters with optoelectronic donors and acceptors are postulated to be novel optoelectronic device materials. Methods: Molecular self-assemblies of nanomedicine crystals are employed by inelastic electron tunneling interaction force, which is a quantum force to make basic units of organic, biological and soft matter with optoelectronic donors and acceptors to be enlarged from nanometers to micrometers on silicon chips. Results: Self-assembled topographic structures and corresponding conducting with kondo effects and photoluminescence properties of self-assembled nanomedicine crystal building blocks are demonstrated by conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) images and current-voltage curves, and laser micro- photoluminescence (PL) spectra. By contrast to top-down processing, the bottom-up processing of molecular self-assembly is low cost on large scale industrial manufacturing. Conclusion: The self-assembled nanomedicine crystal building blocks with optoelectronic donors and acceptors are candidates of novel optoelectronic device materials to be in the emerging discipline of information technology (IT) in its broadest sense, i.e. bioelectronics & biosensors, optoelectronic devices, data storage devices; simple to complex quantum entanglements and superposition for quantum bits computing, a novel strategy for 2020 IT and beyond.

  15. Two dimensional crystal tunneling devices for THz operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, B. D.; Zeng, C.; Gaskill, D. K.; Wang, K. L.; Kim, K. W.

    2012-12-01

    Two dimensional crystal heterostructures are shown to possess a unique opportunity for nonlinear THz devices. In contrast to the oxide tunneling barrier, the uniformity of layered crystal insulators provides an ideal condition for tunneling barriers in the atomic scale. Numerical calculations based on a first-principles method clearly indicate the feasibility of diode operation with barriers as thin as two monolayers when placed between graphene-metal asymmetric electrodes. Further analysis predicts cut-off frequencies over 10 THz while maintaining strong nonlinearity for zero-bias rectification. Application to hot electron transistors is also examined, illustrating potentially superior performance in the frequency range inaccessible thus far.

  16. Diamond Measuring Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Krstulic, J.F.

    2000-01-27

    The fundamental goal of this project was to develop additional capabilities to the diamond measuring prototype, work out technical difficulties associated with the original device, and perform automated measurements which are accurate and repeatable. For this project, FM and T was responsible for the overall system design, edge extraction, and defect extraction and identification. AccuGem provided a lab and computer equipment in Lawrence, 3D modeling, industry expertise, and sets of diamonds for testing. The system executive software which controls stone positioning, lighting, focusing, report generation, and data acquisition was written in Microsoft Visual Basic 6, while data analysis and modeling were compiled in C/C++ DLLs. All scanning parameters and extracted data are stored in a central database and available for automated analysis and reporting. The Phase 1 study showed that data can be extracted and measured from diamond scans, but most of the information had to be manually extracted. In this Phase 2 project, all data required for geometric modeling and defect identification were automatically extracted and passed to a 3D modeling module for analysis. Algorithms were developed which automatically adjusted both light levels and stone focus positioning for each diamond-under-test. After a diamond is analyzed and measurements are completed, a report is printed for the customer which shows carat weight, summarizes stone geometry information, lists defects and their size, displays a picture of the diamond, and shows a plot of defects on a top view drawing of the stone. Initial emphasis of defect extraction was on identification of feathers, pinpoints, and crystals. Defects were plotted color-coded by industry standards for inclusions (red), blemishes (green), and unknown defects (blue). Diamonds with a wide variety of cut quality, size, and number of defects were tested in the machine. Edge extraction, defect extraction, and modeling code were tested for

  17. Diamond nonlinear photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, B. J. M.; Bulu, I.; Venkataraman, V.; Deotare, P.; Lončar, M.

    2014-05-01

    Despite progress towards integrated diamond photonics, studies of optical nonlinearities in diamond have been limited to Raman scattering in bulk samples. Diamond nonlinear photonics, however, could enable efficient, in situ frequency conversion of single photons emitted by diamond's colour centres, as well as stable and high-power frequency microcombs operating at new wavelengths. Both of these applications depend crucially on efficient four-wave mixing processes enabled by diamond's third-order nonlinearity. Here, we have realized a diamond nonlinear photonics platform by demonstrating optical parametric oscillation via four-wave mixing using single-crystal ultrahigh-quality-factor (1 × 106) diamond ring resonators operating at telecom wavelengths. Threshold powers as low as 20 mW are measured, and up to 20 new wavelengths are generated from a single-frequency pump laser. We also report the first measurement of the nonlinear refractive index due to the third-order nonlinearity in diamond at telecom wavelengths.

  18. Ultrananocrystalline diamond-CMOS device integration route for high acuity retinal prostheses.

    PubMed

    Ahnood, A; Escudie, M C; Cicione, R; Abeyrathne, C D; Ganesan, K; Fox, K E; Garrett, D J; Stacey, A; Apollo, N V; Lichter, S G; Thomas, C D L; Tran, N; Meffin, H; Prawer, S

    2015-01-01

    High density electrodes are a new frontier for biomedical implants. Increasing the density and the number of electrodes used for the stimulation of retinal ganglion cells is one possible strategy for enhancing the quality of vision experienced by patients using retinal prostheses. The present work presents an integration strategy for a diamond based, high density, stimulating electrode array with a purpose built application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The strategy is centered on flip-chip bonding of indium bumps to create high count and density vertical interconnects between the stimulator ASIC and an array of diamond neural stimulating electrodes. The use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) housing prevents cross-contamination of the biocompatible diamond electrode with non-biocompatible materials, such as indium, used in the microfabrication process. Micro-imprint lithography allowed edge-to-edge micro-scale pattering of the indium bumps on non-coplanar substrates that have a form factor that can conform to body organs and thus are ideally suited for biomedical applications. Furthermore, micro-imprint lithography ensures the compatibility of lithography with the silicon ASIC and aluminum contact pads. Although this work focuses on 256 stimulating diamond electrode arrays with a pitch of 150 μm, the use of indium bump bonding technology and vertical interconnects facilitates implants with tens of thousands electrodes with a pitch as low as 10 μm, thus ensuring validity of the strategy for future high acuity retinal prostheses, and bionic implants in general. PMID:25877379

  19. Electronic Impact of Inclusions in Diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, E.M.; Smedley, J.; Raghothamachar, B.; Gaowei, M.; Keister, J.W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Dudley, M.; Wu, Q.

    2010-04-07

    X-ray topography data are compared with photodiode responsivity maps to identify potential candidates for electron trapping in high purity, single crystal diamond. X-ray topography data reveal the defects that exist in the diamond material, which are dominated by non-electrically active linear dislocations. However, many diamonds also contain defects configurations (groups of threading dislocations originating from a secondary phase region or inclusion) in the bulk of the wafer which map well to regions of photoconductive gain, indicating that these inclusions are a source of electron trapping which affect the performance of diamond X-ray detectors. It was determined that photoconductive gain is only possible with the combination of an injecting contact and charge trapping in the near surface region. Typical photoconductive gain regions are 0.2 mm across; away from these near-surface inclusions the device yields the expected diode responsivity.

  20. Diamond Analyzed by Secondary Electron Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainsky, Isay L.

    1998-01-01

    Diamond is a promising semiconductor material for novel electronic applications because of its chemical stability and inertness, heat conduction properties, and so-called negative electron affinity (NEA). When a surface has NEA, electrons generated inside the bulk of the material are able to come out into the vacuum without any potential barrier (work function). Such a material would have an extremely high secondary electron emission coefficient o, very high photoelectron (quantum) yield, and would probably be an efficient field emitter. Chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films have even more advantages than diamond single crystals. Their fabrication is relatively easy and inexpensive, and they can be grown with high levels of doping--consequently, they can have relatively high conductivity. Because of these properties, diamond can be used for cold cathodes and photocathodes in high-power electronics and in high-frequency and high-temperature semiconductor devices.

  1. Silicon and germanium crystallization techniques for advanced device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yaocheng

    Three-dimensional architectures are believed to be one of the possible approaches to reduce interconnect delay in integrated circuits. Metal-induced crystallization (MIC) can produce reasonably high-quality Si crystals with low-temperature processing, enabling the monolithic integration of multilevel devices and circuits. A two-step MIC process was developed to make single-crystal Si pillars on insulator by forming a single-grain NiSi2 template in the first step and crystallizing the amorphous Si by NiSi2-mediated solid-phase epitaxy (SPE) in the second step. A transmission electron microscopy study clearly showed the quality improvement over the traditional MIC process. Another crystallization technique developed is rapid melt growth (RMG) for the fabrication of Ge crystals and Ge-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates. Ge is an important semiconductor with high carrier mobility and excellent optoelectronic properties. GeOI substrates are particularly desired to achieve high device performances and to solve the process problems traditionally associated with bulk Ge wafers. High-quality Ge crystals and GeOI structures were grown on Si substrates using the novel rapid melt growth technique that integrates the key elements in Czochralski growth---seeding, melting, epitaxy and defect necking. Growth velocity and nucleation rate were calculated to determine the RMG process window. Self-aligned microcrucibles were created to hold the Ge liquid during the RMG annealing. Material characterization showed a very low defect density in the RMG GeOI structures. The Ge films are relaxed, with their orientations controlled by the Si substrates. P-channel MOSFETs and p-i-n photodetectors were fabricated with the GeOI substrates. The device properties are comparable to those obtained with bulk Ge wafers, indicating that the RMG GeOI substrates are well suited for device fabrication. A new theory, growth-induced barrier lowering (GIBL), is proposed to understand the defect generation in

  2. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs. PMID:27356177

  3. Thermally-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations from a 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer to a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework and its application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Fan, Rui Qing; Wang, Xin Ming; Wei, Li Guo; Song, Yang; Du, Xi; Xing, Kai; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yu Lin

    2016-07-28

    In this work, a rare 2D → 3D single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation (SCSC) is observed in metal-organic coordination complexes, which is triggered by thermal treatment. The 2D two-fold interpenetrating square lattice layer [Cd(IBA)2]n (1) is irreversibly converted into a 3D four-fold interpenetrating diamond framework {[Cd(IBA)2(H2O)]·2.5H2O}n (2) (HIBA = 4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoic acid). Consideration is given to these two complexes with different interpenetrating structures and dimensionality, and their influence on photovoltaic properties are studied. Encouraged by the UV-visible absorption and HOMO-LUMO energy states matched for sensitizing TiO2, the two complexes are employed in combination with N719 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to compensate absorption in the ultraviolet and blue-violet region, offset competitive visible light absorption of I3(-) and reducing charge the recombination of injected electrons. After co-sensitization with 1 and 2, the device co-sensitized by 1/N719 and 2/N719 to yield overall efficiencies of 7.82% and 8.39%, which are 19.94% and 28.68% higher than that of the device sensitized only by N719 (6.52%). Consequently, high dimensional interpenetrating complexes could serve as excellent co-sensitizers and have application in DSSCs.

  4. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C.; Lagowski, Jacek

    1989-01-01

    The program on Crystal Growth of Device Quality GaAs in Space was initiated in 1977. The initial stage covering 1977 to 1984 was devoted strictly to ground-based research. By 1985 the program had evolved into its next logical stage aimed at space growth experiments; however, since the Challenger disaster, the program has been maintained as a ground-based program awaiting activation of experimentation in space. The overall prgram has produced some 80 original scientific publications on GaAs crystal growth, crystal characterization, and new approaches to space processing. Publication completed in the last three years are listed. Their key results are outlined and discussed in the twelve publications included as part of the report.

  5. The effect of pressure on the kinetics of γ-anhydrite crystallization investigated by diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanjiang; Zheng, Haifei; Du, Jianguo; Wang, Duojun

    2015-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of γ-anhydrite was investigated in the temperature and pressure ranges of 373-473 K and 1094-1903 MPa using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) and Raman spectroscopy. A calcium sulfate solution was formed by dissolving gypsum in water at high pressure, and γ-anhydrite crystallized due to the increasing temperature. The relationship among the reaction rate, k, the temperature, T, and the pressure, P was established as k=-1.75×10-3+1.83×10-6P+3.57×10-7T, with an R2 value of 0.943, of which the applicable range is 373 K≤T≤473 K and 1196 MPa≤P≤1903 MPa. An elevation of T or P will accelerate the crystallization rate of γ-anhydrite. The time exponent n obtained between 0.96 and 1.29 indicates that the process of crystallization should be controlled by instant nucleation on the grain boundary and diffusion controlled growth. In the process of crystallization, the volume is reduced because of the decrease of pressure, and the volume change ΔV is equal to -6.05×10-6 m3/mol. The calculated activation energy Ea is 10.7 kJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factor A is 2.27×10-2 s-1.

  6. Ca(Ti,Si)O3 Diamond Inclusions Crystallized From Carbonate Melts in the Transition Zone: Experimental Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, L. S.; Walter, M. J.; Keshav, S.; Bulanova, G.; Pickles, J.; Lord, O. T.; Lennie, A.

    2007-12-01

    Composite diamond inclusions consisting of coexisting endmember CaSiO3 and CaTiO3 are rare but occur in diamond populations from Juina, Brazil1-2. Phase relations show that above ~9 GPa (at 1500 K) a perovskite-structured solid solution exists between these endmembers, while at lower pressures intermediate compositions produce coexisting CaTiO3-perovskite and CaSiO3 in the walstromite structure3. Inclusions with `perovskite' stoichiometry are commonly interpreted as fragments of solid mantle from the transition zone or lower mantle4-6. Here we report on two composite diamond inclusions from Juina kimberlite, and can effectively eliminate a subsolidus origin on the basis of experimental mineral phase relations. Instead, based on new melting experiments we find that the inclusions most likely crystallized directly from Ca-rich carbonate melts. Like other workers1-2 we interpret the composite inclusions as exsolution products of a high-pressure Ca(Ti,Si)O3 perovskite stable in the transition zone. Our bulk inclusion compositions are estimated to contain 50- 65 mol% CaTiO3, and are remarkably low in MgSiO3 component at less than 0.2 mol%. Experiments have shown that in peridotite or eclogite lithologies, Ca-rich perovskite in equilibrium with an MgSiO3-phase (majorite or Mg-perovskite) have about 3 to 7 mol% MgSiO37-8. Here we report on new subsolidus laser-heated diamond anvil cell experiments at 20-50 GPa in the ternary system CaSiO3-CaTiO3-MgSiO3 that bracket the CaTi-rich limb of the solvus between Ca- and Mg-rich perovskites. All experiments were made at 2000 (±200) K for 45-75 min, and were analysed using synchrotron micro-focus X-ray diffraction. We find that the solubility of MgSiO3 in CaTi-perovskite solid solutions increases significantly with increasing CaTiO3 component. Thus, Ti-rich calcium perovskite in peridotite or eclogite lithologies should have very high, not exceptionally low, MgSiO3 component. Accordingly, a subsolidus paragenesis is unlikely for

  7. Crystal Growth of Device Quality Gaas in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    The GaAs research evolves about these key thrust areas. The overall program combines: (1) studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor material (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); (2) investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; and (3) investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance. This effort is aimed at the essential ground-based program which would insure successful experimentation with and eventually processing of GaAs in near zero gravity environment. It is believed that this program addresses in a unique way materials engineering aspects which bear directly on the future exploitation of the potential of GaAs and related materials in device and systems applications.

  8. Switchable Solar Window Devices Based on Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Joseph; Ma, Dakang; Munday, Jeremy

    Windows are an interesting target for photovoltaics due to the potential for large area of deployment and because glass is already a ubiquitous component of solar cell devices. Many demonstrations of solar windows in recent years have used photovoltaic devices which are semitransparent in the visible region. Much research has focused on enhancing device absorption in the UV and IR ranges as a means to circumvent the basic tradeoff between efficiency and transparency to visible light. Use of switchable solar window is a less investigated alternative approach; these windows utilize the visible spectrum but can toggle between high transparency and high efficiency as needed. We present a novel switchable solar window device based on Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals (PDLC). By applying an electric field to the PDLC layer, the device can be switched from an opaque, light diffusing, efficient photovoltaic cell to a clear, transparent window. In the off state (i.e. scattering state), these devices have the added benefits of increased reflectivity for reduced lighting and cooling costs and haze for privacy. Further, we demonstrate that these windows have the potential for self-powering due to the very low power required to maintain the on, or high transparency, state. Support From: University of Maryland and Maryland Nano-center and its Fablab.

  9. A nitrogen doped low-dislocation density free-standing single crystal diamond plate fabricated by a lift-off process

    SciTech Connect

    Mokuno, Yoshiaki Kato, Yukako; Tsubouchi, Nobuteru; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Yamada, Hideaki; Shikata, Shinichi

    2014-06-23

    A nitrogen-doped single crystal diamond plate with a low dislocation density is fabricated by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a high pressure high temperature synthetic type IIa seed substrate by ion implantation and lift-off processes. To avoid sub-surface damage, the seed surface was subjected to deep ion beam etching. In addition, we introduced a nitrogen flow during the CVD step to grow low-strain diamond at a relatively high growth rate. This resulted in a plate with low birefringence and a dislocation density as low as 400 cm{sup −2}, which is the lowest reported value for a lift-off plate. Reproducing this lift-off process may allow mass-production of single crystal CVD diamond plates with low dislocation density and consistent quality.

  10. Charge-collection efficiency and long-term stability of single-crystal CVD diamond detector under different carrier-drift conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Shimaoka, Takehiro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Kaneko, Junichi H.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the performance of a charged-particle detector fabricated using single-crystal diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition. The detector identified four different 241Am α-particle energies (5.389, 5.443, 5.486, and 5.545 MeV) thanks to its superior energy resolution of 0.407 ± 0.004% for electron drift and 0.418 ± 0.004% for hole drift (full width at half maximum). The charge-collection efficiency inside the diamond crystal was above 97.0% for both electrons and holes. The diamond detector also exhibited no significant degradation in terms of pulse-height spectra and energy resolution during operation for more than 100 h under electron-drift conditions. In contrast, the pulse-height spectra obtained under hole-drift conditions deteriorated because of the polarization phenomenon.

  11. Effect of grain size of polycrystalline diamond on its heat spreading properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Roland B.; Anaya, Julian; Faili, Firooz; Balmer, Richard; Williams, Gruffudd T.; Twitchen, Daniel J.; Kuball, Martin

    2016-06-01

    The exceptionally high thermal conductivity of polycrystalline diamond (>2000 W m-1 K-1) makes it a very attractive material for optimizing the thermal management of high-power devices. In this paper, the thermal conductivity of a diamond sample capturing grain size evolution from nucleation towards the growth surface is studied using an optimized 3ω technique. The thermal conductivity is found to decrease with decreasing grain size, which is in good agreement with theory. These results clearly reveal the minimum film thickness and polishing thickness from nucleation needed to achieve single-crystal diamond performance, and thus enable production of an optimal polycrystalline diamond for heat-spreading applications.

  12. Fundamentals and technology for monolithically integrated RF MEMS switches with ultra-nanocrystaline diamond dielectric/CMOS devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Sumant, A.; Goldsmith, C.; O'Brien, S.; Sampath, S.; Gudeman, C; Wang, W.; Hwang, J.; Swonger, J.; Carlisle, J.; Balachandran, S.; MEMtronics Corp.; Innovative Micro Technology; Lehigh Univ.; Peregrine Semiconductor; Advanced Diamond Technologies

    2010-01-01

    Most current capacitive RF-MEMS switch technology is based on conventional dielectric materials such as SiO{sub 2} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}. However, they suffer not only from charging problems but also stiction problems leading to premature failure of an RF-MEMS switch. Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD{sup (R)}) (2-5 nm grains) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) (10-100 nm grains) films exhibit one of the highest Young's modulus ({approx} 980-1100 GPa) and demonstrated MEMS resonators with the highest quality factor (Q {ge} 10,000 in air for NCD) today, they also exhibit the lowest force of adhesion among MEMS/NEMS materials ({approx}10 mJ/m{sup 2}-close to van der Waals attractive force for UNCD) demonstrated today. Finally, UNCD exhibits dielectric properties (fast discharge) superior to those of Si and SiO{sub 2}, as shown in this paper. Thus, UNCD and NCD films provide promising platform materials beyond Si for a new generation of important classes of high-performance MEMS/NEMS devices.

  13. Sub-band gap photo-enhanced secondary electron emission from high-purity single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yater, J. E.; Shaw, J. L.; Pate, B. B.; Feygelson, T. I.

    2016-02-01

    Secondary-electron-emission (SEE) current measured from high-purity, single-crystal (100) chemical-vapor-deposited diamond is found to increase when sub-band gap (3.06 eV) photons are incident on the hydrogenated surface. Although the light does not produce photoemission directly, the SEE current increases by more than a factor of 2 before saturating with increasing laser power. In energy distribution curves (EDCs), the emission peak shows a corresponding increase in intensity with increasing laser power. However, the emission-onset energy in the EDCs remains constant, indicating that the bands are pinned at the surface. On the other hand, changes are observed on the high-energy side of the distribution as the laser power increases, with a well-defined shoulder becoming more pronounced. From an analysis of this feature in the EDCs, it is deduced that upward band bending is present in the near-surface region during the SEE measurements and this band bending suppresses the SEE yield. However, sub-band gap photon illumination reduces the band bending and thereby increases the SEE current. Because the bands are pinned at the surface, we conclude that the changes in the band levels occur below the surface in the electron transport region. Sample heating produces similar effects as observed with sub-band gap photon illumination, namely, an increase in SEE current and a reduction in band bending. However, the upward band bending is not fully removed by either increasing laser power or temperature, and a minimum band bending of ˜0.8 eV is established in both cases. The sub-band gap photo-excitation mechanism is under further investigation, although it appears likely at present that defect or gap states play a role in the photo-enhanced SEE process. In the meantime, the study demonstrates the ability of visible light to modify the electronic properties of diamond and enhance the emission capabilities, which may have potential impact for diamond-based vacuum electron

  14. Exploring Motion Reversal in Polymer Cholesteric-Liquid-Crystal Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kosc, T.Z.; Coon, C.J.; Babcock, G.V.; Marshall, K.L.; Trajkovska-Petkoska, Jacobs, S.D.

    2006-12-13

    Polymer cholesteric-liquid-crystal (PCLC) flakes suspended in a fluid are used as the active medium in a novel particle-based, electro-optic technology. The motion of PCLC flakes is controlled with an electric field so that PCLC flake devices are brightly reflective in their “off” state and appear dark when an electric field is applied, causing the flakes to reorient 90º. We seek to control flake orientation by designing waveforms that follow the initial drive voltage. Shaped pulses were investigated to accelerate flake relaxation.

  15. The properties of photonic band gaps for three-dimensional plasma photonic crystals in a diamond structure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Haifeng; Liu Shaobin; Kong Xiangkun, Chenchen; Bian Borui

    2013-04-15

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) for two types of three-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) composed of isotropic dielectric and unmagnetized plasma with diamond lattices are theoretically investigated for electromagnetic waves based on a modified plane wave expansion method. The equations for type-1 structure are theoretically deduced, which depend on the diamond lattices realization (dielectric spheres immersed in plasma background). The influences of dielectric constant of dielectric, plasma collision frequency, filling factor, and plasma frequency on PBGs are investigated, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations and the possible methods to realize the three-dimensional PPCs in experiments are also given. From the numerical results, it has been shown that not only the locations but also the gap/midgap ratios of the PBGs for two types of PPCs can be tuned by plasma frequency, filling factor, and the relative dielectric constant, respectively. However, the plasma collision frequency has no effect on the frequency ranges and gap/midgap ratios of the PBGs for two types of PPCs.

  16. Three-dimensional graphite electrodes in CVD single crystal diamond detectors: Charge collection dependence on impinging β-particles geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, G.; Allegrini, P.; Pacilli, M.; Salvatori, S.; Kononenko, T.; Bolshakov, A.; Ralchenko, V.; Konov, V.

    2015-11-01

    The charge collection performance of a three-dimensional diamond-graphite detector is reported. Buried graphite pillars with high aspect ratio were formed inside a single crystal synthetic diamond slab by using a femtosecond IR laser with 200 kHz of repetition rate. Grouped in two series and connected by graphite strips on the surface, eight independent 3D electrodes were used to collect the charge carriers generated by energy deposited in the detector by 90Sr,Y β-particles. Different impinging configurations were used to test charge collection and signal dependence on voltage. Reversing the bias polarity the pulse height distribution does not changes and the charge collection saturation of any group of connected pillars was observed around ±80 V (0.53 V/μm). The average charge collected by one pillars row is Qav=1.60±0.02 fC, with electrons impinging orthogonally the rows, in such a way demonstrating full charge collection.

  17. The properties of photonic band gaps for three-dimensional plasma photonic crystals in a diamond structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Kun; Chen-Chen; Bian, Bo-Rui

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) for two types of three-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) composed of isotropic dielectric and unmagnetized plasma with diamond lattices are theoretically investigated for electromagnetic waves based on a modified plane wave expansion method. The equations for type-1 structure are theoretically deduced, which depend on the diamond lattices realization (dielectric spheres immersed in plasma background). The influences of dielectric constant of dielectric, plasma collision frequency, filling factor, and plasma frequency on PBGs are investigated, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations and the possible methods to realize the three-dimensional PPCs in experiments are also given. From the numerical results, it has been shown that not only the locations but also the gap/midgap ratios of the PBGs for two types of PPCs can be tuned by plasma frequency, filling factor, and the relative dielectric constant, respectively. However, the plasma collision frequency has no effect on the frequency ranges and gap/midgap ratios of the PBGs for two types of PPCs.

  18. Development of single-crystal diamond scanning probes with nitrogen-vacancy centers for cryogenic magnetometry with nanoscale spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Alec; Pelliccione, Matthew; Ovartchaiyapong, Preeti; Reetz, Christopher; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania

    Scanning probes based on the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect center in diamond are powerful tools for imaging magnetic phenomena at the nanoscale. In particular, extending the operation of these probes to cryogenic temperatures opens up a wide range of condensed matter systems that can be studied. In this talk, we demonstrate a variable temperature NV scanning magnetometer consisting of an atomic-force microscope housed in a closed-cycle cryostat integrated with custom confocal optics. With this microscope we have observed 6-nm spatial resolution and 3 μT /√{Hz} sensitivity at T = 6 K. The single-crystal diamond scanning probes that contain shallow and coherent NV centers are critical to the performance of the microscope. The probes are designed with the aim of reducing the NV-sample separation and increasing collection of NV fluorescence, both while maintaining the spin coherence properties of the defects. We describe the fabrication of these probes as well as ongoing efforts to improve their sensitivity and spatial resolution.

  19. Three-terminal adaptive nematic liquid-crystal lens device.

    PubMed

    Riza, N A; Dejule, M C

    1994-07-15

    A 1 mm x 1 mm nematic liquid-crystal three-terminal device for optical beam forming (focusing/spoiling) is fabricated. A thin-film-resistor network on the device substrate layer is used to control the voltages on the 98 internal lens electrodes by use of only one variable external driver. By using a high-resistance thin-film layer of amorphous silicon under the 98-element parallel electrode structure layer, we generate a near-continuous index perturbation to form a cylindrical lens. The focal length of this lens is continuously variable from inifinity to 12 cm by use of a variable 1-4-V-peak 1-kHz square-wave external terminal control signal. PMID:19844517

  20. High-Q CMOS-integrated photonic crystal microcavity devices.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Karan K; Orcutt, Jason S; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Sternberg, Zvi; Bafrali, Reha; Meade, Roy; Ram, Rajeev J

    2014-01-01

    Integrated optical resonators are necessary or beneficial in realizations of various functions in scaled photonic platforms, including filtering, modulation, and detection in classical communication systems, optical sensing, as well as addressing and control of solid state emitters for quantum technologies. Although photonic crystal (PhC) microresonators can be advantageous to the more commonly used microring devices due to the former's low mode volumes, fabrication of PhC cavities has typically relied on electron-beam lithography, which precludes integration with large-scale and reproducible CMOS fabrication. Here, we demonstrate wavelength-scale polycrystalline silicon (pSi) PhC microresonators with Qs up to 60,000 fabricated within a bulk CMOS process. Quasi-1D resonators in lateral p-i-n structures allow for resonant defect-state photodetection in all-silicon devices, exhibiting voltage-dependent quantum efficiencies in the range of a few 10 s of %, few-GHz bandwidths, and low dark currents, in devices with loaded Qs in the range of 4,300-9,300; one device, for example, exhibited a loaded Q of 4,300, 25% quantum efficiency (corresponding to a responsivity of 0.31 A/W), 3 GHz bandwidth, and 30 nA dark current at a reverse bias of 30 V. This work demonstrates the possibility for practical integration of PhC microresonators with active electro-optic capability into large-scale silicon photonic systems.

  1. High-Q CMOS-integrated photonic crystal microcavity devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Karan K.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Sternberg, Zvi; Bafrali, Reha; Meade, Roy; Ram, Rajeev J.

    2014-02-01

    Integrated optical resonators are necessary or beneficial in realizations of various functions in scaled photonic platforms, including filtering, modulation, and detection in classical communication systems, optical sensing, as well as addressing and control of solid state emitters for quantum technologies. Although photonic crystal (PhC) microresonators can be advantageous to the more commonly used microring devices due to the former's low mode volumes, fabrication of PhC cavities has typically relied on electron-beam lithography, which precludes integration with large-scale and reproducible CMOS fabrication. Here, we demonstrate wavelength-scale polycrystalline silicon (pSi) PhC microresonators with Qs up to 60,000 fabricated within a bulk CMOS process. Quasi-1D resonators in lateral p-i-n structures allow for resonant defect-state photodetection in all-silicon devices, exhibiting voltage-dependent quantum efficiencies in the range of a few 10 s of %, few-GHz bandwidths, and low dark currents, in devices with loaded Qs in the range of 4,300-9,300 one device, for example, exhibited a loaded Q of 4,300, 25% quantum efficiency (corresponding to a responsivity of 0.31 A/W), 3 GHz bandwidth, and 30 nA dark current at a reverse bias of 30 V. This work demonstrates the possibility for practical integration of PhC microresonators with active electro-optic capability into large-scale silicon photonic systems.

  2. A diamond nanowire single-photon source.

    PubMed

    Babinec, Thomas M; Hausmann, Birgit J M; Khan, Mughees; Zhang, Yinan; Maze, Jeronimo R; Hemmer, Philip R; Loncar, Marko

    2010-03-01

    The development of a robust light source that emits one photon at a time will allow new technologies such as secure communication through quantum cryptography. Devices based on fluorescent dye molecules, quantum dots and carbon nanotubes have been demonstrated, but none has combined a high single-photon flux with stable, room-temperature operation. Luminescent centres in diamond have recently emerged as a stable alternative, and, in the case of nitrogen-vacancy centres, offer spin quantum bits with optical readout. However, these luminescent centres in bulk diamond crystals have the disadvantage of low photon out-coupling. Here, we demonstrate a single-photon source composed of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in a diamond nanowire, which produces ten times greater flux than bulk diamond devices, while using ten times less power. This result enables a new class of devices for photonic and quantum information processing based on nanostructured diamond, and could have a broader impact in nanoelectromechanical systems, sensing and scanning probe microscopy. PMID:20154687

  3. A diamond nanowire single-photon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babinec, Thomas M.; Hausmann, Birgit J. M.; Khan, Mughees; Zhang, Yinan; Maze, Jeronimo R.; Hemmer, Philip R.; Lončar, Marko

    2010-03-01

    The development of a robust light source that emits one photon at a time will allow new technologies such as secure communication through quantum cryptography. Devices based on fluorescent dye molecules, quantum dots and carbon nanotubes have been demonstrated, but none has combined a high single-photon flux with stable, room-temperature operation. Luminescent centres in diamond have recently emerged as a stable alternative, and, in the case of nitrogen-vacancy centres, offer spin quantum bits with optical readout. However, these luminescent centres in bulk diamond crystals have the disadvantage of low photon out-coupling. Here, we demonstrate a single-photon source composed of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in a diamond nanowire, which produces ten times greater flux than bulk diamond devices, while using ten times less power. This result enables a new class of devices for photonic and quantum information processing based on nanostructured diamond, and could have a broader impact in nanoelectromechanical systems, sensing and scanning probe microscopy.

  4. Thermally switchable flexible liquid crystal devices in prepolymer-doped cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, A. Y.-G.; Li, J.-H.; Cheng, K.-T.

    2010-10-01

    This work describes an approach for fabricating thermally switchable flexible liquid crystal devices in prepolymer-doped cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs). The roughness of the UV-cured polymer film eliminates the stability of planar CLCs, allowing the textures in the UV-cured regions to be changed from planar to focal conic. Impurities associated with doping with prepolymers cause the clearing temperature of LCs in the UV-cured regions to differ from that in the uncured regions as the prepolymers are polymerized. Therefore, the textures in these two regions can be switched by controlling the temperature. Thermally switchable flexible LC devices, such as optically addressed smart cards, light valves, and others, can be realized using this approach.

  5. Surface Damage Growth Mitigation on KDP/DKDP Optics Using Single-Crystal Diamond Micro-Machining

    SciTech Connect

    Hrubesh, L; Adams, J; Feit, M; Sell, W; Stanley, J; Miller, E; Thompson, S; Whitman, P; Hackel, R

    2003-11-12

    A process whereby laser-initiated surface damage on KDP/DKDP optics is removed by spot micro-machining using a high-speed drill and a single-crystal diamond bit, is shown to mitigate damage growth for subsequent laser shots. Our tests show that machined dimples on both surfaces of an AR coated doubler (KDP) crystal are stable, for 526nm, {approx} 3.2ns pulses at {approx} 12J/cm{sup 2} fluences. Other tests also confirmed that the machined dimples on both surfaces of an AR coated tripler (DKDP) crystal are stable, for 351nm, {approx} 3ns pulses at {approx} 8J/cm{sup 2}. We have demonstrated successful mitigation of laser-initiated surface damage sites as large as 0.14mm diameter on DKDP, for up to 1000 shots at 351nm, 13J/cm{sup 2}, {approx} 11ns pulse length, and up to 10 shots at 351nm, 8J/cm{sup 2}, 3ns. Details of the method are presented, including estimates for the heat generated during micro-machining and a plan to implement this method to treat pre-initiated or retrieved-from-service, large-scale optics for use in high-peak-power laser applications.

  6. Diamond heteroepitaxial lateral overgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yung-Hsiu

    This dissertation describes improvements in the growth of single crystal diamond by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Heteroepitaxial (001) diamond was grown on 1 cm. 2 a-plane sapphiresubstrates using an epitaxial (001) Ir thin-film as a buffer layer. Low-energy ion bombardment of the Ir layer, a process known as bias-enhanced nucleation, is a key step in achieving a high density of diamond nuclei. Bias conditions were optimized to form uniformly-high nucleation densities across the substrates, which led to well-coalesced diamond thin films after short growth times. Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) was used as a means of decreasing diamond internal stress by impeding the propagation of threading dislocations into the growing material. Its use in diamond growth requires adaptation to the aggressive chemical and thermal environment of the hydrogen plasma in a CVD reactor. Three ELO variants were developed. The most successful utilized a gold (Au) mask prepared by vacuum evaporation onto the surface of a thin heteroepitaxial diamond layer. The Au mask pattern, a series of parallel stripes on the micrometer scale, was produced by standard lift-off photolithography. When diamond overgrows the mask, dislocations are largely confined to the substrate. Differing degrees of confinement were studied by varying the stripe geometry and orientation. Significant improvement in diamond quality was found in the overgrown regions, as evidenced by reduction of the Raman scattering linewidth. The Au layer was found to remain intact during diamond overgrowth and did not chemically bond with the diamond surface. Besides impeding the propagation of threading dislocations, it was discovered that the thermally-induced stress in the CVD diamond was significantly reduced as a result of the ductile Au layer. Cracking and delamination of the diamond from the substrate was mostly eliminated. When diamond was grown to thicknesses above 0.1 mm it was found that

  7. Chiral multichromic single crystals for optical devices (LDRD 99406).

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Richard Alan; Felix, Ana M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-12-01

    This report summarizes our findings during the study of a novel system that yields multi-colored materials as products. This system is quite unusual as it leads to multi-chromic behavior in single crystals, where one would expect that only a single color would exist. We have speculated that these novel solids might play a role in materials applications such as non-linear optics, liquid crystal displays, piezoelectric devices, and other similar applications. The system examined consisted of a main-group alkyl compound (a p block element such as gallium or aluminum) complexed with various organic di-imines. The di-imines had substituents of two types--either alkyl or aromatic groups attached to the nitrogen atoms. We observed that single crystals, characterized by X-ray crystallography, were obtained in most cases. Our research during January-July, 2006, was geared towards understanding the factors leading to the multi-chromic nature of the complexes. The main possibilities put forth initially considered (a) the chiral nature of the main group metal, (b) possible reduction of the metal to a lower-valent, radical state, (c) the nature of the ligand(s) attached to the main group metal, and (d) possible degradation products of the ligand leading to highly-colored products. The work carried out indicates that the most likely explanation considered involves degradation of the aromatic ligands (a combination of (c) and (d)), as the experiments performed can clearly rule out (a) and (b).

  8. Making Diamond in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Herbert

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the graphite to diamond transformation and a phase diagram for carbon. Describes high temperature-higher pressure experimental apparatus and growth of diamonds from seed crystals. Reviews properties of the diamond which suggest uses for the synthetic product. Illustrations with text. (GH)

  9. Photonic crystal cavities for spectrally-selective optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongjun

    Photonic crystal (PC) structures exhibit unconventional dispersion and refractive properties making possible hitherto not realizable optical and optoelectronic devices with high spectral selectivity. Functional PC devices (e.g., optical filters, reflectors, and photo detectors and light emitters) on both Si and III-V semiconductor material systems were fabricated via E-Beam lithography (EBL). The device layer can be further transferred onto foreign substrates such as glass or plastic (PET), using a low-cost "wet nanomembrane transfer technique" developed in this study. The broadband membrane reflectors (MR) based on Fano resonances in patterned silicon nanomembranes have been demonstrated. Resonance control of the reflectors was realized either by partially removing buried oxide layer underneath the device layer, or by controlled SiO2 film deposition on the top of the devices. Both blue- and red-shifts were demonstrated with a turning range of 50 nm for a center wavelength at 1550 nm. These results demonstrate practical post-process means for Fano resonance engineering for both narrow band filters and ultra-compact broadband reflectors. An optically pumped resonance cavity light emitting device (RCLED) with Si based membrane reflectors (MR) has been demonstrated experimentally. The stimulated cavity mode at 1545 nm was observed at room temperature with a pulsed green pumping laser light source. We observed significant spectral narrowing in RCLEDs with linewidth reduced from 50 nm down to <4 nm, owing to the presence of top and bottom MR reflectors. The measured photoluminescence efficiency also increased by a factor of 100 in RCLEDs, as compared to the value measured from as-grown InGaAsP QW structures on InP substrate. The mode shifts were also investigated over different temperatures and different pumping power levels. An InGaAsP QW LED array device was also fabricated and transferred onto flexible PET substrate. The devices showed very good electrical and

  10. Diamond solid state ionization chambers for x-ray absorption spectroscopy applications

    SciTech Connect

    De Sio, A.; Bocci, A.; Pace, E.; Castellano, C.; Cinque, G.; Tartoni, N.; D'Acapito, F.

    2008-08-25

    The photoresponse of a diamond detector has been compared with a standard ionization chamber in x-ray absorption spectroscopy applications. A photoconductive device based on a nitrogen-doped single crystal diamond has been tested by synchrotron radiation. Time stability and linearity have been studied by x rays at 10 keV to assess its performances. Finally, extended x-ray absorption fine structure at the Fe K-edge was carried on a standard iron target using both the diamond device and the IC. Spectroscopical results have been compared including references to literature.

  11. Diamond Nanophotonics and Quantum Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, Paul

    2011-10-01

    The diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center is an optically active impurity whose ``atom-like'' properties make it a promising solid state qubit, in which well-defined optical transitions are used to control the quantum state of single NV electron and nuclear spins. These properties have led to impressive demonstrations of quantum information storage in single NV nuclear spins, entanglement between NV electron spins and single photons, and implementations of high resolution optical magnetometers using single NVs. A missing ingredient for implementing quantum information processing architectures with NVs is creating scalable coherent coupling between them. Nanophotonic circuits, in which waveguides function as a ``quantum bus'' between NVs embedded in optical microcavities, offer a chip-based solution to this hurdle. In my talk I will review recent advances in realizing nanophotonic devices in diamond based materials. I will present results demonstrating Purcell enhanced coupling between optical nanocavities and NVs in single crystal diamond, and will discuss opportunities and challenges which lay ahead for diamond quantum optics.

  12. High-Q CMOS-integrated photonic crystal microcavity devices

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Karan K.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Sternberg, Zvi; Bafrali, Reha; Meade, Roy; Ram, Rajeev J.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated optical resonators are necessary or beneficial in realizations of various functions in scaled photonic platforms, including filtering, modulation, and detection in classical communication systems, optical sensing, as well as addressing and control of solid state emitters for quantum technologies. Although photonic crystal (PhC) microresonators can be advantageous to the more commonly used microring devices due to the former's low mode volumes, fabrication of PhC cavities has typically relied on electron-beam lithography, which precludes integration with large-scale and reproducible CMOS fabrication. Here, we demonstrate wavelength-scale polycrystalline silicon (pSi) PhC microresonators with Qs up to 60,000 fabricated within a bulk CMOS process. Quasi-1D resonators in lateral p-i-n structures allow for resonant defect-state photodetection in all-silicon devices, exhibiting voltage-dependent quantum efficiencies in the range of a few 10 s of %, few-GHz bandwidths, and low dark currents, in devices with loaded Qs in the range of 4,300–9,300; one device, for example, exhibited a loaded Q of 4,300, 25% quantum efficiency (corresponding to a responsivity of 0.31 A/W), 3 GHz bandwidth, and 30 nA dark current at a reverse bias of 30 V. This work demonstrates the possibility for practical integration of PhC microresonators with active electro-optic capability into large-scale silicon photonic systems. PMID:24518161

  13. Modeling of dual frequency liquid crystal materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimicombe, P. D.; Parry-Jones, L. A.; Elston, S. J.; Raynes, E. P.

    2005-11-01

    We present a director-based model of the dual frequency nature of liquid crystals based on a Debye-type relaxation of the permittivity in the direction parallel to the director. This relaxation is governed by a first order differential equation in terms of the polarization and electric field along the long axis. We demonstrate that this equation can be used as an extension to the well-known Eriksen-Leslie-Parodi theory. Since solution is in the time domain, the frequency response of the applied waveform need not be calculated. Consequently, the device response to arbitrary applied waveforms can be modeled. As an example, we present the switching response of a dual frequency addressed hybrid-aligned nematic cell, and suggest some optimization of the addressing scheme.

  14. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lagowski, J.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical efforts in the development of crystal growth approaches, effective techniques for electronic characterization on a macro and microscale, and in the discovery of phenomena and processes relevant to GaAs device applications are reported. The growth of electron trap-free bulk GaAS with extremely low density of dislocations is described. In electroepitaxy, growth configuration which eliminates the substrate back-contact was developed. This configuration can be extended to the simultaneous growth on many substrates with a thin solution layer sandwiched between any two of them. The significant reduction of Joule heating effects in the configuration made it possible to realize the in situ measurement of the layer thickness and the growth velocity. Utilizing the advantages of electroepitaxy in achieving abrupt acceleration (or deceleration) of the growth it was shown that recombination centers are formed as a result of growth acceleration.

  15. Structure and properties of diamond and diamond-like films

    SciTech Connect

    Clausing, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    This section is broken into four parts: (1) introduction, (2) natural IIa diamond, (3) importance of structure and composition, and (4) control of structure and properties. Conclusions of this discussion are that properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond films can compare favorably with natural diamond, that properties are anisotropic and are a strong function of structure and crystal perfection, that crystal perfection and morphology are functions of growth conditions and can be controlled, and that the manipulation of texture and thereby surface morphology and internal crystal perfection is an important step in optimizing chemically deposited diamond films for applications.

  16. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  17. Surface properties and blood compatibility of commercially available diamond-like carbon coatings for cardiovascular devices.

    PubMed

    Fedel, Mariangela; Motta, Antonella; Maniglio, Devid; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between the surface properties and blood compatibility of in-use diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings for cardiovascular components. Commercially available DLC films were characterized with respect to surface topography and wettability, protein adsorption from human plasma, and platelets adhesion/activation. Fibrinogen (Fng) and human serum albumin (HSA) adsorbed onto the sample surfaces were in particular quantified as two of the main proteins involved in blood compatibility. A low tendency of platelets to spread and form aggregates onto the DLC-coated surfaces has been described and related to a low Fng-to-HSA adsorption ratio. This study provides evidence that the rapid and tenacious binding of albumin molecules to DLC materials tends to passivate the surfaces and to inhibit Fng adsorption, thus imparting thromboresistance to the carbon coatings by rendering the surfaces less adhesive and activating for platelets. Albumin preferential adsorption was ascribed to high chemical heterogeneity of the DLC sample surfaces. The DLC films tested present a favorable behavior as regards blood compatibility with respect to platelet thrombus formation by reason of their surface properties.

  18. Diamond Smoothing Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronov, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Diamond smoothing tools have been proposed for use in conjunction with diamond cutting tools that are used in many finish-machining operations. Diamond machining (including finishing) is often used, for example, in fabrication of precise metal mirrors. A diamond smoothing tool according to the proposal would have a smooth spherical surface. For a given finish machining operation, the smoothing tool would be mounted next to the cutting tool. The smoothing tool would slide on the machined surface left behind by the cutting tool, plastically deforming the surface material and thereby reducing the roughness of the surface, closing microcracks and otherwise generally reducing or eliminating microscopic surface and subsurface defects, and increasing the microhardness of the surface layer. It has been estimated that if smoothing tools of this type were used in conjunction with cutting tools on sufficiently precise lathes, it would be possible to reduce the roughness of machined surfaces to as little as 3 nm. A tool according to the proposal would consist of a smoothing insert in a metal holder. The smoothing insert would be made from a diamond/metal functionally graded composite rod preform, which, in turn, would be made by sintering together a bulk single-crystal or polycrystalline diamond, a diamond powder, and a metallic alloy at high pressure. To form the spherical smoothing tip, the diamond end of the preform would be subjected to flat grinding, conical grinding, spherical grinding using diamond wheels, and finally spherical polishing and/or buffing using diamond powders. If the diamond were a single crystal, then it would be crystallographically oriented, relative to the machining motion, to minimize its wear and maximize its hardness. Spherically polished diamonds could also be useful for purposes other than smoothing in finish machining: They would likely also be suitable for use as heat-resistant, wear-resistant, unlubricated sliding-fit bearing inserts.

  19. Liquid crystal devices especially for use in liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Kenneth L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) systems that can provide real-time, phase-shifting interferograms that are useful in the characterization of static optical properties (wavefront aberrations, lensing, or wedge) in optical elements or dynamic, time-resolved events (temperature fluctuations and gradients, motion) in physical systems use improved LCPDI cells that employ a "structured" substrate or substrates in which the structural features are produced by thin film deposition or photo resist processing to provide a diffractive element that is an integral part of the cell substrate(s). The LC material used in the device may be doped with a "contrast-compensated" mixture of positive and negative dichroic dyes.

  20. Liquid crystal devices especially for use in liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer systems

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Kenneth L.

    2009-02-17

    Liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) systems that can provide real-time, phase-shifting interferograms that are useful in the characterization of static optical properties (wavefront aberrations, lensing, or wedge) in optical elements or dynamic, time-resolved events (temperature fluctuations and gradients, motion) in physical systems use improved LCPDI cells that employ a "structured" substrate or substrates in which the structural features are produced by thin film deposition or photo resist processing to provide a diffractive element that is an integral part of the cell substrate(s). The LC material used in the device may be doped with a "contrast-compensated" mixture of positive and negative dichroic dyes.

  1. Optical and Acoustic Device Applications of Ferroelastic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeks, Steven Wayne

    This dissertation presents the discovery of a means of creating uniformly periodic domain gratings in a ferroelastic crystal of neodymium pentaphosphate (NPP). The uniform and non-uniform domain structures which can be created in NPP have the potential applications as tunable active gratings for lasers, tunable diffraction gratings, tunable Bragg reflection gratings, tunable acoustic filters, optical modulators, and optical domain wall memories. The interaction of optical and acoustic waves with ferroelastic domain walls in NPP is presented in detail. Acoustic amplitude reflection coefficients from a single domain wall in NPP are much larger than other ferroelastic-ferroelectrics such as gadolinium molybdate (GMO). Domain walls of NPP are used to make two demonstration acoustic devices: a tunable comb filter and a tunable delay line. The tuning process is accomplished by moving the position of the reflecting surface (the domain wall). A theory of the reflection of optical waves from NPP domain walls is discussed. The optical reflection is due to a change in the polarization of the wave, and not a change in the index, as the wave crosses the domain wall. Theoretical optical power reflection coefficients show good agreement with the experimentally measured values. The largest optical reflection coefficient of a single domain wall is at a critical angle and is 2.2% per domain wall. Techniques of injecting periodic and aperiodic domain walls into NPP are presented. The nucleation process of the uniformly periodic domain gratings in NPP is described in terms of a newly-discovered domain structure, namely the ferroelastic bubble. A ferroelastic bubble is the elastic analogue to the well-known magnetic bubble. The period of the uniformly periodic domain grating is tunable from 100 to 0.5 microns and the grating period may be tuned relatively rapidly. The Bragg efficiency of these tunable gratings is 77% for an uncoated crystal. Several demonstration devices which use

  2. Topics in Nanophotonic Devices for Nitrogen-Vacancy Color Centers in Diamond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babinec, Thomas Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recently, developments in novel and high-purity materials allow for the presence of a single, solitary crystalline defect to define the electronic, magnetic, and optical functionality of a device. The discrete nature of the active dopant, whose properties are defined by a quantum mechanical description of its structure, enables radically new…

  3. Full characterization of laser-accelerated ion beams using Faraday cup, silicon carbide, and single-crystal diamond detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Margarone, D.; Prokupek, J.; Rus, B.; Krasa, J.; Velyhan, A.; Laska, L.; Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, L.; Picciotto, A.; Nowak, T.; Musumeci, P.; Mocek, T.; Ullschmied, J.

    2011-05-15

    Multi-MeV beams of light ions have been produced using the 300 picosecond, kJ-class iodine laser, operating at the Prague Asterix Laser System facility in Prague. Real-time ion diagnostics have been performed by the use of various time-of-flight (TOF) detectors: ion collectors (ICs) with and without absorber thin films, new prototypes of single-crystal diamond and silicon carbide detectors, and an electrostatic ion mass spectrometer (IEA). In order to suppress the long photopeak induced by soft X-rays and to avoid the overlap with the signal from ultrafast particles, the ICs have been shielded with Al foil filters. The application of large-bandgap semiconductor detectors (>3 eV) ensured cutting of the plasma-emitted visible and soft-UV radiation and enhancing the sensitivity to the very fast proton/ion beams. Employing the IEA spectrometer, various ion species and charge states in the expanding laser-plasma have been determined. Processing of the experimental data based on the TOF technique, including estimation of the plasma fast proton maximum and peak energy, ion beam currents and total charge, total number of fast protons, as well as deconvolution processes, ion stopping power, and ion/photon transmission calculations for the different metallic filters used, are reported.

  4. Growth of Diffraction-Quality Protein Crystals Using a Harvestable Microfluidic Device

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein crystallization is the major bottleneck in the entire process of protein crystallography, and obtaining diffraction-quality crystals can be unpredictable and sometimes exceptionally difficult, requiring many rounds of high-throughput screening. Recently, a more time- and cost-saving strategy to use the commercially available microfluidic devices called Crystal Formers has emerged. Herein we show the application of such a device using a protein from Legionella pneumophila called LidL that is predicted to be involved in the ability to efficiently manipulate host cell trafficking events once internalized by the host cell. After setting up just one 96-channel Crystal Former tray, we were able to obtain a diffraction-quality crystal that diffracted to 2.76 Å. These results show that Crystal Formers can be used to screen and optimize crystals to directly produce crystals for structure determination. PMID:25013386

  5. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.

  6. Synthesis of Diamond by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jan-Jue

    Diamond possesses many desirable properties, e.g. high thermal conductivity, high electrical resistivity, high breakdown voltage, high resistance to chemical and radiation damage, high transparency over a wide range of optical spectrum, and extreme hardness. Thus diamond have high potential applicability in the fields of semiconductors, optical emitting materials, optical coating materials, abrasion, and high power and high frequency devices. To extend the range of applications, large-area uniformity and low temperature growth of diamond thin films has to be achieved. Low pressure deposition is one solution to the small area and nonuniformity problems of current diamond deposition methods. By decreasing the pressure, the mean free path of electrons becomes larger and the plasma covers a larger area. Low temperature deposition gives a smaller crystalline size of diamond, and hence improves the surface morphology of deposited films. To satisfy the supersaturation condition of diamond crystallization, low temperature growth should be performed at low pressure. This study experimentally investigates optimization of diamond growth at low pressure and low temperature by comparing three deposition systems (i.e. hot filament assisted, microwave induced plasma, and electron cyclotron resonance plasma chemical vapor deposition). The deposition system is designed to clearly show the effects of each experimental parameter on grown films. Thin diamond films were deposited on silicon substrates over a wide range of deposition parameters (e.g. CH _4 concentration 0-10%, substrate temperature 490-850^circC, total pressure 2-50 Torr, microwave power 0-1200 W). In addition, the effects of oxygen addition and substrate bias were studied. The diamond films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and the plasma was characterized by optical emission spectroscopy. Crystalline diamond was successfully deposited on silicon wafers at pressures as low as 2

  7. Mean carrier transport properties and charge collection dynamics of single-crystal, natural type IIa diamonds from ion-induced conductivity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S.S.

    1993-09-01

    Ion-induced conductivity has been used to investigate the detector characteristics of diamond detectors. Both integrated-charge, and time-resolved current measurements were performed to examine the mean carrier transport properties of diamond and the dynamics of charge collection under highly-localized and high-density excitation conditions. The integrated-charge measurements were conducted with a standard pulse-counting system with {sup 241}Am radioactivity as the excitation source for the detectors. The time-resolved current measurements were performed using a 70 GHz random sampling oscilloscope with the detectors incorporated into high-speed microstrip transmission lines and the excitation source for these measurements was an ion beam of either 5-MeV He{sup +} or 10-MeV Si{sup 3+}. The detectors used in both experiments can be described as metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) devices where a volume of the detector material is sandwiched between two metal plates. A charge collection model was developed to interpret the integrated-charge measurements which enabled estimation of the energy required to produce an electron-hole pair ({epsilon}{sub di}) and the mean carrier transport properties in diamond, such as carrier mobility and lifetime, and the behavior of the electrical contacts to diamond.

  8. Growth and characterization of large, high quality single crystal diamond substrates via microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nad, Shreya

    Single crystal diamond (SCD) substrates can be utilized in a wide range of applications. Important issues in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of such substrates include: shrinking of the SCD substrate area, stress and cracking, high defect density and hence low electronic quality and low optical quality due to high nitrogen impurities. The primary objective of this thesis is to begin to address these issues and to find possible solutions for enhancing the substrate dimensions and simultaneously improving the quality of the grown substrates. The deposition of SCD substrates is carried out in a microwave cavity plasma reactor via the microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. The operation of the reactor was first optimized to determine the safe and efficient operating regime. By adjusting the matching of the reactor cavity with the help of four internal tuning length variables, the system was further matched to operate at a maximum overall microwave coupling efficiency of ˜ 98%. Even with adjustments in the substrate holder position, the reactor remains well matched with a coupling efficiency of ˜ 95% indicating good experimental performance over a wide range of operating conditions. SCD substrates were synthesized at a high pressure of 240 Torr and with a high absorbed power density of 500 W/cm3. To counter the issue of shrinking substrate size during growth, the effect of different substrate holder designs was studied. An increase in the substrate dimensions (1.23 -- 2.5 times) after growth was achieved when the sides of the seeds were shielded from the intense microwave electromagnetic fields in a pocket holder design. Using such pocket holders, high growth rates of 16 -- 32 mum/hr were obtained for growth times of 8 -- 72 hours. The polycrystalline diamond rim deposition was minimized/eliminated from these growth runs, hence successfully enlarging the substrate size. Several synthesized CVD SCD substrates were laser cut and separated

  9. Dosimetry with diamond detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Marino, C.; Silvestri, F.; Lavagno, A.; Truc, F.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we present the dosimetry analysis in terms of stability and repeatability of the signal and dose rate dependence of a synthetic single crystal diamond grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) technique. The measurements carried out by 5 MeV X-ray photons beam show very promising results, even if the dose rate detector response points out that the charge trapping centers distribution is not uniform inside the crystal volume. This handicap that affects the detectors performances, must be ascribed to the growing process. Synthetic single crystal diamonds could be a valuable alternative to air ionization chambers for quality beam control and for intensity modulated radiation therapy beams dosimetry.

  10. Simultaneous crystallization of diamond and cubic boron nitride from the graphite relative BC[sub 2]N under high pressure/high temperature conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Takayoshi Sasaki; Minoru Akaishi; Shinobu Yamaoka; Yoshinori Fujiki; Tetsuo Oikawa )

    1993-05-01

    Graphite BC[sub 2]N has been compressed with Co metal at a pressure of 5.5 GPa and temperatures of 1400-1600[degrees]C. The principal resulting products were crystals (average dimension 3 [mu]m) with cubiclike facets. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern revealed two kinds of cubic phase, in approximately equal amounts, which were identified as diamond and cBN on the basis of their lattice parameters. Microelemental analyses on individual crystal fragments by K-edge electron energy-loss spectroscopy confirmed this disproportionating crystallization scheme: half of the grains were composed of carbon-only signals of which gave fine-structure characteristic of sp[sup 3] bonding and the other half gave spectra characteristic of sp[sup 3] boron and nitrogen. The crystallization of cBN as well as diamond in the catalytic solvent of pure Co metal is observed here for the first time and is of relevance to the mechanism of the accepted catalytic action of cobalt on the hexagonal/cubic transformation. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. 75 FR 59290 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Interoperable With the Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Interoperable With the Same... States after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices and products interoperable with the... after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices and products interoperable with the...

  12. 76 FR 39897 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice... the United States after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices and products containing... importation of certain liquid crystal display devices and products containing the same that infringe one...

  13. 75 FR 445 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice... importation of certain liquid crystal display devices and products containing same by reason of infringement... importation of liquid crystal display devices or products containing same that infringe one or more of...

  14. Fabrication of UV Photodetector on TiO2/Diamond Film.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhangcheng; Li, Fengnan; Li, Shuoye; Hu, Chao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Lin, Fang; Wang, Hongxing

    2015-09-24

    The properties of ultraviolet (UV) photodetector fabricated on TiO2/diamond film were investigated. Single crystal diamond layer was grown on high-pressure-high-temperature Ib-type diamond substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition method, upon which TiO2 film was prepared directly using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique in Ar and O2 mixing atmosphere. Tungsten was used as electrode material to fabricate metal-semiconductor-metal UV photodetector. The dark current is measured to be 1.12 pA at 30 V. The photo response of the device displays an obvious selectivity between UV and visible light, and the UV-to-visible rejection ratio can reach 2 orders of magnitude. Compared with that directly on diamond film, photodetector on TiO2/diamond film shows higher responsivity.

  15. Fabrication of UV Photodetector on TiO2/Diamond Film

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhangcheng; Li, Fengnan; Li, Shuoye; Hu, Chao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Lin, Fang; Wang, Hongxing

    2015-01-01

    The properties of ultraviolet (UV) photodetector fabricated on TiO2/diamond film were investigated. Single crystal diamond layer was grown on high-pressure-high-temperature Ib-type diamond substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition method, upon which TiO2 film was prepared directly using radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique in Ar and O2 mixing atmosphere. Tungsten was used as electrode material to fabricate metal-semiconductor-metal UV photodetector. The dark current is measured to be 1.12 pA at 30 V. The photo response of the device displays an obvious selectivity between UV and visible light, and the UV-to-visible rejection ratio can reach 2 orders of magnitude. Compared with that directly on diamond film, photodetector on TiO2/diamond film shows higher responsivity. PMID:26399514

  16. In situ serial Laue diffraction on a microfluidic crystallization device

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Sarah L.; Guha, Sudipto; Pawate, Ashtamurthy S.; Henning, Robert; Kosheleva, Irina; Srajer, Vukica; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Ren, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Renewed interest in room-temperature diffraction has been prompted by the desire to observe structural dynamics of proteins as they function. Serial crystallography, an experimental strategy that aggregates small pieces of data from a large uniform pool of crystals, has been demonstrated at synchrotrons and X-ray free-electron lasers. This work utilizes a microfluidic crystallization platform for serial Laue diffraction from macroscopic crystals and proposes that a collection of small slices of Laue data from many individual crystals is a realistic solution to the difficulties in dynamic studies of irreversible biochemical reactions. PMID:25484843

  17. High-Q/V Monolithic Diamond Microdisks Fabricated with Quasi-isotropic Etching.

    PubMed

    Khanaliloo, Behzad; Mitchell, Matthew; Hryciw, Aaron C; Barclay, Paul E

    2015-08-12

    Optical microcavities enhance light-matter interactions and are essential for many experiments in solid state quantum optics, optomechanics, and nonlinear optics. Single crystal diamond microcavities are particularly sought after for applications involving diamond quantum emitters, such as nitrogen vacancy centers, and for experiments that benefit from diamond's excellent optical and mechanical properties. Light-matter coupling rates in experiments involving microcavities typically scale with Q/V, where Q and V are the microcavity quality-factor and mode-volume, respectively. Here we demonstrate that microdisk whispering gallery mode cavities with high Q/V can be fabricated directly from bulk single crystal diamond. By using a quasi-isotropic oxygen plasma to etch along diamond crystal planes and undercut passivated diamond structures, we create monolithic diamond microdisks. Fiber taper based measurements show that these devices support TE- and TM-like optical modes with Q > 1.1 × 10(5) and V < 11(λ/n) (3) at a wavelength of 1.5 μm. PMID:26134379

  18. Most diamonds were created equal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablon, Brooke Matat; Navon, Oded

    2016-06-01

    Diamonds crystallize deep in the mantle (>150 km), leaving their carbon sources and the mechanism of their crystallization debatable. They can form from elemental carbon, by oxidation of reduced species (e.g. methane) or reduction of oxidized ones (e.g. carbonate-bearing minerals or melts), in response to decreasing carbon solubility in melts or fluids or due to changes in pH. The mechanism of formation is clear for fibrous diamonds that grew from the carbonate-bearing fluids trapped in their microinclusions. However, these diamonds look different and, based on their lower level of nitrogen aggregation, are much younger than most monocrystalline (MC) diamonds. In the first systematic search for microinclusions in MC diamonds we examined twinned crystals (macles), assuming that during their growth, microinclusions were trapped along the twinning plane. Visible mineral inclusions (>10 μm) and nitrogen aggregation levels in these clear macles are similar to other MC diamonds. We found 32 microinclusions along the twinning planes in eight out of 30 diamonds. Eight inclusions are orthopyroxene; four contain >50% K2O (probably as K2(Mg, Ca)(CO3)2); but the major element compositions of the remaining 20 are similar to those of carbonate-bearing high-density fluids (HDFs) found in fibrous diamonds. We conclude that the source of carbon for these macles and for most diamonds is carbonate-bearing HDFs similar to those found here and in fibrous diamonds. Combined with the old ages of MC diamonds (up to 3.5 Ga), our new findings suggest that carbonates have been introduced into the reduced lithospheric mantle since the Archaean and that the mechanism of diamond formation is the same for most diamonds.

  19. Li3AlSiO5: the first aluminosilicate as a potential deep-ultraviolet nonlinear optical crystal with the quaternary diamond-like structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinglong; Zhang, Fangfang; Liu, Lili; Lei, Bing-Hua; Dong, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhihua; Li, Hongyi; Pan, Shilie

    2016-02-14

    Deep-ultraviolet (deep-UV) nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals play a crucial role in modern laser frequency conversion technology. Traditionally, the exploration of deep-UV NLO crystals is mainly focused on borates, while, the use of phosphates recently opened up a novel and promising non-boron pathway for designing new deep-UV NLO crystals. Extending this pathway to aluminosilicates led to the discovery of Li3AlSiO5, the first NLO crystal in this system. It crystallizes in the polar space group Pna21 (no. 33) with a quaternary diamond-like structure composed of LiO4, AlO4 and SiO4 tetrahedral groups. The compound exhibits a deep-UV cut-off edge below 190 nm and is phase matchable with moderate powder second harmonic generation (SHG) intensity (0.8KH2PO4). The band gap calculated using PBE0 is 7.29 eV, indicating that the cut-off edge of the Li3AlSiO5 crystal can be down to 170 nm. In addition, the compound is nonhygroscopic and thermally stable up to ∼1472 K. These results suggest that Li3AlSiO5 is a potential deep-UV NLO crystal. First-principles studies were performed to elucidate the structure-property relationship of Li3AlSiO5. PMID:26788988

  20. 77 FR 3793 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and Components Thereof; Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade...

  1. Experimental investigation of photon multiplicity and radiation cooling for 150 GeV electrons/positrons traversing diamond and Si crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsebom, K.; Medenwaldt, R.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Paludan, K.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Romano, J.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Avakian, R. O.; Avetisian, A. E.; Taroian, S. P.

    1996-10-01

    Detailed experimental investigations of photon multiplicities for 150 GeV electrons/positrons traversing thin diamond and Si crystals have been performed. Along axial directions up to 10 photons are emitted in 1.5 mm diamond for a radiative energy loss larger than 4 GeV. This corresponds to a mean free path for photon emission of about two orders of magnitude shorter than in an amorphous target. This is in agreement with an enhanced radiative energy loss of ˜ 30 times that in amorphous targets. The strongly enhanced photon emission leads to radiation cooling which can result in particles exiting the crystal with a reduced angle to the axis. For incidences along planar directions the average multiplicity is still above one, even for the thinnest crystals used in the present experiment, so a single-photon spectrum can only be obtained for thicknesses ≤50 μm, which, on the other hand, is comparable to the coherence lengths for GeV photons, leading to destruction of the coherent effects.

  2. The influence of detector size relative to field size in small-field photon-beam dosimetry using synthetic diamond crystals as sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ade, N.; Nam, T. L.

    2015-08-01

    The choice of a detector for small-field dosimetry remains a challenge due to the size/volume effect of detectors in small fields. Aimed at selecting a suitable crystal type and detector size for small-field dosimetry, this study investigates the relationship between detector and field size by analysing output factors (OFs) measured with a Diode E (reference detector), a Farmer chamber and synthetic diamond detectors of various types and sizes in the dosimetry of a 6 MV photon beam with small fields between 0.3×0.3 cm2 and 10×10 cm2. The examined diamond sensors included two HPHT samples (HP1 and HP2) and six polycrystalline CVD specimens of optical grade (OG) and detector grade (DG) qualities with sizes between 0.3 and 1.0 cm. Each diamond was encapsulated in a tissue-equivalent probe housing which can hold crystals of various dimensions up to 1.0×1.0×0.1 cm3 and has different exposure geometries ('edge-on' and 'flat-on') for impinging radiation. The HPHT samples were found to show an overall better performance compared to the CVD crystals with the 'edge-on' orientation being a preferred geometry for OF measurement especially for very small fields. For instance, down to a 0.4×0.4 cm2 field a maximum deviation of 1.9% was observed between the OFs measured with Diode E and HP2 in the 'edge-on' orientation compared to a 4.6% deviation in the 'flat-on' geometry. It was observed that for fields below 4×4 cm2, the dose deviation between the OFs measured with the detectors and Diode E increase with increasing detector size. It was estimated from an established relationship between the dose deviation and the ratio of detector size to field size for the detectors that the dose deviation probably due to the volume averaging effect would be >3% when the detector size is >3/4 of the field size. A sensitivity value of 223 nC Gy-1 mm-3 was determined in a 0.5×0.5 cm2 field with HP2 compared to a value of 159.2 nC Gy-1 mm-3 obtained with the diode. The results of this

  3. Voltage calibration of dual-frequency liquid crystal devices for infrared beam steering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Milind; Wen, Bing; Bhupathy, Vinay; Taber, Donald; Winker, Bruce

    2005-08-01

    This paper addresses the use of liquid crystal devices for electro-optic infrared laser beam steering, such as liquid crystal optical phased arrays (OPAs) and digital beam deflectors (DBDs). In these devices, voltages are synchronously applied to different liquid crystal pixels to steer light, either by diffraction and/or refraction using birefringent prisms. Dual frequency liquid crystals provide an order of magnitude higher speed as compared to conventional nematic liquid crystals, at the cost of more complex addressing algorithms and control circuits. In order to optimize the optical performance of a liquid crystal device, the control voltages must be calibrated. This procedure involves adjustment of the control voltages while monitoring the optical efficiency, and must be done for both steady-state phase levels as well as transitions between phase levels. Manual voltage calibration is unrealistically time consuming for multi-channel beam steering devices. Computer based calibration algorithms for dual frequency liquid crystal devices are discussed, and results are presented for both steady state and dynamic voltage calibration procedures.

  4. 75 FR 14470 - Enforcement Proceeding; In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... a complaint filed by Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (``Samsung'') of Korea. 74 FR 67248. The... COMMISSION Enforcement Proceeding; In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain liquid crystal display...

  5. Applications of antireflection coatings in sonic crystal-based acoustic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Deng, Ke; Xu, Shengjun; Qiu, Chunyin; Yang, Hai; Liu, Zhengyou

    2011-03-01

    The unwanted reflection seriously baffles the practical applications of sonic crystals, such as for various acoustic lenses designed by utilizing the in-band properties of sonic crystals. Herein we introduce the concept of the antireflection coating into the sonic crystal-based devices. The efficiency of such accessorial structures is demonstrated well by an originally high reflection system. Promising perspectives can be anticipated in extending the antireflection coating layers into more general acoustic applications through a flexible design process.

  6. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    The apparatus and techniques used in effort to determine the relationships between crystal growth and electronic properties are described with emphasis on electroepitaxy and melt-grown gallium aresenide crystal. Applications of deep level transient spectroscopy, derivative photocapitance spectroscopy, and SEM-cathodoluminescene in characterizing wide bandgap semiconductors; determining photoionization in MOS, Schottky barriers, and p-n junctions; and for identifying inhomogeneities are examined, as well as the compensation of indium phosphide.

  7. Simulation of planar channeling-radiation spectra of relativistic electrons and positrons channeled in a diamond-structure or tungsten single crystal (classical approach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadegan, B.; Wagner, W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a Mathematica package for simulation of spectral-angular distributions and energy spectra of planar channeling radiation of relativistic electrons and positrons channeled along major crystallographic planes of a diamond-structure or tungsten single crystal. The program is based on the classical theory of channeling radiation which has been successfully applied to study planar channeling of light charged particles at energies higher than 100 MeV. Continuous potentials for different planes of diamond, Si, Ge and W single crystals are calculated using the Doyle-Turner approximation to the atomic scattering factor and taking thermal vibrations of the crystal atoms into account. Numerical methods are applied to solve the classical one-dimensional equation of motion. The code is designed to calculate the trajectories, velocities and accelerations of electrons (positrons) channeled by the planar continuous potential. In the framework of classical electrodynamics, these data allow realistic simulations of spectral-angular distributions and energy spectra of planar channeling radiation. Since the generated output is quantitative, the results of calculation may be useful, e.g., for setup configuration and crystal alignment in channeling experiments, for the study of the dependence of channeling radiation on the input parameters of particle beams with respect to the crystal orientation, but also for the simulation of positron production by means of pair creation what is mandatory for the design of efficient positron sources necessary in high-energy and collider physics. Although the classical theory of channeling is well established for long time, there is no adequate library program for simulation of channeling radiation up to now, which is commonly available, sufficiently simple and effective to employ and, therefore, of benefit as for special investigations as for a quick overview of basic features of this type of radiation.

  8. 21 CFR 872.4535 - Dental diamond instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental diamond instrument. 872.4535 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4535 Dental diamond instrument. (a) Identification. A dental diamond instrument is an abrasive device intended to smooth tooth surfaces during...

  9. 21 CFR 872.4535 - Dental diamond instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental diamond instrument. 872.4535 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4535 Dental diamond instrument. (a) Identification. A dental diamond instrument is an abrasive device intended to smooth tooth surfaces during...

  10. 21 CFR 872.4535 - Dental diamond instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental diamond instrument. 872.4535 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4535 Dental diamond instrument. (a) Identification. A dental diamond instrument is an abrasive device intended to smooth tooth surfaces during...

  11. 21 CFR 872.4535 - Dental diamond instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental diamond instrument. 872.4535 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4535 Dental diamond instrument. (a) Identification. A dental diamond instrument is an abrasive device intended to smooth tooth surfaces during...

  12. 21 CFR 872.4535 - Dental diamond instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental diamond instrument. 872.4535 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4535 Dental diamond instrument. (a) Identification. A dental diamond instrument is an abrasive device intended to smooth tooth surfaces during...

  13. Diamonds in detonation soot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, N. Roy; Phillips, Dave; Johnson, J. D.; Volk, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Diamonds 4 to 7 nm in diameter have been identified and partially isolated from soot formed in detonations of carbon-forming composite explosives. The morphology of the soot has been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the identity of the diamond has been established by the electron diffraction pattern of the TEM samples and by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the isolated solid. Graphite is also present in the form of ribbons of turbostatic structure with a thickness of 2 to 4 nm. A fraction, about 25 percent of the soot by weight, was recovered from the crude soot after oxidation of the graphite with fuming perchloric acid. This fraction showed a distinct XRD pattern of diamond and the diffuse band of amorphous carbon. The IR spectrum of these diamonds closely matches that of diamonds recovered from meteorites (Lewis et al., 1987), perhaps indicating similar surface properties after the oxidation. If these diamonds are produced in the detonation itself or during the initial expansion, they exhibit a phenomenal crystal growth rate (5 nm/0.00001 s equal 1.8 m/hr) in a medium with a very low hydrogen/carbon ratio. Because the diamonds will be carried along with the expanding gases, they will be accelerated to velocities approaching 8 km/s.

  14. Spectroscopic analysis of H2/CH4 microwave plasma and fast growth rate of diamond single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkaoui, N.; Rond, C.; Hassouni, K.; Gicquel, A.

    2014-06-01

    One of the best ways to increase the diamond growth rate is to couple high microwave power to the plasma. Indeed, increasing the power density leads to increase gas temperature the atomic hydrogen density in the plasma bulk, and to produce more hydrogen and methyl at the diamond surface. Experimental and numerical approaches were used to study the microwave plasma under high power densities conditions. Gas temperature was measured by optical emission spectroscopy and H-atom density using actinometry. CH3-radical density was obtained using a 1D model that describes temperatures and plasma composition from the substrate to the top of the reactor. The results show that gas temperature in the plasma bulk, atomic hydrogen, and methyl densities at the diamond surface highly increase with the power density. As a consequence, measurements have shown that diamond growth rate also increases. At very high power density, we measured a growth rate of 40 μm/h with an H-atom density of 5 × 1017 cm-3 which corresponds to a H2 dissociation rate higher than 50%. Finally, we have shown that the growth rate can be framed between a lower and an upper limit as a function depending only on the maximum of H-atom density measured or calculated in the plasma bulk. The results also demonstrated that increasing fresh CH4 by an appropriate injection into the boundary layer is a potential way to increase the diamond growth rates.

  15. Versatile alignment layer method for new types of liquid crystal photonic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Finnemeyer, V.; Bryant, D.; Lu, L.; Bos, P.; Reich, R.; Clark, H.; Berry, S.; Bozler, C.; Yaroshchuk, O.

    2015-07-21

    Liquid crystal photonic devices are becoming increasingly popular. These devices often present a challenge when it comes to creating a robust alignment layer in pre-assembled cells. In this paper, we describe a method of infusing a dye into a microcavity to produce an effective photo-definable alignment layer. However, previous research on such alignment layers has shown that they have limited stability, particularly against subsequent light exposure. As such, we further describe a method of utilizing a pre-polymer, infused into the microcavity along with the liquid crystal, to provide photostability. We demonstrate that the polymer layer, formed under ultraviolet irradiation of liquid crystal cells, has been effectively localized to a thin region near the substrate surface and provides a significant improvement in the photostability of the liquid crystal alignment. This versatile alignment layer method, capable of being utilized in devices from the described microcavities to displays, offers significant promise for new photonics applications.

  16. Omnidirectional refractive devices for flexural waves based on graded phononic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Torrent, Daniel Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2014-12-14

    Different omnidirectional refractive devices for flexural waves in thin plates are proposed and numerically analyzed. Their realization is explained by means phononic crystal plates, where a previously developed homogenization theory is employed for the design of graded index refractive devices. These devices consist of a circular cluster of inclusions with a properly designed gradient in their radius. With this approach, the Luneburg and Maxwell lenses and a family of beam splitters for flexural waves are proposed and analyzed. Results show that these devices work properly in a broadband frequency region, being therefore an efficient approach for the design of refractive devices specially interesting for nano-scale applications.

  17. Nitrogen termination of single crystal (100) diamond surface by radio frequency N{sub 2} plasma process: An in-situ x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and secondary electron emission studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chandran, Maneesh E-mail: choffman@tx.technion.ac.il; Shasha, Michal; Michaelson, Shaul; Hoffman, Alon E-mail: choffman@tx.technion.ac.il

    2015-09-14

    In this letter, we report the electronic and chemical properties of nitrogen terminated (N-terminated) single crystal (100) diamond surface, which is a promising candidate for shallow NV{sup −} centers. N-termination is realized by an indirect RF nitrogen plasma process without inducing a large density of surface defects. Thermal stability and electronic property of N-terminated diamond surface are systematically investigated under well-controlled conditions by in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron emission. An increase in the low energy cut-off of the secondary electron energy distribution curve (EDC), with respect to a bare diamond surface, indicates a positive electron affinity of the N-terminated diamond. Exposure to atomic hydrogen results in reorganization of N-terminated diamond to H-terminated diamond, which exhibited a negative electron affinity surface. The change in intensity and spectral features of the secondary electron EDC of the N-terminated diamond is discussed.

  18. Diffraction and fringing field effects in small pixel liquid crystal devices with homeotropic alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbrabant, Pieter J. M.; Beeckman, Jeroen; Neyts, Kristiaan; Willman, Eero; Fernandez, F. Anibal

    2010-10-01

    Reducing the pixel dimensions of liquid crystal microdisplays in search of high resolution has a fundamental impact on their electro-optic behavior. The liquid crystal director orientation becomes distorted due to fringing fields and diffraction effects influence the optical characteristics of the device once the structure features approach the wavelength of the incident light. Three-dimensional finite element simulation of the liquid crystal dynamics with a variable order approach is combined with a full-vector beam propagation analysis to investigate how elasticity and diffraction limit the resolution as a function of the pixel size for transmissive and reflective architectures with vertical liquid crystal alignment. The key liquid crystal properties are considered and the importance of materials with high birefringence is confirmed for small pixel devices as these improve the contrast for a fixed pixel size.

  19. Gradient index liquid crystal devices and method of fabrication thereof

    DOEpatents

    Lee, J.C.; Jacobs, S.

    1991-10-29

    Laser beam apodizers using cholesteric liquid crystals provides soft edge profile by use of two separate cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures with different selective reflection bands which in an overlap region have a gradient index where reflectivity changes as a function of position. The apodizers can be configured as a one-dimensional beam apod INTRODUCTION The U.S. government has rights in the invention under Contract No. DE-FC03-85DP40200 between the University of Rochester and the Department of Energy.

  20. Gradient index liquid crystal devices and method of fabrication thereof

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Jae-Cheul; Jacobs, Stephen

    1991-01-01

    Laser beam apodizers using cholesteric liquid crystals provides soft edge profile by use of two separate cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures with different selective reflection bands which in an overlap region have a gradient index where reflectivity changes as a function of position. The apodizers can be configured as a one-dimensional beam apod INTRODUCTION The U.S. government has rights in the invention under Contract No. DE-FC03-85DP40200 between the University of Rochester and the Department of Energy.

  1. Tunable scattering from liquid crystal devices using carbon nanotubes network electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ammar A.; Dabera, G. Dinesha M. R.; Butt, Haider; Qasim, Malik M.; Amaratunga, Gehan A. J.; Silva, S. Ravi P.; Wilkinson, Timothy D.

    2014-11-01

    Liquid crystals are of technological interest as they allow for optical effects which can be electrically controlled. In this paper we present an electro-optical device consisting of nematic liquid crystals addressed by an electrode structure consisting of thin films of polymer wrapped single walled carbon nanotubes (nanohybrids). Thin films of nanohybrids display excellent optical transmission and electrical conduction properties. Due to the randomly organised nanohybrids these composite films produce interesting director profile arrangements within the liquid crystal layers. As a result, enhanced scattering of laser and white light was observed from these liquid crystal cells which bend themselves as electrically controllable optical diffusers and beam shapers.

  2. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-05-25

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  3. Nanocrystalline diamond synthesized from C60

    SciTech Connect

    Dubrovinskaia, N.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Langehorst, F.; Jacobsen, S.; Liebske, C.

    2010-11-30

    A bulk sample of nanocrystalline cubic diamond with crystallite sizes of 5-12 nm was synthesized from fullerene C{sub 60} at 20(1) GPa and 2000 C using a multi-anvil apparatus. The new material is at least as hard as single crystal diamond. It was found that nanocrystalline diamond at high temperature and ambient pressure kinetically is more stable with respect to graphitization than usual diamonds.

  4. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Estimated 2011 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2011, natural industrial diamonds were produced in more than 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 13 countries. About 98 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. China is the world's leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by Russia and the United States.

  5. Simulation and bonding of dopants in nanocrystalline diamond.

    PubMed

    Barnard, A S; Russo, S P; Snook, I K

    2005-09-01

    The doping of the wide-band gap semiconductor diamond has led to the invention of many electronic and optoelectronic devices. Impurities can be introduced into diamond during chemical vapor deposition or high pressure-high temperature growth, resulting in materials with unusual physical and chemical properties. For electronic applications one of the main objectives in the doping of diamond is the production of p-type and n-type semiconductors materials; however, the study of dopants in diamond nanoparticles is considered important for use in nanodevices, or as qubits for quantum computing. Such devices require that bonding of dopants in nanodiamond must be positioned substitutionally at a lattice site, and must exhibit minimal or no possibility of diffusion to the nanocrystallite surface. In light of these requirements, a number of computational studies have been undertaken to examine the stability of various dopants in various forms of nanocrystalline diamond. Presented here is a review of some such studies, undertaken using quantum mechanical based simulation methods, to provide an overview of the crystal stability of doped nanodiamond for use in diamondoid nanodevices. PMID:16193953

  6. Improved diamond surfaces following lift-off and plasma treatments as observed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, Alastair; Drumm, Virginia S.; Fairchild, Barbara A.; Ganesan, Kumar; Prawer, Steven; Rubanov, Sergey; Kalish, Rafi; Cowie, Bruce C. C.; Hoffman, Alon

    2011-05-02

    We have investigated the nature of the residual damage in diamond crystals following the ion implantation/graphitization ''lift-off'' process, using near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. A defective but crystalline interface is found, which displays dense pre-edge unoccupied states and an almost complete loss of the core-level C 1s exciton signature. This residual crystalline damage is resistant to standard chemical etching, however a hydrogen plasma treatment is found to completely recover a pristine diamond surface. Analysis and removal of residual ion-induced damage is considered crucial to the performance of many diamond device architectures.

  7. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was 630 million carats. Natural industrial diamond deposits were found in more than 35 countries. Synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries. More than 81% of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States.

  8. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.44 billion carats in 2010. Natural industrial diamond deposits have been found in more than 35 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries.

  9. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  10. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    It was established that the findings on elemental semiconductors Ge and Si regarding crystal growth, segregation, chemical composition, defect interactions, and materials properties-electronic properties relationships are not necessarily applicable to GaAs (and to other semiconductor compounds). In many instances totally unexpected relationships were found to prevail. It was further established that in compound semiconductors with a volatile constituent, control of stoichiometry is far more critical than any other crystal growth parameter. It was also shown that, due to suppression of nonstoichiometric fluctuations, the advantages of space for growth of semiconductor compounds extend far beyond those observed in elemental semiconductors. A novel configuration was discovered for partial confinement of GaAs melt in space which overcomes the two major problems associated with growth of semiconductors in total confinement. They are volume expansion during solidification and control of pressure of the volatile constituent. These problems are discussed in detail.

  11. Cutting with diamond wire: Cutting procedures and suggested uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, H. B.

    Diamond impregnated wire is the most versatile cutting tool yet devised. When a wire is properly charged with diamond particles and is drawn back and forth over a material surface, it does a remarkable cutting job. In a number of cases, wire sawing is the only way to perform these operations successfully: (1) for materials which are so fragile that other means of cutting will cause breakage, damage to crystal structure or otherwise impair the specimens, often rendering them useless, (2) for cutting materials which are so expensive that kerf loss becomes a major factor, a wire of the proper diameter with carefully graded diamonds, results in the minimum loss of material, (3) for cutting materials which may be damaged by the frictional heat generated by the high speed abrasive wheels, band saws and other cutting devices, causing hair cracks and craze.

  12. Three-dimensional finite element modeling of liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbrabant, Pieter J. M.; James, Richard; Beeckman, Jeroen; Neyts, Kristiaan; Willman, Eero; Fernandez, F. Anibal

    2011-03-01

    A finite element framework is presented to combine advanced three-dimensional liquid crystal director calculations with a full-vector beam propagation analysis. This approach becomes especially valuable to analyze and design structures in which disclinations or diffraction effects play an important role. The wide applicability of the approach is illustrated in our overview from several examples including small pixel LCOS microdisplays with homeotropic alignment.

  13. Process for making diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasquin, J. R.; Estes, M. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of a device and process for making industrial diamonds. The device is composed of an exponential horn tapering from a large end to a small end, with a copper plate against the large end. A magnetic hammer abuts the copper plate. The copper plate and magnetic hammer function together to create a shock wave at the large end of the horn. As the wave propagates to the small end, the extreme pressure and temperature caused by the wave transforms the graphite, present in an anvil pocket at the small end, into diamonds.

  14. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The optimization of space processing of GaAs is described. The detailed compositional, structural, and electronic characterization of GaAs on a macro- and microscale and the relationships between growth parameters and the properties of GaAs are among the factors discussed. The key parameters limiting device performance are assessed.

  15. Spacetime diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Daiqin; Ralph, T. C.

    2016-02-01

    We show that the particle-number distribution of diamond modes, modes that are localized in a finite spacetime region, are thermal for the Minkowski vacuum state of a massless scalar field, an analogue to the Unruh effect. The temperature of the diamond is inversely proportional to its size. An inertial observer can detect this thermal radiation by coupling to the diamond modes using an appropriate energy-scaled detector. We further investigate the correlations between various diamonds and find that entanglement between adjacent diamonds dominates.

  16. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.

  17. Dual frequency liquid crystal devices for infrared electro-optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Dong-Feng; Winker, Bruce K.; Taber, Donald B.; Cheung, Jeffrey T.; Lu, Yiwei; Kobrin, Paul H.; Zhuang, Zhiming

    2002-12-01

    A dual frequency liquid crystal (DFLC) can be field-driven towards its unperturbed state, which dramatically reduces the overall electro-optical response time. DFLC materials with sub-millisecond switching speed are being used in infrared electro-optical devices at wavelengths up to 3 microns. The performance of devices such as tunable half-wave plates and optical phased arrays in agile beam steering devices, and wavefront controllers for adaptive optics are described. Device issues discussed include drive schemes, field of view, reflective direct drive backplane, infrared-transparent conductors, and antireflection coatings.

  18. Liquid crystal over silicon device characteristics for holographic projection of high-definition television images.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, A; Christmas, J; Moore, J; Jeziorska-Chapman, A; Davey, A; Collings, N; Crossland, W A

    2008-09-10

    We discuss some fundamental characteristics of a phase-modulating device suitable to holographically project a monochrome video frame with 1280 x 720 resolution. The phase-modulating device is expected to be a liquid crystal over silicon chip with silicon area similar to that of commercial devices. Its basic characteristics, such as number of pixels, bits per pixel, and pixel dimensions, are optimized in terms of image quality and optical efficiency. Estimates of the image quality are made from the noise levels and contrast, while efficiency is calculated by considering the beam apodization, device dead space, diffraction losses, and the sinc envelope.

  19. PREFACE: Science's gem: diamond science 2009 Science's gem: diamond science 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainwood, Alison; Newton, Mark E.; Stoneham, Marshall

    2009-09-01

    dislocations. The understanding of the critical processes that are involved in CVD diamond growth are becoming clearer. Two papers in this issue model it on a microscopic scale [11, 12], and a further two explore the practical techniques [13, 14] in order to lead to improvement in deposition techniques. Diamond is emerging as an engineering material [3] with its cost no longer regarded as prohibitive even for some large-scale uses, such as the fusion reactor first wall. It is striking how few useful dopants can be put into diamond in a controlled way. The studies reported here, whether theory or experiment, concentrate on phosphorus [14] as the donor, and demonstrate that boron (although deep in semiconductor terms,) can act as the acceptor [3] in practical devices. Other impurities, with deeper levels, such as nitrogen [15], with the muon as an honorary hydrogen [16], are studied in depth. Here, many of the characterization techniques developed over several decades have been brought to bear, to attempt to quantify impurities and defects and ultimately assist in improving the crystal quality [17, 18, 15]. However, further, more novel techniques such as reflection anisotropy spectroscopy [19] and luminescence lifetime mapping [20] have been introduced to diamond in this issue, and one can see how such techniques might play a crucial role in areas such as systems for quantum information processing. The presence and migration of radiation damage defects [21, 22], vacancies and interstitials, and vacancy clusters can dramatically influence the exploitable properties of diamond [23, 24]. It is now apparent that charge traps not only impact on electrical properties, but also on the colour of diamond and that thermo-chromic and photo-chromic effects are more common than previously thought [25, 23]. Combinations, like the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centre, have proved impressive in quantum information studies [26]. But diamond has yet to benefit from the sort of dopant

  20. Defects in silicon effect on device performance and relationship to crystal growth conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrzebski, L.

    1985-01-01

    A relationship between material defects in silicon and the performance of electronic devices will be described. A role which oxygen and carbon in silicon play during the defects generation process will be discussed. The electronic properties of silicon are a strong function of the oxygen state in the silicon. This state controls mechanical properties of silicon efficiency for internal gettering and formation of defects in the device's active area. In addition, to temperature, time, ambience, and the cooling/heating rates of high temperature treatments, the oxygen state is a function of the crystal growth process. The incorporation of carbon and oxygen into silicon crystal is controlled by geometry and rotation rates applied to crystal and crucible during crystal growths. Also, formation of nucleation centers for oxygen precipitation is influenced by the growth process, although there is still a controversy which parameters play a major role. All these factors will be reviewed with special emphasis on areas which are still ambiguous and controversial.

  1. Electro-optical properties of cholesteric liquid crystal devices and applications of dual frequency cholesteric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming

    2000-12-01

    The helical structure of cholesteric liquid crystals originates the optical property of Bragg reflection, employed in numerous devices. A typical cholesteric device consists of glass plates, electrodes, alignment layers and a cholesteric liquid crystal layer. We systematically studied the reflection from individual interfaces by measuring the reflection spectra under various polarization conditions and simulating the spectra using Berreman's 4 x 4 matrix method. The results demonstrate that device structures have significant effects on optical performance. We studied the optical behavior of various cholesteric textures. We report for the first time an anomalous reflection of the left circularly polarized light from imperfect planar textures with right-handed twist under normal incidence. We modeled the imperfect planar texture as a multi-domain structure and were able to simulate the reflection of the multi-domain planar texture. We also studied the optical properties of the gray scale states of the cholesteric reflective display. The results are very useful in the implementation of full color displays. We developed two types of devices utilizing dual frequency cholesteric liquid crystals, the dual frequency cholesteric light shutters and reflective displays. The advantages of these light shutters are their high on- state transmittance and low off-state transmittance. By designing and optimizing a 3-phased dual frequency drive scheme, we reduced the response time of the device from over 10 seconds to less than 50ms. The device is a good candidate for applications such as laser protection goggles. Unlike the conventional reflective display, the dual frequency one does not need a homeotropic state as an intermediate switching state. Thus it has the potential of reducing the drive voltage. We designed a dual frequency drive scheme to drive the display between various gray scale states directly, promising an easier implementation of gray scales.

  2. Study on characteristic parameters influencing laser-induced damage threshold of KH2PO4 crystal surface machined by single point diamond turning

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingjun; Li, Mingquan; Cheng, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao

    2011-01-01

    It has fundamental meaning to find the elements influencing the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of KH2PO4 (KDP) crystal and to provide suitable characterization parameters for these factors in order to improve the LIDT of KDP. Using single-point diamond turning (SPDT) to process the KDP crystal, the machined surface quality has important effects on its LIDT. However, there are still not suitable characteristic parameters of surface quality of KDP to correspond with the LIDT nowadays. In this paper, guided by the Fourier model theory, we study deeply the relationship between the relevant characteristic parameters of surface topography of KDP crystal and the experimental LIDT. Research results indicate that the waviness rather than the roughness is the leading topography element on the KDP surface machined by the SPDT method when the LIDT is considered and the amplitude of micro-waviness has greater influence on the light intensity inside the KDP crystal within the scope of dangerous frequencies between (180 μm)−1 and (90 μm)−1; with suitable testing equipment, the characteristic parameters of waviness amplitude, such as the arithmetical mean deviation of three-dimensional profile Sa or root mean square deviation of three-dimensional contour Sq, are able to be considered as suitable parameters to reflect the optical quality of the machined surface in order to judge approximately the LIDT of the KDP surface and guide the machining course. PMID:22247567

  3. A new approach to kinetics study of the anhydrite crystallization at 373 K using a diamond anvil cell with Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. J.; Zheng, H. F.

    2013-04-01

    A new approach to the kinetics study of anhydrite (CaSO4) crystallization has been performed in situ using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell with Raman spectroscopy in the pressure range 896-1322 MPa and a constant temperature of 373 K. Transformed volume fraction X(t) was determined from Raman peak intensity of the sulfate ion in aqueous solution. The transformation-time plots display a sigmoidal shape with time, which indicates that the reaction rate is different at each stage of anhydrite crystallization. At 373 K, the rate constant k increases from 1.14 × 10-4 s-1 to 1.86 × 10-3 s-1, demonstrating a positive effect of pressure on the overall rate at isothermal condition. We first achieved the molar volume change (ΔVm) equal to -1.82 × 10-5 m3/mol in the course of anhydrite crystallization through Avrami kinetic theory, showing a process of reduction in volume at high pressure and high temperature. According to the exponent n derived from our experiments, a grain-boundary nucleation and diffusion-controlled growth kinetically dominates the crystallization of anhydrite.

  4. High-mobility diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstrass, Maurice I.

    1994-04-01

    Recent improvements in the CVD diamond deposition process have made possible the fabrication of diamond photoconductive diodes with carrier mobility and lifetime exceeding the values typical of natural gemstones. One of the more surprising recent results is that the best room-temperature carrier properties have been measured on polycrystalline diamond films. The combined electron- hole mobility, as measured by transient photoconductivity at low carrier densities, is 4000 square centimeters per volt per second at electric field of 200 volts per centimeter and is comparable to that of the best single-crystal IIa natural diamonds. Carrier lifetimes measured under the same conditions are 150 picoseconds for the CVD diamond films. The collection distance within the diamond films, at the highest applied fields, is comparable to the average film grain size, indicative of little or no carrier scattering at grain boundaries. A comparison of SIMS measurements with electrical results suggest that impurity incorporation in the near grain boundary regions are responsible for controlling the carrier mobility.

  5. Next generation AT-cut quartz crystal sensing devices.

    PubMed

    Matko, Vojko

    2011-01-01

    Generally, AT-cut quartz crystals have a limited scope of use when it comes to high-precision measurement of very small impedance changes due to their nonlinear frequency-temperature characteristics in the range between 0 °C and 50 °C. The new method improving quartz oscillator frequency-temperature characteristic compensation is switching between two impedance loads. By modifying the oscillator circuit with two logic switches and two impedance loads, the oscillator can switch oscillation between two resonance frequencies. The difference in resonance frequencies compensates the frequency-temperature characteristics influence as well as the influence of offset and quartz crystal ageing. The experimental results show that the new approach using the switching method highly improves second-to-second frequency stability from ±0.125 Hz to ±0.00001 Hz and minute-to-minute frequency stability from 0.1 Hz to 0.0001 Hz, which makes the high-precision measurement of aF and fH changes possible.

  6. Nano-scale electronic and optoelectronic devices based on 2D crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenjuan

    In the last few years, the research community has been rapidly growing interests in two-dimensional (2D) crystals and their applications. The properties of these 2D crystals are diverse -- ranging from semi-metal such as graphene, semiconductors such as MoS2, to insulator such as boron nitride. These 2D crystals have many unique properties as compared to their bulk counterparts due to their reduced dimensionality and symmetry. A key difference is the band structures, which lead to distinct electronic and photonic properties. The 2D nature of the material also plays an important role in defining their exceptional properties of mechanical strength, surface sensitivity, thermal conductivity, tunable band-gap and their interaction with light. These unique properties of 2D crystals open up a broad territory of applications in computing, communication, energy, and medicine. In this talk, I will present our work on understanding the electrical properties of graphene and MoS2, in particular current transport and band-gap engineering in graphene, interface between gate dielectrics and graphene, and gap states in MoS2. I will also present our work on the nano-scale electronic devices (RF and logic devices) and photonic devices (plasmonic devices and photo-detectors) based on these 2D crystals.

  7. Electro-optical device based on photonic structure with a dual-frequency cholesteric liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Chong-Yin; Chen, Chih-Heng; Zyryanov, Victor Ya; Lee, Wei

    2011-07-15

    An electrically tunable and polarizer-free photonic device is developed using a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) infiltrated with dual-frequency cholesteric liquid crystal (DFCLC) as a defect layer. The PC/DFCLC hybrid cell allows the employment of various frequency-modulated voltage pulses to regulate defect modes and switch between stable states. This device possesses many alluring features such as rapid bistable switching, intensity tunability, and wavelength tunability in the defect modes, and it requires no polarizers. It can be used as a filter, fast-speed shutter, or light-intensity modulator.

  8. Electro-optical device based on photonic structure with a dual-frequency cholesteric liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Chong-Yin; Chen, Chih-Heng; Zyryanov, Victor Ya.; Lee, Wei

    2011-07-01

    An electrically tunable and polarizer-free photonic device is developed using a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) infiltrated with dual-frequency cholesteric liquid crystal (DFCLC) as a defect layer. The PC/DFCLC hybrid cell allows the employment of various frequency-modulated voltage pulses to regulate defect modes and switch between stable states. This device possesses many alluring features such as rapid bistable switching, intensity tunability, and wavelength tunability in the defect modes, and it requires no polarizers. It can be used as a filter, fast-speed shutter, or light-intensity modulator.

  9. Electro-optical device based on photonic structure with a dual-frequency cholesteric liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Chong-Yin; Chen, Chih-Heng; Zyryanov, Victor Ya; Lee, Wei

    2011-07-15

    An electrically tunable and polarizer-free photonic device is developed using a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) infiltrated with dual-frequency cholesteric liquid crystal (DFCLC) as a defect layer. The PC/DFCLC hybrid cell allows the employment of various frequency-modulated voltage pulses to regulate defect modes and switch between stable states. This device possesses many alluring features such as rapid bistable switching, intensity tunability, and wavelength tunability in the defect modes, and it requires no polarizers. It can be used as a filter, fast-speed shutter, or light-intensity modulator. PMID:21765491

  10. Plastic yielding and work hardening of single crystals in a soft device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, K. C.; Nguyen, Q. S.

    2009-11-01

    An analytical solution to the problem of an anti-plane constrained shear of single crystals placed in a soft device within the continuum dislocation theory is found. The dependence of the nucleation stress on the grain size exhibits a modest deviation from the Hall-Petch relation. It is shown that, as soon as the dissipation is taken into account, the hardening behavior becomes nearly identical to that of single crystals in a hard device. To cite this article: K.C. Le, Q.S. Nguyen, C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  11. Highly photorefractive hybrid liquid crystal device for a video-rate holographic display.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Li, Yan; Xiang, Ying; Rong, Na; Zhou, Pengcheng; Liu, Shuxin; Lu, Jiangang; Su, Yikai

    2016-04-18

    In this paper, we demonstrate a dynamic holographic display in a quantum dot (ZnS/InP) doped liquid crystal device, where one of the interior cell surfaces is covered by a ZnSe layer. Such a hybrid device shows substantially improved photorefractive sensitivity of 2.2 cm3/J, which is almost 300 times larger than that in ZnS/InP doped liquid crystal device without the ZnSe layer. The holographic grating can form at intensities as low as ~0.8 mW/cm2, and exhibit a fast optical response of several to tens of milliseconds. Exploiting the superior performances of photosensitivity and fast response of this device, we obtain dynamic holographic videos of red, green, and blue colors, as well as a reconstructed image of high gray-scale fidelity. PMID:27137316

  12. Coherent radiation from 70 GeV and 150 GeV electrons and positrons traversing diamond and Si crystals near axial and planar directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Elsener, K.; Sona, P.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Avakian, R. O.; Avetisian, A. E.; Taroian, S. P.

    1995-10-01

    Channeling radiation and energy loss for 150 GeV electrons and positrons incident on a 0.5 mm thick <100> diamond and a 0.6 mm thick <110> Si crystal have been measured — near axial and planar directions. It is found that yields from well channeled electrons are enhanced by a factor of two, and those for positrons are reduced by a factor of five, as compared to yields outside the channeling region. The experimental critical angle for channeling agrees very well with the Lindhard angle ψ1. For incidence along planes and close to axial directions, the overall picture of the radiation spectra for electrons and positrons is the same for the high-energy photons, where a strongly enhanced peak is found, as was first discovered in an earlier electron experiment. In diamond, the standard coherent bremsstrahlung has been measured close to the 110 planes but for 10 mrad and 50 mrad from the axis. These experimental results agree well with calculations using the Born approximation.

  13. Compressive sensing spectrometry based on liquid crystal devices.

    PubMed

    August, Yitzhak; Stern, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    We present a new type of compressive spectroscopy technique employing a liquid crystal (LC) phase retarder. A tunable LC cell is used in a manner compliant with the compressive sensing (CS) framework to significantly reduce the spectral scanning effort. The presented optical spectrometer consists of a single LC phase retarder combined with a single photo detector, where the LC phase retarder is used to modulate the input spectrum and the photodiode is used to measure the transmitted spectral signal. Sequences of measurements are taken, where each measurement is done with a different state of the retarder. Then, the set of photodiode measurements is used as input data to a CS solver algorithm. We demonstrate numerally compressive spectral sensing with approximately ten times fewer measurements than with an equivalent conventional spectrometer.

  14. Liquid crystal devices with continuous phase variation based on high-permittivity thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willekens, Oliver; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beeckman, Jeroen

    2016-03-01

    Most liquid crystal devices use transparent conductive electrodes such as indium tin oxide (ITO) to apply a potential difference in order to achieve electro-optic switching. As an alternative, we study a device with narrow metallic electrodes in combination with dielectric layers with large dielectric permittivity. In this approach the applied voltage can be a continuous function of the lateral distance from the electrode line. Simulations for a one-dimensional beam-steering device show that the switching of the liquid crystal (LC) director depends indeed on the distance from the addressing electrodes and on the value of the relative permittivity. We show that in a device with electrodes spaced 60 µm apart, the LC director halfway between the electrodes shows a considerable reorientation, when a dielectric layer with permittivity of Epsilonr = 550 is used, whereas no reorientation is observed for the uncoated reference sample at the same voltage. An added advantage is that the proposed configuration only contains dielectric materials, without resistive losses, which means that almost no heat is dissipated. This indicates that this technology could be used in low-power LC devices. The results show that using dielectric thin films with high relative permittivity in liquid crystal devices could form a cost-efficient and low-power alternative to many LC technologies where a gradient electric field is desirable.

  15. Radiation emission and its influence on the motion of multi-GeV electrons and positrons incident on a single diamond crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsebom, K.; Mikkelsen, U.; Uggerhøj, E.; Elsener, K.; Ballestrero, S.; Sona, P.; Connell, S. H.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Vilakazi, Z. Z.

    2001-04-01

    A few years ago the CERN NA-43 collaboration installed an upgraded detector system which allows a detailed analysis of the particle motion before, during and after penetration of a crystal. Also, essentially perfect diamond crystals were produced by the collaborators from Schonland Research Centre. These facts have led to new and very detailed investigations of QED-processes in strong crystalline fields. Along axial directions the radiation emission is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude. For incidence on a 0.7 mm thick diamond crystal of well-aligned 149 GeV electrons, 35% give rise to a high energy photon peak at ≃120 GeV. For 243 GeV electrons and ≃200 GeV photons, this number decreases to 25% - which may be an indication of quantum suppression. Different measurements of the photon multiplicities show that in most cases positrons and electrons emit equal number of photons. The dramatic radiation emission leads to a strong reduction in transverse energy and all electrons incident within the critical angle are captured to high lying channeling states and exit at channeling angles corresponding to their final energy - a completely new result for negatively charged particles. For the first time, we present an analysis where the photon is used as a `messenger' for the transverse energy of the electron during the formation time and we conclude that the more energetic photons are created closer to the string and emitted in the axial direction - in contrast to earlier calculations using the Dirac equation. The strongly enhanced radiation emission leads to angular cooling for electrons but angular heating for positrons and we show that at higher electron energies the cooling becomes stronger as expected from theory. For electrons, the radiative cooling gives rise to a capture of above-barrier particles into the channeled beam. The total radiative energy loss is shown as not to follow the γ2-law expected from classical electrodynamics, but turns over

  16. Response function of single crystal synthetic diamond detectors to 1-4 MeV neutrons for spectroscopy of D plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebai, M.; Giacomelli, L.; Milocco, A.; Nocente, M.; Rigamonti, D.; Tardocchi, M.; Camera, F.; Cazzaniga, C.; Chen, Z. J.; Du, T. F.; Fan, T. S.; Giaz, A.; Hu, Z. M.; Marchi, T.; Peng, X. Y.; Gorini, G.

    2016-11-01

    A Single-crystal Diamond (SD) detector prototype was installed at Joint European Torus (JET) in 2013 and the achieved results have shown its spectroscopic capability of measuring 2.5 MeV neutrons from deuterium plasmas. This paper presents measurements of the SD response function to monoenergetic neutrons, which is a key point for the development of a neutron spectrometer based on SDs and compares them with Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis procedure allows for a good reconstruction of the experimental results. The good pulse height energy resolution (equivalent FWHM of 80 keV at 2.5 MeV), gain stability, insensitivity to magnetic field, and compact size make SDs attractive as compact neutron spectrometers of high flux deuterium plasmas, such as for instance those needed for the ITER neutron camera.

  17. Optical ridge waveguides in Nd:LGS crystal produced by combination of swift C5+ ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yazhou; Lv, Jinman; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Zhou, Shengqiang; Chen, Feng

    2016-07-01

    We report on the fabrication of optical ridge waveguides in Nd:LGS crystal by using combination of swift C5+ ion irradiation and precise diamond blade dicing. The ridge structures support guidance both at 632.8 nm and 1064 nm wavelength along the TE and TM polarizations. The lowest propagation losses of the ridge waveguide for the TM mode are ~1.6 dB/cm at 632.8 nm and ~1.2 dB/cm at 1064 nm, respectively. The investigation of micro-fluorescence spectra and micro-Raman spectra indicates that the Nd3+ luminescence features have been well preserved and the microstructure of the waveguide region has no significant change after C5+ ion irradiation.

  18. 77 FR 5055 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Determination Not To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Korea. 76 FR 39897 (Jul. 7, 2011). The complaint, as amended, alleges... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Determination Not...

  19. Generating perfect polarization vortices through encoding liquid-crystal display devices.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shiyao; Wang, Tonglu; Gao, Chunqing

    2016-08-10

    Perfect polarization vortices (PPVs) are a new kind of vector beams with identical diameters. In this paper, we propose an approach that uses encoded liquid-crystal display devices to generate PPVs and is based on the Fourier transformation of high-order Bessel-Gaussian (BG) beams. The liquid-crystal display device used here is a phase-only liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM). In the experiment, a hologram consists of a holographic axicon, and a spiral phase plate is encoded on a SLM to generate high-order BG beams. Then, another SLM and a convex lens can realize the transformation from BG beams into PPVs. We analyze the diameter of the PPV obtained by our approach, and find it is impacted by the focal length of the lens as well as the period of the holographic axicon, but is little influenced by polarization order. PMID:27534502

  20. 76 FR 51054 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...,535,537; 7,787,087; and RE41,363. 76 FR 39897 (Jul. 7, 2011). Complainant Samsung named AU Optronics... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice... sale within the United States after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices and...

  1. Liquid Crystal-Based Beam Steering Device Development for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John; Nguyen, Hung; Miranda, Felix; Bos, Philip; Lavrentovich, Oleg; Wang, Xinghua

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Computing, Information and Communications Technology (CICT) Program is supporting the development of liquid crystal-based beam steering devices. The device would use inexpensive, light-weight, optical components, and it would have the following capabilities: electronic beam scanning to angles above 1 milliradian, and submicroradian beam pointing accuracy. In order to correct for the imperfections resulting from the space-deployable optics, the technique of wave-front correction would be implemented. Hence, the output beam quality would be maintained. The potential applications could include satellite tracking, near-Earth inter-satellite communications, deep-space communications, and optical phased array systems. The status of the beam steering device development based on the liquid crystal technology and its relationship to prospective NASA mission scenarios will be described.

  2. Characteristics of Nitrogen Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering for Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Choi, Byung Hui; Yun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Yong Seob

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a carbon-based material used mainly in cutting tool coatings and as an abrasive material. The market for DLC has expanded into electronics, optics, and acoustics because of its distinct electrical and optical properties. In this work, n-doped DLC (N:DLC) films were deposited on p-type silicon substrates using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) method. We investigated the effect of the working pressure on the microstructure and electrical properties of n-doped DLC films. The structural properties of N:DLC films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX, and the electrical properties of films were investigated by observing the changes in the resistivity and current-voltage (I-V) properties. The N:DLC films prepared by UBMS in this study demonstrated good conducting and physical properties with n-doping.

  3. Characteristics of Nitrogen Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering for Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Choi, Byung Hui; Yun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Yong Seob

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a carbon-based material used mainly in cutting tool coatings and as an abrasive material. The market for DLC has expanded into electronics, optics, and acoustics because of its distinct electrical and optical properties. In this work, n-doped DLC (N:DLC) films were deposited on p-type silicon substrates using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) method. We investigated the effect of the working pressure on the microstructure and electrical properties of n-doped DLC films. The structural properties of N:DLC films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX, and the electrical properties of films were investigated by observing the changes in the resistivity and current-voltage (I-V) properties. The N:DLC films prepared by UBMS in this study demonstrated good conducting and physical properties with n-doping. PMID:27483841

  4. CVD diamond film oxidation resistance research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Longwei; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Lijun; Pan, Xiufang; Sun, Yiqing; Wang, Jinye; Sun, Hongtao

    2013-12-01

    Diamond films were deposited on a silicon substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition system, and its oxidation experiments were carried out in atmospheric environmental condition by using a muffle furnace. Inatmospheric environment (the temperature is from 400°C to 900°C) the oxidation resistance of diamond thin films was investigated. The results indicate that under the atmospheric environment diamond thin film surface morphology did not change after 6 hours at 400°C. Diamond thin film surface morphology began to change after 2 hours at 600°C, and when time was extended to 4 hours, the diamond thin film surface morphology changed significantly. The surface morphology of diamond films began to change after 15 minutes at a 700°C condition and when time was extended to 6 hours diamond films were all destroyed. All the diamond films on the silicon substrate disappeared completely in 20 minutes at 900°C. The intact crystal face is the reason that natural diamond has stable chemical property. The crystal face of synthetic diamond film has a lot of defects, especially on the side. Oxidation of the diamond films begin with the grain boundary and defects.

  5. Epitaxial diamond-hexagonal silicon nano-ribbon growth on (001) silicon

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Y.; Bender, H.; Richard, O.; Kim, M.-S.; Van Besien, E.; Vos, I.; de Potter de ten Broeck, M.; Mocuta, D.; Vandervorst, W.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon crystallizes in the diamond-cubic phase and shows only a weak emission at 1.1 eV. Diamond-hexagonal silicon however has an indirect bandgap at 1.5 eV and has therefore potential for application in opto-electronic devices. Here we discuss a method based on advanced silicon device processing to form diamond-hexagonal silicon nano-ribbons. With an appropriate temperature anneal applied to densify the oxide fillings between silicon fins, the lateral outward stress exerted on fins sandwiched between wide and narrow oxide windows can result in a phase transition from diamond-cubic to diamond-hexagonal Si at the base of these fins. The diamond-hexagonal slabs are generally 5–8 nm thick and can extend over the full width and length of the fins, i.e. have a nano-ribbon shape along the fins. Although hexagonal silicon is a metastable phase, once formed it is found being stable during subsequent high temperature treatments even during process steps up to 1050 ºC. PMID:26239286

  6. Two- and three-dimensional ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) structures for a high resolution diamond-based MEMS technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Auciello, O.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Busmann, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.; Tucek, J.; Sumant, A.; Jayatissa, A.; Moldovan, N.; Mancini, D. C.; Gardos, M. N.

    2000-01-17

    Silicon is currently the most commonly used material for the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, silicon-based MEMS will not be suitable for long-endurance devices involving components rotating at high speed, where friction and wear need to be minimized, components such as 2-D cantilevers that may be subjected to very large flexural displacements, where stiction is a problem, or components that will be exposed to corrosive environments. The mechanical, thermal, chemical, and tribological properties of diamond make it an ideal material for the fabrication of long-endurance MEMS components. Cost-effective fabrication of these components could in principle be achieved by coating Si with diamond films and using conventional lithographic patterning methods in conjunction with e. g. sacrificial Ti or SiO{sub 2} layers. However, diamond coatings grown by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods exhibit a coarse-grained structure that prevents high-resolution patterning, or a fine-grained microstructure with a significant amount of intergranular non-diamond carbon. The authors demonstrate here the fabrication of 2-D and 3-D phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) MEMS components by coating Si with UNCD films, coupled with lithographic patterning methods involving sacrificial release layers. UNCD films are grown by microwave plasma CVD using C{sub 60}-Ar or CH{sub 4}-Ar gas mixtures, which result in films that have 3--5 nm grain size, are 10--20 times smoother than conventionally grown diamond films, are extremely resistant to corrosive environments, and are predicted to have a brittle fracture strength similar to that of single crystal diamond.

  7. Recent results on CVD diamond radiation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilhammer, P.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; v. d. Eijk, R.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Fried, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knopfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; LeNormand; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Plano, R.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff; Rudge, A.; Schieber, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; RD 42 Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    CVD diamond radiation sensors are being developed for possible use in trackers in the LHC experiments. The diamond promises to be radiation hard well beyond particle fluences that can be tolerated by Si sensors. Recent results from the RD 42 collaboration on charge collection distance and on radiation hardness of CVD diamond samples will be reported. Measurements with diamond tracking devices, both strip detectors and pixel detectors, will be discussed. Results from beam tests using a diamond strip detector which was read out with fast, 25 ns shaping time, radiation-hard pipeline electronics will be presented.

  8. Diamonds in ophiolites: Contamination or a new diamond growth environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, D.; Griffin, W. L.; Yang, J.; Gain, S.; Stern, R. A.; Huang, J.-X.; Jacob, D. E.; Xu, X.; Stokes, A. J.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Pearson, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    For more than 20 years, the reported occurrence of diamonds in the chromites and peridotites of the Luobusa massif in Tibet (a complex described as an ophiolite) has been widely ignored by the diamond research community. This skepticism has persisted because the diamonds are similar in many respects to high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) synthetic/industrial diamonds (grown from metal solvents), and the finding previously has not been independently replicated. We present a detailed examination of the Luobusa diamonds (recovered from both peridotites and chromitites), including morphology, size, color, impurity characteristics (by infrared spectroscopy), internal growth structures, trace-element patterns, and C and N isotopes. A detailed comparison with synthetic industrial diamonds shows many similarities. Cubo-octahedral morphology, yellow color due to unaggregated nitrogen (C centres only, Type Ib), metal-alloy inclusions and highly negative δ13C values are present in both sets of diamonds. The Tibetan diamonds (n = 3) show an exceptionally large range in δ15N (-5.6 to + 28.7 ‰) within individual crystals, and inconsistent fractionation between {111} and {100} growth sectors. This in contrast to large synthetic HPHT diamonds grown by the temperature gradient method, which have with δ15N = 0 ‰ in {111} sectors and + 30 ‰ in {100} sectors, as reported in the literature. This comparison is limited by the small sample set combined with the fact the diamonds probably grew by different processes. However, the Tibetan diamonds do have generally higher concentrations and different ratios of trace elements; most inclusions are a NiMnCo alloy, but there are also some small REE-rich phases never seen in HPHT synthetics. These characteristics indicate that the Tibetan diamonds grew in contact with a C-saturated Ni-Mn-Co-rich melt in a highly reduced environment. The stable isotopes indicate a major subduction-related contribution to the chemical environment. The

  9. High efficiency diamond solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    2008-05-06

    A photovoltaic device and method of making same. A layer of p-doped microcrystalline diamond is deposited on a layer of n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond such as by providing a substrate in a chamber, providing a first atmosphere containing about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 99% by volume H.sub.2 with dopant quantities of a boron compound, subjecting the atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer on the substrate, providing a second atmosphere of about 1% by volume CH.sub.4 and about 89% by volume Ar and about 10% by volume N.sub.2, subjecting the second atmosphere to microwave energy to deposit a n-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond layer on the p-doped microcrystalline diamond layer. Electrodes and leads are added to conduct electrical energy when the layers are irradiated.

  10. Waveguiding and bending modes in a plasma photonic crystal bandgap device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Waveguiding and bending modes are investigated in a fully tunable plasma photonic crystal. The plasma device actively controls the propagation of free space electromagnetic waves in the S to X band of the microwave spectrum. An array of discharge plasma tubes form a square crystal lattice exhibiting a well-defined bandgap, with individual active switching of the plasma elements to allow for waveguiding and bending modes to be generated dynamically. We show, through simulations and experiments, the existence of transverse electric (TE) mode waveguiding and bending modes.

  11. Epitaxial growth of europium monoxide on diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Melville, A.; Heeg, T.; Mairoser, T.; Schmehl, A.; Fischer, M.; Gsell, S.; Schreck, M.; Awschalom, D. D.; Holländer, B.; Schubert, J.; Schlom, D. G.

    2013-11-25

    We report the epitaxial integration of phase-pure EuO on both single-crystal diamond and on epitaxial diamond films grown on silicon utilizing reactive molecular-beam epitaxy. The epitaxial orientation relationship is (001) EuO ‖ (001) diamond and [110] EuO ‖[100] diamond. The EuO layer is nominally unstrained and ferromagnetic with a transition temperature of 68 ± 2 K and a saturation magnetization of 5.5 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons per europium ion on the single-crystal diamond, and a transition temperature of 67 ± 2 K and a saturation magnetization of 2.1 ± 0.1 Bohr magnetons per europium ion on the epitaxial diamond film.

  12. Superhard material comparable in hardness to diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Badzian, A.R.

    1988-12-19

    Superhard boron suboxides, with hardness close to that of diamond, were synthesized from boron/boron oxide mixtures. Such hardness is expected when a material's molar volume approaches the value characteristic for diamond. These materials consist of boron-rich phases belonging to the boron-oxygen system. The phase which contains 4 at. % oxygen and a crystal structure related to ..beta..rhombohedral boron can scratch diamond faces. During scratching of diamond the suboxide is worn also, and the wear debris is amorphized. Wear on the lt. slash/100/ diamond faces results from a cleavage mechanism which leaves a rough surface covered with cleaved lt. slash/111/ microfaces. The lt. slash/100/ faces are more easily abraded than the lt. slash/111/ diamond faces. Wear on lt. slash/111/ faces consumes much more energy and leaves grooves of plastically deformed diamond.

  13. Superhard material comparable in hardness to diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badzian, Andrzej R.

    1988-12-01

    Superhard boron suboxides, with hardness close to that of diamond, were synthesized from boron/boron oxide mixtures. Such hardness is expected when a material's molar volume approaches the value characteristic for diamond. These materials consist of boron-rich phases belonging to the boron-oxygen system. The phase which contains 4 at. % oxygen and a crystal structure related to β-rhombohedral boron can scratch diamond faces. During scratching of diamond the suboxide is worn also, and the wear debris is amorphized. Wear on the {100} diamond faces results from a cleavage mechanism which leaves a rough surface covered with cleaved {111} microfaces. The {100} faces are more easily abraded than the {111} diamond faces. Wear on {111} faces consumes much more energy and leaves grooves of plastically deformed diamond.

  14. Effective angular and wavelength modeling of parallel aligned liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Francisco J.; Márquez, Andrés; Gallego, Sergi; Francés, Jorge; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2015-11-01

    Parallel aligned liquid crystal (PA-LC) devices are widely used in many optics and photonics applications to control the amplitude, phase and/or state of polarization (SOP) of light beams. Simplified models yet with a good predictive capability are extremely useful in the optimal application of these devices. In this paper we propose and demonstrate the validity of a novel model enabling to calculate the voltage dependent retardance provided by parallel-aligned liquid crystal (PA-LC) devices for a very wide range of incidence angles and any wavelength in the visible. We derive the theoretical expressions, and both experimental and theoretical retardance results are obtained showing a very good agreement. The proposed model is robust and well adapted to a reverse-engineering approach for the calibration of its parameters, whose values are obtained without ambiguities. The model is based on only three physically related magnitudes: two off-state parameters per wavelength and one global voltage dependent parameter, the tilt angle of the LC molecules. To our knowledge it represents the most simplified model available for PA-LC devices yet showing predictive capability. Not only eases the design of experiments dealing with unconventional polarization states or complex amplitude modulation, but it also serves to analyze the physics and dynamics of PA-LC cells since we have estimation for their voltage dependent tilt angle within the device.

  15. Electrical Impact of SiC Structural Crystal Defects on High Electric Field Devices (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    1999-01-01

    As illustrated by the invited paper at this conference and other works, SiC wafers and epilayers contain a variety of crystallographic imperfections, including micropipes, closed-core screw dislocations, grain boundaries, basal plane dislocations, heteropolytypic inclusions, and surfaces that are often damaged and contain atomically rough features like step bunching and growth pits or hillocks. Present understanding of the operational impact of various crystal imperfections on SiC electrical devices is reviewed, with an emphasis placed on high-field SiC power devices and circuits.

  16. Rapid Sintering of Nano-Diamond Compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, A.; Nauyoks, S; Zerda, T; Zaporozhets, O

    2009-01-01

    Diamond compacts were sintered from nano-size diamond crystals at high pressure, 8 GPa, and temperature above 1500 degrees C for very short times ranging from 5 to 11 s. Structure and mechanical properties of the compacts have been characterized. Although we have not completely avoided graphitization of diamonds, the amount of graphite produced was low, less than 2%, and despite relatively high porosity, the compacts were characterized by high hardness, bulk and Young moduli.

  17. Diamond detector for alpha-particle spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, J A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Martín Sánchez, A; Martel, I

    2014-08-01

    An artificially grown high purity diamond was used as a detector for alpha-particle spectrometry. Diamond detectors can match the performance of silicon detectors employed in standard continuous air monitoring systems. Its radiation hardness and electronic properties make them ideal to work under extreme condition such as high temperature and ambient lights. A 50 μm thickness single-crystal diamond detector has been compared with a 300 μm passivated implanted planar silicon detector, under ambient conditions.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents information on diamond, which is regarded as the world's most popular gemstone. It states that there is strength in the covalent bonding between its carbon atoms, resulting to the strength of its physical properties. The presence of colors in diamonds may be attributed to the impurities that settle in the crystal lattice. Diamonds have been used as decorative items since the ancient era.

  19. Diamond turning of glass

    SciTech Connect

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  20. Crystallization Kinetics of Partially Crystalline Emulsion Droplets in a Microfluidic Device.

    PubMed

    Prileszky, Tamás A; Furst, Eric M

    2016-05-24

    We measure the crystallization kinetics of petrolatum-hexadecane emulsion droplets as they are produced in a microfluidic device. After droplets form, they are cooled, causing an interior network of wax crystallites to grow. Polarized light microscopy is used to quantify the droplet crystallinity as a function of residence time in the device. Two wavelengths and two polarization orientations are used to decouple the wavelength dependence of the optical retardation, the crystallite orientation, and the crystallite number density. The droplet crystallinity follows the Avrami kinetic model with parameter values in agreement with the theoretically expected values. These results provide a means to engineer the crystallization kinetics, stability, and arrested coalescence of partially crystalline emulsion droplets.

  1. Spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles and hexaferrite single crystals for information data storage and RF devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalli, Jeevan Prasad

    Since their discovery in the early 1950's hexagonal ferrites or hexaferrites have been studied for a long time because of their technological applications, such as microwave devices and high density magnetic recording media. In this dissertation efforts have been made to address these two applications by developing nanosized spherical barium ferrite particles for advanced magnetic recording media, and hexaferrite single crystals for low loss RF devices. Accordingly, this dissertation consists of two parts; part one spherical barium ferrite nanoparticles for information data storage media, and part two hexaferrite single crystals for RF devices. Part I. Spherical Barium Ferrite Nanoparticles Hexagonal barium ferrite (H-BaFe) nanoparticles are good candidates for particulate recording media due to their high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy, excellent chemical stability, and narrow switching field distribution. One major disadvantage of using H-BaFe particles for particulate recording media is their poor dispersion and a high degree of stacking that deteriorate the recording capability by creating large media noise and surface roughness. One way to solve and improve the recording performance of H-BaFe media is employing substantially nanosized spherical barium ferrite (S­BaFe) particles. Spherical shaped particles have low aspect ratio and only form a point-to-point contact, unlike the H-BaFe particles. Therefore, using S-BaFe particles not only decrease the degree of magnetic interaction between the particles but also can substantially increases the recording performance by improving the dispersion and SNR of the particles in the magnetic media. In this dissertation, two different approaches were employed successfully to synthesize S-BaFe nanoparticles in the range of 20-45 nm. Part II. Hexaferrite Single Crystals As wireless communication systems are flourishing, and the operating frequencies are increasing, there is a great demand for RF devices such as

  2. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    World production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 648 million carats in 2006, with 79 percent of the production coming from Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa, and the U.S. U.S. consumption was was an estimated 602 million carats, imports were over 391 million carats, and exports were about 83 million carats. About 87 percent of the industrial diamonds market uses synthetic diamonds, which are expected to become less expensive as technology improves and competition from low-cost producers increases.

  3. Molecular-scale soft imprint lithography for alignment layers in liquid crystal devices.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rongsheng; Rogers, John A

    2007-06-01

    We describe molecular-scale soft nanoimprint lithographic replication of rubbed polyimide substrates to form alignment layers for liquid crystal devices. Systematic studies of the surface relief morphology of the polyimide and molded structures in three different polymers illustrate good lithographic fidelity down to relief heights of several nanometers, and with some capabilities at the level of approximately 1 nm. Collective results of experiments with several polymer formulations for molds and molded materials and process conditions indicate that this molecular-scale fidelity in replication can be used to produce surfaces that will effectively align liquid crystal molecules. Good electro-optical responses from liquid crystal light modulators that are formed in this manner suggest utility for fundamental studies and potential practical application.

  4. Conversion of fullerenes to diamond

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1994-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic hydrogen defect free diamond or diamond like films on a substrate. The method involves providing vapor containing fullerene molecules with or without an inert gas, providing a device to impart energy to the fullerene molecules, fragmenting at least in part some of the fullerene molecules in the vapor or energizing the molecules to incipient fragmentation, ionizing the fullerene molecules, impinging ionized fullerene molecules on the substrate to assist in causing fullerene fragmentation to obtain a thickness of diamond on the substrate.

  5. Photonic crystal slab reflectors for compact passive and active optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutami, S.; Benbakir, B.; Leclercq, J. L.; Letartre, X.; Regreny, P.; Garrigues, M.; Viktorovitch, P.; Le Gratiet, L.; Beaudoin, G.; Sagnes, I.

    2007-02-01

    Compact photonic crystal mirrors (PCM) formed in suspended InP membranes are theoretically and experimentally studied under normal incidence. They are based on the coupling of free space waves with slow Bloch modes of the crystal. These mirrors provide high-efficiency and broadband reflectivity (stop-band superior to 400nm), when involving two slow Bloch modes of the crystal. They allow also for an accurate control of the polarization. These PCMs can be used in new photonic devices, where they replace DBR mirrors. The authors report on the demonstration of a compact and highly selective (Q>1000) tunable filter at 1.55μm, using a Fabry-Perot resonator combining a bottom micromachined 3-pair-InP/air-gap Bragg reflector with a top InP/air PCM. Micromechanical tuning of the device via electrostatic actuation is also demonstrated over a 20nm range for a maximum 4V tuning voltage. The active version of this device is also considered: a PCM-VCSEL is studied, combining a solid 40 quarter wavelength InP/InGaAlAs DBR with a top PCM. First experimental results show a high Q-factor (around 2000) compatible with a laser regime. We finally demonstrate in this paper a vertical-cavity Fabry-Perot filter with ultimate compactness, associating two PCMs.

  6. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. Supply and demand data for industrial diamond are provided. Topics discussed are consumption, prices, imports and exports, government stockpiles, and the outlook for 2004.

  7. Double bevel construction of a diamond anvil

    DOEpatents

    Moss, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A double or multiple bevel culet geometry is used on a diamond anvil in a high pressure cell apparatus to provide increased sample pressure and stability for a given force applied to the diamond tables. Double or multiple bevel culet geometries can also be used for sapphire or other hard crystal anvils. Pressures up to and above 5 Megabars can be reached.

  8. Double bevel construction of a diamond anvil

    DOEpatents

    Moss, W.C.

    1988-10-11

    A double or multiple bevel culet geometry is used on a diamond anvil in a high pressure cell apparatus to provide increased sample pressure and stability for a given force applied to the diamond tables. Double or multiple bevel culet geometries can also be used for sapphire or other hard crystal anvils. Pressures up to and above 5 Megabars can be reached. 8 figs.

  9. Experimental Studies on Amount of Snowfall by Crystal Growth in an Artificial Snowfall Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Mitsuo; Umezawa, Kouichi; Abe, Osamu

    A series of experiments was conducted to estimate the amount of snowfall of dendrite-type crystals produced by an artificial snowfall device that uses the rotary ventilation mesh filter method. An expression is proposed in this paper for the amount of the snowfall. The amount of snowfall (Gs) can be expressed as Gs = ηs Vai ΔW , where ΔW is effective water content in the crystal growth, Vai is air mass flow and ηs is snowfall efficiency. The effective water content in the crystal growth (ΔW) is defined as the difference between the specific cloud water content and ice saturation vapor density. The rotary ventilation mesh filter method used in this work had a snowfall efficiency of about 90%. Even for a large amount of cloud water content, we observed only a very few super-cooled cloud droplets on snow crystals. Therefore, we can deduce that the cloud water content should contribute to crystal growth directly. We report here measurements of snowfall as a function of several input parameters and verify the validity of the proposed relationship.

  10. Two-Step Polyimide Curing Technique for Flexible Plastic Liquid Crystal Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kiseo; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Hyun Gi; Choi, Suk-Won; Kim, Sung Soo

    2009-06-01

    An intriguing and simple method, a two-step polyimide (PI) curing technique, was proposed for the fabrication of flexible plastic liquid crystal (LC) devices. This technique is based on the concept that PI interfaces contacted through the columnar spacers act as adhesive for the secure attachment of two plastic substrates via the curing process in poly(amic acid)'s (PAA) conversion to PI. A preliminary version of a flexible LC display employing this concept was fabricated, and was confirmed as useful for such applications. The electro-optical reproducibility of the flexible LC device fabricated in this study showed remarkable endurance against external perturbation when compared with a device fabricated by the conventional method.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of pressure evolution of crystal structure and superconductivity in Fese0.8 using designer diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhoya, Walter; Wolanyk, Nathaniel; Tsoi, Georgiy; Vohra, Yogesh; Rao, Sistla M.; Wu, Mau-Kuen; Weir, Samuel

    2012-02-01

    Simultaneous high pressure x-ray diffraction and electrical resistance measurements have been carried out on (P4/nmm) PbO type α-FeSe0.89 compound to a pressure of 44 GPa and at low temperatures down to 4 K using a synchrotron source and designer diamond anvils technique. At ambient temperature, a structural phase transition from the tetragonal (I4/nmm) phase to orthorhombic (Pbnm) is observed at 11 GPa and persist up to 75 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature increases rapidly with pressure in a parabolic manner reaching a maximum of ˜40 K at ˜ 11GPa. It then decreases at higher pressures. We also performed a complimentary pressure dependence x-ray diffraction simultaneously with resistance measurement at low temperatures and observe superconductivity only in the low pressure orthorhombic phase (Cmma) of α-FeSe0.89 Upon increasing pressure at 10 K, structural phase change from a mixed phase of orthorhombic (Cmma) and hexagonal (P63/mmc) to a high pressure orthorhombic phase (Pbnm) is observed at around 12 GPa where Tc is maximum.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of pressure evolution of crystal structure and superconductivity in FeSe0.92 using designer diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhoya, Walter; Tsoi, Georgiy; Vohra, Yogesh; Wolanyk, Nathaniel; Muralidhara Rao, Sistla; Wu, Maw-Kuen; Weir, Samuel

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous high-pressure X-ray diffraction and electrical resistance measurements have been carried out on a PbO-type α-FeSe0.92 compound to a pressure of 44 GPa and temperatures down to 4 K using designer diamond anvils at synchrotron source. At ambient temperature, a structural phase transition from a tetragonal (P4/nmm) phase to an orthorhombic (Pbnm) phase is observed at 11 GPa and the Pbnm phase persists up to 74 GPa. The superconducting transition temperature (TC) increases rapidly with pressure reaching a maximum of ˜28 K at ˜6 GPa and decreases at higher pressures, disappearing completely at 14.6 GPa. Simultaneous pressure-dependent X-ray diffraction and resistance measurements at low temperatures show superconductivity only in a low-pressure orthorhombic (Cmma) phase of the α-FeSe0.92. Upon increasing pressure at 10 K near TC, crystalline phases change from a mixture of orthorhombic (Cmma) and hexagonal (P63/mmc) phases to a high-pressure orthorhombic (Pbnm) phase near 6.4 GPa where TC is maximum.

  13. Development of polymer cholesteric liquid crystal flake technology for electro-optic devices and particle displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosc, T. Z.; Marshall, K. L.; Trajkovska-Petkoska, A.; Coon, C. J.; Hasman, K.; Babcock, G. V.; Howe, R.; Leitch, M.; Jacobs, S. D.

    2007-02-01

    Liquid crystals have had a large presence in the display industry for several decades, and they continue to remain at the forefront of development as the industry delves into flexible displays and electronic paper. Among the emerging technologies trying to answer this call are polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) flakes. The motion of PCLC flakes suspended in a host fluid is controlled with an electric field, whereby the flakes reorient to align parallel with the applied field. A PCLC device easily switches from a bright state, where light of a given wavelength and polarizationis selectively reflected, to a dark, non-reflective state. The device returns to a bright state when the flakes relax to their original orientation after removal of the applied field. Progress has been made in addressing several key device issues: the need to switch flakes back to a reflective state quickly, the development of bistability, the ability to produce flexible devices, and the necessity to produce both high brightness and a large contrast ratio. Improvements in the technology have been made by addressing the optical, mechanical, chemical, and electrical features and characteristics of the PCLC flake/fluid host system. The manufacture of "custom" flakes by the process of formation of specific flake shapes, the addition of dopants, or the formation of layered flake composites results in particles with improved reflectivity and response times along with the ability to respond to both AC and DC fields. Specially designed driving waveforms provide a new means for controlling flake motion. PCLC flake micro-encapsulation allows for the possibility of flexible and potentially bistable devices. Here we report on the wide variety of approaches toward improving PCLC flake devices and their results.

  14. Medical applications of diamond particles and surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R. J.; Boehm, R. D.; Sumant, A. V.

    2011-04-01

    Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions over the coming years. Diamond is an allotrope of carbon that is being considered for use in several medical applications. Ramachandran determined that the crystal structure of diamond consists of two close packed interpenetrating face centered cubic lattices; one lattice is shifted with respect to the other along the elemental cube space diagonal by one-quarter of its length. If one approximates carbon atoms as equal diameter rigid spheres, the filling of this construction is 34%. Due to the carbon-carbon distance (1.54 {angstrom}), diamond crystal exhibits the highest atomic density (1.76 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3}) of any solid. The very high bond energy between two carbon atoms (83 kcal/mol) and the directionality of tetrahedral bonds are the main reasons for the high strength of diamond. Diamond demonstrates the highest Vickers hardness value of any material (10,000 kg/mm{sup 2}). The tribological properties of diamond are also impressive; the coefficient of friction of polished diamond is 0.07 in argon and 0.05 in humid air. Diamond is resistant to corrosion except in an oxygen atmosphere at temperatures over 800 C. In addition, type IIa diamond exhibits the highest thermal conductivity of all materials (20 W cm{sup -1} K{sup -1} at room temperature).

  15. A robust microfluidic device for the synthesis and crystal growth of organometallic polymers with highly organized structures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Yi, Qiaolian; Han, Yongzhen; Liang, Zhenning; Shen, Chaohua; Zhou, Zhengyang; Sun, Jun-Liang; Li, Yizhi; Du, Wenbin; Cao, Rui

    2015-02-01

    A simple and robust microfluidic device was developed to synthesize organometallic polymers with highly organized structures. The device is compatible with organic solvents. Reactants are loaded into pairs of reservoirs connected by a 15 cm long microchannel prefilled with solvents, thus allowing long-term counter diffusion for self-assembly of organometallic polymers. The process can be monitored, and the resulting crystalline polymers are harvested without damage. The device was used to synthesize three insoluble silver acetylides as single crystals of X-ray diffraction quality. Importantly, for the first time, the single-crystal structure of silver phenylacetylide was determined. The reported approach may have wide applications, such as crystallization of membrane proteins, synthesis and crystal growth of organic, inorganic, and polymeric coordination compounds, whose single crystals cannot be obtained using traditional methods.

  16. Nematic and blue phase liquid crystals for temperature stabilization and active optical tuning of silicon photonic devices (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptasinski, Joanna N.; Khoo, Iam Choon; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2015-10-01

    We describe the underlying theories and experimental demonstrations of passive temperature stabilization of silicon photonic devices clad in nematic liquid crystal mixtures, and active optical tuning of silicon photonic resonant structures combined with dye-doped nematic and blue phase liquid crystals. We show how modifications to the resonator device geometry allow for not only enhanced tuning of the resonator response, but also aid in achieving complete athermal operations of silicon photonic circuits. [Ref.: I.C. Khoo, "DC-field-assisted grating formation and nonlinear diffractions in methyl-red dye-doped blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 40, 60-63 (2015); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Enhanced optical tuning of modified-geometry resonators clad in blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 39, 5435-5438 (2014); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Passive Temperature Stabilization of Silicon Photonic Devices Using Liquid Crystals," Materials 7(3), 2229-2241 (2014)].

  17. A design of backing seat and gasket assembly in diamond anvil cell for accurate single crystal x-ray diffraction to 5 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, K.; Kagi, H.; Yasuzuka, T.; Koizumi, T.; Iizuka, R.; Sugiyama, K.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2011-10-01

    We designed a new cell assembly of diamond anvil cells for single crystal x-ray diffraction under pressure and demonstrate the application of the cell to the crystallographic studies for ice VI and ethanol high-pressure (HP) phase at 0.95(5) GPa and 1.95(2) GPa, respectively. The features of the assembly are: (1) the platy anvil and unique-shaped backing seat (called as "Wing seat") allowing the extremely wide opening angle up to ±65°, (2) the PFA-bulk metallic glass composite gasket allowing the easy attenuation correction and less background. Thanks to the designed assembly, the Rint values after attenuation corrections are fairly good (0.0125 and 0.0460 for ice VI and ethanol HP phase, respectively), and the errors of the refined parameters are satisfactory small even for hydrogen positions, those are comparable to the results which obtained at ambient conditions. The result for ice VI is in excellent agreement with the previous study, and that for ethanol HP phase has remarkable contributions to the revision to its structure; the H12 site, which makes gauche molecules with O1, C2, and C3 sites, may not exist so that only trans conformers are present at least at 1.95(2) GPa. The accurate intensities using the cell assembly allow us to extract the electron density for ethanol HP phase by the maximum entropy method.

  18. A novel paper-based device coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond electrode for cholesterol detection.

    PubMed

    Nantaphol, Siriwan; Chailapakul, Orawon; Siangproh, Weena

    2015-09-01

    A novel paper-based analytical device (PAD) coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond (AgNP/BDD) electrode was first developed as a cholesterol sensor. The AgNP/BDD electrode was used as working electrode after modification by AgNPs using an electrodeposition method. Wax printing was used to define the hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas on filter paper, and then counter and reference electrodes were fabricated on the hydrophilic area by screen-printing in house. For the amperometric detection, cholesterol and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were directly drop-cast onto the hydrophilic area, and H2O2 produced from the enzymatic reaction was monitored. The fabricated device demonstrated a good linearity (0.39 mg dL(-1) to 270.69 mg dL(-1)), low detection limit (0.25 mg dL(-1)), and high sensitivity (49.61 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)). The precision value for ten replicates was 3.76% RSD for 1 mM H2O2. In addition, this biosensor exhibited very high selectivity for cholesterol detection and excellent recoveries for bovine serum analysis (in the range of 99.6-100.8%). The results showed that this new sensing platform will be an alternative tool for cholesterol detection in routine diagnosis and offers the advantages of low sample/reagent consumption, low cost, portability, and short analysis time. PMID:26388372

  19. A novel paper-based device coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond electrode for cholesterol detection.

    PubMed

    Nantaphol, Siriwan; Chailapakul, Orawon; Siangproh, Weena

    2015-09-01

    A novel paper-based analytical device (PAD) coupled with a silver nanoparticle-modified boron-doped diamond (AgNP/BDD) electrode was first developed as a cholesterol sensor. The AgNP/BDD electrode was used as working electrode after modification by AgNPs using an electrodeposition method. Wax printing was used to define the hydrophilic and hydrophobic areas on filter paper, and then counter and reference electrodes were fabricated on the hydrophilic area by screen-printing in house. For the amperometric detection, cholesterol and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) were directly drop-cast onto the hydrophilic area, and H2O2 produced from the enzymatic reaction was monitored. The fabricated device demonstrated a good linearity (0.39 mg dL(-1) to 270.69 mg dL(-1)), low detection limit (0.25 mg dL(-1)), and high sensitivity (49.61 μA mM(-1) cm(-2)). The precision value for ten replicates was 3.76% RSD for 1 mM H2O2. In addition, this biosensor exhibited very high selectivity for cholesterol detection and excellent recoveries for bovine serum analysis (in the range of 99.6-100.8%). The results showed that this new sensing platform will be an alternative tool for cholesterol detection in routine diagnosis and offers the advantages of low sample/reagent consumption, low cost, portability, and short analysis time.

  20. Advanced Diamond Anvil Techniques (Customized Diamond Anvils)

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, S

    2009-02-11

    A complete set of diamond-based fabrication tools now exists for making a wide range of different types of diamond anvils which are tailored for various high-P applications. Current tools include: CVD diamond deposition (making diamond); Diamond polishing, laser drilling, plasma etching (removal of diamond); and Lithography, 3D laser pantography (patterning features onto diamond); - Metal deposition (putting electrical circuits and metal masks onto diamond). Current applications include the following: Electrical Conductivity; Magnetic Susceptibility; and High-P/High-T. Future applications may include: NMR; Hall Effect; de Haas - Shubnikov (Fermi surface topology); Calorimetry; and thermal conductivity.

  1. Effect of diamond on structure and properties of confined water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batsanov, Stepan S.; Batsanov, Andrei S.

    2016-05-01

    The molar volume of water adsorbed on the surface of micro- and nano-powders of diamond was determined from the measured densities of dry and variously hydrated diamond powders. This volume decreases near the diamond surface and in the first adsorbed monolayer can be as low as half that of bulk water. This effect can be attributed to breakdown of the hydrogen bond network, as confirmed by IR spectroscopy and calorimetrical data for crystal hydrates of diamond.

  2. Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appel, Patrick; Neu, Elke; Ganzhorn, Marc; Barfuss, Arne; Batzer, Marietta; Gratz, Micha; Tschöpe, Andreas; Maletinsky, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The electronic spin of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond forms an atomically sized, highly sensitive sensor for magnetic fields. To harness the full potential of individual NV centers for sensing with high sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution, NV centers have to be incorporated into scanning probe structures enabling controlled scanning in close proximity to the sample surface. Here, we present an optimized procedure to fabricate single-crystal, all-diamond scanning probes starting from commercially available diamond and show a highly efficient and robust approach for integrating these devices in a generic atomic force microscope. Our scanning probes consisting of a scanning nanopillar (200 nm diameter, 1-2 μm length) on a thin (<1 μm) cantilever structure enable efficient light extraction from diamond in combination with a high magnetic field sensitivity ( η AC ≈ 50 ± 20 nT / √{ Hz } ). As a first application of our scanning probes, we image the magnetic stray field of a single Ni nanorod. We show that this stray field can be approximated by a single dipole and estimate the NV-to-sample distance to a few tens of nanometer, which sets the achievable resolution of our scanning probes.

  3. Fabrication of all diamond scanning probes for nanoscale magnetometry.

    PubMed

    Appel, Patrick; Neu, Elke; Ganzhorn, Marc; Barfuss, Arne; Batzer, Marietta; Gratz, Micha; Tschöpe, Andreas; Maletinsky, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The electronic spin of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) center in diamond forms an atomically sized, highly sensitive sensor for magnetic fields. To harness the full potential of individual NV centers for sensing with high sensitivity and nanoscale spatial resolution, NV centers have to be incorporated into scanning probe structures enabling controlled scanning in close proximity to the sample surface. Here, we present an optimized procedure to fabricate single-crystal, all-diamond scanning probes starting from commercially available diamond and show a highly efficient and robust approach for integrating these devices in a generic atomic force microscope. Our scanning probes consisting of a scanning nanopillar (200 nm diameter, 1-2 μm length) on a thin (<1 μm) cantilever structure enable efficient light extraction from diamond in combination with a high magnetic field sensitivity (ηAC≈50±20nT/Hz). As a first application of our scanning probes, we image the magnetic stray field of a single Ni nanorod. We show that this stray field can be approximated by a single dipole and estimate the NV-to-sample distance to a few tens of nanometer, which sets the achievable resolution of our scanning probes. PMID:27370455

  4. Electrical Impact of SiC Structural Crystal Defects on High Electric Field Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.

    1999-01-01

    Commercial epilayers are known to contain a variety of crystallographic imperfections. including micropipes, closed core screw dislocations. low-angle boundaries, basal plane dislocations, heteropolytypic inclusions, and non-ideal surface features like step bunching and pits. This paper reviews the limited present understanding of the operational impact of various crystal defects on SiC electrical devices. Aside from micropipes and triangular inclusions whose densities have been shrinking towards manageably small values in recent years, many of these defects appear to have little adverse operational and/or yield impact on SiC-based sensors, high-frequency RF, and signal conditioning electronics. However high-power switching devices used in power management and distribution circuits have historically (in silicon experience) demanded the highest material quality for prolonged safe operation, and are thus more susceptible to operational reliability problems that arise from electrical property nonuniformities likely to occur at extended crystal defects. A particular emphasis is placed on the impact of closed-core screw dislocations on high-power switching devices, because these difficult to observe defects are present in densities of thousands per cm,in commercial SiC epilayers. and their reduction to acceptable levels seems the most problematic at the present time.

  5. 3D integration of photonic crystal devices: vertical coupling with a silicon waveguide.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, L; Romeo, P Rojo; Letartre, X; Drouard, E; Viktorovitch, P

    2010-07-19

    Two integrated devices based on the vertical coupling between a photonic crystal microcavity and a silicon (Si) ridge waveguide are presented in this paper. When the resonator is coupled to a single waveguide, light can be spectrally extracted from the waveguide to free space through the far field emission of the resonator. When the resonator is vertically coupled to two waveguides, a vertical add-drop filter can be realized. The dropping efficiency of these devices relies on a careful design of the resonator. In this paper, we use a Fabry-Perot (FP) microcavity composed of two photonic crystal (PhC) slab mirrors. Thanks to the unique dispersion properties of slow Bloch modes (SBM) at the flat extreme of the dispersion curve, it is possible to design a FP cavity exhibiting two quasi-degenerate modes. This specific configuration allows for a coupling efficiency that can theoretically achieve 100%. Using 3D FDTD calculations, we discuss the design of such devices and show that high dropping efficiency can be achieved between the Si waveguides and the PhC microcavity.

  6. Responsivity of Diamond X-ray Photodiodes Calibrated at NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Keister,J.W.; Smedley, J.; Muller, E. M.; Bohon, J.

    2009-09-27

    Single crystal, high purity synthetic diamond is used as photoabsorption and carrier transport medium in x-ray photodiodes. While the thermal / mechanical robustness and high x-ray transmission of diamond make such devices attractive for synchrotron instrumentation, state-of-the-art quality material and electrical interfaces further make such detectors feasible. The present work develops methodology for attaining calculable responsivity (photocurrent yield) over a wide range of photon energies (0.2 to 28 keV) to within 5% accuracy. These methods achieve linear response for up to 0.2 W absorbed x-ray power and response time as low as 1 ns. Details of contact formation / robustness and bias configuration are explored.

  7. Gapped Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide Device Based on a Liquid Crystal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Myung-Hyun

    2015-10-01

    We propose a gapped surface plasmon polariton waveguide (G-SPPW) device based on a liquid crystal (LC) at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The G-SPPW device is composed of an input 2.0-μm-wide and 5.0-μm-long insulator-metal-insulator waveguide (IMI-W), an 8-μm-long gap, and an output 2.0-μm-wide and 25.0-μm-long IMI-W. The LC is used for the gap and the 5.15-μm-thick upper and lower dielectric layers. The input surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagate and jump over the gap in the G-SPPW with a coupling loss of less than ~0.68 dB. The propagation and coupling losses of the 38-μm-long G-SPPW device are varied in the range of ~0.5268 dB to ~2.6716 dB and ~0.1446 dB to ~0.6784 dB, respectively, with LC tilt angles (θ1,2) = 0°~90° at a fixed 90° twist angle. The normalized transmission of the G-SPPW device is also varied in the range from -3.351 dB to -0.6714 dB with θ1,2 = 0°~90° at a fixed 90° twist angle. The output SPP characteristics of the G-SPPW device can be properly controlled by the orientation of the LC molecules. The proposed G-SPPW device shows potential for new active plasmonic device applications. PMID:26726399

  8. Transmissive liquid-crystal device correcting primary coma aberration and astigmatism in laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Ayano; Hibi, Terumasa; Ipponjima, Sari; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2016-03-01

    Laser scanning microscopy allows 3D cross-sectional imaging inside biospecimens. However, certain aberrations produced can degrade the quality of the resulting images. We previously reported a transmissive liquid-crystal device that could compensate for the predominant spherical aberrations during the observations, particularly in deep regions of the samples. The device, inserted between the objective lens and the microscope revolver, improved the image quality of fixed-mouse-brain slices that were observed using two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy, which was originally degraded by spherical aberration. In this study, we developed a transmissive device that corrects primary coma aberration and astigmatism, motivated by the fact that these asymmetric aberrations can also often considerably deteriorate image quality, even near the sample surface. The device's performance was evaluated by observing fluorescent beads using single-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy. The fluorescence intensity in the image of the bead under a cover slip tilted in the y-direction was increased by 1.5 times after correction by the device. Furthermore, the y- and z-widths of the imaged bead were reduced to 66% and 65%, respectively. On the other hand, for the imaged bead sucked into a glass capillary in the longitudinal x-direction, correction with the device increased the fluorescence intensity by 2.2 times compared to that of the aberrated image. In addition, the x-, y-, and z-widths of the bead image were reduced to 75%, 53%, and 40%, respectively. Our device successfully corrected several asymmetric aberrations to improve the fluorescent signal and spatial resolution, and might be useful for observing various biospecimens.

  9. Gapped Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide Device Based on a Liquid Crystal.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hun; Lee, Myung-Hyun

    2015-10-01

    We propose a gapped surface plasmon polariton waveguide (G-SPPW) device based on a liquid crystal (LC) at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The G-SPPW device is composed of an input 2.0-μm-wide and 5.0-μm-long insulator-metal-insulator waveguide (IMI-W), an 8-μm-long gap, and an output 2.0-μm-wide and 25.0-μm-long IMI-W. The LC is used for the gap and the 5.15-μm-thick upper and lower dielectric layers. The input surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagate and jump over the gap in the G-SPPW with a coupling loss of less than ~0.68 dB. The propagation and coupling losses of the 38-μm-long G-SPPW device are varied in the range of ~0.5268 dB to ~2.6716 dB and ~0.1446 dB to ~0.6784 dB, respectively, with LC tilt angles (θ1,2) = 0°~90° at a fixed 90° twist angle. The normalized transmission of the G-SPPW device is also varied in the range from -3.351 dB to -0.6714 dB with θ1,2 = 0°~90° at a fixed 90° twist angle. The output SPP characteristics of the G-SPPW device can be properly controlled by the orientation of the LC molecules. The proposed G-SPPW device shows potential for new active plasmonic device applications.

  10. Charge-collection efficiency of single-crystal CVD diamond detector for low-energy charged particles with energies ranging from 100 keV to 2 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuki; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Shimaoka, Takehiro; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Kaneko, Junichi H.

    2016-10-01

    The performance of a diamond detector created from a single-crystal diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition was studied for application in detecting charged particles having energies ranging from 100 keV to 2 MeV. Energy peaks of different low-energy ions were clearly observed. However, we observed that the pulse height for individual incident ions decreases with increasing atomic number of the ions. We estimated the charge collection efficiency of the generated charge carriers by the incident charged particles. The charge collection efficiencies are 97.0 ± 0.7% for 2 MeV helium-ions (He+). On the other hand, compared with that of He+, silicon-ions (Si+) and gold-ions (Au3+) show low charge collection efficiency: 70.6 ± 2.2% and 29.5 ± 4.2% for 2 MeV-Si+ and 2 MeV-Au3+, respectively. We also found that the charge collection efficiency decreases as the generated charge density inside the diamond crystal increases.

  11. Plasmon resonance enhanced temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Si-V centers in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Shaoheng; Song, Jie; Wang, Qiliang; Liu, Junsong; Li, Hongdong; Zhang, Baolin

    2015-11-23

    Temperature dependent optical property of diamond has been considered as a very important factor for realizing high performance diamond-based optoelectronic devices. The photoluminescence feature of the zero phonon line of silicon-vacancy (Si-V) centers in Si-doped chemical vapor deposited single crystal diamond (SCD) with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) induced by gold nanoparticles has been studied at temperatures ranging from liquid nitrogen temperature to 473 K, as compared with that of the SCD counterpart in absence of the LSPR. It is found that with LSPR the emission intensities of Si-V centers are significantly enhanced by factors of tens and the magnitudes of the redshift (width) of the emissions become smaller (narrower), in comparison with those of normal emissions without plasmon resonance. More interestingly, these strong Si-V emissions appear remarkably at temperatures up to 473 K, while the spectral feature was not reported in previous studies on the intrinsic Si-doped diamonds when temperatures are higher than room temperature. These findings would lead to reaching high performance diamond-based devices, such as single photon emitter, quantum cryptography, biomarker, and so forth, working under high temperature conditions.

  12. A Mathematica package for calculation of planar channeling radiation spectra of relativistic electrons channeled in a diamond-structure single crystal (quantum approach)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azadegan, B.

    2013-03-01

    The presented Mathematica code is an efficient tool for simulation of planar channeling radiation spectra of relativistic electrons channeled along major crystallographic planes of a diamond-structure single crystal. The program is based on the quantum theory of channeling radiation which has been successfully applied to study planar channeling at electron energies between 10 and 100 MeV. Continuum potentials for different planes of diamond, silicon and germanium single crystals are calculated using the Doyle-Turner approximation to the atomic scattering factor and taking thermal vibrations of the crystal atoms into account. Numerical methods are applied to solve the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation. The code is designed to calculate the electron wave functions, transverse electron states in the planar continuum potential, transition energies, line widths of channeling radiation and depth dependencies of the population of quantum states. Finally the spectral distribution of spontaneously emitted channeling radiation is obtained. The simulation of radiation spectra considerably facilitates the interpretation of experimental data. Catalog identifier: AEOH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 446 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 209805 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: Platforms on which Mathematica is available. Operating system: Operating systems on which Mathematica is available. RAM: 1 MB Classification: 7.10. Nature of problem: Planar channeling radiation is emitted by relativistic charged particles during traversing a single crystal in direction parallel to a crystallographic plane. Channeling is modeled as the motion

  13. Control of a multi-element dual-frequency liquid crystal device for adaptive optics wavefront correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayton, David C.; Gonglewski, John D.; Restaino, Sergio R.; Browne, Stephen L.

    2001-01-01

    We present here results of laboratory experiments using a dual frequency nematic liquid crystal. These devices have the advantage of low cost, low power consumption, and compact size. Possible applications of the devices are astronomical adaptive optics, laser beam control, laser cavity mode control, and real time holography.

  14. Modeling and design of infrared and ultraviolet integrated diamond ring Raman lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigel, Benjamin; Thienpont, Hugo; Vermeulen, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    We numerically investigate the capabilities and advantages of Raman lasers based on integrated single-crystal diamond ring resonators. To this end, we first model continuous-wave (CW) Raman lasing action while taking into account the lasing directionality, the linear and nonlinear losses, and the coupling of the fields between the bus and ring sections of racetrack-shaped diamond ring resonators. We then consider the design of the ring resonators for a short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) and an ultraviolet (UV) Raman laser. Using our Raman lasing model, we determine the lasing directionality, pump threshold and lasing efficiency of the SWIR and UV devices. We find that both can yield efficient CW operation with SWIR and UV lasing slope efficiencies of 33% and 65 %, respectively. These results showcase the potential of integrated diamond ring Raman lasers for producing wavelengths that are challenging to generate with other types of integrated lasers.

  15. Holographic three-dimensional display and hologram calculation based on liquid crystal on silicon device [invited].

    PubMed

    Li, Junchang; Tu, Han-Yen; Yeh, Wei-Chieh; Gui, Jinbin; Cheng, Chau-Jern

    2014-09-20

    Based on scalar diffraction theory and the geometric structure of liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS), we study the impulse responses and image depth of focus in a holographic three-dimensional (3D) display system. Theoretical expressions of the impulse response and the depth of focus of reconstructed 3D images are obtained, and experimental verifications of the imaging properties are performed. The results indicated that the images formed by holographic display based on the LCoS device were periodic image fields surrounding optical axes. The widths of the image fields were directly proportional to the wavelength and diffraction distance, and inversely proportional to the pixel size of the LCoS device. Based on the features of holographic 3D imaging and focal depth, we enhance currently popular hologram calculation methods of 3D objects to improve the computing speed of hologram calculation.

  16. Transition Metal Dithiolene Near-IR Dyes and Thier Applications in Liquid Crystal Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, K.L.; Painter, G.; Lotito, K.; Noto, A.G.; Chang, P.

    2006-08-18

    Numerous commercial and military applications exist for guest–host liquid crystal (LC) devices operating in the near- to mid-IR region. Progress in this area has been hindered by the severe lack of near-IR dyes with good solubility in the LC host, low impact on the inherent order of the LC phase, good thermal and chemical stability, and a large absorbance maximum tunable by structural modification over a broad range of the near-IR region. Transition metal complexes based on nickel, palladium, or platinum dithiolene cores show substantial promise in meeting these requirements. In this paper, we overview our past and present activities in the design and synthesis of transition metal dithiolene dyes, show some specific applications examples for these materials as near-IR dyes in LC electro-optical devices, and present our most recent results in the computational modeling of physical and optical properties of this interesting class of organometallic optical materials.

  17. n-Type diamond and method for producing same

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    A new n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed, which is doped with n-type dopant atoms. Such diamond is advantageously formed by chemical vapor deposition from a source gas mixture comprising a carbon source compound for the diamond, and a volatile hot wire filament for the n-type impurity species, so that the n-type impurity atoms are doped in the diamond during its formation. A corresponding chemical vapor deposition method of forming the n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed. The n-type semiconducting diamond of the invention may be usefully employed in the formation of diamond-based transistor devices comprising pn diamond junctions, and in other microelectronic device applications.

  18. Precision control of thermal transport in cryogenic single-crystal silicon devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F. A.; Crowe, E. J.; Denis, K. L.; Lourie, N. P.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-03-28

    We report on the diffusive-ballistic thermal conductance of multi-moded single-crystal silicon beams measured below 1 K. It is shown that the phonon mean-free-path ℓ is a strong function of the surface roughness characteristics of the beams. This effect is enhanced in diffuse beams with lengths much larger than ℓ, even when the surface is fairly smooth, 5–10 nm rms, and the peak thermal wavelength is 0.6 μm. Resonant phonon scattering has been observed in beams with a pitted surface morphology and characteristic pit depth of 30 nm. Hence, if the surface roughness is not adequately controlled, the thermal conductance can vary significantly for diffuse beams fabricated across a wafer. In contrast, when the beam length is of order ℓ, the conductance is dominated by ballistic transport and is effectively set by the beam cross-sectional area. We have demonstrated a uniformity of ±8% in fractional deviation for ballistic beams, and this deviation is largely set by the thermal conductance of diffuse beams that support the micro-electro-mechanical device and electrical leads. In addition, we have found no evidence for excess specific heat in single-crystal silicon membranes. This allows for the precise control of the device heat capacity with normal metal films. We discuss the results in the context of the design and fabrication of large-format arrays of far-infrared and millimeter wavelength cryogenic detectors.

  19. Precision Control of Thermal Transport in Cryogenic Single-Crystal Silicon Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F. A.; Crowe, E. J.; Denis, K. L.; Lourie, N. P.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the diffusive-ballistic thermal conductance of multi-moded single-crystal silicon beams measured below 1 K. It is shown that the phonon mean-free-path is a strong function of the surface roughness characteristics of the beams. This effect is enhanced in diffuse beams with lengths much larger than, even when the surface is fairly smooth, 510 nm rms, and the peak thermal wavelength is 0.6 microns. Resonant phonon scattering has been observed in beams with a pitted surface morphology and characteristic pit depth of 30 nm. Hence, if the surface roughness is not adequately controlled, the thermal conductance can vary significantly for diffuse beams fabricated across a wafer. In contrast, when the beam length is of order, the conductance is dominated by ballistic transport and is effectively set by the beam cross-sectional area. We have demonstrated a uniformity of +/-8% in fractional deviation for ballistic beams, and this deviation is largely set by the thermal conductance of diffuse beams that support the micro-electro-mechanical device and electrical leads. In addition, we have found no evidence for excess specific heat in single-crystal silicon membranes. This allows for the precise control of the device heat capacity with normal metal films. We discuss the results in the context of the design and fabrication of large-format arrays of far-infrared and millimeter wavelength cryogenic detectors.

  20. Nanocrystalline diamond for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitura, Stanislaw

    1997-06-01

    The unique properties of thin amorphous diamond layers make them perspective candidates for producing advanced micro- electronic devices, coatings for cutting tools and optics. Moreover, due to the highest bicompatibility of carbon resulting from the presence of this element in human body, it appears to be a potential biomaterial. Until present the amorphous diamond has found industrial applications in some areas. One of the applications of the carbon layers are coatings for medical implants. The studies of carbon films as coatings for implants in surgery were aimed on the investigations of biological resistance of implants, histopathological investigations on laboratory animals, tests of corrosion resistance, measurements of mechanical properties and a breakdown test in Tyrod solution. The current state of published work in the subject is reviewed in the paper together with a discussion concerning classification of this material.

  1. Superior electro-optic response in multiferroic bismuth ferrite nanoparticle doped nematic liquid crystal device

    PubMed Central

    Nayek, Prasenjit; Li, Guoqiang

    2015-01-01

    A superior electro-optic (E-O) response has been achieved when multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3/BFO) nanoparticles (NPs) were doped in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) host E7 and the LC device was addressed in the large signal regime by an amplitude modulated square wave signal at the frequency of 100 Hz. The optimized concentration of BFO is 0.15 wt%, and the corresponding total optical response time (rise time + decay time) for a 5 μm-thick cell is 2.5 ms for ~7 Vrms. This might be exploited for the construction of adaptive lenses, modulators, displays, and other E-O devices. The possible reason behind the fast response time could be the visco-elastic constant and restoring force imparted by the locally ordered LCs induced by the multiferroic nanoparticles (MNPs). Polarized optical microscopic textural observation shows that the macroscopic dislocation-free excellent contrast have significant impact on improving the image quality and performance of the devices. PMID:26041701

  2. Precise control of photoluminescence of silicon-vacancy color centers in homoepitaxial single-crystal diamond: evaluation of efficiency of Si doping from gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralchenko, Victor; Sedov, Vadim; Saraykin, Vladimir; Bolshakov, Andrey; Zavedeev, Evgeny; Ashkinazi, Evgeny; Khomich, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Ability to precisely control the Si-related color center abundance in diamond is important for the use of silicon-vacancy (SiV) defects with bright photoluminescence (PL) in quantum information technologies and optical biomarkers. Here, we evaluated the efficiency of Si incorporation in (100) plane of homoepitaxial diamond layers upon in situ doping by adding silane SiH4 in the course of diamond chemical vapor deposition in microwave plasma using CH4-H2 mixtures. Both the Si concentration in the doped samples, as determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry, and PL intensity of SiV centers at 738 nm wavelength, measured at excitation wavelength of 473 nm, demonstrate a linear increase with silane content in feed gas in the range. The incorporation efficiency f, defined as the ratio of Si concentration in diamond to that in gas, f = [Si/C]dia/[Si/C]gas is found to be (1.1 ± 0.5) × 10-3 for the silane concentrations explored, [SiH4/CH4] < 0.7 %; thus, the Si atoms are accommodated in (100) diamond face easier than nitrogen and phosphorus, but more difficult than boron. This finding allows a tailoring of the Si content and photoluminescence intensity of SiV centers in in situ doped CVD diamond.

  3. Crystal growth of hexaferrite architecture for magnetoelectrically tunable microwave semiconductor integrated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bolin

    Hexaferrites (i.e., hexagonal ferrites), discovered in 1950s, exist as any one of six crystallographic structural variants (i.e., M-, X-, Y-, W-, U-, and Z-type). Over the past six decades, the hexaferrites have received much attention owing to their important properties that lend use as permanent magnets, magnetic data storage materials, as well as components in electrical devices, particularly those operating at RF frequencies. Moreover, there has been increasing interest in hexaferrites for new fundamental and emerging applications. Among those, electronic components for mobile and wireless communications especially incorporated with semiconductor integrated circuits at microwave frequencies, electromagnetic wave absorbers for electromagnetic compatibility, random-access memory (RAM) and low observable technology, and as composite materials having low dimensions. However, of particular interest is the magnetoelectric (ME) effect discovered recently in the hexaferrites such as SrScxFe12-xO19 (SrScM), Ba2--xSrxZn 2Fe12O22 (Zn2Y), Sr4Co2Fe 36O60 (Co2U) and Sr3Co2Fe 24O41 (Co2Z), demonstrating ferroelectricity induced by the complex internal alignment of magnetic moments. Further, both Co 2Z and Co2U have revealed observable magnetoelectric effects at room temperature, representing a step toward practical applications using the ME effect. These materials hold great potential for applications, since strong magnetoelectric coupling allows switching of the FE polarization with a magnetic field (H) and vice versa. These features could lead to a new type of storage devices, such as an electric field-controlled magnetic memory. A nanoscale-driven crystal growth of magnetic hexaferrites was successfully demonstrated at low growth temperatures (25--40% lower than the temperatures required often for crystal growth). This outcome exhibits thermodynamic processes of crystal growth, allowing ease in fabrication of advanced multifunctional materials. Most importantly, the

  4. Diamond knife.

    PubMed

    Rowsey, J J; Balyeat, H D; Yeisley, K P

    1982-04-01

    We present a new diamond knife which allows for reasonably precise incisions in cornea or sclera. The knife may be ultrasonically cleaned and is sharper than any metal knife whose edge we have examined to date by scanning electron microscopy. The edge is approximately 0.1 micron in width, compared to 1-5 micron width edges of most metal knives. We feel that this prototype will allow investigators to recommend special modifications to the manufacturer of their own choice. PMID:6285246

  5. Diamond Tours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On April 24, a group traveling with Diamond Tours visited StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The trip marked Diamond Tours' return to StenniSphere since Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast on Aug. 29, 2005. About 25 business professionals from Georgia enjoyed the day's tour of America's largest rocket engine test complex, along with the many displays and exhibits at the museum. Before Hurricane Katrina, the nationwide company brought more than 1,000 visitors to StenniSphere each month. That contributed to more than 100,000 visitors from around the world touring the space center each year. In past years StenniSphere's visitor relations specialists booked Diamond Tours two or three times a week, averaging 40 to 50 people per visit. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars. For more information or to book a tour, visit http://www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis/home/index.html and click on the StenniSphere logo; or call 800-237-1821 or 228-688-2370.

  6. Bistable liquid crystal devices with nanoparticle-coated polyimide alignment films.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chuan-En; Jeng, Shie-Chang

    2013-04-01

    Bistable hybrid-aligned nematic (HAN) liquid crystal devices (LCDs) with silica nanoparticle-coated polyimide alignment films were investigated. It was observed that the existence of the internal electric field produced from the triboelectrically charged silica nanoparticles layer and impurity ions in the LC reduced the total free energy of the HAN-LCD and stabilized the cell in the homeotropic state. The stable homeotropic state can be switched back to the HAN state by changing the ion distribution through a voltage pulse with proper polarity. The capability of controlling bistability through modification of ion density in the LC layer may have some applications, such as displaying a one-time password requiring a specific stable time. PMID:23546227

  7. Wavelength, temperature, and voltage dependent calibration of a nematic liquid crystal multispectral polarization generating device

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Boudreaux, Philip R

    2007-01-01

    Rapid calibration of liquid crystal variable retarder (LCVR) devices is critical for successful clinical implementation of a LC-based Mueller matrix imaging system being developed for noninvasisve skin cancer detection. For multispectral implementation of such a system, the effect of wavelength (), temperature (T), and voltage (V) on the retardance () required to generate each desired polarization state needs to be clearly understood. Calibration involves quantifying this interdependence such that for a given set of system input variables, T, the appropriate voltage is applied across a LC cell to generate a particular retardance. This paper presents findings that elucidate the dependence of voltage, for a set retardance, on the aforementioned variables for a nematic LC cell: 253 mv100 nm-dependence andd 10 mVC T-dependence. Additionally, an empirically derived model is presented that enables initial voltage calibration of retardance for any desired input wavelength within the calibration range of 460-905 nm. copyright 2007 Optical Society of America

  8. Diffraction based phase compensation method for phase-only liquid crystal on silicon devices in operation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zichen; Yang, Haining; Robertson, Brian; Redmond, Maura; Pivnenko, Mike; Collings, Neil; Crossland, William A; Chu, Daping

    2012-06-10

    A method to measure the optical response across the surface of a phase-only liquid crystal on silicon device using binary phase gratings is described together with a procedure to compensate its spatial optical phase variation. As a result, the residual power between zero and the minima of the first diffraction order for a binary grating can be reduced by more than 10 dB, from -15.98 dB to -26.29 dB. This phase compensation method is also shown to be useful in nonbinary cases. A reduction in the worst crosstalk by 5.32 dB can be achieved when quantized blazed gratings are used. PMID:22695663

  9. Computational chemistry modeling and design of photoswitchable alignment materials for optically addressable liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, K. L.; Sekera, E. R.; Xiao, K.

    2015-09-01

    Photoalignment technology based on optically switchable "command surfaces" has been receiving increasing interest for liquid crystal optics and photonics device applications. Azobenzene compounds in the form of low-molar-mass, watersoluble salts deposited either directly on the substrate surface or after dispersion in a polymer binder have been almost exclusively employed for these applications, and ongoing research in the area follows a largely empirical materials design and development approach. Recent computational chemistry advances now afford unprecedented opportunities to develop predictive capabilities that will lead to new photoswitchable alignment layer materials with low switching energies, enhanced bistability, write/erase fatigue resistance, and high laser-damage thresholds. In the work described here, computational methods based on the density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory were employed to study the impact of molecular structure on optical switching properties in photoswitchable methacrylate and acrylamide polymers functionalized with azobenzene and spiropyran pendants.

  10. Deep ultraviolet diamond Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Granados, Eduardo; Spence, David J; Mildren, Richard P

    2011-05-23

    We present a synchronously pumped diamond Raman laser operating at 275.7 nm pumped by the 4th harmonic of a mode locked Nd:YVO4 laser. The laser had a threshold pump pulse energy of 5.8 nJ and generated up to 0.96 nJ pulses at 10.3% conversion efficiency. The results agree well with a numerical model that includes two-photon absorption of the pump and Stokes beams and uses a Raman gain coefficient of diamond of 100 cm/GW. We also report on the observation of nanometer scale two-photon assisted etching of the diamond crystal surfaces. PMID:21643343

  11. Strain Coupling of a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center Spin to a Diamond Mechanical Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teissier, J.; Barfuss, A.; Appel, P.; Neu, E.; Maletinsky, P.

    2014-07-01

    We report on single electronic spins coupled to the motion of mechanical resonators by a novel mechanism based on crystal strain. Our device consists of single-crystal diamond cantilevers with embedded nitrogen-vacancy center spins. Using optically detected electron spin resonance, we determine the unknown spin-strain coupling constants and demonstrate that our system resides well within the resolved sideband regime. We realize coupling strengths exceeding 10 MHz under mechanical driving and show that our system has the potential to reach strong coupling. Our novel hybrid system forms a resource for future experiments on spin-based cantilever cooling and coherent spin-oscillator coupling.

  12. Electrical stimulation of non-classical photon emission from diamond color centers by means of sub-superficial graphitic electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Forneris, Jacopo; Traina, Paolo; Monticone, Daniele Gatto; Amato, Giampiero; Boarino, Luca; Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo P.; Enrico, Emanuele; Moreva, Ekaterina; Grilj, Veljko; Skukan, Natko; Jakšić, Milko; Genovese, Marco; Olivero, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Focused MeV ion beams with micrometric resolution are suitable tools for the direct writing of conductive graphitic channels buried in an insulating diamond bulk, as already demonstrated for different device applications. In this work we apply this fabrication method to the electrical excitation of color centers in diamond, demonstrating the potential of electrical stimulation in diamond-based single-photon sources. Differently from optically-stimulated light emission from color centers in diamond, electroluminescence (EL) requires a high current flowing in the diamond subgap states between the electrodes. With this purpose, buried graphitic electrode pairs, 10 μm spaced, were fabricated in the bulk of a single-crystal diamond sample using a 6 MeV C microbeam. The electrical characterization of the structure showed a significant current injection above an effective voltage threshold of 150 V, which enabled the stimulation of a stable EL emission. The EL imaging allowed to identify the electroluminescent regions and the residual vacancy distribution associated with the fabrication technique. Measurements evidenced isolated electroluminescent spots where non-classical light emission in the 560–700 nm spectral range was observed. The spectral and auto-correlation features of the EL emission were investigated to qualify the non-classical properties of the color centers. PMID:26510889

  13. Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Lara; Alkeskjold, Thomas; Riishede, Jesper; Bjarklev, Anders; Hermann, David; Anawati, Anawati; Nielsen, Martin; Bassi, Paolo

    2005-09-19

    We present an electrically controlled photonic bandgap fiber device obtained by infiltrating the air holes of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a dual-frequency liquid crystal (LC) with pre-tilted molecules. Compared to previously demonstrated devices of this kind, the main new feature of this one is its continuous tunability due to the fact that the used LC does not exhibit reverse tilt domain defects and threshold effects. Furthermore, the dual-frequency features of the LC enables electrical control of the spectral position of the bandgaps towards both shorter and longer wavelengths in the same device. We investigate the dynamics of this device and demonstrate a birefringence controller based on this principle.

  14. Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolari, Lara; Tanggaard Alkeskjold, Thomas; Riishede, Jesper; Bjarklev, Anders; Sparre Hermann, David; Anawati, Anawati; Dybendal Nielsen, Martin; Bassi, Paolo

    2005-09-01

    We present an electrically controlled photonic bandgap fiber device obtained by infiltrating the air holes of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a dual-frequency liquid crystal (LC) with pre-tilted molecules. Compared to previously demonstrated devices of this kind, the main new feature of this one is its continuous tunability due to the fact that the used LC does not exhibit reverse tilt domain defects and threshold effects. Furthermore, the dual-frequency features of the LC enables electrical control of the spectral position of the bandgaps towards both shorter and longer wavelengths in the same device. We investigate the dynamics of this device and demonstrate a birefringence controller based on this principle.

  15. Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Lara; Alkeskjold, Thomas; Riishede, Jesper; Bjarklev, Anders; Hermann, David; Anawati, Anawati; Nielsen, Martin; Bassi, Paolo

    2005-09-19

    We present an electrically controlled photonic bandgap fiber device obtained by infiltrating the air holes of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a dual-frequency liquid crystal (LC) with pre-tilted molecules. Compared to previously demonstrated devices of this kind, the main new feature of this one is its continuous tunability due to the fact that the used LC does not exhibit reverse tilt domain defects and threshold effects. Furthermore, the dual-frequency features of the LC enables electrical control of the spectral position of the bandgaps towards both shorter and longer wavelengths in the same device. We investigate the dynamics of this device and demonstrate a birefringence controller based on this principle. PMID:19498773

  16. Superconductivity in CVD Diamond Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yoshihiko

    2005-03-01

    The recent news of superconductivity 2.3K in heavily boron-doped diamond synthesized by high pressure sintering was received with considerable surprise (1). Opening up new possibilities for diamond-based electrical devices, a systematic investigation of these phenomena clearly needs to be achieved. Application of diamond to actual devices requires it to be made into the form of wafers or thin films. We show unambiguous evidence for superconductivity in a heavily boron-doped diamond thin film deposited by the microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method (2). An advantage of the MPCVD deposited diamond is that it can control boron concentration in its wider range, particularly in (111) oriented films. The temperature dependence of resistivity for (111) and (100) homoepitaxial thin films were measured under several magnetic fields. Superconducting transition temperatures of (111) homoepitaxial film are determined to be 11.4K for Tc onset and 7.2K for zero resistivity. And the upper critical field is estimated to be about 8T. These values are 2-3 times higher than these ever reported (1,3). On other hand, for (100) homoepitaxial film, Tc onset and Tc zero resistivity were estimated to be 6.3 and 3.2K respectively. The superconductivity in (100) film was strongly suppressed even at the same boron concentration. These differences of superconductivity in film orientation will be discussed. These findings established the superconductivity as a universal property of boron-doped diamond, demonstrating that device application is indeed a feasible challenge. 1. E. A. Ekimov et al. Nature, 428, 542 (2004). 2. Y. Takano et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2851 (2004). 3. E. Bustarret et al., ond-mat 0408517.

  17. Organic Crystal Growth Facility (OCGF) and Radiation Monitoring Container Device (RMCD) Groups in

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured are activities of the Organic Crystal Growth Facility (OCGF) and Radiation Monitoring Container Device (RMCD) groups in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  18. Integrated Multi-Color Light Emitting Device Made with Hybrid Crystal Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An integrated hybrid crystal Light Emitting Diode ("LED") display device that may emit red, green, and blue colors on a single wafer. The various embodiments may provide double-sided hetero crystal growth with hexagonal wurtzite III-Nitride compound semiconductor on one side of (0001) c-plane sapphire media and cubic zinc-blended III-V or II-VI compound semiconductor on the opposite side of c-plane sapphire media. The c-plane sapphire media may be a bulk single crystalline c-plane sapphire wafer, a thin free standing c-plane sapphire layer, or crack-and-bonded c-plane sapphire layer on any substrate. The bandgap energies and lattice constants of the compound semiconductor alloys may be changed by mixing different amounts of ingredients of the same group into the compound semiconductor. The bandgap energy and lattice constant may be engineered by changing the alloy composition within the cubic group IV, group III-V, and group II-VI semiconductors and within the hexagonal III-Nitrides.

  19. Method for sputtering a PIN amorphous silicon semi-conductor device having partially crystallized P and N-layers

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D.; Maruska, H. Paul

    1985-07-09

    A high efficiency amorphous silicon PIN semiconductor device having partially crystallized (microcrystalline) P and N layers is constructed by the sequential sputtering of N, I and P layers and at least one semi-transparent ohmic electrode. The method of construction produces a PIN device, exhibiting enhanced electrical and optical properties, improved physical integrity, and facilitates the preparation in a singular vacuum system and vacuum pump down procedure.

  20. Opalescent Diamonds Enriched in Hydrocarbon Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, I.; Tsao, C.

    2006-05-01

    We studied a large number of diamonds from Liaoning, China. These diamonds are not gem-quality, do not have sharp corners and sharp edges, they are not suitable for making cutting tools. Such industrial diamonds are usually crushed to form abrasives, thus, they might escape the scrutiny of researchers. In China, diamonds were routinely soaked in HF overnight to remove mud and other substances, and no oil and grease were used in the processing. It is not uncommon to see iridescence in pink, pale yellow and grey diamonds. The most common opalescent colors are alternating sharp bands of intense pink and indigo blue, and, less frequently, bands of yellow and blue-green, all may appear in the same diamond. As the bands have uniform thickness, their colors might not be due simply to optical effects, but rather, might be chemically related. We had chosen 10 diamonds to study their FT-IR spectra. Six of the crystals exhibited a group of hydrocarbons (HCs) peaks located just below 3000 cm-1, while all but one had a C-H stretch peak at 3107 cm-1. Two other diamonds had weak HCs peaks, but a very strong peak at 3107 cm-1. Two more diamonds had very weak HCs and C-H stretch peaks. To sum up, when a spectrum has strong HCs peaks, the C-H stretch peak is weak, and vice versa. There seems to be a chemical relationship between the substances represented by these peaks. Our observations indicate that hydrocarbon fluids might have been trapped during crystallization, but subsequently unmixed into well- organized thin bands. If fluids observed in the opalescent diamonds were soaked up in the mantle, then the amount of hydrocarbons existing in Earth's mantle might be quite appreciable in some environment.

  1. Processing of diamond by laser beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Masanori; Hirata, Atsushi

    1998-10-01

    YAG and ArF excimer laser beams, of which wavelengths are 1.06 micrometers and 193 nm respectively, have been applied to processing of a variety of diamonds. Cutting and smoothing of natural, CVD and sintered diamonds have been performed. CVD diamond films were prepared by arc discharge plasma jet CVD and microwave plasma CVD, and sintered diamonds contain metallic or ceramic binder have been used. Fundamental removal processes of diamond with YAG and ArF excimer laser have been investigated using natural single crystal and CVD diamonds in various atmospheres changing laser irradiation conditions such as average power, energy density and pulse repetition rates. Cutting of natural and CVD diamonds with YAG laser proceeds at higher peal power that occurs at lower pulse repetition rates. Smooth surfaces are obtained by excimer laser irradiation at the incident angle of 80 percent. In the cases of the processing with YAG laser, the effect of local heating by laser beam irradiation mainly assists the diamond processing, and diamond appears to be removed after graphitization and oxidization following vaporization in the atmosphere contains oxygen. The temperature measurement was carried out at backside of irradiation surface, and increase of temperature when YAG laser beam was irradiated was larger than that when excimer laser was irradiated. On the contrary, the detection of C, C2, C+, O2 and CO from the emission at the irradiation area with ArF excimer laser beam suggest that processing partly proceeds by the separation of carbon atoms from the surface of diamond after braking bonds between carbon atoms caused by laser beam. Cutting of sintered diamond with metallic binder was difficult because metallic binder remains in the groove while ceramic binder was easily removed. Processing technique using laser beams has been applied to surface planing, chip preparation and edge formation of CVD diamond and curved surface formation on sintered diamond. Surface planing was

  2. Diamond nucleation under bias conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckel, R.; Stammler, M.; Janischowsky, K.; Ley, L.; Albrecht, M.; Strunk, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    The so-called bias pretreatment allows the growth of heteroepitaxial diamond films by plasma chemical vapor deposition on silicon (100) surfaces. We present plan-view and cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the substrate surface at different phases of the bias pretreatment. These observations are augmented by measurements of the etch rates of Si, SiC, and different carbon modifications under plasma conditions and the size distribution of oriented diamond crystals grown after bias pretreatment. Based on these results a new model for diamond nucleation under bias conditions is proposed. First, a closed layer of nearly epitaxially oriented cubic SiC with a thickness of about 10 nm is formed. Subplantation of carbon into this SiC layer causes a supersaturation with carbon and results in the subcutaneous formation of epitaxially oriented nucleation centers in the SiC layer. Etching of the SiC during the bias pretreatment as well as during diamond growth brings these nucleation centers to the sample surface and causes the growth of diamonds epitaxially oriented on the Si/SiC substrate. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Stopping of light by the dynamic tuning of photonic crystal slow light device.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuji; Baba, Toshihiko

    2010-08-01

    We propose a simple technique of stopping light pulses using a slow-light device based on photonic crystal coupled waveguide (PCCW). Dynamically tuning the material index chirp in the PCCW adiabatically transforms slow-light pulses into stopped ones. We demonstrate this in finite-difference time-domain simulation assuming ideal and actual tuning of the index chirp. In the ideal case, the group velocity of the almost stopped pulse is reduced to 190 times smaller than that of simple slow light pulse. The smallest limit is affected by the timing error of the tuning between wavelengths. Re-ordering and stopping of a pulse train are possible by optimizing the device length and timing. As a practical tuning method, we discuss carrier effects induced by photo-excitation. Taking into account carrier distribution and free carrier absorption, the actual behaviors of stopped light are estimated. We define and evaluate an effective delay-bandwidth product, which is affected by free carrier absorption.

  4. An adaptive optics imaging system based on a high-resolution liquid crystal on silicon device.

    PubMed

    Mu, Quanquan; Cao, Zhaoliang; Hu, Lifa; Li, Dayu; Xuan, Li

    2006-09-01

    An adaptive optics imaging system is introduced in this paper. A high resolution liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) device was used as a phase only wave front corrector instead of a conversional deformable mirror. The wave front aberration was detected by a Shack-Hartmann (SH) wave front sensor, which has lambda/100 rms wave front measurement accuracy. Under this construction 0.09lambda (lambda=0.6328microm) Peak to Valley correction precision was reached. Further more, some low frequency hot convection turbulence induced by an electric iron was compensated in real time at the same precision. The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of this system was also measured before and after wave front correction. Under the active correction of LCOS, the system reached the diffraction limited resolution approximately 65l p/mm on the horizontal direction. All of this showed the ability of using this device in high resolution, low temporal turbulence imaging system, such as retinal imaging, to improve the resolution performance.

  5. Response measurement of single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond radiation detector for intense X-rays aiming at neutron bang-time and neutron burn-history measurement on an inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka, T; Kaneko, J H; Arikawa, Y; Isobe, M; Sato, Y; Tsubota, M; Nagai, T; Kojima, S; Abe, Y; Sakata, S; Fujioka, S; Nakai, M; Shiraga, H; Azechi, H; Chayahara, A; Umezawa, H; Shikata, S

    2015-05-01

    A neutron bang time and burn history monitor in inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition are necessary for plasma diagnostics. In the FIREX project, however, no detector attained those capabilities because high-intensity X-rays accompanied fast electrons used for plasma heating. To solve this problem, single-crystal CVD diamond was grown and fabricated into a radiation detector. The detector, which had excellent charge transportation property, was tested to obtain a response function for intense X-rays. The applicability for neutron bang time and burn history monitor was verified experimentally. Charge collection efficiency of 99.5% ± 0.8% and 97.1% ± 1.4% for holes and electrons were obtained using 5.486 MeV alpha particles. The drift velocity at electric field which saturates charge collection efficiency was 1.1 ± 0.4 × 10(7) cm/s and 1.0 ± 0.3 × 10(7) cm/s for holes and electrons. Fast response of several ns pulse width for intense X-ray was obtained at the GEKKO XII experiment, which is sufficiently fast for ToF measurements to obtain a neutron signal separately from X-rays. Based on these results, we confirmed that the single-crystal CVD diamond detector obtained neutron signal with good S/N under ion temperature 0.5-1 keV and neutron yield of more than 10(9) neutrons/shot.

  6. Response measurement of single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond radiation detector for intense X-rays aiming at neutron bang-time and neutron burn-history measurement on an inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Shimaoka, T. Kaneko, J. H.; Tsubota, M.; Arikawa, Y.; Nagai, T.; Kojima, S.; Abe, Y.; Sakata, S.; Fujioka, S.; Nakai, M.; Shiraga, H.; Azechi, H.; Isobe, M.; Sato, Y.; Chayahara, A.; Umezawa, H.; Shikata, S.

    2015-05-15

    A neutron bang time and burn history monitor in inertial confinement fusion with fast ignition are necessary for plasma diagnostics. In the FIREX project, however, no detector attained those capabilities because high-intensity X-rays accompanied fast electrons used for plasma heating. To solve this problem, single-crystal CVD diamond was grown and fabricated into a radiation detector. The detector, which had excellent charge transportation property, was tested to obtain a response function for intense X-rays. The applicability for neutron bang time and burn history monitor was verified experimentally. Charge collection efficiency of 99.5% ± 0.8% and 97.1% ± 1.4% for holes and electrons were obtained using 5.486 MeV alpha particles. The drift velocity at electric field which saturates charge collection efficiency was 1.1 ± 0.4 × 10{sup 7} cm/s and 1.0 ± 0.3 × 10{sup 7} cm/s for holes and electrons. Fast response of several ns pulse width for intense X-ray was obtained at the GEKKO XII experiment, which is sufficiently fast for ToF measurements to obtain a neutron signal separately from X-rays. Based on these results, we confirmed that the single-crystal CVD diamond detector obtained neutron signal with good S/N under ion temperature 0.5–1 keV and neutron yield of more than 10{sup 9} neutrons/shot.

  7. Effect of relative humidity on crystal growth, device performance and hysteresis in planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangishetty, Mahesh K.; Scott, Robert W. J.; Kelly, Timothy L.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the hygroscopic nature of organolead halide perovskites, humidity is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency and longevity of perovskite solar cells. Although humidity has a long term detrimental effect on device performance, it also plays a key role during the initial growth of perovskite crystals. Here we demonstrate that atmospheric relative humidity (RH) plays a key role during the formation of perovskite thin films via the sequential deposition technique. Our results indicate that the RH has a substantial impact on the crystallization process, and hence on device performance. SEM and pXRD analysis show an increase in crystallite size with increasing humidity. At low RH, the formation of small cubic crystallites with large gaps between them is observed. The presence of these voids adversely affects device performance and leads to substantial hysteresis in the device. At higher RH, the perovskite crystals are larger in size, with better connectivity between the crystallites. This produced efficient planar heterojunction solar cells with low hysteresis. By careful control of the RH during the cell fabrication process, efficiencies of up to 12.2% are reached using P3HT as the hole-transport material.Due to the hygroscopic nature of organolead halide perovskites, humidity is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency and longevity of perovskite solar cells. Although humidity has a long term detrimental effect on device performance, it also plays a key role during the initial growth of perovskite crystals. Here we demonstrate that atmospheric relative humidity (RH) plays a key role during the formation of perovskite thin films via the sequential deposition technique. Our results indicate that the RH has a substantial impact on the crystallization process, and hence on device performance. SEM and pXRD analysis show an increase in crystallite size with increasing humidity. At low RH, the formation of small cubic crystallites

  8. Photoinduced laser etching of a diamond surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kononenko, V V; Komlenok, M S; Pimenov, S M; Konov, V I

    2007-11-30

    Nongraphitising ablation of the surface of a natural diamond single crystal irradiated by nanosecond UV laser pulses is studied experimentally. For laser fluences below the diamond graphitisation threshold, extremely low diamond etching rates (less than 1nm/1000 pulses) are obtained and the term nanoablation is used just for this process. The dependence of the nanoablation rate on the laser fluence is studied for samples irradiated both in air and in oxygen-free atmosphere. The effect of external heating on the nanoablation rate is analysed and a photochemical mechanism is proposed for describing it. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  9. 75 FR 13780 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... January 5, 2010, based on a complaint filed by Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (``Samsung'') of Korea. 75 FR... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice... sale for importation, and the ] sale within the United States after importation of certain...

  10. 76 FR 6496 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Interoperable With the Same...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Interoperable With the Same... for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain liquid...

  11. Diamond Field Emission Source using Transfer Mold Technique Prepared by Diamond Powder Seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezuka, Sachiaki; Matsuba, Yohei; Takahashi, Kohro

    Diamond thin films fabricated by MPCVD (microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition) are available for use as a field emitter material, because of its high mechanical quality, thermal conductivity, chemical stability, environmental tolerance, and NEA (negative electron affinity). Diode and triode emitter arrays using P-doped polycrystalline diamond were manufactured on a SiO2/Si(100) substrate with reverse pyramids formed by the transfer mold technique. As the diamond nucleation process, spin-coat seeding with pure diamond powder dispersed in isoamyl acetate has been introduced in place of the bias method. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the crystal quality of the diamond thin film fabricated by spin-coat seeding is superior to that fabricated by the bias method. The diamond crystal completely grew on top of the diode emitter by the US (ultrasonic) treatment in a diamond powder solution before spin-coat seeding. The tip radius was smaller than 50 nm. The beginning voltage of the emission of the diode emitter is 3 V after the DC glow discharge treatment in H2, which is lower than that of an emitter array fabricated by the bias method, 40 V. On the other hand, the emission of the diamond triode emitter starts at a gate voltage of only 0.5 V, and the emission current of 50∼60 mA is obtained at a gate voltage of 2 V.

  12. Study of photoresponsivity in optoelectronic devices based on single crystal β-Ga2O3 epitaxial layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Ray-Hua; Ravadgar, Parvaneh

    2013-03-01

    Single crystal β-Ga2O3 epitaxial layers have been prepared on c-axis (0001) sapphire substrates using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique at relatively low temperature. Post-annealing of β-Ga2O3 single crystals up to 800 °C does not affect the crystallinity, explored by x-ray diffraction, showing that β-Ga2O3 epitaxial layers are highly (-201) oriented. Metal-semiconductor-metal devices are fabricated on single crystals to study their photoresponsivity. A significant improvement in performance of post annealed-based devices is observed, attributed to point defect reduction. Annealing of as-grown samples results to a significant decrease in both oxygen and gallium vacancies, which are sources of current leakage.

  13. Numerical investigation of oxygen impurity distribution during multicrystalline silicon crystal growth using a gas flow guidance device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Ying-Yang; Chen, Jyh-Chen; Lu, Chung-Wei; Chen, Chi-Yung

    2012-12-01

    Oxygen is one of the most important types of impurities that can cause thermal donor or light-induced degradation in mc-Si solar cells. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect that installing a gas flow guidance device in a mc-Si crystal-growth furnace would have on the oxygen impurity distribution in the melt during the growth process. The installation of such a gas flow guidance device can enhance the gas flow near the free surface, which would allow the argon to carry a greater amount of evaporated SiO gas outside the furnace. Furthermore, the enhanced motion of the gas flow also improves heat transfer near the free surface, which would make the melt vortex separate more easily. The separated melt vortex, which is located near the central region of the melt-crystal interface, directs any oxygen impurity towards the central region of the melt-crystal interface. This is why the oxygen concentration can be reduced by installing the gas flow guidance device. The effectiveness of the gas flow guidance device depends on the vertical distance between it and the free surface (h) as well as the gap between the crucible sidewall and the tip of the device (d). The effect on the oxygen concentration in the melt is significant when smaller values for h and d are adopted.

  14. Characterization of a high-power piezoelectric energy-scavenging device based on PMN-PT piezoelectric single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, S. E.; Lee, S.-K.; Lee, Y.-G.; Kim, K. M.; Yang, Y.-S.; Yang, W. S.; Kim, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the calculations and the results for vibration-energy-scavenging performances based on a piezoelectric single-crystal beam. Using the measured mechanical damping ratio and electro-mechanical coupling coefficient of a novel cantilever structure device, we calculated the output performances and compared them with the measured results. A device based on a bimorph cantilever structure with a proof mass was designed to have a natural resonance frequency of about 60 Hz, and the energy-scavenging capability of piezoelectric single crystal was measured. The results showed that several tens of AC volts and a few milliwatts power were achieved under a 0.1 g rms vibration condition. Also using this device and a commercial power management circuit, we performed Li-ion battery charging experiment.

  15. Transition metal dithiolene complexes as near-IR dyes for liquid crystal device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Kenneth L.; Schudel, Benjamin; Lippa, Irene A.

    2004-01-01

    Both commercial and military applications (e.g., free-space IR communications and sensor protection) exist for guest-host liquid crystal (LC) devices operating in the near- to mid-IR region. Progress in this area has been hindered by the severe lack of near-IR dyes with good solubility in the LC host, low impact on the inherent order of the LC phase, good thermal and chemical stability, and a large absorbance maximum tunable by structural modification over a broad range of the near-IR region. Transition metal complexes based on nickel, palladium, or platinum dithiolene cores show substantial promise in meeting these requirements. These new dye complexes are extraordinarily stable, possess liquid crystalline phases in their own right with the proper terminal functional groups, and can have melting points below room temperature. The latter property is especially significant for producing liquid crystal/dye mixtures with both high dye concentration and good resistance to phase separation. Because they are zerovalent, they can exhibit high solubility in LC hosts (up to 10 wt%). The λmax in these materials can range from 600 nm to 1600 nm, depending on structure. With enantiomerically enriched terminal substituents, nickel dithiolenes can induce a chiral mesophase in a nonchiral nematic host. This finding opens the possibility of generating novel LC mixtures with two degrees of tunability: an electronic absorbance band tunable by synthesis, and a selective reflection band tunable by temperature or applied electric field. Such a materials system would be particularly advantageous in sensor protection for dealing with frequency-agile laser threats.

  16. Diamond Provenance Through Shape, Colour, Surface Features and Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J.

    2002-05-01

    The physical properties of diamond provide a possible means by which run-of-mine productions may be identified. Such properties as shape, the regularity and angularity of the crystal form, the level of transparency, colour, syngenetic inclusion content and surface feature characteristics, all as a function of diamond size, can classify diamond productions. In early work, up to 1500 diamonds in specific sizes ranging from just under 2mm up to 6mm were evaluated. Using this procedure, most of the diamonds from the main mines in southern Africa have now been classified. Within South Africa, the mine at Swartruggens is the only one to have measurable levels of cube-shaped diamonds and an absence of the spinel twin form of diamond, more commonly known as the macle. In Botswana, the proportion of cube related forms at Jwaneng is about four times that at Orapa. Whilst the common diamond colours, colourless, yellow and brown, occur in most mines, there is a marked change in the proportion of transparent green-coated diamonds with depth in mines such as Finsch and Jwaneng. Individual mines may also have very small proportions of distinctive diamond colours, such as pinks at the Argyle mine in Australia and blues in the Premier mine in South Africa. More recently, classification emphasis has shifted away from large numbers of diamonds examined and particular attention has been paid to surface features, which reflect changes to the diamond either whilst still in the kimberlite, or subsequently during transport to an alluvial source. A classification of diamonds at the Venetia mine, South Africa, for example, showed that the proportion of diamonds with the feature referred to as corrosion sculpture, was distinctive between kimberlite types within the mine. With alluvial diamonds, transport causes further defects, particularly a general increase in the proportion of diamonds with surface features referred to as percussion marks and edge abrasion. The above observational

  17. Spectroscopic analysis of H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} microwave plasma and fast growth rate of diamond single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Derkaoui, N.; Rond, C. Hassouni, K.; Gicquel, A.

    2014-06-21

    One of the best ways to increase the diamond growth rate is to couple high microwave power to the plasma. Indeed, increasing the power density leads to increase gas temperature the atomic hydrogen density in the plasma bulk, and to produce more hydrogen and methyl at the diamond surface. Experimental and numerical approaches were used to study the microwave plasma under high power densities conditions. Gas temperature was measured by optical emission spectroscopy and H-atom density using actinometry. CH{sub 3}-radical density was obtained using a 1D model that describes temperatures and plasma composition from the substrate to the top of the reactor. The results show that gas temperature in the plasma bulk, atomic hydrogen, and methyl densities at the diamond surface highly increase with the power density. As a consequence, measurements have shown that diamond growth rate also increases. At very high power density, we measured a growth rate of 40 μm/h with an H-atom density of 5 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} which corresponds to a H{sub 2} dissociation rate higher than 50%. Finally, we have shown that the growth rate can be framed between a lower and an upper limit as a function depending only on the maximum of H-atom density measured or calculated in the plasma bulk. The results also demonstrated that increasing fresh CH{sub 4} by an appropriate injection into the boundary layer is a potential way to increase the diamond growth rates.

  18. Triphasic Tooling with Small Oriented Diamond Tip for Turning and Smoothing Lightweight Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voronov, O. A.; Tompa, G. S.; Kear, B. H.; Veress, V.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing a new method for the growth of small diamond crystals at very high temperatures and pressures directly from a carbon melt. A prototype "Supercell" has been developed for this purpose. This system is capable of high rate crystal growth in relatively large working volumes. The resulting high quality diamond crystals will be incorporated into a triphasic diamond/titanium carbide/titanium composite tool, with an oriented diamond crystal at its tip. High pressure is needed to prevent degradation of diamond at high temperature, and to ensure the formation of a crack & composite structure. After grinding and polishing, the composite material will be joined to a steel holder, thus forming a diamond-tipped tool for turning and smoothing of a mirror surface. A properly oriented single-crystal diamond cuts and smoothes much better than a conventional polycrystalline diamond crystal. This is because the hardness depends on crystallographic orientation-the difference corresponds to 60-100 GPa on the Knoop scale. Our goal is to achieve surface roughness of about 1 nm, which will be accomplished by precision cutting and smoothing. The hardness of the functionally-graded diamond/titanium carbide/titanium composite tool varies from 100 GPa at its tip to 15 GPa at its base. Previous work has shown that the mass of machined material using an oriented-diamond tool is much larger than that for a standard diamond-metal composite tool.

  19. Diamond-bearing Rocks among Mantle Xenoliths in Kimberlites as Indicatory for the Chambers of Diamond-parental Carbonatite Magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, Yuriy; Kuzyura, Anastasia

    2014-05-01

    may originate and evolve by: (1) metasomatic-magmatic stage resulted in partial carbonatization of mantle peridotite under attack of K-CO2-bearing metasomatic agents and generation of carbonate melts; (2) dissolving-magmatic stage when major and accessory minerals of peridotite host-rock, volatiles and carbon dissolve in carbonate melt whereas insoluble sulphide phases penetrate into melts; eventually, completely miscible peridotite-carbonatite-carbon magma parental for diamond and paragenetic minerals (hosting xenogenetic sulphide minerals and melts) are formed; (3) fraction-crystallization stage (in chamber consolidated into a self-dependent body) during natural cooling of parental magma up to solidus temperature; the cooling activates physicochemical control that is created by PT-phase relations for the parental magma composition, i.e., syngenesis phase diagram on a representative polythermal section of peridotite-eclogite-carbonatite-diamond system at 7 GPa under conditions of fractional crystallization (Litvin, 2013). Parental carbonatite melts, while compositionally evolve under fractional crystallization, are physicochemically capable to form diamond and sequentially minerals of peridotitic and eclogitic parageneses (presented as primary inclusions in diamonds). Paragenetic peridotite-eclogite transition in the course of ultrabasic-basic fractional evolution of parental melts is revealed in physicochemical experiments as the effect of 'peridotite-to-eclogite' tonnel (Litvin, 2013). Diamond-bearing peridotite and eclogite rocks and intimate mineral intergrowths with diamond are also formed in the chambers of diamond-parental carbonatite magmas under these physicochemical conditions. Diamond-free rocks among mantle xenoliths in kimberlites represent samples of the enclosing host-rocks for the chambers of diamond-parental carbonatite magma. Support: grant of the RF President #MK-1386.2013.5, RFBR grants 12-05-33044, 13-05-00835 and 14-05-00537.

  20. [Study on the micro-infrared spectra and origin of polycrystalline diamonds from Mengyin kimberlite pipes].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Jun; Liang, Rong; Zeng, Xiang-Qing; Ge, Tie-Yan; Ai, Qun; Zheng, Yun-Long; Peng, Ming-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    The natural polycrystalline diamonds from the Mengyin kimberlite pipes can be classified as the euhedral faceted polycrystalline diamonds and anhedral rounded polycrystalline diamonds. The results of micro-FTIR spectra characterization of the polycrystalline diamonds show that the concentration of nitrogen is low, varying from 16.69 to 72.81 microgram per gram and is different among different diamond grains or position in polycrystalline diamonds. The euhedral faceted polycrystalline diamonds are Ia AB type and have higher concentration of A-center defects than B-center defects. Most of the anhedral rounded polycrystalline diamonds are Ia AB type and have higher content of B-center defects. A minority of the anhedral rounded polycrystalline diamonds have C-center, A-center and B-center defects simultaneously. The polycrystalline diamonds probably originated from the relatively deeper mantle and were not formed in diamond nucleation stage, but in the diamond growth period or some special conditions after the diamond grains were formed already. Furthermore, the euhedral faceted polycrystalline diamonds were formed slightly later and the anhedral rounded polycrystalline diamonds were formed obviously earlier than the diamond single crystals from the Mengyin kimberlite pipes.

  1. [Study on the micro-infrared spectra and origin of polycrystalline diamonds from Mengyin kimberlite pipes].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Jun; Liang, Rong; Zeng, Xiang-Qing; Ge, Tie-Yan; Ai, Qun; Zheng, Yun-Long; Peng, Ming-Sheng

    2012-06-01

    The natural polycrystalline diamonds from the Mengyin kimberlite pipes can be classified as the euhedral faceted polycrystalline diamonds and anhedral rounded polycrystalline diamonds. The results of micro-FTIR spectra characterization of the polycrystalline diamonds show that the concentration of nitrogen is low, varying from 16.69 to 72.81 microgram per gram and is different among different diamond grains or position in polycrystalline diamonds. The euhedral faceted polycrystalline diamonds are Ia AB type and have higher concentration of A-center defects than B-center defects. Most of the anhedral rounded polycrystalline diamonds are Ia AB type and have higher content of B-center defects. A minority of the anhedral rounded polycrystalline diamonds have C-center, A-center and B-center defects simultaneously. The polycrystalline diamonds probably originated from the relatively deeper mantle and were not formed in diamond nucleation stage, but in the diamond growth period or some special conditions after the diamond grains were formed already. Furthermore, the euhedral faceted polycrystalline diamonds were formed slightly later and the anhedral rounded polycrystalline diamonds were formed obviously earlier than the diamond single crystals from the Mengyin kimberlite pipes. PMID:22870630

  2. Diamond coated silicon field emitter array

    SciTech Connect

    S. Albin; W. Fu; A. Varghese; A. C. Lavarias; G. R. Myneni

    1999-07-01

    Diamond coated silicon tip arrays, with and without a self-aligned gate, were fabricated, and current-voltage characteristics of 400 tips were measured. Diamond films were grown uniformly on Si tips using microwave plasma after nucleation with 10 nm diamond suspension and substrate bias. An emission current of 57 ?A was obtained at 5 V from the ungated array tips separated from an anode at 2 ?m. In the case of the gated arrays with 1.5 ?m aperture, an emission current of 3.4 ?A was measured at a gate voltage of 80 V for an anode separation of 200 ?m. The turn-on voltages for these two types of devices were 0.2 and 40 V, respectively. Diamond coated Si tip arrays have potential applications in field emission based low voltage vacuum electronic devices and microsensors.

  3. The character of FeMn-1# powder catalyst and its influence on the synthesis of diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. Q.; Ma, H. A.; Han, Q. G.; Hu, M. H.; Li, R.; Zeng, M. F.; Jia, X.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper industrial diamond crystal was synthesized using FeMn-1# powder catalyst in China-type cubic high-pressure apparatus at 5.7 GPa and 1400-1600 °C. The growth feature of diamond in the graphite-FeMn-1# system was researched. Optical microscope observation showed that all the diamond crystals were light yellow octahedral with grain size of 0.3-0.5 mm. There are also plenty of bubbles in the crystals. By SEM, we can see that the surface of diamond is smooth and the crystal is intact. Mössbauer spectrum was used to detect the impurity in the diamonds.

  4. Design of tunable devices using one-dimensional Fibonacci photonic crystals incorporating graphene at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Li-an; Liu, Peiguo; Li, Gaosheng

    2016-10-01

    For the one-dimensional generalized Fibonacci photonic crystals incorporating graphene, we present many valuable properties and design the tunable devices accordingly with the help of the transfer matrix method in the frequency range of terahertz. For the common structure, all of dielectric layers are cladded by graphene, we design the high-Q tunable filter with double peaks by changing the Fibonacci distribution and chemical potential. In order to reduce the crosstalk of signals through this filter, a heterostructure based on the current structure and the one without graphene is utilized to separate the two peaks. Also, we fabricate the tunable switch by altering the parity of periodic number. Besides, through cladding the graphene on the one of the dielectrics only, we obtain other two kinds of cells. Combining these cells arbitrarily as the supercell to develop the periodic structure, the number of forbidden bands is increased in accordance with certain rules so that this structure with supercell is suitable as the multi-stop filter. If the active medium is introduced, the imaginary part of the complex permittivity of the material would be negative, which means the energy amplification. For our quasi-periodic structures with active medium, the functions of chemical potential, damping constant and reference wavelength are investigated.

  5. Differential optical spectropolarimetric imaging system assisted by liquid crystal devices for skin imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharon, Ofir; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim; Arnon, Ofer; Rosenberg, Lior; Dyomin, Victor; Silberstein, Eldad

    2011-08-01

    Skin cancer diagnosis depends not only on histopathological examination but also on visual inspection before and after the excision of suspected lesion. Neoplasm is accompanied with changes in birefringence of collagen, pleomorphicity, and hyperchromatic state of epithelial nuclei. These phenomena can be measured by spectral and polarization changes of light backscattered by the examined tissue. A new differential spectropolarimetric system is proposed using liquid crystal devices, one as a tunable filter and the other as a polarization rotator, both operating at wide spectral ranges from the visible to the near-infrared. Since collagen's fibrils texture orientation depends on its location in the skin and since it is not well organized, our system scans the bipolarization states by continuously rotating the linearly polarized light incident on a skin lesion, and collecting differential contrasts between sequenced images when simultaneously averaging the statistical readout of a video camera. This noninvasive method emphasizes areas on skin where the neoplasm, or tumor, minimizes the statistical polarization change of the scattered light from the lesion. The module can be considered as an assistant tool for epiluminescence microscopy. Images of skin tumors were captured in vivo before the patients having their surgery and compared to histopathological results.

  6. ROLE OF DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTERS IN HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    RAO, T.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

    2005-09-20

    In this paper we explore the possibility of using diamond secondary emitter in a high average current electron injector to amplify the current from the photocathode and to isolate the cathode and the injector from each other to increase the life time of the cathode and preserve the performance of the injector. Secondary electron yield of 225 and current density of 0.8 a/cm{sup 2} have been measured in the transmission mode from type 2 a natural diamond. Although the diamond will be heated during normal operation in the injector, calculations indicate that by cryogenically cooling the diamond, the temperature gradient along the diamond can be maintained within the acceptable range. The electron energy and temporal distributions are expected to be narrow from this device resulting in high brightness beams. Plans are underway to measure the SEY in emission mode, fabricate photocathode-diamond capsule and test diamond and capsule in superconducting RF injector.

  7. On possibility of diamond formations in radiation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Semjonova, L. F.; Bolsheva, L. N.; Grachjova, T. V.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Shukolyukov, Yu. A.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of diamond formation in radiation processes was checked by studying diamond contents in carburanium sample. The diamonds were not found and this result is discussed. At present one possible process of formation of nanometer-size diamond crystals in some meteorites and Earth's diamonds (carbonado), the radiation mechanism, is suggested: the formation of diamonds from carbonaceous matter in tracks of U fragment fissions and heavy fragmentation due to the action of energetic particles of cosmic rays. Bjakov et. al. have carried out the calculations and shown that the volume of formed diamonds in carbonaceous chondrites by radiation processes corresponds to discovery of diamond volume in chondrites. The discovery by Ozima et. al. of the unsupported fission of Xe and Kr in carbonado supports the supposition that carbonado could be formed by radiation processes. The possibility of diamond formation in radiation processes leads to the study of diamond contents in Earth's samples enriched by uranium and carbon. The attempt to release the diamonds from carburanium was undertaken.

  8. Investigation of transferred-electron oscillations in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntornwipat, N.; Majdi, S.; Gabrysch, M.; Isberg, J.

    2016-05-01

    The recent discovery of Negative Differential Mobility (NDM) in intrinsic single-crystalline diamond enables the development of devices for high frequency applications. The Transferred-Electron Oscillator (TEO) is one example of such devices that uses the benefit of NDM to generate continuous oscillations. This paper presents theoretical investigations of a diamond TEO in the temperature range of 110 to 140 K where NDM has been observed. Our simulations map out the parameter space in which transferred-electron oscillations are expected to occur for a specific device geometry. The results are promising and indicate that it is possible to fabricate diamond based TEO devices.

  9. Glass-embedded two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal devices with a broad bandwidth waveguide and a high quality nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seung-Woo; Han, Jin-Kyu; Song, Bong-Shik; Noda, Susumu

    2010-08-30

    To enhance the mechanical stability of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab structure and maintain its excellent performance, we designed a glass-embedded silicon photonic crystal device consisting of a broad bandwidth waveguide and a nanocavity with a high quality (Q) factor, and then fabricated the structure using spin-on glass (SOG). Furthermore, we showed that the refractive index of the SOG could be tuned from 1.37 to 1.57 by varying the curing temperature of the SOG. Finally, we demonstrated a glass-embedded heterostructured cavity with an ultrahigh Q factor of 160,000 by adjusting the refractive index of the SOG. PMID:20940831

  10. 16 CFR 23.11 - Definition and misuse of the word “diamond.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... “diamond.” (a) A diamond is a natural mineral consisting essentially of pure carbon crystallized in the... “diamond” to describe or identify any object or product not meeting the requirements specified in the definition of diamond provided above, or which, though meeting such requirements, has not been...

  11. 16 CFR 23.11 - Definition and misuse of the word “diamond.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... “diamond.” (a) A diamond is a natural mineral consisting essentially of pure carbon crystallized in the... “diamond” to describe or identify any object or product not meeting the requirements specified in the definition of diamond provided above, or which, though meeting such requirements, has not been...

  12. 16 CFR 23.11 - Definition and misuse of the word “diamond.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... “diamond.” (a) A diamond is a natural mineral consisting essentially of pure carbon crystallized in the... “diamond” to describe or identify any object or product not meeting the requirements specified in the definition of diamond provided above, or which, though meeting such requirements, has not been...

  13. 16 CFR 23.11 - Definition and misuse of the word “diamond.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... “diamond.” (a) A diamond is a natural mineral consisting essentially of pure carbon crystallized in the... “diamond” to describe or identify any object or product not meeting the requirements specified in the definition of diamond provided above, or which, though meeting such requirements, has not been...

  14. 16 CFR 23.11 - Definition and misuse of the word “diamond.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... “diamond.” (a) A diamond is a natural mineral consisting essentially of pure carbon crystallized in the... “diamond” to describe or identify any object or product not meeting the requirements specified in the definition of diamond provided above, or which, though meeting such requirements, has not been...

  15. High-Current Cold Cathode Employing Diamond and Related Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2014-10-22

    The essence of this project was for diamond films to be deposited on cold cathodes to improve their emission properties. Films with varying morphology, composition, and size of the crystals were deposited and the emission properties of the cathodes that utilize such films were studied. The prototype cathodes fabricated by the methods developed during Phase I were tested and evaluated in an actual high-power RF device during Phase II. These high-power tests used the novel active RF pulse compression system and the X-band magnicon test facility at US Naval Research Laboratory. In earlier tests, plasma switches were employed, while tests under this project utilized electron-beam switching. The intense electron beams required in the switches were supplied from cold cathodes embodying diamond films with varying morphology, including uncoated molybdenum cathodes in the preliminary tests. Tests with uncoated molybdenum cathodes produced compressed X-band RF pulses with a peak power of 91 MW, and a maximum power gain of 16.5:1. Tests were also carried out with switches employing diamond coated cathodes. The pulse compressor was based on use of switches employing electron beam triggering to effect mode conversion. In experimental tests, the compressor produced 165 MW in a ~ 20 ns pulse at ~18× power gain and ~ 140 MW at ~ 16× power gain in a 16 ns pulse with a ~ 7 ns flat-top. In these tests, molybdenum blade cathodes with thin diamond coatings demonstrated good reproducible emission uniformity with a 100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The new compressor does not have the limitations of earlier types of active pulse compressors and can operate at significantly higher electric fields without breakdown.

  16. Dislocation electrical conductivity of synthetic diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Samsonenko, S. N. Samsonenko, N. D.

    2009-05-15

    A relationship between the electric resistance of single-crystal homoepitaxial and polycrystalline diamond films and their internal structure has been investigated. It is established that the electrical conductivity of undoped homoepitaxial and polycrystalline diamond films is directly related to the dislocation density in them. A relation linking the resistivity {rho} ({approx}10{sup 13}-10{sup 15} {omega} cm) with the dislocation density {gamma} ({approx}10{sup 14}-4 x 10{sup 16} m{sup -2}) is obtained. The character of this correlation is similar for both groups of homoepitaxial and polycrystalline diamond films. Thin ({approx}1-8 {mu}m) homoepitaxial and polycrystalline diamond films with small-angle dislocation boundaries between mosaic blocks exhibit dislocation conductivity. The activation energy of dislocation acceptor centers was calculated from the temperature dependence of the conductivity and was found to be {approx}0.3 eV. The conduction of thick diamond films (h > 10 {mu}m) with the resistivity {rho} {approx} 10{sup 8} {omega} cm is determined by the conduction of intercrystallite boundaries, which have a nondiamond hydrogenated structure. The electronic properties of the diamond films are compared with those of natural semiconductor diamonds of types IIb and Ic, in which dislocation acceptor centers have activation energies in the range 0.2-0.35 eV and are responsible for hole conduction.

  17. In situ observation of quasimelting of diamond and reversible graphite-diamond phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Huang, J Y

    2007-08-01

    Because of technique difficulties in achieving the extreme high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) simultaneously, direct observation of the structures of carbon at extreme HPHT conditions has not been possible. Banhart and Ajayan discovered remarkably that carbon onions can act as nanoscopic pressure cells to generate high pressures. By heating carbon onions to approximately 700 degrees C and under electron beam irradiation, the graphite-to-diamond transformation was observed in situ by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, the highest achievable temperature in a TEM heating holder is less than 1000 degrees C. Here we report that, by using carbon nanotubes as heaters and carbon onions as high-pressure cells, temperatures higher than 2000 degrees C and pressures higher than 40 GPa were achieved simultaneously in carbon onions. At such HPHT conditions and facilitated by electron beam irradiation, the diamond formed in the carbon onion cores frequently changed its shape, size, orientation, and internal structure and moved like a fluid, implying that it was in a quasimelting state. The fluctuation between the solid phase of diamond and the fluid/amorphous phase of diamond-like carbon, and the changes of the shape, size, and orientation of the solid diamond, were attributed to the dynamic crystallization of diamond crystal from the quasimolten state and the dynamic graphite-diamond phase transformations. Our discovery offers unprecedented opportunities to studying the nanostructures of carbon at extreme conditions in situ and at an atomic scale.

  18. Electrical Characterization of Diamond/Boron Doped Diamond Nanostructures for Use in Harsh Environment Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gołuński, Ł.; Zwolski, K.; Płotka, P.

    2016-01-01

    The polycrystalline boron doped diamond (BDD) shows stable electrical properties and high tolerance for harsh environments (e.g. high temperature or aggressive chemical compounds) comparing to other materials used in semiconductor devices. In this study authors have designed electronic devices fabricated from non-intentionally (NiD) films and highly boron doped diamond structures. Presented semiconductor devices consist of highly boron doped structures grown on NiD diamond films. Fabricated structures were analyzed by electrical measurements for use in harsh environment applications. Moreover, the boron-doping level and influence of oxygen content on chemical composition of diamond films were particularly investigated. Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (MW PE CVD) has been used for thin diamond films growth. Non-intentionally doped diamond (0 ppm [B]/[C]) films have been deposited on the Si/SiO2 wafers with different content of carbon, boron and oxygen in the gas phase. Then, the shape of the highly doped diamond structures were obtained by pyrolysis of SiO2 on NiD film and standard lithography process. The highly doped structures were obtained for different growth time and [B]/[C] ratio (4000 - 10000 ppm). The narrowest distance between two highly doped structures was 5pm. The standard Ti/Au ohmic contacts were deposited using physical vapour deposition for electrical characterization of NiD/BDD devices. The influence of diffusion boron from highly doped diamond into non-doped/low-doped diamond film was investigated. Surface morphology of designed structures was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope and optical microscope. The resistivity of the NiD and film was studied using four-point probe measurements also DC studies were done.

  19. Aperiodic TiO2 nanotube photonic crystal: full-visible-spectrum solar light harvesting in photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Xie, Keyu; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Limin; Huang, Haitao

    2014-09-23

    Bandgap engineering of a photonic crystal is highly desirable for photon management in photonic sensors and devices. Aperiodic photonic crystals (APCs) can provide unprecedented opportunities for much more versatile photon management, due to increased degrees of freedom in the design and the unique properties brought about by the aperiodic structures as compared to their periodic counterparts. However, many efforts still remain on conceptual approaches, practical achievements in APCs are rarely reported due to the difficulties in fabrication. Here, we report a simple but highly controllable current-pulse anodization process to design and fabricate TiO2 nanotube APCs. By coupling an APC into the photoanode of a dye-sensitized solar cell, we demonstrate the concept of using APC to achieve nearly full-visible-spectrum light harvesting, as evidenced by both experimental and simulated results. It is anticipated that this work will lead to more fruitful practical applications of APCs in high-efficiency photovoltaics, sensors and optoelectronic devices.

  20. Germanium: a new catalyst for diamond synthesis and a new optically active impurity in diamond.

    PubMed

    Palyanov, Yuri N; Kupriyanov, Igor N; Borzdov, Yuri M; Surovtsev, Nikolay V

    2015-01-01

    Diamond attracts considerable attention as a versatile and technologically useful material. For many demanding applications, such as recently emerged quantum optics and sensing, it is important to develop new routes for fabrication of diamond containing defects with specific optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Here we report on successful synthesis of diamond from a germanium-carbon system at conditions of 7 GPa and 1,500-1,800 °C. Both spontaneously nucleated diamond crystals and diamond growth layers on seeds were produced in experiments with reaction time up to 60 h. We found that diamonds synthesized in the Ge-C system contain a new optical centre with a ZPL system at 2.059 eV, which is assigned to germanium impurities. Photoluminescence from this centre is dominated by zero-phonon optical transitions even at room temperature. Our results have widened the family of non-metallic elemental catalysts for diamond synthesis and demonstrated the creation of germanium-related optical centres in diamond. PMID:26435400

  1. Germanium: a new catalyst for diamond synthesis and a new optically active impurity in diamond

    PubMed Central

    Palyanov, Yuri N.; Kupriyanov, Igor N.; Borzdov, Yuri M.; Surovtsev, Nikolay V.

    2015-01-01

    Diamond attracts considerable attention as a versatile and technologically useful material. For many demanding applications, such as recently emerged quantum optics and sensing, it is important to develop new routes for fabrication of diamond containing defects with specific optical, electronic and magnetic properties. Here we report on successful synthesis of diamond from a germanium-carbon system at conditions of 7 GPa and 1,500–1,800 °C. Both spontaneously nucleated diamond crystals and diamond growth layers on seeds were produced in experiments with reaction time up to 60 h. We found that diamonds synthesized in the Ge-C system contain a new optical centre with a ZPL system at 2.059 eV, which is assigned to germanium impurities. Photoluminescence from this centre is dominated by zero-phonon optical transitions even at room temperature. Our results have widened the family of non-metallic elemental catalysts for diamond synthesis and demonstrated the creation of germanium-related optical centres in diamond. PMID:26435400

  2. Determination of the type of stacking faults in single-crystal high-purity diamond with a low dislocation density of <50 cm-2 by synchrotron X-ray topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuya, Satoshi; Hanada, Kenji; Uematsu, Takumi; Moribayashi, Tomoya; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Kasu, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    The properties of stacking faults in a single-crystal high-purity diamond with a very low dislocation density of <50 cm-2 and a very low impurity concentration of <0.1 ppm were investigated by synchrotron X-ray topography. We found stacking faults on the {111} plane and determined the fault vector f of the stacking faults to be \\textbf{f} = a/3< 111> on the basis of the f · g extinction criteria. Furthermore, we have found that the partial dislocations are of the Shockley type on the basis of the b · g extinction criteria. Consequently, we concluded that the stacking faults are of the Shockley type and formed because of the decomposition of dislocations with \\textbf{b} = a/2< 1\\bar{1}0> into dislocations with \\textbf{b} = a/6< 2\\bar{1}1> and a/6< 1\\bar{2}\\bar{1}> .

  3. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  4. Diamond like carbon coatings: Categorization by atomic number density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, John C.

    1986-01-01

    Dense diamond-like hydrocarbon films grown at the NASA Lewis Research Center by radio frequency self bias discharge and by direct ion beam deposition were studied. A new method for categorizing hydrocarbons based on their atomic number density and elemental composition was developed and applied to the diamond-like hydrocarbon films. It was shown that the diamond-like hydrocarbon films are an entirely new class of hydrocarbons with atomic number densities lying between those of single crystal diamond and adamantanes. In addition, a major review article on these new materials was completed in cooperation with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel.

  5. The carbon isotopic composition of Novo Urei diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisenko, A. V.; Semjenova, L. F.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Russell, S. S.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of diamond grains isolated from the Novo Urei meteorite are discussed. A diamond separate was obtained from 2g of whole rock using the chemical treatments described aimed at obtaining very pure diamond. X ray diffraction of the residue, which represented 5000 ppm of the parent mass, indicated only the presence of the desired mineral. The diamond crystals were 1-30 microns in diameter, and some grains had a yellow color. The chemical treatments were followed by a size separation to give a 1-10 microns and a 5-30 microns fraction, which were named DNU-1 and DNU-2, respectively.

  6. Noble gases in diamonds - Occurrences of solarlike helium and neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, M.; Reynolds, J. H.; Roedder, E.; Epstein, S.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen diamond samples from diverse locations were analyzed for the contents of He, Ar, Kr, and Xe, and of their isotopes, using a Reynolds (1956) type glass mass spectrometer. The results disclosed a large spread in the He-3/He-4 ratios, ranging from values below atmospheric to close to the solar ratio. In particular, solarlike He-3/He-4 ratios were seen for an Australian colorless diamond composite and an Arkansas diamond, which also displayed solarlike neon isotopic ratios. Wide variation was also observed in the He-4/Ar-40 ratios, suggesting a complex history for the source regions and the diamond crystallization processes.

  7. spds* Tight-Binding Model for Exchange Interaction Between Transition Metal Dopants in Diamond and SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortan, Victoria R.; Şahin, Cüneyt; Flatté, Michael E.

    2015-03-01

    Diamond and SiC are wide-band-gap semiconductors with long-lived spin lifetimes and promising for quantum information technology device design. Spin initialization, manipulation and readout has already been demonstrated for the NV center in diamond and the divacancy in SiC. Transition metal spin centers offer additional benefits in tetrahedral hosts due to the crystal field splitting of the d-states into localized and extended states. For example, the application of strain in diamond allows switching between two spin states of a single Ni dopant. Here we use a spds* tight-binding model including spin-orbit interaction to describe transition metal spin centers in diamond and 3C-SiC as well as the NV center in diamond and divacancy in 3C-SiC. The energy levels for an isolated dopant are taken from experiment, when available, and density functional theory calculations otherwise. We calculate and compare the wavefunctions of these spin centers, as well as the strength of the exchange interaction between pairs of them. This work was supported by an AFOSR MURI.

  8. Development of a Compact Snow Crystal Formation Apparatus Based on a Diffusion Method Using a Peltier Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Shinsuke; Endo, Hiroshi; Seki, Mitsuo

    We developed a compact snow crystal formation apparatus based on a diffusion method using a Peltier device. This apparatus does not need an assemblage and is small enough to be operated on a desk. Anyone can easily observe snow crystal formation in a normal temperature room. We adopted a diffusion method because the shape enable that several people can simultaneously observe the snow crystal formation from above. To estimate a performance of the apparatus, we investigated temperature profiles in the apparatus by measurement and simulations with (Case 1) and without (Case 2) natural convection. As results of the simulations, Case 1 and Case 2 reached a steady state. In each case, temperature stratification condition was formed in lower part of the apparatus. From the comparison of the results of measurement and simulations, finally, it is concluded that there is a natural convection, but the air current is not so strong as disturbing the temperature stratification condition in the apparatus.

  9. Fabrication of three dimensional diamond ultraviolet photodetector through down-top method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhangcheng; Ao, Jin-Ping; Li, Fengnan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jingjing; Zhang, Jingwen; Wang, Hong-Xing

    2016-10-01

    Three dimensional diamond ultraviolet (UV) photodetector have been fabricated on diamond epitaxial layer through down-top approach, where diamond epitaxial layer was grown between metal electrodes. A thin diamond epitaxial layer was first grown on high-pressure high-temperature single crystal diamond substrate. Then, the diamond epitaxial layer was covered by interdigitated tungsten electrodes. Furthermore, another diamond epitaxial layer was grown on uncovered area. At last, UV-Ozone treatment was used to oxidize the surface. The optoelectronic performance of the photodetector was characterized, exhibiting a large responsivity and a repeatable transient response behavior. Moreover, down-top process is beneficial for the electrode conductivity stability. Also, an ohmic contact could be formed between tungsten and diamond during growth. The results indicate that down-top process is an efficient way for fabrication of three dimensional diamond photodetectors.

  10. Diamond formation - Where, when and how?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachel, T.; Luth, R. W.

    2015-04-01

    character. A further consequence of the extremely limited redox buffering capacity of cratonic peridotites is that redox reactions with infiltrating fluid/melt likely cannot produce large diamonds or high diamond grades. Evaluating the shift in maximum carbon content in CHO fluids during either isobaric cooling or ascent along a cratonic geotherm, however, reveals that isochemical precipitation of carbon from CHO fluids provides an efficient mode of diamond crystallization. Since subsolidus fluids are permissible in harzburgites only, and supersolidus melts in lherzolite we suggest that CHO fluid metasomatism may explain the long observed close association between diamonds and harzburgitic garnets. In the absence of thermodynamic data we cannot evaluate if supersolidus carbonate-bearing melts, stable at fO2 conditions below EMOD, would experience a similar decrease in maximum carbon solubility during cooling or ascent along a geotherm. The absence of a clear association between diamond and lherzolitic garnets, however, suggests that this is not the case. A very strong association between diamond and eclogite likely relates to the fact that the transition from carbonate to diamond stable conditions occurs at redox conditions that are at least about 1 log unit more oxidizing than EMOD. At this time we cannot quantitatively evaluate the redox buffering capacity of cratonic eclogites but given their much higher Fe contents it has to be significantly higher than for peridotites. Alternatively, diamond in eclogite may precipitate directly from cooling carbonate-bearing melts that may be too oxidizing to crystallize diamond in olivine-bearing lithologies.

  11. Transition metal dithiolene complexes as near-IR dyes for liquid crystal device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Kenneth L.; Schudel, Benjamin; Lippa, Irene A.

    2003-12-01

    Both commercial and military applications (e.g. free-space IR communications and sensor protection) exist for guest-host LC devices operating in the near-to mid IR region. Progress in this area has been hindered by the severe lack of near IR dyes with good solubility in the LC host, low impact on the inherent order of the LC phase, good thermal and chemical stability, and a large absorbance maximum tunable by structural modification over a broad range of the near IR region. Transition metal complexes based on nickel, palladium, or platinum dithiolene cores show substantial promise in meeting these requirements. These new dye complexes are extraordinarily stable, possess liquid crystalline phases in their own right with the proper terminal functional groups, and can have melting points below room temperature. The latter property is especially significant for producing liquid crystal/dye mixtures with both high dye concentration and good resistance to phase separation. Because they are zerovalent, they can exhibit high solubility in LC hosts (up to 10% wt%). The absorbance maximum in these materials can range from 600 nm to 1500 nm, depending on structure. With enantiomerically-enriched terminal substituents, nickel dithiolenes can induce a chiral mesophase in a non-chiral nematic host. This finding opens the possibility of generating novel LC mixtures with two degrees of tunability- an electronic absorbance band tunable by synthesis, and a selective reflection band tunable by temperature or applied electric field. Such a materials system would be particularly advantageous in sensor protection for dealing with frequency-agile laser threats.

  12. Microstructure and defects probed by Raman spectroscopy in lithium niobate crystals and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, Marc D.; Bourson, Patrice

    2015-12-15

    Raman microprobe applied on LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) crystals and derived materials or devices is shown to be a tool to detect either local variations or changes of the whole structure. Position, width, or intensity of one Raman line can be used as markers of a structural change. Indeed, each Raman line can be assigned to a peculiar ionic motion and is differently sensitive to application of strain, temperature change, and electric field. Some vibrational modes are especially associated to the site of Li ion, or Nb ion, or still oxygen octahedron, so that they can be affected by the introduction of dopant ion on one or another site. Therefore, Raman Spectroscopy (RS) can be used as a site spectroscopy to describe the mechanism of doping incorporation in the LN lattice, allowing the optimization of some linear and non-linear optical properties according to the dopant concentration and substitution site. The composition or the content of non-stoichiometry related defects could be derived from the width of some lines. Any damage or local disorder can be detected by a line broadening. The quality or preservation of the structure after chemical treatment, or laser pulses, can be thus checked. The structure of ion-implanted or proton-exchanged wave-guides and periodically poled lithium niobate as well can be imaged from frequency shift or intensity change of some lines. RS is thus a useful way to control the structure of LN and/or to optimize the preparation parameters and its properties.

  13. Microstructure and defects probed by Raman spectroscopy in lithium niobate crystals and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Marc D.; Bourson, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    Raman microprobe applied on LiNbO3 (LN) crystals and derived materials or devices is shown to be a tool to detect either local variations or changes of the whole structure. Position, width, or intensity of one Raman line can be used as markers of a structural change. Indeed, each Raman line can be assigned to a peculiar ionic motion and is differently sensitive to application of strain, temperature change, and electric field. Some vibrational modes are especially associated to the site of Li ion, or Nb ion, or still oxygen octahedron, so that they can be affected by the introduction of dopant ion on one or another site. Therefore, Raman Spectroscopy (RS) can be used as a site spectroscopy to describe the mechanism of doping incorporation in the LN lattice, allowing the optimization of some linear and non-linear optical properties according to the dopant concentration and substitution site. The composition or the content of non-stoichiometry related defects could be derived from the width of some lines. Any damage or local disorder can be detected by a line broadening. The quality or preservation of the structure after chemical treatment, or laser pulses, can be thus checked. The structure of ion-implanted or proton-exchanged wave-guides and periodically poled lithium niobate as well can be imaged from frequency shift or intensity change of some lines. RS is thus a useful way to control the structure of LN and/or to optimize the preparation parameters and its properties.

  14. Dynamic compression of synthetic diamond windows (final report for LDRD project 93531).

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H.,

    2008-09-01

    Diamond is an attractive dynamic compression window for many reasons: high elastic limit,large mechanical impedance, and broad transparency range. Natural diamonds, however, aretoo expensive to be used in destructive experiments. Chemical vapor deposition techniquesare now able to produce large single-crystal windows, opening up many potential dynamiccompression applications. This project studied the behavior of synthetic diamond undershock wave compression. The results suggest that synthetic diamond could be a usefulwindow in this field, though complete characterization proved elusive.3

  15. Comparative studies on photonic band structures of diamond and hexagonal diamond using the multiple scattering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Zhang, Weiyi; Wang, Zhenlin

    2004-02-01

    Photonic band structures are investigated for both diamond and hexagonal diamond crystals composed of dielectric spheres, and absolute photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in both cases. In agreement with both Karathanos and Moroz's calculations, a large PBG occurs between the eighth and ninth bands in diamond crystal, but a PBG in hexagonal diamond crystal is found to occur between the sixteenth and seventeenth bands because of the doubling of dielectric spheres in the primitive cell. To explore the physical mechanism of how the photonic band gap might be broadened, we have compared the electric field distributions (|E|2) of the 'valence' and 'conduction' band edges. Results show that the field intensity for the 'conduction' band locates in the inner core of the sphere while that of the 'valence' band concentrates in the outer shell. With this motivation, double-layer spheres are designed to enhance the corresponding photonic band gaps; the PBG is increased by 35% for the diamond structure, and 14% for the hexagonal diamond structure.

  16. Enhanced oxygen vacancy diffusion in Ta2O5 resistive memory devices due to infinitely adaptive crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hao; Stewart, Derek A.

    2016-04-01

    Metal oxide resistive memory devices based on Ta2O5 have demonstrated high switching speed, long endurance, and low set voltage. However, the physical origin of this improved performance is still unclear. Ta2O5 is an important archetype of a class of materials that possess an adaptive crystal structure that can respond easily to the presence of defects. Using first principles nudged elastic band calculations, we show that this adaptive crystal structure leads to low energy barriers for in-plane diffusion of oxygen vacancies in λ phase Ta2O5. Identified diffusion paths are associated with collective motion of neighboring atoms. The overall vacancy diffusion is anisotropic with higher diffusion barriers found for oxygen vacancy movement between Ta-O planes. Coupled with the fact that oxygen vacancy formation energy in Ta2O5 is relatively small, our calculated low diffusion barriers can help explain the low set voltage in Ta2O5 based resistive memory devices. Our work shows that other oxides with adaptive crystal structures could serve as potential candidates for resistive random access memory devices. We also discuss some general characteristics for ideal resistive RAM oxides that could be used in future computational material searches.

  17. Strong and Tunable Spin-Orbit Coupling in a Two-Dimensional Hole Gas in Ionic-Liquid Gated Diamond Devices.

    PubMed

    Akhgar, Golrokh; Klochan, Oleh; Willems van Beveren, Laurens H; Edmonds, Mark T; Maier, Florian; Spencer, Benjamin J; McCallum, Jeffrey C; Ley, Lothar; Hamilton, Alex R; Pakes, Christopher I

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen-terminated diamond possesses due to transfer doping a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) hole accumulation layer at the surface with a strong, Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling that arises from the highly asymmetric confinement potential. By modulating the hole concentration and thus the potential using an electrostatic gate with an ionic-liquid dielectric architecture the spin-orbit splitting can be tuned from 4.6-24.5 meV with a concurrent spin relaxation length of 33-16 nm and hole sheet densities of up to 7.23 × 10(13) cm(-2). This demonstrates a spin-orbit interaction of unprecedented strength and tunability for a 2D hole system at the surface of a wide band gap semiconductor. With a spin relaxation length that is experimentally accessible using existing nanofabrication techniques, this result suggests that hydrogen-terminated diamond has great potential for the study and application of spin transport phenomena. PMID:27186800

  18. Structural transformation of implanted diamond layers during high temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubanov, S.; Fairchild, B. A.; Suvorova, A.; Olivero, P.; Prawer, S.

    2015-12-01

    In the recent years graphitization of ion-beam induced amorphous layers became the basic tool for device fabrication in diamond. The etchable graphitic layers can be removed to form free-standing membranes into which the desired structures can be sculpted using FIB milling. The optical properties of the devices fabricated using this method are assumed on the model of sharp diamond-air interface. The real quality of this interface could depend on degree of graphitization of the amorphous damage layers after annealing. In the present work the graphitization process was studied using conventional and analytical TEM. It was found that annealing at 550 °C results in a partial graphitization of the implanted volume with formation of the nano-crystalline graphitic phase sandwiched between layers of tetrahedral amorphous carbon. Annealing at 1400 °C resulted in complete graphitization of the amorphous layers. The average size of graphite nano-crystals did not exceed 5 nm with predominant orientation of c-planes normal to the sample surface.

  19. Diamond for high-heat-load synchrotron x-ray applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Wah-Keat

    1994-12-31

    Synchrotron facilities worldwide provide scientists with useful radiation in the ultraviolet to the x-ray regime. Third-generation synchrotron sources win deliver photon fluxes in the 10{sup 15} photons/s/0.1%BW range, with brilliance on the order of 10{sup 18} photons/s/0.1%BW/mrad{sup 2}/mm{sup 2}. Along with the increase in flux and brilliance is an increase in the power and power densities of the x-ray beam. Depending on the particular insertion device, the x-ray beam can have total power in excess of 10 kW and peak power, density of more than 400 W/mm{sup 2}. Such high heat loads are a major challenge in the design and fabrication of x-ray beamline components. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of diamond make it a good candidate as material in these components. Single crystal diamonds can be used as x-ray monochromators, while polycrystalline or CVD diamonds can be used in a variety of ways on the front-end beamline components. This paper discusses the issues regarding the feasibility of using diamond in third-generation synchrotron beamline components.

  20. Defect studies in 4H- Silicon Carbide PVT grown bulk crystals, CVD grown epilayers and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrappa, Shayan M.

    postulated fault vectors by macrostep overgrowth of surface outcrops, has revealed faults to be of four types of which one of the following are discussed in detail which is the Shockley faults. The fault vector were determined by taking into account the contrast from stacking faults in SWBXT undergoing phase shift as the X-ray wave fields cross the fault plane. The deflected dislocations onto the basal plane were responsible for the stacking faults and were observed to be detrimental to the devices grown on them as they replicate to the epilayer. In the wafers studied at different stages of the SiC crystal boule resulted in reduction of threading defects as they at certain stage get deflected out of the crystal causing drop of defects density. [2] A novel technique known as the Ray Tracing Simulation was used to determine the sense of c/c+a dislocations obtained via Grazing-Incidence X-ray Topography. Determination of the complete sense and burgers vector of these dislocations was very important to augment our proposed models on stacking faults associated with these defects. Orientation contrast mechanism in X- ray diffraction topography was previously determined to be the dominant factor in SiC by our group and the same principles were used for the simulation. The results were surmised after extensive comparison between experimental and simulation images for the c+2a defects. [3] With the BPD density down to a record level of few hundred per square centimeter in several wafers in multiple regions made it possible to observe the conversion of sessile Threading Edge Dislocations [TED] to glissile BPDs with this repeating multiple times. Previously the high density of Basal Plane Dislocations [BPD] prevented from discerning the details accurately in the SiC images taken by SWBXT. The contribution of SWBXT in accurately categorizing the nature of dislocations in SiC has enabled the crystal growth community to incorporate strategies to mitigate their influence. One of them has

  1. Diamond based light-emitting diode for visible single-photon emission at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohrmann, A.; Pezzagna, S.; Dobrinets, I.; Spinicelli, P.; Jacques, V.; Roch, J.-F.; Meijer, J.; Zaitsev, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Diamond-based p-i-n light-emitting diodes capable of single-photon emission in the visible spectral region at room temperature are discussed. The diodes were fabricated on a high quality single crystal diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition. Implantation of boron and phosphorus ions followed by annealing at a temperature of 1600 °C has been used for doping p-type and n-type areas, respectively. Electrical characterization of the devices demonstrates clear diode behavior. Spectra of electroluminescence generated in the i-area reveal sole emission from the neutral nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defects. Photon antibunching implies single-photon character of this emission when generated by individual NV defects.

  2. Oxygen in bulk monocrystalline diamonds and its correlations with nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Shiryaev, A A; Wiedenbeck, M; Hainschwang, T

    2010-02-01

    The distribution of oxygen and nitrogen impurities in diamond single crystals from a variety of origins and qualities was investigated using secondary ion mass spectrometry. A positive correlation between these impurities is observed over a wide concentration range. It is suggested that in diamonds oxygen is present not only in submicroscopic inclusions, but also as a lattice impurity. It appears that the presence of oxygen in a given crystal volume suppresses the IR-activity of nitrogen defects. PMID:21386322

  3. Structures and Mechanical Properties of Natural and Synthetic Diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    A revolution in the diamond technology is in progress, as the low-pressure process becomes an industrial reality. It will soon be possible to take advantage of the demanding properties of diamond to develop a myriad of new applications, particularly for self-lubricating, wear-resistant, and superhard coatings. The production of large diamond films or sheets at low cost, a distinct possibility in the not-too-distant future, may drastically change tribology technology, particularly regarding solid lubricants and lubricating materials and systems. This paper reviews the structures and properties of natural and synthetic diamonds to gain a better understanding of the tribological properties of diamond and related materials. Atomic and crystal structure, impurities, mechanical properties, and indentation hardness of diamond are described.

  4. Growth of single crystals of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities by solution processes for devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    Data obtained from the electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) and Kurtz Powder Methods will be provided to MSFC for further refinement of their method. A theoretical model for predicting the second-order nonlinearities of organic salts is being worked on. Another task is the synthesis of a number of salts with various counterions. Several salts with promising SHG activities and new salts will be tested for the presence of two crystalline forms. The materials will be recrystallized from dry and wet solvents and compared for SHG efficiency. Salts that have a high SHG efficiency and no tendency to form hydrates will be documented. The synthesis of these materials are included in this report. A third task involves method to aid in the growth of large, high quality single crystals by solution processes. These crystals will be characterized for their applicability in the fabrication of devices that will be incorporated into optical computers in future programs. Single crystals of optimum quality may be obtained by crystal growth in low-gravity. The final task is the design of a temperature lowering single crystal growth apparatus for ground based work. At least one prototype will be built.

  5. Carbon Onions as Nanoscopic Pressure Cells for Diamond Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banhart, Florian

    1997-03-01

    Concentric-shell carbon onions form under electron irradiation of different carbon precursors in an electron microscope. Carbon onions under irradiation at high temperature are in a state of high compression with a considerable decrease of the c-plane spacing towards the centre. Under prolonged irradiation at temperatures around 900 K the cores of the graphitic onions transform into diamond crystals (F. Banhart and P.M. Ajayan, Nature 382), 433 (1996). Hence, carbon onions can be thought of as nanoscopic pressure cells for the directly observable nucleation and growth of diamond from graphitic material. The diamond crystals grow under further irradiation until the whole graphitic particles have transformed to diamond. Apparently the conversion of the graphitic structure to diamond starts at high pressure and proceeds at decreasing, possibly even at zero pressure. The experiment is carried out in a transmission electron microscope which enables us to monitor this phase transformation in-situ on an atomic scale.

  6. Conditions of origin of natural diamonds of peridotite affinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, F. R.; Finnerty, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    Studies of mineral inclusions in natural diamonds and rare diamondiferous xenoliths from kimberlites show that most diamonds are associated with a dunite or harzburgite paragenesis. The diamondiferous periodites and dunites have predominantly coarse or tabular textures that suggest low-temperature (less than 1100 C) equilibration. Application of the K(D) Fe/Mg(Ga/Ol) geothermometer of O'Neill and Wood to analytical data for the minerals in these rocks shows that most have equilibrated below 1100 C. Application of this thermometer to pairs of olivine and garnet crystals included in individual diamonds indicates that the diamonds have crystallized in the range 900-1300 C, with a majority of estimated equilibration temperatures falling in the range below 1150 C. Comparison of these estimates of equilibration temperature with the zone of invariant vapor composition solidus for kimberlite and garnet lherzolite determined by Eggler and Wendlandt (1979) suggests that many diamonds may have formed in subsolidus events.

  7. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  8. Diamonds and the african lithosphere.

    PubMed

    Boyd, F R; Gurney, J J

    1986-04-25

    Data and inferences drawn from studies of diamond inclusions, xenocrysts, and xenoliths in the kimberlites of southern Africa are combined to characterize the structure of that portion of the Kaapvaal craton that lies within the mantle. The craton has a root composed in large part of peridotites that are strongly depleted in basaltic components. The asthenosphere boundary shelves from depths of 170 to 190 kilometers beneath the craton to approximately 140 kilometers beneath the mobile belts bordering the craton on the south and west. The root formed earlier than 3 billion years ago, and at that time ambient temperatures in it were 900 degrees to 1200 degrees C; these temperatures are near those estimated from data for xenoliths erupted in the Late Cretaceous or from present-day heat-flow measurements. Many of the diamonds in southern Africa are believed to have crystallized in this root in Archean time and were xenocrysts in the kimberlites that brought them to the surface.

  9. A device for the application of uniaxial strain to single crystal samples for use in synchrotron radiation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannon, L.; Bosak, A.; Burkovsky, R. G.; Nisbet, G.; Petrović, A. P.; Hoesch, M.

    2015-10-01

    We present the design, construction, and testing of a straining device compatible with many different synchrotron radiation techniques, in a wide range of experimental environments (including low temperature, high field and ultra-high vacuum). The device has been tested by X-ray diffraction on single crystal samples of quasi-one-dimensional Cs2Mo6Se6 and K2Mo6Se6, in which microscopic strains up to a Δc/c = 0.12% ± 0.01% change in the c lattice parameters have been achieved. We have also used the device in an inelastic X-ray scattering experiment, to probe the strain-dependent speed of sound ν along the c axis. A reduction Δν/ν of up to -3.8% was obtained at a strain of Δc/c = 0.25% in K2Mo6Se6.

  10. Electrically switchable polymer liquid crystal and polymer birefringent flake in fluid host systems and optical devices utilizing same

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, Kenneth L.; Kosc, Tanya Z.; Jacobs, Stephen D.; Faris, Sadeg M.; Li, Le

    2003-12-16

    Flakes or platelets of polymer liquid crystals (PLC) or other birefringent polymers (BP) suspended in a fluid host medium constitute a system that can function as the active element in an electrically switchable optical device when the suspension is either contained between a pair of rigid substrates bearing transparent conductive coatings or dispersed as microcapsules within the body of a flexible host polymer. Optical properties of these flake materials include large effective optical path length, different polarization states and high angular sensitivity in their selective reflection or birefringence. The flakes or platelets of these devices need only a 3-20.degree. rotation about the normal to the cell surface to achieve switching characteristics obtainable with prior devices using particle rotation or translation.

  11. A device for the application of uniaxial strain to single crystal samples for use in synchrotron radiation experiments.

    PubMed

    Gannon, L; Bosak, A; Burkovsky, R G; Nisbet, G; Petrović, A P; Hoesch, M

    2015-10-01

    We present the design, construction, and testing of a straining device compatible with many different synchrotron radiation techniques, in a wide range of experimental environments (including low temperature, high field and ultra-high vacuum). The device has been tested by X-ray diffraction on single crystal samples of quasi-one-dimensional Cs2Mo6Se6 and K2Mo6Se6, in which microscopic strains up to a Δc/c = 0.12% ± 0.01% change in the c lattice parameters have been achieved. We have also used the device in an inelastic X-ray scattering experiment, to probe the strain-dependent speed of sound ν along the c axis. A reduction Δν/ν of up to -3.8% was obtained at a strain of Δc/c = 0.25% in K2Mo6Se6. PMID:26520968

  12. Printable, flexible and stretchable diamond for thermal management

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Tae Ho; Choi, Won Mook; Kim, Dae Hyeong; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Carlisle, John

    2013-06-25

    Various heat-sinked components and methods of making heat-sinked components are disclosed where diamond in thermal contact with one or more heat-generating components are capable of dissipating heat, thereby providing thermally-regulated components. Thermally conductive diamond is provided in patterns capable of providing efficient and maximum heat transfer away from components that may be susceptible to damage by elevated temperatures. The devices and methods are used to cool flexible electronics, integrated circuits and other complex electronics that tend to generate significant heat. Also provided are methods of making printable diamond patterns that can be used in a range of devices and device components.

  13. Correcting spherical aberrations in a biospecimen using a transmissive liquid crystal device in two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Ayano; Hibi, Terumasa; Ipponjima, Sari; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2015-10-01

    Two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy has enabled the visualization of deep regions in a biospecimen. However, refractive-index mismatches in the optical path cause spherical aberrations that degrade spatial resolution and the fluorescence signal, especially during observation at deeper regions. Recently, we developed transmissive liquid-crystal devices for correcting spherical aberration without changing the basic design of the optical path in a conventional laser scanning microscope. In this study, the device was inserted in front of the objective lens and supplied with the appropriate voltage according to the observation depth. First, we evaluated the device by observing fluorescent beads in single- and two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopes. Using a 25× water-immersion objective lens with a numerical aperture of 1.1 and a sample with a refractive index of 1.38, the device recovered the spatial resolution and the fluorescence signal degraded within a depth of ±0.6 mm. Finally, we implemented the device for observation of a mouse brain slice in a two-photon excitation laser scanning microscope. An optical clearing reagent with a refractive index of 1.42 rendered the fixed mouse brain transparent. The device improved the spatial resolution and the yellow fluorescent protein signal within a depth of 0-0.54 mm.

  14. Correcting spherical aberrations in a biospecimen using a transmissive liquid crystal device in two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Ayano; Hibi, Terumasa; Ipponjima, Sari; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2015-10-01

    Two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy has enabled the visualization of deep regions in a biospecimen. However, refractive-index mismatches in the optical path cause spherical aberrations that degrade spatial resolution and the fluorescence signal, especially during observation at deeper regions. Recently, we developed transmissive liquid-crystal devices for correcting spherical aberration without changing the basic design of the optical path in a conventional laser scanning microscope. In this study, the device was inserted in front of the objective lens and supplied with the appropriate voltage according to the observation depth. First, we evaluated the device by observing fluorescent beads in single- and two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopes. Using a 25× water-immersion objective lens with a numerical aperture of 1.1 and a sample with a refractive index of 1.38, the device recovered the spatial resolution and the fluorescence signal degraded within a depth of 0.6 mm. Finally, we implemented the device for observation of a mouse brain slice in a two-photon excitation laser scanning microscope. An optical clearing reagent with a refractive index of 1.42 rendered the fixed mouse brain transparent. The device improved the spatial resolution and the yellow fluorescent protein signal within a depth of 0-0.54 mm. PMID:26244766

  15. Correcting spherical aberrations in a biospecimen using a transmissive liquid crystal device in two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Ayano; Hibi, Terumasa; Ipponjima, Sari; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2015-10-01

    Two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy has enabled the visualization of deep regions in a biospecimen. However, refractive-index mismatches in the optical path cause spherical aberrations that degrade spatial resolution and the fluorescence signal, especially during observation at deeper regions. Recently, we developed transmissive liquid-crystal devices for correcting spherical aberration without changing the basic design of the optical path in a conventional laser scanning microscope. In this study, the device was inserted in front of the objective lens and supplied with the appropriate voltage according to the observation depth. First, we evaluated the device by observing fluorescent beads in single- and two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopes. Using a 25× water-immersion objective lens with a numerical aperture of 1.1 and a sample with a refractive index of 1.38, the device recovered the spatial resolution and the fluorescence signal degraded within a depth of 0.6 mm. Finally, we implemented the device for observation of a mouse brain slice in a two-photon excitation laser scanning microscope. An optical clearing reagent with a refractive index of 1.42 rendered the fixed mouse brain transparent. The device improved the spatial resolution and the yellow fluorescent protein signal within a depth of 0-0.54 mm.

  16. X-ray topographic study of diamonds: implications for the genetic nature of inclusions in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrosì, Giovanna; Nestola, Fabrizio; Tempesta, Gioacchino; Bruno, Marco; Scandale, Eugenio; Harris, Jeff W.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, several studies have focused on the growth conditions of the diamonds through the analysis of the mineral inclusions trapped in them (Howell, 2012 and references therein). Nevertheless, to obtain rigorous information about chemical and physical conditions of diamond formation, it is crucial to determine if the crystallization of the inclusions occurred before (protogenetic nature), during (syngenetic nature) or after (epigenetic nature) the growth of diamond (Wiggers de Vries et al., 2011). X-ray topography (XRDT) can be a helpful tool to verify the genetic nature of inclusions in diamond. This technique characterizes the extended defects and reconstructs the growth history of the samples (Agrosì et al., 2013 and references therein) and, consequently contributes to elucidation of the relationship between the inclusions and the host-diamond. With this aim a diamond from the Udachnaya kimberlite, Siberia, was investigated. The diamond crystal was the one previously studied by Nestola et al. (2011) who performed in-situ crystal structure refinement of the inclusions to obtain data about the formation pressure. The inclusions were iso-oriented olivines that did not show evident cracks and subsequently could not be considered epigenetic. Optical observations revealed an anomalous birefringence in the adjacent diamond and the inclusions had typical "diamond-imposed cubo-octahedral" shape for the largest olivine. The diffraction contrast study shows that the diamond exhibits significant deformation fields related to plastic post growth deformation. The crystallographic direction of strains was established applying the extinction criterion. Section topographs were taken to minimize the overlapping of the strain field associate with the different defects and revealed that no dislocations nucleated from the olivine inclusions. Generally, when a solid inclusion has been incorporated in the growing crystal, the associated volume distortion can be minimized by

  17. Characterization of diamond thin films: Diamond phase identification, surface morphology, and defect structures

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.E.; Glass, J.T.

    1989-03-01

    Thin carbon films grown from a low pressure methane-hydrogen gas mixture by microwave plasma enhanced CVD have been examined by Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron and x-ray diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. They were determined to be similar to natural diamond in terms of composition, structure, and bonding. The surface morphology of the diamond films was a function of position on the sample surface and the methane concentration in the feedgas. Well-faceted diamond crystals were observed near the center of the sample whereas a less faceted, cauliflower texture was observed near the edge of the sample, presumably due to variations in temperature across the surface of the sample. Regarding methane concentration effects, threefold /111/ faceted diamond crystals were predominant on a film grown at 0.3% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ while fourfold /100/ facets were observed on films grown in 1.0% and 2.0% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/. Transmission electron microscopy of the diamond films has shown that the majority of diamond crystals have a very high defect density comprised of /111/ twins, /111/ stacking faults, and dislocations. In addition, cross-sectional TEM has revealed a 50 A epitaxial layer of ..beta..--SiC at the diamond-silicon interface of a film grown with 0.3% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/ while no such layer was observed on a diamond film grown in 2.0% CH/sub 4/ in H/sub 2/.

  18. Space processing of crystals for opto-electronic devices: The case for solution growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, S. C.; Cross, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    The results obtained during a six month program aimed at determining the viability of space processing in the 1980's of dielectric-elastic-magnetic single crystals were described. The results of this program included: identification of some important emerging technologies dependent on dielectric-elastic-magnetic crystals, identification of the impact of intrinsic properties and defects in the single crystals on system performance, determination of a sensible common basis for the many crystals of this class, and identification of the benefits of micro-gravity and some initial experimental evidence that these benefits can be realized in space. It is concluded that advanced computers and optical communications are at a development stage for high demand of dielectric-elastic-magnetic single crystals in the mid-1980's. Their high unit cost and promise for significantly increased perfection by growth in space justified pursuit of space processing.

  19. One step deposition of highly adhesive diamond films on cemented carbide substrates via diamond/β-SiC composite interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Hao; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of adherent diamond films on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide substrates has been realized by application of diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite interlayers. Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. Two different kinds of interlayers have been employed, namely, gradient interlayer and interlayer with constant composition. The distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide phases was precisely controlled by manipulating the gas phase composition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the existence of diamond, beta-silicon carbide and cobalt silicides (Co2Si, CoSi) phases, as well as the quality of diamond crystal and the residual stress in the films. Rockwell-C indentation tests were carried out to evaluate the film adhesion. It is revealed that the adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. This is mainly influenced by the residual stress in the diamond top layer, which is induced by the different thermal expansion coefficient of the film and the substrate. It is even possible to further suppress the stress by manipulating the distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide in the interlayer. The most adhesive diamond film on cemented carbide is thus obtained by employing a gradient composite interlayer.

  20. Vacuum filtration based formation of liquid crystal films of semiconducting carbon nanotubes and high performance transistor devices.

    PubMed

    King, Benjamin; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we report ultra-thin liquid crystal films of semiconducting carbon nanotubes using a simple vacuum filtration process. Vacuum filtration of nanotubes in aqueous surfactant solution formed nematic domains on the filter membrane surface and exhibited local ordering. A 2D fast Fourier transform was used to calculate the order parameters from scanning electron microscopy images. The order parameter was observed to be sensitive to the filtration time demonstrating different regions of transformation namely nucleation of nematic domains, nanotube accumulation and large domain growth.Transmittance versus sheet resistance measurements of such films resulted in optical to dc conductivity of σ(opt)/σ(dc) = 9.01 indicative of purely semiconducting nanotube liquid crystal network.Thin films of nanotube liquid crystals with order parameters ranging from S = 0.1-0.5 were patterned into conducting channels of transistor devices which showed high I(on)/I(off) ratios from 10-19,800 and electron mobility values μ(e) = 0.3-78.8 cm(2) (V-s)(-1), hole mobility values μ(h) = 0.4-287 cm(2) (V-s)(-1). High I on/I off ratios were observed at low order parameters and film mass. A Schottky barrier transistor model is consistent with the observed transistor characteristics. Electron and hole mobilities were seen to increase with order parameters and carbon nanotube mass fractions. A fundamental tradeoff between decreasing on/off ratio and increasing mobility with increasing nanotube film mass and order parameter is therefore concluded. Increase in order parameters of nanotubes liquid crystals improved the electronic transport properties as witnessed by the increase in σ(dc)/σ(opt) values on macroscopic films and high mobilities in microscopic transistors. Liquid crystal networks of semiconducting nanotubes as demonstrated here are simple to fabricate, transparent, scalable and could find wide ranging device applications.