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Sample records for crystal optomechanical cavity

  1. Cavity optomechanics with 2D photonic crystal membrane reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingaraju, Navin B.; Shuai, Yichen; Lawall, John

    2016-03-01

    Membranes made from silicon nitride have significantly higher mechanical Q-factors under tensile stress than those made of other dielectric materials. This makes them ideal candidates for membrane reflectors that provide high finesse in Fabry-Perot cavities or membrane-in-the-middle optomechanical systems. Building on our previous work with one-dimensional gratings on suspended membranes, we patterned two-dimensional photonic crystal gratings on monolithic, suspended membranes made from silicon nitride. These high-Q membranes exhibited high reflectivity, upwards of 99%, over several nanometers in the telecom band. To probe their optical response in a cavity environment, we used these membrane reflectors as the moving mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity. We were able to realize cavities with a finesse of over 4,500.

  2. Ultraviolet optomechanical crystal cavities with ultrasmall modal mass and high optomechanical coupling rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen; Yu, Zejie; Ma, Jingwen; Zhu, Bingqing; Tsang, Hon Ki; Sun, Xiankai

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanical crystal (OMC) cavities which exploit the simultaneous photonic and phononic bandgaps in periodic nanostructures have been utilized to colocalize, couple, and transduce optical and mechanical resonances for nonlinear interactions and precision measurements. The development of near-infrared OMC cavities has difficulty in maintaining a high optomechanical coupling rate when scaling to smaller mechanical modal mass because of the reduction of the spatial overlap between the optical and mechanical modes. Here, we explore OMC nanobeam cavities in gallium nitride operating at the ultraviolet wavelengths to overcome this problem. With a novel optimization strategy, we have successfully designed an OMC cavity, with a size of 3.83 × 0.17 × 0.13 μm3 and the mechanical modal mass of 22.83 fg, which possesses an optical mode resonating at the wavelength of 393.03 nm and the fundamental mechanical mode vibrating at 14.97 GHz. The radiation-limited optical Q factor, mechanical Q factor, and optomechanical coupling rate are 2.26 × 107, 1.30 × 104, and 1.26 MHz, respectively. Our design and optimization approach can also serve as the general guidelines for future development of OMC cavities with improved device performance. PMID:27892523

  3. Ultraviolet optomechanical crystal cavities with ultrasmall modal mass and high optomechanical coupling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Yu, Zejie; Ma, Jingwen; Zhu, Bingqing; Tsang, Hon Ki; Sun, Xiankai

    2016-11-01

    Optomechanical crystal (OMC) cavities which exploit the simultaneous photonic and phononic bandgaps in periodic nanostructures have been utilized to colocalize, couple, and transduce optical and mechanical resonances for nonlinear interactions and precision measurements. The development of near-infrared OMC cavities has difficulty in maintaining a high optomechanical coupling rate when scaling to smaller mechanical modal mass because of the reduction of the spatial overlap between the optical and mechanical modes. Here, we explore OMC nanobeam cavities in gallium nitride operating at the ultraviolet wavelengths to overcome this problem. With a novel optimization strategy, we have successfully designed an OMC cavity, with a size of 3.83 × 0.17 × 0.13 μm3 and the mechanical modal mass of 22.83 fg, which possesses an optical mode resonating at the wavelength of 393.03 nm and the fundamental mechanical mode vibrating at 14.97 GHz. The radiation-limited optical Q factor, mechanical Q factor, and optomechanical coupling rate are 2.26 × 107, 1.30 × 104, and 1.26 MHz, respectively. Our design and optimization approach can also serve as the general guidelines for future development of OMC cavities with improved device performance.

  4. Parametric Optomechanical Oscillations in Two-dimensional Slot-type High-Q Photonic Crystal Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng J.; Stein A.; Li, Y.; Aras, M.S.; Shepard, K.L.; Wong, C.W.

    2012-05-22

    We experimentally demonstrate an optomechanical cavity based on an air-slot photonic crystal cavity with optical quality factor Q{sub o} = 4.2 x 10{sup 4} and a small modal volume of 0.05 cubic wavelengths. The optical mode is coupled with the in-plane mechanical modes with frequencies up to hundreds of MHz. The fundamental mechanical mode shows a frequency of 65 MHz and a mechanical quality factor of 376. The optical spring effect, optical damping, and amplification are observed with a large experimental optomechanical coupling rate g{sub om}/2{pi} of 154 GHz/nm, corresponding to a vacuum optomechanical coupling rate g*/2{pi} of 707 kHz. With sub-mW or less input power levels, the cavity exhibits strong parametric oscillations. The phase noise of the photonic crystal optomechanical oscillator is also measured.

  5. Ultrahigh-Q optomechanical crystal cavities fabricated in a CMOS foundry.

    PubMed

    Benevides, Rodrigo; Santos, Felipe G S; Luiz, Gustavo O; Wiederhecker, Gustavo S; Alegre, Thiago P Mayer

    2017-05-30

    Photonic crystals use periodic structures to create frequency regions where the optical wave propagation is forbidden, which allows the creation and integration of complex optical functionalities in small footprint devices. Such strategy has also been successfully applied to confine mechanical waves and to explore their interaction with light in the so-called optomechanical cavities. Because of their challenging design, these cavities are traditionally fabricated using dedicated high-resolution electron-beam lithography tools that are inherently slow, limiting this solution to small-scale or research applications. Here we show how to overcome this problem by using a deep-UV photolithography process to fabricate optomechanical crystals in a commercial CMOS foundry. We show that a careful design of the photonic crystals can withstand the limitations of the photolithography process, producing cavities with measured intrinsic optical quality factors as high as Q i  = (1.21 ± 0.02) × 10(6). Optomechanical crystals are also created using phononic crystals to tightly confine the GHz sound waves within the optical cavity, resulting in a measured vacuum optomechanical coupling rate of g 0 = 2π × (91 ± 4) kHz. Efficient sideband cooling and amplification are also demonstrated since these cavities are in the resolved sideband regime. Further improvements in the design and fabrication process suggest that commercial foundry-based optomechanical cavities could be used for quantum ground-state cooling.

  6. Design of optomechanical cavities and waveguides on a simultaneous bandgap phononic-photonic crystal slab.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Painter, Oskar

    2010-07-05

    In this paper we study and design quasi-2D optomechanical crystals, waveguides, and resonant cavities formed from patterned slabs. Two-dimensional periodicity allows for in-plane pseudo-bandgaps in frequency where resonant optical and mechanical excitations localized to the slab are forbidden. By tailoring the unit cell geometry, we show that it is possible to have a slab crystal with simultaneous optical and mechanical pseudo-bandgaps, and for which optical waveguiding is not compromised. We then use these crystals to design optomechanical cavities in which strongly interacting, co-localized photonic-phononic resonances occur. A resonant cavity structure formed by perturbing a ;;linear defect' waveguide of optical and acoustic waves in a silicon optomechanical crystal slab is shown to support an optical resonance at wavelength lambda(0) approximately 1.5 mum and a mechanical resonance of frequency omega(m)/2pi approximately 9.5 GHz. These resonances, due to the simultaneous pseudo-bandgap of the waveguide structure, are simulated to have optical and mechanical radiation-limited Q-factors greater than 10(7). The optomechanical coupling of the optical and acousticresonances in this cavity due to radiation pressure is also studied, with a quantum conversion rate, corresponding to the scattering rate of a single cavity photon via a single cavity phonon, calculated to be g/2pi = 292 kHz.

  7. High-mechanical-frequency characteristics of optomechanical crystal cavity with coupling waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhilei; Cui, Kaiyu; Bai, Guoren; Feng, Xue; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanical crystals have attracted great attention recently for their ability to realize strong photon-phonon interaction in cavity optomechanical systems. By far, the operation of cavity optomechanical systems with high mechanical frequency has to employ tapered fibres or one-sided waveguides with circulators to couple the light into and out of the cavities, which hinders their on-chip applications. Here, we demonstrate larger-centre-hole nanobeam structures with on-chip transmission-coupling waveguide. The measured mechanical frequency is up to 4.47 GHz, with a high mechanical Q-factor of 1.4 × 103 in the ambient environment. The corresponding optomechanical coupling rate is calculated and measured to be 836 kHz and 1.2 MHz, respectively, while the effective mass is estimated to be 136 fg. With the transmission waveguide coupled structure and a small footprint of 3.4 μm2, this simple cavity can be directly used as functional components or integrated with other on-chip devices in future practical applications. PMID:27686419

  8. Analysis of optomechanical coupling in two-dimensional square lattice phoxonic crystal slab cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Jallal, Said; Oudich, Mourad; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Laude, Vincent; Beugnot, Jean-Charles; Martínez, Alejandro; Escalante, José María; Makhoute, Abdelkader

    2013-11-01

    We theoretically investigate phonon-photon interaction in cavities created in a phoxonic crystal slab constituted by a two-dimensional (2D) square array of holes in a silicon membrane. The structure without defects provides 2D band gaps for both electromagnetic and elastic waves. We consider two types of cavities, namely, an L3 cavity (a row of three holes is removed) and a cross-shape cavity, which both possess highly confined phononic and photonic localized modes suitable for enhancing their interaction. In our theoretical study, we take into account two mechanisms that contribute to optomechanical interaction, namely, the photoelastic and the interface motion effects. We show that, depending on the considered pair of photonic and phononic modes, the two mechanisms can have similar or very different magnitudes, and their contributions can be either in or out of phase. We find out that only acoustic modes with a specific symmetry are allowed to couple with photonic cavity modes. The coupling strength is quantified by two different methods. In the first method, we compute a direct estimation of coupling rates by overlap integrals, while in the second one, we analyze the temporal modulation of the resonant photonic frequency by the phonon-induced acoustic vibrational motion during one acoustic period. Interestingly, we obtain high optomechanical interaction, with the coupling rate reaching more than 2.4 MHz for some specific phonon-photon pairs.

  9. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave mixing between photons and phonons, and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong non-local effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a multicavity optomechanical device in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of this 'photon see-saw', are modulated antisymmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation, which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other empty cavity during every oscillation cycle in a well-regulated fashion.

  10. Cavity optomechanics with a nonlinear photonic-crystal nanomembrane

    SciTech Connect

    Makles, Kevin; Kuhn, Aurélien; Briant, Tristan; Cohadon, Pierre-François; Heidmann, Antoine; Antoni, Thomas; Braive, Rémy; Sagnes, Isabelle; Robert-Philip, Isabelle

    2014-12-04

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized a nanomembrane which could be used as a moving end mirror of a Fabry-Perot cavity. The high reflectivity and optimized mechanical properties of the membrane should allow us to demonstrate the mechanical ground state of the membrane. As any sub-micron mechanical resonator, our system demonstrates nonlinear dynamical effects. We characterize the mechanical response to a strong pump drive and observe a shift in the oscillation frequency and phase conjugation of the mechanical mode. Such nonlinear effects are expected to play a role in the quantum dynamics of the membrane as well.

  11. Optomechanic interactions in phoxonic cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Oudich, Mourad; Pennec, Yan; El-Jallal, Said

    2014-12-15

    Phoxonic crystals are periodic structures exhibiting simultaneous phononic and photonic band gaps, thus allowing the confinement of both excitations in the same cavity. The phonon-photon interaction can be enhanced due to the overlap of both waves in the cavity. In this paper, we discuss some of our recent theoretical works on the strength of the optomechanic coupling, based on both photoelastic and moving interfaces mechanisms, in different (2D, slabs, strips) phoxonic crystals cavities. The cases of two-dimensional infinite and slab structures will enable us to mention the important role of the symmetry and degeneracy of the modes, as well as the role of the materials whose photoelastic constants can be wavelength dependent. Depending on the phonon-photon pair, the photoelastic and moving interface mechanisms can contribute in phase or out-of-phase. Then, the main part of the paper will be devoted to the optomechanic interaction in a corrugated nanobeam waveguide exhibiting dual phononic/photonic band gaps. Such structures can provide photonic modes with very high quality factor, high frequency phononic modes of a few GHz inside a gap and optomechanical coupling rate reaching a few MHz.

  12. Cavity optomechanical magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Forstner, S; Prams, S; Knittel, J; van Ooijen, E D; Swaim, J D; Harris, G I; Szorkovszky, A; Bowen, W P; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H

    2012-03-23

    A cavity optomechanical magnetometer is demonstrated. The magnetic-field-induced expansion of a magnetostrictive material is resonantly transduced onto the physical structure of a highly compliant optical microresonator and read out optically with ultrahigh sensitivity. A peak magnetic field sensitivity of 400  nT  Hz(-1/2) is achieved, with theoretical modeling predicting the possibility of sensitivities below 1  pT  Hz(-1/2). This chip-based magnetometer combines high sensitivity and large dynamic range with small size and room temperature operation.

  13. Cavity Optomechanics at Millikelvin Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenehan, Sean Michael

    The field of cavity optomechanics, which concerns the coupling of a mechanical object's motion to the electromagnetic field of a high finesse cavity, allows for exquisitely sensitive measurements of mechanical motion, from large-scale gravitational wave detection to microscale accelerometers. Moreover, it provides a potential means to control and engineer the state of a macroscopic mechanical object at the quantum level, provided one can realize sufficiently strong interaction strengths relative to the ambient thermal noise. Recent experiments utilizing the optomechanical interaction to cool mechanical resonators to their motional quantum ground state allow for a variety of quantum engineering applications, including preparation of non-classical mechanical states and coherent optical to microwave conversion. Optomechanical crystals (OMCs), in which bandgaps for both optical and mechanical waves can be introduced through patterning of a material, provide one particularly attractive means for realizing strong interactions between high-frequency mechanical resonators and near-infrared light. Beyond the usual paradigm of cavity optomechanics involving isolated single mechanical elements, OMCs can also be fashioned into planar circuits for photons and phonons, and arrays of optomechanical elements can be interconnected via optical and acoustic waveguides. Such coupled OMC arrays have been proposed as a way to realize quantum optomechanical memories, nanomechanical circuits for continuous variable quantum information processing and phononic quantum networks, and as a platform for engineering and studying quantum many-body physics of optomechanical meta-materials. However, while ground state occupancies (that is, average phonon occupancies less than one) have been achieved in OMC cavities utilizing laser cooling techniques, parasitic absorption and the concomitant degradation of the mechanical quality factor fundamentally limit this approach. On the other hand, the high

  14. Applications of cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Michael

    2014-09-01

    "Cavity-optomechanics" aims to study the quantum properties of mechanical systems. A common strategy implemented in order to achieve this goal couples a high finesse photonic cavity to a high quality factor mechanical resonator. Then, using feedback forces such as radiation pressure, one can cool the mechanical mode of interest into the quantum ground state and create non-classical states of mechanical motion. On the path towards achieving these goals, many near-term applications of this field have emerged. After briefly introducing optomechanical systems and describing the current state-of-the-art experimental results, this article summarizes some of the more exciting practical applications such as ultra-sensitive, high bandwidth accelerometers and force sensors, low phase noise x-band integrated microwave oscillators and optical signal processing such as optical delay-lines, wavelength converters, and tunable optical filters. In this rapidly evolving field, new applications are emerging at a fast pace, but this article concentrates on the aforementioned lab-based applications as these are the most promising avenues for near-term real-world applications. New basic science applications are also becoming apparent such as the generation of squeezed light, testing gravitational theories and for providing a link between disparate quantum systems.

  15. Cavity optomechanics in photonic and phononic crystals: engineering the interaction of light and sound at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichenfield, Matthew

    The dynamic back-action caused by electromagnetic forces (radiation pressure) in optical and microwave cavities is of growing interest. Back-action cooling, for example, is being pursued as a means of achieving the quantum ground state of macroscopic mechanical oscillators. Work in the optical domain has revolved around millimeter- or micrometer-scale structures using the radiation pressure force. By comparison, in microwave devices, low-loss superconducting structures have been used for gradient-force-mediated coupling to a nanomechanical oscillator of picogram mass. In this thesis, two different nanometer-scale structures that use combinations of gradient and radiation pressure optical forces are described theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. These structures merge the fields of cavity optomechanics and nanomechanics into nano-optomechanical systsms (NOMS). The first device, the “Zipper” optomechanical cavity, consists of a pair of doubly-clamped nanoscale beams separated by approximately 100 nanometers, each beam having a mass of 20 picograms and being patterned with a quasi-1D photonic crystal bandgap cavity. The optical mode of the coupled system is exquisitely sensitive to differential motion of the beams, producing optomechanical coupling right at the fundamental limit set by optical diffraction. The mechanical modes of the beam probed with a background sensitivity only a factor of 4 above the standard quantum limit, and the application of less than a milliwatt of optical power is shown to increase the mechanical rigidity of the system by almost an order of magnitude. The second device focuses on just one of the doubly-clamped nanoscale beams of the Zipper. We show that, in addition to a photonic bandgap cavity, the periodic patterning of the beam also produces a phononic bandgap cavity with localized mechanical modes having frequencies in the microwave regime. We call these photonic and phononic crystal bandgap cavities optomechanical crystals

  16. Applications of cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, Michael

    2014-09-15

    Cavity-optomechanics” aims to study the quantum properties of mechanical systems. A common strategy implemented in order to achieve this goal couples a high finesse photonic cavity to a high quality factor mechanical resonator. Then, using feedback forces such as radiation pressure, one can cool the mechanical mode of interest into the quantum ground state and create non-classical states of mechanical motion. On the path towards achieving these goals, many near-term applications of this field have emerged. After briefly introducing optomechanical systems and describing the current state-of-the-art experimental results, this article summarizes some of the more exciting practical applications such as ultra-sensitive, high bandwidth accelerometers and force sensors, low phase noise x-band integrated microwave oscillators and optical signal processing such as optical delay-lines, wavelength converters, and tunable optical filters. In this rapidly evolving field, new applications are emerging at a fast pace, but this article concentrates on the aforementioned lab-based applications as these are the most promising avenues for near-term real-world applications. New basic science applications are also becoming apparent such as the generation of squeezed light, testing gravitational theories and for providing a link between disparate quantum systems.

  17. A micropillar for cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, Aurélien; Neuhaus, Leonhard; Deléglise, Samuel; Briant, Tristan; Cohadon, Pierre-François; Heidmann, Antoine; Van Brackel, Emmanuel; Chartier, Claude; Ducloux, Olivier; Le Traon, Olivier; Michel, Christophe; Pinard, Laurent; Flaminio, Raffaele

    2014-12-04

    Demonstrating the quantum ground state of a macroscopic mechanical object is a major experimental challenge in physics, at the origin of the rapid emergence of cavity optomechanics. We have developed a new generation of optomechanical devices, based on a microgram quartz micropillar with a very high mechanical quality factor. The structure is used as end mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity with a high optical finesse, leading to ultra-sensitive interferometric measurement of the resonator displacement. We expect to reach the ground state of this optomechanical resonator by combining cryogenic cooling in a dilution fridge at 30 mK and radiation-pressure cooling. We have already carried out a quantum-limited measurement of the micropillar thermal noise at low temperature.

  18. A micropillar for cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Aurélien; Neuhaus, Leonhard; Van Brackel, Emmanuel; Chartier, Claude; Ducloux, Olivier; Le Traon, Olivier; Michel, Christophe; Pinard, Laurent; Flaminio, Raffaele; Deléglise, Samuel; Briant, Tristan; Cohadon, Pierre-François; Heidmann, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Demonstrating the quantum ground state of a macroscopic mechanical object is a major experimental challenge in physics, at the origin of the rapid emergence of cavity optomechanics. We have developed a new generation of optomechanical devices, based on a microgram quartz micropillar with a very high mechanical quality factor. The structure is used as end mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity with a high optical finesse, leading to ultra-sensitive interferometric measurement of the resonator displacement. We expect to reach the ground state of this optomechanical resonator by combining cryogenic cooling in a dilution fridge at 30 mK and radiation-pressure cooling. We have already carried out a quantum-limited measurement of the micropillar thermal noise at low temperature.

  19. A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Matt; Camacho, Ryan; Chan, Jasper; Vahala, Kerry J; Painter, Oskar

    2009-05-28

    The dynamic back-action caused by electromagnetic forces (radiation pressure) in optical and microwave cavities is of growing interest. Back-action cooling, for example, is being pursued as a means of achieving the quantum ground state of macroscopic mechanical oscillators. Work in the optical domain has revolved around millimetre- or micrometre-scale structures using the radiation pressure force. By comparison, in microwave devices, low-loss superconducting structures have been used for gradient-force-mediated coupling to a nanomechanical oscillator of picogram mass. Here we describe measurements of an optical system consisting of a pair of specially patterned nanoscale beams in which optical and mechanical energies are simultaneously localized to a cubic-micron-scale volume, and for which large per-photon optical gradient forces are realized. The resulting scale of the per-photon force and the mass of the structure enable the exploration of cavity optomechanical regimes in which, for example, the mechanical rigidity of the structure is dominantly provided by the internal light field itself. In addition to precision measurement and sensitive force detection, nano-optomechanics may find application in reconfigurable and tunable photonic systems, light-based radio-frequency communication and the generation of giant optical nonlinearities for wavelength conversion and optical buffering.

  20. Synchronization in an optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlomi, Keren; Yuvaraj, D.; Baskin, Ilya; Suchoi, Oren; Winik, Roni; Buks, Eyal

    2015-03-01

    We study self-excited oscillations (SEO) in an on-fiber optomechanical cavity. Synchronization is observed when the optical power that is injected into the cavity is periodically modulated. A theoretical analysis based on the Fokker-Planck equation evaluates the expected phase space distribution (PSD) of the self-oscillating mechanical resonator. A tomography technique is employed for extracting PSD from the measured reflected optical power. Time-resolved state tomography measurements are performed to study phase diffusion and phase locking of the SEO. The detuning region inside which synchronization occurs is experimentally determined and the results are compared with the theoretical prediction.

  1. Two-Dimensional Phononic-Photonic Band Gap Optomechanical Crystal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.; Hill, Jeff T.; Meenehan, Seán; Chan, Jasper; Gröblacher, Simon; Painter, Oskar

    2014-04-01

    We present the fabrication and characterization of an artificial crystal structure formed from a thin film of silicon that has a full phononic band gap for microwave X-band phonons and a two-dimensional pseudo-band gap for near-infrared photons. An engineered defect in the crystal structure is used to localize optical and mechanical resonances in the band gap of the planar crystal. Two-tone optical spectroscopy is used to characterize the cavity system, showing a large coupling (g0/2π≈220 kHz) between the fundamental optical cavity resonance at ωo/2π =195 THz and colocalized mechanical resonances at frequency ωm/2π ≈9.3 GHz.

  2. Light storage and cavity supermodes in two coupled optomechanical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically investigate a hybrid optomechanical system including two coupled optomechanical cavities in the presence of two strong pump fields and a weak probe field. The photon-hopping coupling of the cavities gives rise to two cavity supermodes whose resonant frequencies can be obtained in the probe transmission spectrum. In a strong photon-hopping coupling regime, there is a large coupling rate between the probe field and one of the two cavity supermodes that is called a bright mode. The optomechanical couplings between the bright mode and two mechanical resonators can cause double optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT), which can be employed to both separately and simultaneously store two weak probe pulses with different central frequencies. We obtain the group delay (light storage time) of the probe field in the hybrid optomechanical system. The results suggest that compared with that of a single cavity optomechanical system, the maximum value of the storage time roughly quadrupled in a particular case. The physical origin of the results is discussed. The hybrid optomechanical system opens an avenue of light storage in cavity optomechanics.

  3. Chip-scale cavity optomechanics in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei C.; Lin, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    We develop a chip-scale cavity optomechanical system in single-crystal lithium niobate that exhibits high optical quality factors and a large frequency-quality product as high as 3.6 × 1012 Hz at room temperature and atmosphere. The excellent optical and mechanical properties together with the strong optomechanical coupling allow us to efficiently excite the coherent regenerative optomechanical oscillation operating at 375 MHz with a threshold power of 174 μW in the air. The demonstrated lithium niobate optomechanical device enables great potential for achieving electro-optic-mechanical hybrid systems for broad applications in sensing, metrology, and quantum physics.

  4. Chip-scale cavity optomechanics in lithium niobate

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei C.; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We develop a chip-scale cavity optomechanical system in single-crystal lithium niobate that exhibits high optical quality factors and a large frequency-quality product as high as 3.6 × 1012 Hz at room temperature and atmosphere. The excellent optical and mechanical properties together with the strong optomechanical coupling allow us to efficiently excite the coherent regenerative optomechanical oscillation operating at 375 MHz with a threshold power of 174 μW in the air. The demonstrated lithium niobate optomechanical device enables great potential for achieving electro-optic-mechanical hybrid systems for broad applications in sensing, metrology, and quantum physics. PMID:27841301

  5. Observing spin optodynamical analog of cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Justin; Kohler, Jonathan; Spethmann, Nicolas; Schreppler, Sydney; Stamper-Kurn, Dan

    2016-05-01

    Cavity Optomechanics has been realized in many diverse systems and led to many interesting results such as ponderomotive squeezing of light, beyond-SQL measurement sensitivity, and squeezing of mechanical oscillators. Optical cavities also allow sensitive measurements of the spin of an atomic ensemble. It has been proposed to utilize this sensitivity to realize an analog of optomechanics by measuring the precession of small excitations of a spin-oscillator around a transverse magnetic field. I will present our recent work in which we realize optomechanical analogs in our system such as cavity-assisted cooling and amplification and optical spring shifts. In addition, the presence of a high-energy `ground state' of the spin oscillator allows the realization of an effective negative mass oscillator which is demonstrated by an inverted sideband asymmetry. In our ongoing work we attempt to realize coherent quantum noise cancelation by coupling spin oscillation with mechanical oscillation.

  6. Cavity optomechanics -- beyond the ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meystre, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    The coupling of coherent optical systems to micromechanical devices, combined with breakthroughs in nanofabrication and in ultracold science, has opened up the exciting new field of cavity optomechanics. Cooling of the vibrational motion of a broad range on oscillating cantilevers and mirrors near their ground state has been demonstrated, and the ground state of at least one such system has now been reached. Cavity optomechanics offers much promise in addressing fundamental physics questions and in applications such as the detection of feeble forces and fields, or the coherent control of AMO systems and of nanoscale electromechanical devices. However, these applications require taking cavity optomechanics ``beyond the ground state.'' This includes the generation and detection of squeezed and other non-classical states, the transfer of squeezing between electromagnetic fields and motional quadratures, and the development of measurement schemes for the characterization of nanomechanical structures. The talk will present recent ``beyond ground state'' developments in cavity optomechanics. We will show how the magnetic coupling between a mechanical membrane and a BEC - or between a mechanical tuning fork and a nanoscale cantilever - permits to control and monitor the center-of-mass position of the mechanical system, and will comment on the measurement back-action on the membrane motion. We will also discuss of state transfer between optical and microwave fields and micromechanical devices. Work done in collaboration with Dan Goldbaum, Greg Phelps, Keith Schwab, Swati Singh, Steve Steinke, Mehmet Tesgin, and Mukund Vengallatore and supported by ARO, DARPA, NSF, and ONR.

  7. Vector cavity optomechanics in the parameter configuration of optomechanically induced transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Hao; Huang, Ya-Min; Wan, Liang-Liang; Wu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    We propose the concept of vector cavity optomechanics in which the polarization behavior of light fields is introduced to achieve optomechanical control. The steady states and optomechanically induced transparency are studied in the vector regime, and we show that the polarization of optical fields may be a powerful tool to identify the underlying physical process and control the signal of optomechanically induced transparency. In particular, the conditions for obtaining a linearly polarized output probe field is given, which reveal some nontrivial polarizing effects. Despite its conceptual simplicity, vector cavity optomechanics may entail a wide range of intriguing phenomena and uncover a novel understanding for optomechanical interaction.

  8. Collective Optomechanical Effects in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortese, Erika; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G.; De Liberato, Simone

    2017-07-01

    We investigate a cavity quantum electrodynamic effect, where the alignment of two-dimensional freely rotating optical dipoles is driven by their collective coupling to the cavity field. By exploiting the formal equivalence of a set of rotating dipoles with a polymer we calculate the partition function of the coupled light-matter system and demonstrate that it exhibits a second order phase transition between a bunched state of isotropic orientations and a stretched one with all the dipoles aligned. Such a transition manifests itself as an intensity-dependent shift of the polariton mode resonance. Our work, lying at the crossroads of cavity quantum electrodynamics and quantum optomechanics has to become the crossroads between cavity quantum electrodynamics and quantum optomechanics.

  9. Cavity Optomechanics in the Quantum Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, Thierry Claude Marc

    An exciting scientific goal, common to many fields of research, is the development of ever-larger physical systems operating in the quantum regime. Relevant to this dissertation is the objective of preparing and observing a mechanical object in its motional quantum ground state. In order to sense the object's zero-point motion, the probe itself must have quantum-limited sensitivity. Cavity optomechanics, the interactions between light and a mechanical object inside an optical cavity, provides an elegant means to achieve the quantum regime. In this dissertation, I provide context to the successful cavity-based optical detection of the quantum-ground-state motion of atoms-based mechanical elements; mechanical elements, consisting of the collective center-of-mass (CM) motion of ultracold atomic ensembles and prepared inside a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, were dispersively probed with an average intracavity photon number as small as 0.1. I first show that cavity optomechanics emerges from the theory of cavity quantum electrodynamics when one takes into account the CM motion of one or many atoms within the cavity, and provide a simple theoretical framework to model optomechanical interactions. I then outline details regarding the apparatus and the experimental methods employed, highlighting certain fundamental aspects of optical detection along the way. Finally, I describe background information, both theoretical and experimental, to two published results on quantum cavity optomechanics that form the backbone of this dissertation. The first publication shows the observation of zero-point collective motion of several thousand atoms and quantum-limited measurement backaction on that observed motion. The second publication demonstrates that an array of near-ground-state collective atomic oscillators can be simultaneously prepared and probed, and that the motional state of one oscillator can be selectively addressed while preserving the near-zero-point motion of

  10. Optomechanics with a polarization nondegenerate cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buters, F. M.; Weaver, M. J.; Eerkens, H. J.; Heeck, K.; de Man, S.; Bouwmeester, D.

    2016-12-01

    Experiments in the field of optomechanics do not yet fully exploit the photon polarization degree of freedom. Here experimental results for an optomechanical interaction in a polarization nondegenerate system are presented and schemes are proposed for how to use this interaction to perform accurate side-band thermometry and to create interesting forms of photon-phonon entanglement. The experimental system utilizes the compressive force in the mirror attached to a mechanical resonator to create a micromirror with two radii of curvature which leads, when combined with a second mirror, to a significant polarization splitting of the cavity modes.

  11. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E.; Hryciw, Aaron C.

    2014-04-07

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8 × 10{sup 5} and mode volumes <10(λ/n){sup 3}, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0 × 10{sup 4} intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5 μm and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g{sub 0}/2π∼30 kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488 MHz.

  12. Slot-Mode Optomechanical Crystals: A Versatile Platform for Multimode Optomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Grutter, Karen E.; Davanço, Marcelo I.; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Cavity optomechanical systems are being studied for their potential in areas such as metrology, communications, and quantum information science. For a number of recently proposed applications in which multiple optical and mechanical modes interact, an outstanding challenge is to develop multimode architectures that allow flexibility in the optical and mechanical sub-system designs while maintaining the strong interactions that have been demonstrated in single-mode systems. To that end, we demonstrate slot-mode optomechanical crystals, devices in which photonic and phononic crystal nanobeams separated by a narrow slot are coupled via optomechanical interactions. These nanobeam pairs are patterned to confine a mechanical breathing mode at the center of one beam and a low-loss optical mode in the slot between the beams. This architecture affords great design flexibility towards multimode optomechanics, as well as substantial optomechanical coupling rates. We show this by producing slot-mode devices in stoichiometric Si3N4, with optical modes in the 980 nm band coupled to mechanical modes at 3.4 GHz, 1.8 GHz, and 400 MHz. We exploit the Si3N4 tensile stress to achieve slot widths down to 24 nm, which leads to enhanced optomechanical coupling, sufficient for the observation of optomechanical self-oscillations at all studied frequencies. We then develop multimode optomechanical systems with triple-beam geometries, in which two optical modes couple to a single mechanical mode, and two mechanical modes couple to a single optical mode. Taken together, these results demonstrate great flexibility in the design of multimode chip-scale optomechanical systems with large optomechanical coupling. PMID:26807432

  13. Fiber-Cavity Optomechanics with Superfluid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers-Jacobs, Nathan E.; Kashkanova, Anna D.; Shkarin, Alexey B.; Hoch, Scott W.; Deutsch, Christian; Reichel, Jakob; Harris, Jack G. E.

    2014-03-01

    In a typical optomechanical device, the resonance frequency of a cavity is coupled to mechanical motion through the radiation pressure force. To date, experimental cavities have predominately coupled to a resonant mechanical mode of a solid structure, often a lithographically-defined beam or membrane. We will describe our progress towards realizing an optomechanical device in which an optical fiber-cavity couples to the acoustic modes of superfluid helium. In this system, the optical modes and the acoustic modes of the superfluid are co-located between the mirrored ends of two fiber optic cables. Changes in the density of the superfluid change the effective length of the cavity which results in a standard, linear optomechanical coupling between the 300 MHz acoustic resonances and the 200 THz optical resonances. This type of device is motivated by the self-aligning nature of the acoustic and optical modes (which eases the difficulties of operating at cryogenic temperatures) and by the low optical and mechanical losses of superfluid helium. Although we expect the mechanical quality factor to be limited by acoustic radiation into the glass fiber, we will describe a proposal to realize a dual-band Bragg mirror to confine the optical and acoustic modes more efficiently. Supported by NSF Grant #1106110, ARO Grant #W911NF-13-1-0104, and the DARPA/MTO ORCHID program through a grant from AFOSR.

  14. Cavity optomechanics with arrays of thick dielectric membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Bhagya; Xuereb, André; Dantan, Aurélien

    2016-11-01

    Optomechanical arrays made of structured flexible dielectrics are a promising system for exploring quantum and many-body optomechanical phenomena. We generalize investigations of the optomechanical properties of periodic arrays of one-dimensional scatterers in optical resonators to the case of vibrating membranes whose thickness is not necessarily small with respect to the optical wavelength of interest. The array optical transmission spectrum and its optomechanical coupling with a linear Fabry-Perot cavity field are investigated both analytically and numerically.

  15. Nonlinear Optics and Wavelength Translation Via Cavity-Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Jeffrey Thomas

    The field of cavity-optomechanics explores the interaction of light with sound in an ever increasing array of devices. This interaction allows the mechanical system to be both sensed and controlled by the optical system, opening up a wide variety of experiments including the cooling of the mechanical resonator to its quantum mechanical ground state and the squeezing of the optical field upon interaction with the mechanical resonator, to name two. In this work we explore two very different systems with different types of optomechanical coupling. The first system consists of two microdisk optical resonators stacked on top of each other and separated by a very small slot. The interaction of the disks causes their optical resonance frequencies to be extremely sensitive to the gap between the disks. By careful control of the gap between the disks, the optomechanical coupling can be made to be quadratic to first order which is uncommon in optomechanical systems. With this quadratic coupling the light field is now sensitive to the energy of the mechanical resonator and can directly control the potential energy trapping the mechanical motion. This ability to directly control the spring constant without modifying the energy of the mechanical system, unlike in linear optomechanical coupling, is explored. Next, the bulk of this thesis deals with a high mechanical frequency optomechanical crystal which is used to coherently convert photons between different frequencies. This is accomplished via the engineered linear optomechanical coupling in these devices. Both classical and quantum systems utilize the interaction of light and matter across a wide range of energies. These systems are often not naturally compatible with one another and require a means of converting photons of dissimilar wavelengths to combine and exploit their different strengths. Here we theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate coherent wavelength conversion of optical photons using photon

  16. Macroscopic Quantum Superposition in Cavity Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin

    Quantum superposition in mechanical systems is not only a key evidence of macroscopic quantum coherence, but can also be utilized in modern quantum technology. Here we propose an efficient approach for creating macroscopically distinct mechanical superposition states in a two-mode optomechanical system. Photon hopping between the two cavity-modes is modulated sinusoidally. The modulated photon tunneling enables an ultrastrong radiation-pressure force acting on the mechanical resonator, and hence significantly increases the mechanical displacement induced by a single photon. We present systematic studies on the generation of the Yurke-Stoler-like states in the presence of system dissipations. The state generation method is general and it can be implemented with either optomechanical or electromechanical systems. The authors are supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. NSF-DMR-0956064 and the DARPA ORCHID program through AFOSR.

  17. Phonon Routing in Integrated Optomechanical Cavity-waveguide Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-20

    brillouin scat- tering in photonic integrated circuits ,” Nat. Commun., vol. 6, p. 6396, 2015. [41] J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, “A tutorial on...Phonon routing in integrated optomechanical cavity-waveguide systems Kejie Fang,1, 2 Matthew H. Matheny,1, 2 Xingsheng Luan,1, 2 and Oskar Painter1...together to form optomechanical circuits . Using a pair of optomechanical cavities coupled together via a phonon waveguide we demonstrate a tunable delay and

  18. Quantum optics, cavity QED, and quantum optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meystre, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Quantum optomechanics provides a universal tool to achieve the quantum control of mechanical motion. It does that in devices spanning a vast range of parameters, with mechanical frequencies from a few Hertz to GHz, and with masses from 10-20 g to several kilos. Its underlying ideas can be traced back to the study of gravitational wave antennas, quantum optics, cavity QED and laser cooling which, when combined with the recent availability of advanced micromechanical and nanomechanical devices, opens a path to the realization of macroscopic mechanical systems that operate deep in the quantum regime. At the fundamental level this development paves the way to experiments that will lead to a more profound understanding of quantum mechanics; and from the point of view of applications, quantum optomechanical techniques will provide motion and force sensing near the fundamental limit imposed by quantum mechanics (quantum metrology) and significantly expand the toolbox of quantum information science. After a brief summary of key historical developments, the talk will give a broad overview of the current state of the art of quantum optomechanics, and comment on future prospects both in applied and in fundamental science. Work supported by NSF, ARO and the DARPA QuASAR and ORCHID programs.

  19. Macroscopic Quantum Superposition in Cavity Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Tian, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Quantum superposition in mechanical systems is not only key evidence for macroscopic quantum coherence, but can also be utilized in modern quantum technology. Here we propose an efficient approach for creating macroscopically distinct mechanical superposition states in a two-mode optomechanical system. Photon hopping between the two cavity modes is modulated sinusoidally. The modulated photon tunneling enables an ultrastrong radiation-pressure force acting on the mechanical resonator, and hence significantly increases the mechanical displacement induced by a single photon. We study systematically the generation of the Yurke-Stoler-like states in the presence of system dissipations. We also discuss the experimental implementation of this scheme.

  20. A chip-scale integrated cavity-electro-optomechanics platform.

    PubMed

    Winger, M; Blasius, T D; Mayer Alegre, T P; Safavi-Naeini, A H; Meenehan, S; Cohen, J; Stobbe, S; Painter, O

    2011-12-05

    We present an integrated optomechanical and electromechanical nanocavity, in which a common mechanical degree of freedom is coupled to an ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal defect cavity and an electrical circuit. The system allows for wide-range, fast electrical tuning of the optical nanocavity resonances, and for electrical control of optical radiation pressure back-action effects such as mechanical amplification (phonon lasing), cooling, and stiffening. These sort of integrated devices offer a new means to efficiently interconvert weak microwave and optical signals, and are expected to pave the way for a new class of micro-sensors utilizing optomechanical back-action for thermal noise reduction and low-noise optical read-out.

  1. Integrated III-V Photonic Crystal--Si waveguide platform with tailored optomechanical coupling.

    PubMed

    Tsvirkun, Viktor; Surrente, Alessandro; Raineri, Fabrice; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Raj, Rama; Sagnes, Isabelle; Robert-Philip, Isabelle; Braive, Rémy

    2015-11-16

    Optomechanical systems, in which the vibrations of a mechanical resonator are coupled to an electromagnetic radiation, have permitted the investigation of a wealth of novel physical effects. To fully exploit these phenomena in realistic circuits and to achieve different functionalities on a single chip, the integration of optomechanical resonators is mandatory. Here, we propose a novel approach to heterogeneously integrate arrays of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavities on top of silicon-on-insulator waveguides. The optomechanical response of these devices is investigated and evidences an optomechanical coupling involving both dispersive and dissipative mechanisms. By controlling the optical coupling between the waveguide and the photonic crystal, we were able to vary and understand the relative strength of these couplings. This scalable platform allows for an unprecedented control on the optomechanical coupling mechanisms, with a potential benefit in cooling experiments, and for the development of multi-element optomechanical circuits in the framework of optomechanically-driven signal-processing applications.

  2. Cavity optomechanical spring sensing of single molecules

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenyan; Jiang, Wei C; Lin, Qiang; Lu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Label-free bio-sensing is a critical functionality underlying a variety of health- and security-related applications. Micro-/nano-photonic devices are well suited for this purpose and have emerged as promising platforms in recent years. Here we propose and demonstrate an approach that utilizes the optical spring effect in a high-Q coherent optomechanical oscillator to dramatically enhance the sensing resolution by orders of magnitude compared with conventional approaches, allowing us to detect single bovine serum albumin proteins with a molecular weight of 66 kDa at a signal-to-noise ratio of 16.8. The unique optical spring sensing approach opens up a distinctive avenue that not only enables biomolecule sensing and recognition at individual level, but is also of great promise for broad physical sensing applications that rely on sensitive detection of optical cavity resonance shift to probe external physical parameters. PMID:27460277

  3. Cavity optomechanical spring sensing of single molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wenyan; Jiang, Wei C.; Lin, Qiang; Lu, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Label-free bio-sensing is a critical functionality underlying a variety of health- and security-related applications. Micro-/nano-photonic devices are well suited for this purpose and have emerged as promising platforms in recent years. Here we propose and demonstrate an approach that utilizes the optical spring effect in a high-Q coherent optomechanical oscillator to dramatically enhance the sensing resolution by orders of magnitude compared with conventional approaches, allowing us to detect single bovine serum albumin proteins with a molecular weight of 66 kDa at a signal-to-noise ratio of 16.8. The unique optical spring sensing approach opens up a distinctive avenue that not only enables biomolecule sensing and recognition at individual level, but is also of great promise for broad physical sensing applications that rely on sensitive detection of optical cavity resonance shift to probe external physical parameters.

  4. Devil's staircase in an optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Dhayalan, Yuvaraj; Buks, Eyal

    2016-02-01

    We study self-excited oscillations (SEOs) in an on-fiber optomechanical cavity. While the phase of SEOs randomly diffuses in time when the laser power injected into the cavity is kept constant, phase locking may occur when the laser power is periodically modulated in time. We investigate the dependence of phase locking on the amplitude and frequency of the laser-power modulation. We find that phase locking can be induced with a relatively low modulation amplitude provided that the ratio between the modulation frequency and the frequency of SEOs is tuned close to a rational number of relatively low hierarchy in the Farey tree. To account for the experimental results, a one-dimensional map, which allows evaluating the time evolution of the phase of SEOs, is theoretically derived. By calculating the winding number of the one-dimensional map, the regions of phase locking can be mapped in the plane of modulation amplitude and modulation frequency. Comparison between the theoretical predictions and the experimental findings yields a partial agreement.

  5. Quantum states preparation in cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wenchao

    Quantum entanglement and quantum superposition are fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, which underline quantum information and quantum computation. Preparing quantum states in the macroscopic level is both conceptually interesting for extending quantum physics to a broader sense and fundamentally important for testing the validity of quantum mechanics. In this dissertation, schemes of preparing macroscopic entanglement and macroscopic superposition states in cavity optomechanics are studied using the unitary evolution method in the nonlinear regime or Lyapunov equation in the linearized regime. Quantum entanglement and quantum superposition states can be realized using experimentally feasible parameters with the proposals in this dissertation. Firstly, a scheme of entangling two movable end mirrors in a Fabry-Perot cavity that are coupled to a common single photon superposition state is studied. It is shown that strong entanglement can be obtained either in the single-photon strong coupling regime deterministically or in the single-photon weak coupling regime conditionally. Secondly, a scheme of entangling two movable end mirrors, that are coupled to two-mode entangled fields generated from a correlated-emission laser is investigated. By tuning the input driving laser frequencies at the Stokes sidebands of the cavity, the radiation-pressure coupling can be linearized as an effective beam-splitter-like interaction. Hence entanglement can be transferred from the two-mode fields to the two mechanical mirrors. Macroscopic entanglement between macroscopic mirrors persists at temperature ~ 1K. Thirdly, a scheme of creating macroscopic quantum superpositions of a mechanical mirror via periodically flipping a photonic qubit is proposed. Quantum superposition states of a mechanical mirror can be obtained via the nonlinear radiation coupling with a single-photon superposition state. However, the difference between two superposed mechanical states is very small due

  6. Measurement-Induced Macroscopic Superposition States in Cavity Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Ulrich B.; Kollath-Bönig, Johann; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S.; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2016-09-01

    A novel protocol for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator is proposed, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the bad-cavity limit. By combining a pulsed optomechanical quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction with nonclassical optical resources and measurement-induced feedback, the need for strong single-photon coupling is avoided. We outline a three-pulse sequence of QND interactions encompassing squeezing-enhanced cooling by measurement, state preparation, and tomography.

  7. Synchronization in air-slot photonic crystal optomechanical oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongjun; Wu, Jiagui; Flores, Jaime Gonzalo Flor; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wen, Guangjun; Wong, Chee Wei

    2017-03-01

    In this Letter, we report observations for the optomechanical oscillator (OMO) synchronization in an air-slot photonic crystal (PhC) cavity driven by a single laser source. Two very-close mechanical modes are found in the air-slot PhC OMO cavity and can be locked to each other at drive powers above the threshold with different detunings. The improvement in phase noise (-70 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset) for the synchronized OMO is reported as well. The stable frequency tones obtained open a path toward reconfigurable synchronized oscillator networks.

  8. Dynamic entanglement transfer in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Tiantian; Zhou, Rigui; Ian, Hou

    2015-08-01

    We give a theoretical study of a double-cavity system in which a mechanical resonator beam is coupled to two cavity modes on both sides through radiation pressures. The indirect coupling between the cavities via the resonator sets up a correlation in the optomechanical entanglements between the two cavities with the common resonator. This correlation initiates an entanglement transfer from the intracavity photon-phonon entanglements to an intercavity photon-photon entanglement. Using numerical solutions, we show two distinct regimes of the optomechanical system, in which the indirect entanglement either builds up and eventually saturates or undergoes a death-and-revival cycle, after a time lapse for initiating the cooperative motion of the left and right cavity modes.

  9. Optomechanical interactions in two-dimensional Si and GaAs phoXonic cavities.

    PubMed

    El-Jallal, S; Oudich, M; Pennec, Y; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Makhoute, A; Rolland, Q; Dupont, S; Gazalet, J

    2014-01-08

    We investigate theoretically the optomechanical interactions inside cavities created in two-dimensional infinite phoXonic crystals constituted by a square array of holes in silicon (Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs) matrices. The cavity is simply obtained by removing one hole in the perfect crystal. Our calculations take into account two mechanisms that contribute to the optomechanical coupling, namely the bulk photoelastic effect and the deformations of the interfaces due to the acoustic strain. The coupling strength is estimated by two different methods, modulation of the photonic mode frequency during one period of the acoustic oscillations and calculation of the optomechanical coupling rate. We discuss the important roles of the symmetry and degeneracy of the modes to discriminate which ones are not able to interact efficiently. Calculations in Si and GaAs crystals at different optical wavelengths emphasize the dependence of the photoelastic contribution to the optomechanical interaction as a function of material and wavelength, especially owing to the significant variation of the photoelastic coefficients near the semiconductor band gap.

  10. A 10-GHz film-thickness-mode cavity optomechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Fong, King Y.; Tang, Hong X.

    2015-04-01

    We report on the advance of chip-scale cavity optomechanical resonators to beyond 10 GHz by exploiting the fundamental acoustic thickness mode of an aluminum nitride micro-disk. By engineering the mechanical anchor to minimize the acoustic loss, a quality factor of 1830 and hence a frequency-quality factor product of 1.9 × 1013 Hz are achieved in ambient air at room temperature. Actuated by strong piezo-electric force, the micro-disk resonator shows an excellent electro-optomechanical transduction efficiency. Our detailed analysis of the electro-optomechanical coupling allows identification and full quantification of various acoustic modes spanning from super-high to X-band microwave frequencies measured in the thin film resonator.

  11. Triple optomechanical induced transparency in a two-cavity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi-Chao, Wu; Li-Guo, Qin; Jun, Jing; Guo-Hong, Yang; Zhong-Yang, Wang

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the optomechanical induced transparency (OMIT) phenomenon in a two-cavity system which is composed of two optomechanical cavities. Both of the cavities consist of a fixed mirror and a high-Q mechanical resonator, and they couple to each other via a common waveguide. We show that in the presence of a strong pump field applied to one cavity and a weak probe field applied to the other, a triple-OMIT can be observed in the output field at the probe frequency. The two mechanical resonators in the two cavities are identical, but they lead to different quantum interference pathways. The transparency windows are induced by the coupling of the two cavities and the optical pressure radiated to the mechanical resonators, which can be controlled via the power of the pump field and the coupling strength of the two cavities. Project supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program, China (Grant No. XDB01010200), the Hundred Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. Y321311401), and the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11347147 and 1547035).

  12. Integrated III-V Photonic Crystal – Si waveguide platform with tailored optomechanical coupling

    PubMed Central

    Tsvirkun, Viktor; Surrente, Alessandro; Raineri, Fabrice; Beaudoin, Grégoire; Raj, Rama; Sagnes, Isabelle; Robert-Philip, Isabelle; Braive, Rémy

    2015-01-01

    Optomechanical systems, in which the vibrations of a mechanical resonator are coupled to an electromagnetic radiation, have permitted the investigation of a wealth of novel physical effects. To fully exploit these phenomena in realistic circuits and to achieve different functionalities on a single chip, the integration of optomechanical resonators is mandatory. Here, we propose a novel approach to heterogeneously integrate arrays of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavities on top of silicon-on-insulator waveguides. The optomechanical response of these devices is investigated and evidences an optomechanical coupling involving both dispersive and dissipative mechanisms. By controlling the optical coupling between the waveguide and the photonic crystal, we were able to vary and understand the relative strength of these couplings. This scalable platform allows for an unprecedented control on the optomechanical coupling mechanisms, with a potential benefit in cooling experiments, and for the development of multi-element optomechanical circuits in the framework of optomechanically-driven signal-processing applications. PMID:26567535

  13. Applications of High-Q Microresonators in Cavity Optomechanics and Nonlinear Photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei C.

    Optical microresonators confining light to small volumes are indispensable for a great variety of studies and applications. This thesis is devoted to a study of cavity optomechanical and nonlinear optical phenomena in high-Q microresonators with different materials and structures. Based on that, it proposes and demonstrates several novel schemes and device platforms that exhibit great potential for various applications ranging from frequency metrology and quantum photonics, to information processing and sensing. The thesis starts with a demonstration of a high-frequency (above 1 GHz) regenerative optomechanical oscillator based on a 2-mum-radius high-Q silicon microdisk resonator in the silicon-on-insulator platform with an ultra-low threshold pump power at room temperature and atmosphere. It then continues to explore the cavity optomechanics in single-crystal lithium niobate. A compact lithium niobate microdisk optomechanical resonator with high optical and mechanical qualities, large optomechanical coupling, and high mechanical frequency is achieved, enabling the demonstration of regenerative oscillation in the ambience. Meanwhile, I propose and investigate a novel approach for single molecule detection that utilizes the optical spring effect in a high-Q coherent optomechanical oscillator to dramatically enhance the sensing resolution by orders of magnitude compared with conventional resonator-based approaches. In particular, a high-Q silica microsphere is employed to experimentally demonstrate the detection of single Bovine Serum Albumin proteins with a molecular weight of 66 kDalton at a signal-to-noise ratio of 16.8. On the other hand, the thesis focuses on the theoretical and experimental investigation of the generation of high-purity bright photon pairs in a silicon microdisk based on the cavity enhanced four-wave mixing. The device is able to produce multiple photon pairs at different wavelengths in the telecom band with a high spectral brightness of 6.24 x

  14. Entanglement Generation Between Two Mechanical Resonators in Two Optomechanical Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehaily, Adel AL; Bougouffa, Smail

    2017-05-01

    A standard model is suggested to explore correlation features of two spatially separated optomechanical cavities. The cavities are coupled through the photon-hopping process. In particular, we investigate the generation of entanglement between mechanical resonators in the strong coupling regime and the two cavities are assumed to be driven by a coherent laser field. In order to quantify entanglement we use the logarithmic negativity. The analytical solutions are presented for the system in a parameter regime very close to the current experimental results. We show that in the presence of the photon hopping process between the cavities, the two mechanical resonators and the field modes can be entangled. This shows clearly that the entanglement can be transfer via radiation pressure of a photon hopping coupling from the intracavity photon-phonon entanglements to an inter-cavity photon-photon or phonon-phonon entanglement.

  15. Free-space cavity optomechanics in a cryogenic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, A. G.; Teissier, J.; Neuhaus, L.; Zerkani, S.; van Brackel, E.; Deléglise, S.; Briant, T.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Heidmann, A.; Michel, C.; Pinard, L.; Dolique, V.; Flaminio, R.; Taïbi, R.; Chartier, C.; Le Traon, O.

    2014-01-01

    We present a free-space optomechanical system operating in the 1-K range. The device is made of a high mechanical quality factor micropillar with a high-reflectivity optical coating atop, combined with an ultra-small radius-of-curvature coupling mirror to form a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity embedded in a dilution refrigerator. The cavity environment as well as the cryostat have been designed to ensure low vibrations and to preserve micron-level alignment from room temperature down to 100 mK.

  16. Self-sustained coherent phonon generation in optomechanical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Urrios, D.; Gomis-Bresco, J.; Alzina, F.; Capuj, N. E.; García, P. D.; Colombano, M. F.; Chavez-Angel, E.; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    Optical forces can set tiny objects in states of mechanical self-sustained oscillation, spontaneously generating periodic signals by extracting power from steady sources. Miniaturized self-sustained coherent phonon sources are interesting for applications such as mass-force sensing, intra-chip metrology and intra-chip time-keeping among others. In this paper, we review several mechanisms and techniques that can drive a mechanical mode into the lasing regime by exploiting the radiation pressure force in optomechanical cavities, namely stimulated emission, dynamical back-action, forward stimulated Brillouin scattering and self-pulsing.

  17. Energy-efficient utilization of bipolar optical forces in nano-optomechanical cavities.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie; Tang, Xiaosong; Akkipeddi, Ramam

    2013-07-29

    Nanoscale all-optical circuits driven by optical forces have broad applications in future communication, computation, and sensing systems. Because human society faces huge challenges of energy saving and emission reduction, it is very important to develop energy-efficient nano-optomechanical devices. Due to their high quality (Q) factors, resonance modes of cavities are capable of generating much larger forces than waveguide modes. Here we experimentally demonstrate the use of resonance modes of double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities to generate bipolar optical forces. Attractive and repulsive forces of -6.2 nN and 1.9 nN were obtained with respective launching powers of 0.81 mW and 0.87 mW in the waveguide just before cavities. Supported by flexible nanosprings (spring constant 0.166 N/m), one cavity is pulled to (pushed away from) the other cavity by 37.1 nm (11.4 nm). The shifts of the selected resonance modes of the device are mechanically and thermally calibrated with an integrated nanoelectromechanical system actuator and a temperature-controlled testing platform respectively. Based on these experimentally-obtained relations, probe mode shifts due to the optomechanical effect are decoupled from those due to the thermo-optic effect. Actuated by the third-order even pump mode, the optomechanical shift of the second-order even probe mode is found to be about 2.5 times its thermal shift, indicating a highly efficient conversion of light energy to mechanical energy.

  18. Optomechanical damping of a nanomembrane inside an optical ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Arzu; Schuster, Simon; Wolf, Philip; Schmidt, Dag; Eisele, Max; Zimmermann, Claus; Slama, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally and theoretically investigate mechanical nanooscillators coupled to the light in an optical ring resonator made of dielectric mirrors. We identify an optomechanical damping mechanism that is fundamentally different to the well known cooling in standing wave cavities. While in a standing wave cavity the mechanical oscillation shifts the resonance frequency of the cavity, in a ring resonator the frequency does not change. Instead the position of the nodes is shifted with the mechanical excursion. We derive the damping rates and test the results experimentally with a silicon-nitride nanomembrane. It turns out that scattering from small imperfections of the dielectric mirror coatings has to be taken into account to explain the value of the measured damping rate. We extend our theoretical model and consider a second reflector in the cavity that captures the effects of mirror back scattering. This model can be used to also describe the situation of two membranes that both interact with the cavity fields. This may be interesting for future work on synchronization of distant oscillators that are coupled by intracavity light fields.

  19. Effect of phase noise on the generation of stationary entanglement in cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Abdi, M.; Barzanjeh, Sh.; Tombesi, P.; Vitali, D.

    2011-09-15

    We study the effect of laser phase noise on the generation of stationary entanglement between an intracavity optical mode and a mechanical resonator in a generic cavity optomechanical system. We show that one can realize robust stationary optomechanical entanglement even in the presence of non-negligible laser phase noise. We also show that the explicit form of the laser phase noise spectrum is relevant, and discuss its effect on both optomechanical entanglement and ground-state cooling of the mechanical resonator.

  20. Slot-mode optomechanical crystals with enhanced coupling and multimode functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, Karen; Davanco, Marcelo; Srinivasan, Kartik

    A number of cavity optomechanics applications involve multiple interacting optical and mechanical modes. A key challenge in such systems is developing multimode platforms with both flexibility in the optical and mechanical designs and interactions as strong as those shown in single-mode systems. We thus present slot-mode optomechanical crystals, in which photonic and phononic crystal nanobeams separated by a narrow slot couple optomechanically. We pattern these beams to confine a low-loss optical mode in the slot and a mechanical breathing mode at the center of the mechanical beam. This structure has large optomechanical coupling rates and great design flexibility toward multimode systems. We demonstrate this in Si3N4 slot-mode devices, with 980 nm optical modes coupling to mechanical modes at 3.4 GHz, 1.8 GHz, and 400 MHz. We use Si3N4 tensile stress to shrink slot widths to 24 nm, greatly enhancing optomechanical coupling. Finally, with this platform, we develop multimode systems with three-beam geometries, in which two different mechanical modes couple to one optical mode and two different optical modes couple to one mechanical mode. The authors acknowledge funding from DARPA (MESO) and the National Research Council Research Associateship Program.

  1. Optomechanic interaction in a corrugated phoxonic nanobeam cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudich, Mourad; El-Jallal, Said; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Gomis-Bresco, Jordi; Navarro-Urrios, Daniel; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M.; Martínez, Alejandro; Makhoute, Abdelkader

    2014-06-01

    The interaction between phonons and photons is investigated theoretically in a phoxonic cavity inside a corrugated nanobeam waveguide presenting band gaps for both electromagnetic and elastic waves. The structure is made by drilling periodic holes on a silicon nanobeam with lateral periodic stubs and the tapered cavity is constructed by changing gradually the geometrical parameters of both the holes and stubs. We show that this kind of cavity displays localized phonons and photons inside the gaps, which can enhance their interaction and also promotes the presence of many optical confined modes with high quality factor. Using the finite-element method, we demonstrate that with appropriate design of the tapering construction, one can control the cavity modes frequency without altering significantly the quality factor of the photonic modes. By changing the tapering rates over the lattice constants, we establish the possibility of shifting the phononic cavity modes frequency to place them inside the desired gap, which enhances their confinement and increases the mechanical quality factor while keeping the strength of the optomechanic coupling high. In our calculations, we take account of both mechanisms that contribute to the acousto-optic interaction, namely photoelastic and interface motion effects. We show that in our case, these two effects can contribute additively to give high coupling strength between phononic and photonic cavity modes. The calculations of the coupling coefficient which gives the phonon-photon coupling strength give values as high as 2 MHz while photonic cavity modes display quality factor of 105 and even values up to 3.4 MHz but with smaller photonic quality factors.

  2. Generation of robust tripartite entanglement with a single-cavity optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xihua; Ling, Yang; Shao, Xuping; Xiao, Min

    2017-05-01

    We present a proposal to generate robust tripartite optomechanical entanglement with a single-cavity optomechanical system driven by a single input laser field. The produced stationary tripartite entanglement among two longitudinal cavity modes and a mirror oscillation mode via radiation pressure force exhibits robustness to the variation of the environment temperature when the cavity free spectral range is close to the mechanical oscillation frequency. The present optomechanical system can serve as an alternative intermediary for quantum-state exchange between two microwave (or optical) fields as well as between photons and the macroscopic mechanical oscillator, and may be potentially useful for quantum information processing and quantum networks.

  3. Quantum entanglement and teleportation in pulsed cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer, Sebastian G.; Wieczorek, Witlef; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Hammerer, Klemens

    2011-11-15

    Entangling a mechanical oscillator with an optical mode is an enticing and yet a very challenging goal in cavity optomechanics. Here we consider a pulsed scheme to create Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type entanglement between a traveling-wave light pulse and a mechanical oscillator. The entanglement can be verified unambiguously by a pump-probe sequence of pulses. In contrast to schemes that work in a steady-state regime under a continuous-wave drive, this protocol is not subject to stability requirements that normally limit the strength of achievable entanglement. We investigate the protocol's performance under realistic conditions, including mechanical decoherence, in full detail. We discuss the relevance of a high mechanical Qf product for entanglement creation and provide a quantitative statement on which magnitude of the Qf product is necessary for a successful realization of the scheme. We determine the optimal parameter regime for its operation and show it to work in current state-of-the-art systems.

  4. Cavity-less on-chip optomechanics using excitonic transitions in semiconductor heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hajime; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ohta, Ryuichi; Onomitsu, Koji; Gotoh, Hideki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The hybridization of semiconductor optoelectronic devices and nanomechanical resonators provides a new class of optomechanical systems in which mechanical motion can be coupled to light without any optical cavities. Such cavity-less optomechanical systems interconnect photons, phonons and electrons (holes) in a highly integrable platform, opening up the development of functional integrated nanomechanical devices. Here we report on a semiconductor modulation-doped heterostructure–cantilever hybrid system, which realizes efficient cavity-less optomechanical transduction through excitons. The opto-piezoelectric backaction from the bound electron–hole pairs enables us to probe excitonic transition simply with a sub-nanowatt power of light, realizing high-sensitivity optomechanical spectroscopy. Detuning the photon energy from the exciton resonance results in self-feedback cooling and amplification of the thermomechanical motion. This cavity-less on-chip coupling enables highly tunable and addressable control of nanomechanical resonators, allowing high-speed programmable manipulation of nanomechanical devices and sensor arrays. PMID:26477487

  5. Cavity-less on-chip optomechanics using excitonic transitions in semiconductor heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Hajime; Watanabe, Takayuki; Ohta, Ryuichi; Onomitsu, Koji; Gotoh, Hideki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-10-19

    The hybridization of semiconductor optoelectronic devices and nanomechanical resonators provides a new class of optomechanical systems in which mechanical motion can be coupled to light without any optical cavities. Such cavity-less optomechanical systems interconnect photons, phonons and electrons (holes) in a highly integrable platform, opening up the development of functional integrated nanomechanical devices. Here we report on a semiconductor modulation-doped heterostructure-cantilever hybrid system, which realizes efficient cavity-less optomechanical transduction through excitons. The opto-piezoelectric backaction from the bound electron-hole pairs enables us to probe excitonic transition simply with a sub-nanowatt power of light, realizing high-sensitivity optomechanical spectroscopy. Detuning the photon energy from the exciton resonance results in self-feedback cooling and amplification of the thermomechanical motion. This cavity-less on-chip coupling enables highly tunable and addressable control of nanomechanical resonators, allowing high-speed programmable manipulation of nanomechanical devices and sensor arrays.

  6. Emergence of multipartite optomechanical entanglement in microdisk cavities coupled to nanostring waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Xia, Yan; Song, Jie

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme to show signatures of multipartite optomechanical entanglement, which is based on two high quality factor (high-) silicon nitride () microdisk cavities coupled to a nanostring waveguide via evanescent field. Genuine tripartite optomechanical entanglement is shared in the subsystem even though the two fields of microdisk cavities do not have direct interaction. In addition, we study the behaviors of the bipartite entanglement between the pairs of the system constituents by numerical simulation.

  7. Single-photon multi-ports router based on the coupled cavity optomechanical system.

    PubMed

    Li, Xun; Zhang, Wen-Zhao; Xiong, Biao; Zhou, Ling

    2016-12-22

    A scheme of single-photon multi-port router is put forward by coupling two optomechanical cavities with waveguides. It is shown that the coupled two optomechanical cavities can exhibit photon blockade effect, which is generated from interference of three mode interaction. A single-photon travel along the system is calculated. The results show that the single photon can be controlled in the multi-port system because of the radiation pressure, which should be useful for constructing quantum network.

  8. Tunable two-photon correlation in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhi-Bo; Zhang, Jian-Qi

    2015-12-15

    Correlated photons are essential sources for quantum information processing. We propose a practical scheme to generate pairs of correlated photons in a controllable fashion from a double-cavity optomechanical system, where the variable optomechanical coupling strength makes it possible to tune the photon correlation at our will. The key operation is based on the repulsive or attractive interaction between the two photons intermediated by the mechanical resonator. The present protocol could provide a potential approach to coherent control of the photon correlation using the optomechanical cavity.

  9. Steady-state mechanical squeezing in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Yang; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    We study the physical properties of double-cavity optomechanical system in which the mechanical resonator interacts with one of the coupled cavities and another cavity is used as an auxiliary cavity. The model can be expected to achieve the strong optomechanical coupling strength and overcome the optomechanical cavity decay, simultaneously. Through the coherent auxiliary cavity interferences, the steady-state squeezing of mechanical resonator can be generated in highly unresolved sideband regime. The validity of the scheme is assessed by numerical simulation and theoretical analysis of the steady-state variance of the mechanical displacement quadrature. The scheme provides a platform for the mechanical squeezing beyond the resolved sideband limit and solves the restricted experimental bounds at present. PMID:27917939

  10. Resonant Optomechanics with a Vibrating Carbon Nanotube and a Radio-Frequency Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ares, N.; Pei, T.; Mavalankar, A.; Mergenthaler, M.; Warner, J. H.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Laird, E. A.

    2016-10-01

    In an optomechanical setup, the coupling between cavity and resonator can be increased by tuning them to the same frequency. We study this interaction between a carbon nanotube resonator and a radio-frequency tank circuit acting as a cavity. In this resonant regime, the vacuum optomechanical coupling is enhanced by the dc voltage coupling the cavity and the mechanical resonator. Using the cavity to detect the nanotube's motion, we observe and simulate interference between mechanical and electrical oscillations. We measure the mechanical ring down and show that further improvements to the system could enable the measurement of mechanical motion at the quantum limit.

  11. Resonant Optomechanics with a Vibrating Carbon Nanotube and a Radio-Frequency Cavity.

    PubMed

    Ares, N; Pei, T; Mavalankar, A; Mergenthaler, M; Warner, J H; Briggs, G A D; Laird, E A

    2016-10-21

    In an optomechanical setup, the coupling between cavity and resonator can be increased by tuning them to the same frequency. We study this interaction between a carbon nanotube resonator and a radio-frequency tank circuit acting as a cavity. In this resonant regime, the vacuum optomechanical coupling is enhanced by the dc voltage coupling the cavity and the mechanical resonator. Using the cavity to detect the nanotube's motion, we observe and simulate interference between mechanical and electrical oscillations. We measure the mechanical ring down and show that further improvements to the system could enable the measurement of mechanical motion at the quantum limit.

  12. Enhanced Entanglement Between Two Mechanical Resonators in Two Optomechanical Cavities with an Atomic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, E.; Li, DanYang; Li, FengZhi; Ma, YongHong

    2017-02-01

    We propose a theoretical method to enhance the entanglement between two mechanical resonators in two optomechanical cavities, which are coupled by the photon-hopping process, and each opto-mechanical cavity are consisted of a Fabry-Perot cavity and a mechanical oscillator by applying N atomic medium. We explore the effect of the entanglement between two mechanical oscillators with two atomic mediums and without them, respectively. The results show that the introduction of atoms can effectively increase the entanglement between the two oscillator modes.

  13. Alq3 coated silicon nanomembranes for cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogliano, Francesco; Ortu, Antonio; Camposeo, Andrea; Pisignano, Dario; Ciampini, Donatella; Fuso, Francesco; Arimondo, E.

    2016-09-01

    The optomechanical properties of a silicon-nitride membrane mirror covered by Alq3 and Silver layers are investigated. Excitation at two laser wavelengths, 780 and 405 nm, corresponding to different absorptions of the multilayer, is examined. Such dual driving will lead to a more flexible optomechanical operation. Topographic reconstruction of the whole static membrane deformation and cooling of the membrane oscillations are reported. The cooling, observed for blue laser detuning and produced by bolometric forces, is deduced from the optomechanical damping of the membrane eigenfrequency. We determine the presence of different contributions to the photothermal response of the membrane.

  14. GaAs-based air-slot photonic crystal nanocavity for optomechanical oscillators.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Masahiro

    2012-02-27

    We theoretically investigate an optomechanical structure consisting of two parallel GaAs membranes with an air-slot type photonic crystal nanocavity. The optical cavity has a quality factor of 4.8 × 106 at 1.52 μm and an extremely small modal volume of 0.015 of a cubic wavelength for the fundamental mode in a vacuum. The localized electric field near the air/dielectric-object boundary provides a large optomechanical coupling factor of ~990 GHz/nm. The fundamental mechanical mode resonance is 95 MHz and a quality factor is 83,800 at room temperature, nearly seven times higher than that for a similar Si-based structure. This high mechanical quality factor of a GaAs-based structure stems from low thermoelastic loss and leads to more effective optical control of nanomechanical oscillators.

  15. Optomechanics in superfluid helium coupled to a fiber-based cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkanova, A. D.; Shkarin, A. B.; Brown, C. D.; Flowers-Jacobs, N. E.; Childress, L.; Hoch, S. W.; Hohmann, L.; Ott, K.; Reichel, J.; Harris, J. G. E.

    2017-03-01

    Presented in this paper are measurements of an optomechanical device in which various acoustic modes of a sample of superfluid helium couple to a fiber-based optical cavity. In contrast with recent work on the paraxial acoustic mode confined by the cavity mirrors (Kashkanova et al Nat. Phys. 2016 (https://doi.org/10.1038/NPHYS3900)), we focus specifically on the acoustic modes associated with the helium surrounding the cavity. This paper provides a framework for understanding how the acoustic modes depend on device geometry. The acoustic modes are observed using the technique of optomechanically induced transparency/amplification. The optomechanical coupling to these modes is found to be predominantly photothermal.

  16. Two-fluid model of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the cavity optomechanical regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbaum, Dan; Zhang, Keye; Meystre, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    We analyze an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a high-Q optical cavity driven by a feeble optical field. The dynamics of the resulting collective density excitation of the condensate are formally analogous to the central model system of cavity optomechanics: a radiation pressure driven mechanical oscillator [Brennecke et al., Science 322, 235 (2008)]. However, although BEC-based optomechanical systems have several desirable properties, one must also take into account the effect of atom-atom interactions. We treat these interactions via a two-fluid model that retains the intuitive appeal of the non-interacting two-mode description. We find that the Bogoliubov excitation spectrum of this system comprises a gapped upper branch and a lower branch that can include an unstable excitation mode. [4pt] D. S. Goldbaum, K. Zhang and P. Meystre, Two-fluid model of a Bose-Einstein condensate in the cavity optomechanical regime, arXiv:0911.3234.

  17. Stability branching induced by collective atomic recoil in an optomechanical ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ian, Hou

    2017-02-01

    In a ring cavity filled with an atomic condensate, self-bunching of atoms due to the cavity pump mode produce an inversion that re-emits into the cavity probe mode with an exponential gain, forming atomic recoil lasing. An optomechanical ring cavity is formed when one of the reflective mirrors is mounted on a mechanical vibrating beam. In this paper, we extend studies on the stability of linear optomechanical cavities to such ring cavities with two counter-propagating cavity modes, especially when the forward propagating pump mode is taken to its weak coupling limit. We find that when the atomic recoil is in action, stable states of the mechanical mode of the mirror converge into branch cuts, where the gain produced by the recoiling strikes balance with the multiple decay sources, such as cavity leakage in the optomechanical system. This balance is obtained when the propagation delay in the dispersive atomic medium matches in a periodic pattern to the frequencies and linewidths of the cavity mode and the collective bosonic mode of the atoms. We show an input-output hysteresis cycle between the atomic mode and the cavity mode to verify the multi-valuation of the stable states after branching at the weak coupling limit.

  18. Optomechanically induced transparency in multi-cavity optomechanical system with and without one two-level atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohail, Amjad; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-Shui

    2016-06-01

    We analytically study the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) in the N-cavity system with the Nth cavity driven by pump, probing laser fields and the 1st cavity coupled to mechanical oscillator. We also consider that one atom could be trapped in the ith cavity. Instead of only illustrating the OMIT in such a system, we are interested in how the number of OMIT windows is influenced by the cavities and the atom and what roles the atom could play in different cavities. In the resolved sideband regime, we find that, the number of cavities precisely determines the maximal number of OMIT windows. It is interesting that, when the two-level atom is trapped in the even-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is split and forms an extra OMIT window, but if the atom is trapped in the odd-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is only broadened and thus changes the width of the OMIT windows rather than induces an extra window.

  19. Optomechanically induced transparency in multi-cavity optomechanical system with and without one two-level atom.

    PubMed

    Sohail, Amjad; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-Shui

    2016-06-28

    We analytically study the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) in the N-cavity system with the Nth cavity driven by pump, probing laser fields and the 1st cavity coupled to mechanical oscillator. We also consider that one atom could be trapped in the ith cavity. Instead of only illustrating the OMIT in such a system, we are interested in how the number of OMIT windows is influenced by the cavities and the atom and what roles the atom could play in different cavities. In the resolved sideband regime, we find that, the number of cavities precisely determines the maximal number of OMIT windows. It is interesting that, when the two-level atom is trapped in the even-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is split and forms an extra OMIT window, but if the atom is trapped in the odd-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is only broadened and thus changes the width of the OMIT windows rather than induces an extra window.

  20. Optomechanically induced transparency in multi-cavity optomechanical system with and without one two-level atom

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, Amjad; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-shui

    2016-01-01

    We analytically study the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) in the N-cavity system with the Nth cavity driven by pump, probing laser fields and the 1st cavity coupled to mechanical oscillator. We also consider that one atom could be trapped in the ith cavity. Instead of only illustrating the OMIT in such a system, we are interested in how the number of OMIT windows is influenced by the cavities and the atom and what roles the atom could play in different cavities. In the resolved sideband regime, we find that, the number of cavities precisely determines the maximal number of OMIT windows. It is interesting that, when the two-level atom is trapped in the even-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is split and forms an extra OMIT window, but if the atom is trapped in the odd-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is only broadened and thus changes the width of the OMIT windows rather than induces an extra window. PMID:27349325

  1. Single-photon multi-ports router based on the coupled cavity optomechanical system

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xun; Zhang, Wen-Zhao; Xiong, Biao; Zhou, Ling

    2016-01-01

    A scheme of single-photon multi-port router is put forward by coupling two optomechanical cavities with waveguides. It is shown that the coupled two optomechanical cavities can exhibit photon blockade effect, which is generated from interference of three mode interaction. A single-photon travel along the system is calculated. The results show that the single photon can be controlled in the multi-port system because of the radiation pressure, which should be useful for constructing quantum network. PMID:28004773

  2. Simulating Z2 topological insulators via a one-dimensional cavity optomechanical cells array.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lu; Xing, Yan; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2017-07-24

    We propose a novel scheme to simulate Z2 topological insulators via one-dimensional (1D) cavity optomechanical cells array. The direct mapping between 1D cavity optomechanical cells array and 2D quantum spin Hall (QSH) system can be achieved by using diagonalization and dimensional reduction methods. We show that the topological features of the present model can be captured using a 1D generalized Harper equation with an additional SU(2) guage structure. Interestingly, spin pumping of effective photon-phonon bosons can be naturally derived after scanning the additional periodic parameter, which means that we can realize the transition between different QSH edge states.

  3. Large cooperativity and microkelvin cooling with a three-dimensional optomechanical cavity

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Mingyun; Singh, Vibhor; Blanter, Yaroslav M.; Steele, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    In cavity optomechanics, light is used to control mechanical motion. A central goal of the field is achieving single-photon strong coupling, which would enable the creation of quantum superposition states of motion. Reaching this limit requires significant improvements in optomechanical coupling and cavity coherence. Here we introduce an optomechanical architecture consisting of a silicon nitride membrane coupled to a three-dimensional superconducting microwave cavity. Exploiting their large quality factors, we achieve an optomechanical cooperativity of 146,000 and perform sideband cooling of the kilohertz-frequency membrane motion to 34±5 μK, the lowest mechanical mode temperature reported to date. The achieved cooling is limited only by classical noise of the signal generator, and should extend deep into the ground state with superconducting filters. Our results suggest that this realization of optomechanics has the potential to reach the regimes of ultra-large cooperativity and single-photon strong coupling, opening up a new generation of experiments. PMID:26450772

  4. Narrowing the filter-cavity bandwidth in gravitational-wave detectors via optomechanical interaction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yiqiu; Danilishin, Shtefan L; Zhao, Chunnong; Miao, Haixing; Korth, W Zach; Chen, Yanbei; Ward, Robert L; Blair, D G

    2014-10-10

    We propose using optomechanical interaction to narrow the bandwidth of filter cavities for achieving frequency-dependent squeezing in advanced gravitational-wave detectors, inspired by the idea of optomechanically induced transparency. This can allow us to achieve a cavity bandwidth on the order of 100 Hz using small-scale cavities. Additionally, in contrast to a passive Fabry-Pérot cavity, the resulting cavity bandwidth can be dynamically tuned, which is useful for adaptively optimizing the detector sensitivity when switching amongst different operational modes. The experimental challenge for its implementation is a stringent requirement for very low thermal noise of the mechanical oscillator, which would need a superb mechanical quality factor and a very low temperature. We consider one possible setup to relieve this requirement by using optical dilution to enhance the mechanical quality factor.

  5. Strong optomechanical interactions in a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam

    PubMed Central

    Leijssen, Rick; Verhagen, Ewold

    2015-01-01

    Coupling between mechanical and optical degrees of freedom is strongly enhanced by using subwavelength optical mode profiles. We realize an optomechanical system based on a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam, which combines such highly confined optical fields with a low-mass mechanical mode. Analyzing the transduction of motion and effects of radiation pressure we find the system exhibits a photon-phonon coupling rate g0 /2π ≈ 11.5 MHz, exceeding previously reported values by an order of magnitude. We show that the large optomechanical interaction enables detecting thermal motion with detection noise below that at the standard quantum limit, even in broad bandwidth devices, important for both sensor applications as well as measurement-based quantum control. PMID:26522751

  6. Controlling photon transport in the single-photon weak-coupling regime of cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Zhao; Cheng, Jiong; Liu, Jing-Yi; Zhou, Ling

    2015-06-01

    We study the photon statistics properties of few-photon transport in an optomechanical system where an optomechanical cavity couples to two empty cavities. By analytically deriving the one- and two-photon currents in terms of a zero-time-delayed two-order correlation function, we show that a photon blockade can be achieved in both the single-photon strong-coupling regime and the single-photon weak-coupling regime due to the nonlinear interacting and multipath interference. Furthermore, our systems can be applied as a quantum optical diode, a single-photon source, and a quantum optical capacitor. It is shown that this the photon transport controlling devices based on photon antibunching does not require the stringent single-photon strong-coupling condition. Our results provide a promising platform for the coherent manipulation of optomechanics, which has potential applications for quantum information processing and quantum circuit realization.

  7. Effect on cavity optomechanics of the interaction between a cavity field and a one-dimensional interacting bosonic gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Qing; Hu Xinghua; Liu, W. M.; Xie, X. C.; Ji Anchun

    2011-08-15

    We investigate optomechanical coupling between one-dimensional interacting bosons and the electromagnetic field in a high-finesse optical cavity. We show that by tuning interatomic interactions, one can realize effective optomechanics with mechanical resonators ranging from side-mode excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) to particle-hole excitations of a Tonks-Girardeau (TG) gas. We propose that this unique feature can be formulated to detect the BEC-TG gas crossover and measure the sine-Gordon transition continuously and nondestructively.

  8. In situ observation of optomechanical Bloch oscillations in an optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keßler, H.; Klinder, J.; Prasanna Venkatesh, B.; Georges, Ch; Hemmerich, A.

    2016-10-01

    It is shown experimentally that a Bose-Einstein condensate inside an optical cavity, operating in the regime of strong cooperative coupling, responds to an external force by an optomechanical Bloch oscillation, which can be directly observed in the light leaking out of the cavity. Previous theoretical work predicts that the frequency of this oscillation matches with that of conventional Bloch oscillations such that its in situ monitoring may help to increase the data acquisition speed in precision force measurements.

  9. Slow light in a cavity optomechanical system with a Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Bin; Jiang Cheng; Zhu Kadi

    2011-05-15

    We theoretically investigate the light propagation in a cavity optomechanical system with a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). It is shown that slow light can easily be realized in this system via a BEC coupled to an optical cavity field. The numerical results further demonstrate that the transmitted probe beam from the cavity can be delayed as much as 0.8 ms by suitably selecting the pump field detuning from the cavity field frequency. The scheme proposed here may have potential applications in telecommunication and interferometry.

  10. Entanglement of two hybrid optomechanical cavities composed of BEC atoms under Bell detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eghbali-Arani, M.; Ameri, V.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, firstly, we consider bipartite entanglement between each part of an optomechanical cavity composed of one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). We investigate atomic collision on the behaviour of the BEC in the week photon-atom coupling constant and use Bogoliubov approximation for the BEC. Secondly under above condition, we propose a scheme for entanglement swapping protocol which involves tripartite systems. In our investigation, we consider a scenario where BECs, moving mirrors, and optical cavity modes are given in a Gaussian state with a covariance matrix. By applying the Bell measurement to the output optical field modes, we show how the remote entanglement between two BECs, two moving mirrors, and BEC-mirror modes in different optomechanical cavity can be generated.

  11. High-Q silicon carbide photonic-crystal cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jonathan Y.; Lu, Xiyuan; Lin, Qiang

    2015-01-26

    We demonstrate one-dimensional photonic-crystal nanobeam cavities in amorphous silicon carbide. The fundamental mode exhibits intrinsic optical quality factor as high as 7.69 × 10{sup 4} with mode volume ∼0.60(λ/n){sup 3} at wavelength 1.5 μm. A corresponding Purcell factor value of ∼10{sup 4} is the highest reported to date in silicon carbide optical cavities. The device exhibits great potential for integrated nonlinear photonics and cavity nano-optomechanics.

  12. Spin-orbit-coupling-induced backaction cooling in cavity optomechanics with a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasir, Kashif Ammar; Zhuang, Lin; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We report a spin-orbit-coupling-induced backaction cooling in an optomechanical system, composed of a spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in an optical cavity with one movable end mirror, by suppressing heating effects of quantum noises. The collective density excitations of the spin-orbit-coupling-mediated hyperfine states—serving as atomic oscillators equally coupled to the cavity field—trigger strongly driven atomic backaction. We find that the backaction not only revamps low-temperature dynamics of its own but also provides an opportunity to cool the mechanical mirror to its quantum-mechanical ground state. Further, we demonstrate that the strength of spin-orbit coupling also superintends dynamic structure factor and squeezes nonlinear quantum noises, like thermomechanical and photon shot noise, which enhances optomechanical features of the hybrid cavity beyond previous investigations. Our findings are testable in a realistic setup and enhance the functionality of cavity optomechanics with spin-orbit-coupled hyperfine states in the field of quantum optics and quantum computation.

  13. Fully coupled hybrid cavity optomechanics: Quantum interferences and correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan; Favero, Ivan; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2017-02-01

    We present a quantum theory for a fully coupled hybrid optomechanical system where all mutual couplings between a two-level atom, a confined photon mode, and a mechanical oscillator mode are considered. In such a configuration, new quantum interference effects and correlations arise due to the interplay and competition between the different physical interactions. We present an analytical diagonalization of the related fully coupled Hamiltonian, showing the nature and energy spectra of the tripartite dressed excitations. We determine the driven-dissipative dynamics of such hybrid systems and study phonon blockade effects under resonant excitation. We also study the statistical properties of the photon emission obtained under incoherent pumping of the two-level atom, which is particularly relevant for experiments with solid-state two-level emitters.

  14. High-Q nested resonator in an actively stabilized optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buters, F. M.; Heeck, K.; Eerkens, H. J.; Weaver, M. J.; Luna, F.; de Man, S.; Bouwmeester, D.

    2017-03-01

    Experiments involving micro- and nanomechanical resonators need to be carefully designed to reduce mechanical environmental noise. A small scale on-chip approach is to add a resonator to the system as a mechanical low-pass filter. However, the inherent low frequency of the low-pass filter causes the system to be easily excited mechanically. We solve this problem by applying active feedback to the resonator, thereby minimizing the motion with respect to the front mirror of an optomechanical cavity. Not only does this method actively stabilize the cavity length but it also retains the on-chip vibration isolation.

  15. Quantum state transfer between an optomechanical cavity and a diamond nuclear spin ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhi-Bo; Wang, Hong-Ling; Yan, Run-Ying

    2016-08-01

    We explore an efficient scheme for transferring quantum state between an optomechanical cavity and nuclear spins of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, where quantum information can be efficiently stored (retrieved) into (from) the nuclear spin ensemble assisted by a mechanical resonator in a dispersive regime. Our scheme works for a broad range of cavity frequencies and might have potential applications in employing the nuclear spin ensemble as a memory in quantum information processing. The feasibility of our protocol is analyzed using currently available parameters.

  16. Optomechanics of two- and three-dimensional soft photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Dwarak

    Soft photonic crystals are a class of periodic dielectric structures that undergo highly nonlinear deformation due to strain or other external stimulus such as temperature, pH etc. This can in turn dramatically affect optical properties such as light transmittance. Moreover certain classes of lithographically fabricated structures undergo some structural distortion due to the effects of processing, eventually affecting the optical properties of the final photonic crystal. In this work, we study the deformation mechanics of soft photonic crystal structures using realistic physics-based models and leverage that understanding to explain the optomechanics of actual 2-D and 3-D soft photonic crystals undergoing similar symmetry breaking nonlinear deformations. We first study the optomechanics of two classes of 3-D soft photonic crystals: (1) hydrogel and (2) elastomer based material systems. The hydrogel based inverse face-centered-cubic structure undergoes swelling with change in pH of the surrounding fluid. The inverse structure is a network of bulky domains with thin ligament-like connections, and it undergoes a pattern transformation from FCC to L11 as a result of swelling. A continuum scale poroelasticity based coupled fluid-diffusion FEM model is developed to accurately predict this mechanical behavior. Light transmittance simulation results qualitatively explain the experimentally observed trends in the optical behavior with pH change. The elastomer based, lithographically fabricated material experiences shrinkage induced distortion upon processing. This behavior is modeled using FEM with the material represented by a neo-Hookean constitutive law. The light transmittance calculations for normal incidence are carried out using the transfer matrix method and a good comparison is obtained for the positions of first and second order reflectance peaks. A unit cell based approach is taken to compute the photonic bandstructure to estimate light propagation through the

  17. Controllable optical response by modifying the gain and loss of a mechanical resonator and cavity mode in an optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Long; Wu, Rebing; Zhang, Jing; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Yang, Lan; Nori, Franco; Liu, Yu-xi

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically study a strongly driven optomechanical system which consists of a passive optical cavity and an active mechanical resonator. When the optomechanical coupling strength is varied, phase transitions, which are similar to those observed in PT -symmetric systems, are observed. We show that the optical transmission can be controlled by changing the gain of the mechanical resonator and loss of the optical cavity mode. Especially, we find that (i) for balanced gain and loss, optical amplification and absorption can be tuned by changing the optomechanical coupling strength through a control field; (ii) for unbalanced gain and loss, even with a tiny mechanical gain, both optomechanically induced transparency and anomalous dispersion can be observed around a critical point, which exhibits an ultralong group delay. The time delay τ can be optimized by regulating the optomechanical coupling strength through the control field, and it can be improved up to several orders of magnitude (τ ˜2 ms ) compared to that of conventional optomechanical systems (τ ˜1 μ s ). The presence of mechanical gain makes the group delay more robust to environmental perturbations. Our proposal provides a powerful platform to control light transport using a PT -symmetric-like optomechanical system.

  18. Parametric generation of quadrature squeezing of mirrors in cavity optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Law, C. K.

    2011-03-15

    We propose a method to generate quadrature-squeezed states of a moving mirror in a Fabry-Perot cavity. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that when the cavity is driven by an external field with a large detuning, the moving mirror behaves as a parametric oscillator. We show that parametric resonance can be reached approximately by modulating the driving field amplitude at a frequency matching the frequency shift of the mirror. The parametric resonance leads to an efficient generation of squeezing, which is limited by the thermal noise of the environment.

  19. A scheme for detecting the atom-field coupling constant in the Dicke superradiation regime using hybrid cavity optomechanical system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yueming; Liu, Bin; Lian, Jinling; Liang, Jiuqing

    2012-04-23

    We proposed a scheme for detecting the atom-field coupling constant in the Dicke superradiation regime based on a hybrid cavity optomechanical system assisted by an atomic gas. The critical behavior of the Dicke model was obtained analytically using the spin-coherent-state representation. Without regard to the dynamics of cavity field an analytical formula of one-to-one correspondence between movable mirror's steady position and atom-field coupling constant for a given number of atoms is obtained. Thus the atom-field coupling constant can be probed by measuring the movable mirror's steady position, which is another effect of the cavity optomechanics. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  20. Real-time emission spectrum from a hybrid atom-optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Imran

    Hybrid quantum systems are promising candidates for opening new avenues for quantum technologies [G. Kurizki et. al, PNAS, 112 (13), 3866-3873 (2015)]. Hybrid atom-optomechanical (HAOM) systems set an intriguing example in this context. From the perspective of practical utilizations of these HAOM systems in future quantum devices, it is crucial to fully understand the excitation dynamics as well as the spectral features of these systems. In this poster, I'll present my calculations of single-photon time-dependent (TD) spectrum emitted by such a HAOM system in a strong atom-cavity as well as strong cavity-mechanics (strong-strong) coupling regime [``Real-time emission spectrum from a hybrid atom-optomechanical cavity'', Imran M. Mirza, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 32 (8), 1604-1614 (2015)]. In order to make the system more realistic the effects of dissipation through the mechanical oscillator, optical cavity and spontaneous emission from the two-level emitter are also incorporated. The TD spectrum reveals some novel features that are not possible to observe otherwise. For instance, time order in which different side bands appears which explains different photon-phonon interactions responsible for the production of distinct spectral resonances. .

  1. Reconfigurable re-entrant cavity for wireless coupling to an electro-optomechanical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, T.; Burns, P. S.; Higginbotham, A. P.; Kampel, N. S.; Peterson, R. W.; Cicak, K.; Simmonds, R. W.; Regal, C. A.; Lehnert, K. W.

    2017-09-01

    An electro-optomechanical device capable of microwave-to-optics conversion has recently been demonstrated, with the vision of enabling optical networks of superconducting qubits. Here we present an improved converter design that uses a three-dimensional microwave cavity for coupling between the microwave transmission line and an integrated LC resonator on the converter chip. The new design simplifies the optical assembly and decouples it from the microwave part of the setup. Experimental demonstrations show that the modular device assembly allows us to flexibly tune the microwave coupling to the converter chip while maintaining small loss. We also find that electromechanical experiments are not impacted by the additional microwave cavity. Our design is compatible with a high-finesse optical cavity and will improve optical performance.

  2. Cavity Optomechanics with synthetic Landau levels of ultra cold Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sankalpa; Padhi, Bikash

    2014-03-01

    Ultra cold fermionic atoms placed in a synthetic magnetic field arrange themselves in Landau levels. We theoretically study the optomechanical interaction between the light field and collective excitations of such fermionic atoms in synthetic magnetic field by placing them in side a Fabry Perot cavity. We derive the effective hamiltonian for particle hole excitations from a filled Landau level using a bosonization technique and obtain an expression for the cavity transmission spectrum. Using this we show that the cavity transmission spectrum demonstrates cold atom analogue of Subnikov de Hass oscillation in electronic condensed matter systems. We discuss the experimental consequences for this oscillation for such system and the related optical bistability. Ref. Bikash Padhi and Sankalpa Ghosh, Physical Review Letters, Vol 111, 043603 (2013) PDA Grant, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi.

  3. Controlling the opto-mechanics of a cantilever in an interferometer via cavity loss

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidsfeld, A. von Reichling, M.

    2015-09-21

    In a non-contact atomic force microscope, based on interferometric cantilever displacement detection, the optical return loss of the system is tunable via the distance between the fiber end and the cantilever. We utilize this for tuning the interferometer from a predominant Michelson to a predominant Fabry-Pérot characteristics and introduce the Fabry-Pérot enhancement factor as a quantitative measure for multibeam interference in the cavity. This experimentally easily accessible and adjustable parameter provides a control of the opto-mechanical interaction between the cavity light field and the cantilever. The quantitative assessment of the light pressure acting on the cantilever oscillating in the cavity via the frequency shift allows an in-situ measurement of the cantilever stiffness with remarkable precision.

  4. Controlling the opto-mechanics of a cantilever in an interferometer via cavity loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Schmidsfeld, A.; Reichling, M.

    2015-09-01

    In a non-contact atomic force microscope, based on interferometric cantilever displacement detection, the optical return loss of the system is tunable via the distance between the fiber end and the cantilever. We utilize this for tuning the interferometer from a predominant Michelson to a predominant Fabry-Pérot characteristics and introduce the Fabry-Pérot enhancement factor as a quantitative measure for multibeam interference in the cavity. This experimentally easily accessible and adjustable parameter provides a control of the opto-mechanical interaction between the cavity light field and the cantilever. The quantitative assessment of the light pressure acting on the cantilever oscillating in the cavity via the frequency shift allows an in-situ measurement of the cantilever stiffness with remarkable precision.

  5. Piezoelectric tuning of narrowband perfect plasmonic absorbers via an optomechanic cavity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ao; Yang, Kecheng; Yu, Hongbin; Tan, Xiaochao; Li, Junyu; Zhou, Lun; Liu, Huan; Song, Haisheng; Tang, Jiang; Liu, Feng; Zhu, Alexander Yutong; Guo, Qiushi; Yi, Fei

    2016-06-15

    Optical antennas enable the control of light-matter interaction on the nanometer scale. Efficient on-chip electrical switching of plasmonic resonances is a crucial step toward the integration of optical antennas into practical optoelectronic circuits. We propose and numerically investigate the on-chip low-voltage linear electrical tuning of a narrowband optical antenna perfect absorber via a piezoelectric optomechanic cavity. Near unity absorption is realized by an array of gold nanostrip antennas separated from a membrane-based deformable backreflector by a small gap. A narrow linewidth of 33 nm at 2.58 μm is realized through the coupling between the plasmonic mode and photonic mode in the cavity-enhanced antenna structure. An aluminum nitride piezoelectric layer enabled efficient actuation of the backreflector and therefore changed the gap size, allowing for the tuning of the spectral absorption. The peak wavelength can be shifted linearly by 250 nm with 10 V of tuning voltage, and the tuning range is not limited by the pull-in effect. The polarization dependence of the nanostrip antenna coupled with the optomechanic cavity allows the use of our device as a voltage tunable polarization control device.

  6. All-optical transistor based on a cavity optomechanical system with a Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bin; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Jin-Jin; Zhu, Ka-Di

    2011-11-15

    We propose a scheme of an all-optical transistor based on a coupled Bose-Einstein condensate cavity system. The calculated results show that, in such an optomechanical system, the transmission of the probe beam is strongly dependent on the optical pump power. Therefore, the optical pump field can serve as a ''gate'' field of the transistor, effectively controlling the propagation of the probe field (the ''signal'' field). The scheme proposed here may have potential applications in optical communication and quantum information processing.

  7. Cavity opto-mechanics using an optically levitated nanosphere

    PubMed Central

    Chang, D. E.; Regal, C. A.; Papp, S. B.; Wilson, D. J.; Ye, J.; Painter, O.; Kimble, H. J.; Zoller, P.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, remarkable advances have been made in coupling a number of high-Q modes of nano-mechanical systems to high-finesse optical cavities, with the goal of reaching regimes in which quantum behavior can be observed and leveraged toward new applications. To reach this regime, the coupling between these systems and their thermal environments must be minimized. Here we propose a novel approach to this problem, in which optically levitating a nano-mechanical system can greatly reduce its thermal contact, while simultaneously eliminating dissipation arising from clamping. Through the long coherence times allowed, this approach potentially opens the door to ground-state cooling and coherent manipulation of a single mesoscopic mechanical system or entanglement generation between spatially separate systems, even in room-temperature environments. As an example, we show that these goals should be achievable when the mechanical mode consists of the center-of-mass motion of a levitated nanosphere. PMID:20080573

  8. Probing anharmonicity of a quantum oscillator in an optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latmiral, Ludovico; Armata, Federico; Genoni, Marco G.; Pikovski, Igor; Kim, M. S.

    2016-05-01

    We present a way of measuring with high precision the anharmonicity of a quantum oscillator coupled to an optical field via radiation pressure. Our protocol uses a sequence of pulsed interactions to perform a loop in the phase space of the mechanical oscillator, which is prepared in a thermal state. We show how the optical field acquires a phase depending on the anharmonicity. Remarkably, one only needs small initial cooling of the mechanical motion to probe even small anharmonicities. Finally, by applying tools from quantum estimation theory, we calculate the ultimate bound on the estimation precision posed by quantum mechanics and compare it with the precision obtainable with feasible measurements such as homodyne and heterodyne detection on the cavity field. In particular we demonstrate that homodyne detection is nearly optimal in the limit of a large number of photons of the field and we discuss the estimation precision of small anharmonicities in terms of its signal-to-noise ratio.

  9. Coherent perfect absorption, transmission, and synthesis in a double-cavity optomechanical system.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiao-Bo; Cui, Cui-Li; Gu, Kai-Hui; Tian, Xue-Dong; Fu, Chang-Bao; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2014-03-10

    We study a double-cavity optomechanical system in which a movable mirror with perfect reflection is inserted between two fixed mirrors with partial transmission. This optomechanical system is driven from both fixed end mirrors in a symmetric scheme by two strong coupling fields and two weak probe fields. We find that three interesting phenomena: coherent perfect absorption (CPA), coherent perfect transmission (CPT), and coherent perfect synthesis (CPS) can be attained within different parameter regimes. That is, we can make two input probe fields totally absorbed by the movable mirror without yielding any energy output from either end mirror (CPA); make an input probe field transmitted from one end mirror to the other end mirror without suffering any energy loss in the two cavities (CPT); make two input probe fields synthesized into one output probe field after undergoing either a perfect transmission or a perfect reflection (CPS). These interesting phenomena originate from the efficient hybrid coupling of optical and mechanical modes and may be all-optically controlled to realize novel photonic devices in quantum information networks.

  10. Transparency and tunable slow and fast light in a nonlinear optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Nie, Wenjie; Chen, Aixi

    2016-10-01

    We investigate theoretically the optical response of the output field and the tunable slow and fast light in a nonlinear optomechanical cavity with a degenerate optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and a higher order excited atomic ensemble. Studies show that the higher-order-excitation atom which is similar to the degenerate OPA that acts as a nonlinear medium, induces an additional dip in absorption spectrum of the probe field. The coherence of the mechanical oscillator leads to split the peak in absorption in the probe field spectrum so that the phenomenon of optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) is generated from the output probe field. In particular, the presence of nonlinearities with the degenerate OPA and the higher order excited atoms can affect significantly the width of the transparency windows, providing an additional flexibility for controlling optical properties. Furthermore, in the presence of the degenerate OPA, the optical-response properties for the probe field become phase-sensitive so that a tunable switch from slow to fast light can be realized.

  11. Transparency and tunable slow and fast light in a nonlinear optomechanical cavity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Nie, Wenjie; Chen, Aixi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the optical response of the output field and the tunable slow and fast light in a nonlinear optomechanical cavity with a degenerate optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and a higher order excited atomic ensemble. Studies show that the higher-order-excitation atom which is similar to the degenerate OPA that acts as a nonlinear medium, induces an additional dip in absorption spectrum of the probe field. The coherence of the mechanical oscillator leads to split the peak in absorption in the probe field spectrum so that the phenomenon of optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) is generated from the output probe field. In particular, the presence of nonlinearities with the degenerate OPA and the higher order excited atoms can affect significantly the width of the transparency windows, providing an additional flexibility for controlling optical properties. Furthermore, in the presence of the degenerate OPA, the optical-response properties for the probe field become phase-sensitive so that a tunable switch from slow to fast light can be realized. PMID:27725763

  12. Three-pathway electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled-cavity optomechanical system.

    PubMed

    Lei, Fu-Chuan; Gao, Ming; Du, Chunguang; Jing, Qing-Li; Long, Gui-Lu

    2015-05-04

    Recently Qu and Agarwal [Phys. Rev. A 22, 031802 (2013)] found a three-pathway electromagnetically induced absorption (TEIA) phenomenon within a mechanically coupled two-cavity system, where there exist a sharp EIA dip in the broad electromagnetically induced transparency peak in the transmission spectrum. In this work, we study the response of a probe light in a pair of directly coupled microcavities with one mechanical mode. We find that in addition to the sharp TEIA dip within a broad EIT window as found by Qu and Agarwal, three-pathway electromagnetically induced transparency (TEIT) within the broad EIT window could also exist under certain conditions. We give explicit physical explanations and detailed calculations. Our results provide a method for controlling transition between TEIA and TEIT in coupled optomechanical systems, and reveal the multiple pathways interference is versatile for controlling light.

  13. Optimal limits of cavity optomechanical cooling in the strong-coupling regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong-Chun; Shen, Yu-Feng; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2014-05-01

    Laser cooling of mesoscopic mechanical resonators is of great interest for both fundamental studies and practical applications. We provide a general framework to describe the cavity-assisted back-action cooling in the strong-coupling regime. By studying the cooling dynamics, we find that the temporal evolution of mean phonon number oscillates as a function of the optomechanical coupling strength depending on frequency mixing. The further analytical result reveals that the optimal cooling limit is obtained when the system eigenmodes satisfy the frequency-matching condition. The reduced instantaneous-state cooling limits with dynamic dissipative cooling approach are also presented. Our study provides a guideline for optimizing the back-action cooling of mesoscopic mechanical resonators in the strong-coupling regime.

  14. Time-resolved phase-space tomography of an optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchoi, Oren; Shlomi, Keren; Ella, Lior; Buks, Eyal

    2015-04-01

    We experimentally study the phase-space distribution (PSD) of a mechanical resonator that is simultaneously coupled to two electromagnetic cavities. The first one, operating in the microwave band, is employed for inducing either cooling or self-excited oscillation (SEO), whereas the second one, operating in the optical band, is used for displacement detection. A tomography technique is employed for extracting the PSD from the signal reflected by the optical cavity. Measurements of PSD are performed in steady state near the threshold of SEO while sweeping the microwave cavity detuning. In addition, we monitor the time evolution of the transitions from an optomechanically cooled state to a state of self-excited oscillation. This transition is induced by abruptly switching the microwave driving frequency from the red-detuned region to the blue-detuned one. The experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions that are obtained by solving the Fokker-Planck equation. The feasibility of generating quantum superposition states in the system under study is briefly discussed.

  15. Strong Optomechanical Interaction in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystal Nanocavities with Surface Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chiang-Hsin; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-09-08

    We propose dynamic modulation of a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavity using monochromatic coherent acoustic phonons formed by ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to achieve strong optomechanical interaction. The crystal nanocavity used in this study consisted of a defective photonic crystal beam coupled to a metal surface with a nanoscale air gap in between and provided hybridization of a highly confined plasmonic-photonic mode with a high quality factor and deep subwavelength mode volume. Efficient photon-phonon interaction occurs in the air gap through the SAW perturbation of the metal surface, strongly coupling the optical and acoustic frequencies. As a result, a large modulation bandwidth and optical resonance wavelength shift for the crystal nanocavity are demonstrated at telecommunication wavelengths. The proposed SAW-based modulation within the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavities beyond the diffraction limit provides opportunities for various applications in enhanced sound-light interaction and fast coherent acoustic control of optomechanical devices.

  16. Strong Optomechanical Interaction in Hybrid Plasmonic-Photonic Crystal Nanocavities with Surface Acoustic Waves

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Lin, Chiang-Hsin; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-01-01

    We propose dynamic modulation of a hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavity using monochromatic coherent acoustic phonons formed by ultrahigh-frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to achieve strong optomechanical interaction. The crystal nanocavity used in this study consisted of a defective photonic crystal beam coupled to a metal surface with a nanoscale air gap in between and provided hybridization of a highly confined plasmonic-photonic mode with a high quality factor and deep subwavelength mode volume. Efficient photon-phonon interaction occurs in the air gap through the SAW perturbation of the metal surface, strongly coupling the optical and acoustic frequencies. As a result, a large modulation bandwidth and optical resonance wavelength shift for the crystal nanocavity are demonstrated at telecommunication wavelengths. The proposed SAW-based modulation within the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanocavities beyond the diffraction limit provides opportunities for various applications in enhanced sound-light interaction and fast coherent acoustic control of optomechanical devices. PMID:26346448

  17. Acceleration Sensing, Feedback Cooling, and Nonlinear Dynamics with Nanoscale Cavity-Optomechanical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Alexander Grey

    Light has long been used for the precise measurement of moving bodies, but the burgeoning field of optomechanics is concerned with the interaction of light and matter in a regime where the typically weak radiation pressure force of light is able to push back on the moving object. This field began with the realization in the late 1960's that the momentum imparted by a recoiling photon on a mirror would place fundamental limits on the smallest measurable displacement of that mirror. This coupling between the frequency of light and the motion of a mechanical object does much more than simply add noise, however. It has been used to cool objects to their quantum ground state, demonstrate electromagnetically-induced-transparency, and modify the damping and spring constant of the resonator. Amazingly, these radiation pressure effects have now been demonstrated in systems ranging 18 orders of magnitude in mass (kg to fg). In this work we will focus on three diverse experiments in three different optomechanical devices which span the fields of inertial sensors, closed-loop feedback, and nonlinear dynamics. The mechanical elements presented cover 6 orders of magnitude in mass (ng to fg), but they all employ nano-scale photonic crystals to trap light and resonantly enhance the light-matter interaction. In the first experiment we take advantage of the sub-femtometer displacement resolution of our photonic crystals to demonstrate a sensitive chip-scale optical accelerometer with a kHz-frequency mechanical resonator. This sensor has a noise density of approximately 10 micro-g/rt-Hz over a useable bandwidth of approximately 20 kHz and we demonstrate at least 50 dB of linear dynamic sensor range. We also discuss methods to further improve performance of this device by a factor of 10. In the second experiment, we used a closed-loop measurement and feedback system to damp and cool a room-temperature MHz-frequency mechanical oscillator from a phonon occupation of 6.5 million down to

  18. Steady-state mechanical squeezing in a hybrid atom-optomechanical system with a highly dissipative cavity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Yang; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    Quantum squeezing of mechanical resonator is important for studying the macroscopic quantum effects and the precision metrology of weak forces. Here we give a theoretical study of a hybrid atom-optomechanical system in which the steady-state squeezing of the mechanical resonator can be generated via the mechanical nonlinearity and cavity cooling process. The validity of the scheme is assessed by simulating the steady-state variance of the mechanical displacement quadrature numerically. The scheme is robust against dissipation of the optical cavity, and the steady-state squeezing can be effectively generated in a highly dissipative cavity. PMID:27091072

  19. In-plane rotation of the doubly coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tong; Tian, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Zou, Yongchao; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-05-01

    In this letter, a nano-electro-mechanical-systems (NEMS) mechanism is proposed to drive the in-plane rotation of the doubly coupled photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam cavities. The corresponding interactions between optical resonances and rotations are investigated. This is the first in-plane rotational tuning of the PhC cavities, which benefits from the flexible design of NEMS actuators. In experiments, more than 18 linewidths of the third order TE even mode corresponding to 0.037 mrad of the shrinking angle between the two nanobeam cavities are demonstrated; this study provides one more mechanical degree of freedom for the practical optomechanical interactions.

  20. Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits.

    PubMed

    Balram, Krishna C; Davanço, Marcelo I; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-05-01

    Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Along with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which RF-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically-driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains.

  1. Dicke phase transition and collapse of superradiant phase in optomechanical cavity with arbitrary number of atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Ni; Bai, Xuemin; Liang, J.-Q.

    2017-03-01

    We in this paper derive the analytical expressions of ground-state energy, average photon-number, and the atomic population by means of the spin-coherent-state variational method for arbitrary number of atoms in an optomechanical cavity. It is found that the existence of mechanical oscillator does not affect the phase boundary between the normal and superradiant phases. However, the superradiant phase collapses by the resonant damping of the oscillator when the atom-field coupling increases to a so-called turning point. As a consequence the system undergoes at this point an additional phase transition from the superradiant phase to a new normal phase of the atomic population-inversion state. The region of superradiant phase decreases with the increase of photon-phonon coupling. It shrinks to zero at a critical value of the coupling and a direct atomic population transfer appears between two atom-levels. Moreover we find an unstable nonzero-photon state, which is the counterpart of the superradiant state. In the absence of oscillator our result reduces exactly to that of Dicke model. Particularly the ground-state energy for N = 1 (i.e. the Rabi model) is in perfect agreement with the numerical diagonalization in a wide region of coupling constant for both red and blue detuning. The Dicke phase transition remains for the Rabi model in agreement with the recent observation.

  2. Optomechanical coupling in phoxonic–plasmonic slab cavities with periodic metal strips

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Huang, Yin-Chen; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the optomechanical (OM) coupling of submicron cavities formed in one-dimensional phoxonic–plasmonic slabs. The phoxonic–plasmonic slabs are structured by depositing periodic Ag strips onto the top surfaces of dielectric GaAs slabs to produce dual band gaps for both electromagnetic and acoustic waves, thereby inducing the coupling of surface plasmons with photons for tailoring the OM coupling. We quantify the OM coupling by calculating the temporal modulation of the optical resonance wavelength with the acoustic phonon-induced photoelastic (PE) and moving-boundary (MB) effects. We also consider the appearance of a uniform Ag layer on the bottom surface of the slabs to modulate the photonic–plasmonic coupling. The results show that the PE and MB effects can be constructive or destructive in the overall OM coupling, and their magnitudes depend not only on the quality factors of the resonant modes but also on the mode area, mode overlap, and individual symmetries of the photonic–phononic mode pairs. Lowering the mode area could be effective for enhancing the OM coupling of subwavelength photons and phonons. This study introduces possible engineering applications to achieve enhanced interaction between photons and phonons in nanoscale OM devices.

  3. Laser optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weijian; Adair Gerke, Stephen; Wei Ng, Kar; Rao, Yi; Chase, Christopher; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2015-09-01

    Cavity optomechanics explores the interaction between optical field and mechanical motion. So far, this interaction has relied on the detuning between a passive optical resonator and an external pump laser. Here, we report a new scheme with mutual coupling between a mechanical oscillator supporting the mirror of a laser and the optical field generated by the laser itself. The optically active cavity greatly enhances the light-matter energy transfer. In this work, we use an electrically-pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with an ultra-light-weight (130 pg) high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirror, whose reflectivity spectrum is designed to facilitate strong optomechanical coupling, to demonstrate optomechanically-induced regenerative oscillation of the laser optomechanical cavity. We observe >550 nm self-oscillation amplitude of the micromechanical oscillator, two to three orders of magnitude larger than typical, and correspondingly a 23 nm laser wavelength sweep. In addition to its immediate applications as a high-speed wavelength-swept source, this scheme also offers a new approach for integrated on-chip sensors.

  4. Laser optomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weijian; Adair Gerke, Stephen; Wei Ng, Kar; Rao, Yi; Chase, Christopher; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2015-01-01

    Cavity optomechanics explores the interaction between optical field and mechanical motion. So far, this interaction has relied on the detuning between a passive optical resonator and an external pump laser. Here, we report a new scheme with mutual coupling between a mechanical oscillator supporting the mirror of a laser and the optical field generated by the laser itself. The optically active cavity greatly enhances the light-matter energy transfer. In this work, we use an electrically-pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with an ultra-light-weight (130 pg) high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirror, whose reflectivity spectrum is designed to facilitate strong optomechanical coupling, to demonstrate optomechanically-induced regenerative oscillation of the laser optomechanical cavity. We observe >550 nm self-oscillation amplitude of the micromechanical oscillator, two to three orders of magnitude larger than typical, and correspondingly a 23 nm laser wavelength sweep. In addition to its immediate applications as a high-speed wavelength-swept source, this scheme also offers a new approach for integrated on-chip sensors. PMID:26333804

  5. Femtogram scale nanomechanical resonators embedded in a double-slot photonic crystal nanobeam cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Zeng, Cheng; Chen, Daigao; Li, Miaofeng; Wang, Yi; Huang, Qingzhong; Xiao, Xi; Xia, Jinsong

    2016-02-01

    An optomechanical device that contains a nanomechanical resonator with an ultralow effective mass of 6.42 fg is designed and demonstrated. The femtogram scale nanomechanical resonator is embedded in a double-slot photonic crystal nanobeam cavity. Optical resonance provides efficient readout of the nanomechanical resonator movements. The fabricated device is optically and mechanically characterized in atmosphere. In the measured radio-frequency power spectral density, a peak at 3.928 GHz is identified to be the mechanical mode with an effective mass of 6.42 fg. The measured room-temperature mechanical Q-factor is 1255, and a displacement sensitivity of 0.13 fm/ √{ Hz } , which is 22 times beyond the standard quantum limit, is obtained. These demonstrated on-chip integrated optomechanical devices combining high Q-factor optical cavities and nanomechanical resonators with ultralow effective masses are promising in ultrasensitive measurements.

  6. Optical four-wave mixing and generation of squeezed light in an optomechanical cavity driven by a bichromatic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, Rafael; de Valcárcel, Germán. J.

    2014-05-01

    We show that an optomechanical cavity pumped by a bichromatic light beam can generate a signal whose frequency lies halfway between the two driving frequencies. This process can be understood as a degenerate four-wave mixing, in which two pump photons (one from each frequency) are combined to yield two identical signal photons. This process takes place between a lower and an upper threshold in terms of the pump intensity, which depend on the pump frequency difference. Close to the signal oscillation threshold a clear noise reduction in one of its quadratures is shown numerically.

  7. Performance of Single Crystal Niobium Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Kneisel, Peter; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Singer, Waldemar; Singer, Xenia; Reschke, Detlef; Brinkmann, A.

    2008-07-01

    We have fabricated and tested a total of six single cell niobium cavities, made from single crystal, high purity niobium. Two of the three cavities of the TESLA shape (1300 MHz) were made from Heraeus niobium by extending a smaller single crystal by rolling and annealing steps; the third cavity was made by spinning from CBMM material. The three other cavities of the scaled "Low Loss" (LL) shape (two) and "High Gradient" (HG) shape (one) resonated at 2.3 GHz and were fabricated from "as received" single crystals, both from Heraeus and CBMM niobium. After appropriate surface treatments by buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing most cavities performed quite nicely and peak surface magnetic fields of ~ 160 mT or above corresponding to accelerating gradients between 38 MV/m and 45 MV/m were reached. This paper reports about the performance of these cavities.

  8. A millikelvin all-fiber cavity optomechanical apparatus for merging with ultra-cold atoms in a hybrid quantum system.

    PubMed

    Zhong, H; Fläschner, G; Schwarz, A; Wiesendanger, R; Christoph, P; Wagner, T; Bick, A; Staarmann, C; Abeln, B; Sengstock, K; Becker, C

    2017-02-01

    We describe the construction of an apparatus designed to realize a hybrid quantum system comprised of a cryogenically cooled mechanical oscillator and ultra-cold (87)Rb atoms coupled via light. The outstanding feature of our instrument is an in situ adjustable asymmetric all-fiber membrane-in-the-middle cavity located inside an ultra-high vacuum dilution refrigerator based cryostat. We show that Bose-Einstein condensates of N=2×10(6) atoms can be produced in less than 20 s and demonstrate a single photon optomechanical coupling strength of g0=2π×9 kHz employing a high-stress Si3N4 membrane with a mechanical quality factor Qm>10(7) at a cavity setup temperature of TMiM = 480 mK.

  9. Force sensing based on coherent quantum noise cancellation in a hybrid optomechanical cavity with squeezed-vacuum injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motazedifard, Ali; Bemani, F.; Naderi, M. H.; Roknizadeh, R.; Vitali, D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose and analyse a feasible experimental scheme for a quantum force sensor based on the elimination of backaction noise through coherent quantum noise cancellation (CQNC) in a hybrid atom-cavity optomechanical setup assisted with squeezed vacuum injection. The force detector, which allows for a continuous, broadband detection of weak forces well below the standard quantum limit (SQL), is formed by a single optical cavity simultaneously coupled to a mechanical oscillator and to an ensemble of ultracold atoms. The latter acts as a negative-mass oscillator so that atomic noise exactly cancels the backaction noise from the mechanical oscillator due to destructive quantum interference. Squeezed vacuum injection enforces this cancellation and allows sub-SQL sensitivity to be reached in a very wide frequency band, and at much lower input laser powers.

  10. A millikelvin all-fiber cavity optomechanical apparatus for merging with ultra-cold atoms in a hybrid quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.; Fläschner, G.; Schwarz, A.; Wiesendanger, R.; Christoph, P.; Wagner, T.; Bick, A.; Staarmann, C.; Abeln, B.; Sengstock, K.; Becker, C.

    2017-02-01

    We describe the construction of an apparatus designed to realize a hybrid quantum system comprised of a cryogenically cooled mechanical oscillator and ultra-cold 87Rb atoms coupled via light. The outstanding feature of our instrument is an in situ adjustable asymmetric all-fiber membrane-in-the-middle cavity located inside an ultra-high vacuum dilution refrigerator based cryostat. We show that Bose-Einstein condensates of N = 2 × 10 6 atoms can be produced in less than 20 s and demonstrate a single photon optomechanical coupling strength of g 0 = 2 π × 9 kHz employing a high-stress Si3N4 membrane with a mechanical quality factor Q m > 10 7 at a cavity setup temperature of TMiM = 480 mK.

  11. Photonic crystal cavities and integrated optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Lin; Li, ZhiYuan

    2015-11-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to our recent works on photonic crystal (PhC) cavities and related integrated optical structures and devices. Theoretical background and numerical methods for simulation of PhC cavities are first presented. Based on the theoretical basis, two relevant quantities, the cavity mode volume and the quality factor are discussed. Then the methods of fabrication and characterization of silicon PhC slab cavities are introduced. Several types of PhC cavities are presented, such as the usual L3 missing-hole cavity, the new concept waveguide-like parallel-hetero cavity, and the low-index nanobeam cavity. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of cavity are discussed. This will help the readers to decide which type of PhC cavities to use in particular applications. Furthermore, several integrated optical devices based on PhC cavities, such as optical filters, channel-drop filters, optical switches, and optical logic gates are described in both the working principle and operation characteristics. These devices designed and realized in our group demonstrate the wide range of applications of PhC cavities and offer possible solutions to some integrated optical problems.

  12. Simultaneous two-dimensional phononic and photonic band gaps in opto-mechanical crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Saeed; Eftekhar, Ali A; Khelif, Abdelkrim; Adibi, Ali

    2010-04-26

    We demonstrate planar structures that can provide simultaneous two-dimensional phononic and photonic band gaps in opto-mechanical (or phoxonic) crystal slabs. Different phoxonic crystal (PxC) structures, composed of square, hexagonal (honeycomb), or triangular arrays of void cylindrical holes embedded in silicon (Si) slabs with a finite thickness, are investigated. Photonic band gap (PtBG) maps and the complete phononic band gap (PnBG) maps of PxC slabs with different radii of the holes and thicknesses of the slabs are calculated using a three-dimensional plane wave expansion code. Simultaneous phononic and photonic band gaps with band gap to midgap ratios of more than 10% are shown to be readily obtainable with practical geometries in both square and hexagonal lattices, but not for the triangular lattice.

  13. Thermal noise and optomechanical features in the emission of a membrane-coupled compound cavity laser diode

    PubMed Central

    Baldacci, Lorenzo; Pitanti, Alessandro; Masini, Luca; Arcangeli, Andrea; Colangelo, Francesco; Navarro-Urrios, Daniel; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a compound optical cavity as linear displacement detector, by measuring the thermal motion of a silicon nitride suspended membrane acting as the external mirror of a near-infrared Littrow laser diode. Fluctuations in the laser optical power induced by the membrane vibrations are collected by a photodiode integrated within the laser, and then measured with a spectrum analyzer. The dynamics of the membrane driven by a piezoelectric actuator is investigated as a function of air pressure and actuator displacement in a homodyne configuration. The high Q-factor (~3.4 · 104 at 8.3 · 10−3 mbar) of the fundamental mechanical mode at ~73 kHz guarantees a detection sensitivity high enough for direct measurement of thermal motion at room temperature (~87 pm RMS). The compound cavity system here introduced can be employed as a table-top, cost-effective linear displacement detector for cavity optomechanics. Furthermore, thanks to the strong optical nonlinearities of the laser compound cavity, these systems open new perspectives in the study of non-Markovian quantum properties at the mesoscale. PMID:27538586

  14. Thermal noise and optomechanical features in the emission of a membrane-coupled compound cavity laser diode.

    PubMed

    Baldacci, Lorenzo; Pitanti, Alessandro; Masini, Luca; Arcangeli, Andrea; Colangelo, Francesco; Navarro-Urrios, Daniel; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2016-08-19

    We demonstrate the use of a compound optical cavity as linear displacement detector, by measuring the thermal motion of a silicon nitride suspended membrane acting as the external mirror of a near-infrared Littrow laser diode. Fluctuations in the laser optical power induced by the membrane vibrations are collected by a photodiode integrated within the laser, and then measured with a spectrum analyzer. The dynamics of the membrane driven by a piezoelectric actuator is investigated as a function of air pressure and actuator displacement in a homodyne configuration. The high Q-factor (~3.4 · 10(4) at 8.3 · 10(-3) mbar) of the fundamental mechanical mode at ~73 kHz guarantees a detection sensitivity high enough for direct measurement of thermal motion at room temperature (~87 pm RMS). The compound cavity system here introduced can be employed as a table-top, cost-effective linear displacement detector for cavity optomechanics. Furthermore, thanks to the strong optical nonlinearities of the laser compound cavity, these systems open new perspectives in the study of non-Markovian quantum properties at the mesoscale.

  15. Thermal noise and optomechanical features in the emission of a membrane-coupled compound cavity laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldacci, Lorenzo; Pitanti, Alessandro; Masini, Luca; Arcangeli, Andrea; Colangelo, Francesco; Navarro-Urrios, Daniel; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of a compound optical cavity as linear displacement detector, by measuring the thermal motion of a silicon nitride suspended membrane acting as the external mirror of a near-infrared Littrow laser diode. Fluctuations in the laser optical power induced by the membrane vibrations are collected by a photodiode integrated within the laser, and then measured with a spectrum analyzer. The dynamics of the membrane driven by a piezoelectric actuator is investigated as a function of air pressure and actuator displacement in a homodyne configuration. The high Q-factor (~3.4 · 104 at 8.3 · 10-3 mbar) of the fundamental mechanical mode at ~73 kHz guarantees a detection sensitivity high enough for direct measurement of thermal motion at room temperature (~87 pm RMS). The compound cavity system here introduced can be employed as a table-top, cost-effective linear displacement detector for cavity optomechanics. Furthermore, thanks to the strong optical nonlinearities of the laser compound cavity, these systems open new perspectives in the study of non-Markovian quantum properties at the mesoscale.

  16. Coupled External Cavity Photonic Crystal Enhanced Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    We report a fundamentally new approach to enhance fluorescence in which surface adsorbed fluorophore-tagged biomolecules are excited on a photonic crystal surface that functions as a narrow bandwidth and tunable mirror of an external cavity laser. This scheme leads to ~10× increase in the electromagnetic enhancement factor compared to ordinary photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence. In our experiments, the cavity automatically tunes its lasing wavelength to the resonance wavelength of the photonic crystal, ensuring optimal on-resonance coupling even in the presence of variable device parameters and variations in the density of surface-adsorbed capture molecules. We achieve ~105× improvement in the limit of detection of a fluorophore-tagged protein compared to its detection on an unpatterned glass substrate. The enhanced fluorescence signal and easy optical alignment make cavity-coupled photonic crystals a viable approach for further reducing detection limits of optically-excited light emitters that are used in biological assays. PMID:23129575

  17. Coupled external cavity photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Ge, Chun; Cunningham, Brian T

    2014-05-01

    We report a fundamentally new approach to enhance fluorescence in which surface adsorbed fluorophore-tagged biomolecules are excited on a photonic crystal surface that functions as a narrow bandwidth and tunable mirror of an external cavity laser. This scheme leads to ∼10× increase in the electromagnetic enhancement factor compared to ordinary photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence. In our experiments, the cavity automatically tunes its lasing wavelength to the resonance wavelength of the photonic crystal, ensuring optimal on-resonance coupling even in the presence of variable device parameters and variations in the density of surface-adsorbed capture molecules. We achieve ∼10(5) × improvement in the limit of detection of a fluorophore-tagged protein compared to its detection on an unpatterned glass substrate. The enhanced fluorescence signal and easy optical alignment make cavity-coupled photonic crystals a viable approach for further reducing detection limits of optically-excited light emitters that are used in biological assays.

  18. Heterodyne photodetection measurements on cavity optomechanical systems: Interpretation of sideband asymmetry and limits to a classical explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Børkje, Kjetil

    2016-10-01

    We consider a system where an optical cavity mode is parametrically coupled to a mechanical oscillator. A laser beam driving the cavity at its resonance frequency will acquire red- and blue-shifted sidebands due to noise in the position of the mechanical oscillator. In a classical theory without noise in the electromagnetic field, the powers of these sidebands are of equal magnitude. In a quantum theory, however, an asymmetry between the sidebands can be resolved when the oscillator's average number of vibrational excitations (phonons) becomes small, i.e., comparable to 1. We discuss the interpretation of this sideband asymmetry in a heterodyne photodetection measurement scheme and show that it depends on the choice of detector model. In the optical regime, standard photodetection theory leads to a photocurrent noise spectrum given by normal- and time-ordered expectation values. The sideband asymmetry is in that case a direct reflection of the quantum asymmetry of the position noise spectrum of the mechanical oscillator. Conversely, for a detector that measures symmetric, nonordered expectation values, we show that the sideband asymmetry can be traced back to quantum optomechanical interference terms. This ambiguity in interpretation applies not only to mechanical oscillators, but to any degree of freedom that couples linearly to noise in the electromagnetic field. Finally, we also compare the quantum theory to a fully classical model, where sideband asymmetry can arise from classical optomechanical interference terms. We show that, due to the oscillator's lack of zero-point motion in a classical theory, the sidebands in the photocurrent spectrum differ qualitatively from those of a quantum theory at sufficiently low temperatures. We discuss the observable consequences of this deviation between classical and quantum theories.

  19. Towards experimental optomechanical entanglement between a movable mirror and a cavity field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2008-03-01

    The quantum regime of mechanical systems offers fascinating new possibilities for both applied and fundamental physics. Quantum optics provides a well-developed tool box to help entering and controlling this regime as is evidenced by the recent successes in laser-cooling of micromirrors that promise cooling capabilities to the mechanical quantum ground state. I will discuss the prospects and challenges to generate (opto-mechanical) quantum entanglement, which is an important resource for quantum information processing and is also at the heart of Schrödinger's ``cat paradox.``

  20. Superfluid Brillouin optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkanova, A. D.; Shkarin, A. B.; Brown, C. D.; Flowers-Jacobs, N. E.; Childress, L.; Hoch, S. W.; Hohmann, L.; Ott, K.; Reichel, J.; Harris, J. G. E.

    2017-01-01

    Optomechanical systems couple an electromagnetic cavity to a mechanical resonator which typically is a solid object. The range of phenomena accessible in these systems depends on the properties of the mechanical resonator and on the manner in which it couples to the cavity fields. In both respects, a mechanical resonator formed from superfluid liquid helium offers several appealing features: low electromagnetic absorption, high thermal conductivity, vanishing viscosity, well-understood mechanical loss, and in situ alignment with cryogenic cavities. In addition, it offers degrees of freedom that differ qualitatively from those of a solid. Here, we describe an optomechanical system consisting of a miniature optical cavity filled with superfluid helium. The cavity mirrors define optical and mechanical modes with near-perfect overlap, resulting in an optomechanical coupling rate ~3 kHz. This coupling is used to drive the superfluid and is also used to observe the thermal motion of the superfluid, resolving a mean phonon number as low as eleven.

  1. Photonic crystal cavities with metallic Schottky contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Quiring, W.; Al-Hmoud, M.; Reuter, D.; Zrenner, A.; Rai, A.; Wieck, A. D.

    2015-07-27

    We report about the fabrication and analysis of high Q photonic crystal cavities with metallic Schottky-contacts. The structures are based on GaAs n-i membranes with an InGaAs quantum well in the i-region and nanostructured low ohmic metal top-gates. They are designed for photocurrent readout within the cavity and fast electric manipulations. The cavity structures are characterized by photoluminescence and photocurrent spectroscopy under resonant excitation. We find strong cavity resonances in the photocurrent spectra and surprisingly high Q-factors up to 6500. Temperature dependent photocurrent measurements in the region between 4.5 K and 310 K show an exponential enhancement of the photocurrent signal and an external quantum efficiency up to 0.26.

  2. Motion-induced enhancement of Rabi coupling between atomic ensembles in cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Anil Kumar; Biswas, Asoka

    2017-02-01

    We propose a scheme of enhancement of Rabi coupling between two identical atomic ensembles trapped inside an optical cavity in a membrane-in-the-middle setup. The cavity modes dispersively interact with the ensembles and the effective interaction between the ensembles is governed by the tunneling rate of the cavity modes through the oscillating membrane. We have shown that this interaction can be made large enough such that the Rabi oscillation occurs in a time scale much smaller than the relevant decay time scales of the cavity modes and of the membrane. We present the detailed analytical and numerical results and assess the feasibility of the scheme using currently available technology.

  3. Ultrahigh-Q TE/TM dual-polarized photonic crystal holey fishbone-like nanobeam cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chao-Sheng; Gao, Ya-Song; Wu, Xiao-Zan; Li, Ming-Jun; Zhong, Jian-Xin

    2014-12-01

    We propose and theoretically investigate a one-dimensional photonic crystal holey fishbone-like silicon nanobeam cavity that simultaneously supports both fundamental transverse-electric (TE) and second-order transverse-magnetic (TM) modes, \\text{TE}00 and \\text{TM}20 modes. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations show that with thin cavity thickness and compact cavity size, the cavity possesses ultrahigh Q (Q_\\text{TE}>107 , Q_\\text{TM}>106 ), along with small mode volume and high confinement factor, for both \\text{TE}00 and \\text{TM}20 modes. We believe our proposed cavity could be beneficial for nonlinear frequency conversion, optomechanics and other applications where dual-polarized TE/TM modes are needed.

  4. Optomechanics for absolute rotation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we present an application of optomechanical cavity for the absolute rotation detection. The optomechanical cavity is arranged in a Michelson interferometer in such a way that the classical centrifugal force due to rotation changes the length of the optomechanical cavity. The change in the cavity length induces a shift in the frequency of the cavity mode. The phase shift corresponding to the frequency shift in the cavity mode is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of absolute rotation. We derived an analytic expression to estimate the minimum detectable rotation rate in our scheme for a given optomechanical cavity. Temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  5. Piezo-optomechanical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbatore Balram, Krishna; Davanco, Marcelo; Ilic, B. Robert; Srinivasan, Kartik

    Coherent links between the optical, radio frequency (RF), and mechanical domains are critical for applications ranging from quantum state transfer between the RF and optical domains to signal processing in the acoustic domain for microwave photonics. We develop such a piezo optomechanical circuit platform in GaAs, in which localized and interacting 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. GaAs allows us to exploit the photoelastic effect to engineer cavities with strong optomechanical coupling (g0/2 π ~ 1.1 MHz) and the piezoelectric effect to couple RF fields to mechanical motion through surface acoustic waves, which are routed on-chip using phononic crystal waveguides. This platform enables optical readout of electrically-injected mechanical states with an average coherent intracavity phonon number as small as ~0.05 and the ability to drive mechanical motion with equal facility through either the optical or electrical channel. This is used to demonstrate a novel acoustic wave interference effect in which optically-driven motion is completely cancelled by electrically-driven motion, and vice versa. As an application of this, we present time-domain measurements of optically-controlled acoustic pulse propagation. Secondary Affiliation is Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

  6. Collapse-revival in entanglement and photon statistics: the interaction of a three-level atom with a two-mode quantized field in cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani Nadiki, M.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper the interaction of a three-level atom in V-configuration with a two-mode quantized field in cavity optomechanics is studied. To achieve the purpose, we first deduce the effective Hamiltonian and evaluate the explicit time-dependent form of the state vector of the whole system by choosing special initial conditions for atom, field and the oscillatory mirror. Interestingly, we can obtain the time evolution of atomic linear entropy, population inversion, quantum statistics and squeezing, both analytically and numerically. The results show that the entanglement between the atom and the subsystem of field and mirror, and all above-mentioned physical quantities can be appropriately controlled by the initial atom-field state condition, the parameters of cavity optomechanics as well as atom-field coupling strengths. In particular, the appearance of collapse-revival phenomenon in the entanglement and quantum photon statistics, also the full sub-Poissonian statistics in the two modes of field as well as in the mechanical mode of optomechanical system are noticeable features of the work.

  7. Semiconductor single crystal external ring resonator cavity laser and gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Spitzer, M.P.

    1993-08-31

    A ring laser is described comprising: a semiconductor single crystal external ring resonator cavity having a plurality of reflecting surfaces defined by the planes of the crystal and establishing a closed optical path; and a discrete laser medium disposed in said semiconductor single crystal external ring resonator cavity for generating coherent light in said cavity, wherein said resonator cavity is decoupled from the laser medium.

  8. Measurement of radiation-pressure-induced optomechanical dynamics in a suspended Fabry-Perot cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Corbitt, Thomas; Ottaway, David; Innerhofer, Edith; Pelc, Jason; Mavalvala, Nergis

    2006-08-15

    We report on experimental observation of radiation-pressure induced effects in a high-power optical cavity. These effects play an important role in next-generation gravitational wave detectors, as well as in quantum nondemolition interferometers. We measure the properties of an optical spring, created by coupling of an intense laser field to the pendulum mode of a suspended mirror, and also the parametric instability (PI) that arises from the coupling between acoustic modes of the cavity mirrors and the cavity optical mode. We measure an unprecedented optical rigidity of K=(3.08{+-}0.09)x10{sup 4} N/m, corresponding to an optical rigidity that is 6000 times stiffer than the mechanical stiffness, and PI strength R{approx_equal}3. We measure the unstable nature of the optical spring resonance, and demonstrate that the PI can be stabilized by feedback to the frequency of the laser source.

  9. Cavity-dumped 2.70 microm erbium laser using optomechanical shutter.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Ho; Won Lee, Dong; Kong, Hong Jin; Kim, Yeong Sik

    2008-12-01

    A cavity-dumped 2.70 microm erbium laser with a frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) shutter was investigated and compared with a Q-switched erbium laser using the FTIR shutter. The Q-switched and the cavity-dumped 2.70 microm laser outputs were obtained with a dichroic coated mirror with high reflectance at 2.70 microm and high transmittance at 2.79 microm. For the Q-switched operation, a maximum peak power of 33.5 kW was achieved, and its pulse width was 1.3 mus. For the cavity-dumped operation, the laser pulse energy was optimized by changing the switching time of the FTIR shutter. When the pulse width is reduced to 210 ns, the peak power increases to 154 kW.

  10. All optical reconfiguration of optomechanical filters.

    PubMed

    Deotare, Parag B; Bulu, Irfan; Frank, Ian W; Quan, Qimin; Zhang, Yinan; Ilic, Rob; Loncar, Marko

    2012-05-22

    Reconfigurable optical filters are of great importance for applications in optical communication and information processing. Of particular interest are tuning techniques that take advantage of mechanical deformation of the devices, as they offer wider tuning range. Here we demonstrate reconfiguration of coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities by using optical gradient force induced mechanical actuation. Propagating waveguide modes that exist over a wide wavelength range are used to actuate the structures and control the resonance of localized cavity modes. Using this all-optical approach, more than 18 linewidths of tuning range is demonstrated. Using an on-chip temperature self-referencing method, we determine that 20% of the total tuning was due to optomechanical reconfiguration and the rest due to thermo-optic effects. By operating the device at frequencies higher than the thermal cutoff, we show high-speed operation dominated by just optomechanical effects. Independent control of mechanical and optical resonances of our structures is also demonstrated.

  11. Feedback control of two-mode output entanglement and steering in cavity optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asjad, Muhammad; Tombesi, Paolo; Vitali, David

    2016-11-01

    We show that the closed-loop control obtained by feeding back the derivative of the signal from the homodyne measurement of one mode of the light exiting a two-mode optical cavity interacting with a mechanical resonator permits us to control and increase optical output entanglement. In particular, the proposed feedback-enhanced setup allows us to achieve a fidelity of coherent-state teleportation greater than the threshold value of 2/3 for secure teleportation and two-way steering between the two cavities' output modes down the line in the presence of loss, which otherwise would not be possible without feedback.

  12. Recent progress in opto-mechanical design of cavity developed for the OSQAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macúchová, Karolina; Hošek, Jan; Němcová, Šárka; &šulc, Miroslav; Zicha, Josef

    2013-05-01

    Two optical methods are used in the laser-based experiment OSQAR at CERN for the search of axions and axion-like particles. The first method looks as light shining through the wall. The second one wants to measure the ultra-fine vacuum magnetic birefringence. Both methods have reached its attainable limits of sensitivity. Present work is focused on increasing the number of photons and their endurance time within the magnetic field using a laser cavity. Presented paper covers recent state of development of a prototype of a 1 meter long laser cavity which is the prerequisite of further development of the experiment.

  13. Energy-localization-enhanced ground-state cooling of a mechanical resonator from room temperature in optomechanics using a gain cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu-Long; Liu, Yu-xi

    2017-08-01

    When a gain system is coupled to a loss system, the energy usually flows from the gain system to the loss one. We here present a counterintuitive theory for the ground-state cooling of a mechanical resonator in an optomechanical system via a gain cavity. The energy flows first from the mechanical resonator into the loss cavity and then into the gain cavity and finally localizes there. The energy localization in the gain cavity dramatically enhances the cooling rate of the mechanical resonator. Moreover, we show that an unconventional optical spring effect, e.g., a giant frequency shift and optically induced damping of the mechanical resonator, can be realized. Those feature a precooling-free ground-state cooling, i.e., the mechanical resonator in thermal excitation at room temperature can directly be cooled to its ground state. This cooling approach has potential application in fundamental tests of quantum physics without complicated cryogenic setups.

  14. (DARPA) Optical Radiation Cooling and Heating In Integrated Devices: Circuit cavity optomechanics for cooling and amplification on a silicon chip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-16

    Columbia’s team focuses on chip-scale optomechanics with emphasis on circuit integration on silicon platforms. In Phase I (06/2010-06/2012), we...Columbia’s team focuses on chip-scale optomechanics with emphasis on circuit integration on silicon platforms. In Phase I (06/2010-06/2012), we advanced...multi- layer structures which can enable more flexible and efficient integration . Using our fully CMOS- compatible AlN photonic circuits , we have thus

  15. Optical fiber tips functionalized with semiconductor photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shambat, Gary; Provine, J.; Rivoire, Kelley; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Vučković, Jelena

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate a simple and rapid epoxy-based method for transferring photonic crystal (PC) cavities to the facets of optical fibers. Passive Si cavities were measured via fiber taper coupling as well as direct transmission from the fiber facet. Active quantum dot containing GaAs cavities showed photoluminescence that was collected both in free space and back through the original fiber. Cavities maintain a high quality factor (2000-4000) in both material systems. This design architecture provides a practical mechanically stable platform for the integration of photonic crystal cavities with macroscale optics and opens the door for innovative research on fiber-coupled cavity devices.

  16. Electrical Control of Silicon Photonic Crystal Cavity by Graphene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Electrical Control of Silicon Photonic Crystal Cavity by Graphene Arka Majumdar,†,‡,∥ Jonghwan Kim,†,∥ Jelena Vuckovic,‡ and Feng Wang...of electronics and photonics . The combination of graphene with photonic crystals is promising for electro-optic modulation. In this paper, we...demonstrate that by electrostatic gating a single layer of graphene on top of a photonic crystal cavity, the cavity resonance can be changed significantly. A

  17. Automated optimization of photonic crystal slab cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkov, Momchil; Savona, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Thanks to their high quality factor, combined to the smallest modal volume, defect-cavities in photonic crystal slabs represent a promising, versatile tool for fundamental studies and applications in photonics. In paricular, the L3, H0, and H1 defects are the most popular and widespread cavity designs, due to their compactness, simplicity, and small mode volume. For these cavities, the current best optimal designs still result in Q-values of a few times 105 only, namely one order of magnitude below the bound set by fabrication imperfections and material absorption in silicon. Here, we use a genetic algorithm to find a global maximum of the quality factor of these designs, by varying the positions of few neighbouring holes. We consistently find Q-values above one million - one order of magnitude higher than previous designs. Furthermore, we study the effect of disorder on the optimal designs and conclude that a similar improvement is also expected experimentally in state-of-the-art systems.

  18. Coupled-cavity QED using planar photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S

    2007-02-23

    We introduce a technique for controlling cavity QED by indirectly coupling two planar-photonic-crystal nanocavities through an integrated waveguide. Guided by an explicit analytical expression for the photon Green function, the resulting optical response of a single quantum dot, embedded in one of the cavities, is shown to be profoundly influenced by the distant cavity. The regimes of cavity QED, e.g., vacuum Rabi splitting, are made significantly easier and richer than with one cavity alone.

  19. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qinglan; Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-08-15

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO{sub 2} dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions with much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.

  20. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qinglan; Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2016-08-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO2 dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions with much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.

  1. Porous photonic crystal external cavity laser biosensor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qinglan; Peh, Jessie; Hergenrother, Paul J; Cunningham, Brian T

    2016-08-15

    We report the design, fabrication, and testing of a photonic crystal (PC) biosensor structure that incorporates a porous high refractive index TiO2 dielectric film that enables immobilization of capture proteins within an enhanced surface-area volume that spatially overlaps with the regions of resonant electromagnetic fields where biomolecular binding can produce the greatest shifts in photonic crystal resonant wavelength. Despite the nanoscale porosity of the sensor structure, the PC slab exhibits narrowband and high efficiency resonant reflection, enabling the structure to serve as a wavelength-tunable element of an external cavity laser. In the context of sensing small molecule interactions with much larger immobilized proteins, we demonstrate that the porous structure provides 3.7× larger biosensor signals than an equivalent nonporous structure, while the external cavity laser (ECL) detection method provides capability for sensing picometer-scale shifts in the PC resonant wavelength caused by small molecule binding. The porous ECL achieves a record high figure of merit for label-free optical biosensors.

  2. Ground-state cooling of a nanomechanical resonator via single-polariton optomechanics in a coupled quantum-dot-cavity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ben-yuan; Li, Gao-xiang

    2016-09-01

    We propose a rapid ground-state optomechanical cooling scheme in a hybrid system, where a two-level quantum dot (QD) is placed in a single-mode cavity and a nanomechanical resonator (NMR) is also coupled to the cavity via radiation pressure. The cavity is driven by a weak laser field while the QD is driven by another weak laser field. Due to the quantum destructive interference arisen from different transition channels induced by simultaneously driving the QD-cavity system in terms of the two different lasers, two-photon absorption for the cavity field can be effectively eliminated by performing an optimal quantum interference condition. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the QD-cavity system can be unbalancedly prepared in two single-polariton states with different eigenenergies. If the frequency of the NMR is tuned to be resonant with transition between two single-polariton states, it is found that a fast ground-state cooling for the NMR can also be achieved, even when the QD-cavity system is originally in the moderate-coupling regime. Thus the present ground-state cooling scheme for the NMR may be realized with currently available experimental technology.

  3. Optomechanical Quantum Correlation Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdy, T. P.; Grutter, K. E.; Davanco, M. I.; Srinivasan, K.; Taylor, J. M.

    We present an optomechanical approach for producing accurate thermometry over a wide temperature range using quantum Brownian motion. Optical measurements induce quantum correlations in an optomechanical system when quantum-limited intensity fluctuations of a probe laser drive mechanical motion. The size of the correlations in the weak probe limit are dictated by the scale of individual phonons. We have recently measured optomechanical quantum correlations in the cross correlation spectrum between the amplitude and phase fluctuations of a single probe laser interacting with a silicon nitride optomechanical crystal. These correlations are independent of thermally-induced Brownian motion. However, Brownian motion does simultaneously produce much larger correlation signals between other optical quadratures. A comparison of the size of thermally-induced correlations to quantum correlations allows us to absolutely calibrate Brownian motion thermometry to the mechanical energy quantization scale.

  4. Fabrication and Testing of Microfluidic Optomechanical Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kewen; Kim, Kyu Hyun; Kim, Junhwan; Lee, Wonsuk; Liu, Jing; Fan, Xudong; Carmon, Tal; Bahl, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Cavity optomechanics experiments that parametrically couple the phonon modes and photon modes have been investigated in various optical systems including microresonators. However, because of the increased acoustic radiative losses during direct liquid immersion of optomechanical devices, almost all published optomechanical experiments have been performed in solid phase. This paper discusses a recently introduced hollow microfluidic optomechanical resonator. Detailed methodology is provided to fabricate these ultra-high-Q microfluidic resonators, perform optomechanical testing, and measure radiation pressure-driven breathing mode and SBS-driven whispering gallery mode parametric vibrations. By confining liquids inside the capillary resonator, high mechanical- and optical- quality factors are simultaneously maintained. PMID:24962013

  5. Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits

    PubMed Central

    Balram, Krishna C.; Davanço, Marcelo I.; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Along with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which RF-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically-driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains. PMID:27446234

  6. Coherent coupling between radiofrequency, optical and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balram, Krishna C.; Davanço, Marcelo I.; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-05-01

    Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1,550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radiofrequency field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic-crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Together with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which radiofrequency-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical and mechanical domains.

  7. The crystal cavities of the New Jersey zeolite region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaller, Waldemar Theodore

    1932-01-01

    The crystal cavities present in the mineral complex of the New Jersey traprock region have long excited the interest of mineralogists. In 1914 Fenner made the first detailed and comprehensive study of these cavities and suggested that babingtonite was the original mineral. Soon after this anhydrite was found occupying parts of some of the cavities at one of the quarries. At this time, too, Wherry concluded that glauberite was the original mineral of some of the cavities because of his studies of similar crystal cavities in Triassic shale at different places.

  8. Flexible single-crystal silicon nanomembrane photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaochuan; Subbaraman, Harish; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Hosseini, Amir; Covey, John; Yu, Yalin; Kwong, David; Zhang, Yang; Lai, Wei-Cheng; Zou, Yi; Lu, Nanshu; Chen, Ray T

    2014-12-23

    Flexible inorganic electronic devices promise numerous applications, especially in fields that could not be covered satisfactorily by conventional rigid devices. Benefits on a similar scale are also foreseeable for silicon photonic components. However, the difficulty in transferring intricate silicon photonic devices has deterred widespread development. In this paper, we demonstrate a flexible single-crystal silicon nanomembrane photonic crystal microcavity through a bonding and substrate removal approach. The transferred cavity shows a quality factor of 2.2×10(4) and could be bent to a curvature of 5 mm radius without deteriorating the performance compared to its counterparts on rigid substrates. A thorough characterization of the device reveals that the resonant wavelength is a linear function of the bending-induced strain. The device also shows a curvature-independent sensitivity to the ambient index variation.

  9. Nonlinear optomechanics with graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    To date, studies of cavity optomechanics have been limited to exploiting the linear interactions between the light and mechanics. However, investigations of quantum signal transduction, quantum enhanced metrology and manybody physics with optomechanics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. Graphene nanomembranes are an exciting prospect for realizing such studies due to their inherently nonlinear nature and low mass. We fabricate large graphene nanomembranes and study their mechanical and optical properties. By using dark ground imaging techniques, we correlate their eigenmode shapes with the measured dissipation. We study their hysteretic response present even at low driving amplitudes, and their nonlinear dissipation. Finally, we discuss ongoing efforts to use these resonators for studies of quantum optomechanics and force sensing. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.

  10. Quantum optomechanical heat engine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Keye; Bariani, Francesco; Meystre, Pierre

    2014-04-18

    We investigate theoretically a quantum optomechanical realization of a heat engine. In a generic optomechanical arrangement the optomechanical coupling between the cavity field and the oscillating end mirror results in polariton normal mode excitations whose character depends on the pump detuning and the coupling strength. By varying that detuning it is possible to transform their character from phononlike to photonlike, so that they are predominantly coupled to the thermal reservoir of phonons or photons, respectively. We exploit the fact that the effective temperatures of these two reservoirs are different to produce an Otto cycle along one of the polariton branches. We discuss the basic properties of the system in two different regimes: in the optical domain it is possible to extract work from the thermal energy of a mechanical resonator at finite temperature, while in the microwave range one can in principle exploit the cycle to extract work from the blackbody radiation background coupled to an ultracold atomic ensemble.

  11. Optomechanically induced transparency and absorption in hybridized optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, B. P.; Wei, L. F.; Wang, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    We present the normal-mode splitting and optomechanically induced transparency or absorption phenomena in the strongly tunnel-coupled optomechanical cavities. In the probe output spectrum, there appear central transparency windows or absorption peaks around which two broad sidebands are symmetrically located. It has been confirmed by the quantitative findings that two broad sidebands, which include the distorted absorption peaks, indicate the normal-mode splitting of the two hybridized cavities, and central transparency windows or absorption peaks character the interference induced by the optomechanical interactions. Additionally, the switching from absorption to amplification can be realized by only adjusting the tunnel interaction. These spectrum properties can be used for the coherent control of light pulses via microfabricated optomechanical arrays.

  12. Optomechanical coupling in the Anderson-localization regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, P. D.; Bericat-Vadell, R.; Arregui, G.; Navarro-Urrios, D.; Colombano, M.; Alzina, F.; Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

    2017-03-01

    Optomechanical crystals, purposely designed and fabricated semiconductor nanostructures, are used to enhance the coupling between the electromagnetic field and the mechanical vibrations of matter at the nanoscale. However, in real optomechanical crystals, imperfections open extra channels where the transfer of energy is lost, reducing the optomechanical coupling efficiency. Here, we quantify the role of disorder in a paradigmatic one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with full phononic and photonic band gaps. We show how disorder can be exploited as a resource to enhance the optomechanical coupling beyond engineered structures, thus providing a new tool set for optomechanics.

  13. A Single Crystal Niobium RF Cavity of the TESLA Shape

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Kneisel, P.

    2007-08-09

    A fabrication method for single crystal niobium cavities of the TESLA shape was proposed on the basis of metallographic investigations and electron beam welding tests on niobium single crystals. These tests showed that a cavity can be produced without grain boundaries even in the welding area. An appropriate annealing allows the outgassing of hydrogen and stress relaxation of the material without destruction of the single crystal. A prototype single crystal single cell cavity was build. An accelerating gradient of 37.5 MV/m was reached after approximately 110 {mu}m of Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP) and in situ baking at 120 deg. C for 6 hrs with a quality factor exceeding 2x1010 at 1.8 K. The developed fabrication method can be extended to fabrication of multi cell cavities.

  14. A Single Crystal Niobium RF Cavity of the TESLA Shape

    SciTech Connect

    W. Singer; X. Singer; P. Kneisel

    2007-09-01

    A fabrication method for single crystal niobium cavities of the TESLA shape was proposed on the basis of metallographic investigations and electron beam welding tests on niobium single crystals. These tests showed that a cavity can be produced without grain boundaries even in the welding area. An appropriate annealing allows the outgassing of hydrogen and stress relaxation of the material without destruction of the single crystal. A prototype single crystal single cell cavity was built. An accelerating gradient of 37.5 MV/m was reached after approximately 110 mu-m of Buffered Chanical Polishing (BCP) and in situ baking at 120°C for 6 hrs with a quality factor exceeding 2x1010 at 1.8 K. The developed fabrication method can be extended to fabrication of multi cell cavities.

  15. Cavity quantum electrodynamics on a nanofiber using a composite photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Yalla, Ramachandrarao; Sadgrove, Mark; Nayak, Kali P; Hakuta, Kohzo

    2014-10-03

    We demonstrate cavity QED conditions in the Purcell regime for single quantum emitters on the surface of an optical nanofiber. The cavity is formed by combining an optical nanofiber and a nanofabricated grating to create a composite photonic crystal cavity. By using this technique, significant enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate into the nanofiber guided modes is observed for single quantum dots. Our results pave the way for enhanced on-fiber light-matter interfaces with clear applications to quantum networks.

  16. Enhanced photodetection in graphene-integrated photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiue, Ren-Jye; Gan, Xuetao; Gao, Yuanda; Li, Luozhou; Yao, Xinwen; Szep, Attila; Walker, Dennis; Hone, James; Englund, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate the controlled enhancement of photoresponsivity in a graphene photodetector by coupling to slow light modes in a long photonic crystal linear defect cavity. Near the Brillouin zone (BZ) boundary, spectral coupling of multiple cavity modes results in broad-band photocurrent enhancement from 1530 nm to 1540 nm. Away from the BZ boundary, individual cavity resonances enhance the photocurrent eight-fold in narrow resonant peaks. Optimization of the photocurrent via critical coupling of the incident field with the graphene-cavity system is discussed. The enhanced photocurrent demonstrates the feasibility of a wavelength-scale graphene photodetector for efficient photodetection with high spectral selectivity and broadband response.

  17. Antibunching in an optomechanical oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, H.; Wright, E. M.

    2017-05-01

    We theoretically analyze antibunching of the phonon field in an optomechanical oscillator employing the membrane-in-the-middle geometry. More specifically, a single-mode mechanical oscillator is quadratically coupled to a single-mode cavity field in the regime in which the cavity dissipation is a dominant source of damping, and adiabatic elimination of the cavity field leads to an effective cubic nonlinearity for the mechanics. We show analytically in the weak-coupling regime that the mechanics displays a chaotic phonon field for small optomechanical cooperativity, whereas an antibunched single-phonon field appears for large optomechanical cooperativity. This opens the door to control of the second-order correlation function of a mechanical oscillator in the weak-coupling regime.

  18. Modelling and fabrication of GaAs photonic-crystal cavities for cavity quantum electrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Khankhoje, U K; Kim, S-H; Richards, B C; Hendrickson, J; Sweet, J; Olitzky, J D; Khitrova, G; Gibbs, H M; Scherer, A

    2010-02-10

    In this paper, we present recent progress in the growth, modelling, fabrication and characterization of gallium arsenide (GaAs) two-dimensional (2D) photonic-crystal slab cavities with embedded indium arsenide (InAs) quantum dots (QDs) that are designed for cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) experiments. Photonic-crystal modelling and device fabrication are discussed, followed by a detailed discussion of different failure modes that lead to photon loss. It is found that, along with errors introduced during fabrication, other significant factors such as the presence of a bottom substrate and cavity axis orientation with respect to the crystal axis, can influence the cavity quality factor (Q). A useful diagnostic tool in the form of contour finite-difference time domain (FDTD) is employed to analyse device performance.

  19. Optomechanically induced absorption in parity-time-symmetric optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Guo, Y. Q.; Pei, P.; Yi, X. X.

    2017-06-01

    We explore the optomechanically induced absorption (OMIA) in a parity-time- (PT -) symmetric optomechanical system (OMS). By numerically calculating the Lyapunov exponents, we find out the stability border of the PT -symmetric OMS. The results show that in the PT -symmetric phase the system can be either stable or unstable depending on the coupling constant and the decay rate. In the PT -symmetric broken phase the system can have a stable state only for small gain rates. By calculating the transmission rate of the probe field, we find that there is an inverted optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) at δ =-ωM and an OMIA at δ =ωM for the PT -symmetric optomechanical system. At each side of δ =-ωM there is an absorption window due to the resonance absorption of the two generated supermodes. Comparing with the case of optomechanics coupled to a passive cavity, we find that the active cavity can enhance the resonance absorption. The absorption rate at δ =ωM increases as the coupling strength between the two cavities increases. Our work provides us with a promising platform for controlling light propagation and light manipulation in terms of PT symmetry, which might have potential applications in quantum information processing and quantum optical devices.

  20. Dispersive interaction of a Bose-Einstein condensate with a movable mirror of an optomechanical cavity in the presence of laser phase noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalafi, A.; Naderi, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically investigate the dispersive interaction of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped inside an optomechanical cavity with a moving end mirror in the presence of the laser phase noise (LPN) as well as the atomic collisions. We assume that the effective frequency of the optical mode is much greater than those of the mechanical and the Bogoliubov modes of the movable mirror and the BEC. In the adiabatic approximation where the damping rate of the cavity is faster than those of the other modes, the system behaves as an effective two-mode model in which the atomic and mechanical modes are coupled to each other through the mediation of the optical field by an effective coupling parameter. We show that in the effective two-mode model, the LPN appears as a classical stochastic pump term which drives the amplitude quadratures of the mechanical and the Bogoliubov modes. It is also shown that a strong stationary mirror-atom entanglement can be established just in the dispersive and Doppler regimes where the two modes come into resonance with each other and the effect of the LPN gets very small.

  1. Spin-cavity interactions between a quantum dot molecule and a photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Patrick M.; Bracker, Allan S.; Carter, Samuel G.; Sweeney, Timothy M.; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Yang, Lily; Brereton, Peter G.; Economou, Sophia E.; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The integration of InAs/GaAs quantum dots into nanophotonic cavities has led to impressive demonstrations of cavity quantum electrodynamics. However, these demonstrations are primarily based on two-level excitonic systems. Efforts to couple long-lived quantum dot electron spin states with a cavity are only now succeeding. Here we report a two-spin-cavity system, achieved by embedding an InAs quantum dot molecule within a photonic crystal cavity. With this system we obtain a spin singlet-triplet Λ-system where the ground-state spin splitting exceeds the cavity linewidth by an order of magnitude. This allows us to observe cavity-stimulated Raman emission that is highly spin-selective. Moreover, we demonstrate the first cases of cavity-enhanced optical nonlinearities in a solid-state Λ-system. This provides an all-optical, local method to control the spin exchange splitting. Incorporation of a highly engineerable quantum dot molecule into the photonic crystal architecture advances prospects for a quantum network.

  2. Spin-cavity interactions between a quantum dot molecule and a photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Vora, Patrick M; Bracker, Allan S; Carter, Samuel G; Sweeney, Timothy M; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Yang, Lily; Brereton, Peter G; Economou, Sophia E; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-07-17

    The integration of InAs/GaAs quantum dots into nanophotonic cavities has led to impressive demonstrations of cavity quantum electrodynamics. However, these demonstrations are primarily based on two-level excitonic systems. Efforts to couple long-lived quantum dot electron spin states with a cavity are only now succeeding. Here we report a two-spin-cavity system, achieved by embedding an InAs quantum dot molecule within a photonic crystal cavity. With this system we obtain a spin singlet-triplet Λ-system where the ground-state spin splitting exceeds the cavity linewidth by an order of magnitude. This allows us to observe cavity-stimulated Raman emission that is highly spin-selective. Moreover, we demonstrate the first cases of cavity-enhanced optical nonlinearities in a solid-state Λ-system. This provides an all-optical, local method to control the spin exchange splitting. Incorporation of a highly engineerable quantum dot molecule into the photonic crystal architecture advances prospects for a quantum network.

  3. Spin–cavity interactions between a quantum dot molecule and a photonic crystal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Patrick M.; Bracker, Allan S.; Carter, Samuel G.; Sweeney, Timothy M.; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Yang, Lily; Brereton, Peter G.; Economou, Sophia E.; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The integration of InAs/GaAs quantum dots into nanophotonic cavities has led to impressive demonstrations of cavity quantum electrodynamics. However, these demonstrations are primarily based on two-level excitonic systems. Efforts to couple long-lived quantum dot electron spin states with a cavity are only now succeeding. Here we report a two-spin–cavity system, achieved by embedding an InAs quantum dot molecule within a photonic crystal cavity. With this system we obtain a spin singlet–triplet Λ-system where the ground-state spin splitting exceeds the cavity linewidth by an order of magnitude. This allows us to observe cavity-stimulated Raman emission that is highly spin-selective. Moreover, we demonstrate the first cases of cavity-enhanced optical nonlinearities in a solid-state Λ-system. This provides an all-optical, local method to control the spin exchange splitting. Incorporation of a highly engineerable quantum dot molecule into the photonic crystal architecture advances prospects for a quantum network. PMID:26184654

  4. Stretchable photonic crystal cavity with wide frequency tunability.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun L; Kim, Hyunwoo; de Leon, Nathalie; Frank, Ian W; Robinson, Jacob T; McCutcheon, Murray; Liu, Mingzhao; Lukin, Mikhail D; Loncar, Marko; Park, Hongkun

    2013-01-09

    We report a new approach for realizing a flexible photonic crystal (PC) cavity that enables wide-range tuning of its resonance frequency. Our PC cavity consists of a regular array of silicon nanowires embedded in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix and exhibits a cavity resonance in the telecommunication band that can be reversibly tuned over 60 nm via mechanical stretching-a record for two-dimensional (2D) PC structures. These mechanically reconfigurable devices could find potential applications in integrated photonics, sensing in biological systems, and smart materials.

  5. Reversible tuning of photonic crystal cavities using photochromic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Deepak; Waks, Edo; Solomon, Glenn; Fourkas, John T.

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate reversible tuning of a photonic crystal cavity resonance using a thin photochromic film composed of spiropyran and polymethylmethacrylate that serves as a photosensitive cladding layer. Exposure of spiropyran to ultraviolet light results in smooth redshift of the cavity resonance that can be reversed by exposure to visible wavelength light. We achieve a reversible resonance shift of up to 2.7 nm, which can be performed locally on individual cavities. The resonance shift over multiple successive UV and visible light exposures is studied to determine the repeatability of the photochromic film.

  6. Novel photonic crystal cavities and related structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, Ting Shan

    2007-11-01

    The key accomplishment of this project is to achieve a much more in-depth understanding of the thermal emission physics of metallic photonic crystal through theoretical modeling and experimental measurements. An improved transfer matrix technique was developed to enable incorporation of complex dielectric function. Together with microscopic theory describing emitter radiative and non-radiative relaxation dynamics, a non-equilibrium thermal emission model is developed. Finally, experimental methodology was developed to measure absolute emissivity of photonic crystal at high temperatures with accuracy of +/-2%. Accurate emissivity measurements allow us to validate the procedure to treat the effect of the photonic crystal substrate.

  7. ESPRESSO Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, J.; Dekker, H.; García López, R. J.; Herreros, J. M.; López, R.; Pepe, F.; Rasilla, J. L.; Spanò, P.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    ESPRESSO is a new generation, super stable, high-resolution optical spectrograph, conceived to obtain the best performance in Doppler shift measurements. A concept study of the instrument is being carried out by a Consortium of scientific institutions formed by ESO, OG, IAC, INAF and Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge, all of them leaded by ESO (see Pasquini et al., these proceedings). Within this framework, the optomechanical, mechanical, and thermal conceptual design of ESPRESSO is being developed by engineers at the IAC. This contribution presents an overview of the current optomechanical conceptual design of this spectrograph.

  8. Microfabricated Optical Cavities and Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lončar, Marko; Scherer, Axel

    Microfabricated periodic structures with a high refractive index contrast have recently become very interesting geometries for the manipulation of light. The existence of a photonic bandgap, a frequency range within which propagation of light is prevented in all directions, is very useful where spatial localization of light is required. Ideally, by constructing three-dimensional confinement geometries, light propagation can be controlled in all three dimensions. However, since the fabrication of 3D photonic crystals is difficult, a more manufacturable approach is based on the use of one- or two-dimensional geometries. Here we describe the evolution of microcavities from 1D Bragg reflectors to 2D photonic crystals. The 1D microcavity laser (VCSEL) has already found widespread commercial use in data communications, and the equivalent 2D geometry has recently attracted a lot of research attention. 2D photonic crystal lasers, fabricated within a thin dielectric membrane and perforated with a two-dimensional lattice of holes, are very appealing for dense integration of photonic devices in telecommunications and optical sensing systems. In this chapter, we describe theory and experiments of planar photonic crystals as well as their applications towards lasers and super-dispersive elements. Low-threshold 2D photonic crystal lasers were recently demonstrated both in air and in different chemical solutions and can now be used to perform spectroscopic tests on ultra-small volumes of analyte.

  9. Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraon, Andrei; Englund, Dirk; Bulla, Douglas; Luther-Davies, Barry; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Stoltz, Nick; Petroff, Pierre; Vučković, Jelena

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a method to locally change the refractive index in planar optical devices by photodarkening of a thin chalcogenide glass layer deposited on top of the device. The method is used to tune the resonance of GaAs-based photonic crystal cavities by up to 3nm at 940nm. The method has broad applications for postproduction tuning of photonic devices.

  10. Si3N4 Optomechanical Crystals in the Resolved-sideband Regime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-27

    taper waveguide ( FTW ), as in Fig. 4(a). A polarization controller before the FTW allowed coupling to TE cavity modes to be maximized. The laser...wavelength was swept, and the signal transmitted through the FTW was detected and recorded, revealing optical resonances in the 980 nm band with 104 < Q < 1

  11. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with liquid crystal external cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Y.; Beeckman, J.; Panajotov, K.; Neyts, K.

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a technology to integrate a thin layer of liquid crystal (LC) on top of a Vertical-Cavity Surface- Emitting Laser (VCSEL). Based on this technology, we demonstrate VCSELs with a chiral liquid crystal (CLC) layer, which acts as a tuneable mirror. The reflection properties of the CLC layer are controlled by temperature. Next we demonstrate VCSEL devices with tuneable external cavity using a nematic LC layer incorporated with an additional dielectric mirror (SiO2/Ta2O5). The VCSEL and the LC layer can be electrically driven independently and the optical length in the external cavity can be tuned by the applied voltage on the LC layer. In both configurations we show that the emission properties of the VCSEL can be changed, in terms of emission wavelength, polarization state and/or lasing threshold.

  12. Slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics for biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Scullion, M G; Di Falco, A; Krauss, T F

    2011-09-15

    We demonstrate the detection of dissolved avidin concentrations as low as 15 nM or 1 μg/ml using functionalized slotted photonic crystal cavities with integrated microfluidics. With a cavity sensing surface area of approximately 2.2 μm(2), we are able to detect surface mass densities of order 60 pg/mm(2) corresponding to a bound mass of approximately 100 ag. The ultra-compact size of the sensors makes them attractive for lab-on-a-chip applications where high densities of independent sensing elements are desired within a small area. The high sensitivity over an extremely small area is due to the strong modal overlap with the analyte enabled by the slotted waveguide cavity geometry that we employ. This strong overlap results in larger shifts in the cavity peak wavelength when compared to competing approaches.

  13. Multifunctional optomechanical dynamics in integrated silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huan

    Light can generate forces on matter. The nature of these forces is electromagnetic force, or Lorentz force. The emergence and rapid progress of nanotechnology provided an unprecedented platform where the very feeble optical forces began to play significant roles. The interactions between light and matter in nanoscale has been the focus of almost a decade of active theoretical and experimental investigations, which are still ongoing and constitute a whole new burgeoning branch of nanotechnology, nano-optomechanical systems (NOMS). In such context, the general goal of my research is to generate, enhance and control optical forces on silicon photonics platforms, with a focus on developing new functionalities and demonstrating novel effects, which will potentially lead to a new class of silicon photonic devices for a broad spectrum of applications. In this dissertation, the concept of optical force and the general background of the NOMS research area are first introduced. The general goal of the silicon photonics research area and the research presented in this dissertation is then described. Subsequently, the fundamental theory for optical force is summarized. The different methods to calculate optical forces are enumerated and briefly reviewed. Integrated hybrid plasmonic waveguide (HPWG) devices have been successfully fabricated and the enhanced optical forces experimentally measured for the first time. All-optical amplification of RF signals has been successfully demonstrated. The optical force generated by one laser is used to mechanically change the optical path and hence the output power of another laser. In addition, completely optically tunable mechanical nonlinear behavior has been demonstrated for the first time and systematically studied. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities has been demonstrated with a "photon see-saw" device. This photon see-saw is a novel multicavity optomechanical device which consists of two photonic crystal

  14. Femtogram scale high frequency nano-optomechanical resonators in water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, He; Zhao, Xiangjie; Wang, Yi; Huang, Qingzhong; Xia, Jinsong

    2017-01-23

    A femtogram scale nanobeam optomechanical crystal (OMC) resonator operating in water is designed and demonstrated. After immersing the device in water, the mechanical Q-factor reduces to 6.6 from 2285 in air. The thermomechanical motion of the highly damped mechanical resonance in water can be resolved using the sensitive cavity optomechanical readout. The mechanical frequency is shifted to 5.251 GHz from 5.3 GHz in air due to the added motional inertia. From the thermomechanical noise spectrum of the mechanical resonance, a noise floor of 9.33am/Hz is achieved in water. Through 2D finite element method (FEM) simulations, the acoustic dissipation dominates the low mechanical Q-factor of the device during the interaction between the mechanical resonance and surrounding water. The mass sensitivity of the present device is estimated to be 1.33ag/Hz in water.

  15. Cavity-type hypersonic phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, A.; Pennec, Y.; Yanagishita, T.; Masuda, H.; Knoll, W.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.; Fytas, G.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the engineering of the phonon dispersion diagram in monodomain anodic porous alumina (APA) films through the porosity and physical state of the material residing in the nanopores. Lattice symmetry and inclusion materials are theoretically identified to be the main factors which control the hypersonic acoustic wave propagation. This involves the interaction between the longitudinal and the transverse modes in the effective medium and a flat band characteristic of the material residing in the cavities. Air and filled nanopores, therefore, display markedly different dispersion relations and the inclusion materials lead to a locally resonant structural behavior uniquely determining their properties under confinement. APA films emerge as a new platform to investigate the rich acoustic phenomena of structured composite matter.

  16. Photosensitive and thermal nonlinear effects in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael W; Grillet, Christian; Monat, Christelle; Mägi, Eric; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Gai, Xin; Madden, Steve; Choi, Duk-Yong; Bulla, Douglas; Luther-Davies, Barry; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2010-12-06

    We investigate the photosensitive and thermo-optic nonlinear properties of chalcogenide glass photonic crystal (PhC) cavities at telecommunications wavelengths. We observe a photosensitive refractive index change in AMTIR-1 (Ge(33)As(12)Se(55)) material in the near-infrared, which is enhanced by light localization in the PhC cavity and manifests in a permanent blue-shift of the nanocavity resonance. Thermo-optic non-linear properties are thoroughly investigated by i) carrying out thermal bistable switching experiments, from which we determined thermal switching times of 63 μs and 93 μs for switch on and switch off respectively and ii) by studying heating of the cavity with a high peak power pulsed laser input, which shows that two-photon absorption is the dominant heating mechanism. Our measurements and analysis highlight the detrimental impact of near-infrared photosensitivity and two-photon absorption on cavity based nonlinear optical switching schemes. We conclude that glass compositions with lower two-photon absorption and more stable properties (reduced photosensitivity) are therefore required for nonlinear applications in chalcogenide photonic crystal cavities.

  17. Dielectric matrices with air cavities as a waveguide photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanov, D. A.; Skripal', A. V.; Merdanov, M. K.; Gorlitskii, V. O.

    2016-02-01

    Frequency dependences of the transmission coefficient of a microwave photonic crystal that represents a structure containing alternating layers of ceramic material (Al2O3) with a relatively large number of cavities and foam plastic are studied in the presence and absence of distortions of the periodicity of a photonic structure. The frequency dependences of the transmission coefficient can be analyzed using a model of effective medium that makes it possible to consider the interaction of electromagnetic wave and photonic crystal using a transfer matrix of a 1D photonic crystal. The band character of the frequency dependence of the transmission coefficient of the photonic crystal related to the periodicity of the photonic crystal in the transverse plane for the waveguide with a standard cross section is not manifested in a certain range of material permittivities.

  18. Demonstration of mid-infrared waveguide photonic crystal cavities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongtao; Li, Lan; Deng, Fei; Ni, Chaoying; Danto, Sylvain; Musgraves, J David; Richardson, Kathleen; Hu, Juejun

    2013-08-01

    We have demonstrated what we believe to be the first waveguide photonic crystal cavity operating in the mid-infrared. The devices were fabricated from Ge23Sb7S70 chalcogenide glass (ChG) on CaF2 substrates by combing photolithographic patterning and focused ion beam milling. The waveguide-coupled cavities were characterized using a fiber end fire coupling method at 5.2 μm wavelength, and a loaded quality factor of ~2000 was measured near the critical coupling regime.

  19. Micro-and Nano-Optomechanical Devices for Sensors, Oscillators, and Photonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    063835, June 24, 2011 [66 citations]. 9. Jasper Chan, T. P. Mayer Alegre, Amir H. Safavi-Naeini, Jeff T. Hill, Alex Krause, Simon Gröblacher, Markus...Safavi-Naeini, Jasper Chan, Jeff T. Hill, T. P. Mayer Alegre, Alex Krause, and Oskar Painter, "Observation of quantum motion of a nanomechanical...citations]. 19. Jasper Chan, Amir H. Safavi-Naeini, Jeff T. Hill, Sean Meenehan, and Oskar Painter, "Optimized optomechanical crystal cavity with

  20. Single-photon quadratic optomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jie-Qiao; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    We present exact analytical solutions to study the coherent interaction between a single photon and the mechanical motion of a membrane in quadratic optomechanics. We consider single-photon emission and scattering when the photon is initially inside the cavity and in the fields outside the cavity, respectively. Using our solutions, we calculate the single-photon emission and scattering spectra, and find relations between the spectral features and the system's inherent parameters, such as: the optomechanical coupling strength, the mechanical frequency, and the cavity-field decay rate. In particular, we clarify the conditions for the phonon sidebands to be visible. We also study the photon-phonon entanglement for the long-time emission and scattering states. The linear entropy is employed to characterize this entanglement by treating it as a bipartite one between a single mode of phonons and a single photon. PMID:25200128

  1. Magnetic field sensor based on coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Han; Zhou, Guangya; Zhao, Yunshan; Chen, Guoqiang; Chau, Fook Siong

    2017-02-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a resonant Lorentz force magnetic field sensor based on dual-coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. Compared with microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Lorentz force magnetometers, the proposed magnetic field sensor has an ultra-small footprint (less than 70 μm × 40 μm) and a wider operation bandwidth (of 160 Hz). The sensing mechanism is based on the resonance wavelength shift of a selected supermode of the coupled cavities, which is caused by the Lorentz force-induced relative displacement of the cavity nanobeams, and thus the optical transmission variation. The sensitivity and resolution of the device demonstrated experimentally are 22.9 mV/T and 48.1 μT/Hz1/2, respectively. The results can be further improved by optimizing the initial offset of the two nanobeams.

  2. Sensitivity of optical mass sensor enhanced by optomechanical coupling

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yong

    2015-03-23

    Optical mass sensors based on cavity optomechanics employ radiation pressure force to drive mechanical resonator whose mechanical susceptibility can be described by nonlinear optical transmission spectrum. In this paper, we present an optical mass sensor based on a two-cavity optomechanical system where the mechanical damping rate can be decreased by adjusting a pump power so that the mass sensitivity which depends on the mechanical quality factor has been enhanced greatly. Compared with that of an optical mass sensor based on single-cavity optomechanics, the mass sensitivity of the optical mass sensor is improved by three orders of magnitude. This is an approach to enhance the mass sensitivity by means of optomechanical coupling, which is suitable for all mass sensor based on cavity optomechanics. Finally, we illustrate the accurate measurement for the mass of a few chromosomes, which can be achieved based on the current experimental conditions.

  3. Role of quantum fluctuations in the optomechanical properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a ring cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Steinke, S. K.; Meystre, P.

    2011-08-15

    We analyze a detailed model of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a ring optical resonator and contrast its classical and quantum properties to those of a Fabry-Perot geometry. The inclusion of two counterpropagating light fields and three matter field modes leads to important differences between the two situations. Specifically, we identify an experimentally realizable region where the system's behavior differs strongly from that of a BEC in a Fabry-Perot cavity, and also where quantum corrections become significant. The classical dynamics are rich, and near bifurcation points in the mean-field classical system, the quantum fluctuations have a major impact on the system's dynamics.

  4. Proposal for an Optomechanical Bell Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivoli, V. Caprara; Barnea, T.; Galland, C.; Sangouard, N.

    2016-02-01

    Photons of a laser beam driving the upper motional sideband of an optomechanical cavity can decay into photon-phonon pairs by means of an optomechanical parametric process. The phononic state can subsequently be mapped to a photonic state by exciting the lower sideband, hence creating photon-photon pairs out of an optomechanical system. Here we show that these pairs can violate a Bell inequality when they are measured with photon counting techniques preceded by small displacement operations in phase space. The consequence of such a violation as well as the experimental requirements are intensively discussed.

  5. Single particle detection in CMOS compatible photonic crystal nanobeam cavities.

    PubMed

    Quan, Qimin; Floyd, Daniel L; Burgess, Ian B; Deotare, Parag B; Frank, Ian W; Tang, Sindy K Y; Ilic, Rob; Loncar, Marko

    2013-12-30

    We report the label-free detection of single particles using photonic crystal nanobeam cavities fabricated in silicon-on-insulator platform, and embedded inside microfluidic channels fabricated in poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Our system operates in the telecommunication wavelength band, thus leveraging the widely available, robust and tunable telecom laser sources. Using this approach, we demonstrated the detection of polystyrene nanoparticles with dimensions down to 12.5nm in radius. Furthermore, binding events of a single streptavidin molecule have been observed.

  6. Crystal cavity resonance for hard x rays: A diffraction experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-L.; Stetsko, Yu. P.; Tang, M.-T.; Shew, B.-Y.; Lee, Y.-R.; Sun, W.-H.; Wu, H.-H.; Kuo, T.-T.; Chen, S.-Y.; Chang, Y.-Y.; Shy, J.-T.; Yabashi, M.; Tamasaku, K.; Miwa, D.

    2006-10-01

    We report the details of the recent x-ray back diffraction experiments, in which interference fringes due to x-ray cavity resonance are unambiguously observed. The Fabry-Perot type cavities, the tested crystal devices of reflectivity R{approx_equal}0.5 and finesse F{approx_equal}2.3, consist of monolithic two-plate and eight-plate silicon crystals. They were prepared by using x-ray lithographic techniques. The thicknesses of the crystal plates and the gaps between the two adjacent plates are a few tens to hundreds {mu}m. The (12 4 0) back reflection and synchrotron x-radiation of energy resolution {delta}E=0.36 meV at 14.4388 keV are employed. Interference fringes in angle- and photon-energy scans for two-plate and eight-plate cavities are shown. Considerations on the temporal and spatial coherence for observable resonance interference fringes using synchrotron x-rays are presented. The details about the accompanied simultaneous 24-beam diffraction in relation to x-ray photon energy are also described.

  7. Logically combined photonic crystal - A Fabry Perot optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alagappan, G.; Png, C. E.

    2016-11-01

    We address the logical combination, as opposed to the linear superposition, of two one - dimensional photonic crystals of slightly different periodicities. The original short range translational symmetry is destroyed in these quasi - periodic system. This induces a strong coupling between Bloch modes of different translational wavevectors, and results in a large number of slow modes in such logically combined photonic crystal. In this article, we show by exploiting the beating feature characteristics of the topology of our system, that these slow modes can be effectively described as modes of a Fabry Perot optical cavity made of a homogenous metamaterial with a dispersive refractive index. The homogenized refractive index of the equivalent metamaterial can be obtained from the band structure calculations, using an extended zone scheme. The density of the slow modes in the logically combined photonic crystal is inversely proportional to the group index of the equivalent metamaterial.

  8. Optomechanical Metamaterials: Dirac polaritons, Gauge fields, and Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peano, Vittorio; Schmidt, Michael; Marquardt, Florian

    2014-03-01

    Freestanding photonic crystals can be used to trap both light and mechanical vibrations. These ``optomechanical crystal'' structures have already been experimentally demonstrated to yield strong coupling between a photon mode and a phonon mode, co-localized at a single defect site. Future devices may feature a regular superlattice of such defects, turning them into ``optomechanical arrays.'' We predict that tailoring the optomechanical band structure of such arrays can be used to implement Dirac physics of photons and phonons, to create a photonic gauge field via mechanical vibrations, and to observe a novel optomechanical instability. ERC Starting Grant OPTOMECH and via the DARPA program ORCHID.

  9. Optomechanics for Inertial Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchison, David Neil

    Inertial MEMS (accelerometers and gyroscopes) is a rapidly-growing billion dollar industry. At the heart of these devices is a displacement sensor. Since its commercialization in the 1980s, the core technology has not changed (viz., capacitive displacement readout of mass-on-springs), for almost all commercially-available inertial MEMS. However, recent developments in integrated optomechanics when combined with recent low-cost on-chip lasers and detectors may enable high-SNR on-chip displacement sensing. Such devices represent a new paradigm in on-chip inertial MEMS sensors, but have yet to be considered in detail in the literature. In this dissertation we quantitatively investigate several optomechanical displacement sensing schemes, both theoretically and experimentally, and discuss the merits of each approach. These schemes include: cavity deformation sensing, cavity evanescent field displacement sensing (both waveguide or nearby absorber moving), and two-cavity gap sensing. Beyond simply investigating different sensing schemes, we find that reinventing the traditional displacement-sensing element has the effect of reinventing the entire system. For example the driving circuitry may be simpler and/or lower-power than traditional inertial MEMS driving circuitry, the noise sources are fundamentally different and are limited by different mechanisms, the footprint and cost drivers may be completely reimagined, etc. Although we have not yet integrated the devices reported here with on-chip lasers and detectors, we show experimental results and modeling for our non-integrated devices, discuss the noise sources to be expected in an integrated device, and survey some on-chip laser/detector noise figures from the literature. Using such noise figures and the measured optomechanical sensitivities, we show that our measured devices when operated as accelerometers could easily achieve sub-microg[square root of] Hz total noise, and thus potentially exceed typical

  10. Brillouin Optomechanics in Coupled Silicon Microcavities

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Y. A. V.; Santos, F. G. S.; Luiz, G. O.; Alegre, T. P. Mayer; Wiederhecker, G. S.

    2017-01-01

    The simultaneous control of optical and mechanical waves has enabled a range of fundamental and technological breakthroughs, from the demonstration of ultra-stable frequency reference devices, to the exploration of the quantum-classical boundaries in optomechanical laser-cooling experiments. More recently, such an optomechanical interaction has been observed in integrated nano-waveguides and microcavities in the Brillouin regime, where short-wavelength mechanical modes scatter light at several GHz. Here we engineer coupled optical microcavities to enable a low threshold excitation of mechanical travelling-wave modes through backward stimulated Brillouin scattering. Exploring the backward scattering we propose silicon microcavity designs based on laterally coupled single and double-layer cavities, the proposed structures enable optomechanical coupling with very high frequency modes (11 to 25 GHz) and large optomechanical coupling rates (g0/2π) from 50 kHz to 90 kHz. PMID:28262814

  11. Brillouin Optomechanics in Coupled Silicon Microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinel, Y. A. V.; Santos, F. G. S.; Luiz, G. O.; Alegre, T. P. Mayer; Wiederhecker, G. S.

    2017-03-01

    The simultaneous control of optical and mechanical waves has enabled a range of fundamental and technological breakthroughs, from the demonstration of ultra-stable frequency reference devices, to the exploration of the quantum-classical boundaries in optomechanical laser-cooling experiments. More recently, such an optomechanical interaction has been observed in integrated nano-waveguides and microcavities in the Brillouin regime, where short-wavelength mechanical modes scatter light at several GHz. Here we engineer coupled optical microcavities to enable a low threshold excitation of mechanical travelling-wave modes through backward stimulated Brillouin scattering. Exploring the backward scattering we propose silicon microcavity designs based on laterally coupled single and double-layer cavities, the proposed structures enable optomechanical coupling with very high frequency modes (11 to 25 GHz) and large optomechanical coupling rates (g0/2π) from 50 kHz to 90 kHz.

  12. Precision Mass Measurement with Optomechanically Induced Transparency in an Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiong; Li, Wen-Juan; Ma, Peng-Cheng; He, Zhi

    2017-07-01

    We present a scheme for all-optical precision mass sensing with squeezed field in an optomechanical system in terms of optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT). We demonstrate that the splitting of the two peaks of the OMIT, which is almost inverse proportion to square root of the accreted mass landing on nanomechanical resonator (NAMR). We also show that the mass measurement scheme for the squeezed fields can be robust against temperature and cavity decay in somehow. Specifically, the precision measurement is from the noise spectrum, for these reasons, our scheme may provide a new paradigm for precision measurement based on the noise in the optomechanical system.

  13. Quantum Optomechanical Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Keye; Bariani, Francesco; Meystre, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    We investigate theoretically a quantum optomechanical realization of a heat engine. The coupling between the cavity field and the mechanical resonator results in normal mode excitations whose quantum character depends on the pump detuning and on the coupling strength. By varying that detuning it is possible to transform their character from predominantly phonon-like into photon-like modes of different frequencies and coupled to two thermal reservoirs at different temperatures. We exploit this property to propose an Otto cycle along one branch of the normal modes and calculate its total work and efficiency. We discuss basic properties of that scheme for different optomechanical systems: in the optical domain it is possible to extract work from the thermal energy of a mechanical resonator, while in the microwave range one can in principle exploit the cycle to extract work from the blackbody radiation background coupled to an ultra-cold atomic ensemble. We ackowledge financial support from National Basic Research Program of China, NSF, ARO and the DARPA QuaSAR and ORCHID programs.

  14. Ultrafast optomechanical pulse picking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilienfein, Nikolai; Holzberger, Simon; Pupeza, Ioachim

    2017-01-01

    State-of-the-art optical switches for coupling pulses into and/or out of resonators are based on either the electro-optic or the acousto-optic effect in transmissive elements. In high-power applications, the damage threshold and other nonlinear and thermal effects in these elements impede further improvements in pulse energy, duration, and average power. We propose a new optomechanical switching concept which is based solely on reflective elements and is suitable for switching times down to the ten-nanosecond range. To this end, an isolated section of a beam path is moved in a system comprising mirrors rotating at a high angular velocity and stationary imaging mirrors, without affecting the propagation of the beam thereafter. We discuss three variants of the concept and exemplify practical parameters for its application in regenerative amplifiers and stack-and-dump enhancement cavities. We find that optomechanical pulse picking has the potential to achieve switching rates of up to a few tens of kilohertz while supporting pulse energies of up to several joules.

  15. AFRL Nanotechnology Initiative: Hybrid Nanomaterials in Photonic Crystal Cavities for Multi-Spectral Infrared Detector Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    INITIATIVE) HYBRID NANOMATERIALS IN PHOTONIC CRYSTAL CAVITIES FOR MULTI -SPECTRAL INFRARED DETECTOR ARRAYS 5b. GRANT NUMBER F A9550-06-1-0482 5c...IR) photodetector using hybrid nanornaterials in photonic crystal (PC) cavities for enhanced absorption at selected wavelengths. The simultaneous...infrared photodetection, quantum dots, photonic crystal cavities, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  16. Terahertz Sensor Using Photonic Crystal Cavity and Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kazuma; Tsuruda, Kazuisao; Diebold, Sebastian; Hisatake, Shintaro; Fujita, Masayuki; Nagatsuma, Tadao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we report on a terahertz (THz) sensing system. Compared to previously reported systems, it has increased system sensitivity and reduced size. Both are achieved by using a photonic crystal (PC) cavity as a resonator and compact resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) as signal source and as detector. The measured quality factor of the PC cavity is higher than 10,000, and its resonant frequency is 318 GHz. To demonstrate the operation of the refractive index sensing system, dielectric tapes of various thicknesses are attached to the PC cavity and the change in the resonator's refractive index is measured. The figure of merit of refractive index sensing using the developed system is one order higher than that of previous studies, which used metallic metamaterial resonators. The frequency of the RTD-based source can be swept from 316 to 321 GHz by varying the RTD direct current voltage. This effect is used to realize a compact frequency tunable signal source. Measurements using a commercial signal source and detector are carried out to verify the accuracy of the data obtained using RTDs as a signal source and as a detector.

  17. Nonlinear optomechanical pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Claudio; Boyd, Robert

    2014-03-01

    A transparent material exhibits ultrafast optical nonlinearity and is subject to optical pressure if irradiated by a laser beam. However, the effect of nonlinearity on optical pressure is often overlooked, even if a nonlinear optical pressure may be potentially employed in many applications, such as optical manipulation, biophysics, cavity optomechanics, quantum optics, and optical tractors, and is relevant in fundamental problems such as the Abraham-Minkoswky dilemma or the Casimir effect. Here, we show that an ultrafast nonlinear polarization gives indeed a contribution to the optical pressure that also is negative in certain spectral ranges; the theoretical analysis is confirmed by first-principles simulations. An order-of-magnitude estimate shows that the effect can be observable by measuring the deflection of a membrane made by graphene.

  18. Single crystal niobium tubes for particle colliders accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, James E

    2013-02-28

    The objective of this research project is to produce single crystal niobium (Nb) tubes for use as particle accelerator cavities for the Fermi laboratory’s International Linear Collider project. Single crystal Nb tubes may have superior performance compared to a polycrystalline tubes because the absence of grain boundaries may permit the use of higher accelerating voltages. In addition, Nb tubes that are subjected to the high temperature, high vacuum crystallization process are very pure and well annealed. Any impurity with a significantly higher vapor pressure than Nb should be decreased by the relatively long exposure at high temperature to the high vacuum environment. After application of the single crystal process, the surfaces of the Nb tubes are bright and shiny, and the tube resembles an electro polished Nb tube. For these reasons, there is interest in single crystal Nb tubes and in a process that will produce single crystal tubes. To convert a polycrystalline niobium tube into a single crystal, the tube is heated to within a few hundred °C of the melting temperature of niobium, which is 2477 °C. RF heating is used to rapidly heat the tube in a narrow zone and after reaching the operating temperature, the hot zone is slowly passed along the length of the tube. For crystallization tests with Nb tubes, the traverse rate was in the range of 1-10 cm per hour. All the crystallization tests in this study were performed in a water-cooled, stainless steel chamber under a vacuum of 5 x10-6 torr or better. In earliest tests of the single crystal growth process, the Nb tubes had an OD of 1.9 cm and a wall thickness of 0.15 mm. With these relatively small Nb tubes, the single crystal process was always successful in producing single crystal tubes. In these early tests, the operating temperature was normally maintained at 2200 °C, and the traverse rate was 5 cm per hour. In the next test series, the Nb tube size was increased to 3.8 cm OD and the wall thickness was

  19. Optomechanical many-body cooling to the ground state using frustration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, Thomás; Landa, Haggai; Cormick, Cecilia; Morigi, Giovanna

    2016-08-01

    We show that the vibrations of an ion Coulomb crystal can be cooled to the zero-point motion through the optomechanical coupling with a high-finesse cavity. Cooling results from the interplay between coherent scattering of cavity photons by the ions, which dynamically modifies the vibrational spectrum, and cavity losses, that dissipate motional energy. The cooling mechanism we propose requires that the length scales of the crystal and the cavity are mismatched so that the system is intrinsically frustrated, leading to the formation of defects (kinks). When the pump is strong enough, the anti-Stokes sidebands of all vibrational modes can be simultaneously driven. These dynamics can be used to prepare ground-state chains of dozens of ions within tens of milliseconds in state-of-the-art experimental setups. In addition, we identify parameter regimes of the optomechanical interactions where individual localized modes can be selectively manipulated, and monitored through the light at the cavity output. These dynamics exemplify robust quantum reservoir engineering of strongly correlated mesoscopic systems and could find applications in optical cooling of solids.

  20. Far-field coupling in nanobeam photonic crystal cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, Ian Sánchez-Arribas, Irene; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2016-05-16

    We optimized the far-field emission pattern of one-dimensional photonic crystal nanobeams by modulating the nanobeam width, forming a sidewall Bragg cross-grating far-field coupler. By setting the period of the cross-grating to twice the photonic crystal period, we showed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations that the intensity extracted to the far-field could be improved by more than three orders of magnitude compared to the unmodified ideal cavity geometry. We then experimentally studied the evolution of the quality factor and far-field intensity as a function of cross-grating coupler amplitude. High quality factor (>4000) blue (λ = 455 nm) nanobeam photonic crystals were fabricated out of GaN thin films on silicon incorporating a single InGaN quantum well gain medium. Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy of sets of twelve identical nanobeams revealed a nine-fold average increase in integrated far-field emission intensity and no change in average quality factor for the optimized structure compared to the unmodulated reference. These results are useful for research environments and future nanophotonic light-emitting applications where vertical in- and out-coupling of light to nanocavities is required.

  1. Far-field coupling in nanobeam photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Ian; Sánchez-Arribas, Irene; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    We optimized the far-field emission pattern of one-dimensional photonic crystal nanobeams by modulating the nanobeam width, forming a sidewall Bragg cross-grating far-field coupler. By setting the period of the cross-grating to twice the photonic crystal period, we showed using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations that the intensity extracted to the far-field could be improved by more than three orders of magnitude compared to the unmodified ideal cavity geometry. We then experimentally studied the evolution of the quality factor and far-field intensity as a function of cross-grating coupler amplitude. High quality factor (>4000) blue (λ = 455 nm) nanobeam photonic crystals were fabricated out of GaN thin films on silicon incorporating a single InGaN quantum well gain medium. Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy of sets of twelve identical nanobeams revealed a nine-fold average increase in integrated far-field emission intensity and no change in average quality factor for the optimized structure compared to the unmodulated reference. These results are useful for research environments and future nanophotonic light-emitting applications where vertical in- and out-coupling of light to nanocavities is required.

  2. Preliminary results from single crystal and very large crystal niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    P. Kneisel; G.R. Myneni; G. Ciovati; J. Sekutowicz; T. Carneiro

    2005-05-01

    We have fabricated and tested several single cell cavities using material from very large grain niobium ingots. In one case the central grain exceeded 7 inches in diameter and this was used to fabricate two 2.2 GHz cavities. This activity had a dual purpose: to investigate the influence of grain boundaries on the often observed Q-drop at gradients E{sub acc} > 20 MV/m in the absence of field emission, and to study the possibility of using ingot material for cavity fabrication without going through the expensive rolling process. The sheets for these cavities were cut from the ingot by wire electro-discharge machining (EDM) and subsequently formed into half-cells by deep drawing. The following fabrication steps were standard: machining of weld recesses, electron beam welding of beam pipes onto the half cells and final equator weld to join both half cell/beam pipe subunits. The cavities showed heavy Q-disease caused by the EDM. After hydrogen degassing at 800 C for 3 hrs in UHV and about 200 {micro}m total removals from the inner surface by BCP 1:1:1, the cavities showed promising results, however, the Q-drop was still present. In the two cavities made from large grain material accelerating gradients of 30 MV/m have been reached. After ''in-situ'' baking the Q-drop disappeared. The smaller cavities made from single crystal material showed very low residual resistances and accelerating gradients up to E{sub acc} = 45 MV/m were reached (one of the highest ever achieved), corresponding to a peak surface magnetic fields (B{sub p}) of 160 mT. In one rf test at 2 K, a B{sub p} = 185 mT was reached for few hundred milliseconds, close to the theoretical critical field of this material.

  3. Coherent optical propagation and ultrahigh resolution mass sensor based on photonic molecules optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Chen, Chang-Zhao; Li, Yang; Fang, Xian-Wen; Tang, Xu-Dong

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate the coherent optical propagation properties based on a photonic molecules optomechanics. With choosing a suitable detuning of the pump field from optomechanical cavity resonance, both the slow- and fast-light effect of the probe field appear in the system. The coupling strength of the two cavities play a key role, which affords a quantum channel and influences the width of the transparency window. Based on the photonic molecules optomechanical system, a high resolution mass sensor is also proposed. The mass of external nanoparticles deposited onto the cavity can be measured straightforward via tracking the mechanical resonance frequency shifts due to mass changes in the probe transmission spectrum. Compared with the single-cavity optomechanics mass sensors, the mass resolution is improved significantly due to the cavity-cavity coupling. The photonic molecules optomechanics provide a new platform for on-chip applications in quantum information processing and ultrahigh resolution sensor devices.

  4. Cavity Pull Rod: Device to Promote Single Crystal Growth from the Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Jon (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A pull rod for use in producing a single crystal from a molten alloy is provided that includes an elongated rod having a first end and a second end, a first cavity defined at the first end and a second cavity defined at the first end and in communication with the first cavity. The first cavity receives the molten alloy and the second cavity vents a gas from the molten alloy to thereby template a single crystal when the pull rod is dipped into and extracted from the molten alloy.

  5. A Spin Qubit Coupled to a Photonic Crystal Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Timothy; Carter, Samuel; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Solenov, Dmitry; Economou, Sophia; Reineke, Thomas; Yang, Lily; Bracker, Allan; Gammon, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The development of a scalable light-matter quantum interface is an important goal of quantum information research. Photonic crystal (PC) membranes provide an architecture in which the interaction of photons with an optically active matter qubit can be controlled through the introduction of optical cavities and waveguides. Charge neutral quantum dots are commonly integrated into PC architectures and are useful for sources and switches, but do not demonstrate long-lived coherences. A charged quantum dot in a PC environment could lead to a spin-photon quantum interface, where it is the long-lived spin of the electron, not the exciton that serves as a qubit. We demonstrate optical spin initialization and coherent control of an electron in a quantum dot that is embedded in and coupled to a 2D PC membrane cavity. The PC membrane is incorporated into an asymmetric NIP diode that allows for charging of an InAs quantum dot via an applied bias. Resonant laser spectroscopy performed in a transverse magnetic field enables the optical measurement and initialization of the electron spin. Furthermore, with the introduction of detuned control pulses, we perform coherent rotations of the electron spin state. These studies demonstrate several essential accomplishments toward a spin-photon interface.

  6. Slow light in photonic crystal cavity filled with nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Kaisar; Mnaymneh, Khaled; Awad, Hazem; Hasan, Imad; Hall, Trevor

    2013-10-01

    An innovative technique to tune the slow light propagated through photonic crystal cavity filled with E7 type nematic crystal has been simulated and presented. Observed propagating modes in the previously fabricated photonic crystal indicate that both slow and fast modes propagate in the waveguide. Design efforts were made to adjust the propagating modes as well as their group velocities. Numerical studies show that by inserting nematic liquid crystal, designer can achieve additional degree of freedom to tune the device by using external perturbation such as applying heat or electric field. Comparative studies have also been done to see the performance of the devices fabricated in two deferent material platforms (silicon and InP) with an objective to develop economic and efficient functional material systems for building robust integrated photonic devices that have the ability to slow, store, and process light pulses.

  7. High-Q silicon-on-insulator slot photonic crystal cavity infiltrated by a liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Caër, Charles; Le Roux, Xavier; Cassan, Eric

    2013-12-16

    We report the experimental realization of a high-Q slot photonic crystal cavity in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) configuration infiltrated by a liquid. Loaded Q-factor of 23 000 is measured at telecom wavelength. The intrinsic quality factor inferred from the transmission spectrum is higher than 200 000, which represents a record value for slot photonic crystal cavities on SOI, whereas the maximum of intensity of the cavity is roughly equal to 20% of the light transmitted in the waveguide. This result makes filled slot photonic crystal cavities very promising for silicon-based light emission and ultrafast nonlinear optics.

  8. Precision Mass Sensing by Tunable Double Optomechanically Induced Transparency with Squeezed Field in a Coupled Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiong; Li, Wen-Juan

    2017-04-01

    We present a scheme for all-optical precision mass sensing with squeezed field in a system consisting of an optomechanical cavity coupled to a charged nanomechanical resonator (NAMR) in terms of tunable double optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) . We demonstrate that the accreted mass landing on NAMR can be achieved by measuring the splitting of the two transparency windows of the double OMIT. Moreover, our work shows this scheme for the quantized fields can be robust against temperature and cavity decay in somehow. Specifically, the precision measurement is from the noise spectrum, for these reasons, our scheme may provide a new paradigm for precision measurement based on the noise in the optomechanical system.

  9. Precision Mass Sensing by Tunable Double Optomechanically Induced Transparency with Squeezed Field in a Coupled Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiong; Li, Wen-Juan

    2017-01-01

    We present a scheme for all-optical precision mass sensing with squeezed field in a system consisting of an optomechanical cavity coupled to a charged nanomechanical resonator (NAMR) in terms of tunable double optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) . We demonstrate that the accreted mass landing on NAMR can be achieved by measuring the splitting of the two transparency windows of the double OMIT. Moreover, our work shows this scheme for the quantized fields can be robust against temperature and cavity decay in somehow. Specifically, the precision measurement is from the noise spectrum, for these reasons, our scheme may provide a new paradigm for precision measurement based on the noise in the optomechanical system.

  10. Towards thermal noise free optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael A.; Zhao, Chunnong; Blair, David G.; Ju, Li; Ma, Yiqiu; Pan, Huang-Wei; Chao, Shiuh; Mitrofanov, Valery P.; Sadeghian, Hamed

    2016-11-01

    Thermal noise generally greatly exceeds quantum noise in optomechanical devices unless the mechanical frequency is very high or the thermodynamic temperature is very low. This paper addresses the design concept for a novel optomechanical device capable of ultrahigh quality factors in the audio frequency band with negligible thermal noise. The proposed system consists of a minimally supported millimeter scale pendulum mounted in a double end-mirror sloshing cavity that is topologically equivalent to a membrane-in-the-middle cavity. The radiation pressure inside the high-finesse cavity allows for high optical stiffness, cancellation of terms which lead to unwanted negative damping and suppression of quantum radiation pressure noise. We solve the optical spring dynamics of the system using the Hamiltonian, find the noise spectral density and show that stable optical trapping is possible. We also assess various loss mechanisms, one of the most important being the acceleration loss due to the optical spring. We show that practical devices, starting from a centre-of-mass pendulum frequency of 0.1 Hz, could achieve a maximum quality factor of (1014) with optical spring stiffened frequency 1-10 kHz. Small resonators of mass 1 ≤ft(μ \\right) g or less could achieve a Q-factor of (1011) at a frequency of 100 kHz. Applications for such devices include white light cavities for improvement of gravitational wave detectors, or sensors able to operate near the quantum limit.

  11. Optomechanical entanglement via reservoir engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingdan

    2014-03-01

    A mechanical resonator could serve as an ideal system for transferring quantum states and mediating interactions between very different kinds of photons. To this end, recent experiments have realized three-mode optomechanical systems, where a single mechanical resonator simultaneously interacts with both an optical and a microwave cavity. In this talk I will discuss different strategies which use reservoir engineering in such a system as a powerful tool to generate robust, stationary entanglement between the two cavity fields. By manipulating the mechanical resonator to effectively cool delocalized Bogoliubov modes, we find that large intracavity entanglement can be achieved, at a level which is well above the maximum achievable via a coherent two-mode interaction. We have also analyzed the entanglement of the output fields of the two cavities. While there are significant differences from the intra-cavity fields, we again find that with proper parameter choices, large amounts of entanglement can be achieved. While the emphasis is on optomechanics, our results can also be applied directly to other 3-mode bosonic systems (e.g., as could be realized with superconducting microwave circuits).

  12. Atom mediated sensing in a hybrid optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, Steven; Bariani, Francesco; Singh, Swati; Meystre, Pierre; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2014-05-01

    A primary difficulty in implementing quantum optomechanical protocols is the requirement to operate in the good cavity limit, i.e., where the cavity linewidth is far smaller than the mechanical frequency. We explore a hybrid two cavity approach in which a membrane-in-the-middle optomechanical cavity is coupled to a second, atomic cavity. Specifically, we show that it is possible to detect the motion of the membrane via an indirect measurement of the atoms. In the case of a non-ideal optomechanical cavity, we show that the sensitivity can be enhanced via this indirect detection. Finally, we investigate the quantum limitations of such a measurement scheme. Supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a grant from AFOSR and the DARPA ORCHID program through a grant from ARO, the US Army Research Office, and by NSF. M. V. acknowledges support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

  13. Controlled mode tuning in 1-D 'RIM' plasmonic crystal trench cavities probed with coupled optical emitters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tsung-li; Russell, Kasey J; Cui, Shanying; Hu, Evelyn L

    2013-12-02

    We present a design of plasmonic cavities that consists of two sets of 1-D plasmonic crystal reflectors on a plasmonic trench waveguide. A 'reverse image mold' (RIM) technique was developed to pattern high-resolution silver trenches and to embed emitters at the cavity field maximum, and FDTD simulations were performed to analyze the frequency response of the fabricated devices. Distinct cavity modes were observed from the photoluminescence spectra of the organic dye embedded within these cavities. The cavity geometry facilitates tuning of the modes through a change in cavity dimensions. Both the design and the fabrication technique presented could be extended to making trench waveguide-based plasmonic devices and circuits.

  14. Tunable Multiple Optomechanically Induced Transparency with Squeezed Fields in an Optomechanical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiong; Yao, Chun-Mei; Wu, Qin-Qin; He, Zhi

    2016-12-01

    A tunable multiple windows optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) with a squeezed field is investigated in a system consisting of an optomechanical cavity coupled to a charged nanomechanical resonator (NAMR) via Coulomb interaction. Such a multiple OMIT can be achieved by adjusting the frequency of the charged NAMR and can be observed even with a single-photon squeezed field. In addition, this multiple OMIT for the quantized fields can be robust against cavity decay and environmental temperature. Specifically, the model under our consideration might be applied to precision measurement the frequency difference of two NAMRs within the reach of current techniques.

  15. Lithographic wavelength control of an external cavity laser with a silicon photonic crystal cavity-based resonant reflector.

    PubMed

    Liles, Alexandros A; Debnath, Kapil; O'Faolain, Liam

    2016-03-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of a new design for external cavity hybrid lasers consisting of a III-V semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with fiber reflector and a photonic crystal (PhC)-based resonant reflector on SOI. The silicon reflector is composed of an SU8 polymer bus waveguide vertically coupled to a PhC cavity and provides a wavelength-selective optical feedback to the laser cavity. This device exhibits milliwatt-level output power and side-mode suppression ratios of more than 25 dB.

  16. Observation of thermal fluctuations in a superfluid optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkanova, A. D.; Shkarin, A. B.; Brown, C. D.; Flowers-Jacobs, N. E.; Childress, L.; Hoch, S. W.; Hohmann, L.; Ott, K.; Garcia, S.; Reichel, J.; Harris, J. G. E.

    2017-02-01

    In cavity optomechanics the state of a mechanical element can be manipulated by interfacing it with light via radiation pressure, electrostriction, or related phenomena. The majority of mechanical elements employed in optomechanical systems to date are solid objects (membranes, nanowires, mirrors, etc); however fluids can also be used as a mechanical element. Compared to solids, fluids have an advantage: they readily achieve precise alignment with the optical cavity, as the fluid can conformally fill or coat the optical cavity. However, almost all optomechanical systems need to be cooled to sub-Kelvin temperatures in order for quantum effects to be observed. Liquid helium is the only fluid that doesn't solidify under its own pressure at these temperatures. Additionally, helium has almost no optical absorption, high thermal conductivity and very low acoustic loss at cryogenic temperatures. We have developed an optomechanical system in which the mechanical mode is a standing density wave in superfluid helium inside a 70 μm long Fabry-Perot cavity. The optical mode is also a mode of the same cavity. Thus, the system is completely self-aligned. In this system, we used electrostriction to drive the mechanical mode with light by modulating the optical intensity. We also observed the mode's undriven Brownian motion and from that extracted it mean phonon number. We measured phonon number as low as nac=11. The optomechanical effects of optical spring and optical damping were observed, and agreed well with the predictions of conventional optomechanical theory.

  17. Phonon Cooling by an Optomechanical Heat Pump.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Bariani, F; Meystre, P

    2015-11-27

    We propose and analyze theoretically a cavity optomechanical analog of a heat pump that uses a polariton fluid to cool mechanical modes coupled to a single precooled phonon mode via external modulation of the substrate of the mechanical resonator. This approach permits us to cool phonon modes of arbitrary frequencies not limited by the cavity-optical field detuning deep into the quantum regime from room temperature.

  18. Photonic crystal cavities for spectrally-selective optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongjun

    Photonic crystal (PC) structures exhibit unconventional dispersion and refractive properties making possible hitherto not realizable optical and optoelectronic devices with high spectral selectivity. Functional PC devices (e.g., optical filters, reflectors, and photo detectors and light emitters) on both Si and III-V semiconductor material systems were fabricated via E-Beam lithography (EBL). The device layer can be further transferred onto foreign substrates such as glass or plastic (PET), using a low-cost "wet nanomembrane transfer technique" developed in this study. The broadband membrane reflectors (MR) based on Fano resonances in patterned silicon nanomembranes have been demonstrated. Resonance control of the reflectors was realized either by partially removing buried oxide layer underneath the device layer, or by controlled SiO2 film deposition on the top of the devices. Both blue- and red-shifts were demonstrated with a turning range of 50 nm for a center wavelength at 1550 nm. These results demonstrate practical post-process means for Fano resonance engineering for both narrow band filters and ultra-compact broadband reflectors. An optically pumped resonance cavity light emitting device (RCLED) with Si based membrane reflectors (MR) has been demonstrated experimentally. The stimulated cavity mode at 1545 nm was observed at room temperature with a pulsed green pumping laser light source. We observed significant spectral narrowing in RCLEDs with linewidth reduced from 50 nm down to <4 nm, owing to the presence of top and bottom MR reflectors. The measured photoluminescence efficiency also increased by a factor of 100 in RCLEDs, as compared to the value measured from as-grown InGaAsP QW structures on InP substrate. The mode shifts were also investigated over different temperatures and different pumping power levels. An InGaAsP QW LED array device was also fabricated and transferred onto flexible PET substrate. The devices showed very good electrical and

  19. Modelling defect cavities formed in inverse three-dimensional rod-connected diamond photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taverne, M. P. C.; Ho, Y.-L. D.; Zheng, X.; Liu, S.; Chen, L.-F.; Lopez-Garcia, M.; Rarity, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Defect cavities in 3D photonic crystal can trap and store light in the smallest volumes allowable in dielectric materials, enhancing non-linearities and cavity QED effects. Here, we study inverse rod-connected diamond (RCD) crystals containing point defect cavities using plane-wave expansion and finite-difference time domain methods. By optimizing the dimensions of the crystal, wide photonic bandgaps are obtained. Mid-bandgap resonances can then be engineered by introducing point defects in the crystal. We investigate a variety of single spherical defects at different locations in the unit cell focusing on high-refractive-index-contrast (3.3:1) inverse RCD structures; quality factors (Q-factors) and mode volumes of the resonant cavity modes are calculated. By choosing a symmetric arrangement, consisting of a single sphere defect located at the center of a tetrahedral arrangement, mode volumes < 0.06 cubic wavelengths are obtained, a record for high-index cavities.

  20. Integrated waveguide-DBR microcavity opto-mechanical system.

    PubMed

    Pruessner, Marcel W; Stievater, Todd H; Khurgin, Jacob B; Rabinovich, William S

    2011-10-24

    Cavity opto-mechanics exploits optical forces acting on mechanical structures. Many opto-mechanics demonstrations either require extensive alignment of optical components for probing and measurement, which limits the number of opto-mechanical devices on-chip; or the approaches limit the ability to control the opto-mechanical parameters independently. In this work, we propose an opto-mechanical architecture incorporating a waveguide-DBR microcavity coupled to an in-plane micro-bridge resonator, enabling large-scale integration on-chip with the ability to individually tune the optical and mechanical designs. We experimentally characterize our device and demonstrate mechanical resonance damping and amplification, including the onset of coherent oscillations. The resulting collapse of the resonance linewidth implies a strong increase in effective mechanical quality-factor, which is of interest for high-resolution sensing.

  1. Inverse-problem approach to designing photonic crystals for cavity QED experiments.

    PubMed

    Geremia, J M; Williams, Jon; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2002-12-01

    Photonic band gap (PBG) materials are attractive for cavity QED experiments because they provide extremely small mode volumes and are monolithic, integratable structures. As such, PBG cavities are a promising alternative to Fabry-Perot resonators. However, the cavity requirements imposed by QED experiments, such as the need for high Q (low cavity damping) and small mode volumes, present significant design challenges for photonic band gap materials. Here, we pose the PBG design problem as a mathematical inversion and provide an analytical solution for a two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We then address a planar (2D crystal with finite thickness) structure using numerical techniques.

  2. Coupling of silicon-vacancy centers to a single crystal diamond cavity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan C; Aharonovich, Igor; Magyar, Andrew P; Rol, Fabian; Hu, Evelyn L

    2012-04-09

    Optical coupling of an ensemble of silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers to single-crystal diamond microdisk cavities is demonstrated. The cavities are fabricated from a single-crystal diamond membrane generated by ion implantation and electrochemical liftoff followed by homo-epitaxial overgrowth. Whispering gallery modes spectrally overlap with the zero-phonon line (ZPL) of the SiV centers and exhibit quality factors ∼ 2200. Lifetime reduction from 1.8 ns to 1.48 ns is observed from SiV centers in the cavity compared to those in the membrane outside the cavity. These results are pivotal in developing diamond integrated photonics networks.

  3. Imaging and tuning of coupled photonic crystal cavities (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurioli, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Photonic microcavities (PMC) coupled through their evanescent field are used for a large variety of classical and quantum devices. In such systems, a molecular-like spatial delocalization of the coupled modes is achieved by an evanescent tunnelling. The tunnelling rate depends on the height and depth of the photonic barrier between two adjacent resonators and therefore it is sensitive to the fabrication-induced disorder present in the center of the molecule. In this contribution, we address the problem of developing a post fabrication control of the tunnelling rate in photonic crystal coupled PMCs. The value of the photonic coupling (proportional to the tunnelling rate) is directly measured by the molecular mode splitting at the anticrossing point. By exploiting a combination of tuning techniques such as local infiltration of water, micro-evaporation, and laser induced non thermal micro-oxidation, we are able to either increase or decrease the detuning and the photonic coupling, independently. Near field imaging is also used for mapping the modes and establish delocalization. By water micro-infiltration, we were able to increase the photon coupling by 28%. On the contrary, by laser induced non thermal oxidation, we got a reduction of g by 30%. The combination of the two methods would therefore give a complete control of g with excellent accuracy. This could make possible the realization of array of photonic cavities with on demand tunnelling rate between each pair of coupled resonators. We believe that this peculiar engineering of photonic crystal molecules would open the road to possible progress in the exploitation of coherent interference between coupled optical resonators both for quantum information processing and optical communication.

  4. Self-cavity lasing in optically pumped single crystals of p-sexiphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagi, Hisao Tamura, Kenji; Sasaki, Fumio

    2016-08-15

    Organic single-crystal self-cavities are prepared by solution growth of p-sexiphenyl (p-6P). Based on Fabry-Pérot feedback inside a quasi-lozenge-shaped platelet crystal, edge-emitting laser is obtained under optical pumping. The multimode lasing band appears at the 0-1 or 0-2 vibronic progressions depending on the excitation conditions which affect the self-absorption effect. Cavity-size dependence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is investigated with laser-etched single crystals of p-6P. As the cavity length of square-shaped crystal is reduced from 100 to 10 μm, ASE threshold fluence is decreased probably due to size-dependent light confinement in the crystal cavity.

  5. High-Q photonic crystal cavities in all-semiconductor photonic crystal heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushell, Z. L.; Florescu, M.; Sweeney, S. J.

    2017-06-01

    Photonic crystal cavities enable the realization of high Q-factor and low mode-volume resonators, with typical architectures consisting of a thin suspended periodically patterned layer to maximize confinement of light by strong index guiding. We investigate a heterostructure-based approach comprising a high refractive index core and lower refractive index cladding layers. While confinement typically decreases with decreasing index contrast between the core and cladding layers, we show that, counterintuitively, due to the confinement provided by the photonic band structure in the cladding layers, it becomes possible to achieve Q factors >104 with only a small refractive index contrast. This opens up opportunities for implementing high-Q factor cavities in conventional semiconductor heterostructures, with direct applications to the design of electrically pumped nanocavity lasers using conventional fabrication approaches.

  6. Mode analysis of photonic crystal L3 cavities in self-suspended lithium niobate membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Diziain, Séverine Geiss, Reinhard; Zilk, Matthias; Schrempel, Frank; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Pertsch, Thomas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-12-16

    We report on a multimodal analysis of photonic crystal L3 cavities milled in lithium niobate free-standing membranes. The classical L3 cavity geometry is compared to an L3 cavity containing a second lattice superimposed on the primary one. Those two different geometries are investigated in terms of vertical radiation and quality (Q) factor for each mode of the cavities. Depending on the cavity geometry, some modes undergo an enhancement of their vertical radiation into small angles while other modes experience a higher Q factor. Experimental characterizations are corroborated by three-dimensional finite difference time domain simulations.

  7. Spontaneous emission enhancement and saturable absorption of colloidal quantum dots coupled to photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shilpi; Waks, Edo

    2013-12-02

    We demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement and saturable absorption of cadmium selenide colloidal quantum dots coupled to a nanobeam photonic crystal cavity. We perform time-resolved lifetime measurements and observe an average enhancement of 4.6 for the spontaneous emission rate of quantum dots located at the cavity as compared to those located on an unpatterned surface. We also demonstrate that the cavity linewidth narrows with increasing pump intensity due to quantum dot saturable absorption.

  8. Nano-optomechanical transducer

    DOEpatents

    Rakich, Peter T; El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Su, Mehmet Fatih; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Wang, Zheng; Davids, Paul

    2013-12-03

    A nano-optomechanical transducer provides ultrabroadband coherent optomechanical transduction based on Mach-wave emission that uses enhanced photon-phonon coupling efficiencies by low impedance effective phononic medium, both electrostriction and radiation pressure to boost and tailor optomechanical forces, and highly dispersive electromagnetic modes that amplify both electrostriction and radiation pressure. The optomechanical transducer provides a large operating bandwidth and high efficiency while simultaneously having a small size and minimal power consumption, enabling a host of transformative phonon and signal processing capabilities. These capabilities include optomechanical transduction via pulsed phonon emission and up-conversion, broadband stimulated phonon emission and amplification, picosecond pulsed phonon lasers, broadband phononic modulators, and ultrahigh bandwidth true time delay and signal processing technologies.

  9. Nonlinear effects in modulated quantum optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Tai-Shuang; Lü, Xin-You; Zheng, Li-Li; Wang, Mei; Li, Sha; Wu, Ying

    2017-05-01

    The nonlinear quantum regime is crucial for implementing interesting quantum effects, which have wide applications in modern quantum science. Here we propose an effective method to reach the nonlinear quantum regime in a modulated optomechanical system (OMS), which is originally in the weak-coupling regime. The mechanical spring constant and optomechanical interaction are modulated periodically. This leads to the result that the resonant optomechanical interaction can be effectively enhanced into the single-photon strong-coupling regime by the modulation-induced mechanical parametric amplification. Moreover, the amplified phonon noise can be suppressed completely by introducing a squeezed vacuum reservoir, which ultimately leads to the realization of photon blockade in a weakly coupled OMS. The reached nonlinear quantum regime also allows us to engineer the nonclassical states (e.g., Schrödinger cat states) of the cavity field, which are robust against the phonon noise. This work offers an alternative approach to enhance the quantum nonlinearity of an OMS, which should expand the applications of cavity optomechanics in the quantum realm.

  10. Absolute rotation detection by Coriolis force measurement using optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davuluri, Sankar; Li, Yong

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we present an application of the optomechanical cavities for absolute rotation detection. Two optomechanical cavities, one in each arm, are placed in a Michelson interferometer. The interferometer is placed on a rotating table and is moved with a uniform velocity of \\dot{\\bar{y}} with respect to the rotating table. The Coriolis force acting on the interferometer changes the length of the optomechanical cavity in one arm, while the length of the optomechanical cavity in the other arm is not changed. The phase shift corresponding to the change in the optomechanical cavity length is measured at the interferometer output to estimate the angular velocity of the absolute rotation. An analytic expression for the minimum detectable rotation rate corresponding to the standard quantum limit of measurable Coriolis force in the interferometer is derived. Squeezing technique is discussed to improve the rotation detection sensitivity by a factor of \\sqrt{{γ }m/{ω }m} at 0 K temperature, where {γ }m and {ω }m are the damping rate and angular frequency of the mechanical oscillator. The temperature dependence of the rotation detection sensitivity is studied.

  11. Nanoimplantation and Purcell enhancement of single nitrogen-vacancy centers in photonic crystal cavities in diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Riedrich-Möller, Janine; Becher, Christoph; Pezzagna, Sébastien; Meijer, Jan; Pauly, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Markham, Matthew; Edmonds, Andrew M.

    2015-06-01

    We present the controlled creation of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers via ion implantation at the center of a photonic crystal cavity which is fabricated in an ultrapure, single crystal diamond membrane. High-resolution placement of NV centers is achieved using collimation of a 5 keV-nitrogen ion beam through a pierced tip of an atomic force microscope. We demonstrate coupling of the implanted NV centers' broad band fluorescence to a cavity mode and observe Purcell enhancement of the spontaneous emission. The results are in good agreement with a master equation model for the cavity coupling.

  12. Flexible nanomembrane photonic-crystal cavities for tensilely strained-germanium light emission

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jian; Wang, Xiaowei; Paiella, Roberto; Cui, Xiaorui; Sookchoo, Pornsatit; Lagally, Max G.

    2016-06-13

    Flexible photonic-crystal cavities in the form of Si-column arrays embedded in polymeric films are developed on Ge nanomembranes using direct membrane assembly. The resulting devices can sustain large biaxial tensile strain under mechanical stress, as a way to enhance the Ge radiative efficiency. Pronounced emission peaks associated with photonic-crystal cavity resonances are observed in photoluminescence measurements. These results show that ultrathin nanomembrane active layers can be effectively coupled to an optical cavity, while still preserving their mechanical flexibility. Thus, they are promising for the development of strain-enabled Ge lasers, and more generally uniquely flexible optoelectronic devices.

  13. Cavity magnomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xufeng; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    2016-01-01

    A dielectric body couples with electromagnetic fields through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces, which mediate phonon-photon coupling in cavity optomechanics. In a magnetic medium, according to the Korteweg-Helmholtz formula, which describes the electromagnetic force density acting on a medium, magneostrictive forces should arise and lead to phonon-magnon interaction. We report such a coupled phonon-magnon system based on ferrimagnetic spheres, which we term as cavity magnomechanics, by analogy to cavity optomechanics. Coherent phonon-magnon interactions, including electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption, are demonstrated. Because of the strong hybridization of magnon and microwave photon modes and their high tunability, our platform exhibits new features including parametric amplification of magnons and phonons, triple-resonant photon-magnon-phonon coupling, and phonon lasing. Our work demonstrates the fundamental principle of cavity magnomechanics and its application as a new information transduction platform based on coherent coupling between photons, phonons, and magnons. PMID:27034983

  14. Observation of transparency of Erbium-doped silicon nitride in photonic crystal nanobeam cavities.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yiyang; Makarova, Maria; Yerci, Selcuk; Li, Rui; Stevens, Martin J; Baek, Burm; Nam, Sae Woo; Dal Negro, Luca; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2010-06-21

    One dimensional nanobeam photonic crystal cavities are fabricated in an Er-doped amorphous silicon nitride layer. Photoluminescence from the cavities around 1.54 microm is studied at cryogenic and room temperatures at different optical pump powers. The resonators demonstrate Purcell enhanced absorption and emission rates, also confirmed by time resolved measurements. Resonances exhibit linewidth narrowing with pump power, signifying absorption bleaching and the onset of stimulated emission in the material at both 5.5 K and room temperature. We estimate from the cavity linewidths that Er has been pumped to transparency at the cavity resonance wavelength.

  15. Ultra-low power fiber-coupled gallium arsenide photonic crystal cavity electro-optic modulator.

    PubMed

    Shambat, Gary; Ellis, Bryan; Mayer, Marie A; Majumdar, Arka; Haller, Eugene E; Vučković, Jelena

    2011-04-11

    We demonstrate a gallium arsenide photonic crystal cavity injection-based electro-optic modulator coupled to a fiber taper waveguide. The fiber taper serves as a convenient and tunable waveguide for cavity coupling with minimal loss. Localized electrical injection of carriers into the cavity region via a laterally doped p-i-n diode combined with the small mode volume of the cavity enable ultra-low energy modulation at sub-fJ/bit levels. Speeds of up to 1 GHz are demonstrated with photoluminescence lifetime measurements revealing that the ultimate limit goes well into the tens of GHz.

  16. Design of an efficient terahertz source using triply resonant nonlinear photonic crystal cavities.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian B; Zhang, Yinan; McCutcheon, Murray W; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Johnson, Steven G; Loncar, Marko

    2009-10-26

    We propose a scheme for efficient cavity-enhanced nonlinear THz generation via difference-frequency generation (DFG) processes using a triply resonant system based on photonic crystal cavities. We show that high nonlinear overlap can be achieved by coupling a THz cavity to a doubly-resonant, dual-polarization near-infrared (e.g. telecom band) photonic-crystal nanobeam cavity, allowing the mixing of three mutually orthogonal fundamental cavity modes through a chi((2)) nonlinearity. We demonstrate through coupled-mode theory that complete depletion of the pump frequency - i.e., quantum-limited conversion - is possible. We show that the output power at the point of optimal total conversion efficiency is adjustable by varying the mode quality (Q) factors.

  17. Large ion Coulomb crystals: A near-ideal medium for coupling optical cavity modes to matter

    SciTech Connect

    Dantan, A.; Albert, M.; Marler, J. P.; Herskind, P. F.; Drewsen, M.

    2009-10-15

    We present an investigation of the coherent coupling of various transverse field modes of an optical cavity to ion Coulomb crystals. The obtained experimental results, which include the demonstration of identical collective coupling rates for different transverse modes of a cavity field to ions in the same large Coulomb crystal, are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. The results furthermore suggest that Coulomb crystals in the future may serve as near-ideal media for high-fidelity multimode quantum information processing and communication purposes, including the generation and storage of single-photon qubits encoded in different transverse modes.

  18. Optomechanically induced transparency associated with steady-state entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate a two-cavity optomechanical system in which a cavity (cavity a ) couples to a mechanical resonator via radiation pressure and to another cavity (cavity c ) via a common waveguide. In the excitation of a strong pump filed to cavity a , the steady-state entanglement between cavity a and c , as a quantum channel, can be generated, which provides an indirect optical pathway to excite cavity c by means of the pump filed. Quantum interference between the direct and indirect optical pathways gives rise to an optomechanically induced transparency appearing in the probe transmission of cavity c . Unlike in a typical optomechanically induced transparency effect, the electromagnetical control of the transmission is implemented by resorting to the quantum channel. Furthermore, the coupling strength of the two cavities is an important factor of the quantum channel, which can influence the width of the transparency window and the bistable behavior of the mean photon number in cavity a . We also illustrate that the electromagnetical control via quantum channel can be exploited to implement the optical switch and the slow light.

  19. Optomechanical proposal for monitoring microtubule mechanical vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzanjeh, Sh.; Salari, V.; Tuszynski, J. A.; Cifra, M.; Simon, C.

    2017-07-01

    Microtubules provide the mechanical force required for chromosome separation during mitosis. However, little is known about the dynamic (high-frequency) mechanical properties of microtubules. Here, we theoretically propose to control the vibrations of a doubly clamped microtubule by tip electrodes and to detect its motion via the optomechanical coupling between the vibrational modes of the microtubule and an optical cavity. In the presence of a red-detuned strong pump laser, this coupling leads to optomechanical-induced transparency of an optical probe field, which can be detected with state-of-the art technology. The center frequency and line width of the transparency peak give the resonance frequency and damping rate of the microtubule, respectively, while the height of the peak reveals information about the microtubule-cavity field coupling. Our method opens the new possibilities to gain information about the physical properties of microtubules, which will enhance our capability to design physical cancer treatment protocols as alternatives to chemotherapeutic drugs.

  20. Transmissive optomechanical platforms with engineered spatial defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignone, Edoardo; Pupillo, Guido; Genes, Claudiu

    2014-11-01

    Linear optomechanical photon-phonon couplings in the membrane-in-the-middle setup can be enhanced by taking a multielement approach as it was recently shown [A. Xuereb, C. Genes, and A. Dantan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 223601 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.223601]. The particular example considered consists of a periodic array of membranes embedded in a high-finesse optical cavity and operating in the transmissive regime, i.e., around resonances of the compound cavity-membrane system. Here we propose further improvements in such a setup by breaking the translational invariance of the array, i.e., by considering quasiperiodic arrays with engineered quadratic spatial defects in the membrane positions. The localization of light modes induced by the defect combined with the access of the aforementioned transmissive regime window can lead to additional enhancement of the strength of both linear and quadratic optomechanical couplings.

  1. Deterministic coupling of delta-doped nitrogen vacancy centers to a nanobeam photonic crystal cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jonathan C.; Cui, Shanying; Zhang, Xingyu; Russell, Kasey J.; Magyar, Andrew P.; Hu, Evelyn L.; Bracher, David O.; Ohno, Kenichi; McLellan, Claire A.; Alemán, Benjamin; Bleszynski Jayich, Ania; Andrich, Paolo; Awschalom, David; Aharonovich, Igor

    2014-12-29

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy center (NV) in diamond has generated significant interest as a platform for quantum information processing and sensing in the solid state. For most applications, high quality optical cavities are required to enhance the NV zero-phonon line (ZPL) emission. An outstanding challenge in maximizing the degree of NV-cavity coupling is the deterministic placement of NVs within the cavity. Here, we report photonic crystal nanobeam cavities coupled to NVs incorporated by a delta-doping technique that allows nanometer-scale vertical positioning of the emitters. We demonstrate cavities with Q up to ∼24 000 and mode volume V ∼ 0.47(λ/n){sup 3} as well as resonant enhancement of the ZPL of an NV ensemble with Purcell factor of ∼20. Our fabrication technique provides a first step towards deterministic NV-cavity coupling using spatial control of the emitters.

  2. Phase-field simulations of crystal growth in a two-dimensional cavity flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunggyu; Li, Yibao; Shin, Jaemin; Kim, Junseok

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a phase-field model for dendritic growth in a two-dimensional cavity flow and propose a computationally efficient numerical method for solving the model. The crystal is fixed in the space and cannot be convected in most of the previous studies, instead the supercooled melt flows around the crystal, which is hard to be realized in the real world experimental setting. Applying advection to the crystal equation, we have problems such as deformation of crystal shape and ambiguity of the crystal orientation for the anisotropy. To resolve these difficulties, we present a phase-field method by using a moving overset grid for the dendritic growth in a cavity flow. Numerical results show that the proposed method can predict the crystal growth under flow.

  3. A computational study of dielectric photonic-crystal-based accelerator cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, C. A.

    Future particle accelerator cavities may use dielectric photonic crystals to reduce harmful wakefields and increase the accelerating electric field (or gradient). Reduced wakefields are predicted based on the bandgap property of some photonic crystals (i.e. frequency-selective reflection/transmission). Larger accelerating gradients are predicted based on certain dielectrics' strong resistance to electrical breakdown. Using computation, this thesis investigated a hybrid design of a 2D sapphire photonic crystal and traditional copper conducting cavity. The goals were to test the claim of reduced wakefields and, in general, judge the effectiveness of such structures as practical accelerating cavities. In the process, we discovered the following: (1) resonant cavities in truncated photonic crystals may confine radiation weakly compared to conducting cavities (depending on the level of truncation); however, confinement can be dramatically increased through optimizations that break lattice symmetry (but retain certain rotational symmetries); (2) photonic crystal cavities do not ideally reduce wakefields; using band structure calculations, we found that wakefields are increased by flat portions of the frequency dispersion (where the waves have vanishing group velocities). A complete comparison was drawn between the proposed photonic crystal cavities and the copper cavities for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC); CLIC is one of the candidates for a future high-energy electron-positron collider that will study in greater detail the physics learned at the Large Hadron Collider. We found that the photonic crystal cavity, when compared to the CLIC cavity: (1) can lower maximum surface magnetic fields on conductors (growing evidence suggests this limits accelerating gradients by inducing electrical breakdown); (2) shows increased transverse dipole wakefields but decreased longitudinal monopole wakefields; and (3) exhibits lower accelerating efficiencies (unless

  4. Development of Large Grain/Single Crystal Niobium Cavity Technology at Jefferson Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneisel, P.; Myneni, G. R.; Ciovati, G.; Sekutowicz, J.; Carneiro, T.

    2007-08-01

    Approximately two years ago we started to develop high performance niobium accelerating cavities based on large grain or single crystal high purity niobium. We have fabricated and tested 15 single cell cavities of various shapes and frequencies between 1300 MHz and 2300 MHz using material from a total of 9 different very large grain niobium ingots from four niobium suppliers. The materials differed not only in grain sizes, but also in RRR — value and in the amount of Ta contained in the material. In one ingot supplied by CBMM the central grain exceeded 7 inches in diameter and this was used to fabricate two 2.2 GHz cavities. A single crystal 1300 MHz mono-cell cavity was also produced at DESY by rolling out a single crystal to the size required for this cavity. It was sent to Jlab for surface treatment and testing. In addition, we have fabricated three 7-cell cavities: two of the Jlab high gradient (HG) shape and one of the ILC Low Loss shape. Two 9-cell TESLA shape cavities are presently in fabrication at Jlab and are close to completion.

  5. Development of Large Grain/Single Crystal Niobium Cavity Technology at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Kneisel, P.; Myneni, G. R.; Ciovati, G.; Sekutowicz, J.; Carneiro, T.

    2007-08-09

    Approximately two years ago we started to develop high performance niobium accelerating cavities based on large grain or single crystal high purity niobium. We have fabricated and tested 15 single cell cavities of various shapes and frequencies between 1300 MHz and 2300 MHz using material from a total of 9 different very large grain niobium ingots from four niobium suppliers. The materials differed not only in grain sizes, but also in RRR - value and in the amount of Ta contained in the material. In one ingot supplied by CBMM the central grain exceeded 7 inches in diameter and this was used to fabricate two 2.2 GHz cavities. A single crystal 1300 MHz mono-cell cavity was also produced at DESY by rolling out a single crystal to the size required for this cavity. It was sent to Jlab for surface treatment and testing. In addition, we have fabricated three 7-cell cavities: two of the Jlab high gradient (HG) shape and one of the ILC Low Loss shape. Two 9-cell TESLA shape cavities are presently in fabrication at Jlab and are close to completion.

  6. Development of large Grain/Single Crystal Niobium Cavity Technology at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Kneisel; J. Sekutowicz; T. Carneiro; G. Ciovati

    2006-10-31

    Approximately two years ago we started to develop high performance niobium accelerating cavities based on large grain or single crystal high purity niobium. We have fabricated and tested 15 single cell cavities of various shapes and frequencies between 1300 MHz and 2300 MHz using material from a total of 9 different very large grain niobium ingots from four niobium suppliers. The materials differed not only in grain sizes, but also in RRR ? value and in the amount of Ta contained in the material. In one ingot supplied by CBMM the central grain exceeded 7 inches in diameter and this was used to fabricate two 2.2 GHz cavities. A single crystal 1300 MHz mono-cell cavity was also produced at DESY by rolling out a single crystal to the size required for this cavity. It was sent to Jlab for surface treatment and testing. In addition, we have fabricated three 7-cell cavities: two of the Jlab high gradient (HG) shape and one of the ILC Low Loss shape. Two 9-cell TESLA shape cavities are presently in fabrication at Jlab and are close to completion.

  7. Plasmonics: Photothermal optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruello, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Radiation pressure is not the only way to push or pull matter and drive light-matter interactions. Optomechanical devices can now be driven thermoelastically and amplification with acoustic-laser-like behaviour has been observed.

  8. Linking classical and molecular optomechanics descriptions of SERS.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mikołaj K; Esteban, Ruben; Benz, Felix; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Aizpurua, Javier

    2017-09-21

    The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of molecular species in plasmonic cavities can be described as an optomechanical process where plasmons constitute an optical cavity of reduced effective mode volume which effectively couples to the vibrations of the molecules. An optomechanical Hamiltonian can address the full quantum dynamics of the system, including the phonon population build-up, the vibrational pumping regime, and the Stokes-anti-Stokes correlations of the photons emitted. Here we describe in detail two different levels of approximation to the methodological solution of the optomechanical Hamiltonian of a generic SERS configuration, and compare the results of each model in light of recent experiments. Furthermore, a phenomenological semi-classical approach based on a rate equation of the phonon population is demonstrated to be formally equivalent to that obtained from the full quantum optomechanical approach. The evolution of the Raman signal with laser intensity (thermal, vibrational pumping and instability regimes) is accurately addressed when this phenomenological semi-classical approach is properly extended to account for the anti-Stokes process. The formal equivalence between semi-classical and molecular optomechanics descriptions allows us to describe the vibrational pumping regime of SERS through the classical cross sections which characterize a nanosystem, thus setting a roadmap to describing molecular optomechanical effects in a variety of experimental situations.

  9. Optomechanical Ramsey interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Kenan; Dong, Chunhua; Wang, Hailin; Agarwal, G. S.

    2014-11-01

    We adopt Ramsey's method of separated oscillatory fields to study coherences of the mechanical system in an optomechanical resonator. The high-resolution Ramsey fringes are observed in the emission optical field, when two pulses separated in time are applied. We develop a theory to describe the transient optomechanical behavior underlying the Ramsey fringes. We also perform the experimental demonstration using a silica microresonator. The method is versatile and can be adopted for different types of mechanical resonators and electromechanical resonators.

  10. Hybrid quantum systems with ultracold spins and optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Airlia; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Cheung, Hil F. H.; Wang, Ke; Date, Aditya; Schwab, Keith; Meystre, Pierre; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    Linear cavity optomechanics has enabled radiation pressure cooling and sensing of mechanical resonators at the quantum limits. However, exciting and unrealized avenues such as generating massive macroscopic nonclassical states, quantum signal transduction, and phonon-based manybody physics each require strong, nonlinear interactions. In our group, we are exploring three approaches to realizing strong optomechanical nonlinearities - i. using atomically thin graphene membranes, ii. coupling optomechanical systems with ultracold atomic spins, and iii. using microtoroidal optomechanical resonators strongly coupled to atoms trapped in their evanescent fields. We describe our progress in each of these efforts and discuss ongoing studies on various aspects of quantum enhanced metrology, nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum transduction using these novel hybrid quantum systems. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a Grant from the ARO.

  11. Optomechanical response of a nonlinear mechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchuk, Olga; Singh, Vibhor; Steele, Gary A.; Blanter, Ya. M.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate theoretically in detail the nonlinear effects in the response of an optical/microwave cavity coupled to a Duffing mechanical resonator. The cavity is driven by a laser at a red or blue mechanical subband, and a probe laser measures the reflection close to the cavity resonance. Under these conditions, we find that the cavity exhibits optomechanically induced reflection (OMIR) or absorption (OMIA) and investigate the optomechanical response in the limit of nonlinear driving of the mechanics. Similar to linear mechanical drive, in an overcoupled cavity the red sideband drive may lead to both OMIA and OMIR depending on the strength of the drive, whereas the blue sideband drive only leads to OMIR. The dynamics of the phase of the mechanical resonator leads to the difference between the shapes of the response of the cavity and the amplitude response of the driven Duffing oscillator, for example, at weak red sideband drive the OMIA dip has no inflection point. We also verify that mechanical nonlinearities beyond Duffing model have little effect on the size of the OMIA dip though they affect the width of the dip.

  12. Optical Nonreciprocity Based on Optomechanical Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Ruesink, Freek; Verhagen, Ewold; Alù, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    Optical isolation, nonreciprocal phase transmission, and topological phases for light based on synthetic gauge fields have been raising significant interest in the recent literature. Cavity-optomechanical systems that involve two optical modes coupled to a common mechanical mode form an ideal platform to realize these effects, providing the basis for various recent demonstrations of optomechanically induced nonreciprocal light transmission. Here, we establish a unifying theoretical framework to analyze optical nonreciprocity and the breaking of time-reversal symmetry in multimode optomechanical systems. We highlight two general scenarios to achieve isolation, relying on either optical or mechanical losses. Depending on the loss mechanism, our theory defines the ultimate requirements for optimal isolation and the available operational bandwidth in these systems. We also analyze the effect of sideband resolution on the performance of optomechanical isolators, highlighting the fact that nonreciprocity can be preserved even in the unresolved sideband regime. Our results provide general insights into a broad class of parametrically modulated nonreciprocal devices, paving the way towards optimal nonreciprocal systems for low-noise integrated nanophotonics.

  13. Dynamically controlling the emission of single excitons in photonic crystal cavities

    PubMed Central

    Pagliano, Francesco; Cho, YongJin; Xia, Tian; van Otten, Frank; Johne, Robert; Fiore, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Single excitons in semiconductor microcavities represent a solid state and scalable platform for cavity quantum electrodynamics, potentially enabling an interface between flying (photon) and static (exciton) quantum bits in future quantum networks. While both single-photon emission and the strong coupling regime have been demonstrated, further progress has been hampered by the inability to control the coherent evolution of the cavity quantum electrodynamics system in real time, as needed to produce and harness charge–photon entanglement. Here using the ultrafast electrical tuning of the exciton energy in a photonic crystal diode, we demonstrate the dynamic control of the coupling of a single exciton to a photonic crystal cavity mode on a sub-nanosecond timescale, faster than the natural lifetime of the exciton. This opens the way to the control of single-photon waveforms, as needed for quantum interfaces, and to the real-time control of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. PMID:25503405

  14. Opto-mechanical design of a buckling cavity in a novel high-performance outside-plant robust field installable single-mode fibre connector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebraert, Evert; Van Erps, Jürgen; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) networks provide an ideal means to reach the goal the European Union has set to provide 50 % of the households with a broadband connection faster than 100 Mb/s. Deployment of FTTH networks, which is still costly today, could be significantly boosted by novel ferrule-less connectors which don't require highly skilled personnel and allow installation in the field. We propose a ferrule-less connector in which two single-mode fibres (SMFs) are aligned and maintain physical contact by ensuring that at least one fibre is in a buckled state. To this end, we design a cavity in which a fibre can buckle in a controlled way. Using finite element analysis simulations to investigate the shape of the formed buckle for various buckling cavity lengths, we show that it can be accurately approximated by a cosine function. In addition, the optical performance of a buckled SMF is investigated by bending loss calculations and simulations. We show a good agreement between the analytical and the simulated bending loss results for a G.652 fibre at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Buckling cavity lengths smaller than 20 mm should be avoided to keep the optical bending loss due to buckling below 0.1 dB. In this case the cavity height should at least be 2 mm to avoid mechanical confinement of the fibre.

  15. Optomechanical entanglement via non-degenerate parametric interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Rizwan; Qamar, Shahid

    2017-10-01

    We present a scheme for the optomechanical entanglement between a micro-mechanical mirror and the field inside a bimodal cavity system using a non-degenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA). Our results show that the introduction of NOPA makes the entanglement stronger or more robust against the mean number of average thermal phonons and cavity decay. Interestingly, macroscopic entanglement depends upon the choice of the phase associated with classical field driving NOPA. We also consider the effects of input laser power on optomechanical entanglement.

  16. Design of plasmonic photonic crystal resonant cavities for polarization sensitive infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Jessie; Shenoi, Rajeev V.; Krishna, Sanjay; Painter, Oskar

    2010-02-01

    We design a polarization-sensitive resonator for use in midinfrared photodetectors, utilizing a photonic crystal cavity and a single or double-metal plasmonic waveguide to achieve enhanced detector efficiency due to superior optical confinement within the active region. As the cavity is highly frequency and polarization-sensitive, this resonator structure could be used in chip-based infrared spectrometers and cameras that can distinguish among different materials and temperatures to a high degree of precision.

  17. Radio frequency regenerative oscillations in monolithic high-Q/V heterostructured photonic crystal cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jinghui E-mail: tg2342@columbia.edu; Gu, Tingyi E-mail: tg2342@columbia.edu; Zheng, Jiangjun; Wei Wong, Chee; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2014-02-10

    We report temporal and spectral domain observation of regenerative oscillation in monolithic silicon heterostructured photonic crystals cavities with high quality factor to mode volume ratios (Q/V). The results are interpreted by nonlinear coupled mode theory (CMT) tracking the dynamics of photon, free carrier population, and temperature variations. We experimentally demonstrate effective tuning of the radio frequency tones by laser-cavity detuning and laser power levels, confirmed by the CMT simulations with sensitive input parameters.

  18. Effective bichromatic potential for ultra-high Q-factor photonic crystal slab cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Alpeggiani, Filippo Andreani, Lucio Claudio; Gerace, Dario

    2015-12-28

    We introduce a confinement mechanism in photonic crystal slab cavities, which relies on the superposition of two incommensurate one-dimensional lattices in a line-defect waveguide. It is shown that the resulting photonic profile realizes an effective quasi-periodic bichromatic potential for the electromagnetic field confinement yielding extremely high quality (Q) factor nanocavities, while simultaneously keeping the mode volume close to the diffraction limit. We apply these concepts to pillar- and hole-based photonic crystal slab cavities, respectively, and a Q-factor improvement by over an order of magnitude is shown over existing designs, especially in pillar-based structures. Thanks to the generality and easy adaptation of such confinement mechanism to a broad class of cavity designs and photonic lattices, this work opens interesting routes for applications where enhanced light–matter interaction in photonic crystal structures is required.

  19. Quantum control of a spin qubit coupled to a photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Samuel G.; Sweeney, Timothy M.; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Chul Soo; Solenov, Dmitry; Economou, Sophia E.; Reinecke, Thomas L.; Yang, Lily; Bracker, Allan S.; Gammon, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    A key ingredient for a quantum network is an interface between stationary quantum bits and photons, which act as flying qubits for interactions and communication. Photonic crystal architectures are promising platforms for enhancing the coupling of light to solid-state qubits. Quantum dots can be integrated into a photonic crystal, with optical transitions coupling to photons and spin states forming a long-lived quantum memory. Many researchers have now succeeded in coupling these emitters to photonic crystal cavities, but there have been no demonstrations of a functional spin qubit and quantum gates in this environment. Here, we have developed a coupled cavity-quantum dot system in which the dot is controllably charged with a single electron. We perform the initialization, rotation and measurement of a single electron spin qubit using laser pulses, and find that the cavity can significantly improve these processes.

  20. Sensitive temperature measurements based on Lorentzian and Fano resonance lineshapes of a silicon photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chenyang; Fang, Liang; Yuan, Qinchen; Gan, Xuetao; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-10-01

    We report a high-performance photonic temperature sensor by exploiting a silicon photonic crystal (PC) cavity. Since the PC cavity's spectra are very sensitive to the refractive index change, we observe remarkable variations of its resonant wavelength and output power under varying temperature levels. In a PC cavity with Lorentzian resonance lineshape, the sensor exhibits a linear spectrum-sensitivity of 70 pm/°, and the power-variation presents a high sensitivity as 1.28 dB/°. In addition, the Fano resonance lineshape generated by the PC cavity has also been employed to measure the temperature, which shows improved power sensitivity as 2.94 dB/ °. The demonstrated PC cavity-based sensor offers great potentials for low-cost, high sensitivity homogeneous sensing in chip-integrated devices.

  1. Directional impulse response of a large cavity inside a sonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Spiousas, Ignacio; Eguia, Manuel C

    2012-10-01

    Both temporal and directional responses of a cavity inside a two-dimensional sonic crystal are investigated. The size of the cavity is large compared to the lattice parameter and the wavelength for the frequency range of interest. Hence, a hybrid method to compute the response is proposed, combining multiscattering theory for the calculation of the reflective properties of the sonic crystal with a modified ray-tracing algorithm for the sound propagation within the cavity. The response of this enclosure displays resonances for certain frequency bands that depend on the geometry of the lattice and the cavity. When a full band gap exists in the sonic crystal, rays cannot propagate through the medium and total reflection occurs for all incidence angles, leading to strong resonances with an isotropic intensity field inside the cavity. When only some propagation directions are forbidden, total reflection occurs for certain ranges of incidence angles, and resonances can also be elicited but with a highly anisotropic intensity field. The spectrum of resonances of the cavity is strongly affected by changes in the lattice geometry, suggesting that they can be tailored to some extent, a feature that can lead to potential applications in architectural acoustics.

  2. Carrier dynamics in GaAs photonic crystal cavities near the material band edge.

    PubMed

    Bose, Ranojoy; Pelc, Jason S; Vo, Sonny; Santori, Charles M; Beausoleil, Raymond G

    2015-05-18

    We measure fast carrier decay rates (6 ps) in GaAs photonic crystal cavities with resonances near the GaAs bandgap energy at room temperature using a pump-probe measurement. Carriers generated via photoexcitation using an above-band femtosecond pulse cause a substantial blue-shift of three time the cavity linewidth for the cavity peak. The experimental results are compared to theoretical models based on free carrier effects near the GaAs band edge. The probe transmission is modified by nearly 30% for an estimated above-band pump energy of 4.2 fJ absorbed in the GaAs slab.

  3. A photonic crystal cavity-optical fiber tip nanoparticle sensor for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shambat, Gary; Rajasekhar Kothapalli, Sri; Khurana, Aman; Provine, J.; Sarmiento, Tomas; Cheng, Kai; Cheng, Zhen; Harris, James; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Sam Gambhir, Sanjiv; Vučković, Jelena

    2012-05-01

    We present a sensor capable of detecting solution-based nanoparticles using an optical fiber tip functionalized with a photonic crystal cavity. When sensor tips are retracted from a nanoparticle solution after being submerged, we find that a combination of convective fluid forces and optically induced trapping cause an aggregation of nanoparticles to form directly on cavity surfaces. A simple readout of quantum dot photoluminescence coupled to the optical fiber shows that nanoparticle presence and concentration can be detected through modified cavity properties. Our sensor can detect both gold and iron oxide nanoparticles and can be utilized for molecular sensing applications in biomedicine.

  4. Optical properties of organic-silicon photonic crystal nanoslot cavity light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming-Jay; Lin, Chun-Chi; Wu, Yu-Shu; Wang, Likarn; Na, Neil

    2017-03-01

    We theoretically study a dielectric photonic crystal nanoslot cavity immersed in an organic fluid containing near-infrared dyes by means of a full rate equation model including the complete cavity QED effects. Based on the modeling results, we numerically design an organic-silicon cavity light source in which its mode volume, quality factor, and far-field emission pattern are optimized for energy-efficient, high-speed applications. Dye quantum efficiency improved by two orders of magnitude and 3dB modulation bandwidth of a few hundred GHz can be obtained.

  5. Resonance Cavities in Parallel-Hetero Perturbation Photonic Crystal Waveguide Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2012-07-01

    We design a series of W1 waveguide-like parallel-hetero cavities (PHCs) made from the combination of parallelhetero perturbation (PHP) waveguides and photonic crystal waveguides and investigate their optical properties. Spectral properties are calculated numerically using the three-dimensional finite-difierence time-domain method. The resonant frequencies and quality factors are obtained for each type of PHC and comparisons are made among different types of PHC, which is helpful for predicting and understanding the properties of PHC and designing PHC based high-performance cavities. The PHCs can broaden the category of cavity design and find interesting applications in integrated optical devices and solid state lasers.

  6. Polymer-based Photonic Crystal Cavity Sensor for Optical Detection in the Visible Wavelength Region.

    PubMed

    Maeno, Kenichi; Aki, Shoma; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Hisamoto, Hideaki; Endo, Tatsuro

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a polymer-based two-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) cavity for visible-light-based optical-sensing applications was designed and fabricated for the first time. The PhC cavity configuration was designed to operate at 650 nm, and fabricated with a polymer (resist) on a silicon substrate using electron-beam lithography. For investigating sensing applications based on shifting of condition exhibiting a photonic bandgap (PBG), the polymer monolayer deposition (layer-by-layer method) was monitored as the light-intensity change at the cavity position. Consequently, the monolayer-level detection of polyions was achieved.

  7. Near-infrared characterization of gallium nitride photonic-crystal waveguides and cavities.

    PubMed

    Dharanipathy, U; Vico Triviño, N; Yan, C; Diao, Z; Carlin, J-F; Grandjean, N; Houdré, R

    2012-11-15

    We report the design and optical characterization of fully suspended wire waveguides and photonic crystal (PhC) membranes fabricated on a gallium nitride layer grown on silicon substrate operating at 1.5 μm. W1-type PhC waveguides are coupled with suspended wires and are investigated using a standard end-fire setup. The experimental and theoretical dispersion properties of the propagating modes in the wires and photonic-crystal waveguides are shown. Modified L3 cavities with quality factors of up to 2200 and heterostructure cavities with quality factors of up to 5400 are experimentally demonstrated.

  8. Thermo-optical response of photonic crystal cavities operating in the visible spectral range.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Janik; Nikolay, Niko; Schoengen, Max; Schell, Andreas W; Probst, Jürgen; Löchel, Bernd; Benson, Oliver

    2013-08-09

    In this paper we study thermo-optical effects in gallium phosphite photonic crystal cavities in the visible range. By measuring the shift of narrow resonances, we derive the temperature dependency of the local refractive index of gallium phosphide in an attoliter volume over a temperature range between 5 and 300 K at a wavelength of about 605 nm. Additionally, the potential of photonic crystal cavities for thermo-optical switching of visible light is investigated. As an example we demonstrate thermo-optical switching with 13 dB contrast.

  9. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M. J. Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Perock, B.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Heeck, K.; Man, S. de; Bouwmeester, D.

    2016-01-18

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  10. Optical-response properties in levitated optomechanical systems beyond the low-excitation limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Wenjie; Chen, Aixi; Lan, Yueheng

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the optical-response properties of a levitated optomechanical cavity coupled to a higher order excited atomic medium. The cavity field driven through the atom-field interaction is responsible for trapping a dielectric nanosphere, whose steady-state position is biased by the Coulomb force between the nanosphere and the cavity wall. We show that the phenomena of optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) and amplification can be generated from the output probe field in the presence of an effective optomechanical coupling between the nanosphere and the cavity field. Further, the width of the transparency window increases with increasing strength of the effective optomechanical coupling, which is controlled easily by varying the Coulomb interaction and the radius of the nanosphere. In particular, when the higher order excitation of the atomic medium is included, a large driving of the atomic ensemble but a relatively small atom-field detuning can be applied to help observe the OMIT behavior in the hybrid system.

  11. Performance of the x-ray free-electron laser oscillator with crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, R. R.; Kim, K.-J.; Shvyd'Ko, Yu.; Fawley, W. M.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations of the x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator are presented that include the frequency-dependent Bragg crystal reflectivity and the transverse diffraction and focusing using the two-dimensional FEL code GINGER. A review of the physics of Bragg crystal reflectors and the x-ray FEL oscillator is made, followed by a discussion of its numerical implementation in GINGER. The simulation results for a two-crystal cavity and realistic FEL parameters indicate ˜109 photons in a nearly Fourier-limited, ps pulse. Compressing the electron beam to 100 A and 100 fs results in comparable x-ray characteristics for relaxed beam emittance, energy spread, and/or undulator parameters, albeit in a larger radiation bandwidth. Finally, preliminary simulation results indicate that the four-crystal FEL cavity can be tuned in energy over a range of a few percent.

  12. Transition of lasing modes in polymeric opal photonic crystal resonating cavity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lan-Ting; Zheng, Mei-Ling; Jin, Feng; Dong, Xian-Zi; Chen, Wei-Qiang; Zhao, Zhen-Sheng; Duan, Xuan-Ming

    2016-06-10

    We demonstrate the transition of lasing modes in the resonating cavity constructed by polystyrene opal photonic crystals and 7 wt. % tert-butyl Rhodamine B doped polymer film. Both single mode and multiple mode lasing emission are observed from the resonating cavity. The lasing threshold is determined to be 0.81  μJ/pulse for single mode lasing emission and 2.25  μJ/pulse for multiple mode lasing emission. The single mode lasing emission is attributed to photonic lasing resulting from the photonic bandgap effect of the opal photonic crystals, while the multiple mode lasing emission is assigned to random lasing due to the defects in the photonic crystals. The result would benefit the development of low threshold polymeric solid state photonic crystal lasers.

  13. Fiber-optic integration and efficient detection schemes for optomechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Justin D.

    With the advent of the laser in the year 1960, the field of optics experienced a renaissance from what was considered to be a dull, solved subject to an active area of development, with applications and discoveries which are yet to be exhausted 55 years later. Light is now nearly ubiquitous not only in cutting-edge research in physics, chemistry, and biology, but also in modern technology and infrastructure. One quality of light, that of the imparted radiation pressure force upon reflection from an object, has attracted intense interest from researchers seeking to precisely monitor and control the motional degrees of freedom of an object using light. These optomechanical interactions have inspired myriad proposals, ranging from quantum memories and transducers in quantum information networks to precision metrology of classical forces. Alongside advances in micro- and nano-fabrication, the burgeoning field of optomechanics has yielded a class of highly engineered systems designed to produce strong interactions between light and motion. Optomechanical crystals are one such system in which the patterning of periodic holes in thin dielectric films traps both light and sound waves to a micro-scale volume. These devices feature strong radiation pressure coupling between high-quality optical cavity modes and internal nanomechanical resonances. Whether for applications in the quantum or classical domain, the utility of optomechanical crystals hinges on the degree to which light radiating from the device, having interacted with mechanical motion, can be collected and detected in an experimental apparatus consisting of conventional optical components such as lenses and optical fibers. While several efficient methods of optical coupling exist to meet this task, most are unsuitable for the cryogenic or vacuum integration required for many applications. The first portion of this dissertation will detail the development of robust and efficient methods of optically coupling

  14. Optomechanics with superfluid He4 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Christopher; Harris, Glen; McAuslan, David; Sachkou, Yauhen; He, Xin; Sheridan, Eoin; Bowen, Warwick

    Cavity optomechanics focuses on the interaction between confined light and a mechanical degree of freedom. Vibrational modes of superfluid helium-4 have recently been identified as an attractive mechanical element for cavity optomechanics, thanks to their ultra-low dissipation arising from superfluid's viscosity free flow. Here we propose and demonstrate an approach to superfluid optomechanics based on femtogram thin films of superfluid helium condensed on the surface of a microscale microtoroid optical whispering gallery mode resonator. Excitations within the film, known as third sound, manifest as surface waves with a restoring force provided by the van der Waals interaction. We experimentally probe the thermodynamics of these superfluid excitations in real-time, and demonstrate both laser cooling and amplification of the thermal motion. In addition, we propose and demonstrate an entirely new approach to optical forcing based on the atomic recoil of superfluid helium-4. This technique utilizes the thermomechanical effect of superfluids, whereby frictionless fluid flow is generated in response to a local heat source. Using this technique, we achieve superfluid forces on a microtoroid mechanical mode an order of magnitude greater than the equivalent radiation pressure force.

  15. Normal-mode coupling of rare-earth-metal ions in a crystal to a macroscopic optical cavity mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimura, Kouichi; Goto, Hayato

    2006-09-01

    We demonstrated coupling of rare-earth-metal ions in a crystal to a macroscopic cavity mode by observing optical bistability and normal-mode peaks due to sweeping-laser-induced population redistribution of the ions. The experimentally evaluated coupling constant between the individual ions and the single cavity mode is 15kHz , which is comparable with or larger than the dissipation of the ions and will exceed the cavity dissipation with a narrowing of the mode waist of the cavity to the wavelength. The results advance the application of a coupled system of rare-earth-metal ions in a crystal and an optical cavity for quantum information processing.

  16. Parity-time-symmetry enhanced optomechanically-induced-transparency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenlin; Jiang, Yunfeng; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyze a scheme to enhance optomechanically-induced-transparency (OMIT) based on parity-time-symmetric optomechanical system. Our results predict that an OMIT window which does not exist originally can appear in weak optomechanical coupling and driving system via coupling an auxiliary active cavity with optical gain. This phenomenon is quite different from these reported in previous works in which the gain is considered just to damage OMIT phenomenon even leads to electromagnetically induced absorption or inverted-OMIT. Such enhanced OMIT effects are ascribed to the additional gain which can increase photon number in cavity without reducing effective decay. We also discuss the scheme feasibility by analyzing recent experiment parameters. Our work provide a promising platform for the coherent manipulation and slow light operation, which has potential applications for quantum information processing and quantum optical device. PMID:27489193

  17. Enhanced nonlinear interactions in quantum optomechanics via mechanical amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine; Didier, Nicolas; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-04-01

    The quantum nonlinear regime of optomechanics is reached when nonlinear effects of the radiation pressure interaction are observed at the single-photon level. This requires couplings larger than the mechanical frequency and cavity-damping rate, and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here we show how to exponentially enhance the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength using only additional linear resources. Our method is based on using a large-amplitude, strongly detuned mechanical parametric drive to amplify mechanical zero-point fluctuations and hence enhance the radiation pressure interaction. It has the further benefit of allowing time-dependent control, enabling pulsed schemes. For a two-cavity optomechanical set-up, we show that our scheme generates photon blockade for experimentally accessible parameters, and even makes the production of photonic states with negative Wigner functions possible. We discuss how our method is an example of a more general strategy for enhancing boson-mediated two-particle interactions and nonlinearities.

  18. The micro-cavity of the two dimensional plasmonic photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Kai; Zhang, Zhenguo; Yang, Qing

    2015-02-01

    In this manuscript, we proposed a novel and effective two dimensional hybrid plasmonic photonic crystal micro-cavity structure to confine the surface plasmon to a sub-wavelength scale mode volume and obtain a relatively high quality factor. By introducing a single-cell defect at the two dimensional triangular lattice photonic crystal layer, the defect cavity has been established to provide sub-wavelength scale plasmonic mode localization within the hybrid plasmonic photonic crystal structure TM band gap. Comprehensive analysis methods of three-dimensional finite difference time domain method (3D-FDTD) have been used to analyze the characteristics of the micro-cavity of this hybrid structure, including the effects of the radius of the nearest neighbor air holes around the defect, the cavity length of the defect and the thickness of the gain medium on the features of the micro-cavity. By using a quantum dots (QDs)-polymer as a gain medium for the low index thin layer, a gain threshold as low as gth = 534 cm-1 can be achieved with such structures, and deep sub-wavelength mode volume of 0.00201 (λ/n)3 is also obtained.

  19. Phase-dependent multiple optomechanically induced absorption in multimode optomechanical systems with mechanical driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cheng; Cui, Yuanshun; Bian, Xintian; Zuo, Fen; Yu, Hualing; Chen, Guibin

    2016-08-01

    We investigate theoretically the response of the output field from an optomechanical system consisting of N nearly degenerate mechanical resonators each coupled to a common cavity mode. When the cavity is driven simultaneously by a strong control field and a weak probe field and each mechanical resonator is driven by a coherent mechanical pump, we obtain the analytical expression for the probe transmission. We show that the probe transmission spectrum can exhibit multiple optomechanically induced absorption (OMIA) with at most N narrow absorption dips, which can be tuned by the phase and amplitude of the mechanical driving field as well as the control field. Moreover, it is shown that the peak probe transmission can be enhanced or suppressed by increasing the amplitude of the mechanical pump, which depends on the phase difference. This phase-dependent effect plays an important role in controlling the propagation of the probe field between OMIA and parametric amplification.

  20. Preservation Macroscopic Entanglement of Optomechanical Systems in non-Markovian Environment

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jiong; Zhang, Wen-Zhao; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    We investigate dynamics of an optomechanical system under the non-Markovian environment. In the weak optomechanical single-photon coupling regime, we provide an analytical approach fully taking into account the non-Markovian memory effects. When the cavity-bath coupling strength crosses a certain threshold, an oscillating memory state for the classical cavity field is formed. Due to the existence of the non-decay optical bound state, a nonequilibrium optomechanical thermal entanglement is preserved even without external driving laser. Our results provide a potential usage to generate and protect entanglement via non-Markovian environment. PMID:27032674

  1. Single-molecule optomechanics in "picocavities".

    PubMed

    Benz, Felix; Schmidt, Mikolaj K; Dreismann, Alexander; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Zhang, Yao; Demetriadou, Angela; Carnegie, Cloudy; Ohadi, Hamid; de Nijs, Bart; Esteban, Ruben; Aizpurua, Javier; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2016-11-11

    Trapping light with noble metal nanostructures overcomes the diffraction limit and can confine light to volumes typically on the order of 30 cubic nanometers. We found that individual atomic features inside the gap of a plasmonic nanoassembly can localize light to volumes well below 1 cubic nanometer ("picocavities"), enabling optical experiments on the atomic scale. These atomic features are dynamically formed and disassembled by laser irradiation. Although unstable at room temperature, picocavities can be stabilized at cryogenic temperatures, allowing single atomic cavities to be probed for many minutes. Unlike traditional optomechanical resonators, such extreme optical confinement yields a factor of 10(6) enhancement of optomechanical coupling between the picocavity field and vibrations of individual molecular bonds. This work sets the basis for developing nanoscale nonlinear quantum optics on the single-molecule level.

  2. Multimode circuit optomechanics near the quantum limit

    PubMed Central

    Massel, Francesco; Cho, Sung Un; Pirkkalainen, Juha-Matti; Hakonen, Pertti J.; Heikkilä, Tero T.; Sillanpää, Mika A.

    2012-01-01

    The coupling of distinct systems underlies nearly all physical phenomena. A basic instance is that of interacting harmonic oscillators, giving rise to, for example, the phonon eigenmodes in a lattice. Of particular importance are the interactions in hybrid quantum systems, which can combine the benefits of each part in quantum technologies. Here we investigate a hybrid optomechanical system having three degrees of freedom, consisting of a microwave cavity and two micromechanical beams with closely spaced frequencies around 32 MHz and no direct interaction. We record the first evidence of tripartite optomechanical mixing, implying that the eigenmodes are combinations of one photonic and two phononic modes. We identify an asymmetric dark mode having a long lifetime. Simultaneously, we operate the nearly macroscopic mechanical modes close to the motional quantum ground state, down to 1.8 thermal quanta, achieved by back-action cooling. These results constitute an important advance towards engineering of entangled motional states. PMID:22871806

  3. Multimode circuit optomechanics near the quantum limit.

    PubMed

    Massel, Francesco; Cho, Sung Un; Pirkkalainen, Juha-Matti; Hakonen, Pertti J; Heikkilä, Tero T; Sillanpää, Mika A

    2012-01-01

    The coupling of distinct systems underlies nearly all physical phenomena. A basic instance is that of interacting harmonic oscillators, giving rise to, for example, the phonon eigenmodes in a lattice. Of particular importance are the interactions in hybrid quantum systems, which can combine the benefits of each part in quantum technologies. Here we investigate a hybrid optomechanical system having three degrees of freedom, consisting of a microwave cavity and two micromechanical beams with closely spaced frequencies around 32 MHz and no direct interaction. We record the first evidence of tripartite optomechanical mixing, implying that the eigenmodes are combinations of one photonic and two phononic modes. We identify an asymmetric dark mode having a long lifetime. Simultaneously, we operate the nearly macroscopic mechanical modes close to the motional quantum ground state, down to 1.8 thermal quanta, achieved by back-action cooling. These results constitute an important advance towards engineering of entangled motional states.

  4. Dispersionless gaps and cavity modes in photonic crystals containing hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chun-hua; Ding, Yaqiong; Jiang, Hai-tao; Li, Yunhui; Wang, Zhan-shan; Zhang, Ye-wen; Chen, Hong

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically study dispersionless gaps and cavity modes in one-dimensional photonic crystals composed of hyperbolic metamaterials and dielectric. Bragg gaps in conventional all-dielectric photonic crystals are always dispersive because propagating phases in two kinds of dielectrics decrease with incident angle. Here, based on phase variation compensation between a hyperbolic metamaterial layer and an isotropic dielectric layer, the dispersion of the gap can be offset and thus a dispersionless gap can be realized. Moreover, the dispersionless property of such gap has a wide parameter space. The dispersionless gap can be used to realize a dispersionless cavity mode. The dispersionless gaps and cavity modes will possess significant applications for all-angle reflectors, high-Q filters excited with finite-sized sources, and nonlinear wave mixing processes.

  5. Photonic crystal waveguide cavity with waist design for efficient trapping and detection of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pin-Tso; Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lee, Po-Tsung

    2014-03-24

    For manipulating nanometric particles, we propose a photonic crystal waveguide cavity design with a waist structure to enhance resonance characteristic of the cavity. For trapping a polystyrene particle of 50 nm radius on the lateral side of the waist, the optical force can reach 2308 pN/W with 24.7% signal transmission. Threshold power of only 0.32 mW is required for stable trapping. The total length of the device is relatively short with only ten photonic crystal periods, and the trapping can occur precisely and only at the waist. The designed cavity can also provide particle detection and surrounding medium sensing using the transmission spectrum with narrow linewidth. The simulated figure of merit of 110.6 is relatively high compared with those obtained from most plasmonic structures for sensing application. We anticipate this design with features of compact, efficient, and versatile in functionality will be beneficial for developing lab-on-chip in the future.

  6. Quantification of scattering loss of III-nitride photonic crystal cavities in the blue spectral range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Ian; Sánchez-Arribas, Irene; Shojiki, Kanako; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    The mechanisms contributing to experimental quality factors of short wavelength (λ =440 -480 nm) III-nitride on silicon one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities were quantified. Fluctuations in fundamental and first-order cavity mode wavelength and quality factor were compared over sets of nominally identical cavities. Unlike at λ =1.5 μ m , experimental quality factors were not limited by fabrication disorder modeled as smooth, normally distributed hole size and position variations; after ruling out absorption losses, additional scattering losses were found to predominate at short wavelengths. Experimental quality factors were sensitive to conformal deposition of few nanometer thin films on the photonic crystal surface, suggesting that the additional scattering losses were linked to the surface.

  7. Design and experimental demonstration of optomechanical paddle nanocavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, Chris; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Wu, Marcelo; Khanaliloo, Behzad; Mitchell, Matthew; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Barclay, Paul E.

    2015-12-01

    We present the design, fabrication, and initial characterization of a paddle nanocavity consisting of a suspended sub-picogram nanomechanical resonator optomechanically coupled to a photonic crystal nanocavity. The optical and mechanical properties of the paddle nanocavity can be systematically designed and optimized, and the key characteristics including mechanical frequency can be easily tailored. Measurements under ambient conditions of a silicon paddle nanocavity demonstrate an optical mode with a quality factor Q o ˜ 6000 near 1550 nm and optomechanical coupling to several mechanical resonances with frequencies ω m / 2 π ˜ 12 - 64 MHz, effective masses m eff ˜ 350 - 650 fg, and mechanical quality factors Q m ˜ 44 - 327 . Paddle nanocavities are promising for optomechanical sensing and nonlinear optomechanics experiments.

  8. Design of quasi-one-dimensional phononic crystal cavity for efficient photoelastic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ingi; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-08-01

    We propose and design a phononic crystal (PnC) cavity for efficient photoelastic modulation. A strongly confined acoustic field in the cavity enhances light-sound interaction, which results in efficient phase modulation of light. As one of the possible configurations, an acoustic cavity formed in a quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) PnC was investigated. By carefully tuning geometrical parameters, we successfully designed a high-Q cavity mode for a longitudinal wave within a complete phononic band gap. The acoustic Q was calculated to be as high as 9.5 × 104. This enables efficient optical modulation by a factor of 2.5 compared with a bar-type structure without PnCs.

  9. Silicon photonic crystal cavity enhanced second-harmonic generation from monolayer WSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryett, Taylor K.; Seyler, Kyle L.; Zheng, Jiajiu; Liu, Chang-Hua; Xu, Xiaodong; Majumdar, Arka

    2017-03-01

    Nano-resonators integrated with two-dimensional materials (e.g. transition metal dichalcogenides) have recently emerged as a promising nano-optoelectronic platform. Here we demonstrate resonator-enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) in tungsten diselenide using a silicon photonic crystal cavity. By pumping the device with ultrafast laser pulses near the cavity mode at the telecommunication wavelength, we observe a near visible SHG with a narrow linewidth and near unity linear polarization, originated from the coupling of the pump photon to the cavity mode. The observed SHG is enhanced by factor of ∼200 compared to a bare monolayer on silicon. Our results imply the efficacy of cavity integrated monolayer materials for nonlinear optics and the potential of building a silicon-compatible second-order nonlinear integrated photonic platform.

  10. Optomechanical Dirac physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, M.; Peano, V.; Marquardt, F.

    2015-02-01

    Recent progress in optomechanical systems may soon allow the realization of optomechanical arrays, i.e. periodic arrangements of interacting optical and vibrational modes. We show that photons and phonons on a honeycomb lattice will produce an optically tunable Dirac-type band structure. Transport in such a system can exhibit transmission through an optically created barrier, similar to Klein tunneling, but with interconversion between light and sound. In addition, edge states at the sample boundaries are dispersive and enable controlled propagation of photon-phonon polaritons.

  11. Photoluminescence microscopy on air-suspended carbon nanotubes coupled to photonic crystal nanobeam cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, R.; Imamura, S.; Shimada, T.; Ohta, R.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y.; Kato, Y. K.

    2014-03-01

    Because carbon nanotubes are room-temperature telecom-band emitters and can be grown on silicon substrates, they are ideal for coupling to silicon photonic cavities.[2,3 In particular, as-grown air-suspended carbon nanotubes show excellent optical properties, but cavity modes with large fields in the air are needed in order to achieve efficient coupling. Here we investigate individual air-suspended nanotubes coupled to photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. We utilize cavities that confine air-band modes which have large fields in the air. Dielectric mode cavities are also prepared for comparison. We fabricate the devices from silicon-on-insulator substrates by using electron beam lithography and dry etching to form the nanobeam structure. The buried oxide layer is removed by wet etching, and carbon nanotubes are grown onto the cavities by chemical vapor deposition. We perform photoluminescence imaging and excitation spectroscopy to find the positions of the nanotubes and identify their chiralities. For both types of devices, cavity modes with quality factors of ~3000 are observed within the nanotube emission peak. Work supported by SCOPE, KAKENHI, The Telecommunications Advancement Foundation, The Toyota Physical and Chemical Research Institute, Project for Developing Innovation Systems of MEXT, Japan and the Photon Frontier Network Program of MEXT, Japan.

  12. Enhanced fluorescence emission using a photonic crystal coupled to an optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Chaudhery, Vikram; George, Sherine; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2013-06-01

    All fluorescent assays would benefit from greater signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), which enable detection of disease biomarkers at lower concentrations for earlier disease diagnosis and detection of genes that are expressed at the lowest levels. Here, we report an approach to enhance fluorescence in which surface adsorbed fluorophore-tagged biomolecules are excited on a photonic crystal surface that is coupled to an underlying Fabry-Perot type cavity through a gold mirror reflector beneath the photonic crystal. This approach leads to 6× increase in signal-to-noise ratio of a dye labeled polypeptide compared to ordinary photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence.

  13. Enhanced fluorescence emission using a photonic crystal coupled to an optical cavity

    PubMed Central

    Pokhriyal, Anusha; Lu, Meng; Chaudhery, Vikram; George, Sherine; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2013-01-01

    All fluorescent assays would benefit from greater signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), which enable detection of disease biomarkers at lower concentrations for earlier disease diagnosis and detection of genes that are expressed at the lowest levels. Here, we report an approach to enhance fluorescence in which surface adsorbed fluorophore-tagged biomolecules are excited on a photonic crystal surface that is coupled to an underlying Fabry-Perot type cavity through a gold mirror reflector beneath the photonic crystal. This approach leads to 6× increase in signal-to-noise ratio of a dye labeled polypeptide compared to ordinary photonic crystal enhanced fluorescence. PMID:23825806

  14. Controllable Bistability and Normal Mode Splitting in an Optomechanical System Assisted by an Atomic Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qin; Hu, Yao-Hua; Ma, Peng-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    We consider a system consisting of a standard optomechanical cavity and a trapped atomic ensemble. In such a system, we mainly focus on the features of optomechanical bistability and normal mode splitting with the presence of atomic ensemble. The results show that the energy of laser directly coupling the atomic ensemble can be enhanced effectively, and using this laser is more convenient and easier to realize the bistability and normal mode splitting than the traditional means. Besides, we find that atom-cavity field detuning also has a significant impact on optomechanical bistability, which offers us an important method to adjust and control the cavity mean photon number. At last, the numerical results show that atom-cavity field detuning and atom-cavity field coupling strength have an opposite effect on the normal mode splitting because they have different contributions to the effective cavity field decay rate.

  15. Enhanced nonlinear interactions in quantum optomechanics via mechanical amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didier, Nicolas; Lemonde, Marc-Antoine; Clerk, Aashish A.

    A key challenge limiting truly quantum behaviour in optomechanical systems is the typically small value of the optomechanical coupling at the single-photon, single-phonon level. We present an approach for exponentially enhancing the single-photon coupling strength in an optomechanical system using only additional linear resources. It allows one to reach the quantum nonlinear regime of optomechanics, where nonlinear effects are observed at the single photon level, even if the bare coupling strength is much smaller than the mechanical frequency and cavity damping rate. Our method is based on using a large amplitude, strongly detuned mechanical parametric drive to amplify mechanical zero-point fluctuations and hence enhance the radiation pressure interaction. It has the further benefit of allowing time-dependent control, enabling pulsed schemes. For a two-cavity optomechanical setup, we show that our scheme generates photon blockade for experimentally accessible parameters, and even makes the production of photonic states with negative Wigner functions possible. We discuss how our method is an example of a more general strategy for enhancing boson-mediated two-particle interactions and nonlinearities. Preprint: arXiv:1509.09238.

  16. Slow light in dual-periodic photonic crystals based slotted-waveguide coupled cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Na; Li, Yuanyuan; Chen, Cheng; Yan, Shu

    2016-09-01

    Considering the capacity of the nanoscale width area with the low-refractive index can confine light waves, the dual-periodic slotted photonic crystals, which is constructed by coupling low-refractive index's slotted-waveguide with high-refractive index's cavity is proposed in this paper. The best slow light properties and the optimal slotted-waveguide coupled cavity are achieved by adjusting the slotted-width and the period of cavity respectively. In this structure, the slow-light properties are simulated by Plane Wave Expansion (PWE), the result reveals that the group velocities are all three orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of light in vacuum, the slowest value is 7.96 ×10-4 c when the slotted-width is 0.54a and the period of cavity is 0.95a. Moreover, the corresponding Normalized Delay-Bandwidth Product (NDBP) values are larger than 0.24. Besides, the slotted-waveguide coupled cavity can be reconfigured, which accordingly changes the corresponding slow-light property. At last, the numerical results provide a new thought and method for decreasing group velocity and potential application for optical buffer in photonic crystals field.

  17. Squeezed Optomechanics with Phase-Matched Amplification and Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Ying; Johansson, J. R.; Jing, Hui; Zhang, Jing; Nori, Franco

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the nonlinear interaction between a squeezed cavity mode and a mechanical mode in an optomechanical system (OMS) that allows us to selectively obtain either a radiation-pressure coupling or a parametric-amplification process. The squeezing of the cavity mode can enhance the interaction strength into the single-photon strong-coupling regime, even when the OMS is originally in the weak-coupling regime. Moreover, the noise of the squeezed mode can be suppressed completely by introducing a broadband-squeezed vacuum environment that is phase matched with the parametric amplification that squeezes the cavity mode. This proposal offers an alternative approach to control the OMS using a squeezed cavity mode, which should allow single-photon quantum processes to be implemented with currently available optomechanical technology. Potential applications range from engineering single-photon sources to nonclassical phonon states.

  18. Optomechanical soft metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiangjun; He, Wei; Liu, Yifan; Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian

    2017-06-01

    We present a new type of optomechanical soft metamaterials, which is different from conventional mechanical metamaterials, in that they are simple isotropic and homogenous materials without resorting to any complex nano/microstructures. This metamaterial is unique in the sense that its responses to uniaxial forcing can be tailored by programmed laser inputs to manifest different nonlinear constitutive behaviors, such as monotonic, S-shape, plateau, and non-monotonic snapping performance. To demonstrate the novel metamaterial, a thin sheet of soft material impinged by two counterpropagating lasers along its thickness direction and stretched by an in-plane tensile mechanical force is considered. A theoretical model is formulated to characterize the resulting optomechanical behavior of the thin sheet by combining the nonlinear elasticity theory of soft materials and the optical radiation stress theory. The optical radiation stresses predicted by the proposed model are validated by simulations based on the method of finite elements. Programmed optomechanical behaviors are subsequently explored using the validated model under different initial sheet thicknesses and different optical inputs, and the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of the metamaterial are used to plot the phase diagram of its nonlinear constitutive behaviors. The proposed optomechanical soft metamaterial shows great potential in biological medicine, microfluidic manipulation, and other fields.

  19. Observation of Strong Coupling Through Transmission Modification of a Cavity-Coupled Photonic Crystal Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-14

    strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007). 8. D. Englund, A. Faraon , I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and...I. Fushman, D. Englund, A. Faraon , N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vuckovic, “Controlled phase shifts with a single quantum dot,” Science 320(5877...electromagnetically induced transparency in multiple coupled photonic crystal cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(17), 173902 (2009). 27. A. Faraon , I. Fushman, D

  20. Intracavity measurement of liquid crystal layer thickness by wavelength tuning of an external cavity laser diode.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yu-Ping; Lin, Yea-Feng; Li, Yu-Tai; Pan, Ru-Pin; Lee, Chao-Kuei; Pan, Ci-Ling

    2005-10-03

    The gap of a planar-aligned liquid crystal (LC) cell is measured by a novel method: Monitoring the change in output wavelength of an external-cavity diode laser by varying the voltage driving the LC cell placed in the laser cavity. This method is particularly suitable for measurement of LC cells of small phase retardation. Measurement errors of +/-0.5 % and +/-0.6 % for 9.6-microm and 4.25-microm cells with phase retardations of 1.63 microm and 0.20 microm respectively are demonstrated.

  1. Photonic crystal cavities in cubic (3C) polytype silicon carbide films.

    PubMed

    Radulaski, Marina; Babinec, Thomas M; Buckley, Sonia; Rundquist, Armand; Provine, J; Alassaad, Kassem; Ferro, Gabriel; Vučković, Jelena

    2013-12-30

    We present the design, fabrication, and characterization of high quality factor (Q ~10(3)) and small mode volume (V ~0.75 (λ/n)(3)) planar photonic crystal cavities from cubic (3C) thin films (thickness ~200 nm) of silicon carbide (SiC) grown epitaxially on a silicon substrate. We demonstrate cavity resonances across the telecommunications band, with wavelengths from 1.25 - 1.6 μm. Finally, we discuss possible applications in nonlinear optics, optical interconnects, and quantum information science.

  2. Optomechanical accelerometers and gravity gradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman Cervantes, F.; Pratt, J. R.; Taylor, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Compact optical cavities can be combined with highly stable mechanical oscillators to yield accelerometers and gravity gradiometers of exquisite sensitivity, which are also traceable to the SI.We have incorporated Fabry-Pérot fiber-optic micro-cavities onto low-loss monolithic fused-silica mechanical oscillators for gradiometry, acceleration, and force sensing. These devices consist solely of a glass oscillator and fiber optics to inject and read out the coherent optical signal, making them very simple and compatible with space applications.We have demonstrated displacement sensitivities better than 200 am/√Hz with these fiber-optic micro-sensors. This translates into broadband acceleration noise floors below 100 nano-g/√Hz over a 10kHz, when combined with compact high frequency mechanical oscillators. Similarly, we have developed monolithic oscillators with resonance frequencies near and below 10 Hz, yielding measurement sensitivities better than 10-9 m/s2.We will introduce our sensor concepts and present results on our fiber-optic displacement sensors and novel optomechanical devices.

  3. Optomechanical accelerometers and gravity gradiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Felipe

    2016-04-01

    Compact optical cavities can be combined with highly stable mechanical oscillators to yield accelerometers and gravity gradiometers of exquisite sensitivity, which are also traceable to the SI. We have incorporated Fabry-Pérot fiber-optic micro-cavities onto low-loss monolithic fused-silica mechanical oscillators for gradiometry, acceleration, and force sensing. These devices consist solely of a glass oscillator and fiber optics to inject and read out the coherent optical signal, making them very simple and compatible with space applications. We have demonstrated displacement sensitivities better than 200 am/√Hz with these fiber-optic micro-sensors. This translates into broadband acceleration noise floors below 100 nano-g/√Hz over a 10kHz, when combined with compact high frequency mechanical oscillators. Similarly, we have developed monolithic oscillators with resonance frequencies near and below 10 Hz, yielding measurement sensitivities better than 10-9 m/s2. We will introduce our sensor concepts and present results on our fiber-optic displacement sensors and novel optomechanical devices.

  4. Cavity-enhanced optical trapping of bacteria using a silicon photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    van Leest, Thijs; Caro, Jacob

    2013-11-21

    On-chip optical trapping and manipulation of cells based on the evanescent field of photonic structures is emerging as a promising technique, both in research and for applications in broader context. Relying on mass fabrication techniques, the involved integration of photonics and microfluidics allows control of both the flow of light and water on the scale of interest in single cell microbiology. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time optical trapping of single bacteria (B. subtilis and E. coli) using photonic crystal cavities for local enhancement of the evanescent field, as opposed to the synthetic particles used so far. Three types of cavities (H0, H1 and L3) are studied, embedded in a planar photonic crystal and optimized for coupling to two collinear photonic crystal waveguides. The photonic crystals are fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator chip, onto which a fluidic channel is created as well. For each of the cavities, when pumped at the resonance wavelength (around 1550 nm), we clearly demonstrate optical trapping of bacteria, in spite of their low index contrast w.r.t. water. By tracking the confined Brownian motion of B. subtilis spores in the traps using recorded microscope observations, we derive strong in-plane trap stiffnesses of about 7.6 pN nm(-1) W(-1). The values found agree very well with calculations based on the Maxwell stress tensor for the force and finite-difference time-domain simulations of the fields for the fabricated cavity geometries. We envision that our lab-on-a-chip with photonic crystal traps opens up new application directions, e.g. immobilization of single bio-objects such as mammalian cells and bacteria under controlled conditions for optical microscopy studies.

  5. Self-consistent Maxwell-Bloch model of quantum-dot photonic-crystal-cavity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartar, William; Mørk, Jesper; Hughes, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    We present a powerful computational approach to simulate the threshold behavior of photonic-crystal quantum-dot (QD) lasers. Using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, Maxwell-Bloch equations representing a system of thousands of statistically independent and randomly positioned two-level emitters are solved numerically. Phenomenological pure dephasing and incoherent pumping is added to the optical Bloch equations to allow for a dynamical lasing regime, but the cavity-mediated radiative dynamics and gain coupling of each QD dipole (artificial atom) is contained self-consistently within the model. These Maxwell-Bloch equations are implemented by using Lumerical's flexible material plug-in tool, which allows a user to define additional equations of motion for the nonlinear polarization. We implement the gain ensemble within triangular-lattice photonic-crystal cavities of various length N (where N refers to the number of missing holes), and investigate the cavity mode characteristics and the threshold regime as a function of cavity length. We develop effective two-dimensional model simulations which are derived after studying the full three-dimensional passive material structures by matching the cavity quality factors and resonance properties. We also demonstrate how to obtain the correct point-dipole radiative decay rate from Fermi's golden rule, which is captured naturally by the FDTD method. Our numerical simulations predict that the pump threshold plateaus around cavity lengths greater than N =9 , which we identify as a consequence of the complex spatial dynamics and gain coupling from the inhomogeneous QD ensemble. This behavior is not expected from simple rate-equation analysis commonly adopted in the literature, but is in qualitative agreement with recent experiments. Single-mode to multimode lasing is also observed, depending on the spectral peak frequency of the QD ensemble. Using a statistical modal analysis of the average decay rates, we also

  6. Nanocavity optomechanical torque magnetometry and radiofrequency susceptometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Marcelo; Wu, Nathanael L.-Y.; Firdous, Tayyaba; Fani Sani, Fatemeh; Losby, Joseph E.; Freeman, Mark R.; Barclay, Paul E.

    2017-02-01

    Nanophotonic optomechanical devices allow the observation of nanoscale vibrations with a sensitivity that has dramatically advanced the metrology of nanomechanical structures and has the potential to impact studies of nanoscale physical systems in a similar manner. Here we demonstrate this potential with a nanophotonic optomechanical torque magnetometer and radiofrequency (RF) magnetic susceptometer. Exquisite readout sensitivity provided by a nanocavity integrated within a torsional nanomechanical resonator enables observations of the unique net magnetization and RF-driven responses of single mesoscopic magnetic structures in ambient conditions. The magnetic moment resolution is sufficient for the observation of Barkhausen steps in the magnetic hysteresis of a lithographically patterned permalloy island. In addition, significantly enhanced RF susceptibility is found over narrow field ranges and attributed to thermally assisted driven hopping of a magnetic vortex core between neighbouring pinning sites. The on-chip magnetosusceptometer scheme offers a promising path to powerful integrated cavity optomechanical devices for the quantitative characterization of magnetic micro- and nanosystems in science and technology.

  7. Linear negative dispersion with a gain doublet via optomechanical interactions.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayi; Zhao, Chunnong; Ma, Yiqiu; Ju, Li; Blair, David G

    2015-05-15

    Optical cavities containing a negative dispersion medium have been proposed as a means of improving the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors through the creation of white-light signal recycling cavities. Here we demonstrate that negative dispersion can be realized using an optomechanical cavity pumped by a blue detuned doublet. We used an 85-mm cavity with an intracavity silicon nitride membrane. Tunable negative dispersion is demonstrated, with a phase derivative dφ/df from -0.14  Deg·Hz(-1) to -4.2×10(-3)  Deg·Hz(-1).

  8. Lateral shearing optical gradient force in coupled nanobeam photonic crystal cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Han; Zhang, Xingwang; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya; Deng, Jie; Zhao, Yunshan

    2016-04-25

    We report the experimental observation of lateral shearing optical gradient forces in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) controlled dual-coupled photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam cavities. With an on-chip integrated NEMS actuator, the coupled cavities can be mechanically reconfigured in the lateral direction while maintaining a constant coupling gap. Shearing optical gradient forces are generated when the two cavity centers are laterally displaced. In our experiments, positive and negative lateral shearing optical forces of 0.42 nN and 0.29 nN are observed with different pumping modes. This study may broaden the potential applications of the optical gradient force in nanophotonic devices and benefit the future nanooptoelectromechanical systems.

  9. Gain enhanced Fano resonance in a coupled photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanhui; Qian, Chenjiang; Qiu, Kangsheng; Tang, Jing; Sun, Yue; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai

    2016-09-01

    Systems with coupled cavities and waveguides have been demonstrated as optical switches and optical sensors. To optimize the functionalities of these optical devices, Fano resonance with asymmetric and steep spectral line shape has been used. We theoretically propose a coupled photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structure to achieve Fano resonance by placing partially reflecting elements in waveguide. To enhance Fano resonance, optical gain material is introduced into the cavity. As the gain increases, the transmission line shape becomes steepened and the transmissivity can be six times enhanced, giving a large contrast by a small frequency shift. It is prospected that the gain enhanced Fano resonance is very useful for optical switches and optical sensors.

  10. Gain enhanced Fano resonance in a coupled photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structure

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanhui; Qian, Chenjiang; Qiu, Kangsheng; Tang, Jing; Sun, Yue; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai

    2016-01-01

    Systems with coupled cavities and waveguides have been demonstrated as optical switches and optical sensors. To optimize the functionalities of these optical devices, Fano resonance with asymmetric and steep spectral line shape has been used. We theoretically propose a coupled photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structure to achieve Fano resonance by placing partially reflecting elements in waveguide. To enhance Fano resonance, optical gain material is introduced into the cavity. As the gain increases, the transmission line shape becomes steepened and the transmissivity can be six times enhanced, giving a large contrast by a small frequency shift. It is prospected that the gain enhanced Fano resonance is very useful for optical switches and optical sensors. PMID:27640809

  11. Lateral shearing optical gradient force in coupled nanobeam photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Han; Zhang, Xingwang; Deng, Jie; Zhao, Yunshan; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya

    2016-04-01

    We report the experimental observation of lateral shearing optical gradient forces in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) controlled dual-coupled photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam cavities. With an on-chip integrated NEMS actuator, the coupled cavities can be mechanically reconfigured in the lateral direction while maintaining a constant coupling gap. Shearing optical gradient forces are generated when the two cavity centers are laterally displaced. In our experiments, positive and negative lateral shearing optical forces of 0.42 nN and 0.29 nN are observed with different pumping modes. This study may broaden the potential applications of the optical gradient force in nanophotonic devices and benefit the future nanooptoelectromechanical systems.

  12. On-chip asymmetric microcavity optomechanics.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Soheil; Hudnut, Alexa W; Armani, Andrea M

    2016-12-26

    High quality factor (Q) optical resonators have enabled rapid growth in the field of cavity-enhanced, radiation pressure-induced optomechanics. However, because research has focused on axisymmetric devices, the observed regenerative excited mechanical modes are similar. In the present work, a strategy for fabricating high-Q whispering gallery mode microcavities with varying degrees of asymmetry is developed and demonstrated. Due to the combination of high optical Q and asymmetric device design, two previously unobserved modes, the asymmetric cantilever and asymmetric crown mode, are demonstrated with sub-mW thresholds for onset of oscillations. The experimental results are in good agreement with computational modeling predictions.

  13. Design and analysis of photonic crystal micro-cavity based optical sensor platform

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, Amit Kumar Dutta, Hemant Sankar Pal, Suchandan

    2016-04-13

    In this paper, the design of a two-dimensional photonic crystal micro-cavity based integrated-optic sensor platform is proposed. The behaviour of designed cavity is analyzed using two-dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The structure is designed by deliberately inserting some defects in a photonic crystal waveguide structure. Proposed structure shows a quality factor (Q) of about 1e5 and the average sensitivity of 500nm/RIU in the wavelength range of 1450 – 1580 nm. Sensing technique is based on the detection of shift in upper-edge cut-off wavelength for a reference signal strength of –10 dB in accordance with the change in refractive index of analyte.

  14. Angled-cavity lasers with photonic-crystal structure and high-order surface gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Qu, H. W.; Zhao, S. Y.; Zhou, X. Y.; Wang, Y. F.; Zheng, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    980 nm angled-cavity laser diodes with photonic-crystal structures and high-order surface gratings (HSGs) were first designed and fabricated. These lasers were fabricated using standard photolithography on a single-growth wafer with a photonic crystal structure. In addition, the angled-cavity lasers with asymmetric HSGs offer a simple solution for laser emission with a high power, low divergence angle, and narrow spectral width. A continuous-wave output power of 848 mW facet-1 was experimentally obtained for a 100 μm-wide and 1 mm-long device. The lowest divergence angle and narrowest spectral width exhibited by these devices were 1.5° × 10.6° and 0.07 nm, respectively.

  15. Preliminary laboratory testing on the sound absorption of coupled cavity sonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiani, R.; Yahya, I.; Harjana; Suparmi

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on the sound absorption performance of coupled cavity sonic crystal. It constructed by a pair of a cylindrical tube with different values in diameters. A laboratory test procedure after ASTM E1050 has been conducted to measure the sound absorption of the sonic crystal elements. The test procedures were implemented to a single coupled scatterer and also to a pair of similar structure. The results showed that using the paired structure bring a better possibility for increase the sound absorption to a wider absorption range. It also bring a practical advantage for setting the local Helmholtz resonant frequency to certain intended frequency.

  16. Photonic crystal cavity on optical fiber facet for refractive index sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bowen; Siahaan, Timothy; Dündar, Mehmet A; Nötzel, Richard; van der Hoek, Marinus J; He, Sailing; van der Heijden, Rob W

    2012-03-01

    Using a micromanipulation technique, a planar photonic crystal nanocavity made from a thin semiconductor membrane is released from the host semiconductor and attached to the end facet of a standard single-mode optical fiber. The cavity spectrum can be read out through the fiber by detecting the photoluminescence of embedded quantum dots. The modified fiber end serves as a fiber-optic refractive index sensor.

  17. Flat top liquid crystal tunable filter using coupled Fabry-Perot cavities.

    PubMed

    Alboon, Shadi A; Lindquist, Robert G

    2008-01-07

    In this paper, a coupled Fabry-Perot cavities filter, using the liquid crystal as the tunable medium, is investigate to achieve tunable flat top filtering performance across the C and L bands. A tandem coupled Fabry-Perot is presented for a tunable passband filter with flat top and minimum ripple in the passband. The overall tuning range of the filter is 172 nm. Several designs are shown with comparable performance to the commercial available 100 GHz fixed single channel filters.

  18. Contaminant Analysis of Polycrystalline and Single Crystal Niobium Used in Accelerator Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    F. A. Stevie; Z. Zhu; D. P. Griffis; G. R. Myneni; P. Kneisel

    2005-07-10

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) can characterize the surface and near surface of Nb used in accelerator cavities. Results show Nb oxide in the 2-3 nm range, a depleted H concentration in the oxide compared with the bulk, and N, C, O lower in an annealed single crystal sample than several polycrystalline samples. Other metallic contaminants are primarily at the surface, but tantalum is distributed uniformly through the material.

  19. Noninvasive technique for studying plasma modes of ion Coulomb crystals using cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewsen, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Cavity Quantum ElectroDynamics (CQED) is a research field which focuses on understanding the interactions between matter and the electromagnetic field in cavities at the quantum level. Currently, CQED is a very active research field due to the prospect of creating efficient light-matter quantum interfaces at the single photon level for quantum information science. Ion Coulomb crystals have a series of properties of particular interest for CQED studies, as demonstrated in recent CQED experiments [1]. The coupling strength between ions in the crystals and photons in the cavity strongly depend on the motion of the ions due to the Doppler-effect. Consequently, the CQED signals can be exploited to learn about excitations of plasma modes in ion Coulomb crystals. Since the method relies on having one or less photons in the cavity at any time, it constitutes a noninvasive alternative to the Doppler-fluorescence method previous demonstrated in Penning trap experiments [2]. So far, CQED signal has been used to characterize how several normal mode frequencies depend on the aspect ratio of Coulomb crystals, and how the so-called micromotion of ions confined in rf traps influences the damping of the mode [3]. The observed mode frequencies are in remarkable agreement with theoretical prediction based on uniformly charged fluids [4]. [4pt] [1] P. F. Herskind, A. Dantan, J. P. Marler, M. Albert, and M. Drewsen, to appear in Nature Physics (2009). [0pt] [2] T. B. Mitchell, J. J. Bollinger, X.-P. Huang, and W. M. Itano, Opt. Express 2, 314 (1998). [0pt] [3] J. P. Marler, M. Albert, D. Guenot, P. F. Herskind, A. Dantan and M. Drewsen, manuscript in preparation. [0pt] [4] D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2076 (1991).

  20. Dissipative optomechanics in a Michelson-Sagnac interferometer.

    PubMed

    Xuereb, André; Schnabel, Roman; Hammerer, Klemens

    2011-11-18

    Dissipative optomechanics studies the coupling of the motion of an optical element to the decay rate of a cavity. We propose and theoretically explore a realization of this system in the optical domain, using a combined Michelson-Sagnac interferometer, which enables a strong and tunable dissipative coupling. Quantum interference in such a setup results in the suppression of the lower motional sideband, leading to strongly enhanced cooling in the non-sideband-resolved regime. With state-of-the-art parameters, ground-state cooling and low-power quantum-limited position transduction are both possible. The possibility of a strong, tunable dissipative coupling opens up a new route towards observation of such fundamental optomechanical effects as nonlinear dynamics. Beyond optomechanics, the suggested method can be readily transferred to other setups involving nonlinear media, atomic ensembles, or single atoms.

  1. Vertical cavity lasing from melt-grown crystals of cyano-substituted thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Yosuke; Yanagi, Hisao; Goto, Kaname; Yamashita, Kenichi; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu; Sasaki, Fumio

    2015-10-19

    Vertical-cavity organic lasers are fabricated with melt-grown crystals of a cyano-substituted thiophene-phenylene co-oligomer. Due to lying molecular orientation, surface-emitting lasing is achieved even in the half-cavity crystal grown on a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) under optical pumping at room temperature. Anticrossing splits in angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra suggest the formation of exciton-polaritons between the cavity photons and the confined Frenkel excitons. By constructing the full-cavity structure sandwiched between the top and bottom DBRs, the lasing threshold is reduced to one order, which is as low as that of the half cavity. Around the threshold, the time profile of the full-cavity emission is collapsed to a pulsed shape accompanied by a finite turn-on delay. We discuss these observed characteristics in terms of a polariton contribution to the conventional photon lasing.

  2. Vertical cavity lasing from melt-grown crystals of cyano-substituted thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yosuke; Goto, Kaname; Yamashita, Kenichi; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu; Sasaki, Fumio; Yanagi, Hisao

    2015-10-01

    Vertical-cavity organic lasers are fabricated with melt-grown crystals of a cyano-substituted thiophene-phenylene co-oligomer. Due to lying molecular orientation, surface-emitting lasing is achieved even in the half-cavity crystal grown on a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) under optical pumping at room temperature. Anticrossing splits in angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra suggest the formation of exciton-polaritons between the cavity photons and the confined Frenkel excitons. By constructing the full-cavity structure sandwiched between the top and bottom DBRs, the lasing threshold is reduced to one order, which is as low as that of the half cavity. Around the threshold, the time profile of the full-cavity emission is collapsed to a pulsed shape accompanied by a finite turn-on delay. We discuss these observed characteristics in terms of a polariton contribution to the conventional photon lasing.

  3. Characterization of defect cavities and channel-drop filters in the three dimensional woodpile photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieler, Daniel Paul

    Photonic crystals (PCs) are devices with the ability to confine electromagnetic (EM) waves due to their EM bandgap. The three-dimensional woodpile PC studied in this dissertation is appealing because unlike its two-dimensional counter parts, it is able to confine and guide EM waves in all three dimensions. This dissertation examines the fundamental properties of resonant cavities and use of cavities and waveguides (WGs) to create channel-drop filters in the woodpile PC. Resonant cavities are a major building block of photonic integrated circuits devices. Therefore it is important to understand how to control the properties of their resonant modes, such as quality factor (Q), resonant frequency, magnitude, and mode shape. This dissertation examines the effects of incident EM wave polarization, cavity size, cavity permittivity, cavity confinement, material loss, and lattice disorder on the properties of the resonant mode. Channel-drop filters are devices that can be used to transfer EM energy of a specific frequency from one WG to another. Channel-drop filters could be used to optically add or remove a specific carrier frequency from a fiber optic cable transporting many carrier frequencies. Channel-drop filters made from a PC are able to perform this task completely optically. This would speed up the optical network since conversion of the optical signal to an electronic signal is not required. In this dissertation six channel-drop filter configurations are examined. These structures are made both in a single stacking layer and separated by many layers. Five of the structures demonstrated good energy transfer from the input (bus) WG to the output (drop) WG. The ability to control the frequency and Q of the transferred EM mode is achieved by varying the cavity size and confinement.

  4. Theoretical framework for thin film superfluid optomechanics: towards the quantum regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Christopher G.; Harris, Glen I.; McAuslan, David L.; Sachkou, Yauhen; He, Xin; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2016-12-01

    Excitations in superfluid helium represent attractive mechanical degrees of freedom for cavity optomechanics schemes. Here we numerically and analytically investigate the properties of optomechanical resonators formed by thin films of superfluid 4He covering micrometer-scale whispering gallery mode cavities. We predict that through proper optimization of the interaction between film and optical field, large optomechanical coupling rates {g}0> 2π × 100 {kHz} and single photon cooperativities {C}0> 10 are achievable. Our analytical model reveals the unconventional behaviour of these thin films, such as thicker and heavier films exhibiting smaller effective mass and larger zero point motion. The optomechanical system outlined here provides access to unusual regimes such as {g}0> {{{Ω }}}M and opens the prospect of laser cooling a liquid into its quantum ground state.

  5. Selective crystallization of urea-functionalized capsules with tunable anion-binding cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Remy, Priscilla

    2009-01-01

    Herein we report crystallization of self-assembled capsules functionalized with urea hydrogen-bonding groups as a means for selective separation of sulfate anion. The high complementarity and the rigid environment found in such crystalline systems impart strong discrimination between anions of different shape, like sulfate and sulfite, or anions of the same shape but slightly different size, like sulfate and selenate, with selectivity that exceeds that observed in sulfate-binding protein. Similar to natural receptors, these crystalline capsules completely isolate the anions from the aqueous solvent by encapsulating them inside rigid cavities lined with complementary hydrogen-bonding groups. Furthermore, the capsules are made from flexible building blocks, whose structure and relative orientation in the crystal can be allosterically regulated to fine-tune the anion selectivity. These characteristics suggest that crystallization of such urea-functionalized capsules from simple and flexible components represents a particularly promising approach for selective anion separation from highly competitive aqueous environments.

  6. Kinetic characteristics of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovanova, O. A.; Chikanova, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    The kinetic regularities of crystallization from model solutions of the oral cavity are investigated and the growth order and constants are determined for two systems: saliva and dental plaque fluid (DPF). It is found that the stage in which the number of particles increases occurs in the range of mixed kinetics and their growth occurs in the diffusion range. The enhancing effect of additives HCO- 3 > C6H12O6 > F- and the retarding effect of Mg2+ are demonstrated. The HCO- 3 and Mg2+ additives, taken in high concentrations, affect the corresponding rate constants. It is revealed the crystallization in DPF is favorable for the growth of small crystallites, while the model solution of saliva is, vice versa, favorable for the growth of larger crystals.

  7. Cylindrical vector resonant modes achieved in planar photonic crystal cavities with enlarged air-holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kang; Fang, Liang; Zhao, Chenyang; Zhao, Jianlin; Gan, Xuetao

    2017-09-01

    We reveal a triangular-lattice planar photonic crystal supports Bloch modes with radially and azimuthally symmetric electric field distributions at the top band-edge of the first photonic band. Bifurcated from the corresponding Bloch modes, two cylindrical vector resonant modes are achieved by simply enlarging the central air-hole of the planar photonic crystal, which have high quality factors around 3,000 and small mode volume. The far-field radiations of the two resonant modes present high-quality cylindrical vector beam profiles. The resonant modes could be optimized by modifying the six nearest neighboring air-holes around the central defect. The cylindrically symmetric characteristics of the resonant mode's near- and far-fields might provide a new view to investigate light-matter interactions and device developments in planar photonic crystal cavities.

  8. Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16 900 in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico Triviño, Noelia; Minkov, Momchil; Urbinati, Giulia; Galli, Matteo; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Savona, Vincenzo; Grandjean, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Photonic crystal point-defect cavities were fabricated in a GaN free-standing photonic crystal slab. The cavities are based on the popular L3 design, which was optimized using an automated process based on a genetic algorithm, in order to maximize the quality factor. Optical characterization of several individual cavity replicas resulted in an average unloaded quality factor Q = 16 900 at the resonant wavelength λ˜1.3 μm , with a maximal measured Q value of 22 500. The statistics of both the quality factor and the resonant wavelength are well explained by first-principles simulations including fabrication disorder and background optical absorption.

  9. Achieving High Sensitivity in Cavity Optomechanical Magnetometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-08

    applications .  SQUIDs  require  a   cryogenic  environment,   increasing  complexity...types   of   sensor  will  each  be  suited  to  different   applications .       Fig.  5  Photograph  of...pursue  both  further  device  development  and   applications .   Bibliography   [1]  D.  Robbes,   Sensors  and

  10. Organization of 2012 Cavity Optomechanics Incubator Meeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    What can large accelerations do for you? Overview: Dr. Oriol Romero-Isart, Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching 5. Theoretical...for you? Overview: Dr. Oriol Romero-Isart, Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching 4 5. Theoretical Challenges and New Directions: new...Ovartchaiyapong University of California Santa Barbara UNITED STATES Thomas Purdy JILA UNITED STATES Oriol Romero-Isart Max Planck Institute of Quantum

  11. Single-nanoparticle detection with slot-mode photonic crystal cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cheng; Kita, Shota; Lončar, Marko; Quan, Qimin; Li, Yihang

    2015-06-29

    Optical cavities that are capable for detecting single nanoparticles could lead to great progress in early stage disease diagnostics and the study of biological interactions on the single-molecule level. In particular, photonic crystal (PhC) cavities are excellent platforms for label-free single-nanoparticle detection, owing to their high quality (Q) factors and wavelength-scale modal volumes. Here, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of a high-Q (>10{sup 4}) slot-mode PhC nanobeam cavity, which is able to strongly confine light in the slotted regions. The enhanced light-matter interaction results in an order of magnitude improvement in both refractive index sensitivity (439 nm/RIU) and single-nanoparticle sensitivity compared with conventional dielectric-mode PhC cavities. Detection of single polystyrene nanoparticles with radii of 20 nm and 30 nm is demonstrated in aqueous environments (D{sub 2}O), without additional laser and temperature stabilization techniques.

  12. Realizing mode conversion and optical diode effect by coupling photonic crystal waveguides with cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Han; Zhang, Jin-Qian-Nan; Yu, Zhong-Yuan; Wang, Dong-Lin; Chen, Zhi-Hui

    2015-09-01

    We propose a novel two-dimensional photonic crystal structure consisting of two line defect waveguides and a cavity to realize mode conversion based on the coupling effect. The W1/cavity/W2 structure breaks the spatial symmetry and successfully converts the even (odd) mode to the odd (even) mode in the W2 waveguide during the forward (backward) transmission. When considering the incidence of only the even mode, the optical diode effect emerges and achieves approximate 35 dB unidirectionality at the resonant frequency. Moreover, owing to the narrow bandpass feature and the flexibility of the tuning cavity, utilization of the proposed structure as a wavelength filter is demonstrated in a device with a Y-branch splitter. Here, we provide a heuristic design for a mode converter, optical diode, and wavelength filter derived from the coupling effect between a cavity and adjacent waveguides, and expect that the proposed structure can be applied as a building block in future all-optical integrated circuits. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61372037 and 61307069), Beijing Excellent Ph. D. Thesis Guidance Foundation, China (Grant No. 20131001301), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013021017-3).

  13. Out-of-plane nanomechanical tuning of double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie; Akkipeddi, Ramam

    2013-06-15

    We demonstrate tuning of double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities by their out-of-plane nanomechanical deformations. The coupled cavities are pulled by the vertical electrostatic force generated by the potential difference between the device layer and the handle layer in a silicon-on-insulator chip, and the induced deformations are analyzed by the finite element method. Applied with a voltage of 12 V, the cavities obtain a redshift of 0.0405 nm (twice the linewidth) for their second-order odd resonance mode and a blueshift of 0.0635 nm (three times the linewidth) for their second-order even resonance mode, which are mainly attributed to out-of-plane relative displacement. Out-of-plane tuning of coupled cavities does not need actuators and corresponding circuits; thus the device is succinct and compact. This working principle can be potentially applied in chip-level optoelectronic devices, such as sensors, switches, routers, and tunable filters.

  14. Dynamical effects of Stark-shifted quantum dots strongly coupled to photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy Choudhury, Kaushik; Bose, Ranojoy; Waks, Edo

    2013-03-01

    Single semiconductor quantum-dots (QDs) strongly coupled to photonic crystal cavities are a strong candidate for single photon generation, ultra-fast all optical switching and quantum information processing. Recent experiments on coupled-cavity quantum dot systems show possible manipulation of emission wavelength of the dot through optical Stark effect. Interesting dynamical features arise when the Stark pulse duration is comparable to QD-cavity interaction time. Here, we present a theoretical treatment of these dynamical effects and investigate dynamical emission spectrum, energy transfer and single photon generation. We study these effects through numerical solution of the full master equation. We demonstrate that dynamic Stark effects can be used to generate ultra-fast indistinguishable single photons using rapid Stark tuning of the quantum dot. The theoretical limit for the speed is shown to be faster than adiabatic rapid passage technique used for microwave photon generation in circuit QED. A systematic study of role of device parameters such as pulse-shape, dot-cavity coupling and incoherent losses on the efficiency and speed of single photon generation is also presented for possible experimental realization.

  15. All-optical diode structure based on asymmetrical coupling by a micro-cavity and FP cavity at two sides of photonic crystal waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin Liu, Yun-Feng; He, Xing-Dao; Jia, Chen

    2016-06-15

    A high efficiency all-optical diode based on photonic crystal (PC) waveguide has been proposed and numerically investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The structure is asymmetrically coupled by a micro-cavity containing nonlinear Kerr medium and a FP cavity at sides of PC waveguide. Because of interference between two cavities, Fano peak and FP peak can both appear in transmission spectra and unidirectional transmission can be achieved. The working wavelength can set between two peaks and near to the Fano peak. For forward launch with suitable light intensity, nonlinear Kerr effect of micro-cavity can been excited. It will result in red shift of Fano peak and achieving forward transmission. But for backward launch, a stronger incidence light is needed to the excite Kerr effect due to the design of asymmetric structure. This design has many advantages, including high maximum transmittance, high transmittance contrast ratio, low power threshold, short response time, and ease of integration.

  16. Hybrid atom-membrane optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treutlein, Philipp

    We have realized a hybrid mechanical system in which ultracold atoms and a micromechanical membrane are coupled by radiation pressure forces. The atoms are trapped in an optical lattice, formed by retro-reflection of a laser beam from an optical cavity that contains the membrane as mechanical element. When we laser cool the atoms, we observe that the membrane is sympathetically cooled from ambient to millikelvin temperatures through its interaction with the atoms. Sympathetic cooling with ultracold atoms or ions has previously been used to cool other microscopic systems such as atoms of a different species or molecular ions up to the size of proteins. Here we use it to efficiently cool the fundamental vibrational mode of a macroscopic solid-state system, whose mass exceeds that of the atomic ensemble by ten orders of magnitude. Our hybrid system operates in a regime of large atom-membrane cooperativity. With technical improvements such as cryogenic pre-cooling of the membrane, it enables ground-state cooling and quantum control of mechanical oscillators in a regime where purely optomechanical techniques cannot reach the ground state. References: A. Jöckel, A. Faber, T. Kampschulte, M. Korppi, M. T. Rakher, and P. Treutlein, Sympathetic cooling of a membrane oscillator in a hybrid mechanical-atomic system, Nature Nanotechnology 10, 55 (2015). B. Vogell, T. Kampschulte, M. T. Rakher, A. Faber, P. Treutlein, K. Hammerer, and P. Zoller, Long distance coupling of a quantum mechanical oscillator to the internal states of an atomic ensemble, New J. Phys. 17, 043044 (2015). B. Vogell, K. Stannigel, P. Zoller, K. Hammerer, M. T. Rakher, M. Korppi, A. Jöckel, and P. Treutlein, Cavity-enhanced long-distance coupling of an atomic ensemble to a micromechanical membrane, Phys. Rev. A 87, 023816 (2013).

  17. Symmetry-breaking oscillations in membrane optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurl, C.; Alvermann, A.; Fehske, H.

    2016-12-01

    We study the classical dynamics of a membrane inside a cavity in the situation where this optomechanical system possesses a reflection symmetry. Symmetry breaking occurs through supercritical and subcritical pitchfork bifurcations of the static fixed-point solutions. Both bifurcations can be observed through variation of the laser-cavity detuning, which gives rise to a boomerang-like fixed-point pattern with hysteresis. The symmetry-breaking fixed points evolve into self-sustained oscillations when the laser intensity is increased. In addition to the analysis of the accompanying Hopf bifurcations we describe these oscillations at finite amplitudes with an ansatz that fully accounts for the frequency shift relative to the natural membrane frequency. We complete our study by following the route to chaos for the membrane dynamics.

  18. Dissipation and coherent control in nano-optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, King Yan

    This thesis presents experimental realization and theoretical investigation of nanooptomechanical systems on integrated silicon photonic platform with emphasis on noise and dissipation characteristics subject to different operating conditions and environments. First, an ultra-high quality factor nanostring resonators integrated in silicon nitride nanophotonic platform is demonstrated. Because of the high quality factor of the resonator, its frequency noise can be detected and studied with high precision. In such a weakly dissipative system, a sizable frequency fluctuation far above the thermomechanical noise limit has been observed. The observed kTB/ f frequency noise is attributed as the signature of two-level systems in the defect states inside the material. The device is further applied to realize an optically tunable photonic directional coupler. Next, the fluidic damping of a micro-wheel optomechanical resonator operated in liquid environment is studied. With the highly sensitive cavity-enhanced optical readout, we are able to observe the thermomechanical noise with large signal-tobackground ratio even in the highly dissipative water- environment. A theoretical model is developed to describe the hydrodynamics of the resonator-fluid interaction. The hydrodynamic loading predicted by our model agrees with the experimental results. This device is further integrated with microfluidics to develop a fully integrated platform for optomechanical sensing in atmospheric or liquid environment. To apply optomechanical oscillator for sensing applications, understanding of its phase noise characteristics is very- important. For this we present an in-depth theoretical study on the phase noise of a self-sustained optomechanical oscillator. Contributions from thermomechanical noise, cavity vacuum fluctuations and low-frequency technical laser noise are considered. This study addresses the question about the fundamental limit of the phase noise that can be achieved in such a

  19. High-Q silicon photonic crystal cavity for enhanced optical nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Dharanipathy, Ulagalandha Perumal; Tonin, Mario; Houdré, Romuald; Minkov, Momchil Savona, Vincenzo

    2014-09-08

    We fabricate and experimentally characterize an H0 photonic crystal slab nanocavity with a design optimized for maximal quality factor, Q = 1.7 × 10{sup 6}. The cavity, fabricated from a silicon slab, has a resonant mode at λ = 1.59 μm and a measured Q-factor of 400 000. It displays nonlinear effects, including high-contrast optical bistability, at a threshold power among the lowest ever reported for a silicon device. With a theoretical modal volume as small as V = 0.34(λ/n){sup 3}, this cavity ranks among those with the highest Q/V ratios ever demonstrated, while having a small footprint suited for integration in photonic circuits.

  20. Prospects for a bad-cavity laser using a large ion crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, Georgy A.; Bohnet, Justin; Schumm, Thorsten

    2017-08-01

    We propose to build a bad-cavity laser using forbidden transitions in large ensembles of cold ions that form a Coulomb crystal in a linear Paul trap. This laser might realize an active optical frequency standard able to serve as a local oscillator in next-generation optical clock schemes. In passive optical clocks, large ensembles of ions appear less promising, as they suffer from inhomogeneous broadening due to quadrupole interactions and micromotion-related shifts. In bad-cavity lasers, however, the radiating dipoles can synchronize and generate stable and narrow-linewidth radiation. Furthermore, for specific ions, micromotion-induced shifts can be largely suppressed by operating the ion trap at a magic frequency. We discuss the output radiation properties and perform quantitative estimations for lasing on the 3D2→1S0 transition in 176Lu+ ions in a spherically symmetric trap.

  1. Angled cavity photonic crystal lasers with asymmetrical high-order surface gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Wang, Yufei; Qu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shaoyu; Li, Lunhua; Zheng, Wanhua

    2017-03-01

    980 nm angled cavity photonic crystal (PC) laser diodes with asymmetrical high-order surface gratings (aHSGs) are proposed and fabricated. The one-dimensional PC structure in the epitaxy is used to expand the fundamental transverse mode and reduce the vertical divergence. An angled cavity with aHSGs is fabricated to achieve a nearly diffraction-limited beam quality and narrow spectral width. Experimentally, a continuous-wave output of 0.85 W/facet, a low divergence of 1.5 × 10.6°, and a narrow spectral width of 0.07 nm are achieved. The lateral beam quality is superior with an M\\| 2 of 1.96.

  2. Acoustic confinement in superlattice cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Daniel; Déleglise, Samuel; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Atkinson, Paola; Lagoin, Camille; Perrin, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    The large coupling rate between the acoustic and optical fields confined in GaAs/AlAs superlattice cavities makes them appealing systems for cavity optomechanics. We have developed a mathematical model based on the scattering matrix that allows the acoustic guided modes to be predicted in nano and micropillar superlattice cavities. We demonstrate here that the reflection at the surface boundary considerably modifies the acoustic quality factor and leads to significant confinement at the micropillar center. Our mathematical model also predicts unprecedented acoustic Fano resonances on nanopillars featuring small mode volumes and very high mechanical quality factors, making them attractive systems for optomechanical applications.

  3. Fabrication And Characterization Of Photonic Crystal Slow Light Waveguides And Cavities

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Christopher Paul; Rey, Isabella H.; Welna, Karl; O'Faolain, Liam; Krauss, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Slow light has been one of the hot topics in the photonics community in the past decade, generating great interest both from a fundamental point of view and for its considerable potential for practical applications. Slow light photonic crystal waveguides, in particular, have played a major part and have been successfully employed for delaying optical signals1-4 and the enhancement of both linear5-7 and nonlinear devices.8-11 Photonic crystal cavities achieve similar effects to that of slow light waveguides, but over a reduced band-width. These cavities offer high Q-factor/volume ratio, for the realization of optically12 and electrically13 pumped ultra-low threshold lasers and the enhancement of nonlinear effects.14-16 Furthermore, passive filters17 and modulators18-19 have been demonstrated, exhibiting ultra-narrow line-width, high free-spectral range and record values of low energy consumption. To attain these exciting results, a robust repeatable fabrication protocol must be developed. In this paper we take an in-depth look at our fabrication protocol which employs electron-beam lithography for the definition of photonic crystal patterns and uses wet and dry etching techniques. Our optimised fabrication recipe results in photonic crystals that do not suffer from vertical asymmetry and exhibit very good edge-wall roughness. We discuss the results of varying the etching parameters and the detrimental effects that they can have on a device, leading to a diagnostic route that can be taken to identify and eliminate similar issues. The key to evaluating slow light waveguides is the passive characterization of transmission and group index spectra. Various methods have been reported, most notably resolving the Fabry-Perot fringes of the transmission spectrum20-21 and interferometric techniques.22-25 Here, we describe a direct, broadband measurement technique combining spectral interferometry with Fourier transform analysis.26 Our method stands out for its simplicity and

  4. Fabrication and characterization of photonic crystal slow light waveguides and cavities.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Christopher Paul; Rey, Isabella H; Welna, Karl; O'Faolain, Liam; Krauss, Thomas F

    2012-11-30

    Slow light has been one of the hot topics in the photonics community in the past decade, generating great interest both from a fundamental point of view and for its considerable potential for practical applications. Slow light photonic crystal waveguides, in particular, have played a major part and have been successfully employed for delaying optical signals(1-4) and the enhancement of both linear(5-7) and nonlinear devices.(8-11) Photonic crystal cavities achieve similar effects to that of slow light waveguides, but over a reduced band-width. These cavities offer high Q-factor/volume ratio, for the realization of optically(12) and electrically(13) pumped ultra-low threshold lasers and the enhancement of nonlinear effects.(14-16) Furthermore, passive filters(17) and modulators(18-19) have been demonstrated, exhibiting ultra-narrow line-width, high free-spectral range and record values of low energy consumption. To attain these exciting results, a robust repeatable fabrication protocol must be developed. In this paper we take an in-depth look at our fabrication protocol which employs electron-beam lithography for the definition of photonic crystal patterns and uses wet and dry etching techniques. Our optimised fabrication recipe results in photonic crystals that do not suffer from vertical asymmetry and exhibit very good edge-wall roughness. We discuss the results of varying the etching parameters and the detrimental effects that they can have on a device, leading to a diagnostic route that can be taken to identify and eliminate similar issues. The key to evaluating slow light waveguides is the passive characterization of transmission and group index spectra. Various methods have been reported, most notably resolving the Fabry-Perot fringes of the transmission spectrum(20-21) and interferometric techniques.(22-25) Here, we describe a direct, broadband measurement technique combining spectral interferometry with Fourier transform analysis.(26) Our method stands out

  5. Bi-directional conversion between microwave and optical frequencies in a piezoelectric optomechanical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainsencher, Amit; Satzinger, K. J.; Peairs, G. A.; Cleland, A. N.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the principles of design, fabrication, and operation of a piezoelectric optomechanical crystal with which we demonstrate bi-directional conversion of energy between microwave and optical frequencies. The optomechanical crystal has an optical mode at 1523 nm co-located with a mechanical breathing mode at 3.8 GHz, with a measured optomechanical coupling strength gom/2π of 115 kHz. The breathing mode is driven and detected by curved interdigitated transducers that couple to a Lamb mode in suspended membranes on either end of the optomechanical crystal, allowing the external piezoelectric modulation of the optical signal as well as the converse, the detection of microwave electrical signals generated by a modulated optical signal. We compare measurements to theory where appropriate.

  6. Controllable optomechanically induced transparency in coupled optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohail, Amjad; Zhang, Yang; Usman, Muhammad; Yu, Chang-shui

    2017-04-01

    We have analytically investigated the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) in two coupled optomechanical systems. We report that, the presence of two optomechanical couplings and one mechanical coupling between the two resonators, leads to different quantum interference paths and, generates single, double and triple-OMIT windows in the probe absorption spectrum. In particular, we have shown how the OMIT windows are affected by the system parameters, how to control the widths of the OMIT windows and how to control the transitions between the different OMIT windows.

  7. Scalable fabrication of coupled NV center - photonic crystal cavity systems by self-aligned N ion implantation

    DOE PAGES

    Schröder, T.; Walsh, M.; Zheng, J.; ...

    2017-04-06

    Towards building large-scale integrated photonic systems for quantum information processing, spatial and spectral alignment of single quantum systems to photonic nanocavities is required. In this paper, we demonstrate spatially targeted implantation of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers into the mode maximum of 2-d diamond photonic crystal cavities with quality factors up to 8000, achieving an average of 1.1 ± 0.2 NVs per cavity. Nearly all NV-cavity systems have significant emission intensity enhancement, reaching a cavity-fed spectrally selective intensity enhancement, Fint, of up to 93. Although spatial NV-cavity overlap is nearly guaranteed within about 40 nm, spectral tuning of the NV’s zero-phonon-linemore » (ZPL) is still necessary after fabrication. To demonstrate spectral control, we temperature tune a cavity into an NV ZPL, yielding FZPLint~5 at cryogenic temperatures.« less

  8. New generation of one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities as robust high-efficient frequency converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvini, T. S.; Tehranchi, M. M.; Hamidi, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    An effective method is proposed to design finite one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities (PhCCs) as robust high-efficient frequency converter. For this purpose, we consider two groups of PhCCs which are constructed by stacking m nonlinear (LiNbO3) and n linear (air) layers with variable thicknesses. In the first group, the number of linear layers is less than the nonlinear layers by one and in the second group by two. The conversion efficiency is calculated as a function of the arrangement and thicknesses of the linear and nonlinear layers by benefiting from nonlinear transfer matrix method. Our numerical simulations show that for each group of PhCCs, there is a structural formula by which the configurations with the highest efficiency can be constructed for any values of m and n (i.e. any number of layers). The efficient configurations are equivalent to Fabry-Pérot cavities that depend on the relationship between m and n and the mirrors in two sides of these cavities can be periodic or nonperiodic. The conversion efficiencies of these designed PhCCs are more than 5 orders of magnitude higher than the perfect ones which satisfy photonic bandgap edge and quasi-phase matching. Moreover, the results reveal that conversion efficiencies of Fabry-Pérot cavities with non-periodic mirrors are one order of magnitude higher than those with periodic mirrors. The major physical mechanisms of the enhancement are quasi-phase matching effect, cavity effect induced by dispersive mirrors, and double resonance for the pump and the harmonic fields in defect state. We believe that this method is very beneficial to the design of high-efficient compact optical frequency converters.

  9. On-chip spectroscopy with thermally tuned high-Q photonic crystal cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Liapis, Andreas C. Gao, Boshen; Siddiqui, Mahmudur R.; Shi, Zhimin; Boyd, Robert W.

    2016-01-11

    Spectroscopic methods are a sensitive way to determine the chemical composition of potentially hazardous materials. Here, we demonstrate that thermally tuned high-Q photonic crystal cavities can be used as a compact high-resolution on-chip spectrometer. We have used such a chip-scale spectrometer to measure the absorption spectra of both acetylene and hydrogen cyanide in the 1550 nm spectral band and show that we can discriminate between the two chemical species even though the two materials have spectral features in the same spectral region. Our results pave the way for the development of chip-size chemical sensors that can detect toxic substances.

  10. On-chip spectroscopy with thermally tuned high-Q photonic crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Gao, Boshen; Siddiqui, Mahmudur R.; Shi, Zhimin; Boyd, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods are a sensitive way to determine the chemical composition of potentially hazardous materials. Here, we demonstrate that thermally tuned high-Q photonic crystal cavities can be used as a compact high-resolution on-chip spectrometer. We have used such a chip-scale spectrometer to measure the absorption spectra of both acetylene and hydrogen cyanide in the 1550 nm spectral band and show that we can discriminate between the two chemical species even though the two materials have spectral features in the same spectral region. Our results pave the way for the development of chip-size chemical sensors that can detect toxic substances.

  11. Vibrational states of a water molecule in a nano-cavity of beryl crystal lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukova, Elena S.; Torgashev, Victor I.; Gorshunov, Boris P.; Lebedev, Vladimir V.; Shakurov, Gil'man S.; Kremer, Reinhard K.; Pestrjakov, Efim V.; Thomas, Victor G.; Fursenko, Dimitry A.; Prokhorov, Anatoly S.; Dressel, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Low-energy excitations of a single water molecule are studied when confined within a nano-size cavity formed by the ionic crystal lattice. Optical spectra are measured of manganese doped beryl single crystal Mn:Be3Al2Si6O18, that contains water molecules individually isolated in 0.51 nm diameter voids within the crystal lattice. Two types of orientation are distinguished: water-I molecules have their dipole moments aligned perpendicular to the c axis and dipole moments of water-II molecules are parallel to the c-axis. The optical conductivity σ(ν) and permittivity ɛ'(ν) spectra are recorded in terahertz and infrared ranges, at frequencies from several wavenumbers up to ν = 7000 cm-1, at temperatures 5-300 K and for two polarizations, when the electric vector E of the radiation is parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis. Comparative experiments on as-grown and on dehydrated samples allow to identify the spectra of σ(ν) and ɛ'(ν) caused exclusively by water molecules. In the infrared range, well-known internal modes ν1, ν2, and ν3 of the H2O molecule are observed for both polarizations, indicating the presence of water-I and water-II molecules in the crystal. Spectra recorded below 1000 cm-1 reveal a rich set of highly anisotropic features in the low-energy response of H2O molecule in a crystalline nano-cavity. While for E∥c only two absorption peaks are detected, at ˜90 cm-1 and ˜160 cm-1, several absorption bands are discovered for E⊥c, each consisting of narrower resonances. The bands are assigned to librational (400-500 cm-1) and translational (150-200 cm-1) vibrations of water-I molecule that is weakly coupled to the nano-cavity "walls." A model is presented that explains the "fine structure" of the bands by a splitting of the energy levels due to quantum tunneling between the minima in a six-well potential relief felt by a molecule within the cavity.

  12. Vibrational states of a water molecule in a nano-cavity of beryl crystal lattice.

    PubMed

    Zhukova, Elena S; Torgashev, Victor I; Gorshunov, Boris P; Lebedev, Vladimir V; Shakurov, Gil'man S; Kremer, Reinhard K; Pestrjakov, Efim V; Thomas, Victor G; Fursenko, Dimitry A; Prokhorov, Anatoly S; Dressel, Martin

    2014-06-14

    Low-energy excitations of a single water molecule are studied when confined within a nano-size cavity formed by the ionic crystal lattice. Optical spectra are measured of manganese doped beryl single crystal Mn:Be3Al2Si6O18, that contains water molecules individually isolated in 0.51 nm diameter voids within the crystal lattice. Two types of orientation are distinguished: water-I molecules have their dipole moments aligned perpendicular to the c axis and dipole moments of water-II molecules are parallel to the c-axis. The optical conductivity σ(ν) and permittivity ɛ'(ν) spectra are recorded in terahertz and infrared ranges, at frequencies from several wavenumbers up to ν = 7000 cm(-1), at temperatures 5-300 K and for two polarizations, when the electric vector E of the radiation is parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis. Comparative experiments on as-grown and on dehydrated samples allow to identify the spectra of σ(ν) and ɛ'(ν) caused exclusively by water molecules. In the infrared range, well-known internal modes ν1, ν2, and ν3 of the H2O molecule are observed for both polarizations, indicating the presence of water-I and water-II molecules in the crystal. Spectra recorded below 1000 cm(-1) reveal a rich set of highly anisotropic features in the low-energy response of H2O molecule in a crystalline nano-cavity. While for E∥c only two absorption peaks are detected, at ~90 cm(-1) and ~160 cm(-1), several absorption bands are discovered for E⊥c, each consisting of narrower resonances. The bands are assigned to librational (400-500 cm(-1)) and translational (150-200 cm(-1)) vibrations of water-I molecule that is weakly coupled to the nano-cavity "walls." A model is presented that explains the "fine structure" of the bands by a splitting of the energy levels due to quantum tunneling between the minima in a six-well potential relief felt by a molecule within the cavity.

  13. Lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting laser based on commercial epitaxial wafer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufei; Qu, Hongwei; Zhou, Wenjun; Qi, Aiyi; Zhang, Jianxin; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Wanhua

    2013-04-08

    A lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting laser (LC-PCSEL) with airholes of cone-like shape etched near to the active layer is fabricated. It employs only a simple commercial epitaxial wafer without DBR and needs no wafer bonding technique. Surface emitting lasing action at 1575 nm with power of 1.8 mW is observed at room temperature, providing potential values for mass production of electrically driven PCSELs with low cost. Additionally, Fano resonance is utilized to analyze aperture equivalence of PC, and energy distribution in simplified laser structure is simulated to show oscillation and transmission characteristics of laser.

  14. Tight-Binding Approximations in 1D and 2D Coupled-Cavity Photonic Crystal Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Nicole C. L.

    Light confinement and controlling an optical field has numerous applications in the field of telecommunications for optical signals processing. When the wavelength of the electromagnetic field is on the order of the period of a photonic microstructure, the field undergoes reflection, refraction, and coherent scattering. This produces photonic bandgaps, forbidden frequency regions or spectral stop bands where light cannot exist. Dielectric perturbations that break the perfect periodicity of these structures produce what is analogous to an impurity state in the bandgap of a semiconductor. The defect modes that exist at discrete frequencies within the photonic bandgap are spatially localized about the cavity-defects in the photonic crystal. In this thesis the properties of two tight-binding approximations (TBAs) are investigated in one-dimensional and two-dimensional coupled-cavity photonic crystal structures. We require an efficient and simple approach that ensures the continuity of the electromagnetic field across dielectric interfaces in complex structures. In this thesis we develop E- and D-TBAs to calculate the modes in finite 1D and 2D two-defect coupled-cavity photonic crystal structures. In the E- and D-TBAs we expand the coupled-cavity [vector electron]-modes in terms of the individual [vector electron]- and [vector D meson]-modes, respectively. We investigate the dependence of the defect modes, their frequencies and quality factors on the relative placement of the defects in the photonic crystal structures. We then elucidate the differences between the two TBA formulations, and describe the conditions under which these formulations may be more robust when encountering a dielectric perturbation. Our 1D analysis showed that the 1D modes were sensitive to the structure geometry. The antisymmetric D mode amplitudes show that the D. TBA did not capture the correct (tangential [vector electron]-field) boundary conditions. However, the D-TBA did not yield

  15. Coupling of erbium dopants to yttrium orthosilicate photonic crystal cavities for on-chip optical quantum memories

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazono, Evan; Zhong, Tian; Craiciu, Ioana; Kindem, Jonathan M.; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-01-04

    Erbium dopants in crystals exhibit highly coherent optical transitions well suited for solid-state optical quantum memories operating in the telecom band. Here, we demonstrate coupling of erbium dopant ions in yttrium orthosilicate to a photonic crystal cavity fabricated directly in the host crystal using focused ion beam milling. The coupling leads to reduction of the photoluminescence lifetime and enhancement of the optical depth in microns-long devices, which will enable on-chip quantum memories.

  16. High-sensitivity double-cavity silicon photonic-crystal resonator for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, Amrita Kumar; Amemiya, Yoshiteru; Yokoyama, Shin

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrated a two-dimensional double-cavity silicon photonic-crystal resonator based neighboring hole radius modulation. By theoretical and experimental analyses, we confirmed that the quality factor (Q-factor) increases at a certain neighboring hole radius. Experimentally, we showed Q-factors of (1.93-2.02) × 105. Moreover, by using sucrose solution, we measured a sensitivity of 1571 nm/RIU (refractive index unit), which is the highest sensitivity ever reported for such a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based resonator type device. We reported the detection limit (DL) of the refractive index change of (4.15-4.34) × 10-6 RIU, which is one of the best in previous reports.

  17. Optomechanical medical devices (instruments)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Roger S.

    2004-03-01

    Optomechanical Medical Devices (Instruments) use lightwaves (UV, Visible, IR) for one or more of the following functions; to observe, to measure, to record, to test (align) and or to cut/repair. The evolution of Optomechanical Medical Devices probably started when the first torch or candle or petrochemical lamp used a polished reflector (possibly with a concave configuration) to examine a part of a patient's body (possibly a wound).Once the glass lens was invented, light sources of any type could be forcussed to increase illuminating power on a selected area. Medical Devices have come a great distance since these early items. Skipping across time to three rather significant inventions and advancements, we are well into the era of Laser and Fiber Optics and Advanced Photodetectors, all being integrated into Medical Devices. The most notable fields have been Ophthalmology, Dermatology, and Surgery. All three fields have been able to incorporate both the use of the Laser and the use of Fiber Optics (and at times the use of Photodetectors), into a single device (instrument). Historical: Philipp Bozzini (a Doctor, maybe) in the early 1800's used a hollow tube (tube material not identified) to project the light of a candle through the tube to view a patient's 'what ever'. Only Philipp, the patient and G-d knows what was being viewed. This ws the first recorded information on what could be considered the very first 'Endoscope examination'

  18. Exciton dynamics in a site-controlled quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Jarlov, C. Lyasota, A.; Ferrier, L.; Gallo, P.; Dwir, B.; Rudra, A.; Kapon, E.

    2015-11-09

    Exciton and cavity mode (CM) dynamics in site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots (QDs), integrated with linear photonic crystal membrane cavities, are investigated for a range of temperatures and photo-excitation power levels. The absence of spurious multi-excitonic effects, normally observed in similar structures based on self-assembled QDs, permits the observation of effects intrinsic to two-level systems embedded in a solid state matrix and interacting with optical cavity modes. The coupled exciton and CM dynamics follow the same trend, indicating that the CM is fed only by the exciton transition. The Purcell reduction of the QD and CM decay times is reproduced well by a theoretical model that includes exciton linewidth broadening and temperature dependent non-radiative processes, from which we extract a Purcell factor of 17 ± 5. For excitation powers above QD saturation, we show the influence of quantum wire barrier states at short delay time, and demonstrate the absence of multiexcitonic background emission.

  19. Exciton dynamics in a site-controlled quantum dot coupled to a photonic crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarlov, C.; Lyasota, A.; Ferrier, L.; Gallo, P.; Dwir, B.; Rudra, A.; Kapon, E.

    2015-11-01

    Exciton and cavity mode (CM) dynamics in site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots (QDs), integrated with linear photonic crystal membrane cavities, are investigated for a range of temperatures and photo-excitation power levels. The absence of spurious multi-excitonic effects, normally observed in similar structures based on self-assembled QDs, permits the observation of effects intrinsic to two-level systems embedded in a solid state matrix and interacting with optical cavity modes. The coupled exciton and CM dynamics follow the same trend, indicating that the CM is fed only by the exciton transition. The Purcell reduction of the QD and CM decay times is reproduced well by a theoretical model that includes exciton linewidth broadening and temperature dependent non-radiative processes, from which we extract a Purcell factor of 17 ± 5. For excitation powers above QD saturation, we show the influence of quantum wire barrier states at short delay time, and demonstrate the absence of multiexcitonic background emission.

  20. High sensitive photonic crystal multiplexed biosensor array using H0 sandwiched cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafa, Safia; Bouchemat, Mohamed; Bouchemat, Touraya; Benmerkhi, Ahlem

    2017-03-01

    We theoretically investigate a high sensitive photonic crystal integrated biosensor array structure which is potentially used for label-free multiplexed sensing. The proposed device consists of an array of three sandwiched H0 cavities patterned above silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate; each cavity has been designed for different cavity spacing and different resonant wavelength. Results obtained by performing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, indicate that the response of each detection unit shifts independently in terms of refractive index variations. The optimized design makes possible the combination of sensing as a function of location, as well as a function of time in the same platform. A refractive index sensitivity of 520nm/RIU and a quality factor over 104 are both achieved with an accompanied crosstalk of less than -26 dB. In addition, the device presents an improved detection limit (DL) of 1.24.10-6 RIU and a wide measurement range. These features make the designed device a promising element for performing label-free multiplexed detection in monolithic substrate for medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring.

  1. Enhanced Telecom Emission from Single Group-IV Quantum Dots by Precise CMOS-Compatible Positioning in Photonic Crystal Cavities.

    PubMed

    Schatzl, Magdalena; Hackl, Florian; Glaser, Martin; Rauter, Patrick; Brehm, Moritz; Spindlberger, Lukas; Simbula, Angelica; Galli, Matteo; Fromherz, Thomas; Schäffler, Friedrich

    2017-03-15

    Efficient coupling to integrated high-quality-factor cavities is crucial for the employment of germanium quantum dot (QD) emitters in future monolithic silicon-based optoelectronic platforms. We report on strongly enhanced emission from single Ge QDs into L3 photonic crystal resonator (PCR) modes based on precise positioning of these dots at the maximum of the respective mode field energy density. Perfect site control of Ge QDs grown on prepatterned silicon-on-insulator substrates was exploited to fabricate in one processing run almost 300 PCRs containing single QDs in systematically varying positions within the cavities. Extensive photoluminescence studies on this cavity chip enable a direct evaluation of the position-dependent coupling efficiency between single dots and selected cavity modes. The experimental results demonstrate the great potential of the approach allowing CMOS-compatible parallel fabrication of arrays of spatially matched dot/cavity systems for group-IV-based data transfer or quantum optical systems in the telecom regime.

  2. Simulation of an optomechanical quantum memory in the nonlinear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, R. Y.; Kiesewetter, S.; Reid, M. D.; Drummond, P. D.

    2017-07-01

    Optomechanical systems cooled to the quantum level provide a promising mechanism for a high-fidelity quantum memory that is faithful to a given temporal mode structure, and can be recovered synchronously. We carry out full, probabilistic quantum simulation of a quantum optomechanical memory, including nonlinear effects that are usually ignored. This is achieved using both the approximate truncated Wigner and the exact positive P phase-space representations. By considering the nonlinear quantum optomechanical Hamiltonian, our simulations allow us to probe the regime where the linearization approximation fails to hold. We show evidence for large spectral overlap between the quantum signal and the transfer field in typical optomechanical quantum memory experiments. Methods for eliminating this overlap to accurately recover the quantum signal are discussed. This allows us to give a complete model for the quantum storage of a coherent state. We treat the mode matching that is necessary to accurately retrieve the stored quantum state, by including the internal dynamics of the mechanical system as well as the optical system. We also include the finite switching time of the control transfer field. The fidelity for the storage of a coherent state is computed numerically using currently realistic experimental parameters in the electromechanical case. We find the expected fidelity is lower than required to demonstrate true quantum state transfers. Significant improvements in the quality factor of the cavity and mechanical systems will, however, increase the fidelity beyond the quantum threshold.

  3. Cooling a Harmonic Oscillator by Optomechanical Modification of Its Bath.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xunnong; Purdy, Thomas; Taylor, Jacob M

    2017-06-02

    Optomechanical systems show tremendous promise for the high-sensitivity sensing of forces and modification of mechanical properties via light. For example, similar to neutral atoms and trapped ions, laser cooling of mechanical motion by radiation pressure can take single mechanical modes to their ground state. Conventional optomechanical cooling is able to introduce an additional damping channel to mechanical motion while keeping its thermal noise at the same level, and, as a consequence, the effective temperature of the mechanical mode is lowered. However, the ratio of the temperature to the quality factor remains roughly constant, preventing dramatic advances in quantum sensing using this approach. Here we propose an approach for simultaneously reducing the thermal load on a mechanical resonator while improving its quality factor. In essence, we use the optical interaction to dynamically modify the dominant damping mechanism, providing an optomechanically induced effect analogous to a phononic band gap. The mechanical mode of interest is assumed to be weakly coupled to its heat bath but strongly coupled to a second mechanical mode, which is cooled by radiation pressure coupling to a red-detuned cavity field. We also identify a realistic optomechanical design that has the potential to realize this novel cooling scheme.

  4. Optomechanics with silicon nanowires by harnessing confined electromagnetic modes.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Daniel; Gil-Santos, Eduardo; Pini, Valerio; Llorens, Jose M; Fernández-Regúlez, Marta; San Paulo, Álvaro; Calleja, M; Tamayo, J

    2012-02-08

    The optomechanical coupling that emerges in an optical cavity in which one of the mirrors is a mechanical resonator has allowed sub-Kelvin cooling with the prospect of observing quantum phenomena and self-sustained oscillators with very high spectral purity. Both applications clearly benefit from the use of the smallest possible mechanical resonator. Unfortunately, the optomechanical coupling largely decays when the size of the mechanical system is below the light wavelength. Here, we propose to exploit the optical resonances associated to the light confinement in subwavelength structures to circumvent this limitation, efficiently extending optomechanics to nanoscale objects. We demonstrate this mechanism with suspended silicon nanowires. We are able to optically cool the mechanical vibration of the nanowires from room temperature to 30-40 K or to obtain regenerative mechanical oscillation with a frequency stability of about one part per million. The reported optomechanical phenomena can be exploited for developing cost-optimized mass sensors with sensitivities in the zeptogram range. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. Cooling a Harmonic Oscillator by Optomechanical Modification of Its Bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xunnong; Purdy, Thomas; Taylor, Jacob M.

    2017-06-01

    Optomechanical systems show tremendous promise for the high-sensitivity sensing of forces and modification of mechanical properties via light. For example, similar to neutral atoms and trapped ions, laser cooling of mechanical motion by radiation pressure can take single mechanical modes to their ground state. Conventional optomechanical cooling is able to introduce an additional damping channel to mechanical motion while keeping its thermal noise at the same level, and, as a consequence, the effective temperature of the mechanical mode is lowered. However, the ratio of the temperature to the quality factor remains roughly constant, preventing dramatic advances in quantum sensing using this approach. Here we propose an approach for simultaneously reducing the thermal load on a mechanical resonator while improving its quality factor. In essence, we use the optical interaction to dynamically modify the dominant damping mechanism, providing an optomechanically induced effect analogous to a phononic band gap. The mechanical mode of interest is assumed to be weakly coupled to its heat bath but strongly coupled to a second mechanical mode, which is cooled by radiation pressure coupling to a red-detuned cavity field. We also identify a realistic optomechanical design that has the potential to realize this novel cooling scheme.

  6. Cavity-assisted atomic frequency comb memory in an isotopically pure 143Nd3+ :YLiF4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedzhanov, R. A.; Gushchin, L. A.; Kalachev, A. A.; Nizov, N. A.; Nizov, V. A.; Sobgayda, D. A.; Zelensky, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we present an implementation of cavity-assisted atomic frequency comb (AFC) memory protocol in an isotopically pure 143Nd3+ :YLiF4 crystal. We use a tunable confocal Fabry-Perot cavity that is placed inside the cryostat. For a 1 mm thick sample with optical depth of 0.2 we obtain total storage efficiency of 3%, which is a 15-fold enhancement compared to the no cavity case. The memory bandwidth is limited by the inhomogeneous broadening of the optical transition and allows us to store short 30 ns pulses.

  7. Local thermal resonance control of GaInP photonic crystal membrane cavities using ambient gas cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, Sergei Lian, Jin; Yüce, Emre; Mosk, Allard P.; Combrié, Sylvain; Lehoucq, Gaelle; De Rossi, Alfredo

    2015-04-27

    We perform spatially dependent tuning of a GaInP photonic crystal cavity using a continuous wave violet laser. Local tuning is obtained by laser heating of the photonic crystal membrane. The cavity resonance shift is measured for different pump positions and for two ambient gases: He and N{sub 2}. We find that the width of the temperature profile induced in the membrane depends strongly on the thermal conductivity of the ambient gas. For He gas, a narrow spatial width of the temperature profile of 2.8 μm is predicted and verified in experiment.

  8. Mode-locked operation of Cr⁴⁺:YAG single-crystal fiber laser with external cavity.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Shigeo; Naganuma, Kazunori

    2014-03-24

    We report what is to our knowledge the first mode-locked Cr⁴⁺:YAG single-crystal fiber laser, which generates pulses of 120-fs duration with an output power of 23 mW at a center wavelength of 1520 nm for a single pulse in a cavity-round-trip. The laser contains a single-crystal fiber multi-mode waveguide about 120 μm in diameter and 40-mm long. The fundamental transverse mode is selected with an external cavity. This design strategy turned out to be well suited for direct high-power-laser-diode pumping.

  9. Investigations of Residual Stresses and Mechanical Properties of Single Crystal Niobium for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Gnäupel-Herold; Ganapati Rao Myneni; Richard E. Ricker

    2007-06-01

    This work investigates properties of large grained, high purity niobium with respect to the forming of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities from such large grained sheets. The yield stresses were examined using tensile specimens that were essentially single crystals in orientations evenly distributed in the standard projection triangle. No distinct yield anisotropy was found, however, vacuum annealing increased the yield strength by a factor 2..3. The deep drawing forming operation of the half cells raises the issues of elastic shape changes after the release of the forming tool (springback) and residual stresses, both of which are indicated to be negligible. This is a consequence of the low yield stress (< 100 MPa) and the large thickness (compared to typical thicknesses in sheet metal forming). However, the significant anisotropy of the transversal plastic strains after uniaxial deformation points to potentially critical thickness variations for large grained / single crystal half cells, thus raising the issue of controlling grain orientation or using single crystal sheet material.

  10. Design of a three-dimensional photonic band gap cavity in a diamondlike inverse woodpile photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldering, Léon A.; Mosk, Allard P.; Vos, Willem L.

    2014-09-01

    We theoretically investigate the design of cavities in a three-dimensional (3D) inverse woodpile photonic crystal. This class of cubic diamondlike crystals has a very broad photonic band gap and consists of two perpendicular arrays of pores with a rectangular structure. The point defect that acts as a cavity is centered on the intersection of two intersecting perpendicular pores with a radius that differs from the ones in the bulk of the crystal. We have performed supercell band structure calculations with up to 5×5×5 unit cells. We find that up to five isolated and dispersionless bands appear within the 3D photonic band gap. For each isolated band, the electric-field energy is localized in a volume centered on the point defect, hence the point defect acts as a 3D photonic band gap cavity. The mode volume of the cavities resonances is as small as 0.8 λ3 (resonance wavelength cubed), indicating a strong confinement of the light. By varying the radius of the defect pores we found that only donorlike resonances appear for smaller defect radius, whereas no acceptorlike resonances appear for greater defect radius. From a 3D plot of the distribution of the electric-field energy density we conclude that peaks of energy are found in sharp edges situated at the point defect, similar to how electrons collect at such features. This is different from what is observed for cavities in noninverted woodpile structures. Since inverse woodpile crystals can be fabricated from silicon by CMOS-compatible means, we project that single cavities and even cavity arrays can be realized, for wavelength ranges compatible with telecommunication windows in the near infrared.

  11. Realization of high-Q/V photonic crystal cavities defined by an effective Aubry-André-Harper bichromatic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simbula, A.; Schatzl, M.; Zagaglia, L.; Alpeggiani, F.; Andreani, L. C.; Schäffler, F.; Fromherz, T.; Galli, M.; Gerace, D.

    2017-05-01

    We report on the realization of high-Q/V photonic crystal cavities in thin silicon membranes, with resonances around 1.55 μm wavelength. The cavity designs are based on a recently proposed photonic crystal implementation of the Aubry-André-Harper bichromatic potential, defined from the superposition of two one-dimensional lattices with a non-integer ratio between their periodicity constants. In photonic crystal nanocavities, this confinement mechanism is such that optimized figures of merit can be straightforwardly achieved, in particular an ultra-high-Q factor and diffraction-limited mode volume. Several silicon membrane photonic crystal nanocavities have been realized with measured Q-factors in the 1 × 106 range, as evidenced by resonant scattering. The generality of the proposed designs and their easy implementation and scalability make these results particularly interesting for realizing highly performing photonic nanocavities on different material platforms and operational wavelengths.

  12. Nonlinear optomechanical measurement of mechanical motion

    PubMed Central

    Brawley, G. A.; Vanner, M. R.; Larsen, P. E.; Schmid, S.; Boisen, A.; Bowen, W. P.

    2016-01-01

    Precision measurement of nonlinear observables is an important goal in all facets of quantum optics. This allows measurement-based non-classical state preparation, which has been applied to great success in various physical systems, and provides a route for quantum information processing with otherwise linear interactions. In cavity optomechanics much progress has been made using linear interactions and measurement, but observation of nonlinear mechanical degrees-of-freedom remains outstanding. Here we report the observation of displacement-squared thermal motion of a micro-mechanical resonator by exploiting the intrinsic nonlinearity of the radiation-pressure interaction. Using this measurement we generate bimodal mechanical states of motion with separations and feature sizes well below 100 pm. Future improvements to this approach will allow the preparation of quantum superposition states, which can be used to experimentally explore collapse models of the wavefunction and the potential for mechanical-resonator-based quantum information and metrology applications. PMID:26996234

  13. Force sensitivity of multilayer graphene optomechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, P.; Güttinger, J.; Noury, A.; Vergara-Cruz, J.; Bachtold, A.

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical resonators based on low-dimensional materials are promising for force and mass sensing experiments. The force sensitivity in these ultra-light resonators is often limited by the imprecision in the measurement of the vibrations, the fluctuations of the mechanical resonant frequency and the heating induced by the measurement. Here, we strongly couple multilayer graphene resonators to superconducting cavities in order to achieve a displacement sensitivity of 1.3 fm Hz-1/2. This coupling also allows us to damp the resonator to an average phonon occupation of 7.2. Our best force sensitivity, 390 zN Hz-1/2 with a bandwidth of 200 Hz, is achieved by balancing measurement imprecision, optomechanical damping, and measurement-induced heating. Our results hold promise for studying the quantum capacitance of graphene, its magnetization, and the electron and nuclear spins of molecules adsorbed on its surface.

  14. Force sensitivity of multilayer graphene optomechanical devices

    PubMed Central

    Weber, P.; Güttinger, J.; Noury, A.; Vergara-Cruz, J.; Bachtold, A.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical resonators based on low-dimensional materials are promising for force and mass sensing experiments. The force sensitivity in these ultra-light resonators is often limited by the imprecision in the measurement of the vibrations, the fluctuations of the mechanical resonant frequency and the heating induced by the measurement. Here, we strongly couple multilayer graphene resonators to superconducting cavities in order to achieve a displacement sensitivity of 1.3 fm Hz−1/2. This coupling also allows us to damp the resonator to an average phonon occupation of 7.2. Our best force sensitivity, 390 zN Hz−1/2 with a bandwidth of 200 Hz, is achieved by balancing measurement imprecision, optomechanical damping, and measurement-induced heating. Our results hold promise for studying the quantum capacitance of graphene, its magnetization, and the electron and nuclear spins of molecules adsorbed on its surface. PMID:27502017

  15. Macroscopic quantum entanglement in modulated optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei; Lü, Xin-You; Wang, Ying-Dan; You, J. Q.; Wu, Ying

    2016-11-01

    Quantum entanglement in mechanical systems is not only a key signature of macroscopic quantum effects but has wide applications in quantum technologies. Here we propose an effective approach for creating strong steady-state entanglement between two directly coupled mechanical oscillators (or a mechanical oscillator and a microwave resonator) in a modulated optomechanical system. The entanglement is achieved by combining the processes of a cavity cooling and the two-mode parametric interaction, which can surpass the bound on the maximal stationary entanglement from the two-mode parametric interaction. In principle, our proposal allows one to cool the system from an initial thermal state to an entangled state with high purity by a monochromatic driving laser. Also, the obtained entangled state can be used to implement the continuous-variable teleportation with high fidelity. Moreover, our proposal is robust against the thermal fluctuations of the mechanical modes under the condition of strong optical pumping.

  16. Quantum optics with optomechanical systems in the linear and nonlinear regime: With applications in force sensing and environmental engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xunnong

    Optomechanical system, a hybrid system where mechanical and optical degrees of freedom are mutually coupled, is a new platform for studying quantum optics. In a typical optomechanical setup, the cavity is driven by a large amplitude coherent sate of light to enhance the effective optomechanical coupling. This system can be linearized around its classical steady state, and many interesting effects arise from the linearized optomechanical interaction, such as the dynamical modification of the properties of the mechanical resonator and the modulation of the amplitude and phase of the light coming out the of cavity. When the single-photon optomechanical coupling is comparable to the optical and mechanical loss, we must also keep the nonlinear interactions in the hamiltonian, which make it possible to study optomechanically induced nonlinear phenomena such as photon-blockade, Kerr nonlinearity, etc. In this thesis, we study quantum optics with optomechanical systems both in the linear and nonlinear regime, with emphasis on its applications in force sensing and environmental engineering. We first propose a mirror-in-the-middle system and show that when driving near optomechanical instability, the optomechanical interaction will generate squeezed states of the output light. This system can be used to detect weak forces far below the standard quantum limit. Subsequently, we find that this particular driving scheme can also lead to enhanced optomechanical nonlinearity in a certain regime and by measuring the output field appropriately. We study the photon-blockade effect and discuss the conditions for maximum photon antibunching. We then focus on thermal noise reduction for mechanical resonators, by designing a system of two coupled resonators whose damping is primarily clamping loss. We show that optomechanical coupling to the clamping region enables dynamical control over the coupled mechanical resonator. This leads to the counterintuitive outcome: increasing optical

  17. Invited Article: Precision nanoimplantation of nitrogen vacancy centers into diamond photonic crystal cavities and waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schukraft, M.; Zheng, J.; Schröder, T.; Mouradian, S. L.; Walsh, M.; Trusheim, M. E.; Bakhru, H.; Englund, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a self-aligned lithographic technique for precision generation of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers within photonic nanostructures on bulk diamond substrates. The process relies on a lithographic mask with nanoscale implantation apertures for NV creation, together with larger features for producing waveguides and photonic nanocavities. This mask allows targeted nitrogen ion implantation, and precision dry etching of nanostructures on bulk diamond. We demonstrate high-yield generation of single NVs at pre-determined nanoscale target regions on suspended diamond waveguides. We report implantation into the mode maximum of diamond photonic crystal nanocavities with a single-NV per cavity yield of ˜26% and Purcell induced intensity enhancement of the zero-phonon line. The generation of NV centers aligned with diamond photonic structures marks an important tool for scalable production of optically coupled spin memories.

  18. Lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting lasers with ultralow threshold and large power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yufei; Qu, Hongwei; Zhou, Wenjun; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Jianxin; Qi, Aiyi; Liu, Lei; Fu, Feiya; Zheng, Wanhua

    2012-03-01

    The Bragg diffraction condition of surface-emitting lasing action is analyzed and Γ2-1 mode is chosen for lasing. Two types of lateral cavity photonic crystal surface emitting lasers (LC-PCSELs) based on the PhC band edge mode lateral resonance and vertical emission to achieve electrically driven surface emitting laser without distributed Bragg reflectors in the long wavelength optical communication band are designed and fabricated. Deep etching techniques, which rely on the active layer being or not etched through, are adopted to realize the LC-PCSELs on the commercial AlGaInAs/InP multi-quantum-well (MQW) epitaxial wafer. 1553.8 nm with ultralow threshold of 667 A/cm2 and 1575 nm with large power of 1.8 mW surface emitting lasing actions are observed at room temperature, providing potential values for mass production with low cost of electrically driven PCSELs.

  19. Preservation of quantum correlation between separated nitrogen-vacancy centers embedded in photonic-crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. L.; An, Jun-Hong; Zhang, Chengjie; Feng, M.; Oh, C. H.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum correlation between two initially entangled nitrogen-vacancy centers (NVCs) embedded in photonic-crystal cavities (PCCs). We find that a finite quantum correlation is preserved even asymptotically when the transition frequency of the NVC is within the band gap of the PCC, which is quantitatively different from the result of approaching zero under the Born-Markovian approximation. In addition, once the transition frequency of NVC is far beyond the band gap of the PCC, the quantum correlation initially prepared in NVC will be fully transferred to the reservoirs in the long-time limit. Our result reveals that the interplay between the non-Markovian effect of the structured reservoirs and the existence of emitter-field bound state plays an essential role in such quantum correlation preservation. This feature may open new perspectives for devising active decoherence-immune solid-state optical devices.

  20. Vectorial near-field imaging of a GaN based photonic crystal cavity

    SciTech Connect

    La China, F. Intonti, F.; Caselli, N.; Lotti, F.; Vinattieri, A.; Gurioli, M.; Vico Triviño, N.; Carlin, J.-F.; Butté, R.; Grandjean, N.

    2015-09-07

    We report a full optical deep sub-wavelength imaging of the vectorial components of the electric local density of states for the confined modes of a modified GaN L3 photonic crystal nanocavity. The mode mapping is obtained with a scanning near-field optical microscope operating in a resonant forward scattering configuration, allowing the vectorial characterization of optical passive samples. The optical modes of the investigated cavity emerge as Fano resonances and can be probed without the need of embedded light emitters or evanescent light coupling into the nanocavity. The experimental maps, independently measured in the two in-plane polarizations, turn out to be in excellent agreement with numerical predictions.

  1. Preservation of quantum correlation between separated nitrogen-vacancy centers embedded in photonic-crystal cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wanli; An, Jun-Hong; Zhang, Chengjie; Feng, Mang; Oh, C. H.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum correlation between two initially entangled nitrogen-vacancy centers (NVC) embedded in photonic crystal cavities (PCC). We find that a finite quantum correlation is preserved even asymptotically when the transition frequency ofthe NVC is within the band gap of the PCC, which is quantitatively different from the result of approaching zero under the Born-Markovian approximation. In addition, once the transition frequency of NVC is far beyond the bad gap of the PCC, the quantum correlation initially prepared in NVC will be fully transferred to the reservoirs in the long-time limit. Our result reveals that the interplay between the non-Markovian effect of the structured reservoirs and the existence of emitter-field bound state plays an essential role in such quantum correlation preservation. This feature may open new perspectives for devising active decoherence-immune solid-state optical devices.

  2. High quality factor two dimensional GaN photonic crystal cavity membranes grown on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vico Triviño, N.; Rossbach, G.; Dharanipathy, U.; Levrat, J.; Castiglia, A.; Carlin, J.-F.; Atlasov, K. A.; Butté, R.; Houdré, R.; Grandjean, N.

    2012-02-01

    We report on the achievement of freestanding GaN photonic crystal L7 nanocavities with embedded InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on Si (111). GaN was patterned by e-beam lithography, using a SiO2 layer as a hard mask, and usual dry etching techniques. The membrane was released by underetching the Si (111) substrate. Micro-photoluminescence measurements performed at low temperature exhibit a quality factor as high as 5200 at ˜420 nm, a value suitable to expand cavity quantum electrodynamics to the near UV and the visible range and to develop nanophotonic platforms for biofluorescence spectroscopy.

  3. Plasmonic crystal cavity on single-mode optical fiber end facet for label-free biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaolong; Yi, Hui; Long, Jing; Zhou, Xin; Yang, Jie; Yang, Tian

    2016-06-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices on single-mode optical fiber (SMF) end facets are desired for label-free biosensing, due to flexible light delivery, in vivo inspection capability, and seamless integration with fiber-optic communication techniques. We report a plasmonic crystal cavity structure that has a steep resonance near the plasmonic bandedge, a fabrication process to efficiently transfer and align the structure onto a bare SMF end facet, and characterization of its sensing performance. With a sensitivity of 571 nm RIU-1, a figure of merit of 68 RIU-1 and a real-time refractive index detection limit of 3.5 × 10-6 RIU, our sensors can be readily applied in common SPR biosensing experiments. They are over an order of magnitude more sensitive than reported modified-end multimode fiber SPR devices, while there are no reports on previous SMF end facet devices' detection limits which have very low figures of merit.

  4. Crystal structure of Prp8 reveals active site cavity of the spliceosome.

    PubMed

    Galej, Wojciech P; Oubridge, Chris; Newman, Andrew J; Nagai, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-31

    The active centre of the spliceosome consists of an intricate network formed by U5, U2 and U6 small nuclear RNAs, and a pre-messenger-RNA substrate. Prp8, a component of the U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle, crosslinks extensively with this RNA catalytic core. Here we present the crystal structure of yeast Prp8 (residues 885-2413) in complex with Aar2, a U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle assembly factor. The structure reveals tightly associated domains of Prp8 resembling a bacterial group II intron reverse transcriptase and a type II restriction endonuclease. Suppressors of splice-site mutations, and an intron branch-point crosslink, map to a large cavity formed by the reverse transcriptase thumb, and the endonuclease-like and RNaseH-like domains. This cavity is large enough to accommodate the catalytic core of group II intron RNA. The structure provides crucial insights into the architecture of the spliceosome active site, and reinforces the notion that nuclear pre-mRNA splicing and group II intron splicing have a common origin.

  5. Infiltrated photonic crystal cavity as a highly sensitive platform for glucose concentration detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arafa, Safia; Bouchemat, Mohamed; Bouchemat, Touraya; Benmerkhi, Ahlem; Hocini, Abdesselam

    2017-02-01

    A Bio-sensing platform based on an infiltrated photonic crystal ring shaped holes cavity-coupled waveguide system is proposed for glucose concentration detection. Considering silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, it has been demonstrated that the ring shaped holes configuration provides an excellent optical confinement within the cavity region, which further enhances the light-matter interactions at the precise location of the analyte medium. Thus, the sensitivity and the quality factor (Q) can be significantly improved. The transmission characteristics of light in the biosensor under different refractive indices that correspond to the change in the analyte glucose concentration are analyzed by performing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. Accordingly, an improved sensitivity of 462 nm/RIU and a Q factor as high as 1.11х105 have been achieved, resulting in a detection limit of 3.03х10-6 RIU. Such combination of attributes makes the designed structure a promising element for performing label-free biosensing in medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring.

  6. Narrow-linewidth carbon nanotube emission in silicon hollow-core photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thi Hong Cam; Durán-Valdeiglesias, Elena; Alonso-Ramos, Carlos; Serna, Samuel; Zhang, Weiwei; Balestrieri, Matteo; Keita, Al-Saleh; Caselli, Niccolò; Biccari, Francesco; Le Roux, Xavier; Filoramo, Arianna; Gurioli, Massimo; Vivien, Laurent; Cassan, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Polymer-sorted semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) provide room-temperature emission at near-infrared wavelengths, with potential for large volume production of high-quality solutions and wafer-scale deposition. These features make SWNTs a very attractive material for the realization of on-chip light sources. Coupling SWNT into optical microcavities could enhance and guide their emission, while enabling spectral selection by cavity resonance engineering. This could allow the realization of bright, narrowband sources. Here, we report the first demonstration of coupling SWNTs into the resonant modes of Si hollow-core photonic crystal cavities. We exploit the strong evanescent field in these resonators to interact with SWNT emission, coupling it into an integrated access waveguide. Based on this concept, we demonstrate narrowband SWNT emission resonantly coupled into a Si bus waveguide with a full width at half-maximum of 0.34 nm and an off-resonance rejection exceeding 5 dB.

  7. Crystal structure of Prp8 reveals active site cavity of the spliceosome

    PubMed Central

    Galej, Wojciech P.; Oubridge, Chris; Newman, Andrew J.; Nagai, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The active centre of the spliceosome consists of an intricate network formed by U5, U2 and U6 snRNAs, and a pre-mRNA substrate. Prp8, a component of the U5 snRNP, crosslinks extensively with this RNA catalytic core. We present the crystal structure of yeast Prp8 (residues 885-2413) in complex with the U5 snRNP assembly factor Aar2. The structure reveals new tightly associated domains of Prp8 resembling a bacterial group II intron reverse transcriptase and a type II restriction endonuclease. Suppressors of splice site mutations and an intron branchpoint crosslink map to a large cavity formed by the reverse transcriptase thumb, endonuclease-like and the RNaseH-like domains. This cavity is large enough to accommodate the catalytic core of group II intron RNA. The structure provides crucial insights into the architecture of the spliceosome’s active site and reinforces the notion that nuclear pre-mRNA splicing and group II intron splicing have a common origin. PMID:23354046

  8. Characteristics of strain-sensitive photonic crystal cavities in a flexible substrate.

    PubMed

    No, You-Shin; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2016-11-14

    High-index semiconductor photonic crystal (PhC) cavities in a flexible substrate support strong and tunable optical resonances that can be used for highly sensitive and spatially localized detection of mechanical deformations in physical systems. Here, we report theoretical studies and fundamental understandings of resonant behavior of an optical mode excited in strain-sensitive rod-type PhC cavities consisting of high-index dielectric nanorods embedded in a low-index flexible polymer substrate. Using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation method, we calculated two-dimensional transverse-electric-like photonic band diagrams and the three-dimensional dispersion surfaces near the first Γ-point band edge of unidirectionally strained PhCs. A broken rotational symmetry in the PhCs modifies the photonic band structures and results in the asymmetric distributions and different levels of changes in normalized frequencies near the first Γ-point band edge in the reciprocal space, which consequently reveals strain-dependent directional optical losses and selected emission patterns. The calculated electric fields, resonant wavelengths, and quality factors of the band-edge modes in the strained PhCs show an excellent agreement with the results of qualitative analysis of modified dispersion surfaces. Furthermore, polarization-resolved time-averaged Poynting vectors exhibit characteristic dipole-like emission patterns with preferentially selected linear polarizations, originating from the asymmetric band structures in the strained PhCs.

  9. Enhanced nonlinear interactions in quantum optomechanics via mechanical amplification

    PubMed Central

    Lemonde, Marc-Antoine; Didier, Nicolas; Clerk, Aashish A.

    2016-01-01

    The quantum nonlinear regime of optomechanics is reached when nonlinear effects of the radiation pressure interaction are observed at the single-photon level. This requires couplings larger than the mechanical frequency and cavity-damping rate, and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here we show how to exponentially enhance the single-photon optomechanical coupling strength using only additional linear resources. Our method is based on using a large-amplitude, strongly detuned mechanical parametric drive to amplify mechanical zero-point fluctuations and hence enhance the radiation pressure interaction. It has the further benefit of allowing time-dependent control, enabling pulsed schemes. For a two-cavity optomechanical set-up, we show that our scheme generates photon blockade for experimentally accessible parameters, and even makes the production of photonic states with negative Wigner functions possible. We discuss how our method is an example of a more general strategy for enhancing boson-mediated two-particle interactions and nonlinearities. PMID:27108814

  10. Theory of phase-mixing amplification in an optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockeloen-Korppi, C. F.; Heikkilä, T. T.; Sillanpää, M. A.; Massel, F.

    2017-09-01

    The investigation of the ultimate limits imposed by quantum mechanics on amplification represents an important topic both on a fundamental level and from the perspective of potential applications. We discuss here a novel regime for bosonic linear amplifiers—beside phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive amplification—which we term here phase-mixing amplification. Furthermore, we show that phase-mixing amplification can be realised in a cavity optomechanical setup, constituted by a mechanical resonator which is dispersively coupled to an optomechanical cavity asymmetrically driven around both mechanical sidebands. While, in general, this amplifier is phase-mixing, for a suitable choice of parameters, the amplifier proposed here operates as a phase-sensitive amplifier. We show that both configurations allow amplification with an added noise below the quantum limit of (phase-insensitive) amplification in a parameter range compatible with current experiments in microwave circuit optomechanics. In particular, we show that introducing phase-mixing amplification typically allows for a significant reduction of the added noise.

  11. Gallium nitride L3 photonic crystal cavities with an average quality factor of 16 900 in the near infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Vico Triviño, Noelia; Carlin, Jean-François; Butté, Raphaël; Grandjean, Nicolas; Minkov, Momchil Savona, Vincenzo; Urbinati, Giulia; Galli, Matteo

    2014-12-08

    Photonic crystal point-defect cavities were fabricated in a GaN free-standing photonic crystal slab. The cavities are based on the popular L3 design, which was optimized using an automated process based on a genetic algorithm, in order to maximize the quality factor. Optical characterization of several individual cavity replicas resulted in an average unloaded quality factor Q = 16 900 at the resonant wavelength λ∼1.3 μm, with a maximal measured Q value of 22 500. The statistics of both the quality factor and the resonant wavelength are well explained by first-principles simulations including fabrication disorder and background optical absorption.

  12. Ultralow mode-volume photonic crystal nanobeam cavities for high-efficiency coupling to individual carbon nanotube emitters

    PubMed Central

    Miura, R.; Imamura, S.; Ohta, R.; Ishii, A.; Liu, X.; Shimada, T.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y.; Kato, Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    The unique emission properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes are attractive for achieving increased functionality in integrated photonics. In addition to being room-temperature telecom-band emitters that can be directly grown on silicon, they are ideal for coupling to nanoscale photonic structures. Here we report on high-efficiency coupling of individual air-suspended carbon nanotubes to silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. Photoluminescence images of dielectric- and air-mode cavities reflect their distinctly different mode profiles and show that fields in the air are important for coupling. We find that the air-mode cavities couple more efficiently, and estimated spontaneous emission coupling factors reach a value as high as 0.85. Our results demonstrate advantages of ultralow mode-volumes in air-mode cavities for coupling to low-dimensional nanoscale emitters. PMID:25420679

  13. Ultralow mode-volume photonic crystal nanobeam cavities for high-efficiency coupling to individual carbon nanotube emitters.

    PubMed

    Miura, R; Imamura, S; Ohta, R; Ishii, A; Liu, X; Shimada, T; Iwamoto, S; Arakawa, Y; Kato, Y K

    2014-11-25

    The unique emission properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes are attractive for achieving increased functionality in integrated photonics. In addition to being room-temperature telecom-band emitters that can be directly grown on silicon, they are ideal for coupling to nanoscale photonic structures. Here we report on high-efficiency coupling of individual air-suspended carbon nanotubes to silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. Photoluminescence images of dielectric- and air-mode cavities reflect their distinctly different mode profiles and show that fields in the air are important for coupling. We find that the air-mode cavities couple more efficiently, and estimated spontaneous emission coupling factors reach a value as high as 0.85. Our results demonstrate advantages of ultralow mode-volumes in air-mode cavities for coupling to low-dimensional nanoscale emitters.

  14. Semianalytical quasi-normal mode theory for the local density of states in coupled photonic crystal cavity-waveguide structures.

    PubMed

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper; Gregersen, Niels

    2015-12-15

    We present and validate a semianalytical quasi-normal mode (QNM) theory for the local density of states (LDOS) in coupled photonic crystal (PhC) cavity-waveguide structures. By means of an expansion of the Green's function on one or a few QNMs, a closed-form expression for the LDOS is obtained, and for two types of two-dimensional PhCs, with one and two cavities side-coupled to an extended waveguide, the theory is validated against numerically exact computations. For the single cavity, a slightly asymmetric spectrum is found, which the QNM theory reproduces, and for two cavities, a nontrivial spectrum with a peak and a dip is found, which is reproduced only when including both the two relevant QNMs in the theory. In both cases, we find relative errors below 1% in the bandwidth of interest.

  15. Dynamics of an optomechanical system with quadratic coupling: Effect of first order correction to adiabatic elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cheng; Cui, Yuanshun; Chen, Guibin

    2016-10-01

    We explore theoretically the dynamics of an optomechanical system in which a resonantly driven cavity mode is quadratically coupled to the displacement of a mechanical resonator. Considering the first order correction to adiabatic elimination, we obtain the analytical expression of optomechanical damping rate which is negative and depends on the position of the mechanical resonator. After comparing the numerical results between the full simulation of Langevin equations, adiabatic elimination, and first order correction to adiabatic elimination, we explain the dynamics of the system in terms of overall mechanical potential and optomechanical damping rate. The antidamping induced by radiation pressure can result in self-sustained oscillation of the mechanical resonator. Finally, we discuss the time evolution of the intracavity photon number, which also shows that the effect of first order correction cannot be neglected when the ratio of the cavity decay rate to the mechanical resonance frequency becomes smaller than a critical value.

  16. Dynamics of an optomechanical system with quadratic coupling: Effect of first order correction to adiabatic elimination

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cheng; Cui, Yuanshun; Chen, Guibin

    2016-01-01

    We explore theoretically the dynamics of an optomechanical system in which a resonantly driven cavity mode is quadratically coupled to the displacement of a mechanical resonator. Considering the first order correction to adiabatic elimination, we obtain the analytical expression of optomechanical damping rate which is negative and depends on the position of the mechanical resonator. After comparing the numerical results between the full simulation of Langevin equations, adiabatic elimination, and first order correction to adiabatic elimination, we explain the dynamics of the system in terms of overall mechanical potential and optomechanical damping rate. The antidamping induced by radiation pressure can result in self-sustained oscillation of the mechanical resonator. Finally, we discuss the time evolution of the intracavity photon number, which also shows that the effect of first order correction cannot be neglected when the ratio of the cavity decay rate to the mechanical resonance frequency becomes smaller than a critical value. PMID:27752125

  17. Synchronization of an optomechanical system to an external drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitai, Ehud; Lörch, Niels; Nunnenkamp, Andreas; Walter, Stefan; Bruder, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    Optomechanical systems driven by an effective blue-detuned laser can exhibit self-sustained oscillations of the mechanical oscillator. These self-oscillations are a prerequisite for the observation of synchronization. Here, we study the synchronization of the mechanical oscillations to an external reference drive. We study two cases of reference drives: (1) an additional laser applied to the optical cavity; (2) a mechanical drive applied directly to the mechanical oscillator. Starting from a master equation description, we derive a microscopic Adler equation for both cases, valid in the classical regime in which the quantum shot noise of the mechanical self-oscillator does not play a role. Furthermore, we numerically show that, in both cases, synchronization arises also in the quantum regime. The optomechanical system is therefore a good candidate for the study of quantum synchronization.

  18. Robust entanglement via optomechanical dark mode: adiabatic scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lin; Wang, Ying-Dan; Huang, Sumei; Clerk, Aashish

    2013-03-01

    Entanglement is a powerful resource for studying quantum effects in macroscopic objects and for quantum information processing. Here, we show that robust entanglement between cavity modes with distinct frequencies can be generated via a mechanical dark mode in an optomechanical quantum interface. Due to quantum interference, the effect of the mechanical noise is cancelled in a way that is similar to the electromagnetically induced transparency. We derive the entanglement in the strong coupling regime by solving the quantum Langevin equation using a perturbation theory approach. The entanglement in the adiabatic scheme is then compared with the entanglement in the stationary state scheme. Given the robust entanglement schemes and our previous schemes on quantum wave length conversion, the optomechanical interface hence forms an effective building block for a quantum network. This work is supported by DARPA-ORCHID program, NSF-DMR-0956064, NSF-CCF-0916303, and NSF-COINS.

  19. Single-molecule optomechanics in “picocavities”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Felix; Schmidt, Mikolaj K.; Dreismann, Alexander; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Zhang, Yao; Demetriadou, Angela; Carnegie, Cloudy; Ohadi, Hamid; de Nijs, Bart; Esteban, Ruben; Aizpurua, Javier; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2016-11-01

    Trapping light with noble metal nanostructures overcomes the diffraction limit and can confine light to volumes typically on the order of 30 cubic nanometers. We found that individual atomic features inside the gap of a plasmonic nanoassembly can localize light to volumes well below 1 cubic nanometer (“picocavities”), enabling optical experiments on the atomic scale. These atomic features are dynamically formed and disassembled by laser irradiation. Although unstable at room temperature, picocavities can be stabilized at cryogenic temperatures, allowing single atomic cavities to be probed for many minutes. Unlike traditional optomechanical resonators, such extreme optical confinement yields a factor of 106 enhancement of optomechanical coupling between the picocavity field and vibrations of individual molecular bonds. This work sets the basis for developing nanoscale nonlinear quantum optics on the single-molecule level.

  20. Optomechanically induced transparency in a membrane-in-the-middle setup at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karuza, M.; Biancofiore, C.; Bawaj, M.; Molinelli, C.; Galassi, M.; Natali, R.; Tombesi, P.; Di Giuseppe, G.; Vitali, D.

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in a room temperature cavity optomechanics setup formed by a thin semitransparent membrane within a Fabry-Pérot cavity. Due to destructive interference, a weak probe field is completely reflected by the cavity when the pump beam is resonant with the motional red sideband of the cavity. Under this condition we infer a significant slowing down of light of hundreds of microseconds, which is easily tuned by shifting the membrane along the cavity axis. We also observe the associated phenomenon of electromagnetically induced amplification which occurs due to constructive interference when the pump is resonant with the blue sideband.

  1. Solid-state-based analog of optomechanics

    DOE PAGES

    Naumann, Nicolas L.; Droenner, Leon; Carmele, Alexander; ...

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate a semiconductor quantum dot as a microscopic analog of a basic optomechanical setup. We show that optomechanical features can be reproduced by the solid-state platform, arising from parallels of the underlying interaction processes, which in the optomechanical case is the radiation pressure coupling and in the semiconductor case the electron–phonon coupling. We discuss bistabilities, lasing, and phonon damping, and recover the same qualitative behaviors for the semiconductor and the optomechanical cases expected for low driving strengths. However, in contrast to the optomechanical case, distinct signatures of higher order processes arise in the semiconductor model.

  2. Optomechanical measurement of photon spin angular momentum and optical torque in integrated photonic devices.

    PubMed

    He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2016-09-01

    Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon's polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry.

  3. Optomechanical measurement of photon spin angular momentum and optical torque in integrated photonic devices

    PubMed Central

    He, Li; Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Photons carry linear momentum and spin angular momentum when circularly or elliptically polarized. During light-matter interaction, transfer of linear momentum leads to optical forces, whereas transfer of angular momentum induces optical torque. Optical forces including radiation pressure and gradient forces have long been used in optical tweezers and laser cooling. In nanophotonic devices, optical forces can be significantly enhanced, leading to unprecedented optomechanical effects in both classical and quantum regimes. In contrast, to date, the angular momentum of light and the optical torque effect have only been used in optical tweezers but remain unexplored in integrated photonics. We demonstrate the measurement of the spin angular momentum of photons propagating in a birefringent waveguide and the use of optical torque to actuate rotational motion of an optomechanical device. We show that the sign and magnitude of the optical torque are determined by the photon polarization states that are synthesized on the chip. Our study reveals the mechanical effect of photon’s polarization degree of freedom and demonstrates its control in integrated photonic devices. Exploiting optical torque and optomechanical interaction with photon angular momentum can lead to torsional cavity optomechanics and optomechanical photon spin-orbit coupling, as well as applications such as optomechanical gyroscopes and torsional magnetometry. PMID:27626072

  4. Coherent interference effects and squeezed light generation in optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Kenan

    My Ph.D. dissertation is on the fundamental effects in optomechanical systems (OMS) and their important applications. The OMS are based on the possibility of the mechanical motion produced by few photons incident on the mechanical device. This dissertation presents several applications of the OMS in the area of storage of light in long-lived phonons, single mode optomechanical Ramsey interferometry, and generation of large amount of squeezing in the output radiation. The long-lived phonons can be monitored and controlled via optical means as was experimentally demonstrated. To show this, I develop the theory of transient electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). For further applications like state transfer, especially over very different frequency regimes, I consider double-cavity OMS, where the two cavities can correspond to different spectral domains, yet the state transfer is possible via phonons. The state transfer is based on a new effect, electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), where one uses a second control field from the other cavity to produce an absorption peak inside the EIT window. All these involve the interference of various path ways via which a final state is reached. The following chapter shows how Fano-like interference can arise in OMS. A Fano asymmetry parameter for OMS was defined. The last two chapters deal with the question if OMS can be efficient generators of squeezed light. I show by blue and red tuning the two cavities in a double-cavity OMS, one can generate effectively a two-mode parametric interaction which yields two-mode squeezed output with the squeezing magnitude of the order of 10dB. This requires a bath temperature of 10mK. Such temperatures obtained by using Helium dilution refrigerator are routinely used with superconducting OMS. The major part of this dissertation is devoted to the dispersive optomechanical interaction. However, the interaction can also be dissipative, where the mechanical displacement modulates

  5. Suppression of Laser Shot Noise Using Laser-Cooled OptoMechanical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-22

    the two cavity modes via Landau - Zener -Stückelberg-like transitions.17 The tunability of ω′′ is illustrated in Fig. 2a-b, which each show six avoided...Heinrich, G., Harris, J. G. E. & Marquardt, F. Photon shuttle: Landau - zener -stückelberg dynamics in an optomechanical system. Physical Review A 81, 011801

  6. Hybrid confinement of optical and mechanical modes in a bullseye optomechanical resonator.

    PubMed

    Santos, Felipe G S; Espinel, Yovanny A V; Luiz, Gustavo O; Benevides, Rodrigo S; Wiederhecker, Gustavo S; Mayer Alegre, Thiago P

    2017-01-23

    Optomechanical cavities have proven to be an exceptional tool to explore fundamental and applied aspects of the interaction between mechanical and optical waves. Here we demonstrate a novel optomechanical cavity based on a disk with a radial mechanical bandgap. This design confines light and mechanical waves through distinct physical mechanisms which allows for independent control of the mechanical and optical properties. Simulations foresee an optomechanical coupling rate g0 reaching 2π × 100 kHz for mechanical frequencies around 5 GHz as well as anchor loss suppression of 60 dB. Our device design is not limited by unique material properties and could be easily adapted to allow for large optomechanical coupling and high mechanical quality factors with other promising materials. Finally, our devices were fabricated in a commercial silicon photonics facility, demonstrating g0/2π = 23 kHz for mechanical modes with frequencies around 2 GHz and mechanical Q-factors as high as 2300 at room temperature, also showing that our approach can be easily scalable and useful as a new platform for multimode optomechanics.

  7. Aluminum nitride piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavity with high quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Linran; Sun, Xiankai; Xiong, Chi; Schuck, Carsten; Tang, Hong X.

    2013-04-01

    We develop a piezoelectrically actuated, one-dimensional acoustic and photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated from aluminum nitride (AlN). Through simultaneous band structure engineering in both photonic and acoustic domains, we obtain high-quality piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavities with intrinsic optical Q of 1.2 × 105. The piezoelectric actuation of the confined mechanical mode at 3.18 GHz is demonstrated with mechanical Q exceeding 10 000. Such piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavities will find important applications in cavity optomechanics that desire effective coupling to the electrical degree of freedom.

  8. Deterministic coupling of a single silicon-vacancy color center to a photonic crystal cavity in diamond.

    PubMed

    Riedrich-Möller, Janine; Arend, Carsten; Pauly, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Fischer, Martin; Gsell, Stefan; Schreck, Matthias; Becher, Christoph

    2014-09-10

    Deterministic coupling of single solid-state emitters to nanocavities is the key for integrated quantum information devices. We here fabricate a photonic crystal cavity around a preselected single silicon-vacancy color center in diamond and demonstrate modification of the emitters internal population dynamics and radiative quantum efficiency. The controlled, room-temperature cavity coupling gives rise to a resonant Purcell enhancement of the zero-phonon transition by a factor of 19, coming along with a 2.5-fold reduction of the emitter's lifetime.

  9. Deterministic Coupling of a Single Silicon-Vacancy Color Center to a Photonic Crystal Cavity in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedrich-Möller, Janine; Arend, Carsten; Pauly, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Fischer, Martin; Gsell, Stefan; Schreck, Matthias; Becher, Christoph

    2014-09-01

    Deterministic coupling of single solid-state emitters to nanocavities is the key for integrated quantum information devices. We here fabricate a photonic crystal cavity around a preselected single silicon-vacancy color center in diamond and demonstrate modification of the emitters internal population dynamics and radiative quantum efficiency. The controlled, room-temperature cavity coupling gives rise to a resonant Purcell enhancement of the zero-phonon transition by a factor of 19, coming along with a 2.5-fold reduction of the emitter's lifetime.

  10. DBR, Sub-wavelength grating, and Photonic crystal slab Fabry-Perot cavity design using phase analysis by FDTD.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hwan Eric; Chrostowski, Lukas; Bisaillon, Eric; Plant, David V

    2007-08-06

    We demonstrate a Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) phase methodology to estimate resonant wavelengths in Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity structures. We validate the phase method in a conventional Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) structure using a transfer-matrix method, and compare results with a FDTD reflectance method. We extend this approach to a Sub-Wavelength Grating (SWG) and a Photonic Crystal (Phc) slab, either of which may replace one of the Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs) in the VCSEL, and predict resonant conditions with varying lithographic parameters. Finally, we compare the resonant tunabilities of three different VCSEL structures, taking quality factors into account.

  11. Ultra high quality factor one dimensional photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavities in silicon-on-insulator (SOI).

    PubMed

    Zain, Ahmad R; Johnson, Nigel P; Sorel, Marc; De La Rue, Richard M

    2008-08-04

    We present experimental results on photonic crystal/photonic wire micro-cavity structures that demonstrate further enhancement of the quality-factor (Q-factor)--up to approximately 149,000--in the fibre telecommunications wavelength range. The Q-values and the useful transmission levels achieved are due, in particular, to the combination of both tapering within and outside the micro-cavity, with carefully designed hole diameters and non-periodic hole placement within the tapered section. Our 2D Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulation approach shows good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Tuning of an active photonic crystal cavity by an hybrid silica/silicon near-field probe.

    PubMed

    Le Gac, G; Rahmani, A; Seassal, C; Picard, E; Hadji, E; Callard, S

    2009-11-23

    The influence of a near-field tip on the spectral characteristics of a resonant mode of an active photonic crystal micro-cavity was investigated. The wavelength shift of the mode was theoretically and experimentally demonstrated and evaluated as a function of the nature and the position of the tip above the cavity. Experiment showed that the shift induced is ten times higher with a Si-coated silica probe than with a bare silica tip: a shift until 2 nm was reached with Si-coated tip whereas the shift with bare silica tip is in the range of the tenth of nanometer, for wavelengths around 1,55 microm.

  13. C-band external-cavity wavelength-tunable laser based on a liquid-crystal deflector.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Seah, L K; Murukeshan, V M; Chao, Z X; Yin, X J

    2007-08-10

    A novel C-band external-cavity wavelength-tunable laser is proposed. The laser consists of a semiconductor gain chip, a collimating lens, a fixed etalon, a liquid-crystal deflector and a diffraction grating in a Littrow configuration. The lasing wavelength of this tunable external-cavity laser can be tuned to 19 wavelength channels of 100 GHz spacing. All channels are within 2.5 GHz of the ITU grids with a side-mode suppression ratio of approximately 35 dB over the whole range.

  14. Enhancement of three-mode optomechanical interaction by feedback-controlled light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralj, Nenad; Rossi, Massimiliano; Zippilli, Stefano; Natali, Riccardo; Borrielli, Antonio; Pandraud, Gregory; Serra, Enrico; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Vitali, David

    2017-09-01

    We realise a feedback-controlled optical Fabry-Pérot cavity in which the transmitted cavity output is used to modulate the input amplitude fluctuations. The resulting phase-dependent fluctuations of the in-loop optical field, which may be either sub-shot or super-shot noise, can be engineered to favourably affect the optomechanical interaction with a nanomechanical membrane placed within the cavity. Here we show that in the super-shot-noise regime (‘anti-squashed light’) the in-loop field has a strongly reduced effective cavity linewidth, corresponding to an increased optomechanical cooperativity. In this regime, feedback improves the simultaneous resolved-sideband cooling of two nearly degenerate membrane mechanical modes by one order of magnitude.

  15. Quantum state transfer in optomechanical arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Moraes Neto, G. D.; Andrade, F. M.; Montenegro, V.; Bose, S.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum state transfer between distant nodes is at the heart of quantum processing and quantum networking. Stimulated by this, we propose a scheme where one can achieve quantum state transfer with a high fidelity between sites in a cavity quantum optomechanical network. In our lattice, each individual site is composed of a localized mechanical mode which interacts with a laser-driven cavity mode via radiation pressure, while photons hop between neighboring sites. After diagonalization of the Hamiltonian of each cell, we show that the system can be reduced to an effective Hamiltonian of two decoupled bosonic chains, and therefore we can apply the well-known results in quantum state transfer together with an additional condition on the transfer times. In fact, we show that our transfer protocol works for any arbitrary joint quantum state of a mechanical and an optical mode. Finally, in order to analyze a more realistic scenario we take into account the effects of independent thermal reservoirs for each site. By solving the standard master equation within the Born-Markov approximation, we reassure both the effective model and the feasibility of our protocol.

  16. Degenerate parametric oscillation in quantum membrane optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, Mónica; Sánchez Muñoz, Carlos; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    The promise of innovative applications has triggered the development of many modern technologies capable of exploiting quantum effects. But in addition to future applications, such quantum technologies have already provided us with the possibility of accessing quantum-mechanical scenarios that seemed unreachable just a few decades ago. With this spirit, in this work we show that modern optomechanical setups are mature enough to implement one of the most elusive models in the field of open system dynamics: degenerate parametric oscillation. Introduced in the eighties and motivated by its alleged implementability in nonlinear optical resonators, it rapidly became a paradigm for the study of dissipative phase transitions whose corresponding spontaneously broken symmetry is discrete. However, it was found that the intrinsic multimode nature of optical cavities makes it impossible to experimentally study the model all the way through its phase transition. In contrast, here we show that this long-awaited model can be implemented in the motion of a mechanical object dispersively coupled to the light contained in a cavity, when the latter is properly driven with multichromatic laser light. We focus on membranes as the mechanical element, showing that the main signatures of the degenerate parametric oscillation model can be studied in state-of-the-art setups, thus opening the possibility of analyzing spontaneous symmetry breaking and enhanced metrology in one of the cleanest dissipative phase transitions. In addition, the ideas put forward in this work would allow for the dissipative preparation of squeezed mechanical states.

  17. Coupled fiber taper extraction of 1.53 microm photoluminescence from erbium doped silicon nitride photonic crystal cavities.

    PubMed

    Shambat, Gary; Gong, Yiyang; Lu, Jesse; Yerci, Selçuk; Li, Rui; Dal Negro, Luca; Vucković, Jelena

    2010-03-15

    Optical fiber tapers are used to collect photoluminescence emission at approximately 1.5 microm from photonic crystal cavities fabricated in erbium doped silicon nitride on silicon. In the experiment, photoluminescence collection via one arm of the fiber taper is enhanced 2.5 times relative to free space collection, corresponding to a net collection efficiency of 4%. Theoretically, the collection efficiency into one arm of the fiber-taper with this material system and cavity design can be as high as 12.5%, but the degradation of the experimental coupling efficiency relative to this value mainly comes from scattering loss within the short taper transition regions. By varying the fiber taper offset from the cavity, a broad tuning range of coupling strength and collection efficiency is obtained. This material system combined with fiber taper collection is promising for building on-chip optical amplifiers.

  18. High quality factor and high sensitivity chalcogenide 1D photonic crystal microbridge cavity for mid-infrared sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peipeng; Yu, Zenghui; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixun

    2017-01-01

    We present and theoretically investigate a mid-infrared (mid-IR) optical sensor based on a Ge11.5As24Se64.5 one-dimensional photonic crystal microbridge cavity (PhC-MC). Optimizing the structure of the PhC-MC strongly confines the resonant mode field to the air region, thereby greatly enhancing the overlap and interaction of the light field and target analytes. A high calculated sensitivity (2280 nm per refractive index unit) is achieved with a resonant wavelength of 4132 nm. The figure of merit of the device for sensing is extremely high (929,750) because of the high quality factor and sensitivity of the cavity. The sensing part of the cavity is also small (50×3 μm2). The proposed PhC-MC can be an ideal platform for on-chip integrated mid-IR optical sensing.

  19. Q-factor optimization for TM-like modes in pillar-based photonic crystal cavities with planar slot waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascoli, D.; Gerace, D.; Andreani, L. C.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a design for high Q-factor, pillar-based photonic crystal cavities, with the goal of enhancing radiation-matter interaction in planar slot waveguides. The Q-factor is optimized for transverse-magnetic-like (TM-like) cavity modes, and it is found that a maximum Q ≃ 45000 can be reached by proper design of the pillars defining the cavity region. As an application, we study the Purcell enhancement of spontaneous emission rate for a dipole emitter within a thin layer of low index material (slot) grown at the pillars center. The field intensity is enhanced within the slot for TM-like modes, which yields a Purcell factor of the order of 10 4, larger than the corresponding structure without slot. These results directly apply to nanostructures made of a thin active layer of erbium-doped silicon dioxide embedded in silicon pillars, which can be readily fabricated with state-of-the art technology.

  20. Micropillar Resonators for Optomechanics in the Extremely High 19-95-GHz Frequency Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anguiano, S.; Bruchhausen, A. E.; Jusserand, B.; Favero, I.; Lamberti, F. R.; Lanco, L.; Sagnes, I.; Lemaître, A.; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N. D.; Senellart, P.; Fainstein, A.

    2017-06-01

    Strong confinement, in all dimensions, and high mechanical frequencies are highly desirable for quantum optomechanical applications. We show that GaAs/AlAs micropillar cavities fully confine not only photons but also extremely high frequency (19-95 GHz) acoustic phonons. A strong increase of the optomechanical coupling upon reducing the pillar size is observed, together with record room-temperature Q -frequency products of 1 014. These mechanical resonators can integrate quantum emitters or polariton condensates, opening exciting perspectives at the interface with nonlinear and quantum optics.

  1. Photothermal self-oscillation and laser cooling of graphene optomechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Barton, Robert A; Storch, Isaac R; Adiga, Vivekananda P; Sakakibara, Reyu; Cipriany, Benjamin R; Ilic, B; Wang, Si Ping; Ong, Peijie; McEuen, Paul L; Parpia, Jeevak M; Craighead, Harold G

    2012-09-12

    By virtue of their low mass and stiffness, atomically thin mechanical resonators are attractive candidates for use in optomechanics. Here, we demonstrate photothermal back-action in a graphene mechanical resonator comprising one end of a Fabry-Perot cavity. As a demonstration of the utility of this effect, we show that a continuous wave laser can be used to cool a graphene vibrational mode or to power a graphene-based tunable frequency oscillator. Owing to graphene's high thermal conductivity and optical absorption, photothermal optomechanics is efficient in graphene and could ultimately enable laser cooling to the quantum ground state or applications such as photonic signal processing.

  2. Diabolical points in multi-scatterer optomechanical systems

    PubMed Central

    Chesi, Stefano; Wang, Ying-Dan; Twamley, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Diabolical points, which originate from parameter-dependent accidental degeneracies of a system's energy levels, have played a fundamental role in the discovery of the Berry phase as well as in photonics (conical refraction), in chemical dynamics, and more recently in novel materials such as graphene, whose electronic band structure possess Dirac points. Here we discuss diabolical points in an optomechanical system formed by multiple scatterers in an optical cavity with periodic boundary conditions. Such configuration is close to experimental setups using micro-toroidal rings with indentations or near-field scatterers. We find that the optomechanical coupling is no longer an analytic function near the diabolical point and demonstrate the topological phase arising through the mechanical motion. Similar to a Fabry-Perot resonator, the optomechanical coupling can grow with the number of scatterers. We also introduce a minimal quantum model of a diabolical point, which establishes a connection to the motion of an arbitrary-spin particle in a 2D parabolic quantum dot with spin-orbit coupling. PMID:25588627

  3. A Photonic Crystal Magnetic Field Sensor Using a Shoulder-Coupled Resonant Cavity Infiltrated with Magnetic Fluid.

    PubMed

    Su, Delong; Pu, Shengli; Mao, Lianmin; Wang, Zhaofang; Qian, Kai

    2016-12-16

    A kind of photonic crystal magnetic field sensor is proposed and investigated numerically. The shoulder-coupled resonant cavity is introduced in the photonic crystal, which is infiltrated with magnetic fluid. Through monitoring the shift of resonant wavelength, the magnetic field sensing is realized. According to the designed infiltration schemes, both the magnetic field sensitivity and full width at half maximum increase with the number of infiltrated air holes. The figure of merit of the structure is defined to evaluate the sensing performance comprehensively. The best structure corresponding to the optimal infiltration scheme with eight air holes infiltrated with magnetic fluid is obtained.

  4. A Photonic Crystal Magnetic Field Sensor Using a Shoulder-Coupled Resonant Cavity Infiltrated with Magnetic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Su, Delong; Pu, Shengli; Mao, Lianmin; Wang, Zhaofang; Qian, Kai

    2016-01-01

    A kind of photonic crystal magnetic field sensor is proposed and investigated numerically. The shoulder-coupled resonant cavity is introduced in the photonic crystal, which is infiltrated with magnetic fluid. Through monitoring the shift of resonant wavelength, the magnetic field sensing is realized. According to the designed infiltration schemes, both the magnetic field sensitivity and full width at half maximum increase with the number of infiltrated air holes. The figure of merit of the structure is defined to evaluate the sensing performance comprehensively. The best structure corresponding to the optimal infiltration scheme with eight air holes infiltrated with magnetic fluid is obtained. PMID:27999254

  5. Hair-inspired crystal growth of HOA in cavities of cellulose matrix via hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface interaction.

    PubMed

    He, Meng; Kwok, Ryan T K; Wang, Zhenggang; Duan, Bo; Tang, Ben Zhong; Zhang, Lina

    2014-06-25

    As one of the most ordinary phenomena in nature, numerous pores on animal skins induce the growth of abundant hairs. In this study, cavities of a cellulose matrix were used as hard templates to lead the hair-inspired crystal growth of 12-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (HOA) through hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface interaction, and short hair-like HOA crystals with a smooth surface were formed on cellulose films. In our findings, by using solvent evaporation induced crystallization, hydrophobic HOA grew along the hydrophilic cellulose pore wall to form regular vertical worm-like and pillar-like crystals with an average diameter of about 200 nm, depending on the experimental conditions and HOA concentration. The formation mechanism of the short hair-like HOA crystals as well as the structure and properties of the cellulose/HOA submicrometer composite films were studied. The pores of the cellulose matrix supplied not only cavities for the HOA crystals fixation but also hydrophilic shells to favor the vertical growth of the relatively hydrophobic HOA crystals. The cellulose/HOA submicrometer composite films exhibited high hydrophobicity, as a result of the formation of the solid/air composite surface. Furthermore, 4-(1,2,2-triphenylethenyl) benzoic acid, an aggregation-induced emission luminogen, was used to aggregate on the cellulose surface with HOA to emit and monitor the HOA crystal growth, showing bifunctional photoluminscence and self-cleaning properties. This work opens up a novel one-step pathway to design bio-inspired submicrometer materials by utilizing natural products, showing potential applications in self-cleaning optical devices.

  6. Near-field levitated quantum optomechanics with nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, M. L.; Molina-Terriza, G.; Volz, T.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically show that the dipole force of an ensemble of quantum emitters embedded in a dielectric nanosphere can be exploited to achieve near-field optical levitation. The key ingredient is that the polarizability from the ensemble of embedded quantum emitters can be larger than the bulk polarizability of the sphere, thereby enabling the use of repulsive optical potentials and consequently the levitation using optical near fields. In levitated cavity quantum optomechanics, this could be used to boost the single-photon coupling by combining larger polarizability to mass ratio, larger field gradients, and smaller cavity volumes while remaining in the resolved sideband regime and at room temperature. A case study is done with a nanodiamond containing a high density of silicon-vacancy color centers that is optically levitated in the evanescent field of a tapered nanofiber and coupled to a high-finesse microsphere cavity.

  7. Enhanced Telecom Emission from Single Group-IV Quantum Dots by Precise CMOS-Compatible Positioning in Photonic Crystal Cavities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Efficient coupling to integrated high-quality-factor cavities is crucial for the employment of germanium quantum dot (QD) emitters in future monolithic silicon-based optoelectronic platforms. We report on strongly enhanced emission from single Ge QDs into L3 photonic crystal resonator (PCR) modes based on precise positioning of these dots at the maximum of the respective mode field energy density. Perfect site control of Ge QDs grown on prepatterned silicon-on-insulator substrates was exploited to fabricate in one processing run almost 300 PCRs containing single QDs in systematically varying positions within the cavities. Extensive photoluminescence studies on this cavity chip enable a direct evaluation of the position-dependent coupling efficiency between single dots and selected cavity modes. The experimental results demonstrate the great potential of the approach allowing CMOS-compatible parallel fabrication of arrays of spatially matched dot/cavity systems for group-IV-based data transfer or quantum optical systems in the telecom regime. PMID:28345012

  8. Non-Markovian dynamics of a qubit coupled to a waveguide in photonic crystals with infinite cavity-array structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Heng-Na; Li, Yi; Le, Zichun; Huang, Yixiao

    2017-05-01

    We evaluate exactly the non-Markovian effect on the decoherence dynamics of a qubit coupling with a waveguide in photonic crystals. In our study, we extend the previous investigation that the waveguide is structured as a semi-infinite cavity array to the case that it is set as an infinite cavity array. For the infinite cavity array, we utilize the quantity of fidelity to characterize the ability of the system to preserve its initial quantum information. We make a discussion for different initial states of the qubit. Similar to the case of semi-infinite cavity array, we find that the quantum information of the qubit in the long-time scale could also be partially preserved when the qubit-waveguide coupling strength goes beyond a critical value. This is a strong non-Markovian memory effect induced by the strong qubit-waveguide coupling strength. Interestingly, the critical coupling strength for infinite cavity array happens to be zero, which means that in this real physical system, the quantum-to-classical transition behavior of the qubit never occurs. Therefore, by reasonably choosing the structure of the environment, the quantum information of the quantum systems could be more easily preserved. Moreover, we find that the higher probability of the qubit initially in its ground state, the more easily for it to preserve its initial information in the long-time scale, which proves that the quantum open system always tends to stay in its ground state.

  9. Nano-optomechanics with a levitated nanoparticle (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quidant, Romain; Mestres, Pau; Ricci, Francesco; Rica, Raul

    2016-09-01

    In this talk we first introduce the use of a levitated nanoparticle in vacuum as a nano-optomechanical system with unprecedented performances. Subsequently, we focus on our efforts in cooling its motion towards mechanical ground state at room temperature. In particular, we present an experiment that combines active parametric feedback cooling with passive resolved side band cooling. We first demonstrate systematic transfer of a single trapped nanoparticle from a load lock to the main vacuum chamber hosting a high-finesse optical cavity and report our latest advances in cooling.

  10. Pulsed Entanglement of Two Optomechanical Oscillators and Furry's Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesewetter, S.; Teh, R. Y.; Drummond, P. D.; Reid, M. D.

    2017-07-01

    A strategy for generating entanglement between two separated optomechanical oscillators is analyzed, using entangled radiation produced from down-conversion and stored in an initiating cavity. We show that the use of pulsed entanglement with optimally shaped temporal modes can efficiently transfer quantum entanglement into a mechanical mode, then remove it after a fixed waiting time for measurement. This protocol could provide new avenues for testing for bounds on decoherence in massive systems that are spatially separated, as originally suggested by Furry not long after the discussion by Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen and Schrödinger of entanglement.

  11. Spin-orbit optomechanics of optically levitated chiral Bragg microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Georgiy; Rafayelyan, Mushegh; Brasselet, Etienne

    2017-05-01

    We explore the spin-orbit nature of the optical torque exerted on chiral liquid-crystal microspheres exhibiting circular Bragg reflection. Experimental investigation relies on the direct optomechanical observation of spinning liquid-crystal droplets immersed in water and held in a circularly polarized laser levitator. More generally, we anticipate that the total angular momentum transfer per photon may depart from the commonly assumed spin-only ±2 ℏ contribution, when the topological features of the illuminated microsphere are taken into account.

  12. Single-photon transport through a waveguide coupling to a quadratic optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Lei

    2017-07-01

    We study the coherent transport of a single photon, which propagates in a one-dimensional waveguide and is scattered by a quadratic optomechanical system. Our approach, which is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, gives an analytical solution to describe the single-photon transmission and reflection properties. We analyze the transport spectra and find they are not only related to the optomechanical system's energy-level structure, but also dependent on the optomechanical system's inherent parameters. For the existence of atomic degrees of freedom, we get a Rabi-splitting-like or an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like spectrum, depending on the atom-cavity coupling strength. Here, we focus on the single-photon strong-coupling regime so that single-quantum effects could be seen.

  13. NFIRAOS beamsplitters subsystems optomechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Nash, Reston; Boucher, Marc-André; Martin, Olivier; Buteau-Vaillancourt, Louis; Châteauneuf, François; Atwood, Jenny; Hill, Alexis; Byrnes, Peter W. G.; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    The early-light facility adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is the Narrow-Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS). The science beam splitter changer mechanism and the visible light beam splitter are subsystems of NFIRAOS. This paper presents the opto-mechanical design of the NFIRAOS beam splitters subsystems (NBS). In addition to the modal and the structural analyses, the beam splitters surface deformations are computed considering the environmental constraints during operation. Surface deformations are fit to Zernike polynomials using SigFit software. Rigid body motion as well as residual RMS and peak-to-valley surface deformations are calculated. Finally, deformed surfaces are exported to Zemax to evaluate the transmitted and reflected wave front error. The simulation results of this integrated opto-mechanical analysis have shown compliance with all optical requirements.

  14. Q-Boosted Optomechanical Resonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-18

    endeavor, the grant has been quite successful, as it has yielded HF to VHF optomechanical oscillators with the lowest in-class room temperature phase...Administrative POC : Ms. Patricia Gates Sponsored Projects Office University of California at Berkeley 2150 Shattuck Avenue, Room 313, Berkeley, CA...already low power consumption versus con- ventional counterparts, there is still much room for improve- ment. In a typical CSAC, the mi- cro-oven

  15. Optical bistability and four-wave mixing in a hybrid optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Yuan, Xiaorong; Cui, Yuanshun; Chen, Guibin; Zuo, Fen; Jiang, Cheng

    2017-10-01

    We explore theoretically the optical bistability and four-wave mixing (FWM) in a hybrid optomechanical system, where the mechanical resonator is simultaneously coupled to a cavity field and a two-level system (qubit). We can use a strong control field driving the cavity to control the bistable behavior of the steady-state photon number, phonon number, and the population inversion. The impact of qubit-resonator coupling strength on the bistable behavior is discussed. Furthermore, the two-level system can significantly modify the output fields of the cavity, leading to double optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) and the enhancement of the FWM intensity. We find that the distance between the two peaks in the FWM spectrum can be controlled by the qubit-resonator coupling strength, and the peak value of the FWM intensity can be adjusted by the Rabi frequency of the control field.

  16. Sensing of mechanical motion at the quantum level via a hybrid atom-optomechanical setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, Hyojun; Bariani, Francesco; Singh, Swati; Vengalattore, Mukund; Meystre, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    We consider a hybrid quantum system in which an optomechanical cavity is coupled to a Fabry-Pérot cavity containing a trapped cold atomic ensemble. We show that it is possible to cool the mechanics to the ground state from room temperature outside the resolved-sideband regime by optically coupling it to the internal levels of the atoms. We also find that while in the familiar homodyne detection of small displacements this system exhibits the same standard quantum limit as traditional cavity optomechanics, it is possible to engineer the optical response of the atoms so as to realize a back-action evading measurement scheme. We acknowledge financial support from NSF, ARO and the DARPA QuaSAR and ORCHID programs.

  17. Single photon frequency conversion and channelization based on microwave piezo-optomechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Linran; Zou, Changlin; Poot, Menno; Cheng, Risheng; Tang, Hong

    Cavity optomechanics holds very promising potentials for quantum information processing, as it provides both a convenient method to manipulate photons and a platform to bridge different quantum system. Especially, the integration of microwave devices with cavity optomechanics draws great interest as such a hybrid platform can provide strong electrical actuation, ultra-sensitive optical readout, and parametric mechanical signal amplification simultaneously in a single device. This hybrid platform enables great functionalities in manipulating photons, and builds direct link between microwave photon and optical photon, which is important for future quantum network. Aluminum nitride (AlN) is ideal for such hybrid platform. Besides low optical and mechanical loss, AlN possesses strong piezoelectric effect, which gives rise to strong coupling between microwave cavities and mechanical resonators. We will present our recent progress in developing integrated AlN hybrid platform for photon manipulation, such as optical amplification and absorption, cascaded optical delay, single photon frequency shifting, etc.

  18. Manipulating femtosecond pulse shape using liquid crystals infiltrated one-dimensional graded index photonic crystal waveguides composed of coupled-cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathollahi Khalkhali, T.; Bananej, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the transmission of a 10-femtosecond pulse through an ordinary and graded index coupled-cavity waveguide, using finite-difference time-domain and transfer matrix method. The ordinary structure is composed of dielectric/liquid crystal layers in which four defect layers are placed symmetrically. Next, we introduce a graded structure based on the ordinary system in which dielectric refractive index slightly increases with a constant step value from the beginning to the end of the structure while liquid crystal layers are maintained unchanged. Simulation results reveal that by applying an external static electric field and controlling liquid crystal refractive index in graded structure, it is possible to transmit an ultrashort pulse with negligible distortion and attenuation.

  19. Optomechanical fiber gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Onur; Akkaya, Onur Can; Ra, Hyejun; Digonnet, Michel; Kino, Gordon; Solgaard, Olav

    2009-10-01

    We report a miniature mechanical gyroscope that utilizes optical means to detect rotation-induced displacements in a mechanical structure. It utilizes the Foucault pendulum principle used in some existing MEMS gyroscopes: a rotating reference frame induces a Coriolis force that oscillates the structure about an axis orthogonal to the driving-mode axis. The main difference with similar MEMS gyroscopes is that this rotation-induced oscillation is sensed using a pair of high-finesse fiber Fabry-Perot displacement sensors instead of a capacitive device. The drive axis is also driven by radiation pressure inside a set of auxiliary fiber Fabry-Perot cavities, making this device immune to electromagnetic interference. Calculations predict that a rotation sensitivity on the order of 1°/h/Hz1/2 is achievable. We show that this structure solves several problems associated with MEMS gyroscopes utilizing electrostatic sensing methods.

  20. Sensitivity of a cavityless opto-mechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermani, Rachele; Mancini, Stefano; Tombesi, Paolo

    2004-05-01

    Optomechanical systems play a crucial role in a variety of precision measurement like gravitational wave detection and atomic force microscope. They are based on the interaction between a movable mirror, a meter experiencing tiny forces, and a radiation field, a probe reading out the mirror's position. In these applications one needs a very high resolution measurement and a good control of the various noise sources, classical and quantum, because one has to detect the effect of a very weak force. As optomechanical system, it is usually considered a Fabry-Perot cavity with a movable mirror coupled to the external force and to the radiation probe. Instead, in our work, we consider a single perfectly reflecting mirror shined by an intense and quasi-monochromatic optical beam. The physical process is very similar to a stimulate Brillouin scattering, even though in this case the Stokes and anti-Stokes component are back scattered by the acoustic wave at reflection, and the optomechanical coupling is provided by the radiation pressure. An effective interaction Hamiltonian for that system has been derived; we further consider the action of a classical coherent force on the probe and its readout through radiation field. Since the Hamiltonian was written in a frame rotating at the frequency of the mirror, we obtain a new Hamiltonian whit new related Heisenberg equations, by assuming the force constant. The mirror is considered initially in a thermal state, and the meter modes in pure entangled state (two mode squeezed state). Then, supposing to perform the heterodyne detection on the reflected sidebands modes, the relevant quantities for the sensitivity of the system are determined to get the signal to noise ratio, from which the minimum detectable force is also obtained. The latter is compared with the standard quantum limit (SQL), showing the possibility to go beyond it by using nonclassical entangled state, (likewise to what happens in the model involving an optical

  1. Compact photonic crystal circulator with flat-top transmission band created by cascading magneto-optical resonance cavities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Lin, Mi; Liu, Qiang

    2015-11-20

    A new type of compact three-port circulator with flat-top transmission band (FTTB) in a two-dimensional photonic crystal has been proposed, through coupling the cascaded magneto-optical resonance cavities to waveguides. The coupled-mode theory is applied to investigate the coupled structure and analyze the condition to achieve FTTB. According to the theoretical analysis, the structure is further optimized to ensure that the condition for achieving FTTB can be satisfied for both cavity-cavity coupling and cavity-waveguide coupling. Through the finite-element method, it is demonstrated that the design can realize a high quality, nonreciprocal circulating propagation of waves with an insertion loss of 0.023 dB and an isolation of 23.3 dB, covering a wide range of operation frequency. Such a wideband circulator has potential applications in large-scale integrated photonic circuits for guiding or isolating harmful optical reflections from load elements.

  2. Surface-emitting vertical cavity with vapor-grown single crystal of cyano-substituted thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatano, Ryota; Goto, Kaname; Yamashita, Kenichi; Sasaki, Fumio; Yanagi, Hisao

    2017-04-01

    Photoluminescence from an organic microcavity is investigated using vapor-grown single crystals of 5,5‧-bis(4‧-cyano-biphenyl-4-yl)-2,2‧-bithiophene (BP2T-CN). A vertical half-cavity structure is fabricated with thin platelet crystals of BP2T-CN placed on a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). Lying orientation of the BP2T-CN molecules is suitable for effective surface emission from the cavity. Angle-resolved photoluminescence spectra show anticrossing splits, suggesting the formation of cavity polaritons induced by coupling between confined photons and excitons. Phenomenological analysis well reproduces the dispersion characteristics with a Rabi splitting energy of 90 meV at room temperature. With increasing excitation fluence under optical pumping, one of the cavity photon modes is gain-narrowed, and amplified emission is obtained from the surface-emitting half-cavity structure.

  3. Normal-mode coupling of rare-earth-metal ions (Pr^3+) in a crystal (Y2SiO5) to a macroscopic optical cavity mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimura, Kouichi; Goto, Hayato

    2007-03-01

    Coupling of rare-earth ions (Pr^3+) in a crystal (Y2SiO5) to a macroscopic cavity mode was demonstrated by observing optical bistability and normal-mode peaks, which is sometimes described as vacuum Rabi splitting, due to sweeping-laser-induced population redistribution of the ions. The experimentally evaluated coupling constant between the individual ions and the single cavity mode is 15 kHz, which is comparable with or larger than the dissipation of the ions. The coupling constant will exceed the cavity dissipation with a narrowing of the mode waist of the cavity to the wavelength. The results advance the application of a coupled system of rare-earth ions in a crystal and an optical cavity for quantum information processing.

  4. Acousto-optical interaction of surface acoustic and optical waves in a two-dimensional phoxonic crystal hetero-structure cavity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian-Xue; Zou, Kui; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Su, Xiao-Xing

    2014-11-17

    Phoxonic crystal is a promising material for manipulating sound and light simultaneously. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate the propagation of acoustic and optical waves along the truncated surface of a two-dimensional square-latticed phoxonic crystal. Further, a phoxonic crystal hetero-structure cavity is proposed, which can simultaneously confine surface acoustic and optical waves. The interface motion and photoelastic effects are taken into account in the acousto-optical coupling. The results show obvious shifts in eigenfrequencies of the photonic cavity modes induced by different phononic cavity modes. The symmetry of the phononic cavity modes plays a more important role in the single-phonon exchange process than in the case of the multi-phonon exchange. Under the same deformation, the frequency shift of the photonic transverse electric mode is larger than that of the transverse magnetic mode.

  5. Torsional Optomechanics of a Levitated Nonspherical Nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thai M.; Ma, Yue; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Robicheaux, F.; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Li, Tongcang

    2016-09-01

    An optically levitated nanoparticle in vacuum is a paradigm optomechanical system for sensing and studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. While its center-of-mass motion has been investigated intensively, its torsional vibration has only been studied theoretically in limited cases. Here we report the first experimental observation of the torsional vibration of an optically levitated nonspherical nanoparticle in vacuum. We achieve this by utilizing the coupling between the spin angular momentum of photons and the torsional vibration of a nonspherical nanoparticle whose polarizability is a tensor. The torsional vibration frequency can be 1 order of magnitude higher than its center-of-mass motion frequency, which is promising for ground state cooling. We propose a simple yet novel scheme to achieve ground state cooling of its torsional vibration with a linearly polarized Gaussian cavity mode. A levitated nonspherical nanoparticle in vacuum will also be an ultrasensitive nanoscale torsion balance with a torque detection sensitivity on the order of 10-29 N m /√{Hz } under realistic conditions.

  6. Efficient continuous-wave nonlinear frequency conversion in high-Q gallium nitride photonic crystal cavities on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mohamed Sabry; Simbula, Angelica; Carlin, Jean-François; Minkov, Momchil; Gerace, Dario; Savona, Vincenzo; Grandjean, Nicolas; Galli, Matteo; Houdré, Romuald

    2017-03-01

    We report on nonlinear frequency conversion from the telecom range via second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) in suspended gallium nitride slab photonic crystal (PhC) cavities on silicon, under continuous-wave resonant excitation. Optimized two-dimensional PhC cavities with augmented far-field coupling have been characterized with quality factors as high as 4.4 × 104, approaching the computed theoretical values. The strong enhancement in light confinement has enabled efficient SHG, achieving a normalized conversion efficiency of 2.4 × 10-3 W-1, as well as simultaneous THG. SHG emission power of up to 0.74 nW has been detected without saturation. The results herein validate the suitability of gallium nitride for integrated nonlinear optical processing.

  7. High-sensitivity three-mode optomechanical transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; Fang, Q.; Susmithan, S.; Miao, H.; Ju, L.; Fan, Y.; Blair, D.; Hosken, D. J.; Munch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.

    2011-12-15

    Three-mode optomechanical interactions have been predicted to allow the creation of very high sensitivity transducers in which very strong optical self-cooling and strong optomechanical quantum entanglement are predicted. Strong coupling is achieved by engineering a transducer in which both the pump laser and a single signal sideband frequency are resonantly enhanced. Here we demonstrate that very high sensitivity can be achieved in a very simple system consisting of a Fabry-Perot cavity with CO{sub 2} laser thermal tuning. We demonstrate a displacement sensitivity of {approx}1x10{sup -17} m/{radical}(Hz), which is sufficient to observe a thermally excited acoustic mode in a 5.6 kg sapphire mirror with a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 20 dB. It is shown that a measurement sensitivity of {approx}2x10{sup -20} m/{radical}(Hz) limited by the quantum shot noise is achievable with optimization of the cavity parameters.

  8. Generalized non-reciprocity in an optomechanical circuit via synthetic magnetism and reservoir engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Kejie; Luo, Jie; Metelmann, Anja; Matheny, Matthew H.; Marquardt, Florian; Clerk, Aashish A.; Painter, Oskar

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic magnetism has been used to control charge neutral excitations for applications ranging from classical beam steering to quantum simulation. In optomechanics, radiation-pressure-induced parametric coupling between optical (photon) and mechanical (phonon) excitations may be used to break time-reversal symmetry, providing the prerequisite for synthetic magnetism. Here we design and fabricate a silicon optomechanical circuit with both optical and mechanical connectivity between two optomechanical cavities. Driving the two cavities with phase-correlated laser light results in a synthetic magnetic flux, which, in combination with dissipative coupling to the mechanical bath, leads to non-reciprocal transport of photons with 35 dB of isolation. Additionally, optical pumping with blue-detuned light manifests as a particle non-conserving interaction between photons and phonons, resulting in directional optical amplification of 12 dB in the isolator through-direction. These results suggest the possibility of using optomechanical circuits to create a more general class of non-reciprocal optical devices, and further, to enable new topological phases for both light and sound on a microchip.

  9. Inverse design of high-Q wave filters in two-dimensional phononic crystals by topology optimization.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hao-Wen; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2017-04-01

    Topology optimization of a waveguide-cavity structure in phononic crystals for designing narrow band filters under the given operating frequencies is presented in this paper. We show that it is possible to obtain an ultra-high-Q filter by only optimizing the cavity topology without introducing any other coupling medium. The optimized cavity with highly symmetric resonance can be utilized as the multi-channel filter, raising filter and T-splitter. In addition, most optimized high-Q filters have the Fano resonances near the resonant frequencies. Furthermore, our filter optimization based on the waveguide and cavity, and our simple illustration of a computational approach to wave control in phononic crystals can be extended and applied to design other acoustic devices or even opto-mechanical devices.

  10. Transfer behavior of quantum states between atoms in photonic crystal coupled cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Ke; Li Zhiyuan

    2010-03-15

    In this article, we discuss the one-excitation dynamics of a quantum system consisting of two two-level atoms each interacting with one of two coupled single-mode cavities via spontaneous emission. When the atoms and cavities are tuned into resonance, a wide variety of time-evolution behaviors can be realized by modulating the atom-cavity coupling strength g and the cavity-cavity hopping strength {lambda}. The dynamics is solved rigorously via the eigenproblem of an ordinary coupled linear system and simple analytical solutions are derived at several extreme situations of g and {lambda}. In the large hopping limit where g<<{lambda}, the behavior of the system is the linear superposition of a fast and slow periodic oscillation. The quantum state transfers from one atom to the other atom accompanied with weak excitation of the cavity mode. In the large coupling limit where g>>{lambda}, the time-evolution behavior of the system is characterized by the usual slowly varying carrier envelope superimposed upon a fast and violent oscillation. At a certain instant, the energy is fully transferred from the one quantum subsystem to the other. When the two interaction strengths are comparable in magnitude, the dynamics acts as a continuous pulse having irregular frequency and line shape of peaks and valleys, and the complicated time-evolution behaviors are ascribed to the violent competition between all the one-excitation quantum states. The coupled quantum system of atoms and cavities makes a good model to study cavity quantum electrodynamics with great freedoms of many-body interaction.

  11. Transfer behavior of quantum states between atoms in photonic crystal coupled cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2010-03-01

    In this article, we discuss the one-excitation dynamics of a quantum system consisting of two two-level atoms each interacting with one of two coupled single-mode cavities via spontaneous emission. When the atoms and cavities are tuned into resonance, a wide variety of time-evolution behaviors can be realized by modulating the atom-cavity coupling strength g and the cavity-cavity hopping strength λ. The dynamics is solved rigorously via the eigenproblem of an ordinary coupled linear system and simple analytical solutions are derived at several extreme situations of g and λ. In the large hopping limit where g≪λ, the behavior of the system is the linear superposition of a fast and slow periodic oscillation. The quantum state transfers from one atom to the other atom accompanied with weak excitation of the cavity mode. In the large coupling limit where g≫λ, the time-evolution behavior of the system is characterized by the usual slowly varying carrier envelope superimposed upon a fast and violent oscillation. At a certain instant, the energy is fully transferred from the one quantum subsystem to the other. When the two interaction strengths are comparable in magnitude, the dynamics acts as a continuous pulse having irregular frequency and line shape of peaks and valleys, and the complicated time-evolution behaviors are ascribed to the violent competition between all the one-excitation quantum states. The coupled quantum system of atoms and cavities makes a good model to study cavity quantum electrodynamics with great freedoms of many-body interaction.

  12. Split-sideband spectroscopy in slowly modulated optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranas, E. B.; Fonseca, P. Z. G.; Barker, P. F.; Monteiro, T. S.

    2016-11-01

    Optomechanical coupling between the motion of a mechanical oscillator and a cavity represents a new arena for experimental investigation of quantum effects on the mesoscopic and macroscopic scale. The motional sidebands of the output of a cavity offer ultra-sensitive probes of the dynamics. We introduce a scheme whereby these sidebands split asymmetrically and show how they may be used as experimental diagnostics and signatures of quantum noise limited dynamics. We show split-sidebands with controllable asymmetry occur by simultaneously modulating the light-mechanical coupling g and the mechanical frequency, {ω }{{M}}—slowly and out-of-phase. Such modulations are generic but already occur in optically trapped set-ups where the equilibrium point of the oscillator is varied cyclically. We analyse recently observed, but overlooked, experimental split-sideband asymmetries; although not yet in the quantum regime, the data suggests that split sideband structures are easily accessible to future experiments.

  13. Polarization properties and disorder effects in H{sub 3} photonic crystal cavities incorporating site-controlled, high-symmetry quantum dot arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Surrente, Alessandro; Felici, Marco; Gallo, Pascal; Dwir, Benjamin; Rudra, Alok; Kapon, Eli; Biasiol, Giorgio

    2015-07-20

    We report on the effects of optical disorder on breaking the symmetry of the cavity modes of H{sub 3} photonic crystal cavities incorporating site-controlled pyramidal quantum dots (QDs) as the internal light source. The high in-plane symmetry of the polarization states of the pyramidal QDs simplifies the analysis of the polarization states of the H{sub 3} cavities. It is shown that the optical disorder induced by fabrication imperfections lifts the degeneracy of the two quadrupole cavity modes and tilts the elongation axes of the cavity mode patterns with respect to the ideal, hexagonal symmetry case. These results are useful for designing QD-cavity structures for polarization-entangled photon sources and few-QD lasers.

  14. Investigation on the thermal characteristic of MgO:PPSLT crystal by transmission spectrum of a swept cavity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiao; Lu, Huadong; Jin, Pixian; Peng, Kunchi

    2017-02-20

    A method of evaluating the thermal focal length of nonlinear crystal via transmission spectrum of a swept cavity (TSSC) is presented. By recording the resonant point offset of the TSSC, the thermal focal length can be successfully measured. Furtherly, by distinguishing the absorption of ultraviolet (UV) laser and UV laser induced infrared absorption (ULIIRA), it is clear that the ULIIRA is the important factor which induces the thermal lens effect compared to the absorption of UV laser for MgO-doped periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate (MgO:PPSLT) crystal and it becomes serious with the increase of the generated UV laser. The ULIIRA coefficient measurement and thermal focal length evalution of MgO:PPSLT crystal can supply an useful reference for researchers to generate high quality UV laser and squeezed or entangled state of optical field by using MgO:PPSLT crystal. The presented method can also be used to precisely evaluate the thermal focal length of other nonlinear crystals.

  15. Storing Optical Information as a Mechanical Excitation in a Silica Optomechanical Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Victor; Yang, Yong; Kuzyk, Mark C.; Barbour, Russell; Tian, Lin; Wang, Hailin

    2011-09-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of storing optical information as a mechanical excitation in a silica optomechanical resonator. We use writing and readout laser pulses tuned to one mechanical frequency below an optical cavity resonance to control the coupling between the mechanical displacement and the optical field at the cavity resonance. The writing pulse maps a signal pulse at the cavity resonance to a mechanical excitation. The readout pulse later converts the mechanical excitation back to an optical pulse. The storage lifetime is determined by the relatively long damping time of the mechanical excitation.

  16. Noninvasive Vibrational Mode Spectroscopy of Ion Coulomb Crystals through Resonant Collective Coupling to an Optical Cavity Field

    SciTech Connect

    Dantan, A.; Marler, J. P.; Albert, M.; Guenot, D.; Drewsen, M.

    2010-09-03

    We report on a novel noninvasive method to determine the normal mode frequencies of ion Coulomb crystals in traps based on the resonance enhanced collective coupling between the electronic states of the ions and an optical cavity field at the single photon level. Excitations of the normal modes are observed through a Doppler broadening of the resonance. An excellent agreement with the predictions of a zero-temperature uniformly charged liquid plasma model is found. The technique opens up for investigations of the heating and damping of cold plasma modes, as well as the coupling between them.

  17. Tunable waveguide and cavity in a phononic crystal plate by controlling whispering-gallery modes in hollow pillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yabin; Fernez, Nicolas; Pennec, Yan; Bonello, Bernard; Moiseyenko, Rayisa P.; Hémon, Stéphanie; Pan, Yongdong; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the properties of a phononic crystal plate with hollow pillars and introduce the existence of whispering-gallery modes (WGMs). We show that by tuning the inner radius of the hollow pillar, these modes can merge inside both Bragg and low frequency band gaps, deserving phononic crystal and acoustic metamaterial applications. These modes can be used as narrow pass bands for which the quality factor can be greatly enhanced by the introduction of an additional cylinder between the hollow cylinder and the plate. We discuss some functionalities of these confined WGM in both Bragg and low frequency gaps for wavelength division in multiplexer devices using heteroradii pillars introduced into waveguide and cavity structures.

  18. An integrated low phase noise radiation-pressure-driven optomechanical oscillator chipset

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Xingsheng; Huang, Yongjun; Li, Ying; McMillan, James F.; Zheng, Jiangjun; Huang, Shu-Wei; Hsieh, Pin-Chun; Gu, Tingyi; Wang, Di; Hati, Archita; Howe, David A.; Wen, Guangjun; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wong, Chee Wei

    2014-01-01

    High-quality frequency references are the cornerstones in position, navigation and timing applications of both scientific and commercial domains. Optomechanical oscillators, with direct coupling to continuous-wave light and non-material-limited f × Q product, are long regarded as a potential platform for frequency reference in radio-frequency-photonic architectures. However, one major challenge is the compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication processes while maintaining optomechanical high quality performance. Here we demonstrate the monolithic integration of photonic crystal optomechanical oscillators and on-chip high speed Ge detectors based on the silicon CMOS platform. With the generation of both high harmonics (up to 59th order) and subharmonics (down to 1/4), our chipset provides multiple frequency tones for applications in both frequency multipliers and dividers. The phase noise is measured down to −125 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset at ~400 μW dropped-in powers, one of the lowest noise optomechanical oscillators to date and in room-temperature and atmospheric non-vacuum operating conditions. These characteristics enable optomechanical oscillators as a frequency reference platform for radio-frequency-photonic information processing. PMID:25354711

  19. An integrated low phase noise radiation-pressure-driven optomechanical oscillator chipset.

    PubMed

    Luan, Xingsheng; Huang, Yongjun; Li, Ying; McMillan, James F; Zheng, Jiangjun; Huang, Shu-Wei; Hsieh, Pin-Chun; Gu, Tingyi; Wang, Di; Hati, Archita; Howe, David A; Wen, Guangjun; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wong, Chee Wei

    2014-10-30

    High-quality frequency references are the cornerstones in position, navigation and timing applications of both scientific and commercial domains. Optomechanical oscillators, with direct coupling to continuous-wave light and non-material-limited f × Q product, are long regarded as a potential platform for frequency reference in radio-frequency-photonic architectures. However, one major challenge is the compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication processes while maintaining optomechanical high quality performance. Here we demonstrate the monolithic integration of photonic crystal optomechanical oscillators and on-chip high speed Ge detectors based on the silicon CMOS platform. With the generation of both high harmonics (up to 59 th order) and subharmonics (down to 1/4), our chipset provides multiple frequency tones for applications in both frequency multipliers and dividers. The phase noise is measured down to -125 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset at ~400 μW dropped-in powers, one of the lowest noise optomechanical oscillators to date and in room-temperature and atmospheric non-vacuum operating conditions. These characteristics enable optomechanical oscillators as a frequency reference platform for radio-frequency-photonic information processing.

  20. Torque Magnetometry and Susceptometry using Split-Beam Optomechanical Nanocavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firdous, Tayyaba; Wu, Nathanael; Wu, Marcelo; Fani Sani, Fatemeh; Losby, Joseph; Barclay, Paul; Freeman, Mark

    A large number of sensitive magnetometry methods are limited to cryogenic operation. We present a highly sensitive torque magnetometer using a photonic crystal optomechanical split-beam nanocavity operating in air at room temperature. The chip-based magnetometer is proficient for probing both the net magnetization and AC susceptibility of individual magnetic microstructures. This is demonstrated through the observation of nanoscale Barkhausen transitions in the magnetic hysteresis of a permalloy thin-film element. Control of the vector direction of the radio frequency drive allows detection of accompanying AC susceptibility terms.

  1. Slot-mode-coupled Optomechanical Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-22

    NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) California Institute of Technology,Thomas J. Watson, Sr., Laboratory of Applied Physics...Pasadena,CA,91125 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11...Background The shift in the frequency fo of a particular optical resonance due to displacement of the nanos- tructure boundaries produced by a mechanical

  2. Crystal growth mechanisms in miarolitic cavities in the Lake George ring complex and vicinity, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Eberl, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Crystal Peak area of the Pikes Peak batholith, near Lake George in central Colorado, is world-renowned for its crystals of amazonite (the blue-green variety of microcline) and smoky quartz. Such crystals, collected from individual miarolitic pegmatites, have a remakably small variation in crystal size within each pegmatite, and the shapes of plots of their crystal size distributions (CSDs) are invariably lognormal or close to lognormal in all cases. These observations are explained by a crystal growth mechanism that was governed initially by surface-controlled kinetics, during which crystals tended to grow larger in proportion to their size, thereby establishing lognormal CSDs. Surface-controlled growth was followed by longer periods of supply controlled growth, during which growth rate was predominantly size-independent, consequently preserving the lognormal shapes of the CSDs and the small size variation. The change from surface- to supply controlled growth kinetics may have resulted from an increasing demand for nutrients that exceeded diffusion limitations of the system. The proposed model for crystal growth in this locality appears to be common in the geologic record, and can be used with other information, such as isotopic data, to deduce physico-chemical conditions during crystal formation.

  3. A theoretical study of a nano-opto-mechanical sensor using a photonic crystal-cantilever cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Depeng; Liu, Peng; Ho, Kai-Ming; Dong, Liang

    2012-07-09

    In this simulation study, integration of a nanocantilever inside a two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PC) cavity resulted in a unique photonic crystal-cantilever cavity (PC3), where the cantilever served as a tunable mechanical defect of the PC slab. Strong nano-opto-mechanical interactions between the cantilever and the defect-mode field inside the PC3 gave rise to a high sensitivity of the resonance wavelength to surface stress-induced cantilever deflection. Mechanical and optical responses of the PC3 to surface stress changes on the cantilever surface were studied by using a finite-element method (FEM) and a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, respectively. Theoretical analysis revealed that the devised PC3 sensor could resolve a conservative minimum surface stress at the level of ~0.8 mN m−1, representing state-of-the-art cantilever sensor performance. Also, the PC3 sensor design used an ultracompact structure with an on-chip optical length of only several microns, while a conventional reflected laser beam detection scheme requires a ~1 m long free-space optical path.

  4. Optomechanical electromagnetically induced transparency in inverted atomic configurations: a comparative view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghari Nejad, A.; Askari, H. R.; Baghshahi, H. R.

    2017-03-01

    We study electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), which is affected by cavity optomechanics in different atomic configurations (V and Λ ). The cavity mode is depicted as a probe field, and a classical driving field is applied to the atomic medium as the control laser in each system. Interaction between the cavity mode, atomic media and the oscillating mirror of the cavity can change the susceptibility of the atomic ensemble. Equations of motion demonstrate a system of nonlinear equations for each system. Nonlinearity of equations is a result of interaction between the cavity mode and atomic transitions. The equations are solved via a perturbation method. The results show two different aspects of atom-assisted optomechanics in V-type system: a common transparency window and an amplifying process in a transparency window that does not occur in the Λ configuration, notable as a considerable difference between the proposed systems. It is shown that classical field detuning leads to different changes in the susceptibility of both systems; other values of cavity detuning, except in the resonant case, can guarantee the occurrence of EIT in the system. For the initial value of the cavity field, a negative region appears in absorption spectrum of the V-type atomic ensemble. Meanwhile, the Λ configuration does not show a such process. According to our results, in the appearance of the transparency window, the position of movable mirror changes significantly.

  5. Force-induced transparency and conversion between slow and fast light in optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhen; Luo, Ren-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Qi; Wang, Yu-Hua; Yang, Wen; Feng, Mang

    2017-09-01

    The optomechanics can generate fantastic effects of optics due to appropriate mechanical control. Here we theoretically study effects of slow and fast lights in a single-sided optomechanical cavity with an external force. The force-induced transparency of slow and fast lights and the force-dependent conversion between the slow and fast lights result from effects of the rotating-wave approximation (RWA) and the anti-RWA, which can be controlled by properly modifying the effective cavity frequency due to the external force. These force-induced phenomena can be applied to control the light group velocity and to detect the force variation, which are feasible using current laboratory techniques.

  6. Quantum state reconstruction of an oscillator network in an optomechanical setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Darren W.; Tufarelli, Tommaso; Paternostro, Mauro; Ferraro, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a scheme to reconstruct an arbitrary quantum state of a mechanical oscillator network. We assume that a single element of the network is coupled to a cavity field via a linearized optomechanical interaction, the time dependence of which is controlled by a classical driving field. By designing a suitable interaction profile, we show how the statistics of an arbitrary mechanical quadrature can be encoded in the cavity field, which can then be measured. We discuss the important special case of Gaussian state reconstruction and study numerically the effectiveness of our scheme for a finite number of measurements. Finally, we speculate on possible routes to extend our ideas to the regime of single-photon optomechanics.

  7. Signatures of nonlinear optomechanics and engineering of nonclassical mechanical steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkje, Kjetil

    2013-03-01

    Motivated by recent improvements in coupling strength between light and mechanical motion, we study the strong coupling regime of cavity optomechanics theoretically. We focus on the regime where the optomechanical coupling rate is still small compared to the mechanical resonance frequency, but where the mechanically induced Kerr nonlinearity is significant. The response of the system to an optical drive is characterized. The average photon number in the cavity as a function of drive detuning can feature several peaks due to multi-photon transitions. Furthermore, we show that by optically driving the system at multiple frequencies, multi-photon transitions can facilitate the engineering of nonclassical steady states of the mechanical oscillator. The author acknowledges financial support from The Danish Council for Independent Research under the Sapere Aude program.

  8. Controllable optical multistability in hybrid optomechanical system assisted by parametric interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Cheng; Zhai, ZhangYin; Cui, YuanShun; Chen, GuiBin

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the multistable behavior of a hybrid optomechanical system, in which a charged mechanical resonator is coupled via Coulomb interaction to an optomechanical cavity containing an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). It is shown that the multistable behavior of the mean intracavity photon number can be controlled flexibly by adjusting the nonlinear gain parameter of the OPA, the phase of the field pumping the OPA, the power and frequency of the field driving the cavity, and the Coulomb coupling strength between the two charged mechanical resonators. In particular, the increase of the nonlinear gain parameter can result in a transition from bistability to tristability. Moreover, the effect of the Coulomb coupling strength on the bistable behavior of the steady-state positions of the two mechanical resonators is discussed.

  9. Whispering Gallery Mode Optomechanical Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveline, David C.; Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan; Yee, Karl Y.

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been made in both micromechanical resonators and micro-optical resonators over the past decade, and a new field has recently emerged combining these mechanical and optical systems. In such optomechanical systems, the two resonators are strongly coupled with one influencing the other, and their interaction can yield detectable optical signals that are highly sensitive to the mechanical motion. A particularly high-Q optical system is the whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator, which has many applications ranging from stable oscillators to inertial sensor devices. There is, however, limited coupling between the optical mode and the resonator s external environment. In order to overcome this limitation, a novel type of optomechanical sensor has been developed, offering great potential for measurements of displacement, acceleration, and mass sensitivity. The proposed hybrid device combines the advantages of all-solid optical WGM resonators with high-quality micro-machined cantilevers. For direct access to the WGM inside the resonator, the idea is to radially cut precise gaps into the perimeter, fabricating a mechanical resonator within the WGM. Also, a strategy to reduce losses has been developed with optimized design of the cantilever geometry and positions of gap surfaces.

  10. Observation of optomechanical buckling transitions.

    PubMed

    Xu, H; Kemiktarak, U; Fan, J; Ragole, S; Lawall, J; Taylor, J M

    2017-03-01

    Correlated phases of matter provide long-term stability for systems as diverse as solids, magnets and potential exotic quantum materials. Mechanical systems, such as buckling transition spring switches, can have engineered, stable configurations whose dependence on a control variable is reminiscent of non-equilibrium phase transitions. In hybrid optomechanical systems, light and matter are strongly coupled, allowing engineering of rapid changes in the force landscape, storing and processing information, and ultimately probing and controlling behaviour at the quantum level. Here we report the observation of first- and second-order buckling transitions between stable mechanical states in an optomechanical system, in which full control of the nature of the transition is obtained by means of the laser power and detuning. The underlying multiwell confining potential we create is highly tunable, with a sub-nanometre distance between potential wells. Our results enable new applications in photonics and information technology, and may enable explorations of quantum phase transitions and macroscopic quantum tunnelling in mechanical systems.

  11. Observation of optomechanical buckling transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Kemiktarak, U.; Fan, J.; Ragole, S.; Lawall, J.; Taylor, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    Correlated phases of matter provide long-term stability for systems as diverse as solids, magnets and potential exotic quantum materials. Mechanical systems, such as buckling transition spring switches, can have engineered, stable configurations whose dependence on a control variable is reminiscent of non-equilibrium phase transitions. In hybrid optomechanical systems, light and matter are strongly coupled, allowing engineering of rapid changes in the force landscape, storing and processing information, and ultimately probing and controlling behaviour at the quantum level. Here we report the observation of first- and second-order buckling transitions between stable mechanical states in an optomechanical system, in which full control of the nature of the transition is obtained by means of the laser power and detuning. The underlying multiwell confining potential we create is highly tunable, with a sub-nanometre distance between potential wells. Our results enable new applications in photonics and information technology, and may enable explorations of quantum phase transitions and macroscopic quantum tunnelling in mechanical systems.

  12. Observation of optomechanical buckling transitions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, H.; Kemiktarak, U.; Fan, J.; Ragole, S.; Lawall, J.; Taylor, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Correlated phases of matter provide long-term stability for systems as diverse as solids, magnets and potential exotic quantum materials. Mechanical systems, such as buckling transition spring switches, can have engineered, stable configurations whose dependence on a control variable is reminiscent of non-equilibrium phase transitions. In hybrid optomechanical systems, light and matter are strongly coupled, allowing engineering of rapid changes in the force landscape, storing and processing information, and ultimately probing and controlling behaviour at the quantum level. Here we report the observation of first- and second-order buckling transitions between stable mechanical states in an optomechanical system, in which full control of the nature of the transition is obtained by means of the laser power and detuning. The underlying multiwell confining potential we create is highly tunable, with a sub-nanometre distance between potential wells. Our results enable new applications in photonics and information technology, and may enable explorations of quantum phase transitions and macroscopic quantum tunnelling in mechanical systems. PMID:28248293

  13. Spatial chirp and angular dispersion of a laser crystal for a four-mirror cavity Kerr-lens mode-locked laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruobing; Ma, Jing; Pang, Dongqing; Sun, Jinghua; Wang, Qingyue

    2004-04-01

    We describe oscillating loops in a laser cavity and optical paths in a laser crystal of different wavelength rays for a four-mirror cavity Kerr-lens mode-locked laser. The relation between different wavelength ray paths and laser resonator parameters is deduced. The analytical expressions of second- and third-order dispersion including angular dispersion of the crystal are presented. The variations of group-delay dispersion (GDD) and third-order dispersion (TOD) with cavity parameters are calculated exactly. The calculation shows that GDD and TOD increase rapidly when the spacing between two folding mirrors approaches the boundary of a cavity stability zone. The rapid dispersion increase influences the mode-locked pulse width and the mode-locked stability.

  14. Optomechanics: Listening to quantum grains of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favero, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    An optomechanical device has allowed quanta, or 'grains', of mechanical vibration to be counted by optical means. The system may open up new possibilities in acoustics and thermal engineering. See Letter p.522

  15. Laser cooling of a harmonic oscillator's bath with optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xunnong; Taylor, Jacob

    Thermal noise reduction in mechanical systems is a topic both of fundamental interest for studying quantum physics at the macroscopic level and for application of interest, such as building high sensitivity mechanics based sensors. Similar to laser cooling of neutral atoms and trapped ions, the cooling of mechanical motion by radiation pressure can take single mechanical modes to their ground state. Conventional optomechanical cooling is able to introduce additional damping channel to mechanical motion, while keeping its thermal noise at the same level, and as a consequence, the effective temperature of the mechanical mode is lowered. However, the ratio of temperature to quality factor remains roughly constant, preventing dramatic advances in quantum sensing using this approach. Here we propose an efficient scheme for reducing the thermal load on a mechanical resonator while improving its quality factor. The mechanical mode of interest is assumed to be weakly coupled to its heat bath but strongly coupled to a second mechanical mode, which is cooled by radiation pressure coupling to a red detuned cavity field. We also identify a realistic optomechanical design that has the potential to realize this novel cooling scheme. Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

  16. Dynamically creating tripartite resonance and dark modes in a multimode optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damskägg, Erno; Pirkkalainen, Juha-Matti; Sillanpää, Mika A.

    2016-10-01

    We study a multimode optomechanical system where two mechanical oscillators are coupled to an electromagnetic cavity. Previously it has been shown that if the mechanical resonances have nearly equal frequencies, one can make the oscillators to interact via the cavity by strong pumping with a coherent pump tone. One can view the interaction also as emergence of an electromagnetically dark mode which gets asymptotically decoupled from the cavity and has a linewidth much smaller than that of the bare cavity. The narrow linewidth and long lifetime of the dark mode could be advantageous, for example in information storage and processing. Here we investigate the possibility to create dark modes dynamically using two pump tones. We show that if the mechanical frequencies are intrinsically different, one can bring the mechanical oscillators and the cavity on-resonance and thus create a dark mode by double sideband pumping of the cavity. We realize the scheme in a microwave optomechanical device employing two drum oscillators with unmatched frequencies, {ω }1/2π =8.1 {MHz} and {ω }2/2π =14.2 {MHz}. We also observe a breakdown of the rotating-wave approximation, most pronounced in another device where the mechanical frequencies are close to each other.

  17. Control and measurement of an optomechanical system using a superconducting qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, Florent; Teufel, John; Allman, Michael; Cicak, Katarina; da Silva, Fabio; Sirois, Adam; Whittaker, Jed; Aumentado, Jose; Simmonds, Raymond

    2014-03-01

    In cavity optomechanics one can use photons to manipulate and measure the mechanical motion of a macroscopic object. With these techniques, ground state cooling of a mechanical resonator and coherent transfer between a state of light and mechanical motion have been demonstrated. So far these experiments have been using Gaussian resources, and therefore are limited to the observation of Gaussian states. I will discuss recent experiments that use an artificial atom as a non-linear resource for cavity optomechanics. The device consists of a superconducting phase qubit coupled to a lumped element microwave cavity, whose capacitance is formed by a mechanically compliant vacuum-gap capacitor. The motion of the mechanical resonator is encoded in the intra-cavity microwave field. The cavity can thus mediate an interaction between the qubit and the mechanical resonator, enabling preparation and readout of non-classical states of motion. In this talk I will show how we use the qubit to measure of the time evolution of the photon distribution in the microwave cavity, allowing us to infer the phonon distribution in the mechanical resonator.

  18. Optical-response properties in an atom-assisted optomechanical system with a mechanical pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xue-Jian; Chen, Hao; Liu, Wen-Xiao; Li, Hong-Rong

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the optical-response properties of a coherent-mechanical pumped optomechanical system (OMS) coupled to a Λ-type three-level atomic ensemble. Due to the optomechanical and the cavity-atom couplings, the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomena could both be observed from our proposal. In the presence of a coherent mechanical pump, we show that the OMIT behavior of the probe field exhibits a phase-dependent effect, leading to the switch from OMIT to optomechanically induced absorption or amplification, while the feature of EIT remains unchanged. The distinctly different effects of the mechanical pump on OMIT and EIT behavior assure us that the absorption (amplification) and transparency of the output probe field can be simultaneously observed. Moreover, a tunable switch from slow to fast light can also be realized by tuning the phase and amplitude of the mechanical pump. In particular, the presence of the atomic ensemble can further adjust the group delay, providing additional flexibility for achieving the tunable switch.

  19. Linear and nonlinear optomechanics in a cryogenic membrane-in-the-middle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghun; Underwood, Mitchell; Mason, David; Shkarin, Alexey; Hoch, Scott; Harris, Jack

    2014-03-01

    In cavity optomechanics, linear optomechanical interactions have been used to readout and cool the motion of mechanical oscillators, while nonlinear interactions have been proposed to study quantum non-demolition measurements of mechanical oscillators and the production of non-Gaussian mechanical states. A membrane-in-the-middle system can provide both types of interactions. In this talk, we will present recent results measured in both linear and nonlinear interaction regimes with a membrane-in-the-middle system operating at 500 mK. Linear coupling in this device enables us to cool the mechanical mode of a SiN membrane at 705 kHz to roughly one phonon. During the cooling measurement, we also observed strong asymmetry between the mechanical sidebands, in agreement with the phonon number inferred from other measurements. We also measured nonlinear optomechanics, in particular the quadratic interaction. With a simple theoretical model, we systematically characterized the classical dynamics arising from this quadratic optomechanical interaction. We expect that by combining quadratic coupling with resolved-sideband laser cooling, this device will be able to explore the aforementioned quantum phenomena. We gracefully acknowledge financial support from AFOSR (No. FA9550-90-1-0484).

  20. Quantum Optomechanics with Silicon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.

    Mechanical resonators are the most basic and ubiquitous physical systems known. In on-chip form, they are used to process high frequency signals in every cell phone, television, and laptop. They have also been in the last few decades in different shapes and forms, a critical part of progress in quantum information sciences with kilogram scale mirrors for gravitational wave detection measuring motion at its quantum limits, and the motion of single ions being used to link qubits for quantum computation. Optomechanics is a field primarily concerned with coupling light to the motion of mechanical structures. This thesis contains descriptions of recent work with mechanical systems in the megahertz to gigahertz frequency range, formed by nanofabricating novel photonic/phononic structures on a silicon chip. These structures are designed to have both optical and mechanical resonances, and laser light is used to address and manipulate their motional degrees of freedom through radiation pressure forces. We laser cool these mechanical resonators to their ground states, and observe for the first time the quantum zero-point motion of a nanomechanical resonator. Conversely, we show that engineered mechanical resonances drastically modify the optical response of our structures, creating large effective optical nonlinearities not present in bulk silicon. We experimentally demonstrate aspects of these nonlinearities by proposing and observing ``electromagnetically induced transparency'' and light slowed down to 6 m/s, as well as wavelength conversion, and generation of nonclassical optical radiation. Finally, the application of optomechanics to longstanding problems in quantum and classical communications are proposed and investigated.